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Sample records for generation distributed generation

  1. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, ...

  2. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized

  3. Distributed generation systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  4. Distributed generation hits market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it`s highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can`t handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities.

  5. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  6. Distributed generation implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzy, L.; O`Sullivan, J.B.; Jacobs, K.; Major, W.

    1999-11-01

    The overall economics of a distributed generation project is based on cost elements which include: Equipment and financing, fuel, displaced electricity cost, operation and maintenance. Of critical importance is how the facility is managed, including adequate provision for a comprehensive operator training program. Proper equipment maintenance and fuel procurement policy will also lead to greater system availability and optimal system economics. Various utility tariffs are available which may be economically attractive, with an added benefit to the utility of providing a peak shaving resource during peak periods. Changing modes of operation of the distributed generation system may affect staff readiness, require retraining and could affect maintenance costs. The degree of control and oversight that is provided during a project`s implementation and construction phases will impact subsequent maintenance and operating costs. The long term effect of siting impacts, such as building facades that restrict turbine inlet airflow will affect subsequent operations and require supplemental maintenance action. It is possible to site a variety of distributed generation technologies in settings which vary from urban to remote unattended locations with successful results from both an economic and operational perspective.

  7. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation Reliability and Availability Database," sponsored by Oak Ridge National ... Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, ...

  8. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, ...

  9. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Document covers the Regulatory ...

  10. Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies for the Duck Valley Reservation Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies for the Duck Valley ...

  11. Other Distributed Generation Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Other Distributed Generation Technologies Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Other Distributed Generation Technologies Incentives Retrieved from "http:...

  12. Fuel cells in distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Sullivan, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    In the past the vertically integrated electric utility industry has not utilized Distributed Generation (DG) because it was viewed as competition to central station power production. Gas utilities have been heavily and aggressively involved in the promotion of gas fired DG because for them it is additional load that may also balance the winter load. With deregulation and restructuring of the electricity industry DG is now viewed in a different light. For those utilities that have sold their generation assets DG can be a new retail service to provide to their customers. For those who are still vertically integrated, DG can be an asset management tool at the distribution level. DG can be utilized to defer capital investments involving line and substation upgrades. Coupled to this new interest in DG technologies and their performance characteristics are the associated interests in implementation issues. These range from the codes and standards requirements and hardware for interfacing to the grid as well as C{sup 3}-I (command, control, communication--intelligence) issues. The latter involves dispatching on-grid or customer sited resources, monitoring their performance and tracking the economic transactions. Another important aspect is the impact of DG resources (size, number and location) on service area dynamic behavior (power quality, reliability, stability, etc.). EPRI has ongoing programs addressing all these aspects of DG and the distribution grid. Since fuel cells can be viewed as electrochemical engines, and as with thermomechanical engines, there doesn't have to be a best fuel cell. Each engine can serve many markets and some will be better suited than others in a specific market segment (e.g. spark ignition in cars and turbines in planes). This paper will address the status of developing fuel cell technologies and their application to various market areas within the context of Distributed Generation.

  13. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary Report,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 2004 | Department of Energy Reliability, Executive Summary Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary Report, January 2004 This report summarizes the results of the project, "Distributed Generation Market Transformation Tools: Distributed Generation Reliability and Availability Database," sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Energy Solutions Center (ESC), New York State Energy Research and Development Authority

  14. TurboGenerator Power Systems{trademark} for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinstein, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    The AlliedSignal TurboGenerator is a cost effective, environmentally benign, low cost, highly reliable and simple to maintain generation source. Market Surveys indicate that the significant worldwide market exists, for example, the United States Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) which is the uniform research facility for domestic electric utilities, predicts that up to 40% of all new generation could be distributed generation by the year 2006. In many parts of the world, the lack of electric infrastructure (transmission and distribution lines) will greatly expedite the commercialization of distributed generation technologies since central plants not only cost more per kW, but also must have expensive infrastructure installed to deliver the product to the consumer. Small, multi-fuel, modular distributed generation units, such as the TurboGenerator, can help alleviate current afternoon brownouts and blackouts prevalent in many parts of the world. Its simple, one moving part concept allows for low technical skill maintenance and its low overall cost allows for wide spread purchase in those parts of the world where capital is sparse. In addition, given the United States emphasis on electric deregulation and the world trend in this direction, consumers of electricity will now have not only the right to choose the correct method of electric service but also a new cost effective choice from which to choose.

  15. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Webinar | Department of Energy Distributed Generation Projects Webinar Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar Presentation slides for the Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects webinar, which was held on May 23, 2012. Download the webinar slides. (1.84 MB) More Documents & Publications Regulatory Considerations for Developing Generation Projects on Federal Lands STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON

  16. NREL: Technology Deployment - Distributed Generation Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collaborative Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative Become a Member DGIC members are included in quarterly informational meetings and discussions related to distributed PV interconnection practices, research, and innovation. For more information, contact Kristen Ardani. Subscribe to DGIC Updates Learn about upcoming webinars and other DGIC announcements. NREL facilitates the Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative (DGIC) with support from the Smart Electric Power

  17. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report, January 2004 | Department of Energy Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 This final report documents the results of an 18-month project entitled, "Distributed Generation Market Transformation Tools: Distributed Generation Reliability and Availability Database," sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Energy Solutions Center

  18. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 This final ...

  19. List of Other Distributed Generation Technologies Incentives...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Thermal Process Heat Photovoltaics Wind Biomass Fuel Cells Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydrogen Biodiesel Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Other Distributed Generation...

  20. Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    various aspects of demand response, distributed generation, smart grid and energy storage. Annex 9 is a list of pilot programs and case studies, with links to those...

  1. Distributed generation: Early markets for emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenssen, N.; Cler, G.

    1999-11-01

    How will developers of emerging distributed generation technologies successfully commercialize their products. This paper presents one approach for these developers, borrowing from the experience of other developers of innovative technologies and services. E Source`s analysis suggests, however, that there is already more of a market for distributed generation than is generally recognized. US and Canadian firms already buy about 3,400 megawatts of small generators each year, mostly for backup power but some as the primary power source for selected loads and facilities. This demand is expected to double in 10 years. The global market for small generators is already more than 10 times this size, at some 40,000 megawatts per year, and it is expected to continue growing rapidly, especially in developing nations. Just how the emerging distributed generation technologies, such as microturbines, fuel cells, and Stirling engines compete-or surpass-the conventional technologies will have a huge impact on their eventual commercial success.

  2. Distributed generation - the fuel processing example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor, R.A.; Farris, P.J.; Maston, V.

    1996-12-31

    The increased costs of transportation and distribution are leading many commercial and industrial firms to consider the on-site generation for energy and other commodities used in their facilities. This trend has been accelerated by the development of compact, efficient processes for converting basic raw materials into finished services at the distributed sites. Distributed generation with the PC25{trademark} fuel cell power plant is providing a new cost effective technology to meet building electric and thermal needs. Small compact on-site separator systems are providing nitrogen and oxygen to many industrial users of these gases. The adaptation of the fuel processing section of the PC25 power plant for on-site hydrogen generation at industrial sites extends distributed generation benefits to the users of industrial hydrogen.

  3. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  4. Property:Distributed Generation System Power Application | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Based Load + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Based Load + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Based Load + Distributed...

  5. Capturing the benefits of distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, L.R.

    1999-11-01

    Existing and future distributed generation (DG) can provide significant benefits to customers, utilities and other service providers. For the customer, these benefits could include improved reliability, better power quality and lower costs. For the utility distribution company, these benefits could include deferral of costly distribution upgrades and local voltage support. For the region`s generation and transmission suppliers, DG can provide dependable capacity supply, relief from transmission constraints, and ancillary transmission services such as reactive supply and supplemental reserves. The promise of DG technologies is strong. The technical hurdles to capturing these benefits are being met with improved generators and with enhanced command, control, and communications technologies. However, institutional and regulatory hurdles to capturing these distributed generation benefits appear to be significant. Restructuring for retail access and the delamination of utilities into wires companies and generation companies may make it difficult to capture many of the multiple benefits of DG. Policy-makers should be aware of these factors and strive to craft policies and rules that give DG a fair change to deliver these strong benefits.

  6. Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    StationaryDistributed Generation Projects Stationary power is the most mature application for fuel ... co-generation (in which excess thermal energy from electricity generation ...

  7. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rapidly Careful selection of business model can maximize value for all participants ... attributes? Where is the generation sited? How is the generator ...

  8. Property:Distributed Generation System Enclosure | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Outdoor + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Dedicated Shelter + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Outdoor +...

  9. Property:Distributed Generation Prime Mover | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    G3508 + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Caterpillar G379 + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Capstone C60 +...

  10. Advanced Distributed Generation LLC ADG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distributed Generation LLC ADG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Distributed Generation LLC (ADG) Place: Toledo, Ohio Zip: OH 43607 Product: ADG is a general contracting...

  11. Renewable Energy: Distributed Generation Policies and Programs | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Distributed Generation Policies and Programs Renewable Energy: Distributed Generation Policies and Programs Distributed generation is the term used when electricity is generated from sources, often renewable energy sources, near the point of use instead of centralized generation sources from power plants. State and local governments can implement policies and programs regarding distributed generation and its use to help overcome market and regulatory barriers to implementation.

  12. CleanDistributedGeneration.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CleanDistributedGeneration.pdf CleanDistributedGeneration.pdf CleanDistributedGeneration.pdf CleanDistributedGeneration.pdf (381 KB) More Documents & Publications Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004 CHP Assessment, California Energy Commission, October 2009 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014

  13. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2005-07-29

    Electricity generated by distributed energy resources (DER) located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumer requirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid. Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associated with transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricity delivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities to purchase energy when attractive. On-site thermal power generation is typically less efficient than central station generation, but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and utilizing combined heat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scale on-site generation to displace fuel purchases, then DER can become attractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts, the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressed using a mixed-integer linear programme, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, and information (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies, DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selecting the units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. In this paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion of the option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep an inventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lower costs even further by reducing off-peak generation and relying on storage. This and other effects of storages are demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in San Francisco, California, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacity of heat storage is calculated.

  14. Distributed Generation: Challenges and Opportunities, 7. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-15

    The report is a comprehensive study of the Distributed Generation (DG) industry. The report takes a wide-ranging look at the current and future state of DG and both individually and collectively addresses the technologies of Microturbines, Reciprocating Engines, Stirling Engines, Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar, Wind, and Microgrids. Topics covered include: the key technologies being used or planned for DG; the uses of DG from utility, energy service provider, and customer viewpoints; the economics of DG; the benefits of DG from multiple perspectives; the barriers that exist to implementing DG; the government programs supporting the DG industry; and, an analysis of DG interconnection and net metering rules.

  15. Integrated, Automated Distributed Generation Technologies Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Kevin

    2014-09-30

    The purpose of the NETL Project was to develop a diverse combination of distributed renewable generation technologies and controls and demonstrate how the renewable generation could help manage substation peak demand at the ATK Promontory plant site. The Promontory plant site is located in the northwestern Utah desert approximately 25 miles west of Brigham City, Utah. The plant encompasses 20,000 acres and has over 500 buildings. The ATK Promontory plant primarily manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for both commercial and government launch systems. The original project objectives focused on distributed generation; a 100 kW (kilowatt) wind turbine, a 100 kW new technology waste heat generation unit, a 500 kW energy storage system, and an intelligent system-wide automation system to monitor and control the renewable energy devices then release the stored energy during the peak demand time. The original goal was to reduce peak demand from the electrical utility company, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), by 3.4%. For a period of time we also sought to integrate our energy storage requirements with a flywheel storage system (500 kW) proposed for the Promontory/RMP Substation. Ultimately the flywheel storage system could not meet our project timetable, so the storage requirement was switched to a battery storage system (300 kW.) A secondary objective was to design/install a bi-directional customer/utility gateway application for real-time visibility and communications between RMP, and ATK. This objective was not achieved because of technical issues with RMP, ATK Information Technology Department’s stringent requirements based on being a rocket motor manufacturing facility, and budget constraints. Of the original objectives, the following were achieved: • Installation of a 100 kW wind turbine. • Installation of a 300 kW battery storage system. • Integrated control system installed to offset electrical demand by releasing stored energy from renewable sources

  16. Connecting to the Grid: A Guide to Distributed Generation Interconnect...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    guide addresses new and lingering issues relevant to all distributed generation technologies, including net excess generation, third-party ownership, energy storage and networks. ...

  17. Distributed Generation Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Zip: 80228 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Wind energy Product: Developer of electricity generation wind power facilities Website: www.disgenonline.com Coordinates:...

  18. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2006-06-16

    Electricity produced by distributed energy resources (DER)located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumerrequirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid.Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associatedwith transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricitydelivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities topurchase energy when attractive. On-site, single-cycle thermal powergeneration is typically less efficient than central station generation,but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and by utilizing combinedheat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scaleon-site thermal generation to displace fuel purchases, DER can becomeattractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts,the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressedusing a mixed-integer linear program, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, andinformation (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies,DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selectingthe units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. Inthis paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion ofthe option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep aninventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lowercosts even further by reducing lucrative peak-shaving generation whilerelying on storage to meet heat loads. This and other effects of storageare demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in SanFrancisco, California, USA, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacityof heat storage is calculated.

  19. Property:Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application" Showing 21 pages using this property. D Distributed...

  20. Property:Distributed Generation Function | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Function Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Distributed Generation Function Property Type Page Description A description of the function(s) for which the Distributed...

  1. Operation of Distributed Generation Under Stochastic Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-11-30

    We model the operating decisions of a commercial enterprisethatneeds to satisfy its periodic electricity demand with either on-sitedistributed generation (DG) or purchases from the wholesale market. Whilethe former option involves electricity generation at relatively high andpossibly stochastic costs from a set of capacity-constrained DGtechnologies, the latter implies unlimited open-market transactions atstochastic prices. A stochastic dynamic programme (SDP) is used to solvethe resulting optimisation problem. By solving the SDP with and withoutthe availability of DG units, the implied option values of the DG unitsare obtained.

  2. SMALL TURBOGENERATOR TECHNOLOGY FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Sy; Moritz, Bob

    2001-09-01

    in grid support. The machine is consistent with 21st century power generation objectives. It will be more efficient than a microturbine and also more cost effective because it does not require an expensive recuperator. It will produce ultra-low emissions because it has a low combustor delivery temperature. It will also avoid producing hazardous waste because it requires no lube system. These qualities are obtained by combining, and in some instances extending, the best of available technologies rather than breaking wholly new ground. Limited ''barrier technology'' rig tests of bearing systems and alternator configuration are proposed to support the extension of technology. Low combustion temperature also has merit in handling alternative fuels with minimum emissions and minimum materials degradation. Program continuation is proposed that will simultaneously provide technology support to a SECA fuel cell hybrid system and a distributed generation turbogenerator. This technology program will be led by a Rolls-Royce team based in Indianapolis with access to extensive small turbogenerator experience gathered in DOE (and other) programs by Allison Mobile Power Systems. It is intended that subsequent production will be in the U.S., but the products may have substantial export potential.

  3. Materials Innovation for Next Generation Transmission and Distribution Grid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Components Workshop | Department of Energy Materials Innovation for Next Generation Transmission and Distribution Grid Components Workshop Materials Innovation for Next Generation Transmission and Distribution Grid Components Workshop Applied R&D in advanced materials has the potential to improve the fundamental properties and capabilities of hardware for grid applications. The Materials Innovation for Next-Generation Transmission and Distribution Grid Components Workshop, held August

  4. The Value of Distributed Generation (DG) under Different Tariff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentvalue-distributed-generation-dg-under Language: English Policies: "Regulations,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible...

  5. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    requirement, the island of Oahu constructed, calibrated, and validated a high penetration renewable generator distribution feeder circuit on its electricity grid to understand the ...

  6. Poland - Economic and Financial Benefits of Distributed Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name Poland - Economic and Financial Benefits of Distributed Generation Small-Scale, Gas-Fired CHP AgencyCompany Organization Argonne National Laboratory Sector Energy...

  7. April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power ... (1998) 64 Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar ...

  8. March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution ASPEN Plus Simulation ... (1982) 18 Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar ...

  9. Distributed Generation Systems Inc DISGEN | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Inc DISGEN Jump to: navigation, search Name: Distributed Generation Systems Inc (DISGEN) Place: Lakewood, Colorado Zip: 80228 Sector: Wind energy Product: Developer of...

  10. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits ...

  11. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu The rooftop solar PV on Hawai'i's Mauna Lani Bay Hotel generates 75 kW of electricity. <em>Photo from SunPower, NREL 06430</em> The rooftop solar PV on Hawai'i's Mauna Lani Bay Hotel generates 75 kW of electricity. Photo from SunPower, NREL 06430 To complement energy efficiency targets in Hawai'i, the state developed requirements for generating 40% of its

  12. Distributed Generation in Buildings (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Currently, distributed generation provides a very small share of residential and commercial electricity requirements in the United States. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case projects a significant increase in electricity generation in the buildings sector, but distributed generation is expected to remain a small contributor to the sectors energy needs. Although the advent of higher energy prices or more rapid improvement in technology could increase the use of distributed generation relative to the reference case projection, the vast majority of electricity used in buildings is projected to continue to be purchased from the grid.

  13. Advanced Distributed Generation LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ohio Zip: 43607 Sector: Solar Product: Agriculture; Consulting; Installation; Maintenance and repair; Retail product sales and distribution Phone Number: 419-725-3401...

  14. NREL: Energy Analysis - Distributed Generation Energy Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The red horizontal lines represent the first standard deviation of the mean. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored the distributed ...

  15. Overview of the Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 17, 2013 Overview presentation for group call, 1:00-2:30EST 2 October 21,2013 NREL and EPRI facilitated workshop of electric utilities, PV developers, PUCs, and other stakeholders to discuss the formulation of a collaborative effort focused on distributed PV interconnection: - Data and informational gaps/needs - Persistent challenges - Replicable innovation - Informed decision making and planning for anticipated rise in distributed PV interconnection Based on stakeholder input and

  16. Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects- Non-DOE Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the stationary/distributed generation technology validation projects sponsored by DOE, universities, along with state and local government entities across the U.S., are partnering...

  17. Distributed generation technology in a newly competitive electric power industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeifenberger, J.P.; Ammann, P.R.; Taylor, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    The electric utility industry is in the midst of enormous changes in market structure. While the generation sector faces increasing competition, the utilities` transmission and distribution function is undergoing a transition to more unbundled services and prices. This article discusses the extent to which these changes will affect the relative advantage of distributed generation technology. Although the ultimate market potential for distributed generation may be significant, the authors find that the market will be very heterogeneous with many small and only a few medium-sized market segments narrowly defined by operating requirements. The largest market segment is likely to develop for distributed generation technology with operational and economical characteristics suitable for peak-shaving. Unbundling of utility costs and prices will make base- and intermediate-load equipment, such as fuel cells, significantly less attractive in main market segments unless capital costs fall significantly below $1,000/kW.

  18. Dispatchable Distributed Generation: Manufacturing's Role in Support of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid Modernization, FEBRUARY 10-11 | Department of Energy Workshops » Dispatchable Distributed Generation: Manufacturing's Role in Support of Grid Modernization, FEBRUARY 10-11 Dispatchable Distributed Generation: Manufacturing's Role in Support of Grid Modernization, FEBRUARY 10-11 The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) held a workshop in Austin, Texas at the Embassy Suites Hotels on February 10-11, 2016. The topic of this 2 day workshop was the Role of the Manufacturing Sector in Grid

  19. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector August 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and

  20. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  1. Distributed electrical generation technologies and methods for their economic assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreider, J.F.; Curtiss, P.S.

    2000-07-01

    A confluence of events in the electrical generation and transmission industry has produced a new paradigm for distributed electrical generation and distribution in the US Electrical deregulation, reluctance of traditional utilities to commit capital to large central plants and transmission lines, and a suite of new, efficient generation hardware have all combined to bring this about. Persistent environmental concerns have further stimulated several new approaches. In this paper the authors describe the near term distributed generation technologies and their differentiating characteristics along with their readiness for the US market. In order to decide which approaches are well suited to a specific project, an assessment methodology is needed. A technically sound approach is therefore described and example results are given.

  2. Proposed methodologies for evaluating grid benefits of distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skowronski, M.J.

    1999-11-01

    As new Distributed Generation technologies are brought to the market, new hurdles to successful commercialization of these promising forms of on-site generation are becoming apparent. The impetus to commercialize these technologies has, up to now, been the value and benefits that the end user derives from the installation of Distributed Generation. These benefits are primarily economic as Distributed Generation is normally installed to reduce the customer utility bill. There are, however, other benefits of Distributed Generation other than the reduction in the cost of electric service, and these benefits normally accrue to the system or system operator. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and suggest methodologies to quantify these ancillary benefits that the grid and/or connecting utility derive from customer on-site generation. Specifically, the following are discussed: reliability in service; transmission loss reduction; spinning and non-spinning reserve margin; peak shaving and interruptible loads; transmission and distribution deferral; VAR support/power quality; cogeneration capability; improvement in utility load factor fuel diversity; emission reductions; and qualitative factors -- reduced energy congestion, less societal disruption, faster response time, black start capability, system operation benefits.

  3. Elimination of direct current distribution systems from new generating stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jancauskas, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper advances the concept that it may be both possible and advantageous to eliminate the traditional direct current distribution system from a new generating station. The latest developments in uninterruptible power supply (UPS) technology are what have made this option technically feasible. A traditional dc distribution system will be compared to an ac distribution system supplied by a UPS to investigate the merits of the proposed approach.

  4. Technology for distributed generation in a global marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeper, J.D.; Barich, J.T.

    1998-12-31

    During the last 20 years, great strides have been made in the development and demonstration of distributed generation technologies. Wind, phosphoric acid fuel cells, and photovoltaic systems are now competitive in selected niche markets. Other technologies such as MTG, higher temperature fuel cells, and fuel cell hybrids are expected to become competitive in selected applications in the next few years. As the electric utility industry moves toward restructuring and increasing demand in emerging countries, one can expect even greater demand for environmentally friendly distributed generation technologies.

  5. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2008-08-11

    This paper examines a California-based microgrid?s decision to invest in a distributed generation (DG) unit fuelled by natural gas. While the long-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity at a fixed retail rate from its utility. Using the real options approach, we find a natural gas generation cost threshold that triggers DG investment. Furthermore, the consideration of operational flexibility by the microgrid increases DG investment, while the option to disconnect from the utility is not attractive. By allowing the electricity price to be stochastic, we next determine an investment threshold boundary and find that high electricity price volatility relative to that of natural gas generation cost delays investment while simultaneously increasing the value of the investment. We conclude by using this result to find the implicit option value of the DG unit when two sources of uncertainty exist.

  6. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid UnderUncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-06-16

    This paper examines a California-based microgrid s decision to invest in a distributed generation (DG) unit that operates on natural gas. While the long-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity at a fixed retail rate from its utility. Using the real options approach, we find natural gas generating cost thresholds that trigger DG investment. Furthermore, the consideration of operational flexibility by the microgrid accelerates DG investment, while the option to disconnect entirely from the utility is not attractive. By allowing the electricity price to be stochastic, we next determine an investment threshold boundary and find that high electricity price volatility relative to that of natural gas generating cost delays investment while simultaneously increasing the value of the investment. We conclude by using this result to find the implicit option value of the DG unit.

  7. Modeling Distributed Electricity Generation in the NEMS Buildings Models

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling methodology, projected market penetration, and impact of distributed generation with respect to offsetting future electricity needs and carbon dioxide emissions in the residential and commercial buildings sector in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000) reference case.

  8. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-12-08

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

  9. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  10. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

  11. Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen): Documentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen): Documentation Benjamin Sigrin, Michael Gleason, Robert Preus, Ian Baring-Gould, and Robert Margolis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-65231 February 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  12. NREL: dGen: Distributed Generation Market Demand Model - Documentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documentation The Distributed Generation Market Demand (dGen) model documentation summarizes the default data inputs and assumptions for the model. Input data for the model are regularly updated and include recent EIA Annual Energy Outlook projections, state-level net metering and incentive policies, and utility-level retail electricity rates. Note that the dGen model builds on, extends, and provides significant advances over NREL's deprecated SolarDS model. Documentation Outline Introduction

  13. NREL: dGen: Distributed Generation Market Demand Model - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications The following are publications-including technical reports, journal articles, conference papers, and posters-focusing on the Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen) and its predecessor, the Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) model. Barbose, Galen, John Miller, Ben Sigrin, Emerson Reiter, Karlynn Cory, Joyce McLaren, Joachim Seel, Andrew Mills, Naïm Darghouth, and Andrew Satchwell. 2016. On the Path to SunShot: Utility Regulatory and Business Model Reforms for Addressing

  14. January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Lessons from Large-Scale Renewable Energy Integration Studies: Preprint Bird, L.; Milligan, M. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation Tettamanti, S. [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy)]; Crudeli, R. [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)] Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps Vulpen, R. van

  15. Most Viewed Documents - Power Generation and Distribution | OSTI, US Dept

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information - Power Generation and Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; et al. (1994) ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1993--December 1993

  16. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  18. Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2005-06-16

    One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  20. Caterpillar`s advanced reciprocating engine for distributed generation markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, G.; Brandes, D.; Reinhart, M.; Nagel, G.; Wong, E.

    1999-11-01

    Competition in energy markets and federal and state policy advocating clean, advanced technologies as means to achieve environmental and global climate change goals are clear drivers to original equipment manufacturers of prime movers. Underpinning competition are the principle of consumer choice to facilitate retail competition, and the desire to improve system and grid reliability. Caterpillar`s Gas Engine Division is responding to the market`s demand for a more efficient, lower lifecycle cost engine with reduced emissions. Cat`s first generation TARGET engine will be positioned to effectively serve distributed generation and combined heat and power (CHP) applications. TARGET (The Advanced Reciprocating Gas Engine Technology) will embody Cat`s product attributes: durability, reliability, and competitively priced life cycle cost products. Further, Caterpillar`s nationwide, fully established dealer sales and service ensure continued product support subsequent to the sale and installation of the product.

  1. ARPA-E Announces $30 Million for Distributed Generation Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    REBELS Program Aims to Develop Innovative Intermediate-Temperature Fuel Cells for Low-Cost Stationary Power Generation

  2. Assessment of Distributed Generation Potential in JapaneseBuildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida,Masaru

    2005-05-25

    To meet growing energy demands, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and on-site generation coupled with effective utilization of exhaust heat will all be required. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems (or microgrids). This research investigates a method of choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at the Berkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds the optimal combination of installed equipment from available DER technologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical and thermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads can be served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, and cooling. Five prototype Japanese commercial buildings are examined and DER-CAM applied to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Based on the optimization results, energy and emission reductions are evaluated. Furthermore, a Japan-U.S. comparison study of policy, technology, and utility tariffs relevant to DER installation is presented. Significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the DER-CAM results. Savings were most noticeable in the sports facility (a very favourable CHP site), followed by the hospital, hotel, and office building.

  3. Fuel Cell Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Fuel Cycle Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies Energy Systems Division About Argonne National Laboratory Argonne is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. The Laboratory's main facility is outside Chicago, at 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439. For information about Argonne, see www.anl.gov. Availability of This Report This report is available, at no cost, at http://www.osti.gov/bridge. It is

  4. September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 200 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 103 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 76 Feed-pump

  5. September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 700 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 190 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results Portante, E.C.; Kavicky,

  6. April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 719 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 628 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 343 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and

  7. December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 740 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Peerenboom, J.P. (1997) 224 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb

  8. July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 535 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 165 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 154 Load flow

  9. June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 118 Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 89 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 85 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and

  10. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 504 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 240 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 160 Load flow

  11. March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 112 Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 83 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 68 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams,

  12. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information 5 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 317 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 254 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 234 Load flow analysis: Base

  13. Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation and Distribution: December 2014

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation and Distribution: December 2014 Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 133 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 96 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 84 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data,

  14. Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation and Distribution: September 2014

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information for Power Generation and Distribution: September 2014 Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 96 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 73 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 70 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

  15. Experimental comparison of PV-smoothing controllers using distributed generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Hawkins, John N.; Arellano, Brian; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    The power output variability of photovoltaic systems can affect local electrical grids in locations with high renewable energy penetrations or weak distribution or transmission systems. In those rare cases, quick controllable generators (e.g., energy storage systems) or loads can counteract the destabilizing effects by compensating for the power fluctuations. Previously, control algorithms for coordinated and uncoordinated operation of a small natural gas engine-generator (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output were optimized using MATLAB/Simulink simulations. The simulations demonstrated that a traditional generation resource such as a natural gas genset in combination with a battery would smooth the photovoltaic output while using a smaller battery state of charge (SOC) range and extending the life of the battery. This paper reports on the experimental implementation of the coordinated and uncoordinated controllers to verify the simulations and determine the differences in the controllers. The experiments were performed with the PNM PV and energy storage Prosperity site and a gas engine-generator located at the Aperture Center at Mesa Del Sol in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two field demonstrations were performed to compare the different PV smoothing control algorithms: (1) implementing the coordinated and uncoordinated controls while switching off a subsection of the PV array at precise times on successive clear days, and (2) comparing the results of the battery and genset outputs for the coordinated control on a high variability day with simulations of the coordinated and uncoordinated controls. It was found that for certain PV power profiles the SOC range of the battery may be larger with the coordinated control, but the total amp-hours through the battery-which approximates battery wear-will always be smaller with the coordinated control.

  16. The Effect of Distributed Energy Resource Competition with Central Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2003-12-10

    Distributed Energy Resource (DER) has been touted as a clean and efficient way to generate electricity at end-use sites, potentially allowing the exhaust heat to be put to good use as well. However, despite its environmental acceptability compared to many other types of generation, it has faced some disapproval because it may displace other, cleaner generation technologies. The end result could be more pollution than if the DER were not deployed. On the other hand, the DER may be competing against older power plants. If the DER is built then these other plants may be retired sooner, reducing their emissions. Or it may be that DER does not directly compete against either new or old plant capacity at the decision-maker level, and increased DER simply reduces the amount of time various plants operate. The key factor is what gets displaced if DER is added. For every kWh made by DER a kWh (or more with losses) of other production is not made. If enough DER is created, some power plants will get retired or not get built so not only their production but their capacity is displaced. Various characteristics of the power system in a region will influence how DER impacts the operation of the grid. The growth in demand in the region may influence whether new plants are postponed or old plants retired. The generation mix, including the fuel types, efficiencies, and emission characteristics of the plants in the region will factor into the overall competition. And public policies such as ease of new construction, emissions regulations, and fuel availability will also come into consideration.

  17. Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This report describes Berkeley Lab's exploration of how the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models distributed generation (DG) and presents possible approaches for improving how DG is modeled. The on-site electric generation capability has been available since the AEO2000 version of NEMS. Berkeley Lab has previously completed research on distributed energy resources (DER) adoption at individual sites and has developed a DER Customer Adoption Model called DER-CAM. Given interest in this area, Berkeley Lab set out to understand how NEMS models small-scale on-site generation to assess how adequately DG is treated in NEMS, and to propose improvements or alternatives. The goal is to determine how well NEMS models the factors influencing DG adoption and to consider alternatives to the current approach. Most small-scale DG adoption takes place in the residential and commercial modules of NEMS. Investment in DG ultimately offsets purchases of electricity, which also eliminates the losses associated with transmission and distribution (T&D). If the DG technology that is chosen is photovoltaics (PV), NEMS assumes renewable energy consumption replaces the energy input to electric generators. If the DG technology is fuel consuming, consumption of fuel in the electric utility sector is replaced by residential or commercial fuel consumption. The waste heat generated from thermal technologies can be used to offset the water heating and space heating energy uses, but there is no thermally activated cooling capability. This study consists of a review of model documentation and a paper by EIA staff, a series of sensitivity runs performed by Berkeley Lab that exercise selected DG parameters in the AEO2002 version of NEMS, and a scoping effort of possible enhancements and alternatives to NEMS current DG capabilities. In general, the treatment of DG in NEMS is rudimentary. The penetration of DG is determined by an economic cash-flow analysis that determines adoption based on the

  18. Investment and Upgrade in Distributed Generation under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Maribu, Karl

    2008-08-18

    The ongoing deregulation of electricity industries worldwide is providing incentives for microgrids to use small-scale distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) applications via heat exchangers (HXs) to meet local energy loads. Although the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that of central-station production, relatively high tariff rates and the potential for CHP applications increase the attraction of on-site generation. Nevertheless, a microgrid contemplatingthe installation of gas-fired DG has to be aware of the uncertainty in the natural gas price. Treatment of uncertainty via real options increases the value of the investment opportunity, which then delays the adoption decision as the opportunity cost of exercising the investment option increases as well. In this paper, we take the perspective of a microgrid that can proceed in a sequential manner with DG capacity and HX investment in order to reduce its exposure to risk from natural gas price volatility. In particular, with the availability of the HX, the microgrid faces a tradeoff between reducing its exposure to the natural gas price and maximising its cost savings. By varying the volatility parameter, we find that the microgrid prefers a direct investment strategy for low levels of volatility and a sequential one for higher levels of volatility.

  19. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  20. Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broderick, Robert Joseph; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.; Smith, Jeff; Dugan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) projects must go through an interconnection study process before connecting to the distribution grid. These studies are intended to identify the likely impacts and mitigation alternatives. In the majority of the cases, system impacts can be ruled out or mitigation can be identified without an involved study, through a screening process or a simple supplemental review study. For some proposed projects, expensive and time-consuming interconnection studies are required. The challenges to performing the studies are twofold. First, every study scenario is potentially unique, as the studies are often highly specific to the amount of PV generation capacity that varies greatly from feeder to feeder and is often unevenly distributed along the same feeder. This can cause location-specific impacts and mitigations. The second challenge is the inherent variability in PV power output which can interact with feeder operation in complex ways, by affecting the operation of voltage regulation and protection devices. The typical simulation tools and methods in use today for distribution system planning are often not adequate to accurately assess these potential impacts. This report demonstrates how quasi-static time series (QSTS) simulation and high time-resolution data can be used to assess the potential impacts in a more comprehensive manner. The QSTS simulations are applied to a set of sample feeders with high PV deployment to illustrate the usefulness of the approach. The report describes methods that can help determine how PV affects distribution system operations. The simulation results are focused on enhancing the understanding of the underlying technical issues. The examples also highlight the steps needed to perform QSTS simulation and describe the data needed to drive the simulations. The goal of this report is to make the methodology of time series power flow analysis readily accessible to utilities and others responsible for evaluating

  1. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues That May Impede Its Expansion | Department of Energy The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion. Report Pursuant to Section 1817 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation

  2. A Model of U.S. Commercial Distributed Generation Adoption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Ryan Firestone; Zhou, Nan; Maribu,Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-10

    Small-scale (100 kW-5 MW) on-site distributed generation (DG) economically driven by combined heat and power (CHP) applications and, in some cases, reliability concerns will likely emerge as a common feature of commercial building energy systems over the next two decades. Forecasts of DG adoption published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) are made using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which has a forecasting module that predicts the penetration of several possible commercial building DG technologies over the period 2005-2025. NEMS is also used for estimating the future benefits of Department of Energy research and development used in support of budget requests and management decisionmaking. The NEMS approach to modeling DG has some limitations, including constraints on the amount of DG allowed for retrofits to existing buildings and a small number of possible sizes for each DG technology. An alternative approach called Commercial Sector Model (ComSeM) is developed to improve the way in which DG adoption is modeled. The approach incorporates load shapes for specific end uses in specific building types in specific regions, e.g., cooling in hospitals in Atlanta or space heating in Chicago offices. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) uses these load profiles together with input cost and performance DG technology assumptions to model the potential DG adoption for four selected cities and two sizes of five building types in selected forecast years to 2022. The Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model (DER-MaDiM) is then used to then tailor the DER-CAM results to adoption projections for the entire U.S. commercial sector for all forecast years from 2007-2025. This process is conducted such that the structure of results are consistent with the structure of NEMS, and can be re-injected into NEMS that can then be used to integrate adoption results into a full forecast.

  3. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  4. Fuel cell power plants in a distributed generator application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    ONSI`s (a subsidiary of International Fuel Cells Corporation) world wide fleet of 200-kW PC25{trademark} phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants which began operation early in 1992 has shown excellent performance and reliability in over 1 million hours of operation. This experience has verified the clean, quiet, reliable operation of the PC25 and confirmed its application as a distributed generator. Continuing product development efforts have resulted in a one third reduction of weight and volume as well as improved installation and operating characteristics for the PC25 C model. Delivery of this unit began in 1995. International Fuel Cells (IFC) continues its efforts to improve product design and manufacturing processes. This progress has been sustained at a compounded rate of 10 percent per year since the late 1980`s. These improvements will permit further reductions in the initial cost of the power plant and place increased emphasis on market development as the pacing item in achieving business benefits from the PC25 fuel cell. Derivative product opportunities are evolving with maturation of the technologies in a commercial environment. The recent announcement of Praxair, Inc., and IFC introducing a non-cryogenic hydrogen supply system utilizing IFC`s steam reformer is an example. 11 figs.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  6. City of San Marcos- Distributed Generation Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Qualifying Solar PV systems are eligible for a $2.50 per Watt (W) rebate up to $5,000. Qualifying Wind Generation systems are eligible for a $1.00 per W rebate up to $5,000. Neither rebate amount...

  7. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under VariousElectricity Tariffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The on-site generation of electricity can offer buildingowners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits suchas reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reducedgreenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration,systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heatingneeds. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult todetermine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty inCHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically,CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describesa method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to alight industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1) the addedbenefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2) the price elasticity ofthe system, and 3) the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, allunder three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristiccontrols are adequate under the current tariff structure and relativelyhigh electricity prices, capturing 97 percent of the value of thedistributed generation system. Even more value could be captured bysimply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high naturalgas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity,heuristic controls would capture only 70 percent of the value ofdistributed generation.

  8. Method and apparatus for anti-islanding protection of distributed generations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ye, Zhihong; John, Vinod; Wang, Changyong; Garces, Luis Jose; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lei; Walling, Reigh Allen; Premerlani, William James; Sanza, Peter Claudius; Liu, Yan; Dame, Mark Edward

    2006-03-21

    An apparatus for anti-islanding protection of a distributed generation with respect to a feeder connected to an electrical grid is disclosed. The apparatus includes a sensor adapted to generate a voltage signal representative of an output voltage and/or a current signal representative of an output current at the distributed generation, and a controller responsive to the signals from the sensor. The controller is productive of a control signal directed to the distributed generation to drive an operating characteristic of the distributed generation out of a nominal range in response to the electrical grid being disconnected from the feeder.

  9. The Value of Distributed Generation and CHP Resources in Wholesale Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Markets, September 2005 | Department of Energy The Value of Distributed Generation and CHP Resources in Wholesale Power Markets, September 2005 The Value of Distributed Generation and CHP Resources in Wholesale Power Markets, September 2005 Distributed generation and combined heat and power (DG/CHP) projects are usually considered as resources for the benefit of the electricity consumer not the utility power system. This report evaluates DG/CHP as wholesale power resources, installed on the

  10. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and ... B.J. (2003) 77 Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: ...

  11. Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation and Distribution:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and ... S.A. (1981) 60 Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: ...

  12. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and ... D.R. (1997) 67 Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: ...

  13. Future of Distributed Generation and IEEE 1547 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preus, R.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the background on IEEE 1547, including its purpose, changes, new boundary issues and requirements, islanding issues, and how it impacts distributed wind.

  14. Study and Development of Anti-Islanding Control for Synchronous Machine-Based Distributed Generators: November 2001--March 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Z.

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the study and development of new active anti-islanding control schemes for synchronous machine-based distributed generators, including engine generators and gas turbines.

  15. Generation Planning (pbl/generation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Generation Planning Thumbnail image of BPA White Book BPA White Book (1998-2014) Draft Dry...

  16. Advancements in Distributed Generation Issues: Interconnection, Modeling, and Tariffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, H.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Treanton, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    The California Energy Commission is cost-sharing research with the Department of Energy through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to address distributed energy resources (DER) topics. These efforts include developing interconnection and power management technologies, modeling the impacts of interconnecting DER with an area electric power system, and evaluating possible modifications to rate policies and tariffs. As a result, a DER interconnection device has been developed and tested. A workshop reviewed the status and issues of advanced power electronic devices. Software simulations used validated models of distribution circuits that incorporated DER, and tests and measurements of actual circuits with and without DER systems are being conducted to validate these models. Current policies affecting DER were reviewed and rate making policies to support deployment of DER through public utility rates and policies were identified. These advancements are expected to support the continued and expanded use of DER systems.

  17. The Value of Distributed Solar Electric Generation to San Antonio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Nic; Norris, Ben; Meyer, Lisa

    2013-02-14

    This report presents an analysis of value provided by grid-connected, distributed PV in San Antonio from a utility perspective. The study quantified six value components, summarized in Table ES- 1. These components represent the benefits that accrue to the utility, CPS Energy, in accepting solar onto the grid. This analysis does not treat the compensation of value, policy objectives, or cost-effectiveness from the retail consumer perspective.

  18. Improving the Operating Efficiency of Microturbine-Based Distributed Generation at an Affordable Price

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Operating Efficiency of Microturbine-Based Distributed Generation at an Affordable Price This project developed a clean, cost-effective 370 kilowatt (kW) microturbine with 42% net electrical effciency and 85% total combined heat and power (CHP) effciency. Introduction The U.S. economic market potential for distributed generation is signifcant. This market, however, remains mostly untapped in the commercial and small industrial buildings that are well suited for microturbines. Gas turbines

  19. The role of distributed generation (DG) in a restructured utility environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feibus, H.

    1999-07-01

    A major consequence of the restructuring of the electric utility industry is disintegration, by which the traditional integrated utility is spinning off its generation business and becoming a power distribution company, or distco. This company will be the remaining entity of the traditional electric utility that continues to be regulated. The world in which the distco functions is becoming a very different place. The distco will be called upon to deliver not only power, but a range of ancillary services, defined by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, including spinning reserves, voltage regulation, reactive power, energy imbalance and network stability, some of which may be obtained from the independent system operator, and some of which may be provided by the distco. In this environment the distco must maintain system reliability and provide service to the customer at the least cost. Meanwhile, restructuring is spawning a new generation of unregulated energy service companies that threaten to win the most attractive customers from the distco. Fortunately there is a new emerging generation of technologies, distributed resources, that provide options to the distco to help retain prime customers, by improving reliability and lowering costs. Specifically, distributed generation and storage systems if dispersed into the distribution system can provide these benefits, if generators with the right characteristics are selected, and the integration into the distribution system is done skillfully. The Electric Power Research Institute has estimated that new distributed generation may account for 30% of new generation. This presentation will include the characteristics of several distributed resources and identify potential benefits that can be obtained through the proper integration of distributed generation and storage systems.

  20. Historical and Current U.S. Strategies for Boosting Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowder, Travis; Schwabe, Paul; Zhou, Ella; Arent, Douglas J.

    2015-10-29

    This report seeks to introduce a variety of top-down and bottom-up practices that, in concert with the macro-environment of cost-reduction globally and early adoption in Europe, helped boost the distributed generation photovoltaic market in the United States. These experiences may serve as a reference in China's quest to promote distributed renewable energy.

  1. Industrial Use of Distributed Generation in Real-Time Energy and Ancillary Service Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, C.R.

    2001-10-24

    Industrial consumers of energy now have the opportunity to participate directly in electricity generation. This report seeks to give the reader (1) insights into the various types of generation services that distributed generation (DG) units could provide, (2) a mechanism to evaluate the economics of using DG, (3) an overview of the status of DG deployment in selected states, and (4) a summary of the communication technologies involved with DG and what testing activities are needed to encourage industrial application of DG. Section 1 provides details on electricity markets and the types of services that can be offered. Subsequent sections in the report address the technical requirements for participating in such markets, the economic decision process that an industrial energy user should go through in evaluating distributed generation, the status of current deployment efforts, and the requirements for test-bed or field demonstration projects.

  2. The distribution of industrial waste generation and energy use characteristics in available Federal and State databases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, T.M.; Jendrucko, R.J.; Peretz, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    Over the last several years, data have been collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy, and various state government agencies on manufacturing waste generation and energy consumption. To date, however, little analysis of these data have been performed on the characteristics and distributions of waste types generated and energy forms consumed. Yet, these databases provide a wealth of information that can be used to draw useful conclusions on manufacturing efficiency. Although the data collected have weaknesses, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and Consumption of Energy Report can be used to investigate possible relationships between industrial waste generation and energy consumption.

  3. NREL: Energy Analysis - dGen: Distributed Generation Market Demand Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Distributed Generation Market Demand (dGen) model is a geospatially rich, bottom-up, market-penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of distributed energy resources (DERs) for residential, commercial, and industrial entities in the continental United States through 2050. The dGen model builds on and provides significant advances over NREL's deprecated Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) model. The dGen model can help develop deployment forecasts for distributed resources,

  4. Laying the Groundwork: Lessons Learned from the Telecommunications Industry for Distributed Generation; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, A. L.

    2008-05-01

    The telecommunications industry went through growing pains in the past that hold some interesting lessons for the growing distributed generation (DG) industry. The technology shifts and stakeholders involved with the historic market transformation of the telecommunications sector mirror similar factors involved in distributed generation today. An examination of these factors may inform best practices when approaching the conduits necessary to accelerate the shifting of our nation's energy system to cleaner forms of generation and use. From a technical perspective, the telecom industry in the 1990s saw a shift from highly centralized systems that had no capacity for adaptation to highly adaptive, distributed network systems. From a management perspective, the industry shifted from small, private-company structures to big, capital-intensive corporations. This presentation will explore potential correlation and outline the lessons that we can take away from this comparison.

  5. Modeling the Impacts of Solar Distributed Generation on U.S. Water Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amanda, Smith; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Jaron, Peck

    2015-01-01

    Distributed electric power generation technologies typically use little or no water per unit of electrical energy produced; in particular, renewable energy sources such as solar PV systems do not require cooling systems and present an opportunity to reduce water usage for power generation. Within the US, the fuel mix used for power generation varies regionally, and certain areas use more water for power generation than others. The need to reduce water usage for power generation is even more urgent in view of climate change uncertainties. In this paper, we present an example case within the state of Tennessee, one of the top four states in water consumption for power generation and one of the states with little or no potential for developing centralized renewable energy generations. The potential for developing PV generation within Knox County, Tennessee, is studied, along with the potential for reducing water withdrawal and consumption within the Tennessee Valley stream region. Electric power generation plants in the region are quantified for their electricity production and expected water withdrawal and consumption over one year, where electrical generation data is provided over one year and water usage is modeled based on the cooling system(s) in use. Potential solar PV electrical production is modeled based on LiDAR data and weather data for the same year. Our proposed methodology can be summarized as follows: First, the potential solar generation is compared against the local grid demand. Next, electrical generation reductions are specified that would result in a given reduction in water withdrawal and a given reduction in water consumption, and compared with the current water withdrawal and consumption rates for the existing fuel mix. The increase in solar PV development that would produce an equivalent amount of power, is determined. In this way, we consider how targeted local actions may affect the larger stream region through thoughtful energy development

  6. PULSE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  7. Microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  8. Magnetocumulative generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettibone, J.S.; Wheeler, P.C.

    1981-06-08

    An improved magnetocumulative generator is described that is useful for producing magnetic fields of very high energy content over large spatial volumes. The polar directed pleated magnetocumulative generator has a housing providing a housing chamber with an electrically conducting surface. The chamber forms a coaxial system having a small radius portion and a large radius portion. When a magnetic field is injected into the chamber, from an external source, most of the magnetic flux associated therewith positions itself in the small radius portion. The propagation of an explosive detonation through high-explosive layers disposed adjacent to the housing causes a phased closure of the chamber which sweeps most of the magnetic flux into the large radius portion of the coaxial system. The energy content of the magnetic field is greatly increased by flux stretching as well as by flux compression. The energy enhanced magnetic field is utilized within the housing chamber itself.

  9. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1958-03-11

    This patent describes apparatus for producing an electricity neutral ionized gas discharge, termed a plasma, substantially free from contamination with neutral gas particles. The plasma generator of the present invention comprises a plasma chamber wherein gas introduced into the chamber is ionized by a radiofrequency source. A magnetic field is used to focus the plasma in line with an exit. This magnetic field cooperates with a differential pressure created across the exit to draw a uniform and uncontaminated plasma from the plasma chamber.

  10. Thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pryslak, N.E.

    1974-02-26

    A thermoelectric generator having a rigid coupling or stack'' between the heat source and the hot strap joining the thermoelements is described. The stack includes a member of an insulating material, such as ceramic, for electrically isolating the thermoelements from the heat source, and a pair of members of a ductile material, such as gold, one each on each side of the insulating member, to absorb thermal differential expansion stresses in the stack. (Official Gazette)

  11. Cluster generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donchev, Todor I.; Petrov, Ivan G.

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  12. Photon generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  13. Electric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  14. Monthly Generation System Peak (pbl/generation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation > Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Monthly Generation System Peak (GSP) This site is no longer maintained. Page last...

  15. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Theiss, Timothy J; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  16. Magnetocumulative generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettibone, Joseph S.; Wheeler, Paul C.

    1983-01-01

    An improved magnetocumulative generator is described that is useful for producing magnetic fields of very high energy content over large spatial volumes. The polar directed pleated magnetocumulative generator has a housing (100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105) providing a housing chamber (106) with an electrically conducting surface. The chamber (106) forms a coaxial system having a small radius portion and a large radius portion. When a magnetic field is injected into the chamber (106), from an external source, most of the magnetic flux associated therewith positions itself in the small radius portion. The propagation of an explosive detonation through high-explosive layers (107, 108) disposed adjacent to the housing causes a phased closure of the chamber (106) which sweeps most of the magnetic flux into the large radius portion of the coaxial system. The energy content of the magnetic field is greatly increased by flux stretching as well as by flux compression. The energy enhanced magnetic field is utilized within the housing chamber itself.

  17. Providing Clean, Low-Cost, Onsite Distributed Generation at Very High Fuel Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Providing Clean, Low-Cost, Onsite Distributed Generation at Very High Fuel Efficiency This project integrated a gas-fred, simple-cycle 100 kilowatt (kW) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NO x ) gas-fred burner (ULNB) to develop a combined heat and power (CHP) assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST). Introduction CHP systems can achieve signifcant

  18. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, J.M.; Baker, W.R.

    1963-09-17

    This invention is a magnetohydrodynamic device for generating a highly ionized ion-electron plasma at a region remote from electrodes and structural members, thus avoiding contamination of the plasma. The apparatus utilizes a closed, gas-filled, cylindrical housing in which an axially directed magnetic field is provided. At one end of the housing, a short cylindrical electrode is disposed coaxially around a short axial inner electrode. A radial electrical discharge is caused to occur between the inner and outer electrodes, creating a rotating hydromagnetic ionization wave that propagates aiong the magnetic field lines toward the opposite end of the housing. A shorting switch connected between the electrodes prevents the wave from striking the opposite end of the housing. (AEC)

  19. Triboelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L; Fan, Fengru; Lin, Long; Zhu, Guang; Pan, Caofeng; Zhou, Yusheng

    2015-11-03

    A generator includes a thin first contact charging layer and a thin second contact charging layer. The thin first contact charging layer includes a first material that has a first rating on a triboelectric series. The thin first contact charging layer has a first side with a first conductive electrode applied thereto and an opposite second side. The thin second contact charging layer includes a second material that has a second rating on a triboelectric series that is more negative than the first rating. The thin first contact charging layer has a first side with a first conductive electrode applied thereto and an opposite second side. The thin second contact charging layer is disposed adjacent to the first contact charging layer so that the second side of the second contact charging layer is in contact with the second side of the first contact charging layer.

  20. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from

  1. A methodology for technical and financial assessment of distributed generation in the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtiss, P.; Kreider, J.; Cohen, D.

    1999-07-01

    Traditionally, distributed power generation technologies have been considered to help reduce or eliminate the need for grid-connected electricity. It has been difficult, however, to assess the economic benefits of such technologies due to a lack of computer tools and data related to operating characteristics. This paper discusses a method for performing such as assessment based on electrical and thermal building loads, existing utility rate structures, standard economic parameters, tangible benefits from distributed resource and T and D benefits, and different control techniques. The paper concludes with an example showing the dependency of the internal rate of return on some of the input parameters.

  2. Parallel paving: An algorithm for generating distributed, adaptive, all-quadrilateral meshes on parallel computers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lober, R.R.; Tautges, T.J.; Vaughan, C.T.

    1997-03-01

    Paving is an automated mesh generation algorithm which produces all-quadrilateral elements. It can additionally generate these elements in varying sizes such that the resulting mesh adapts to a function distribution, such as an error function. While powerful, conventional paving is a very serial algorithm in its operation. Parallel paving is the extension of serial paving into parallel environments to perform the same meshing functions as conventional paving only on distributed, discretized models. This extension allows large, adaptive, parallel finite element simulations to take advantage of paving`s meshing capabilities for h-remap remeshing. A significantly modified version of the CUBIT mesh generation code has been developed to host the parallel paving algorithm and demonstrate its capabilities on both two dimensional and three dimensional surface geometries and compare the resulting parallel produced meshes to conventionally paved meshes for mesh quality and algorithm performance. Sandia`s {open_quotes}tiling{close_quotes} dynamic load balancing code has also been extended to work with the paving algorithm to retain parallel efficiency as subdomains undergo iterative mesh refinement.

  3. Ultrashort laser ablation of bulk copper targets: Dynamics and size distribution of the generated nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsakiris, N.; Gill-Comeau, M.; Lewis, L. J.; Anoop, K. K.; Ausanio, G.; Bruzzese, R.; Amoruso, S.

    2014-06-28

    We address the role of laser pulse fluence on expansion dynamics and size distribution of the nanoparticles produced by irradiating a metallic target with an ultrashort laser pulse in a vacuum, an issue for which contrasting indications are present in the literature. To this end, we have carried out a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of laser ablation of a bulk copper target with ≈50 fs, 800 nm pulses, in an interval of laser fluencies going from few to several times the ablation threshold. On one side, molecular dynamics simulations, with two-temperature model, describe the decomposition of the material through the analysis of the evolution of thermodynamic trajectories in the material phase diagram, and allow estimating the size distribution of the generated nano-aggregates. On the other side, atomic force microscopy of less than one layer nanoparticles deposits on witness plates, and fast imaging of the nanoparticles broadband optical emission provide the corresponding experimental characterization. Both experimental and numerical findings agree on a size distribution characterized by a significant fraction (≈90%) of small nanoparticles, and a residual part (≈10%) spanning over a rather large size interval, evidencing a weak dependence of the nanoparticles sizes on the laser pulse fluence. Numerical and experimental findings show a good degree of consistency, thus suggesting that modeling can realistically support the search for experimental methods leading to an improved control over the generation of nanoparticles by ultrashort laser ablation.

  4. Development, Demonstration, and Field Testing of Enterprise-Wide Distributed Generation Energy Management System: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, S.; Cooley, C.

    2005-01-01

    This report details progress on subcontract NAD-1-30605-1 between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and RealEnergy (RE), the purpose of which is to describe RE's approach to the challenges it faces in the implementation of a nationwide fleet of clean cogeneration systems to serve contemporary energy markets. The Phase 2 report covers: utility tariff risk and its impact on market development; the effect on incentives on distributed energy markets; the regulatory effectiveness of interconnection in California; a survey of practical field interconnection issues; trend analysis for on-site generation; performance of dispatch systems; and information design hierarchy for combined heat and power.

  5. Internal stress distribution for generating closure domains in laser-irradiated Fe3%Si(110) steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwata, Keiji; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Orihara, Hideto; Sakai, Yusuke; Ohya, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Tamaki; Shobu, Takahisa; Akita, Koichi; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2015-05-07

    Internal stress distribution for generating closure domains occurring in laser-irradiated Fe3%Si(110) steels was investigated using high-energy X-ray analysis and domain theory based on the variational principle. The measured triaxial stresses inside the specimen were compressive and the stress in the rolling direction became more dominant than stresses in the other directions. The calculations based on the variational principle of magnetic energy for closure domains showed that the measured triaxial stresses made the closure domains more stable than the basic domain without closure domains. The experimental and calculation results reveal that the laser-introduced internal stresses result in the occurrence of the closure domains.

  6. Viability of Small Wind Distributed Generation for Farmers Who Irrigate (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meadows, B.; Forsyth, T.; Johnson, S.; Healow, D.

    2010-05-01

    About 14% of U.S. farms are irrigated, representing 55 million acres of irrigated land. Irrigation on these farms is a major energy user in the United States, accounting for one-third of water withdrawals and 137 billion gallons per day. More than half of the Irrigation systems use electric energy. Wind energy can be a good choice for meeting irrigation energy needs. Nine of the top 10 irrigation states (California, Texas, Idaho, Arkansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Arizona, Kansas, Washington, and Oregon) have good to excellent wind resources. Many rural areas have sufficient wind speeds to make wind an attractive alternative, and farms and ranches can often install a wind energy system without impacting their ability to plant crops and graze livestock. Additionally, the rising and uncertain future costs of diesel, natural gas, and even electricity increase the potential effectiveness for wind energy and its predictable and competitive cost. In general, wind-powered electric generation systems generate more energy in the winter months than in the summer months when most crops need the water. Therefore, those states that have a supportive net metering policy can dramatically impact the viability of an onsite wind turbine. This poster presentation highlights case studies that show favorable and unfavorable policies that impact the growth of small wind in this important sector and demonstrate how net metering policies affect the viability of distributed wind generation for farmers who irrigate.

  7. Magnetic field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krienin, Frank (Shoreham, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

  8. Onsite Distributed Generation Systems For Laboratories, Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on implementing onsite distributed generation systems in laboratory environments. Specific technology applications, general performance information, and cost data are provided to educate and encourage laboratory energy managers to consider onsite power generation or combined heat and power (CHP) systems for their facilities. After conducting an initial screening, energy managers are encouraged to conduct a detailed feasibility study with actual cost and performance data for technologies that look promising. Onsite distributed generation systems are small, modular, decentralized, grid-connected, or off-grid energy systems. These systems are located at or near the place where the energy is used. These systems are also known as distributed energy or distributed power systems. DG technologies are generally considered those that produce less than 20 megawatts (MW) of power. A number of technologies can be applied as effective onsite DG systems, including: (1) Diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel reciprocating engines; (2) Combustion turbines and steam turbines; (3) Fuel cells; (4) Biomass heating; (5) Biomass combined heat and power; (6) Photovoltaics; and (7) Wind turbines. These systems can provide a number of potential benefits to an individual laboratory facility or campus, including: (1) High-quality, reliable, and potentially dispatchable power; (2) Low-cost energy and long-term utility cost assurance, especially where electricity and/or fuel costs are high; (3) Significantly reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Typical CHP plants reduce onsite GHG by 40 to 60 percent; (4) Peak demand shaving where demand costs are high; (5) CHP where thermal energy can be used in addition to electricity; (6) The ability to meet standby power needs, especially where utility-supplied power is interrupted frequently or for long periods and where standby power is required for safety or emergencies; and (7) Use for standalone or off

  9. ZTEK`s ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine system for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, M.; Nathanson, D.; Bradshaw, D.T.

    1996-12-31

    Ztek`s Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system has exceptional potential for utility electric power generation because of: simplicity of components construction, capability for low cost manufacturing, efficient recovery of very high quality by-product heat (up to 1000{degrees}C), and system integration simplicity. Utility applications of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell are varied and include distributed generation units (sub-MW to 30MW capacity), repowering existing power plants (i.e. 30MW to 100MW), and multi-megawatt central power plants. A TVA/EPRI collaboration program involved functional testing of the advanced solid oxide fuel cell stacks and design scale-up for distributed power generation applications. The emphasis is on the engineering design of the utility modules which will be the building blocks for up to megawatt scale power plants. The program has two distinctive subprograms: Verification test on a 1 kW stack and 25kW module for utility demonstration. A 1 kW Planar SOFC stack was successfully operated for 15,000 hours as of December, 1995. Ztek began work on a 25kW SOFC Power System for TVA, which plans to install the 25kW SOFC at a host site for demonstration in 1997. The 25kW module is Ztek`s intended building block for the commercial use of the Planar SOFC. Systems of up to megawatt capacity can be obtained by packaging the modules in 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional arrays.

  10. Connecting to the Grid: A Guide to Distributed Generation Interconnection Issues, 6th Edition, 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This guide addresses issues relevant to all DG technologies, including net excess generation, third-party ownership, energy storage and networks

  11. Reliable, Low-Cost Distributed Generator/Utility System Interconnect: Final Subcontract Report, November 2001-March 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.; Li, L.; Zhou, R.; Garces, L.; Dame, M.

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the detailed study and development of new GE anti-islanding controls for two classes of distributed generation. One is inverter-interfaced, while the other is synchronous machine interfaced.

  12. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ► More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ► The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ► Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ► There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10{sup 3} times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between

  13. PV Ramping in a Distributed Generation Environment: A Study Using Solar Measurements; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-06-01

    Variability in Photovoltaic (PV) generation resulting from variability in the solar radiation over the PV arrays is a topic of continuing concern for those involved with integrating renewables onto existing electrical grids. The island of Lanai, Hawaii is an extreme example of the challenges that integrators will face due to the fact that it is a small standalone grid. One way to study this problem is to take high-resolution solar measurements in multiple locations and model simultaneous PV production for various sizes at those locations. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected high-resolution solar data at four locations on the island where proposed PV plants will be deployed in the near future. This data set provides unique insight into how the solar radiation may vary between points that are proximal in distance, but diverse in weather, due to the formation of orographic clouds in the center of the island. Using information about each proposed PV plant size, power output was created at high resolution. The team analyzed this output to understand power production ramps at individual locations and the effects of aggregating the production from all four locations. Hawaii is a unique environment, with extremely variable events occurring on a daily basis. This study provided an excellent opportunity for understanding potential worst-case scenarios for PV ramping. This paper provides an introduction to the datasets that NREL collected over a year and a comprehensive analysis of PV variability in a distributed generation scenario.

  14. Spectroscopic measurement of ion temperature and ion velocity distributions in the flux-coil generated FRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, D.; Gota, H.; Hayashi, R.; Kiyashko, V.; Morehouse, M.; Primavera, S.; Bolte, N.; Marsili, P.; Roche, T.; Wessel, F.

    2010-10-15

    One aim of the flux-coil generated field reversed configuration at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) is to establish the plasma where the ion rotational energy is greater than the ion thermal energy. To verify this, an optical diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure the Doppler velocity-shift and line-broadening using a 0.75 m, 1800 groves/mm, spectrometer. The output spectrum is magnified and imaged onto a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. The individual PMT outputs are coupled to high-gain, high-frequency, transimpedance amplifiers, providing fast-time response. The Doppler spectroscopy measurements, along with a survey spectrometer and photodiode-light detector, form a suite of diagnostics that provide insights into the time evolution of the plasma-ion distribution and current when accelerated by an azimuthal-electric field.

  15. Commercialization of a 2.5kW Utility Interactive Inverter for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torrey, David A.

    2006-05-26

    Through this project, Advanced Energy Conversion (AEC) has developed, tested, refined and is preparing to commercialize a 2.5kW utility-interactive inverter system for distributed generation. The inverter technology embodies zero-voltage switching technology that will ultimately yield a system that is smaller, less expensive and more efficient than existing commercial technologies. This program has focused on commercial success through careful synthesis of technology, market-focus and business development. AEC was the primary participant. AEC is utilizing contract manufacturers in the early stages of production, allowing its technical staff to focus on quality control issues and product enhancements. The objective of this project was to bring the AEC inverter technology from its current pre-production state to a commercial product. Federal funds have been used to build and test production-intent inverters, support the implementation of the commercialization plan and bring the product to the point of UL certification.

  16. Making the Economic Case for Small-Scale Distributed Wind -- A Screening for Distributed Generation Wind Opportunities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Brown, E.; Dominick, J.; Jurotich, T.

    2007-06-01

    This study was an offshoot of a previous assessment, which examined the potential for large-scale, greater than 50 MW, wind development on occupied federal agency lands. The study did not find significant commercial wind development opportunities, primarily because of poor wind resource on available and appropriately sized land areas or land use or aesthetic concerns. The few sites that could accommodate a large wind farm failed to have transmission lines in optimum locations required to generate power at competitive wholesale prices. The study did identify a promising but less common distributed generation (DG) development option. This follow-up study documents the NREL/Global Energy Concepts team efforts to identify economic DG wind projects at a select group of occupied federal sites. It employs a screening strategy based on project economics that go beyond quantity of windy land to include state and utility incentives as well as the value of avoided power purchases. It attempts to account for the extra costs and difficulties associated with small projects through the use of project scenarios that are more compatible with federal facilities and existing land uses. These benefits and barriers of DG are discussed, and the screening methodology and results are included. The report concludes with generalizations about the screening method and recommendations for improvement and other potential applications for this methodology.

  17. Distributed Dynamic State Estimator, Generator Parameter Estimation and Stability Monitoring Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, Sakis; Cokkinides, George; Fardanesh, Bruce; Hedrington, Clinton

    2013-12-31

    This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based

  18. Distributed Generation Potential of the U.S. CommercialSector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Gumerman,Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-06-01

    Small-scale (100 kW-5 MW) on-site distributed generation (DG) economically driven by combined heat and power (CHP) applications and, in some cases, reliability concerns will likely emerge as a common feature of commercial building energy systems in developed countries over the next two decades. In the U.S., private and public expectations for this technology are heavily influenced by forecasts published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), most notably the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO). EIA's forecasts are typically made using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which has a forecasting module that predicts the penetration of several possible commercial building DG technologies over the period 2005-2025. Annual penetration is forecast by estimating the payback period for each technology, for each of a limited number of representative building types, for each of nine regions. This process results in an AEO2004 forecast deployment of about a total 3 GW of DG electrical generating capacity by 2025, which is only 0.25 percent of total forecast U.S. capacity. Analyses conducted using both the AEO2003 and AEO2004 versions of NEMS changes the baseline costs and performance characteristics of DG to reflect a world without U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research into several thermal DG technologies, which is then compared to a case with enhanced technology representative of the successful achievement of DOE research goals. The net difference in 2025 DG penetration is dramatic using the AEO2003 version of NEMS, but much smaller in the AEO2004 version. The significance and validity of these contradictory results are discussed, and possibilities for improving estimates of commercial U.S. DG potential are explored.

  19. Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation Electricore, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daye, Tony

    2013-09-30

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  20. The Case for Natural Gas Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Weimar, Mark R.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Natural-gas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (NGSOFC) power systems yield electrical conversion efficiencies exceeding 60% and may become a viable alternative for distributed generation (DG) if stack life and manufacturing economies of scale can be realized. Currently, stacks last approximately 2 years and few systems are produced each year because of the relatively high cost of electricity from the systems. If mass manufacturing (10,000 units per year) and a stack life of 15 years can be reached, the cost of electricity from an NGSOFC system is estimated to be about 7.7 ¢/kWh, well within the price of commercial and residential retail prices at the national level (9.9-10¢/kWh and 11-12 ¢/kWh, respectively). With an additional 5 ¢/kWh in estimated additional benefits from DG, NGSOFC could be well positioned to replace the forecasted 59-77 gigawatts of capacity loss resulting from coal plant closures due to stricter emissions regulations and low natural gas prices.

  1. Valuation-Based Framework for Considering Distributed Generation Photovoltaic Tariff Design: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinaman, O. R.; Darghouth, N. R.

    2015-02-01

    While an export tariff is only one element of a larger regulatory framework for distributed generation, we choose to focus on tariff design because of the significant impact this program design component has on the various flows of value among power sector stakeholders. In that context, this paper is organized into a series of steps that can be taken during the design of a DGPV export tariff design. To that end this paper outlines a holistic, high-level approach to the complex undertaking of DGPV tariff design, the crux of which is an iterative cost-benefit analysis process. We propose a multi-step progression that aims to promote transparent, focused, and informed dialogue on CBA study methodologies and assumptions. When studies are completed, the long-run marginal avoided cost of the DGPV program should be compared against the costs imposed on utilities and non-participating customers, recognizing that these can be defined differently depending on program objectives. The results of this comparison can then be weighed against other program objectives to formulate tariff options. Potential changes to tariff structures can be iteratively fed back into established analytical tools to inform further discussions.

  2. Intelligent Generation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chicago, Illinois Zip: 60603 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Chicago-based maker of software aimed at optimising distributed renewable energy generation and power storage....

  3. PhotoVoltaic distributed generation for Lanai power grid real-time simulation and control integration scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Kukolich, Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses the modeling, analysis, and testing in a real-time simulation environment of the Lanai power grid system for the integration and control of PhotoVoltaic (PV) distributed generation. The Lanai Island in Hawaii is part of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) to transition to 30% renewable green energy penetration by 2030. In Lanai the primary loads come from two Castle and Cook Resorts, in addition to residential needs. The total peak load profile is 12470 V, 5.5 MW. Currently there are several diesel generators that meet these loading requirements. As part of the HCEI, Lanai has initially installed 1.2 MW of PV generation. The goal of this study has been to evaluate the impact of the PV with respect to the conventional carbon-based diesel generation in real time simulation. For intermittent PV distributed generation, the overall stability and transient responses are investigated. A simple Lanai 'like' model has been developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment (see Fig. 1) and to accommodate real-time simulation of the hybrid power grid system the Opal-RT Technologies RT-Lab environment is used. The diesel generators have been modelled using the SimPowerSystems toolbox swing equations and a custom Simulink module has been developed for the High level PV generation. All of the loads have been characterized primarily as distribution lines with series resistive load banks with one VAR load bank. Three-phase faults are implemented for each bus. Both conventional and advanced control architectures will be used to evaluate the integration of the PV onto the current power grid system. The baseline numerical results include the stable performance of the power grid during varying cloud cover (PV generation ramping up/down) scenarios. The importance of assessing the real-time scenario is included.

  4. FEMTOSECOND TIMING DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL FOR NEXT GENERATION ACCELERATORS AND LIGHT SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Li-Jin

    2014-03-31

    Femtosecond Timing Distribution At LCLS Free-electron-lasers (FEL) have the capability of producing high photon flux from the IR to the hard x-ray wavelength range and to emit femtosecond and eventually even at-tosecond pulses. This makes them an ideal tool for fundamental as well as applied re-search. Timing precision at the Stanford Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) between the x-ray FEL (XFEL) and ultrafast optical lasers is currently no better than 100 fs RMS. Ideally this precision should be much better and could be limited only by the x-ray pulse duration, which can be as short as a few femtoseconds. An increasing variety of science problems involving electron and nuclear dynamics in chemical and material systems will become accessible as the timing improves to a few femtoseconds. Advanced methods of electron beam conditioning or pulse injection could allow the FEL to achieve pulse durations less than one femtosecond. The objec-tive of the work described in this proposal is to set up an optical timing distribution sys-tem based on modelocked Erbium doped fiber lasers at LCLS facility to improve the timing precision in the facility and allow time stamping with a 10 fs precision. The primary commercial applications for optical timing distributions systems are seen in the worldwide accelerator facilities and next generation light sources community. It is reasonable to expect that at least three major XFELs will be built in the next decade. In addition there will be up to 10 smaller machines, such as FERMI in Italy and Maxlab in Sweden, plus the market for upgrading already existing facilities like Jefferson Lab. The total market is estimated to be on the order of a 100 Million US Dollars. The company owns the exclusive rights to the IP covering the technology enabling sub-10 fs synchronization systems. Testing this technology, which has set records in a lab environment, at LCLS, hence in a real world scenario, is an important corner stone of bringing the

  5. Nurbs and grid generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnhill, R.E.; Farin, G.; Hamann, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a basic overview of NURBS and their application to numerical grid generation. Curve/surface smoothing, accelerated grid generation, and the use of NURBS in a practical grid generation system are discussed.

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2010 Existing Capacity, by Energy Source (GW) Number of Generator Nameplate Net Summer Net Winter Plant Fuel Type Generators Capacity Capacity Capacity Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Other Gases Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Wind Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Wood and Wood Derived Fuels Geothermal Other Biomass Pumped Storage Other Total Source(s): EIA, Electric Power Annual 2010, Feb. 2012, Table 1.2. 51 1.0 0.9 0.9 18,150 1,138.6 1,039.1 1,078.7 1,574 5.0 4.4 4.4 151 20.5 22.2 22.1 346 7.9

  7. Next Generation Workload Management System For Big Data on Heterogeneous Distributed Computing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klimentov, A.; Buncic, P.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Maeno, T.; Mount, R.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; et al

    2015-05-22

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS and ALICE are the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences and are at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, both experiments rely on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Managementmore » System (WMS) for managing the workflow for all data processing on hundreds of data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. The scale is demonstrated by the following numbers: PanDA manages O(102) sites, O(105) cores, O(108) jobs per year, O(103) users, and ATLAS data volume is O(1017) bytes. In 2013 we started an ambitious program to expand PanDA to all available computing resources, including opportunistic use of commercial and academic clouds and Leadership Computing Facilities (LCF). The project titled 'Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data' (BigPanDA) is funded by DOE ASCR and HEP. Extending PanDA to clouds and LCF presents new challenges in managing heterogeneity and supporting workflow. The BigPanDA project is underway to setup and tailor PanDA at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) and at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute" together with ALICE distributed computing and ORNL computing professionals. Our approach to integration of HPC platforms at the OLCF and elsewhere is to reuse, as much as possible, existing components of the PanDA system

  8. Hydrogen Generator Appliance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    J slide presentation: hydrogen Generator appliance Gus Block, Nuvera Fuel Cells

  9. Electrical pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norris, Neil J.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for generating high-voltage, wide dynamic range, shaped electrical pulses in the nanosecond range. Two transmission lines are coupled together by resistive elements distributed along the length of the lines. The conductance of each coupling resistive element as a function of its position along the line is selected to produce the desired pulse shape in the output line when an easily produced pulse, such as a step function pulse, is applied to the input line.

  10. Gamma ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  11. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-06-14

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  12. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-04-22

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  13. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2009-12-29

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  14. Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homeowners Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator - Homeowners Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator - Homeowners Determine the amount ...

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 Characteristics of New and Stock Generating Capacities, by Plant Type Total Capital Costs Size Overnight Costs (2) of Typical New Plant New Plant Type (MW) (2010 $/kW) ($2010 million) Scrubbed Coal 1300 2809 3652 Integrated Coal-Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) 1200 3182 3818 IGCC w/Carbon Sequestration 520 5287 2749 Conv. Gas/Oil Combined Cycle 540 967 522 Adv. Gas/Oil Combined Cycle 400 991 396 Conv. Combustion Turbine 85 961 82 Adv. Combustion Turbine 210 658 138 Fuel Cell 10 6752 68

  16. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators Eduard Muljadi, Alan Wright, and Vahan Gevorgian National Renewable Energy Laboratory James Donegan, Cian Marnagh, and Jarlath McEntee Ocean Renewable Power Company Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-66097 June 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy

  17. Underwater power generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowley, W.W.

    1983-05-10

    Apparatus and method for generating electrical power by disposing a plurality of power producing modules in a substantially constant velocity ocean current and mechanically coupling the output of the modules to drive a single electrical generator is disclosed.

  18. Quantum random number generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  19. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System Paul Denholm, Robert Margolis, Bryan Palmintier, Clayton Barrows, Eduardo Ibanez, and Lori Bird National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jarett Zuboy Independent Consultant Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-62447 September 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable

  20. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life

  1. Motor/generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  2. Solar thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toberer, Eric S.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Warren, Emily L.

    2016-05-03

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from concentrated sunlight. A novel detailed balance model for STEGs is provided and applied to both state-of-the-art and idealized materials. STEGs can produce electricity by using sunlight to heat one side of a thermoelectric generator. While concentrated sunlight can be used to achieve extremely high temperatures (and thus improved generator efficiency), the solar absorber also emits a significant amount of black body radiation. This emitted light is the dominant loss mechanism in these generators. In this invention, we propose a solution to this problem that eliminates virtually all of the emitted black body radiation. This enables solar thermoelectric generators to operate at higher efficiency and achieve said efficient with lower levels of optical concentration. The solution is suitable for both single and dual axis solar thermoelectric generators.

  3. Integration of Renewables Via Demand Management: Highly Dispatchable and Distributed Demand Response for the Integration of Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-11

    GENI Project: AutoGrid, in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Columbia University, will design and demonstrate automated control software that helps manage real-time demand for energy across the electric grid. Known as the Demand Response Optimization and Management System - Real-Time (DROMS-RT), the software will enable personalized price signal to be sent to millions of customers in extremely short timeframes—incentivizing them to alter their electricity use in response to grid conditions. This will help grid operators better manage unpredictable demand and supply fluctuations in short time-scales —making the power generation process more efficient and cost effective for both suppliers and consumers. DROMS-RT is expected to provide a 90% reduction in the cost of operating demand response and dynamic pricing Projects in the U.S.

  4. The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses potential of DPF pressure drop reduction by optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF inlet channel

  5. Quadrennial Energy Review Second Installment Electricity: Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... demand response; distributed generation; digital communications, sensors and control ... Product Management and Product Marketing, Energy Management, Smart Grid Solutions ...

  6. Quadrennial Technology Review's Alternative Generation Workshop...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Power, Water Power, Geothermal Energy, and Fuel Cells for Distributed Generation. ... Workshop Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting - Doug Hollett ...

  7. Quadrennial Energy Review Second Installment Electricity: Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... demand response; distributed generation; digital communications, sensors and control ... Cheryl Roberto, Partner, Utility Transformation & Regulation, Twenty First Century ...

  8. Quantum random number generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Bing

    2016-06-28

    Here, quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness -- coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at amore » high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.« less

  9. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  10. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  11. Method of grid generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnette, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  12. Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation Generation Southeastern’s Power Operations employees perform the tasks of declaring, scheduling, dispatching, and accounting for capacity and energy generated at the 22 hydroelectric projects in the agency’s 11-state marketing area. Southeastern has Certified System Operators, meeting the criteria set forth by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. Southeastern's Power Operations employees perform the tasks of declaring, scheduling, dispatching, and accounting

  13. Biomass: Biogas Generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BIOGAS GENERATOR Curriculum: Biomass Power (organic chemistry, chemicalcarbon cycles, plants, energy resourcestransformations) Grade Level: Middle School (6-8) Small groups (3 to ...

  14. Isolated trigger pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-19

    A trigger pulse generation system capable of delivering a multiplicity of isolated 100 kV trigger pulses with picosecond simultaneity.

  15. Renewable Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in renewable electricity generation technologies including solar, water, wind, and geothermal.

  16. Talkin Bout Wind Generation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The amount of electricity generated by the wind industry started to grow back around 1999, and since 2007 has been increasing at a rapid pace.

  17. Isolated trigger pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, K.

    1980-02-19

    A trigger pulse generation system capable of delivering a multiplicity of isolated 100 kV trigger pulses with picosecond simultaneity. 2 figs.

  18. SNE TRAFIC GENERATOR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003027MLTPL00 Network Traffic Generator for Low-rate Small Network Equipment Software http://eln.lbl.gov/sne_traffic_gen.html

  19. Thermophotovoltaic energy generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celanovic, Ivan; Chan, Walker; Bermel, Peter; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Marton, Christopher; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Araghchini, Mohammad; Jensen, Klavs F.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert; Fisher, Peter

    2015-08-25

    Inventive systems and methods for the generation of energy using thermophotovoltaic cells are described. Also described are systems and methods for selectively emitting electromagnetic radiation from an emitter for use in thermophotovoltaic energy generation systems. In at least some of the inventive energy generation systems and methods, a voltage applied to the thermophotovoltaic cell (e.g., to enhance the power produced by the cell) can be adjusted to enhance system performance. Certain embodiments of the systems and methods described herein can be used to generate energy relatively efficiently.

  20. NEGATIVE GATE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, C.S.; Eaton, T.E.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to pulse generating circuits and more particularly to rectangular pulse generators. The pulse generator of the present invention incorporates thyratrons as switching elements to discharge a first capacitor through a load resistor to initiate and provide the body of a Pulse, and subsequently dlscharge a second capacitor to impress the potential of its charge, with opposite potential polarity across the load resistor to terminate the pulse. Accurate rectangular pulses in the millimicrosecond range are produced across a low impedance by this generator.

  1. Development and Testing of a 6-Cylinder HCCI Engine for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Killingsworth, N; Aceves, S M; Dibble, R; Kristic, M; Bining, A

    2005-07-12

    consistent combustion in the 6 cylinders. The engine will then be tested for 1000 hours to demonstrate durability. This paper presents intermediate progress towards development of an HCCI engine for stationary power generation and next steps towards achieving the project goals.

  2. Tailpulse signal generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, John; Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, Stanley John; Decman, Daniel J.; White, Gregory K.

    2009-06-23

    A tailpulse signal generating/simulating apparatus, system, and method designed to produce electronic pulses which simulate tailpulses produced by a gamma radiation detector, including the pileup effect caused by the characteristic exponential decay of the detector pulses, and the random Poisson distribution pulse timing for radioactive materials. A digital signal process (DSP) is programmed and configured to produce digital values corresponding to pseudo-randomly selected pulse amplitudes and pseudo-randomly selected Poisson timing intervals of the tailpulses. Pulse amplitude values are exponentially decayed while outputting the digital value to a digital to analog converter (DAC). And pulse amplitudes of new pulses are added to decaying pulses to simulate the pileup effect for enhanced realism in the simulation.

  3. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  4. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  5. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  6. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

  7. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

  8. Internal split field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat; Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  9. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

  10. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  11. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  12. Geothermal Generation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Generation This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Global Geothermal Energy Generation Global Geothermal Electricity Generation in 2007 (in millions...

  13. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of addition of renewable resources- solar and wind in the distribution system as deployed in the SGIG projects.

  14. IEEE 1547 National Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Generation: How Could It Help My Facility? Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T.; Friedman, N. R.

    2003-11-01

    This article summarizes the purpose, development, and impact of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems. Also included is a short explanation of supporting standards IEEE P1547.1, P1547.2, and P1547.3.

  15. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  16. Compact neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  17. Turn emergency generators into dollars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheahen, T.P.; Stegen, G.R.

    1997-10-01

    The concept of distributed, dispatchable power generation is essentially the reverse of interruptible service. It can be understood by regarding both power and money as vectors: when the direction of the power flow switches, so does the direction of the money flow. At a signal given by the utility, a factory activates its emergency generating system and briefly becomes an independent power producer (IPP), feeding power into a local region of the grid. Upon receipt of another signal, it retires from that role. It may, however, continue to generate power for its own use.

  18. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.

    2004-03-09

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  19. Synthetic guide star generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Stephen A; Page, Ralph H; Ebbers, Christopher A; Beach, Raymond J

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  20. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  1. Mann 3600 Pattern Generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mann 3600 Pattern Generator Description: The GCA Mann 3600 pattern generator is designed for patterning standard 5" x 5" mask plates for use in optical lithography. Pattern designs are created in AutoCAD. The AutoCAD file is then converted into binary format, which can be fractured into data read by the pattern generator. The illumination source for exposures is a high pressure Hg arc lamp. The light is filtered and projected onto a shutter, which controls the exposure dose. A set of

  2. Graph Generator Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lothian, Josh; Powers, Sarah S; Sullivan, Blair D; Baker, Matthew B; Schrock, Jonathan; Poole, Stephen W

    2013-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of dierent application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.

  3. Magnetic field distribution in the plasma flow generated by a plasma focus discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Krauz, V. I. Myalton, V. V.; Velikhov, E. P.; Vinogradov, V. P.; Vinogradova, Yu. V.

    2014-11-15

    The magnetic field in the plasma jet propagating from the plasma pinch region along the axis of the chamber in a megajoule PF-3 plasma focus facility is studied. The dynamics of plasma with a trapped magnetic flow is analyzed. The spatial sizes of the plasma jet region in which the magnetic field concentrates are determined in the radial and axial directions. The magnetic field configuration in the plasma jet is investigated: the radial distribution of the azimuthal component of the magnetic field inside the jet is determined. It is shown that the magnetic induction vector at a given point in space can change its direction during the plasma flight. Conclusions regarding the symmetry of the plasma flow propagation relative to the chamber axis are drawn.

  4. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Electric Conversion Factors and Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Losses Average Utility Average Utility Growth Rate Delivery Efficiency (1, 2) Delivery Ratio (Btu/kWh) (2, 3) (2010-year) 1980 29.4% 1981 29.9% 1982 29.7% 1983 29.8% 1984 30.5% 1985 30.4% 1986 30.8% 1987 31.1% 1988 31.1% 1989 30.2% 1990 30.3% 1991 30.5% 1992 30.7% 1993 30.6% 1994 30.9% 1995 30.7% 1996 30.7% 1997 30.8% 1998 30.7% 1999 30.6% 2000 30.7% 2001 31.1% 2002 31.1% 2003 31.3% 2004 31.3% 2005 31.5% 2006 31.7% 2007

  5. Relativistic electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mooney, L.J.; Hyatt, H.M.

    1975-11-11

    A relativistic electron beam generator for laser media excitation is described. The device employs a diode type relativistic electron beam source having a cathode shape which provides a rectangular output beam with uniform current density.

  6. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  7. Denison Dam Historical Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 450,000 500,000 (MWh) Denison Dam Historical Generation

  8. Scram signal generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johanson, Edward W.; Simms, Richard

    1981-01-01

    A scram signal generating circuit for nuclear reactor installations monitors a flow signal representing the flow rate of the liquid sodium coolant which is circulated through the reactor, and initiates reactor shutdown for a rapid variation in the flow signal, indicative of fuel motion. The scram signal generating circuit includes a long-term drift compensation circuit which processes the flow signal and generates an output signal representing the flow rate of the coolant. The output signal remains substantially unchanged for small variations in the flow signal, attributable to long term drift in the flow rate, but a rapid change in the flow signal, indicative of a fast flow variation, causes a corresponding change in the output signal. A comparator circuit compares the output signal with a reference signal, representing a given percentage of the steady state flow rate of the coolant, and generates a scram signal to initiate reactor shutdown when the output signal equals the reference signal.

  9. Scram signal generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johanson, E.W.; Simms, R.

    A scram signal generating circuit for nuclear reactor installations monitors a flow signal representing the flow rate of the liquid sodium coolant which is circulated through the reactor, and initiates reactor shutdown for a rapid variation in the flow signal, indicative of fuel motion. The scram signal generating circuit includes a long-term drift compensation circuit which processes the flow signal and generates an output signal representing the flow rate of the coolant. The output signal remains substantially unchanged for small variations in the flow signal, attributable to long term drift in the flow rate, but a rapid change in the flow signal, indicative of a fast flow variation, causes a corresponding change in the output signal. A comparator circuit compares the output signal with a reference signal, representing a given percentage of the steady state flow rate of the coolant, and generates a scram signal to initiate reactor shutdown when the output signal equals the reference signal.

  10. Generating electricity from viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2013-10-31

    Berkeley Lab's Seung-Wuk Lee discusses "Generating electricity from viruses" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas.

  11. Generating electricity from viruses

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2014-06-23

    Berkeley Lab's Seung-Wuk Lee discusses "Generating electricity from viruses" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas.

  12. Next Generation Materials:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Materials: 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 1 4 1.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 1 5 1.2 Public and private roles and activities .......................................................................................... 3 6 2.

  13. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  14. Oscillating fluid power generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  15. Next Generation Rooftop Unit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Rooftop Unit - CRADA Bo Shen Oak Ridge National Laboratory shenb@ornl.gov; 865-574-5745 April 3, 2013 ET R&D project in support of DOEBTO Goal of 50% Reduction in ...

  16. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  17. Renewable energy generation sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    With the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL), Sandia and its industry partners are working to address a major barrier to cost-effectively incorporating more solar thermal power generation...

  18. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  19. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  20. EIA - Electricity Generating Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Generating Capacity Release Date: January 3, 2013 | Next Release: August 2013 Year Existing Units by Energy Source Unit Additions Unit Retirements 2011 XLS XLS XLS 2010 XLS XLS XLS 2009 XLS XLS XLS 2008 XLS XLS XLS 2007 XLS XLS XLS 2006 XLS XLS XLS 2005 XLS XLS XLS 2004 XLS XLS XLS 2003 XLS XLS XLS Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report." Related links Electric Power Monthly Electric Power Annual Form EIA-860 Source Data

  1. Compact Mesh Generator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-02-02

    The CMG is a small, lightweight, structured mesh generation code. It features a simple text input parser that allows setup of various meshes via a small set of text commands. Mesh generation data can be output to text, the silo file format, or the API can be directly queried by applications. It can run serially or in parallel via MPI. The CMG includes the ability to specify varius initial conditions on a mesh via meshmore » tags.« less

  2. Fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makiel, Joseph M.

    1985-01-01

    A high temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell generator comprising a housing means defining a plurality of chambers including a generator chamber and a combustion products chamber, a porous barrier separating the generator and combustion product chambers, a plurality of elongated annular fuel cells each having a closed end and an open end with the open ends disposed within the combustion product chamber, the cells extending from the open end through the porous barrier and into the generator chamber, a conduit for each cell, each conduit extending into a portion of each cell disposed within the generator chamber, each conduit having means for discharging a first gaseous reactant within each fuel cell, exhaust means for exhausting the combustion product chamber, manifolding means for supplying the first gaseous reactant to the conduits with the manifolding means disposed within the combustion product chamber between the porous barrier and the exhaust means and the manifolding means further comprising support and bypass means for providing support of the manifolding means within the housing while allowing combustion products from the first and a second gaseous reactant to flow past the manifolding means to the exhaust means, and means for flowing the second gaseous reactant into the generator chamber.

  3. Generation PV Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PV Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Generation PV Inc. Place: Markham, Ontario, Canada Zip: L6E 1A9 Sector: Wind energy Product: Ontario-based Generation PV distributes and...

  4. ESF Subsurface Standby Generator Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Fernandez

    1998-04-17

    The purpose of this analysis is to outline and recommend two standby generator systems. These systems shall provide power during a utility outage to critical Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and to subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Critical loads that will be supported by these generator systems will be identified and evaluated. Additionally, other requirements from the Exploratory Studies Facilities Design Requirements (ESFDR) document will be evaluated. Finally, the standby generator systems will be integrated into the existing ESF subsurface distribution system. The objective of this analysis is to provide design inputs for an efficient and reliable standby generator systems which will provide power for critical loads during a power outage; specifically, Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and the subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Additionally, preliminary one-line diagrams will be developed using this analysis as a primary input.

  5. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Thermoelectricity is produced by applying a temperature differential to dissimilar electrically conducting or semiconducting materials, thereby producing a voltage that is proportional to the temperature difference. Thermoelectric generators use this effect to directly convert heat into electricity; however, presently-known generators have low efficiencies due to the production of high currents which in turn cause large resistive heating losses. Some thermoelectric generators operate at efficiencies between 4% and 7% in the 800{degrees} to 1200{degrees}C range. According to its major aspects and bradly stated, the present invention is an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. In particular, the invention is a thermoelectric generator that juxtaposes a superconducting material and a semiconducting material - so that the superconducting and the semiconducting materials touch - to convert heat energy into electrical energy without resistive losses in the temperature range below the critical temperature of the superconducting material. Preferably, an array of superconducting material is encased in one of several possible configurations within a second material having a high thermal conductivity, preferably a semiconductor, to form a thermoelectric generator.

  6. MCNP LWR Core Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Noah A.

    2012-08-14

    The reactor core input generator allows for MCNP input files to be tailored to design specifications and generated in seconds. Full reactor models can now easily be created by specifying a small set of parameters and generating an MCNP input for a full reactor core. Axial zoning of the core will allow for density variation in the fuel and moderator, with pin-by-pin fidelity, so that BWR cores can more accurately be modeled. LWR core work in progress: (1) Reflectivity option for specifying 1/4, 1/2, or full core simulation; (2) Axial zoning for moderator densities that vary with height; (3) Generating multiple types of assemblies for different fuel enrichments; and (4) Parameters for specifying BWR box walls. Fuel pin work in progress: (1) Radial and azimuthal zoning for generating further unique materials in fuel rods; (2) Options for specifying different types of fuel for MOX or multiple burn assemblies; (3) Additional options for replacing fuel rods with burnable poison rods; and (4) Control rod/blade modeling.

  7. MHD Generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrick, Michael; Pierson, Edward S.; Schreiner, Felix

    1980-01-01

    According to the present invention, coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coalfired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and liquid are combined in a mixer and the resulting two-phase mixture enters the MHD generator. The MHD generator acts as a turbine and electric generator in one unit wherein the gas expands, drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generates electrical power. The gas and liquid are separated, and the available energy in the gas is recovered before the gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. Where the combustion gas contains sulfur, oxygen is bubbled through a side loop to remove sulfur therefrom as a concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide. The combustor is operated substoichiometrically to control the oxide level in the copper.

  8. Spherical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2006-11-21

    A spherical neutron generator is formed with a small spherical target and a spherical shell RF-driven plasma ion source surrounding the target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) ion plasma is produced by RF excitation in the plasma ion source using an RF antenna. The plasma generation region is a spherical shell between an outer chamber and an inner extraction electrode. A spherical neutron generating target is at the center of the chamber and is biased negatively with respect to the extraction electrode which contains many holes. Ions passing through the holes in the extraction electrode are focused onto the target which produces neutrons by D-D or D-T reactions.

  9. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  10. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.