National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for generation dg systems

  1. The Value of Distributed Generation (DG) under Different Tariff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentvalue-distributed-generation-dg-under Language: English Policies: "Regulations,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible...

  2. Meeting DG's

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le DG J.Adams commente les 3 thèmes de la réunion: 1.) le prochain DG du Cern (qui sera H.Schopper) 2.) le LEP 3.) les conclusions du comité des finances concernant salaires, allocations etc. Discussion entre le DG J.Adams, Mons.Ullmann, chef du personel et l'auditoire

  3. DG's Meeting

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le DG H.Schopper informe et répond aux questions; l'association du personnel prend aussi la parole concernant salaires, pensions etc...

  4. DG's Meeting

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Exposés du DG H.Schopper, Blackburne et du président du comité des finances concernant le budget, salaires, pensions etc...avec discussion et questions

  5. TENTATIVE EVIDENCE FOR RELATIVISTIC ELECTRONS GENERATED BY THE JET OF THE YOUNG SUN-LIKE STAR DG Tau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainsworth, Rachael E.; Ray, Tom P.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Green, David A.; Buckle, Jane V.

    2014-09-01

    Synchrotron emission has recently been detected in the jet of a massive protostar, providing further evidence that certain jet formation characteristics for young stars are similar to those found for highly relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. We present data at 325 and 610MHz taken with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope of the young, low-mass star DG Tau, an analog of the Sun soon after its birth. This is the first investigation of a low-mass young stellar object at such low frequencies. We detect emission with a synchrotron spectral index in the proximity of the DG Tau jet and interpret this emission as a prominent bow shock associated with this outflow. This result provides tentative evidence for the acceleration of particles to relativistic energies due to the shock impact of this otherwise very low-power jet against the ambient medium. We calculate the equipartition magnetic field strength B {sub min} ? 0.11mG and particle energy E {sub min} ? 4 10{sup 40}erg, which are the minimum requirements to account for the synchrotron emission of the DG Tau bow shock. These results suggest the possibility of low energy cosmic rays being generated by young Sun-like stars.

  6. The role of distributed generation (DG) in a restructured utility environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feibus, H.

    1999-07-01

    A major consequence of the restructuring of the electric utility industry is disintegration, by which the traditional integrated utility is spinning off its generation business and becoming a power distribution company, or distco. This company will be the remaining entity of the traditional electric utility that continues to be regulated. The world in which the distco functions is becoming a very different place. The distco will be called upon to deliver not only power, but a range of ancillary services, defined by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, including spinning reserves, voltage regulation, reactive power, energy imbalance and network stability, some of which may be obtained from the independent system operator, and some of which may be provided by the distco. In this environment the distco must maintain system reliability and provide service to the customer at the least cost. Meanwhile, restructuring is spawning a new generation of unregulated energy service companies that threaten to win the most attractive customers from the distco. Fortunately there is a new emerging generation of technologies, distributed resources, that provide options to the distco to help retain prime customers, by improving reliability and lowering costs. Specifically, distributed generation and storage systems if dispersed into the distribution system can provide these benefits, if generators with the right characteristics are selected, and the integration into the distribution system is done skillfully. The Electric Power Research Institute has estimated that new distributed generation may account for 30% of new generation. This presentation will include the characteristics of several distributed resources and identify potential benefits that can be obtained through the proper integration of distributed generation and storage systems.

  7. Overview of the CPUC's California Solar Initiative and DG Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of the CPUC's California Solar Initiative and DG Programs: James Loewen, Energy Division California Public Utilities Commission For NREL Incentive Program Webinar September 27, 2012 www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUC/energy/DistGen/ 2 DG and Renewables Policies and Programs DG Type Programs System-Side Generation or Utility-Side Procurement Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) Program  Feed-in Tariffs (Market Price Referent)  Renewable Auction Mechanism (RAM)  Utility Solar PV Programs 

  8. Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This report describes Berkeley Lab's exploration of how the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models distributed generation (DG) and presents possible approaches for improving how DG is modeled. The on-site electric generation capability has been available since the AEO2000 version of NEMS. Berkeley Lab has previously completed research on distributed energy resources (DER) adoption at individual sites and has developed a DER Customer Adoption Model called DER-CAM. Given interest in this area, Berkeley Lab set out to understand how NEMS models small-scale on-site generation to assess how adequately DG is treated in NEMS, and to propose improvements or alternatives. The goal is to determine how well NEMS models the factors influencing DG adoption and to consider alternatives to the current approach. Most small-scale DG adoption takes place in the residential and commercial modules of NEMS. Investment in DG ultimately offsets purchases of electricity, which also eliminates the losses associated with transmission and distribution (T&D). If the DG technology that is chosen is photovoltaics (PV), NEMS assumes renewable energy consumption replaces the energy input to electric generators. If the DG technology is fuel consuming, consumption of fuel in the electric utility sector is replaced by residential or commercial fuel consumption. The waste heat generated from thermal technologies can be used to offset the water heating and space heating energy uses, but there is no thermally activated cooling capability. This study consists of a review of model documentation and a paper by EIA staff, a series of sensitivity runs performed by Berkeley Lab that exercise selected DG parameters in the AEO2002 version of NEMS, and a scoping effort of possible enhancements and alternatives to NEMS current DG capabilities. In general, the treatment of DG in NEMS is rudimentary. The penetration of DG is determined by an economic cash-flow analysis that determines adoption based on the

  9. Meeting DG-Staff Association

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Discussion avec le DG J.Adams et Mons.Ullmann, concernant les problèmes liés aux conditions de travail, horaires (44h), salaire, allocations, indemnisations, allocations etc.

  10. Monthly Generation System Peak (pbl/generation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation > Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Monthly Generation System Peak (GSP) This site is no longer maintained. Page last...

  11. PUCT DG Interconnection Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: PUCT DG Interconnection ManualPermittingRegulatory GuidanceGuideHandbook...

  12. DG Energy Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    92101 Product: Develops owns and operates industrial, commercial and institutional cogeneration plants from 2-50MW. References: DG Energy Solutions1 This article is a stub. You...

  13. Distributed generation systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  14. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  15. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  16. DG Fairhaven Power Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name DG Fairhaven Power Biomass Facility Facility DG Fairhaven Power Sector Biomass Owner Marubeni Sustainable Energy Location Eureka, California Coordinates...

  17. Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2005-06-16

    One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

  18. MHD Generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrick, Michael; Pierson, Edward S.; Schreiner, Felix

    1980-01-01

    According to the present invention, coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coalfired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and liquid are combined in a mixer and the resulting two-phase mixture enters the MHD generator. The MHD generator acts as a turbine and electric generator in one unit wherein the gas expands, drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generates electrical power. The gas and liquid are separated, and the available energy in the gas is recovered before the gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. Where the combustion gas contains sulfur, oxygen is bubbled through a side loop to remove sulfur therefrom as a concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide. The combustor is operated substoichiometrically to control the oxide level in the copper.

  19. Distributed Generation: Challenges and Opportunities, 7. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-15

    The report is a comprehensive study of the Distributed Generation (DG) industry. The report takes a wide-ranging look at the current and future state of DG and both individually and collectively addresses the technologies of Microturbines, Reciprocating Engines, Stirling Engines, Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar, Wind, and Microgrids. Topics covered include: the key technologies being used or planned for DG; the uses of DG from utility, energy service provider, and customer viewpoints; the economics of DG; the benefits of DG from multiple perspectives; the barriers that exist to implementing DG; the government programs supporting the DG industry; and, an analysis of DG interconnection and net metering rules.

  20. Comparison of large central and small decentralized power generation in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    This reports evaluates two options for providing reliable power to rural areas in India. The benefits and costs are compared for biomass based distributed generation (DG) systems versus a 1200-MW central grid coal-fired power plant. The biomass based DG systems are examined both as alternatives to grid extension and as supplements to central grid power. The benefits are divided into three categories: those associated with providing reliable power from any source, those associated specifically with biomass based DG technology, and benefits of a central grid coal plant. The report compares the estimated delivered costs of electricity from the DG systems to those of the central plant. The analysis includes estimates for a central grid coal plant and four potential DG system technologies: Stirling engines, direct-fired combustion turbines, fuel cells, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles. The report also discusses issues affecting India`s rural electricity demand, including economic development, power reliability, and environmental concerns. The results of the costs of electricity comparison between the biomass DG systems and the coal-fired central grid station demonstrated that the DG technologies may be able to produce very competitively priced electricity by the start of the next century. The use of DG technology may provide a practical means of addressing many rural electricity issues that India will face in the future. Biomass DG technologies in particular offer unique advantages for the environment and for economic development that will make them especially attractive. 58 refs., 31 figs.

  1. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  2. Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Generation Information System Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System Place: Sacramento, California Zip:...

  3. On-Site Generation Simulation with EnergyPlus for CommercialBuildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Firestone, Ryan; Curtil, Dimitri; Marnay, Chris

    2006-05-16

    Building energy simulation software (e.g., EnergyPlus) is apowerful tool used widely by designers and researchers. However, currentsoftware is limited in modeling distributed generation (DG), including DGwith heat recovery applied to building end-use, i.e., combined heat andpower (CHP). Concurrently, DG investment and dispatch optimizationsoftware has been developed, yet has not been linked to a building energysimulation program for accurate assessment of DG designs, particularlyunder uncertainty in future end-use loads and equipment availability. CHPis a proven approach to cost effective reductions in primary fuelconsumption and CO2 emissions. Integrating DG system design and controlsinto building energy simulation is an important step towards popular DGacceptance. We propose to extend the existing building energy simulationprogram, EnergyPlus (E+), to enable the simulation of various DG modulesand associated control strategies in order to achieve more accurate andholistic analysis of DG technologies. Extension of EnergyPlus isconveniently facilitated by SPARK, a program capable of modeling buildingequipment and controls as individual modules. These modules can beautomatically integrated with EnergyPlus building models. Candidate DGsystems can be selected from the DG investment optimization program,Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). Thedispatch of the modeled DG system can be determined by a novel dispatchoptimization algorithm, the Energy Manager, that accounts for uncertaintyin future load and DG availability, as well as curtailment options. DGequipment and controls can modeled in SPARK and integrated intoEnergyPlus building models. The way to this holistic approach will bedescribed in this paper.

  4. Particulate Generation in Tritium Systems

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Particulate Generation in a Tritium System Paul Cloessner, PhD Laboratory Fellow Tritium Focus Group February 22, 2014 Outline * Description of Events * Analysis of Material * Sources of material contamination * System Restoration/Modifications * Contaminant Minimization and Control * Lessons Learned 2 An Unpleasant Surprise * Let down filter on compressor became plugged after 10 years of operation. * Tritium processing interrupted when other filters (flow orifices) became plugged approximately

  5. The Value of Distributed Generation and CHP Resources in Wholesale Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Markets, September 2005 | Department of Energy The Value of Distributed Generation and CHP Resources in Wholesale Power Markets, September 2005 The Value of Distributed Generation and CHP Resources in Wholesale Power Markets, September 2005 Distributed generation and combined heat and power (DG/CHP) projects are usually considered as resources for the benefit of the electricity consumer not the utility power system. This report evaluates DG/CHP as wholesale power resources, installed on the

  6. Next Generation Environmentally Friendly Driving Feedback Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmentally Friendly Driving Feedback Systems Research and Development Next Generation Environmentally Friendly Driving Feedback Systems Research and Development 2012 DOE ...

  7. Overview of the CPUC's California Solar Initiative and DG Programs |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Overview of the CPUC's California Solar Initiative and DG Programs Overview of the CPUC's California Solar Initiative and DG Programs This presentation summarizes the information discussed by the CPUC during the Best Practices in the Design of Utility Solar Programs Webinar on Sept. 27, 2012. utility_design_csi_loewen.pdf (337.86 KB) More Documents & Publications California Energy Incentive Programs: An Annual Update on Key Energy Issues and Financial Opportunities

  8. Onsite Distributed Generation Systems For Laboratories, Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on implementing onsite distributed generation systems in laboratory environments. Specific technology applications, general performance information, and cost data are provided to educate and encourage laboratory energy managers to consider onsite power generation or combined heat and power (CHP) systems for their facilities. After conducting an initial screening, energy managers are encouraged to conduct a detailed feasibility study with actual cost and performance data for technologies that look promising. Onsite distributed generation systems are small, modular, decentralized, grid-connected, or off-grid energy systems. These systems are located at or near the place where the energy is used. These systems are also known as distributed energy or distributed power systems. DG technologies are generally considered those that produce less than 20 megawatts (MW) of power. A number of technologies can be applied as effective onsite DG systems, including: (1) Diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel reciprocating engines; (2) Combustion turbines and steam turbines; (3) Fuel cells; (4) Biomass heating; (5) Biomass combined heat and power; (6) Photovoltaics; and (7) Wind turbines. These systems can provide a number of potential benefits to an individual laboratory facility or campus, including: (1) High-quality, reliable, and potentially dispatchable power; (2) Low-cost energy and long-term utility cost assurance, especially where electricity and/or fuel costs are high; (3) Significantly reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Typical CHP plants reduce onsite GHG by 40 to 60 percent; (4) Peak demand shaving where demand costs are high; (5) CHP where thermal energy can be used in addition to electricity; (6) The ability to meet standby power needs, especially where utility-supplied power is interrupted frequently or for long periods and where standby power is required for safety or emergencies; and (7) Use for standalone or off

  9. The Case for Natural Gas Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Weimar, Mark R.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Natural-gas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (NGSOFC) power systems yield electrical conversion efficiencies exceeding 60% and may become a viable alternative for distributed generation (DG) if stack life and manufacturing economies of scale can be realized. Currently, stacks last approximately 2 years and few systems are produced each year because of the relatively high cost of electricity from the systems. If mass manufacturing (10,000 units per year) and a stack life of 15 years can be reached, the cost of electricity from an NGSOFC system is estimated to be about 7.7 ¢/kWh, well within the price of commercial and residential retail prices at the national level (9.9-10¢/kWh and 11-12 ¢/kWh, respectively). With an additional 5 ¢/kWh in estimated additional benefits from DG, NGSOFC could be well positioned to replace the forecasted 59-77 gigawatts of capacity loss resulting from coal plant closures due to stricter emissions regulations and low natural gas prices.

  10. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE SYSTEM STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Macri

    2002-02-28

    Rolls-Royce has completed a preliminary design and marketing study under a Department of Energy (DOE) cost shared contract (DE-AC26-00NT40852) to analyze the feasibility of developing a clean, high efficiency, and flexible Next Generation Turbine (NGT) system to meet the power generation market needs of the year 2007 and beyond. Rolls-Royce evaluated the full range of its most advanced commercial aerospace and aeroderivative engines alongside the special technologies necessary to achieve the aggressive efficiency, performance, emissions, economic, and flexibility targets desired by the DOE. Heavy emphasis was placed on evaluating the technical risks and the economic viability of various concept and technology options available. This was necessary to ensure the resulting advanced NGT system would provide extensive public benefits and significant customer benefits without introducing unacceptable levels of technical and operational risk that would impair the market acceptance of the resulting product. Two advanced cycle configurations were identified as offering significant advantages over current combined cycle products available in the market. In addition, balance of plant (BOP) technologies, as well as capabilities to improve the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of industrial gas turbine engines, have been identified. A customer focused survey and economic analysis of a proposed Rolls-Royce NGT product configuration was also accomplished as a part of this research study. The proposed Rolls-Royce NGT solution could offer customers clean, flexible power generation systems with very high efficiencies, similar to combined cycle plants, but at a much lower specific cost, similar to those of simple cycle plants.

  11. Solar energy electric generating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, J.

    1988-03-01

    A solar energy electric generating system is described comprising in combination: (a) an array of photocells; (b) means for gating the electrical direct current energy produced by the array of photocells; (c) means for transforming the electrical direct current energy at an output of the array of photocells whereby an alternating current at the output of the transforming means is produced, and which is controlled by a control device for controlling the rate and duty cycle of the gating means; and (d) a photosensitive sampler which samples light incident upon the photocell array and outputs a proportional signal.

  12. Heat engine generator control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajashekara, K.; Gorti, B.V.; McMullen, S.R.; Raibert, R.J.

    1998-05-12

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power. 8 figs.

  13. Heat engine generator control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajashekara, Kaushik (Carmel, IN); Gorti, Bhanuprasad Venkata (Towson, MD); McMullen, Steven Robert (Anderson, IN); Raibert, Robert Joseph (Fishers, IN)

    1998-01-01

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power.

  14. Generators for Small Electrical and Thermal Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    build and test improved electric-power generators for use in residential Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, which capture the generator's heat output for space and water...

  15. Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency ... More Documents & Publications Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation ...

  16. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Collins, Emory D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A .sup.99 Mo/.sup.99m Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating .sup.99m Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of .sup.99m Tc includes the general steps of: a. providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; b. eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute .sup.99m Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted .sup.99m Tc on the ion-exchange column; and c. eluting the concentrated .sup.99m Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent.

  17. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Collins, E.D.

    1998-06-30

    A {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating {sup 99m}Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of {sup 99m}Tc includes the general steps of: (a) providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; (b) eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute {sup 99m}Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted {sup 99m}Tc on the ion-exchange column; and (c) eluting the concentrated {sup 99m}Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent. 1 fig.

  18. Modeling and Optimization of Commercial Buildings and Stationary Fuel Cell Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; McLarty, D.; Sullivan, R.; Brouwer, J.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation describes the Distributed Generation Building Energy Assessment Tool (DG-BEAT) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of California Irvine. DG-BEAT is designed to allow stakeholders to assess the economics of installing stationary fuel cell systems in a variety of building types in the United States.

  19. A Model of U.S. Commercial Distributed Generation Adoption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Ryan Firestone; Zhou, Nan; Maribu,Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-10

    Small-scale (100 kW-5 MW) on-site distributed generation (DG) economically driven by combined heat and power (CHP) applications and, in some cases, reliability concerns will likely emerge as a common feature of commercial building energy systems over the next two decades. Forecasts of DG adoption published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) are made using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which has a forecasting module that predicts the penetration of several possible commercial building DG technologies over the period 2005-2025. NEMS is also used for estimating the future benefits of Department of Energy research and development used in support of budget requests and management decisionmaking. The NEMS approach to modeling DG has some limitations, including constraints on the amount of DG allowed for retrofits to existing buildings and a small number of possible sizes for each DG technology. An alternative approach called Commercial Sector Model (ComSeM) is developed to improve the way in which DG adoption is modeled. The approach incorporates load shapes for specific end uses in specific building types in specific regions, e.g., cooling in hospitals in Atlanta or space heating in Chicago offices. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) uses these load profiles together with input cost and performance DG technology assumptions to model the potential DG adoption for four selected cities and two sizes of five building types in selected forecast years to 2022. The Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model (DER-MaDiM) is then used to then tailor the DER-CAM results to adoption projections for the entire U.S. commercial sector for all forecast years from 2007-2025. This process is conducted such that the structure of results are consistent with the structure of NEMS, and can be re-injected into NEMS that can then be used to integrate adoption results into a full forecast.

  20. dg_appendices.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution September 14, 2016 12:00PM to 1:00PM EDT You Know that Hot Water Distribution is Important...Now Learn Design Details for Systems that Work Efficient hot water distribution systems route water more efficiently, with the added bonus that residents get their hot water much faster. For consumers this also means a great feeling from not wasting thousands of gallons of water each year along with the money

  1. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transport trailer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ard, K.E.; King, D.A.; Leigh, H.; Satoh, J.A.

    1995-01-20

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System (System 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the U.S. Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  2. NREL: Technology Deployment - New DG Collaborative Brings Utilities and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Industry Professionals Together on Interconnection Issues New DG Collaborative Brings Utilities and Energy Industry Professionals Together on Interconnection Issues Sponsors U.S. DOE SunShot Initiative Key Partners Solar Electric Power Association Electric Power Research Institute Western Area Power Administration Contact Kristen Ardani, 303-384-6461 A photo of two men installing solar panels on a home While advancements in solar technology have significantly lowered hardware costs,

  3. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes Title: Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a ...

  4. Fuel cell using a hydrogen generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-10-19

    A system is described for storing and generating hydrogen and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  5. POWER GENERATING NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, H.C.

    1958-03-01

    This patent relates to reactor systems of the type wherein the cooiing medium is a liquid which is converted by the heat of the reaction to steam which is conveyed directly to a pnime mover such as a steam turbine driving a generatore after which it is condensed and returred to the coolant circuit. In this design, the reactor core is disposed within a tank for containing either a slurry type fuel or an aggregation of solid fuel elements such as elongated rods submerged in a liquid moderator such as heavy water. The top of the tank is provided with a nozzle which extends into an expansion chamber connected with the upper end of the tank, the coolant being maintained in the expansion chamber at a level above the nozzle and the steam being formed in the expansion chamber.

  6. Evaluating the Impact of Solar Generation on Balancing Requirements in Southern Nevada System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2012-07-26

    Abstract—In this paper, the impacts of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation on balancing requirements including regulation and load following in the Southern Nevada balancing area are analyzed. The methodology is based on the “swinging door” algorithm and a probability box method developed by PNNL. The regulation and load following signals are mimicking the system’s scheduling and real-time dispatch processes. Load, solar PV generation and distributed PV generation (DG) data are used in the simulation. Different levels of solar PV generation and DG penetration profiles are used in the study. Sensitivity of the regulation requirements with respect to real-time solar PV generation forecast errors is analyzed.

  7. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  8. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, James F.; Koenig, John F.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  9. Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System ACCOUNT...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System ACCOUNT HOLDER REGISTRATION AGREEMENT (Also referred to as the "TERMS OF USE") June 22,2007 Revised May 1,2008 JUL 3 1 REC'D...

  10. Application of USNRC NUREG/CR-6661 and draft DG-1108 to evolutionary and advanced reactor designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang 'Apollo', Chen

    2006-07-01

    For the seismic design of evolutionary and advanced nuclear reactor power plants, there are definite financial advantages in the application of USNRC NUREG/CR-6661 and draft Regulatory Guide DG-1108. NUREG/CR-6661, 'Benchmark Program for the Evaluation of Methods to Analyze Non-Classically Damped Coupled Systems', was by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the USNRC, and Draft Regulatory Guide DG-1108 is the proposed revision to the current Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.92, Revision 1, 'Combining Modal Responses and Spatial Components in Seismic Response Analysis'. The draft Regulatory Guide DG-1108 is available at http://members.cox.net/apolloconsulting, which also provides a link to the USNRC ADAMS site to search for NUREG/CR-6661 in text file or image file. The draft Regulatory Guide DG-1108 removes unnecessary conservatism in the modal combinations for closely spaced modes in seismic response spectrum analysis. Its application will be very helpful in coupled seismic analysis for structures and heavy equipment to reduce seismic responses and in piping system seismic design. In the NUREG/CR-6661 benchmark program, which investigated coupled seismic analysis of structures and equipment or piping systems with different damping values, three of the four participants applied the complex mode solution method to handle different damping values for structures, equipment, and piping systems. The fourth participant applied the classical normal mode method with equivalent weighted damping values to handle differences in structural, equipment, and piping system damping values. Coupled analysis will reduce the equipment responses when equipment, or piping system and structure are in or close to resonance. However, this reduction in responses occurs only if the realistic DG-1108 modal response combination method is applied, because closely spaced modes will be produced when structure and equipment or piping systems are in or close to resonance. Otherwise, the conservatism in

  11. GE Hybrid Power Generation Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: GE Hybrid Power Generation Systems Place: Georgia Zip: Atlanta Product: Focused on fuel cell stack and system development. References: GE Hybrid Power Generation Systems1...

  12. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medeiros, A.L.R.; Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  13. PASCAL LR(1) Parser Generator System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1988-05-04

    LRSYS is a complete LR(1) parser generator system written entirely in a portable subset of Pascal. The system, LRSYS, includes a grammar analyzer program (LR) which reads a context-free (BNF) grammar as input and produces LR(1) parsing tables as output, a lexical analyzer generator (LEX) which reads regular expressions created by the REG process as input and produces lexical tables as output, and various parser skeletons that get merged with the tables to produce completemore » parsers (SMAKE). Current parser skeletons include Pascal, FORTRAN 77, and C. Other language skeletons can easily be added to the system. LRSYS is based on the LR program.« less

  14. Protective, Modular Wave Power Generation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vvedensky, Jane M.; Park, Robert Y.

    2012-11-27

    The concept of small wave energy conversion modules that can be built into large, scalable arrays, in the same vein as solar panels, has been developed. This innovation lends itself to an organic business and development model, and enables the use of large-run manufacturing technology to reduce system costs. The first prototype module has been built to full-scale, and tested in a laboratory wave channel. The device has been shown to generate electricity and dissipate wave energy. Improvements need to be made to the electrical generator and a demonstration of an array of modules should be made in natural conditions.

  15. Plasma generators, reactor systems and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Lee, James E.

    2007-06-19

    A plasma generator, reactor and associated systems and methods are provided in accordance with the present invention. A plasma reactor may include multiple sections or modules which are removably coupled together to form a chamber. Associated with each section is an electrode set including three electrodes with each electrode being coupled to a single phase of a three-phase alternating current (AC) power supply. The electrodes are disposed about a longitudinal centerline of the chamber and are arranged to provide and extended arc and generate an extended body of plasma. The electrodes are displaceable relative to the longitudinal centerline of the chamber. A control system may be utilized so as to automatically displace the electrodes and define an electrode gap responsive to measure voltage or current levels of the associated power supply.

  16. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  17. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

    2003-03-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

  18. TurboGenerator Power Systems{trademark} for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinstein, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    The AlliedSignal TurboGenerator is a cost effective, environmentally benign, low cost, highly reliable and simple to maintain generation source. Market Surveys indicate that the significant worldwide market exists, for example, the United States Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) which is the uniform research facility for domestic electric utilities, predicts that up to 40% of all new generation could be distributed generation by the year 2006. In many parts of the world, the lack of electric infrastructure (transmission and distribution lines) will greatly expedite the commercialization of distributed generation technologies since central plants not only cost more per kW, but also must have expensive infrastructure installed to deliver the product to the consumer. Small, multi-fuel, modular distributed generation units, such as the TurboGenerator, can help alleviate current afternoon brownouts and blackouts prevalent in many parts of the world. Its simple, one moving part concept allows for low technical skill maintenance and its low overall cost allows for wide spread purchase in those parts of the world where capital is sparse. In addition, given the United States emphasis on electric deregulation and the world trend in this direction, consumers of electricity will now have not only the right to choose the correct method of electric service but also a new cost effective choice from which to choose.

  19. Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new module were developed at the same time under a complementary PVMaT contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Two 100-kW power plants were deployed in 1995 in Texas using the newly developed fourth-generation concentrator technology, one at the CSW Solar Park near Ft. Davis and one at TUE Energy Park in Dallas. Technology developed under the Sandia contracts has made a successful transition from the laboratory to the production line to the field.

  20. Distributed Generation Potential of the U.S. CommercialSector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Gumerman,Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-06-01

    Small-scale (100 kW-5 MW) on-site distributed generation (DG) economically driven by combined heat and power (CHP) applications and, in some cases, reliability concerns will likely emerge as a common feature of commercial building energy systems in developed countries over the next two decades. In the U.S., private and public expectations for this technology are heavily influenced by forecasts published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), most notably the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO). EIA's forecasts are typically made using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which has a forecasting module that predicts the penetration of several possible commercial building DG technologies over the period 2005-2025. Annual penetration is forecast by estimating the payback period for each technology, for each of a limited number of representative building types, for each of nine regions. This process results in an AEO2004 forecast deployment of about a total 3 GW of DG electrical generating capacity by 2025, which is only 0.25 percent of total forecast U.S. capacity. Analyses conducted using both the AEO2003 and AEO2004 versions of NEMS changes the baseline costs and performance characteristics of DG to reflect a world without U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research into several thermal DG technologies, which is then compared to a case with enhanced technology representative of the successful achievement of DOE research goals. The net difference in 2025 DG penetration is dramatic using the AEO2003 version of NEMS, but much smaller in the AEO2004 version. The significance and validity of these contradictory results are discussed, and possibilities for improving estimates of commercial U.S. DG potential are explored.

  1. Method and system for radioisotope generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toth, James J.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Fryxell, Glen E.; O'Hara, Matthew J.

    2014-07-15

    A system and a process for producing selected isotopic daughter products from parent materials characterized by the steps of loading the parent material upon a sorbent having a functional group configured to selectively bind the parent material under designated conditions, generating the selected isotopic daughter products, and eluting said selected isotopic daughter products from the sorbent. In one embodiment, the process also includes the step of passing an eluent formed by the elution step through a second sorbent material that is configured to remove a preselected material from said eluent. In some applications a passage of the material through a third sorbent material after passage through the second sorbent material is also performed.

  2. Manure digester and power generating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santina, P.F.; Chatterjee, A.K.

    1988-06-14

    A manure digester and power generating system is described comprising: a mixing tank for receiving manure, and for mixing water with the manure to produce a manure slurry of desired consistency; a closed anaerobic digester tank of fixed volume; the mixing tank being separate from and spaced from the digester tank; pumping and conduit means for transferring the contents of the mixing tank to the digester tank; automatic control means, associated with the pumping means, for monitoring and controlling temperature and volume of the contents of the mixing tank before transfer to the digester tank; means for discharging effluent by-products out the outflow end of the digester tank; a gas-fueled engine and a generator coupled to the engine, for generating electrical power; heater means; means for drawing off biogas from the digester tank and for conducting it to the engine as fuel, and wherein the manure slurry is heated sufficiently, prior to introduction into the digester tank and separately from the digester tank, to prevent temperature shock of already digesting slurry in the digester tank when the slurry is introduced into the digester tank.

  3. Integrated control of next generation power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2010-02-28

    The multi-agent system (MAS) approach has been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future as developed by Southern California Edison. These next generation power system results include better ability to reconfigure the circuit as well as the increased capability to improve the protection and enhance the reliability of the circuit. There were four main tasks in this project. The specific results for each of these four tasks and their related topics are presented in main sections of this report. Also, there were seven deliverables for this project. The main conclusions for these deliverables are summarized in the identified subtask section of this report. The specific details for each of these deliverables are included in the “Project Deliverables” section at the end of this Final Report.

  4. Property:Distributed Generation System Enclosure | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Outdoor + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Dedicated Shelter + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Outdoor +...

  5. Property:Distributed Generation System Power Application | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Based Load + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Based Load + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Based Load + Distributed...

  6. Spray generators for absorption refrigeration systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sibley, Howard W.

    1979-06-19

    A spray generator for an absorption refrigeration system that includes a heat exchanger comprised of a multiplicity of variably spaced heat exchange tubes. The tubes are spaced close together near the top of the heat exchanger and spaced more widely apart near the bottom of the heat exchanger. Dilute absorbent solution is sprayed down through the heat exchanger. The close nesting of the tubes in the top portion of the heat exchanger retards liquid flow and aids heating of the solution. The wide spacing of the tubes in the lower section of the heat exchanger facilitate vapor flow out of the heat exchanger and eliminates liquid "blow-off". The top tubes are covered by a baffle to prevent the liquid solution from splashing out of the heat exchanger off of these top tubes.

  7. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Concentrating Photovoltaic Power System,Reaching Grid Parity ... for Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Energy Generation,A Value Chain ...

  8. Nevada Application For Renewable Energy System Generators | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    renewable energy system. Form Type ApplicationNotice Form Topic Application Pursuant to NAC 704.8901 - 704.8937 for Renewable Energy System Generators Published Publisher Not...

  9. Demonstration of Next Generation PEM CHP Systems for Global Markets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems for Global Markets Using PBI Membrane Technology Demonstration of Next Generation PEM CHP Systems for Global Markets Using PBI Membrane Technology Part of a 100 million ...

  10. Distributed Generation Systems Inc DISGEN | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Inc DISGEN Jump to: navigation, search Name: Distributed Generation Systems Inc (DISGEN) Place: Lakewood, Colorado Zip: 80228 Sector: Wind energy Product: Developer of...

  11. A Power Energy Generation Systems Ltd APWR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Ltd (APWR) Place: Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China Zip: 110021 Product: Chinese-based provider of power generation systems, acting as the holding company of Liaoning...

  12. Distributed Generation Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Zip: 80228 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Wind energy Product: Developer of electricity generation wind power facilities Website: www.disgenonline.com Coordinates:...

  13. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation An overview of the Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation project to transition Amonix's concentrating photovoltaic (PV) systems from low-volume to high-volume production. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation (972.55 KB) More Documents & Publications Solar America Initiative Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power

  14. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  15. Synchronization System for Next Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavriyev, Anton

    2014-03-27

    An alternative synchronization technique – one that would allow explicit control of the pulse train including its repetition rate and delay is clearly desired. We propose such a scheme. Our method is based on optical interferometry and permits synchronization of the pulse trains generated by two independent mode-locked lasers. As the next generation x-ray sources will be driven by a clock signal derived from a mode-locked optical source, our technique will provide a way to synchronize x-ray probe with the optical pump pulses.

  16. Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

    2012-10-16

    An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

  17. System and method for generating a relationship network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Kasian; Myers, Cornelia A.; Podowski, Raf M.

    2011-07-26

    A computer-implemented system and process for generating a relationship network is disclosed. The system provides a set of data items to be related and generates variable length data vectors to represent the relationships between the terms within each data item. The system can be used to generate a relationship network for documents, images, or any other type of file. This relationship network can then be queried to discover the relationships between terms within the set of data items.

  18. System and method for generating a relationship network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franks, Kasian; Myers, Cornelia A; Podowski, Raf M

    2015-05-05

    A computer-implemented system and process for generating a relationship network is disclosed. The system provides a set of data items to be related and generates variable length data vectors to represent the relationships between the terms within each data item. The system can be used to generate a relationship network for documents, images, or any other type of file. This relationship network can then be queried to discover the relationships between terms within the set of data items.

  19. EIS-0416: Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in San Bernardino

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    County, CA | Department of Energy 6: Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in San Bernardino County, CA EIS-0416: Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in San Bernardino County, CA Documents Available for Download October 22, 2010 EIS-0416: EPA Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (07-AFC-5) Project, Proposal to Construct a 400-m Megawatt Concentrated Solar Power Tower, Thermal-Electric Power Plant, San Bernardino

  20. Next Generation Logistics Systems for Delivering Optimal Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    University of Tennessee Next Generation Logistics Systems ... technology platforms. * The conceptual framework of the project recognizes that: - A more extensive forest product mix ...

  1. On-line diagnostic system for power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skormin, V.A.; Goodenough, G.S.; Huber, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach to diagnostics of a power generator is developed. It utilizes readily available data acquired by the existing computer-based monitoring/control system. Diagnostic procedures detect various trends in the generator data and interpret these trends in the generator data and interpret these trends as changes in the generator performance caused by incipient failures. Results of trend analyses, subjected to statistical validation, facilitate failure prediction and identification thus providing the justification for service when needed. The procedures are incorporated in a diagnostic system implemented in a PC interfaced with the existing VAX-based process monitoring and control system. The diagnostic system provides graphical display of the diagnostic messages.

  2. EIS-0416: Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in San Bernardino...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (07-AFC-5) Project, Proposal to Construct a 400-m Megawatt Concentrated Solar Power Tower, Thermal-Electric Power Plant, San Bernardino ...

  3. Electric Power Generation Systems | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Power Generation Systems Coal gasification-based power plants Coal combustion-based power plants Natural gas-fueled power plants Turbines Fuel cells Existing power plants...

  4. Plasma generators, reactor systems and related methods - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visit the Technology Transfer and Commercialization Office Website Abstract: A plasma generator, reactor and associated systems and methods are provided in accordance with the...

  5. Property:Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application" Showing 21 pages using this property. D Distributed...

  6. INGRID; 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R.

    1985-07-01

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  7. INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christon, M.A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D.W.; Hallquist, J.O.; Rainsberger, R.B.

    1992-09-01

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  8. INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R.

    1985-07-01

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D (ESTSC. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  9. INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R.

    1985-07-01

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  10. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  11. Resilient Control Systems: Next Generation Design Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Rieger

    2009-05-01

    Since digital control systems were introduced to the market more than 30 years ago, the operational efficiency and stability gained through their use have fueled our migration and ultimate dependence on them for the monitoring and control of critical infrastructure. While these systems have been designed for functionality and reliability, a hostile cyber environment and uncertainties in complex networks and human interactions have placed additional parameters on the design expectations for control systems.

  12. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surfacemore » equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.« less

  13. Interview DG Prof.B.Gregory by E.Schaerlig

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    L'interview en français de 21 min. donné en février concerne le démarrage du "SuperCern" et est accompagné par moments de musique- 3 min. de pause, ensuite autre exposé (debut manque) en anglais parlant du CDC programming system avec questions

  14. Fuel cells in distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Sullivan, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    In the past the vertically integrated electric utility industry has not utilized Distributed Generation (DG) because it was viewed as competition to central station power production. Gas utilities have been heavily and aggressively involved in the promotion of gas fired DG because for them it is additional load that may also balance the winter load. With deregulation and restructuring of the electricity industry DG is now viewed in a different light. For those utilities that have sold their generation assets DG can be a new retail service to provide to their customers. For those who are still vertically integrated, DG can be an asset management tool at the distribution level. DG can be utilized to defer capital investments involving line and substation upgrades. Coupled to this new interest in DG technologies and their performance characteristics are the associated interests in implementation issues. These range from the codes and standards requirements and hardware for interfacing to the grid as well as C{sup 3}-I (command, control, communication--intelligence) issues. The latter involves dispatching on-grid or customer sited resources, monitoring their performance and tracking the economic transactions. Another important aspect is the impact of DG resources (size, number and location) on service area dynamic behavior (power quality, reliability, stability, etc.). EPRI has ongoing programs addressing all these aspects of DG and the distribution grid. Since fuel cells can be viewed as electrochemical engines, and as with thermomechanical engines, there doesn't have to be a best fuel cell. Each engine can serve many markets and some will be better suited than others in a specific market segment (e.g. spark ignition in cars and turbines in planes). This paper will address the status of developing fuel cell technologies and their application to various market areas within the context of Distributed Generation.

  15. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated toolkit consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  16. BUILDOUT AND UPGRADE OF CENTRAL EMERGENCY GENERATOR SYSTEM, GENERATOR 3 AND 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Seifert; G. Shawn West; Kurt S. Myers; Jim Moncur

    2006-07-01

    SECTION 01000—SUMMARY OF WORK PART 1—GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY The work to be performed under this project consists of providing the labor, equipment, and materials to perform "Buildout and Upgrade of Central Emergency Generator System, Generator 3 and 4 Electrical Installation" for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Dryden Flight Research Center (NASA/DFRC), Edwards, California 93523. All modifications to existing substations and electrical distribution systems are the responsibility of the contractor. It is the contractor’s responsibility to supply a complete and functionally operational system. The work shall be performed in accordance with these specifications and the related drawings. The work of this project is defined by the plans and specifications contained and referenced herein. This work specifically includes but is not limited to the following: Scope of Work - Installation 1. Install all electrical wiring and controls for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing electrical installation for generators 1 and 2 and in accordance with drawings. Contractor shall provide as-built details for electrical installation. 2. Install battery charger systems for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing battery charging equipment and installation for generators 1 and 2. This may require exchange of some battery charger parts already on-hand. Supply power to new battery chargers from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. 3. Install electrical wiring for fuel/lube systems for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing installation for generators 1 and 2. Supply power to lube oil heaters and fuel system (day tanks) from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. Add any conduits necessary to

  17. Connecting to the Grid: A Guide to Distributed Generation Interconnection Issues, 6th Edition, 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This guide addresses issues relevant to all DG technologies, including net excess generation, third-party ownership, energy storage and networks

  18. System level modeling of thermoelectric generators for automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uses a model to predict and analyze the system-level performance of a thermoelectric generator in terms of the power output and the power density at the element, module and ...

  19. Next Generation (NextGen) Geospatial Information System (GIS) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Next Generation (NextGen) Geospatial Information System (GIS) Next Generation (NextGen) Geospatial Information System (GIS) July 12, 2013 - 12:17pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages environmental records from Cold War legacy sites spanning nearly 40 years. These records are a key LM asset and must be managed and maintained efficiently and effectively. There are over 16 different applications that support the databases containing

  20. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector August 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and

  1. Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur

    2010-12-14

    A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.

  2. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Palen Solar Electric Generating System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL Palen Solar Electric Generating System This page provides information on the Palen Solar Power Project, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Status Date: April 4, 2013 Project Overview Project Name: Palen Solar Electric Generating System Country: United States Location: Desert Center, California Owner(s): BrightSource Energy (100%) Technology: Power tower Turbine Capacity:

  3. The next generation of oxy-fuel boiler systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Gross, Alex; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Research in the area of oxy-fuel combustion which is being pioneered by Jupiter Oxygen Corporation combined with boiler research conducted by the USDOE/Albany Research Center has been applied to designing the next generation of oxy-fuel combustion systems. The new systems will enhance control of boiler systems during turn-down and improve response time while improving boiler efficiency. These next generation boiler systems produce a combustion product that has been shown to be well suited for integrated pollutant removal. These systems have the promise of reducing boiler foot-print and boiler construction costs. The modularity of the system opens the possibility of using this design for replacement of boilers for retrofit on existing systems.

  4. Single module pressurized fuel cell turbine generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, Raymond A.; Veyo, Stephen E.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.

    2001-01-01

    A pressurized fuel cell system (10), operates within a common pressure vessel (12) where the system contains fuel cells (22), a turbine (26) and a generator (98) where preferably, associated oxidant inlet valve (52), fuel inlet valve (56) and fuel cell exhaust valve (42) are outside the pressure vessel.

  5. Systems for Solar Fuels Generation Utilizing PV and Electrolysis Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Newark, Delaware) - JCAP Systems for Solar Fuels Generation Utilizing PV and Electrolysis Workshop (Newark, Delaware) Systems for Solar Fuels Generation Utilizing PV and Electrolysis Workshop (Newark, Delaware) Mon, Mar 7, 2016 11:30am 11:30 Tue, Mar 8, 2016 12:30pm 12:30 University of Delaware Newark, Delaware Frances Houle, "Solar Fuels Systems Research in the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis" March 6 80th Annual Conference of the DPG & DPG Spring Meeting

  6. Operation of Distributed Generation Under Stochastic Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-11-30

    We model the operating decisions of a commercial enterprisethatneeds to satisfy its periodic electricity demand with either on-sitedistributed generation (DG) or purchases from the wholesale market. Whilethe former option involves electricity generation at relatively high andpossibly stochastic costs from a set of capacity-constrained DGtechnologies, the latter implies unlimited open-market transactions atstochastic prices. A stochastic dynamic programme (SDP) is used to solvethe resulting optimisation problem. By solving the SDP with and withoutthe availability of DG units, the implied option values of the DG unitsare obtained.

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  8. System and method for key generation in security tokens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Philip G.; Humble, Travis S.; Paul, Nathanael R.; Pooser, Raphael C.; Prowell, Stacy J.

    2015-10-27

    Functional randomness in security tokens (FRIST) may achieve improved security in two-factor authentication hardware tokens by improving on the algorithms used to securely generate random data. A system and method in one embodiment according to the present invention may allow for security of a token based on storage cost and computational security. This approach may enable communication where security is no longer based solely on onetime pads (OTPs) generated from a single cryptographic function (e.g., SHA-256).

  9. System and method for key generation in security tokens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Philip G; Humble, Travis S; Paul, Nathanael R; Pooser, Raphael C; Prowell, Stacy J

    2015-11-05

    Functional randomness in security tokens (FRIST) may achieve improved security in two-factor authentication hardware tokens by improving on the algorithms used to securely generate random data. A system and method in one embodiment according to the present invention may allow for security of a token based on storage cost and computational security. This approach may enable communication where security is no longer based solely on onetime pads (OTPs) generated from a single cryptographic function (e.g., SHA-256).

  10. Elimination of direct current distribution systems from new generating stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jancauskas, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper advances the concept that it may be both possible and advantageous to eliminate the traditional direct current distribution system from a new generating station. The latest developments in uninterruptible power supply (UPS) technology are what have made this option technically feasible. A traditional dc distribution system will be compared to an ac distribution system supplied by a UPS to investigate the merits of the proposed approach.

  11. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Bearden, T.E.

    1990-10-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable US Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a DOE Alternative.'' The US Department of Transportation has special double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS INVOLVING CHEMICAL LOOPING COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan M. Salazar; Urmila M. Diwekar; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system using coal gasification is an important approach for future energy options. This work focuses on understading the system operation and optimizing it in the presence of uncertain operating conditions using ASPEN Plus and CAPE-OPEN compliant stochastic simulation and multiobjective optimization capabilities developed by Vishwamitra Research Institute. The feasible operating surface for the IGCC system is generated and deterministic multiobjective optimization is performed. Since the feasible operating space is highly non-convex, heuristics based techniques that do not require gradient information are used to generate the Pareto surface. Accurate CFD models are simultaneously developed for the gasifier and chemical looping combustion system to characterize and quantify the process uncertainty in the ASPEN model.

  13. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, D.A.

    1994-11-10

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan.

  14. Systems engineering approach towards performance monitoring of emergency diesel generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramli, Nurhayati Yong-kwan, Lee

    2014-02-12

    Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. In this study, systems engineering approach towards the performance monitoring of Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) is presented. Performance monitoring is part and parcel of predictive maintenance where the systems and components conditions can be detected before they result into failures. In an effort to identify the proposal for addressing performance monitoring, the EDG boundary has been defined. Based on the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) results and industry operating experiences, the most critical component is identified. This paper proposed a systems engineering concept development framework towards EDG performance monitoring. The expected output of this study is that the EDG reliability can be improved by the performance monitoring alternatives through the systems engineering concept development effort.

  15. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  16. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  17. Application of the DG-1199 methodology to the ESBWR and ABWR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Walton, Fotini

    2010-09-01

    Appendix A-5 of Draft Regulatory Guide DG-1199 'Alternative Radiological Source Term for Evaluating Design Basis Accidents at Nuclear Power Reactors' provides guidance - applicable to RADTRAD MSIV leakage models - for scaling containment aerosol concentration to the expected steam dome concentration in order to preserve the simplified use of the Accident Source Term (AST) in assessing containment performance under assumed design basis accident (DBA) conditions. In this study Economic and Safe Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) RADTRAD models are developed using the DG-1199, Appendix A-5 guidance. The models were run using RADTRAD v3.03. Low Population Zone (LPZ), control room (CR), and worst-case 2-hr Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) doses were calculated and compared to the relevant accident dose criteria in 10 CFR 50.67. For the ESBWR, the dose results were all lower than the MSIV leakage doses calculated by General Electric/Hitachi (GEH) in their licensing technical report. There are no comparable ABWR MSIV leakage doses, however, it should be noted that the ABWR doses are lower than the ESBWR doses. In addition, sensitivity cases were evaluated to ascertain the influence/importance of key input parameters/features of the models.

  18. Grid System Planning for Wind: Wind Generator Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Planning for Wind: Wind Generator Modeling - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste

  19. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The US Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent ma or changes in the US Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined.

  20. Photovoltaic generating systems in rural schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawand, T.A.; Campbell, J.

    1997-12-01

    During the period 1994-95, solar photovoltaic systems were installed at a number of schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina, by the Provincial electric utility, Ente Provincial de Energia del Neuquen. This was undertaken with funds provided by the Inter-American Development Bank. In all, there are 12 schools that have had photovoltaic generating systems installed. These generating systems are designed to provide electricity for the basic needs at the schools: primarily for lighting, and to operate small electrical appliances such as communication radios, televisions, VCR`s, AM/FM and short-wave radios. They do not provide enough energy to operate large consumption appliances such as washing machines, microwaves, refrigerators, power tools, etc. The program of provision of PV systems was supplemented with training on simple systems for cooking food or drying fruit, etc. These techniques are primarily intended for demonstration at the schools thus serving an educational role with the hope that they will be transmitted in time to the families of the students where the need is manifested the most.

  1. Tidal Energy System for On-Shore Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce, Allan J

    2012-06-26

    Addressing the urgent need to develop LCOE competitive renewable energy solutions for US energy security and to replace fossil-fuel generation with the associated benefits to environment impacts including a reduction in CO2 emissions, this Project focused on the advantages of using hydraulic energy transfer (HET) in large-scale Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems for harvesting off-shore tidal energy in US waters. A recent DOE resource assessment, identifies water power resources have a potential to meet 15% of the US electric supply by 2030, with MHK technologies being a major component. The work covered a TRL-4 laboratory proof-in-concept demonstration plus modeling of a 15MW full scale system based on an approach patented by NASA-JPL, in which submerged high-ratio gearboxes and electrical generators in conventional MHK turbine systems are replaced by a submerged hydraulic radial pump coupled to on-shore hydraulic motors driving a generator. The advantages are; first, the mean-time-between-failure (MTBF), or maintenance, can be extended from approximately 1 to 5 years and second, the range of tidal flow speeds which can be efficiently harvested can be extended beyond that of a conventional submerged generator. The approach uses scalable, commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, facilitating scale-up and commercialization. All the objectives of the Project have been successfully met (1) A TRL4 system was designed, constructed and tested. It simulates a tidal energy turbine, with a 2-m diameter blade in up to a 2.9 m/sec flow. The system consists of a drive motor assembly providing appropriate torque and RPM, attached to a radial piston pump. The pump circulates pressurized, environmentally-friendly, HEES hydraulic fluid in a closed loop to an axial piston motor which drives an electrical generator, with a resistive load. The performance of the components, subsystems and system were evaluated during simulated tidal cycles. The pump is contained in a tank for

  2. System and method for generating current by selective electron heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Boozer, Allen H.

    1984-01-01

    A system for the generation of toroidal current in a plasma which is prepared in a toroidal magnetic field. The system utilizes the injection of high-frequency waves into the plasma by means of waveguides. The wave frequency and polarization are chosen such that when the waveguides are tilted in a predetermined fashion, the wave energy is absorbed preferentially by electrons traveling in one toroidal direction. The absorption of energy in this manner produces a toroidal electric current even when the injected waves themselves do not have substantial toroidal momentum. This current can be continuously maintained at modest cost in power and may be used to confine the plasma. The system can operate efficiently on fusion grade tokamak plasmas.

  3. Industrial Use of Distributed Generation in Real-Time Energy and Ancillary Service Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, C.R.

    2001-10-24

    Industrial consumers of energy now have the opportunity to participate directly in electricity generation. This report seeks to give the reader (1) insights into the various types of generation services that distributed generation (DG) units could provide, (2) a mechanism to evaluate the economics of using DG, (3) an overview of the status of DG deployment in selected states, and (4) a summary of the communication technologies involved with DG and what testing activities are needed to encourage industrial application of DG. Section 1 provides details on electricity markets and the types of services that can be offered. Subsequent sections in the report address the technical requirements for participating in such markets, the economic decision process that an industrial energy user should go through in evaluating distributed generation, the status of current deployment efforts, and the requirements for test-bed or field demonstration projects.

  4. A Locational Analysis of Generation Benefits on Long Island, NewYork

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Juan; Cohen, Jesse; Edwards, Jennifer; Marnay, Chris

    2005-11-08

    Beginning in April of 2004, nine sites owned by Verizon began to participate in the Long Island Real Time Purchasing Pilot Project (LIRTP) as retail choice customers. LIRTP was designed to minimize electricity costs for retail customers who own on-site distributed generation (DG) units in the near-term, and to stabilize overall electricity costs in the long-term. The nine Verizon buildings have two types of DG units: gas turbines with an estimated generation cost of $156/MWh, and diesel units with an estimated cost of $120/MWh. Due to total site emission limits, the operable hours of the DG units are limited. To estimate the economic value of running on-site DG units, an analysis of the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) Locational Based Marginal Price (LBMP) data for Long Island was conducted, mainly covering the summer months from 2000 to 2004. Distributions of LBMP, relationship between LBMP and load, and estimates of profitable operating hours for the units were all analyzed. Since Long Island is a diverse and highly congested area, LBMP varies greatly. Looking at the data statistically offers a zone-wide viewpoint, while using spatial analysis shows the LBMP intrazonal differentiation. LBMP is currently used by NYISO for pricing in the 11 NY control zones. Because geographic information systems (GIS) visualize the distribution of a phenomenon over space, it clarifies where load and generation nodes are located, and where load reduction would be most valuable. This study is based on the assumption that the control zone areas do not fully represent the diversity of pricing, and that intrazonal pricing can be analyzed to determine where and when electricity conservation or injection into the network is most valuable.

  5. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM

  6. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  7. System and method for generating motion corrected tomographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gleason, Shaun S.; Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2012-05-01

    A method and related system for generating motion corrected tomographic images includes the steps of illuminating a region of interest (ROI) to be imaged being part of an unrestrained live subject and having at least three spaced apart optical markers thereon. Simultaneous images are acquired from a first and a second camera of the markers from different angles. Motion data comprising 3D position and orientation of the markers relative to an initial reference position is then calculated. Motion corrected tomographic data obtained from the ROI using the motion data is then obtained, where motion corrected tomographic images obtained therefrom.

  8. The OH rotational population and photodissociation of H{sub 2}O in DG Tauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, John S.; Najita, Joan R.

    2014-06-10

    We analyze the OH rotational emission in the Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared spectrum of the T Tauri star DG Tau. OH is observed in emission from upper level energies of 1900 K to 28,000 K. The rotational diagram cannot be fit with any single combination of temperature and column density and has slopes that correspond to excitation temperatures ranging from 200 K to 6000 K. The relative ?-doublet population within each rotational level is not equal, showing that the OH population is not in thermal equilibrium. The symmetric ?-doublet state is preferred in all rotational states, with an average of 0.5 for the population ratio of the anti-symmetric to symmetric state. We show that the population distribution of the high rotational lines and the ?-doublet ratio are consistent with the formation of OH following the photo-dissociation of H{sub 2}O by FUV photons in the second absorption band of water (?1150-1400 ), which includes Ly?. Other processes, OH formation from either photo-dissociation of water in the first absorption band (1450-1900 ) or the reaction O({sup 1} D) + H{sub 2}, or collisional excitation, cannot explain the observed emission in the high rotational states but could potentially contribute to the population of lower rotational levels. These results demonstrate that the photodissociation of water is active in DG Tau and support the idea that the hot rotational OH emission commonly observed in Classical T Tauri stars is due to the dissociation of H{sub 2}O by FUV radiation.

  9. High-temperature corrosion in power-generating systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    2002-05-22

    Several technologies are being developed to convert coal into clean fuel for use in power generation. From the standpoint of component materials in these technologies, the environments created by coal conversion and their interactions with materials are of interest. Coal is a complex and relatively dirty fuel that contains varying amounts of sulfur and a substantial fraction of noncombustible mineral constituents, commonly called ash. Corrosion of metallic and ceramic structural materials is a potential problem at elevated temperatures in the presence of complex gas environments and coal-derived solid/liquid deposits. This paper discusses the coal-fired systems currently under development, identifies several modes of corrosion degradation that occur in many of these systems, and suggests possible mechanisms of metal wastage. Available data on the performance of materials in some of the environments are highlighted, and the research needed to improve the corrosion resistance of various materials is presented.

  10. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2008-08-11

    This paper examines a California-based microgrid?s decision to invest in a distributed generation (DG) unit fuelled by natural gas. While the long-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity at a fixed retail rate from its utility. Using the real options approach, we find a natural gas generation cost threshold that triggers DG investment. Furthermore, the consideration of operational flexibility by the microgrid increases DG investment, while the option to disconnect from the utility is not attractive. By allowing the electricity price to be stochastic, we next determine an investment threshold boundary and find that high electricity price volatility relative to that of natural gas generation cost delays investment while simultaneously increasing the value of the investment. We conclude by using this result to find the implicit option value of the DG unit when two sources of uncertainty exist.

  11. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid UnderUncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-06-16

    This paper examines a California-based microgrid s decision to invest in a distributed generation (DG) unit that operates on natural gas. While the long-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity at a fixed retail rate from its utility. Using the real options approach, we find natural gas generating cost thresholds that trigger DG investment. Furthermore, the consideration of operational flexibility by the microgrid accelerates DG investment, while the option to disconnect entirely from the utility is not attractive. By allowing the electricity price to be stochastic, we next determine an investment threshold boundary and find that high electricity price volatility relative to that of natural gas generating cost delays investment while simultaneously increasing the value of the investment. We conclude by using this result to find the implicit option value of the DG unit.

  12. 3rd Generation SCR System Using Solid Ammonia Storage and Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rd Generation SCR System Using Solid Ammonia Storage and Direct Gas Dosing 3rd Generation SCR System Using Solid Ammonia Storage and Direct Gas Dosing SCR system provides direct ...

  13. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  14. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-07-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The strings of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.

  15. Capturing the benefits of distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, L.R.

    1999-11-01

    Existing and future distributed generation (DG) can provide significant benefits to customers, utilities and other service providers. For the customer, these benefits could include improved reliability, better power quality and lower costs. For the utility distribution company, these benefits could include deferral of costly distribution upgrades and local voltage support. For the region`s generation and transmission suppliers, DG can provide dependable capacity supply, relief from transmission constraints, and ancillary transmission services such as reactive supply and supplemental reserves. The promise of DG technologies is strong. The technical hurdles to capturing these benefits are being met with improved generators and with enhanced command, control, and communications technologies. However, institutional and regulatory hurdles to capturing these distributed generation benefits appear to be significant. Restructuring for retail access and the delamination of utilities into wires companies and generation companies may make it difficult to capture many of the multiple benefits of DG. Policy-makers should be aware of these factors and strive to craft policies and rules that give DG a fair change to deliver these strong benefits.

  16. Computer controlled MHD power consolidation and pulse generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.; Marcotte, K.; Donnelly, M.

    1990-01-01

    The major goal of this research project is to establish the feasibility of a power conversion technology which will permit the direct synthesis of computer programmable pulse power. Feasibility has been established in this project by demonstration of direct synthesis of commercial frequency power by means of computer control. The power input to the conversion system is assumed to be a Faraday connected MHD generator which may be viewed as a multi-terminal dc source and is simulated for the purpose of this demonstration by a set of dc power supplies. This consolidation/inversion (CI), process will be referred to subsequently as Pulse Amplitude Synthesis and Control (PASC). A secondary goal is to deliver a controller subsystem consisting of a computer, software, and computer interface board which can serve as one of the building blocks for a possible phase II prototype system. This report period work summarizes the accomplishments and covers the high points of the two year project. 6 refs., 41 figs.

  17. Evaluation of glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C. K.; Sims, C. A.; Christian, J. M.

    2015-06-05

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I-15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. In addition, reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground-based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impacts of the glare. Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by heliostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (potential for after-image) up to a distance of ~6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage. Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after-image at all ground-based monitoring locations outside of the site boundaries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed.

  18. Evaluation of glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ho, C. K.; Sims, C. A.; Christian, J. M.

    2015-06-05

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I-15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. In addition, reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground-based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impacts ofmore » the glare. Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by heliostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (potential for after-image) up to a distance of ~6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage. Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after-image at all ground-based monitoring locations outside of the site boundaries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed.« less

  19. SURVEY OF NOISE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS FOR ENGINE GENERATOR SETS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; ENGINES; NOISE POLLUTION ABATEMENT; POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT; ELECTRIC GENERATORS No abstract prepared....

  20. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Developing a low and high temperature dual thermoelectric generation waste heat recovery system for light-duty vehicles.

  1. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  2. Petroleum generation and migration in submarine hydrothermal systems; An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simoneit, B.R.T. )

    1990-03-01

    The conversion of organic matter to petroleum by hydrothermal activity is an easy process,occurring in nature in many types of environments. Geologically immature organic matter of mariner sediments is being altered by this process in Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California), Escanaba Trough and Middle Valley (northeast Pacific), Bransfield Strait (Antarctica), and Atlantis II and Kebrit Deeps (Red Sea). Contemporary organic detritus and viable microorganisms are also converted in part to petroleum-like products by the same process when present to become entrained, as for example on the East Pacific Rise at 13{degrees}N and 21{degrees}N and on the mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26{degrees}N. The hydrocarbon products (methane to asphalt) generated in all these areas have been elucidated in terms of composition, organic matter sources, and analogy to reservoir petroleum. This petroleum represents a major input of carbon to the primary chemosynthetic productivity of hydrothermal vent systems and may be important to interactions with metals in hydrothermal ore formation.

  3. Air-cooled Condensers in Next-generation Conversion Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to reduce the costs associated with the generation of electrical power from air-cooled binary plants.

  4. Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) AgencyCompany Organization: Latin American Energy Organization Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Hydro...

  5. Grid System Planning for Wind: Wind Generator Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Models for Integrating EnergyWater Facilities Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate ... of the four types of wind turbine generators, the various modules that are ...

  6. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McHenry, Mark P.; Johnson, Jay; Hightower, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG) exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the networkmore » characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.« less

  7. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  8. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  9. Forecasting Wind and Solar Generation: Improving System Operations, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian; Tian; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    This document discusses improving system operations with forecasting and solar generation. By integrating variable renewable energy (VRE) forecasts into system operations, power system operators can anticipate up- and down-ramps in VRE generation in order to cost-effectively balance load and generation in intra-day and day-ahead scheduling. This leads to reduced fuel costs, improved system reliability, and maximum use of renewable resources.

  10. Discontinuous Galerkin for Stiff Hyperbolic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrie, R.B.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-06-27

    A Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is applied to hyperbolic systems that contain stiff relaxation terms. We demonstrate that when the relaxation time is under-resolved, DG is accurate in the sense that the method accurately represents the system's Chapman-Enskog (or ''diffusion'') approximation. Moreover, we demonstrate that a high-resolution, finite-volume method using the same time-integration method as DG is very inaccurate in the diffusion limit. Results for DG are presented for the hyperbolic heat equation, the Broadwell model of gas kinetics, and coupled radiation-hydrodynamics.

  11. Seismic wave generation systems and methods for cased wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minto, James; Sorrells, Martin H; Owen, Thomas E.; Schroeder, Edgar C.

    2011-03-29

    A vibration source (10) includes an armature bar (12) having a major length dimension, and a driver (20A) positioned about the armature bar. The driver (20A) is movably coupled to the armature bar (12), and includes an electromagnet (40). During operation the electromagnet (40) is activated such that the driver (20A) moves with respect to the armature bar (12) and a vibratory signal is generated in the armature bar. A described method for generating a vibratory signal in an object includes positioning the vibration source (10) in an opening of the object, coupling the armature bar (12) to a surface of the object within the opening, and activating the electromagnet (40) of the driver (20A) such that the driver moves with respect to the armature bar (12) and a vibratory signal is generated in the armature bar and the object.

  12. Real-time monitoring during transportation of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) using the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system (RTGTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) that will be used to support the Cassini mission will be transported in the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS). To ensure that the RTGs will not be affected during transportation, all parameters that could adversely affect RTG{close_quote}s performance must be monitored. The Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS) for the RTGTS displays, monitors, and records all critical packaging and trailer system parameters. The IDAS also monitors the package temperature control system, RTG package shock and vibration data, and diesel fuel levels for the diesel fuel tanks. The IDAS alarms if any of these parameters reach an out-of-limit condition. This paper discusses the real-time monitoring during transportation of the Cassini RTGs using the RTGTS IDAS. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Real-time monitoring during transportation of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) using the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system (RTGTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, Barry K.

    1997-01-10

    The Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) that will be used to support the Cassini mission will be transported in the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS). To ensure that the RTGs will not be affected during transportation, all parameters that could adversely affect RTG's performance must be monitored. The Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS) for the RTGTS displays, monitors, and records all critical packaging and trailer system parameters. The IDAS also monitors the package temperature control system, RTG package shock and vibration data, and diesel fuel levels for the diesel fuel tanks. The IDAS alarms if any of these parameters reach an out-of-limit condition. This paper discusses the real-time monitoring during transportation of the Cassini RTGs using the RTGTS IDAS.

  14. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mead, Judith W.; Montoya, Orelio J.; Rand, Peter B.; Willan, Vernon O.

    1984-01-01

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO.sub.2 in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  15. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  16. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc. | Department of Energy Amonix, Inc. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. A series of brief fact sheet on various topics including:Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation,High Efficiency Concentrating Photovoltaic Power System,Reaching Grid Parity Using BP Solar Crystalline Silicon Technology, Fully Integrated Building Science Solutions for Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Energy Generation,A Value Chain

  17. Distributed Generation Study/615 kW Waukesha Packaged System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PHE-Type SL140-TM-EE-190, Sondex PHE-Type SL140-TM-EE-150, Cain UTR1-810A17.5SSP Fuel Natural Gas System Installer GTI System Enclosure Outdoor System Application Combined Heat...

  18. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  19. EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Development of the Next Generation Grid Operating System (Energy Management System)- October 17, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Development of the Next Generation Grid Operating System, approved at the October 15-16, 2012 EAC Meeting.

  20. New generation Arctic Drilling System: Overview of first year's performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loh, J.K.S.; Cusack, K.P.; Stamberg, J.C.

    1984-05-01

    This paper is a follow-up to OTC 4481: - Kulluk - An Arctic Exploratory Drilling Unit, presented at the 1983 OTC. A comparison between the original design basis of the rig and the first year's operational results is presented. The items compared are the towing performance, mooring system performance, the hull structure, and the drilling system. The towing and mooring system comparisons cover both open water and ice conditions. Ice management by icebreakers and logistics problems are reviewed.

  1. Plasma generators, reactor systems and related methods - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and associated systems and methods are provided in accordance with the present invention. A plasma reactor may include multiple sections or modules which are removably...

  2. Report A-94 T" PRODUCTION OF DgO FOR USE IN THE FISSION OP URANIUM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    v_^ ' / * Report A-94 T" PRODUCTION OF DgO FOR USE IN THE FISSION OP URANIUM Report by Herold G. Urey, Arlstld V. Grosse, and George Walden, June 23, 1941 LEGAL N O T I C E This report was prepared as an account of Government sponsored work. Neither the United States, nor the Commission, nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission: A . Makes any warranty or representation, express or implied, with respect to the a c - curacy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained in

  3. Next Generation Power Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind energy Product: NextGen is a full-service company that provides site analysis, maintenance, and installation services for small-scale wind turbines and PV systems....

  4. System level modeling of thermoelectric generators for automotive

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    System for Award Management (SAM) ChallengeHER Opportunities for Women in Federal Contracting May 23, 2013 Judith R. Zawatsky General Services Administration You are here today because you want to: a) Get a contract with the federal government b) Get a grant from the federal government c) Increase the work you are already doing with the federal government d) Learn new acronyms WHERE DO YOU START? www.sam.gov WHAT IS SAM? The System for Award Management (SAM) is the Official U.S. Government

  5. Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G

    2014-12-02

    A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  6. Laying the Groundwork: Lessons Learned from the Telecommunications Industry for Distributed Generation; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, A. L.

    2008-05-01

    The telecommunications industry went through growing pains in the past that hold some interesting lessons for the growing distributed generation (DG) industry. The technology shifts and stakeholders involved with the historic market transformation of the telecommunications sector mirror similar factors involved in distributed generation today. An examination of these factors may inform best practices when approaching the conduits necessary to accelerate the shifting of our nation's energy system to cleaner forms of generation and use. From a technical perspective, the telecom industry in the 1990s saw a shift from highly centralized systems that had no capacity for adaptation to highly adaptive, distributed network systems. From a management perspective, the industry shifted from small, private-company structures to big, capital-intensive corporations. This presentation will explore potential correlation and outline the lessons that we can take away from this comparison.

  7. Demonstration of Next Generation PEM CHP Systems for Global Markets Using

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PBI Membrane Technology | Department of Energy Demonstration of Next Generation PEM CHP Systems for Global Markets Using PBI Membrane Technology Demonstration of Next Generation PEM CHP Systems for Global Markets Using PBI Membrane Technology Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 7a_plugpwr.pdf (22.69 KB) More Documents & Publications International Stationary Fuel Cell Demonstration Intergovernmental Stationary Fuel Cell System

  8. Pulsed magnetohydrodynamic generator with a superconducting magnetic system. [Translated from Russian

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirillin, V.A.; Sheyndlin, A.Ye.; Asinovskiy, E.I.; Sychev, V.V.; Zenkevich, V.B.

    1985-11-08

    An urgent need for creating independent sources of electric power capable of generating a power of tens or hundreds of megawatts in a few milliseconds has now emerged. A pulsed MHD generator, in which the conversion of mechanical energy of explosion products into electrical energy is accomplished, can serve as such a power source. There are published reports on testing of such MHD generators with ordinary magnetic systems. It seemed advisable to study the operation of a pulsed generator with a superconductive magnetic system in the overall plan of research on the creation of magnetohydrodynamic generators. The creation of a pulsed MHD generator with a superconductive magnetic system would make it possible to improve substantially the operational indicators of the installation and to ensure its continuous operation, regardless of the presence of additional power sources for feeding the magnet. The problem of creating an optimum generator and a magnetic system with the maximum acceptable field intensity was not raised in the first stage. The purpose of the work was to investigate the set of questions which arise in the joint use of a pulsed MHD generator and a superconductive magnetic system.

  9. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D

    2014-10-14

    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  10. Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cresap, Richard L.; Taylor, Carson W.; Kreipe, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

  11. Work plan for the fabrication of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system package mounting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoh, J.A.

    1994-11-09

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) has available a dedicated system for the transportation of RTG payloads. The RTG Transportation System (System 100) is comprised of four systems; the Package (System 120), the Semi-trailer (System 140), the Gas Management (System 160), and the Facility Transport (System 180). This document provides guidelines on the fabrication, technical requirements, and quality assurance of the Package Mounting (Subsystem 145), part of System 140. The description follows the Development Control Requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, EP 2.4, Rev. 3.

  12. Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Economics and Performance Analysis Tri-Generation Success Story: World's First Tri-Gen Energy Station-Fountain Valley Expanding the Use of Biogas with Fuel Cell Technologies

  13. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  14. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

    1994-05-03

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  15. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, Daniel J.; Schrader, Kenneth J.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  16. DG Demonet Smart LV Grid (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grid Projects Smart Grid Projects in Europe Smart Grid Projects - Integrated System Smart Grid Projects - Grid Automation Distribution Smart Grid Projects - Smart Meter and AMI...

  17. Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Flexibility of traditional generators plays an important role in accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty of wind and solar on the electric power system. Increased flexibility can be achieved with changes to operational practices or upgrades to existing generation. One challenge is in understanding the value of increasing flexibility, and how this value may change given higher levels of variable generation. This study uses a commercial production cost model to measure the impact of generator flexibility on the integration of wind and solar generators. We use a system that is based on two balancing areas in the Western United States with a range of wind and solar penetrations between 15% and 60%, where instantaneous penetration of wind and solar is limited to 80%.

  18. Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palchak, D.; Denholm, P.

    2014-07-01

    Flexibility of traditional generators plays an important role in accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty of wind and solar on the electric power system. Increased flexibility can be achieved with changes to operational practices or upgrades to existing generation. One challenge is in understanding the value of increasing flexibility, and how this value may change given higher levels of variable generation. This study uses a commercial production cost model to measure the impact of generator flexibility on the integration of wind and solar generators. We use a system that is based on two balancing areas in the Western United States with a range of wind and solar penetrations between 15% and 60%, where instantaneous penetration of wind and solar is limited to 80%.

  19. Development and commercialization of a biomass gasification/power generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Farris, G.

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been a leader in the promotion and development of alternative fuel supplies based on renewable energy crops. One promising power generation technology is biomass gasification coupled with either a gas turbine in a combined cycle system or a fuel cell. The gasification of biomass can efficiently and economically produce a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in these high efficiency power systems or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development and commercialization of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for gas turbine based power generation systems. Projected process economics for a gas turbine combined cycle plant are presented along with a description of integrated system operation coupling a 200kW gas turbine power generation system to a 10 ton per day gasifier, and current commercialization activities.

  20. Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING SUPPRESSOR CONCENTRATION IN THE MCU NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT (NGS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Diprete, D.; Milliken, C.

    2013-07-31

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with identifying and developing at least one, but preferably two methods for quantifying the suppressor in the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) system. The suppressor is a guanidine derivative, N,N',N"-tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). A list of 10 possible methods was generated, and screening experiments were performed for 8 of the 10 methods. After completion of the screening experiments, the non-aqueous acid-base titration was determined to be the most promising, and was selected for further development as the primary method. {sup 1}H NMR also showed promising results from the screening experiments, and this method was selected for further development as the secondary method. Other methods, including {sup 36}Cl radiocounting and ion chromatography, also showed promise; however, due to the similarity to the primary method (titration) and the inability to differentiate between TiDG and TOA (tri-n-ocytlamine) in the blended solvent, {sup 1}H NMR was selected over these methods. Analysis of radioactive samples obtained from real waste ESS (extraction, scrub, strip) testing using the titration method showed good results. Based on these results, the titration method was selected as the method of choice for TiDG measurement. {sup 1}H NMR has been selected as the secondary (back-up) method, and additional work is planned to further develop this method and to verify the method using radioactive samples. Procedures for analyzing radioactive samples of both pure NGS and blended solvent were developed and issued for the both methods.

  2. The second generation of electronic diesel fuel injection systems - Investigation with a rotary pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, K.; Oshizawa, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes concepts of the next generation of electronic diesel fuel injection (EDFI) systems, and the test results of the prototype, named ''Model-1.'' Important characteristics of the next generation of EDFI will be; mechanical simplicity, direct control and pump intelligence. Direct spill control using a high speed solenoid valve for injection regulation and pump mounted electronic circuits were used in the ''Model-1'' system. The test results demonstrate the advantages of this system, and suggest possibilities of new function such as individual cylinder control, pilot injection and multi fuel usage.

  3. Computational Research Challenges and Opportunities for the Optimization of Fossil Energy Power Generation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-06-01

    Emerging fossil energy power generation systems must operate with unprecedented efficiency and near-zero emissions, while optimizing profitably amid cost fluctuations for raw materials, finished products, and energy. To help address these challenges, the fossil energy industry will have to rely increasingly on the use advanced computational tools for modeling and simulating complex process systems. In this paper, we present the computational research challenges and opportunities for the optimization of fossil energy power generation systems across the plant lifecycle from process synthesis and design to plant operations. We also look beyond the plant gates to discuss research challenges and opportunities for enterprise-wide optimization, including planning, scheduling, and supply chain technologies.

  4. Capacity Value of PV and Wind Generation in the NV Energy System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Diao, Ruisheng; Samaan, Nader A.; Etingov, Pavel V.

    2014-03-21

    Calculation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power capacity values is important for estimating additional load that can be served by new PV or wind installations in the electrical power system. It also is the basis for assigning capacity credit payments in systems with markets. Because of variability in solar and wind resources, PV and wind generation contribute to power system resource adequacy differently from conventional generation. Many different approaches to calculating PV and wind generation capacity values have been used by utilities and transmission operators. Using the NV Energy system as a study case, this report applies peak-period capacity factor (PPCF) and effective load carrying capability (ELCC) methods to calculate capacity values for renewable energy sources. We show the connection between the PPCF and ELCC methods in the process of deriving a simplified approach that approximates the ELCC method. This simplified approach does not require generation fleet data and provides the theoretical basis for a quick check on capacity value results of PV and wind generation. The diminishing return of capacity benefit as renewable generation increases is conveniently explained using the simplified capacity value approach.

  5. Processing large sensor data sets for safeguards : the knowledge generation system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Maikel A.; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Matthews, Robert F.

    2012-04-01

    Modern nuclear facilities, such as reprocessing plants, present inspectors with significant challenges due in part to the sheer amount of equipment that must be safeguarded. The Sandia-developed and patented Knowledge Generation system was designed to automatically analyze large amounts of safeguards data to identify anomalous events of interest by comparing sensor readings with those expected from a process of interest and operator declarations. This paper describes a demonstration of the Knowledge Generation system using simulated accountability tank sensor data to represent part of a reprocessing plant. The demonstration indicated that Knowledge Generation has the potential to address several problems critical to the future of safeguards. It could be extended to facilitate remote inspections and trigger random inspections. Knowledge Generation could analyze data to establish trust hierarchies, to facilitate safeguards use of operator-owned sensors.

  6. Laser system design for the generation of a sodium-layer laser guide star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    The design considerations for a laser system used to generate a sodium-layer guide star are presented. Laser technology developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program is shown to be directly relevant to this problem and results of a demonstration using the AVLIS laser to generate such a guide star are shown. The design of a compact laser suitable for use at a large telescope such as the Keck is also presented.

  7. Proposed guidelines for reporting performance of a solar dish/Stirling electric generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stine, W.B.; Powell, M.A.

    1992-12-31

    Experimental performance data from dish/Stirling system testing can be analyzed to generate a system performance model. An approach to developing an experimentally based performance model of a dish/Stirling system is given. Two methods for analyzing the experimental data are described. To provide information that will permit comparison of dish/Stirling systems, it is necessary to define many of the details involved in calculating system performance data such as the net system output and system solar-to-electric efficiency. This paper describes a set of guidelines for these calculations, based on past experience, especially with the Vanguard dish/Stirling system. Also presented are a set of rating conditions at which a maximum value for system efficiency can be calculated. Comparison between systems of their rated peak solar-to-electric efficiency is made possible when these rating conditions are in common use by manufacturers and testing agencies.

  8. Generation-based memory synchronization in a multiprocessor system with weakly consistent memory accesses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-09

    In a multiprocessor system, a central memory synchronization module coordinates memory synchronization requests responsive to memory access requests in flight, a generation counter, and a reclaim pointer. The central module communicates via point-to-point communication. The module includes a global OR reduce tree for each memory access requesting device, for detecting memory access requests in flight. An interface unit is implemented associated with each processor requesting synchronization. The interface unit includes multiple generation completion detectors. The generation count and reclaim pointer do not pass one another.

  9. Comparative health and safety assessment of alternative future electrical-generation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The report is an analysis of health and safety risks of seven alternative electrical generation systems, all of which have potential for commercial availability in the post-2000 timeframe. The systems are compared on the basis of expected public and occupational deaths and lost workdays per year associated with 1000 MWe average unit generation. Risks and their uncertainties are estimated for all phases of the energy production cycle, including fuel and raw material extraction and processing, direct and indirect component manufacture, on-site construction, and system operation and maintenance. Also discussed is the potential significance of related major health and safety issues that remain largely unquantifiable. The technologies include: the SPS; a low-Btu coal gasification system with an open-cycle gas turbine combined with a steam topping cycle (CG/CC); a light water fission reactor system without fuel reprocessing (LWR); a liquid metal fast breeder fission reactor system (LMFBR); a central station terrestrial photovoltaic system (CTPV); and a first generation fusion system with magnetic confinement. For comparison with the baseload technologies, risk from a decentralized roof-top photovoltaic system with 6 kWe peak capacity and battery storage (DTPV) was also evaluated.

  10. Evolution of reaction center mimics to systems capable of generating solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel Evolution of reaction center mimics to systems capable of generating solar fuel Authors: Sherman, B.D., Vaughn, M.D., Bergkamp, J.J., Gust, D., Moore, A.L., Moore, T.A. Title: Evolution of reaction center mimics to systems capable of generating solar fuel Source: Photosynthesis Research Year: 2014 Volume: 120 (1-2) Pages: 59-70 ABSTRACT: Capturing and converting solar energy via artificial photosynthesis offers an ideal way to limit society's dependence on fossil fuel and its myriad

  11. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, R.; Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Kalenchuk, D.

    2004-10-06

    Enhanced proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) is one of the technology goals for advanced nuclear concepts, such as Generation IV systems. Under the auspices of the Generation IV International Forum, the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology of the U.S. DOE, the Office of Nonproliferation Policy of the National Nuclear Security Administration, and participating organizations from six other countries are sponsoring an international working group to develop an evaluation methodology for PR&PP. This methodology will permit an objective PR&PP comparison between alternative nuclear systems (e.g., different reactor types or fuel cycles) and support design optimization to enhance robustness against proliferation, theft and sabotage. The paper summarizes the proposed assessment methodology including the assessment framework, measures used to express the PR&PP characteristics of the system, threat definition, system element and target identification, pathway identification and analysis, and estimation of the measures.

  13. Extending and automating a Systems-Theoretic hazard analysis for requirements generation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John

    2012-05-01

    Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) is a powerful new hazard analysis method designed to go beyond traditional safety techniques - such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) - that overlook important causes of accidents like flawed requirements, dysfunctional component interactions, and software errors. While proving to be very effective on real systems, no formal structure has been defined for STPA and its application has been ad-hoc with no rigorous procedures or model-based design tools. This report defines a formal mathematical structure underlying STPA and describes a procedure for systematically performing an STPA analysis based on that structure. A method for using the results of the hazard analysis to generate formal safety-critical, model-based system and software requirements is also presented. Techniques to automate both the analysis and the requirements generation are introduced, as well as a method to detect conflicts between the safety and other functional model-based requirements during early development of the system.

  14. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-08-11

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  15. Progress towards an Optimization Methodology for Combustion-Driven Portable Thermoelectric Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Shankar; Karri, Naveen K.; Gogna, Pawan K.; Chase, Jordan R.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Hendricks, Terry J.

    2012-03-13

    Enormous military and commercial interests exist in developing quiet, lightweight, and compact thermoelectric (TE) power generation systems. This paper investigates design integration and analysis of an advanced TE power generation system implementing JP-8 fueled combustion and thermal recuperation. Design and development of a portable TE power system using a JP-8 combustor as a high temperature heat source and optimal process flows depend on efficient heat generation, transfer, and recovery within the system are explored. Design optimization of the system required considering the combustion system efficiency and TE conversion efficiency simultaneously. The combustor performance and TE sub-system performance were coupled directly through exhaust temperatures, fuel and air mass flow rates, heat exchanger performance, subsequent hot-side temperatures, and cold-side cooling techniques and temperatures. Systematic investigation of this system relied on accurate thermodynamic modeling of complex, high-temperature combustion processes concomitantly with detailed thermoelectric converter thermal/mechanical modeling. To this end, this work reports on design integration of systemlevel process flow simulations using commercial software CHEMCADTM with in-house thermoelectric converter and module optimization, and heat exchanger analyses using COMSOLTM software. High-performance, high-temperature TE materials and segmented TE element designs are incorporated in coupled design analyses to achieve predicted TE subsystem level conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%. These TE advances are integrated with a high performance microtechnology combustion reactor based on recent advances at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Predictions from this coupled simulation established a basis for optimal selection of fuel and air flow rates, thermoelectric module design and operating conditions, and microtechnology heat-exchanger design criteria. This paper will discuss this

  16. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratapas, John; Zelepouga, Serguei; Gnatenko, Vitaliy; Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas; Li, Hailin; Getz, Timothy; Mather, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  17. February 16 PSERC Webinar: Protection and Control of Systems with Converter Interfaced Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE-funded Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC) is offering a free public webinar presenting the challenges of the protection of converter interfaced generation and associate circuits and components. The webinar will discuss these issues, and present the Estimation Based Protection (EBP) method, the integration of the method with the inverter controls and supplementary controls for the purpose of increasing the reliability of these systems.

  18. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban region with system dynamics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyson, Brian; Chang, N.-B. . E-mail: nchang@even.tamuk.edu

    2005-07-01

    Both planning and design of municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. Yet achieving the anticipated prediction accuracy with regard to the generation trends facing many fast-growing regions is quite challenging. The lack of complete historical records of solid waste quantity and quality due to insufficient budget and unavailable management capacity has resulted in a situation that makes the long-term system planning and/or short-term expansion programs intangible. To effectively handle these problems based on limited data samples, a new analytical approach capable of addressing socioeconomic and environmental situations must be developed and applied for fulfilling the prediction analysis of solid waste generation with reasonable accuracy. This study presents a new approach - system dynamics modeling - for the prediction of solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban area based on a set of limited samples. To address the impact on sustainable development city wide, the practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the city of San Antonio, Texas (USA). This area is becoming one of the fastest-growing regions in North America due to the economic impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The analysis presents various trends of solid waste generation associated with five different solid waste generation models using a system dynamics simulation tool - Stella[reg]. Research findings clearly indicate that such a new forecasting approach may cover a variety of possible causative models and track inevitable uncertainties down when traditional statistical least-squares regression methods are unable to handle such issues.

  19. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Structures, Systems, and Components Safety Classification White Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pete Jordan

    2010-09-01

    This white paper outlines the relevant regulatory policy and guidance for a risk-informed approach for establishing the safety classification of Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and sets forth certain facts for review and discussion in order facilitate an effective submittal leading to an NGNP Combined Operating License application under 10 CFR 52.

  20. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  1. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Ventera VT10 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  2. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions- Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions, given by John Pendray of Cummins Power Generation, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

  3. Recent Trends in Variable Generation Forecasting and Its Value to the Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orwig, Kirsten D.; Ahlstrom, Mark L.; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Sharp, Justin; Wilczak, James M.; Freedman, Jeffrey; Haupt, Sue Ellen; Cline, Joel; Bartholomy, Obadiah; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Finley, Catherine; Nakafuji, Dora; Peterson, Jack L.; Maggio, David; Marquis, Melinda

    2014-12-23

    We report that the rapid deployment of wind and solar energy generation systems has resulted in a need to better understand, predict, and manage variable generation. The uncertainty around wind and solar power forecasts is still viewed by the power industry as being quite high, and many barriers to forecast adoption by power system operators still remain. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored, in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, public, private, and academic organizations, two projects to advance wind and solar power forecasts. Additionally, several utilities and grid operators have recognized the value of adopting variable generation forecasting and have taken great strides to enhance their usage of forecasting. In parallel, power system markets and operations are evolving to integrate greater amounts of variable generation. This paper will discuss the recent trends in wind and solar power forecasting technologies in the U.S., the role of forecasting in an evolving power system framework, and the benefits to intended forecast users.

  4. Recent Trends in Variable Generation Forecasting and Its Value to the Power System

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Orwig, Kirsten D.; Ahlstrom, Mark L.; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Sharp, Justin; Wilczak, James M.; Freedman, Jeffrey; Haupt, Sue Ellen; Cline, Joel; Bartholomy, Obadiah; Hamann, Hendrik F.; et al

    2014-12-23

    We report that the rapid deployment of wind and solar energy generation systems has resulted in a need to better understand, predict, and manage variable generation. The uncertainty around wind and solar power forecasts is still viewed by the power industry as being quite high, and many barriers to forecast adoption by power system operators still remain. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored, in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, public, private, and academic organizations, two projects to advance wind and solar power forecasts. Additionally, several utilities and grid operators have recognized the value ofmore » adopting variable generation forecasting and have taken great strides to enhance their usage of forecasting. In parallel, power system markets and operations are evolving to integrate greater amounts of variable generation. This paper will discuss the recent trends in wind and solar power forecasting technologies in the U.S., the role of forecasting in an evolving power system framework, and the benefits to intended forecast users.« less

  5. Process for generating electricity in a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kasper, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for generating electricity using a gas turbine as part of a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system wherein coal is fed as a fuel in a slurry in which other constituents, including a sulfur sorbent such as limestone, are added. The coal is combusted with air in a pressurized combustion chamber wherein most of the residual sulfur in the coal is captured by the sulfur sorbent. After particulates are removed from the flue gas, the gas expands in a turbine, thereby generating electric power. The spent flue gas is cooled by heat exchange with system combustion air and/or system liquid streams, and the condensate is returned to the feed slurry.

  6. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a nuclear power electrical generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance a of nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs.

  7. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan Fiscal Year 2005, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-03-01

    As reflected in the U.S. ''National Energy Policy'', nuclear energy has a strong role to play in satisfying our nation's future energy security and environmental quality needs. The desirable environmental, economic, and sustainability attributes of nuclear energy give it a cornerstone position, not only in the U.S. energy portfolio, but also in the world's future energy portfolio. Accordingly, on September 20, 2002, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced that, ''The United States and nine other countries have agreed to develop six Generation IV nuclear energy concepts''. The Secretary also noted that the systems are expected to ''represent significant advances in economics, safety, reliability, proliferation resistance, and waste minimization''. The six systems and their broad, worldwide research and development (R&D) needs are described in ''A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'' (hereafter referred to as the Generation IV Roadmap). The first 10 years of required U.S. R&D contributions to achieve the goals described in the Generation IV Roadmap are outlined in this Program Plan.

  8. Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  9. Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Lisic, Edward C.; Mirzadeh, Saed; Callahan, Alvin P.

    1994-01-01

    A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form.

  10. Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Lisic, E.C.; Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.

    1994-01-04

    A generator system has been invented for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form. 1 figure.

  11. Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Lisic, Edward C.; Mirzadeh, Saed; Callahan, Alvin P.

    1993-01-01

    A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form.

  12. Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Lisic, E.C.; Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.

    1993-02-16

    A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form.

  13. System and method for determining an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Min; Perry, Kevin L; Kim, Chang H

    2014-12-30

    A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a rate determination module, a storage level determination module, and an air/fuel ratio control module. The rate determination module determines an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst based on a reaction efficiency and a reactant level. The storage level determination module determines an ammonia storage level in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned downstream from the three-way catalyst based on the ammonia generation rate. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the ammonia storage level.

  14. Heat Transfer and Thermophotovoltaic Power Generation in Oil-fired Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Hammonds, J.S.; Horne, E.; Kamath, B.; Carpenter, J.; Woods, D.R.

    2010-10-21

    The focus of this study is the production of electric power in an oil-fired, residential heatingsystem using thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion devices. This work uses experimental, computational, and analytical methods to investigate thermal mechanisms that drive electric power production in the TPV systems. An objective of this work is to produce results that will lead to the development of systems that generate enough electricity such that the boiler is self-powering. An important design constraint employed in this investigation is the use of conventional, yellow-flame oil burners, integrated with a typical boiler. The power production target for the systems developed here is 100 W - the power requirement for a boiler that uses low-power auxiliary components. The important heattransfer coupling mechanisms that drive power production in the systems studied are discussed. The results of this work may lead to the development of systems that export power to the home electric system.

  15. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; George, R.A.

    1999-07-27

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

  16. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar; George, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

  17. CALCULATION OF DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM MELTER INLEAKAGE AND OFF-GAS GENERATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAY TH

    2008-04-16

    The River Protection Project (RPP) mission is to safely store, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is a research and development project whose objective is to demonstrate the suitability of Bulk Vitrification treatment technology waste form for disposing of low-activity waste from the Tank Farms. The objective of this calculation is to determine the DBVS melter inleakage and off-gas generation rate based on full scale testing data from 38D. This calculation estimates the DBVS melter in leakage and gas generation rate based on test data. Inleakage is estimated before the melt was initiated, at one point during the melt, and at the end of the melt. Maximum gas generation rate is also estimated.

  18. Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat; Barnes, Gary R.; Gadre, Aniruddha D.; Jansen, Patrick L.; Bouchard, Jr., Charles G.; Jarczynski, Emil D.; Garg, Jivtesh

    2008-09-23

    A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

  19. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 3. Generator routines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrichs, D.R.; Argo, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for utilization by the hydraulic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the third of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  20. Regulatory Concerns on the In-Containment Water Storage System of the Korean Next Generation Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Lee, Jae-Hun; Bang, Young-Seok; Kim, Hho-Jung

    2002-07-15

    The in-containment water storage system (IWSS) is a newly adopted system in the design of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). It consists of the in-containment refueling water storage tank, holdup volume tank, and cavity flooding system (CFS). The IWSS has the function of steam condensation and heat sink for the steam release from the pressurizer and provides cooling water to the safety injection system and containment spray system in an accident condition and to the CFS in a severe accident condition. With the progress of the KNGR design, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has been developing Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidances for safety review of the KNGR. In this paper, regarding the IWSS of the KNGR, the major contents of the General Safety Criteria, Specific Safety Requirements, Safety Regulatory Guides, and Safety Review Procedures were introduced, and the safety review items that have to be reviewed in-depth from the regulatory viewpoint were also identified.

  1. TRIFID (TRansuranic Isotopic Fraction Interrogation Device): A second generation plutonium isotopic analysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleissner, J G; Coressel, T W; Freier, D A; Macklin, L L

    1989-01-01

    The TRIFID (Transuranic Isotopic Fraction Interrogation Device) system is a second generation plutonium isotopic analysis system which incorporates many new and unique features in the area of isotopic data acquisition and isotopic analysis instrument consisting of a Canberra Series 95-MCA interfaced to a Compaq 386 computer. The entire TRIFID software package, including MCA communications and isotopic analysis routines, was developed using the C programming language. Extensive use has been made of user friendly screens and menus for ease of operation and training and to facilitate use by technical level operators. Automated TRIFID features provide for MCA/ADC setup and acquisition, spectral storage, isotopic analysis, and report generation. One unique feature of the TRIFID system design allows it to be pre-programed for an entire day's counting. The isotopic analysis module (EPICS) contains an expert system formalism which is used to detect and assay for spectral interferences, and to automatically adjust peak fitting constraints based on spectral intensity variations. A TRIFID system has been in operation in a production laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant since September 1988. Marked decreases in training and hands-on operation time have been achieved in comparison to the older, preceding isotopic systems. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Results From The Salt Disposition Project Next Generation Solvent Demonstration Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Fondeur, F. F.; Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L.

    2014-04-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples were taken throughout the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Demonstration Plan. These samples were analyzed and the results are reported. SHT: The solvent behaved as expected, with no bulk changes in the composition over time, with the exception of the TOA and TiDG. The TiDG depletion is higher than expected, and consideration must be taken on the required rate of replenishment. Monthly sampling of the SHT is warranted. If possible, additional SHT samples for TiDG analysis (only) would help SRNL refine the TiDG degradation model. CWT: The CWT samples show the expected behavior in terms of bulk chemistry. The 137Cs deposited into the CWT varies somewhat, but generally appears to be lower than during operations with the BOBCalix solvent. While a few minor organic components were noted to be present in the Preliminary sample, at this time these are thought to be artifacts of the sample preparation or may be due to the preceding solvent superwash. DSSHT: The DSSHT samples show the predicted bulk chemistry, although they point towards significant dilution at the front end of the Demonstration. The 137Cs levels in the DSSHT are much lower than during the BOBCalix operations, which is the expected observation. SEHT: The SEHT samples represent the most different output of all four of the outputs from MCU. While the bulk chemistry is as expected, something is causing the pH of the SEHT to be higher than what would be predicted from a pure stream of 0.01 M boric acid. There are several possible different reasons for this, and SRNL is in the process of investigating. Other than the pH issue, the SEHT is as predicted. In summary, the NGS Demonstration Plan samples indicate that the MCU system, with the Blend Solvent, is operating as expected. The only issue of concern regards the pH of the SEHT, and SRNL is in the process of investigating

  3. Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model Darlene Steward/ Mike Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory Integrated Stationary Power and Transportation Workshop Phoenix, Arizona October 27, 2008 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 2 Introduction Goal: Develop a cost analysis tool that will be flexible and comprehensive enough to realistically analyze a wide variety of potential combined heat and power/hydrogen production

  4. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  5. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  6. Engineering Scoping Study of Thermoelectric Generator Systems for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry; Choate, William T.

    2006-11-01

    This report evaluates thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems with the intent to: 1) examine industrial processes in order to identify and quantify industrial waste heat sources that could potentially use TEGs; 2) describe the operating environment that a TEG would encounter in selected industrial processes and quantify the anticipated TEG system performance; 3) identify cost, design and/or engineering performance requirements that will be needed for TEGs to operate in the selected industrial processes; and 4) identify the research, development and deployment needed to overcome the limitations that discourage the development and use of TEGs for recovery of industrial waste heat.

  7. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebesta, J.J.; Hoskins, W.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors.

  8. Development, Demonstration, and Field Testing of Enterprise-Wide Distributed Generation Energy Management System: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, S.; Cooley, C.

    2005-01-01

    This report details progress on subcontract NAD-1-30605-1 between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and RealEnergy (RE), the purpose of which is to describe RE's approach to the challenges it faces in the implementation of a nationwide fleet of clean cogeneration systems to serve contemporary energy markets. The Phase 2 report covers: utility tariff risk and its impact on market development; the effect on incentives on distributed energy markets; the regulatory effectiveness of interconnection in California; a survey of practical field interconnection issues; trend analysis for on-site generation; performance of dispatch systems; and information design hierarchy for combined heat and power.

  9. Transacting generation attributes across market boundaries: Compatible information systems and the treatment of imports and exports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, Robert; Wiser, Ryan

    2002-11-01

    Voluntary markets for ''green'' power, and mandatory policies such as fuel source disclosure requirements and renewables portfolio standards, each rely on the ability to differentiate electricity by the ''attributes'' of the generation. Throughout North America, electricity markets are devising accounting and verification systems for generation ''attributes'': those characteristics of a power plant's production such as fuel source and emissions that differentiate it from undifferentiated (or ''commodity'') electricity. These accounting and verification systems are intended to verify compliance with market mandates, create accurate disclosure labels, substantiate green power claims, and support emissions markets. Simultaneously, interest is growing in transacting (importing or exporting) generation attributes across electricity market borders, with or without associated electricity. Cross-border renewable attribute transactions have advantages and disadvantages. Broad access to markets may encourage more renewable generation at lower cost, but this result may conflict with desires to assure that at least some renewable resources are built locally to achieve either local policy goals or purchaser objectives. This report is intended to serve as a resource document for those interested in and struggling with cross-border renewable attribute transactions. The report assesses the circumstances under which renewable generation attributes from a ''source'' region might be recognized in a ''sink'' region. The report identifies several distinct approaches that might be used to account for and verify attribute import and export transactions, and assesses the suitability of these alternative approaches. Because policymakers have often made systems ''compatibility'' between market areas a pre-requisite to allowing cross-border renewable transactions, this report develops criteria for ''compatible information systems.'' Where fully compatible information systems do not exist

  10. Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

  11. Simulation of one-minute power output from utility-scale photovoltaic generation systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2011-08-01

    We present an approach to simulate time-synchronized, one-minute power output from large photovoltaic (PV) generation plants in locations where only hourly irradiance estimates are available from satellite sources. The approach uses one-minute irradiance measurements from ground sensors in a climatically and geographically similar area. Irradiance is translated to power using the Sandia Array Performance Model. Power output is generated for 2007 in southern Nevada are being used for a Solar PV Grid Integration Study to estimate the integration costs associated with various utility-scale PV generation levels. Plant designs considered include both fixed-tilt thin-film, and single-axis-tracked polycrystalline Si systems ranging in size from 5 to 300 MW{sub AC}. Simulated power output profiles at one-minute intervals were generated for five scenarios defined by total PV capacity (149.5 MW, 222 WM, 292 MW, 492 MW, and 892 MW) each comprising as many as 10 geographically separated PV plants.

  12. Multiloop integral system test (MIST): Test Group 34, Steam generator tube rupture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gloudemans, J.R. . Nuclear Power Div.)

    1989-07-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility--the Once Through Integral System (OTIS)--was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST program is reported in 11 volumes. The program is summarized in Volume 1; Volumes 2 through 8 describes groups of tests by test type; Volume 9 presents inter-group comparisons; Volume 10 provides comparisons between the calculations of RELAP5/MOD2 and MIST observations, and Volume 11 presents the later Phase 4 tests. This Volume 6 pertains to Test Group 34, Steam Generator Tube Rupture. The specifications, conduct, observations, and results of these tests are described. 6 refs., 189 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. ZTEK`s ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine system for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, M.; Nathanson, D.; Bradshaw, D.T.

    1996-12-31

    Ztek`s Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system has exceptional potential for utility electric power generation because of: simplicity of components construction, capability for low cost manufacturing, efficient recovery of very high quality by-product heat (up to 1000{degrees}C), and system integration simplicity. Utility applications of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell are varied and include distributed generation units (sub-MW to 30MW capacity), repowering existing power plants (i.e. 30MW to 100MW), and multi-megawatt central power plants. A TVA/EPRI collaboration program involved functional testing of the advanced solid oxide fuel cell stacks and design scale-up for distributed power generation applications. The emphasis is on the engineering design of the utility modules which will be the building blocks for up to megawatt scale power plants. The program has two distinctive subprograms: Verification test on a 1 kW stack and 25kW module for utility demonstration. A 1 kW Planar SOFC stack was successfully operated for 15,000 hours as of December, 1995. Ztek began work on a 25kW SOFC Power System for TVA, which plans to install the 25kW SOFC at a host site for demonstration in 1997. The 25kW module is Ztek`s intended building block for the commercial use of the Planar SOFC. Systems of up to megawatt capacity can be obtained by packaging the modules in 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional arrays.

  14. Japanese RDF-fired power generation system and fundamental research on RDF combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narukawa, Kimihito; Goto, Hidenori; Chen, Y.; Yamazaki, Ryouhei; Moi, Shiegkatsu; Fujima, Yukihisa; Hirama, Toshimasa; Hosoda, Hideo

    1997-12-31

    Power generation from refuse derived fuel (RDF) is one of the new technologies for municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This technology is strongly attracting the attention of the Japanese government. The results of a feasibility study of this system in Japan is presented. To develop this highly efficient RDF-fired CFB generating process, combustibility and dechlorination characteristics of RDF were investigated by both the thermo-balance technique and combustion tests with an electric furnace. RDF combustion tests by a bench scale CFBC were carried out and then the following experimental results were obtained: (1) RDF can be combusted almost completely even in small scale CFBC; (2) HCl and N{sub 2}O emissions are quite low at any conditions; and (3) NO{sub x} emissions are a little higher in single stage combustion, however they are reduced at 50% air bias ratio. Some of the results can be explained by a RDF combustion model.

  15. Conceptual study of measures against heat generation for TRU fuel fabrication system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawaguchi, Koichi; Namekawa, Takashi

    2007-07-01

    To lower the reprocessing cost and the environmental burden, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed low decontamination TRU fuel fabrication system. TRU fuel contains MA of 1.2 to 5 wt% and its decay heat is estimated a few tens W/kg-HM. As the heat affects fuel quality through oxidation of fuel material and members, it is necessary to remove decay heat. In this work, authors designed concepts of the measures against heat generation at typical equipments using with the thermal hydraulics analysis technique. As a result, it is shown that it is possible to cool fuel materials with specific heat generation up to 20 W/kg-HM enough, though more detailed study is required for comprehensive equipments. (authors)

  16. Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Hand, Maureen; Blair, Nate; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Hern, Tracy; Miller, Bart; O'Connell, R.

    2008-06-09

    The Wind Energy Deployment System model was used to estimate the costs and benefits associated with producing 20% of the nation's electricity from wind technology by 2030. This generation capacity expansion model selects from electricity generation technologies that include pulverized coal plants, combined cycle natural gas plants, combustion turbine natural gas plants, nuclear plants, and wind technology to meet projected demand in future years. Technology cost and performance projections, as well as transmission operation and expansion costs, are assumed. This study demonstrates that producing 20% of the nation's projected electricity demand in 2030 from wind technology is technically feasible, not cost-prohibitive, and provides benefits in the forms of carbon emission reductions, natural gas price reductions, and water savings.

  17. Multiple layer optical memory system using second-harmonic-generation readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary T.; Shen, Yuen-Ron

    1989-01-01

    A novel optical read and write information storage system is described which comprises a radiation source such as a laser for writing and illumination, the radiation source being capable of radiating a preselected first frequency; a storage medium including at least one layer of material for receiving radiation from the radiation source and capable of being surface modified in response to said radiation source when operated in a writing mode and capable of generating a pattern of radiation of the second harmonic of the preselected frequency when illuminated by the radiation source at the preselected frequency corresponding to the surface modifications on the storage medium; and a detector to receive the pattern of second harmonic frequency generated.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  19. System and method for generating current by selective minority species heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1983-01-01

    A system for the generation of toroidal current in a plasma which is prepared in a toroidal magnetic field. The system utilizes the injection of low-frequency waves into the plasma by means of phased antenna arrays or phased waveguide arrays. The plasma is prepared with a minority ion species of different charge state and different gyrofrequency from the majority ion species. The wave frequency and wave phasing are chosen such that the wave energy is absorbed preferentially by minority species ions traveling in one toroidal direction. The absorption of energy in this manner produces a toroidal electric current even when the injected waves themselves do not have substantial toroidal momentum. This current can be continuously maintained at modest cost in power and may be used to confine the plasma. The system can operate efficiently on fusion grade tokamak plasmas.

  20. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam. [For access denial

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.

    1983-12-21

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  1. Investment and Upgrade in Distributed Generation under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Maribu, Karl

    2008-08-18

    The ongoing deregulation of electricity industries worldwide is providing incentives for microgrids to use small-scale distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) applications via heat exchangers (HXs) to meet local energy loads. Although the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that of central-station production, relatively high tariff rates and the potential for CHP applications increase the attraction of on-site generation. Nevertheless, a microgrid contemplatingthe installation of gas-fired DG has to be aware of the uncertainty in the natural gas price. Treatment of uncertainty via real options increases the value of the investment opportunity, which then delays the adoption decision as the opportunity cost of exercising the investment option increases as well. In this paper, we take the perspective of a microgrid that can proceed in a sequential manner with DG capacity and HX investment in order to reduce its exposure to risk from natural gas price volatility. In particular, with the availability of the HX, the microgrid faces a tradeoff between reducing its exposure to the natural gas price and maximising its cost savings. By varying the volatility parameter, we find that the microgrid prefers a direct investment strategy for low levels of volatility and a sequential one for higher levels of volatility.

  2. Incorporating Wind Generation Forecast Uncertainty into Power System Operation, Dispatch, and Unit Commitment Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Ma, Jian; Subbarao, Krishnappa

    2010-10-19

    In this paper, an approach to evaluate the uncertainties of the balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration requirements is proposed. The approach includes three steps: forecast data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of grid balancing requirements for a specified time horizon and a given confidence level. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on histogram analysis, incorporating sources of uncertainty of both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures) nature. A new method called the "flying-brick" technique is developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation process is used to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals. To demonstrate the validity of the developed uncertainty assessment methods and its impact on grid operation, a framework for integrating the proposed methods with an EMS system is developed. Demonstration through integration with an EMS system illustrates the applicability of the proposed methodology and the developed tool for actual grid operation and paves the road for integration with EMS systems from other vendors.

  3. Generation and decay of entanglement in exciton/polariton trapped systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quiroga, L.; Tejedor, C.

    2011-12-23

    The entanglement evolution of interacting trapped solid-state bosons, i.e. excitons or polaritons, is theoretically studied. From an initially separable state the quasi-particle interactions generate boson entanglement which is degraded as dissipation takes place. Based on exact solutions of a Markovian Master equation at T = 0 K, we discuss how dissipation affects the quantum entanglement dynamics of coupled solid-state boson systems. The single trap Wigner function is also calculated and its relationship to the trapped boson entanglement is discussed.

  4. Evaluation of power production from the solar electric generating systems at Kramer Junction: 1988 to 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, G.J.

    1994-12-31

    The five Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS) at Kramer Junction, California, now have nearly 30 years of cumulative operating experience. These 30 MW plants employ parabolic trough technology originally deployed by LUZ International in the late 1980`s and are now managed, operated and maintained by the Kramer Junction Company. In this paper, Sandia National Laboratories performed an analysis of the annual energy production from the five plants. Annual solar-to-electric conversion efficiencies are calculated and the major factors that influenced the results are presented. The generally good efficiencies are primarily attributed to the excellent equipment availabilities achieved at all plants.

  5. Low-energy run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's beam generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, Lionel; Shemyakin, Alexander; Fedotov, Alexei; Kewisch, Jorg; /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    As a part of a feasibility study of using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for a low-energy Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) run at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the cooler operation at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main result of the study is that the cooler beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. In a striking difference with running 4.3 MeV beam, no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed.

  6. Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy D. Palchak and P. Denholm Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-62275 July 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National Renewable

  7. Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the ARE442 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, J.; Jager, D.

    2010-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the ARE 442 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the ARE 442 is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

  8. Design and Analysis of a Region-Wide Remotely Controllable Electrical Lock-Out System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M; Allgood, Glenn O; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Howlader, Mostofa; Kisner, Roger A; Ewing, Paul D; McIntyre, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Electric utilities have a main responsibility to protect the lives and safety of their workers when they are working on low-, medium-, and high-voltage power lines and distribution circuits. With the anticipated widespread deployment of smart grids, a secure and highly reliable means of maintaining isolation of customer-owned distributed generation (DG) from the affected distribution circuits during maintenance is necessary to provide a fully de-energized work area, ensure utility personnel safety, and prevent hazards that can lead to accidents such as accidental electrocution from unanticipated power sources. Some circuits are serviced while energized (live line work) while others are de-energized for maintenance. For servicing de-energized circuits and equipment, lock-out tag-out (LOTO) programs provide a verifiable procedure for ensuring that circuit breakers are locked in the off state and tagged to indicate that status to operational personnel so that the lines will be checked for voltage to verify they are de-energized. The de-energized area is isolated from any energized sources, which traditionally are the substations. This procedure works well when all power sources and their interconnections are known armed with this knowledge, utility personnel can determine the appropriate circuits to de-energize for isolating the target line or equipment. However, with customer-owned DG tied into the grid, the risk of inadvertently reenergizing a circuit increases because circuit connections may not be adequately documented and are not under the direct control of the local utility. Thus, the active device may not be properly de-energized or isolated from the work area. Further, a remote means of de-energizing and locking out energized devices provides an opportunity for greatly reduced safety risk to utility personnel compared to manual operations. In this paper, we present a remotely controllable LOTO system that allows individual workers to determine the

  9. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bers, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  10. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  11. Probabilistic Approach to Quantifying the Contribution of Variable Generation and Transmission to System Reliability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2012-09-01

    The increasing electrical load served by variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar energy, in the United States and many other countries has stimulated an interesting line of research to better quantify the capacity value of these resources. Methods applied traditionally to thermal units based on their average outage rates do not apply to VG because of their uncertain and non-dispatchable nature. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation's Integration of Variable Generation Task Force recently released a report that highlighted the need to develop and benchmark underlying loss-of-load expectation and related metrics that reasonably and fairly calculate the contribution to planning reserves, or capacity value, of solar and wind power. As the fraction of generation coming from VG becomes more significant, their estimated capacity value will have a larger impact on system planning. In this paper, we provide a method to include VG in traditional probabilistic-based adequacy methods. This method has been implemented in the Renewable Energy Probabilistic Resource Assessment tool developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Through an example based on the U.S. Western Interconnection, this method is applied to assess the effect that transmission can have on resource adequacy. We also analyze the interactions between available transmission and capacity value for VG.

  12. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE) generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R; Anklam, T M; Erlandson, A C; Miles, R R; Simon, A J; Sawicki, R; Storm, E

    2009-10-22

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to 'burn' spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  13. Model predictive control system and method for integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Kumar, Rajeeva; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-04-09

    Control system and method for controlling an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system may include a controller coupled to a dynamic model of the plant to process a prediction of plant performance and determine a control strategy for the IGCC plant over a time horizon subject to plant constraints. The control strategy may include control functionality to meet a tracking objective and control functionality to meet an optimization objective. The control strategy may be configured to prioritize the tracking objective over the optimization objective based on a coordinate transformation, such as an orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal projection. A plurality of plant control knobs may be set in accordance with the control strategy to generate a sequence of coordinated multivariable control inputs to meet the tracking objective and the optimization objective subject to the prioritization resulting from the coordinate transformation.

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Power Generation Performance of Floating-Point Absorber Wave Energy Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y.; Epler, J.; Previsic, M.

    2012-04-01

    The extraction of energy from ocean waves has gained interest in recent years. The floating-point absorber (FPA) is one of the most promising devices among a wide variety of wave energy conversion technologies. Early theoretical studies mainly focused on understanding the hydrodynamics of the system and on predicting the maximum power that could be extracted by a heaving body. These studies evolve from the investigation of floating-body interactions in offshore engineering and naval architecture disciplines. To our best knowledge, no systematic study has been reported about the investigation of the power generation performance of an FPA with a close-to-commercial design. A series of experimental tests was conducted to investigate the power extraction performance of an FPA system.

  15. Generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum in a class of driven SU(2) systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Jiao [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Gong Jiangbin [Department of Physics and Center of Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Singapore 117597 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    A scheme for generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum, first proposed by Wang and Gong [Phys. Rev. A 77, 031405(R) (2008)], is extended to driven SU(2) systems such as a driven two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate. A class of driven systems without a link with the Harper-model context is shown to have an intriguing butterfly Floquet spectrum. The found butterfly spectrum shows remarkable deviations from the known Hofstadter's butterfly. In addition, the level crossings between Floquet states of the same parity and between Floquet states of different parities are studied and highlighted. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, and coherent destruction of tunneling, as well as the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

  16. Generation co-ordination and energy trading systems in an open market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichler, R.

    1998-07-01

    The power industry in many parts of the world is currently undergoing dramatic changes: deregulation, privatization, competition and 3rd party access are the keywords. The major trends are summarized at the beginning of the paper to provide the basis for the evolving consequences for the power generation industry. In the restructured environment of the Open Market power generation companies frequently are organizationally separated from transmission, distribution, and supply and now have to sell their product directly to customers. This necessitates the introduction of energy trading support functions for both bilateral trading and power exchange trading. On the other hand, there is a close relationship between energy trading and the technical process of energy production. The paper discusses design principles for software systems supporting maximum economic benefits. First practical application experience is also presented. The energy trading process requires the break up of proprietary databases and proprietary data structures as this process has a major need to communicate with external partners who normally use different systems. This directly leads to 3rd party products for the database, standardized data structures and standardized communication protocols. The Open Market environment calls for new and modified planning functions: in some cases measured value information necessary for updating load forecasts cannot be directly achieved. This leads to the need for an estimator of the actual load situation, a completely new function. Power scheduling has to take care of the generation company's balance but it need not always be forced to 0. Regulating services from the grid companies can be used instead. This gives the scheduling functions additional freedom for determining more economic overall solutions considering both purchase and services and sales of energy.

  17. System for generating shaped optical pulses and measuring optical pulses using spectral beam deflection (SBD)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skupsky, S.; Kessler, T.J.; Letzring, S.A.

    1993-11-16

    A temporally shaped or modified optical output pulse is generated from a bandwidth-encoded optical input pulse in a system in which the input pulse is in the form of a beam which is spectrally spread into components contained within the bandwidth, followed by deflection of the spectrally spread beam (SBD) thereby spatially mapping the components in correspondence with the temporal input pulse profile in the focal plane of a lens, and by spatially selective attenuation of selected components in that focal plane. The shaped or modified optical output pulse is then reconstructed from the attenuated spectral components. The pulse-shaping system is particularly useful for generating optical pulses of selected temporal shape over a wide range of pulse duration, such pulses finding application in the fields of optical communication, optical recording and data storage, atomic and molecular spectroscopy and laser fusion. An optical streak camera is also provided which uses SBD to display the beam intensity in the focal plane as a function of time during the input pulse. 10 figures.

  18. Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG`S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG`S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria.

  19. System for generating shaped optical pulses and measuring optical pulses using spectral beam deflection (SBD)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skupsky, Stanley (Rochester, NY); Kessler, Terrance J. (Rochester, NY); Letzring, Samuel A. (Honeoye Falls, NY)

    1993-01-01

    A temporally shaped or modified optical output pulse is generated from a bandwidth-encoded optical input pulse in a system in which the input pulse is in the form of a beam which is spectrally spread into components contained within the bandwidth, followed by deflection of the spectrally spread beam (SBD) thereby spatially mapping the components in correspondence with the temporal input pulse profile in the focal plane of a lens, and by spatially selective attenuation of selected components in that focal plane. The shaped or modified optical output pulse is then reconstructed from the attenuated spectral components. The pulse-shaping system is particularly useful for generating optical pulses of selected temporal shape over a wide range of pulse duration, such pulses finding application in the fields of optical communication, optical recording and data storage, atomic and molecular spectroscopy and laser fusion. An optical streak camera is also provided which uses SBD to display the beam intensity in the focal plane as a function of time during the input pulse.

  20. Incorporating Uncertainty of Wind Power Generation Forecast into Power System Operation, Dispatch, and Unit Commitment Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Subbarao, Krishnappa

    2011-06-23

    An approach to evaluate the uncertainties of the balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration requirements is proposed. The approach includes three steps: forecast data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of grid balancing requirements for a specified time horizon and a given confidence level. An assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on histogram analysis, incorporating sources of uncertainty - both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures). A new method called the 'flying-brick' technique is developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation process is used to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals. To demonstrate the validity of the developed uncertainty assessment methods and its impact on grid operation, a framework for integrating the proposed methods with an EMS system is developed. Demonstration through EMS integration illustrates the applicability of the proposed methodology and the developed tool for actual grid operation and paves the road for integration with EMS systems in control rooms.

  1. Neutron Generators for Spent Fuel Assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A

    2010-12-30

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). The 14 NDA techniques being studied include several that require an external neutron source: Delayed Neutrons (DN), Differential Die-Away (DDA), Delayed Gammas (DG), and Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This report provides a survey of currently available neutron sources and their underlying technology that may be suitable for NDA of SNF assemblies. The neutron sources considered here fall into two broad categories. The term 'neutron generator' is commonly used for sealed devices that operate at relatively low acceleration voltages of less than 150 kV. Systems that employ an acceleration structure to produce ion beam energies from hundreds of keV to several MeV, and that are pumped down to vacuum during operation, rather than being sealed units, are usually referred to as 'accelerator-driven neutron sources.' Currently available neutron sources and future options are evaluated within the parameter space of the neutron generator/source requirements as currently understood and summarized in section 2. Applicable neutron source technologies are described in section 3. Commercially available neutron generators and other source options that could be made available in the near future with some further development and customization are discussed in sections 4 and 5, respectively. The pros and cons of the various options and possible ways forward are discussed in section 6. Selection of the best approach must take a number of parameters into account including cost, size, lifetime, and power consumption, as well as neutron flux, neutron energy spectrum, and pulse structure that satisfy the requirements of the NDA instrument to be built.

  2. Direct Carbon Fuel Cells: Assessment of their Potential as Solid Carbon Fuel Based Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolk, R

    2004-04-23

    Small-scale experimental work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has confirmed that a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) containing a molten carbonate electrolyte completely reacts solid elemental carbon with atmospheric oxygen contained in ambient air at a temperature of 650-800 C. The efficiency of conversion of the chemical energy in the fuel to DC electricity is 75-80% and is a result of zero entropy change for this reaction and the fixed chemical potentials of C and CO{sub 2}. This is about twice as efficient as other forms power production processes that utilize solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal. These range from 30-40% for coal fired conventional subcritical or supercritical boilers to 38-42% for IGCC plants. A wide range of carbon-rich solids including activated carbons derived from natural gas, petroleum coke, raw coal, and deeply de-ashed coal have been evaluated with similar conversion results. The rate of electricity production has been shown to correlate with disorder in the carbon structure. This report provides a preliminary independent assessment of the economic potential of DCFC for competitive power generation. This assessment was conducted as part of a Director's Research Committee Review of DCFC held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on April 9, 2004. The key question that this assessment addresses is whether this technology, which appears to be very promising from a scientific standpoint, has the potential to be successfully scaled up to a system that can compete with currently available power generation systems that serve existing electricity markets. These markets span a wide spectrum in terms of the amount of power to be delivered and the competitive cost in that market. For example, DCFC technology can be used for the personal power market where the current competition for delivery of kilowatts of electricity is storage batteries, for the distributed generation market where the competition for on-site power

  3. Next-generation building energy management systems and implications for electricity markets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavala, V. M.; Thomas, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Ott, A.

    2011-08-11

    The U.S. national electric grid is facing significant changes due to aggressive federal and state targets to decrease emissions while improving grid efficiency and reliability. Additional challenges include supply/demand imbalances, transmission constraints, and aging infrastructure. A significant number of technologies are emerging under this environment including renewable generation, distributed storage, and energy management systems. In this paper, we claim that predictive energy management systems can play a significant role in achieving federal and state targets. These systems can merge sensor data and predictive statistical models, thereby allowing for a more proactive modulation of building energy usage as external weather and market signals change. A key observation is that these predictive capabilities, coupled with the fast responsiveness of air handling units and storage devices, can enable participation in several markets such as the day-ahead and real-time pricing markets, demand and reserves markets, and ancillary services markets. Participation in these markets has implications for both market prices and reliability and can help balance the integration of intermittent renewable resources. In addition, these emerging predictive energy management systems are inexpensive and easy to deploy, allowing for broad building participation in utility centric programs.

  4. Improvement of low speed induction generator performances and reducing the power of excitation and voltage control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budisan, N.; Hentea, T.; Mahil, S.; Madescu, G.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present the results of our investigations concerning the utilization of induction generators at very low speed. It is shown that, by proper design, it is possible to obtain high efficiency and high power factor values. The optimized induction generators require lower reactive power resulting in lower size and price of the excitation control system. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; James E. Parks, II; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    2016-04-05

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCRmore » approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. At an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 °C, an NH3:NOX ratio of 1.15:1 (achieved through longer rich cycle timing) resulted in 99.7 % NOX conversion. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher underfloor temperatures, NH3 oxidation over the SCR limited NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied, greater than 99 % NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while delivering

  6. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2016-01-01

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three-way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in the oxygen-rich exhaust. Thus, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. 15% excess NH3 production over a 1:1 NH3:NOX ratio was required (via longer rich cycle timing) to achieve 99.7% NOX conversion at an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 C. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher temperatures, NH3 oxidation becomes important and limits NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied here, greater than 99% NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while delivering fuel

  7. Webinar: 2011-2012 Hydrogen Student Design Contest Winners: On-Campus Tri-Generation Fuel Cell Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, 2011-2012 Hydrogen Student Design Contest Winners: On-Campus Tri-Generation Fuel Cell Systems, originally presented on September 4, 2012.

  8. Multi-attribute criteria applied to electric generation energy system analysis LDRD.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuswa, Glenn W.; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Drennen, Thomas E.; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Paananen, Orman Henrie; Jones, Scott A.; Ortner, Juergen G.; Brewer, Jeffrey D.; Valdez, Maximo M.

    2005-10-01

    This report began with a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve Sandia National Laboratories multidisciplinary capabilities in energy systems analysis. The aim is to understand how various electricity generating options can best serve needs in the United States. The initial product is documented in a series of white papers that span a broad range of topics, including the successes and failures of past modeling studies, sustainability, oil dependence, energy security, and nuclear power. Summaries of these projects are included here. These projects have provided a background and discussion framework for the Energy Systems Analysis LDRD team to carry out an inter-comparison of many of the commonly available electric power sources in present use, comparisons of those options, and efforts needed to realize progress towards those options. A computer aid has been developed to compare various options based on cost and other attributes such as technological, social, and policy constraints. The Energy Systems Analysis team has developed a multi-criteria framework that will allow comparison of energy options with a set of metrics that can be used across all technologies. This report discusses several evaluation techniques and introduces the set of criteria developed for this LDRD.

  9. Design Study of the Extraction System of the 3rd Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitner, M.A.; Lyneis, C.M.; Taylor, C.E.; Wutte, D.; Xie, Z.Q.

    1998-10-06

    A design study for the extraction system of the 3rd Generation super conducting ECR ion source at LBNL is presented. The magnetic design of the ion source has a mirror field of 4 T at the injection and 3 T at the extraction side and a radial field of 2.4 T at the plasma chamber wall. Therefore, the ion beam formation takes place in a strong axial magnetic field. Furthermore the axial field drops from 3 T to 0.4 T within the first 30 cm. The influence of the high magnetic field on the ion beam extraction and matching to the beam line is investigated. The extraction system is first simulated with the 2D ion trajectory code IGUN with an estimated mean charge state of the extracted ion beam. These results are then compared with the 2D code AXCEL-INP, which can simulate the extraction of ions with different charge states. Finally, the influence of the strong magnetic hexapole field is studied with the three dimensional ion optics code KOBRA. The introduced tool set can be used to optimize the extraction system of the super conducting ECR ion source.

  10. Summary and early findings from a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Kinney, Kristopher L.; Shockman, Christine

    2003-04-02

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This paper discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The underlying principle of this project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform. Such data are an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. This project has demonstrated that the IMDS is valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. One objective of this project was to evaluate the costs and benefits of the IMDS. The system cost about $0.70 per square foot, which includes the design, hardware, software, and installation, which is about 30% less than the previous IMDS in San Francisco. A number of operational problems have been identified with the IMDS.

  11. A systems model and potential leverage points for base load electric generating options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Price, L.G.; Sebo, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    The mission and structure of electric utilities may change significantly to meet the challenges on the next several decades. In addition, providing electrical energy in an environmentally responsible manner will continue to be a major challenge. The methods of supplying electrical power may change dramatically in the future as utilities search for ways to improve the availability and reliability of electrical power systems. The role of large, base load generating capacity to supply the bulk of a utility`s electrical power is evolving, but it will continue to be important for many years to come. The objective of this study is to examine the systems structure of five base load capacity options available to a utility and identify areas where technological improvements could produce significant changes in their systems. These improvements would enhance the likelihood that these options would be selected for providing future electrical capacity. Technology improvements are identified and discussed, but it was beyond the scope of this work to develop strategies for specific Idaho National Engineering Laboratory involvement.

  12. Advanced Thomson scattering system for high-flux linear plasma generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiden, H. J. van der; Lof, A. R.; Berg, M. A. van den; Brons, S.; Eck, H. J. N. van; Koelman, P. M. J.; Koppers, W. R.; Kruijt, O. G.; Oyevaar, T.; Prins, P. R.; Rapp, J.; Scholten, J.; Smeets, P. H. M.; Star, G. van der; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P. A.; Donne, A. J. H.; Schram, D. C.; Naumenko, N. N.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2012-12-15

    An advanced Thomson scattering system has been built for a linear plasma generator for plasma surface interaction studies. The Thomson scattering system is based on a Nd:YAG laser operating at the second harmonic and a detection branch featuring a high etendue (f /3) transmission grating spectrometer equipped with an intensified charged coupled device camera. The system is able to measure electron density (n{sub e}) and temperature (T{sub e}) profiles close to the output of the plasma source and, at a distance of 1.25 m, just in front of a target. The detection system enables to measure 50 spatial channels of about 2 mm each, along a laser chord of 95 mm. By summing a total of 30 laser pulses (0.6 J, 10 Hz), an observational error of 3% in n{sub e} and 6% in T{sub e} (at n{sub e}= 9.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}) can be obtained. Single pulse Thomson scattering measurements can be performed with the same accuracy for n{sub e} > 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. The minimum measurable density and temperature are n{sub e} < 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} m{sup -3} and T{sub e} < 0.07 eV, respectively. In addition, using the Rayleigh peak, superimposed on the Thomson scattered spectrum, the neutral density (n{sub 0}) of the plasma can be measured with an accuracy of 25% (at n{sub 0}= 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}). In this report, the performance of the Thomson scattering system will be shown along with unprecedented accurate Thomson-Rayleigh scattering measurements on a low-temperature argon plasma expansion into a low-pressure background.

  13. System and method for generating and/or screening potential metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilmer, Christopher E; Leaf, Michael; Snurr, Randall Q; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-04-21

    A system and method for systematically generating potential metal-organic framework (MOFs) structures given an input library of building blocks is provided herein. One or more material properties of the potential MOFs are evaluated using computational simulations. A range of material properties (surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, powder x-ray diffraction pattern, methane adsorption capability, and the like) can be estimated, and in doing so, illuminate unidentified structure-property relationships that may only have been recognized by taking a global view of MOF structures. In addition to identifying structure-property relationships, this systematic approach to identify the MOFs of interest is used to identify one or more MOFs that may be useful for high pressure methane storage.

  14. System and method for generating and/or screening potential metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilmer, Christopher E; Leaf, Michael; Snurr, Randall Q; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2014-12-02

    A system and method for systematically generating potential metal-organic framework (MOFs) structures given an input library of building blocks is provided herein. One or more material properties of the potential MOFs are evaluated using computational simulations. A range of material properties (surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, powder x-ray diffraction pattern, methane adsorption capability, and the like) can be estimated, and in doing so, illuminate unidentified structure-property relationships that may only have been recognized by taking a global view of MOF structures. In addition to identifying structure-property relationships, this systematic approach to identify the MOFs of interest is used to identify one or more MOFs that may be useful for high pressure methane storage.

  15. Methods and apparatuses for self-generating fault-tolerant keys in spread-spectrum systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Subramanian, Vijayarangam

    2015-12-15

    Self-generating fault-tolerant keys for use in spread-spectrum systems are disclosed. At a communication device, beacon signals are received from another communication device and impulse responses are determined from the beacon signals. The impulse responses are circularly shifted to place a largest sample at a predefined position. The impulse responses are converted to a set of frequency responses in a frequency domain. The frequency responses are shuffled with a predetermined shuffle scheme to develop a set of shuffled frequency responses. A set of phase differences is determined as a difference between an angle of the frequency response and an angle of the shuffled frequency response at each element of the corresponding sets. Each phase difference is quantized to develop a set of secret-key quantized phases and a set of spreading codes is developed wherein each spreading code includes a corresponding phase of the set of secret-key quantized phases.

  16. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  17. A compendium of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system and recent programmatic changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.; McCoy, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    Because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, usually plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with 10 CFR 71 (1994). To meet these regulatory requirements, US DOE commissioned Westinghouse Hanford Co. in 1988 to develop a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) that would fully comply while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal transport conditions (eg, mainly shock and heat). RTGTS is scheduled for completion Dec. 1996 and will be available to support NASA`s Cassini mission to Saturn in Oct. 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS project, discusses the hardware being produced, and summarizes various programmatic and management innovations required by recent changes at DOE.

  18. Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-05-21

    A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

  19. Methods and apparatuses for self-generating fault-tolerant keys in spread-spectrum systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Subramanian, Vijayarangam

    2015-12-22

    Self-generating fault-tolerant keys for use in spread-spectrum systems are disclosed. At a communication device, beacon signals are received from another communication device and impulse responses are determined from the beacon signals. The impulse responses are circularly shifted to place a largest sample at a predefined position. The impulse responses are converted to a set of frequency responses in a frequency domain. The frequency responses are shuffled with a predetermined shuffle scheme to develop a set of shuffled frequency responses. A set of phase differences is determined as a difference between an angle of the frequency response and an angle of the shuffled frequency response at each element of the corresponding sets. Each phase difference is quantized to develop a set of secret-key quantized phases and a set of spreading codes is developed wherein each spreading code includes a corresponding phase of the set of secret-key quantized phases.

  20. A power system includes an engine, a motor/generator operatively connected to the engine, and a starter operatively connected to at least one of the engine and the motor/generator.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian D.; Algrain, Marcelo C.

    2008-12-09

    A power system includes an engine, a motor/generator operatively connected to the engine, and a starter operatively connected to at least one of the engine and the motor/generator.

  1. Next Generation Environmentally-Friendly Driving Feedback Systems Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, Matthew; Boriboonsomsin, Kanok

    2014-12-31

    The objective of this project is to design, develop, and demonstrate a next-generation, federal safety- and emission-complaint driving feedback system that can be deployed across the existing vehicle fleet and improve fleet average fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The project objective was achieved with the driving feedback system that encourages fuel-efficient vehicle travel and operation through: 1) Eco-Routing Navigation module that suggests the most fuel-efficient route from one stop to the next, 2) Eco-Driving Feedback module that provides sensible information, recommendation, and warning regarding fuel-efficient vehicle operation, and 3) Eco-Score and Eco-Rank module that provides a means for driving performance tracking, self-evaluation, and peer comparison. The system also collects and stores vehicle travel and operation data, which are used by Algorithm Updating module to customize the other modules for specific vehicles and adapts them to specific drivers over time. The driving feedback system was designed and developed as an aftermarket technology that can be retrofitted to vehicles in the existing fleet. It consists of a mobile application for smart devices running Android operating system, a vehicle on-board diagnostics connector, and a data server. While the system receives and utilizes real-time vehicle and engine data from the vehicle’s controller area network bus through the vehicle’s on-board diagnostic connector, it does not modify or interfere with the vehicle’s controller area network bus, and thus, is in compliance with federal safety and emission regulations. The driving feedback system was demonstrated and then installed on 45 vehicles from three different fleets for field operational test. These include 15 private vehicles of the general public, 15 pickup trucks of the California Department of Transportation that are assigned to individual employees for business use, and 15 shuttle buses of the Riverside Transit Agency that are used

  2. Theoretical study of the KKK system and dynamical generation of the K(1460) resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez Torres, A.; Jido, D.; Kanada-En'yo, Y.

    2011-06-15

    The KKK system is investigated with a coupled-channel approach based on solving the Faddeev equations considering the KKK, K{pi}{pi}, and K{pi}{eta} channels and using as input two-body t matrices that generate dynamically the f{sub 0}(980) and a{sub 0}(980) resonances. In the present calculation, a quasibound state around 1420 MeV with total isospin I=1/2 and spin-parity J{sup {pi}=}0{sup -} is found below the three-kaon threshold. This state can be identified with the K(1460) resonance listed by the Particle Data Group. We also study the KKK system in a single-channel three-body potential model with two-body effective KK and KK interactions, in which the KK interaction is adjusted to reproduce the properties of the f{sub 0}(980) and a{sub 0}(980) resonances as KK bound states, obtaining a very similar result to the one found in the Faddeev approach.

  3. Use of Produced Water in Recirculating Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. This deliverable describes possible test configurations for produced water demonstration projects at SJGS. The ability to host demonstration projects would enable the testing and advancement of promising produced water treatment technologies. Testing is described for two scenarios: Scenario 1--PNM builds a produced water treatment system at SJGS and incorporates planned and future demonstration projects into the design of the system. Scenario 2--PNM forestalls or decides not to install a produced water treatment system and would either conduct limited testing at SJGS (produced water would have to be delivered by tanker trucked) or at a salt water disposal facility (SWD). Each scenario would accommodate demonstration projects differently and these differences are discussed in this deliverable. PNM will host a demonstration test of water-conserving cooling technology--Wet Surface Air Cooling (WSAC) using cooling tower blowdown

  4. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC

  5. Early evaluation of a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Kinney, Kristopher; Shockman, Christine

    2002-03-25

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. Whether it is poor quality design, inefficient operations, degradation of equipment over time, or merely the increasing use of energy by tenants and inattention from landlords, commercial office building energy use continues to increase. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This report discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The report begins with a brief summary of the IMDS research at the previous building, followed by a discussion of the building selection process, the IMDS design and installation, recent use of the IMDS, costs and benefits, and fault detection and diagnostic research using the IMDS. A web site describes the IMDS in detail (see imds.lbl.gov). The underlying principle of this research project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform is an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. The project utilizes a high-quality monitoring system that has been developed during the past decade by a partnership between LBNL and private industry. This research project has been successful in demonstrating that the IMDS is tremendously valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. The innovative property management company, Jones Lang LaSalle, is interested in installing more sites to determine if the system could provide an economic

  6. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  7. System and method to improve the power output and longetivity of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery, Jr., Alfred L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the helium generated by the alpha emissions of a thermoelectric generator during space travel for cooling, the thermal degradation of the thermoelectric generator can be slowed. Slowing degradation allows missions to be longer with little additional expense or payload.

  8. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G`s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G`s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

  9. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test activities that were performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of {ital Title} 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, {open_quote}{open_quote}Part 71{close_quote}{close_quote} (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy{close_quote}s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, {ital Transit} {ital Drop} {ital Procedure} (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G{close_quote}s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G{close_quote}s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Wind Energy Management System Integration Project Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-09-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation) and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. In order to improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively, by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique

  11. EAC Recommendations for DOE Action on the Development of the Next Generation Grid Operating System - October 17, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Patricia Hoffman, Assistant Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, U.S. Department of Energy FROM: Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC) Richard Cowart, Chair DATE: October 17, 2012 RE: Recommendations on Development of the Next Generation Grid Operating System (Energy Management System). _________________________________________________________________________ The purpose of this memorandum is to respectfully recommend to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a roadmap for the

  12. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and placed into

  13. System and method for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation with acoustic sources generating coded signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S

    2014-12-30

    A system and a method for investigating rock formations includes generating, by a first acoustic source, a first acoustic signal comprising a first plurality of pulses, each pulse including a first modulated signal at a central frequency; and generating, by a second acoustic source, a second acoustic signal comprising a second plurality of pulses. A receiver arranged within the borehole receives a detected signal including a signal being generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first-and-second acoustic signal in a non-linear mixing zone within the intersection volume. The method also includes-processing the received signal to extract the signal generated by the non-linear mixing process over noise or over signals generated by a linear interaction process, or both.

  14. System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems: Phase 2 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, R.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.'s second year of a planned 3-year effort to advance distributed power development, deployment, and integration. Its long-term goal is to design ways to extend distributed generation into the physical design and controls of buildings. NET worked to meet this goal through advances in the implementation and control of combined heat and power systems in end-user environments and a further understanding of electric interconnection and siting issues. The specific objective of work under this subcontract is to identify the system integration and implementation issues of DG and develop and test potential solutions to these issues. In addition, recommendations are made to resolve identified issues that may hinder or slow the integration of integrated energy systems into the national energy picture.

  15. Modeling and Control System Design for an Integrated Solar Generation and Energy Storage System with a Ride-Through Capability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.; Yue, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a generic approach for PV panel modeling. Data for this modeling can be easily obtained from manufacturer datasheet, which provides a convenient way for the researchers and engineers to investigate the PV integration issues. A two-stage power conversion system (PCS) is adopted in this paper for the PV generation system and a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) can be connected to the dc-link through a bi-directional dc/dc converter. In this way, the BESS can provide some ancillary services which may be required in the high penetration PV generation scenario. In this paper, the fault ride-through (FRT) capability is specifically focused. The integrated BESS and PV generation system together with the associated control systems is modeled in PSCAD and Matlab platforms and the effectiveness of the controller is validated by the simulation results.

  16. Coastal zone energy management: a multidisciplinary approach for the integration of solar electric systems with Florida's power generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camejo, N.

    1983-12-01

    In order for Florida to ''accomplish effective coastal land management, it must have a comprehensive statewide approach closely relating land and water management development decisions in Florida must be made with understanding of the proposed development effects on the state's water resources''. This approach is very sensible in view of the issues raised in the introduction. Whether a power plant is sited inland or on the coast has tremendous implications for water use. Offshore siting of power plants is an alternative which should be carefully evaluated using CZEM. Of particular importance is the existence of renewable energy sources, such as OTEC, Wind and Ocean current, in the offshore areas of Florida. Many Solar Electric options could be sited in the coastal and offshore areas. The main technological problem associated with offshore power plants is the transmission of the electricity to shore. The solution to this problem may be using Hydrogen as an intermediary energy carrier. The use of Solar Electric Systems would be consistent with the policy to diversify the generation mix. If Florida is called upon to develop its offshore energy resources in the national interest, the use of CZEM would allow decision makers to make more environmentally sensitive decisions. This would allow the balancing of energy production and environmental quality.

  17. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x} SO {sub x} and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R&D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO{sub x} production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  18. PROMOSHYGES: A monitoring and protection System for hydro turbine -- Generator Sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arregui, F.; Rodriguez, G.G.; Mazzieri, C.

    1998-07-01

    The high losses produced by a non programmed shutdown and the need to extend the life of the machinery have generated an increasing attention to the development of tools to assess the condition of the machinery in a predictable manner. A project was funded by the Commission of the EU to develop a prototype taking into account the capability that the vibrations monitoring has demonstrated to detect the mechanical and electrical--mechanical related problems. The prototype of the developed system is integrated by several components developed and designed according with the most recent and reliable technology: an advanced data acquisition and preprocessing Unit (DASPU) based on digital signal processing technologies acquire and pre-process large bandwidth signals and transfer the information to an host computer via a digital communication network. A commercial unit has been used to acquire static signals like temperature, active and reactive power, etc.; a set of software modules to manage the information, static signals and dynamic; software tools to support predictive analysis, data trend and isolation of possible faults. Predictive analysis and data trend are based on the comparison between measured or derived scalar and/or vectorial quantities and the estimated one for the measured operating condition; the statistical dynamic Kriging technique, requiring only a sparse population of data acquired at different operating condition has been adopted. An artificial neural network technique provides another tool for predictive analysis automatically adaptable for changing conditions; alert and alarm functions implemented via software. The paper presents a short description and the main features of the system and the main results, in term of reliability and performances, obtained in more than one year monitoring of the Villarino Power Plant owned by IBERDROLA, the most important private utility in Spain.

  19. Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    expensive to develop, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. Because of increasing demand on finite supplies of water, this next generation of...

  20. Second Generation PFBC Systems R&D (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS; BURNERS; GAS TURBINES; PILOT PLANTS; STEAM GENERATION; SULFUR; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; DESIGN Word Cloud More Like This ...

  1. Second-Generation PFBC Systems R&D (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS; BURNERS; EFFICIENCY; GAS TURBINES; PILOT PLANTS; STEAM GENERATION; SULFUR; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; DESIGN Word Cloud More ...

  2. Energy Department Announces Funding to Develop Improved Next Generation HVAC Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced nearly $8 million to support research and development of the next generation of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning technologies.

  3. Next Generation Workload Management System For Big Data on Heterogeneous Distributed Computing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klimentov, A.; Buncic, P.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Maeno, T.; Mount, R.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; et al

    2015-05-22

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS and ALICE are the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences and are at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, both experiments rely on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Managementmore » System (WMS) for managing the workflow for all data processing on hundreds of data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. The scale is demonstrated by the following numbers: PanDA manages O(102) sites, O(105) cores, O(108) jobs per year, O(103) users, and ATLAS data volume is O(1017) bytes. In 2013 we started an ambitious program to expand PanDA to all available computing resources, including opportunistic use of commercial and academic clouds and Leadership Computing Facilities (LCF). The project titled 'Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data' (BigPanDA) is funded by DOE ASCR and HEP. Extending PanDA to clouds and LCF presents new challenges in managing heterogeneity and supporting workflow. The BigPanDA project is underway to setup and tailor PanDA at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) and at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute" together with ALICE distributed computing and ORNL computing professionals. Our approach to integration of HPC platforms at the OLCF and elsewhere is to reuse, as much as possible, existing components of the PanDA system

  4. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter

  5. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Corletti, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  6. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

    1993-11-16

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

  7. DESIGN, SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF MULTI-COMPONENT AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS FOR LIGHT-DRIVEN HYDROGEN GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Richard Eisenberg

    2012-07-18

    The research focussed on fundamental problems in the conversion of light to stored chemical energy. Specifically, work was completed on the design, synthesis and study of multi-component super- and supramolecular systems for photoinduced charge separation, one of the key steps in artificial photosynthesis, and on the use of these and related systems for the photochemical generation of H2 from water. At the center of these systems are chromophores comprised of square planar coordinated Pt(II) ions with arylacetylide and either diimine or terpyridyl ligands. Previous work had shown that the chromophores are photoluminescent in fluid solution with long-lived metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) excited states that are necessarily directional. An advance which set the stage for a number of proposed studies was the light-driven production of hydrogen from water using a Pt(terpyridyl)(arylacetylide)+ chromophore and a sacrificial electron donor. The reaction is catalytic and appears to rival previously reported ruthenium bipyridyl systems in terms of H2 production. Variation of system components and mechanistic studies were conducted to understand better the individual steps in the overall process and how to improve its efficiency. Success with light driven H2 generation was employed as a key probe as new systems were constructed consisting of triads for photoinduced charge separation placed in close proximity to the H2 generating catalyst - a Pt colloid - through direct linkage or supramolecular interactions with the polymer used to stabilize the colloid. In order to prepare new donor-chromophore-acceptor (D-C-A) triads and associated D-C and C-A dyads, new ligands were synthesized having functional groups for different coupling reactions such as simple amide formation and Pd-catalyzed coupling. In these systems, the donor was attached to the arylacetylide ligands and the acceptor was linked to the diimine or terpyridyl chelate. Research under the contract proved

  8. Next-generation Algorithms for Assessing Infrastructure Vulnerability and Optimizing System Resilience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchett, Deon L.; Chen, Richard Li-Yang; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Richard, Jean-Philippe

    2015-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project project Next-Generation Algo- rithms for Assessing Infrastructure Vulnerability and Optimizing System Resilience. The goal of the project was to improve mathematical programming-based optimization technology for in- frastructure protection. In general, the owner of a network wishes to design a network a network that can perform well when certain transportation channels are inhibited (e.g. destroyed) by an adversary. These are typically bi-level problems where the owner designs a system, an adversary optimally attacks it, and then the owner can recover by optimally using the remaining network. This project funded three years of Deon Burchett's graduate research. Deon's graduate advisor, Professor Jean-Philippe Richard, and his Sandia advisors, Richard Chen and Cynthia Phillips, supported Deon on other funds or volunteer time. This report is, therefore. essentially a replication of the Ph.D. dissertation it funded [12] in a format required for project documentation. The thesis had some general polyhedral research. This is the study of the structure of the feasi- ble region of mathematical programs, such as integer programs. For example, an integer program optimizes a linear objective function subject to linear constraints, and (nonlinear) integrality con- straints on the variables. The feasible region without the integrality constraints is a convex polygon. Careful study of additional valid constraints can significantly improve computational performance. Here is the abstract from the dissertation: We perform a polyhedral study of a multi-commodity generalization of variable upper bound flow models. In particular, we establish some relations between facets of single- and multi- commodity models. We then introduce a new family of inequalities, which generalizes traditional flow cover inequalities to the multi-commodity context. We present encouraging numerical results. We also consider the directed edge

  9. Communication systems, transceivers, and methods for generating data based on channel characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, Michael A; Young, Derek

    2012-09-18

    Examples of methods for generating data based on a communications channel are described. In one such example, a processing unit may generate a first vector representation based in part on at least two characteristics of a communications channel. A constellation having at least two dimensions may be addressed with the first vector representation to identify a first symbol associated with the first vector representation. The constellation represents a plurality of regions, each region associated with a respective symbol. The symbol may be used to generate data, which may stored in an electronic storage medium and used as a cryptographic key or a spreading code or hopping sequence in a modulation technique.

  10. System for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-07-31

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  11. System for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-09-04

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  12. INGRID: a three-dimensional mesh generator for modeling nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, D.W.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1985-07-01

    INGRID generates complete input files for the codes DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. Geometries are described primarily using index space concepts which came from the program INGEN. The ideas used in INGEN were reworked into a new method which is both simple and powerful. Interactive graphics in INGRID are patterned after TAURUS, a three-dimensional post-processor, and MAZE, a two-dimensional mesh generator. Much of the coding from MAZE is directly incorporated in INGRID.

  13. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    . Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness

  14. Code System for Calculating the Nonlinear Transient Behavior of a Natural Circulation U-Tube Steam Generator with Its Main Steam System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-04-20

    Version 00 The code is based on a non-linear theoretical model describing the steady-state and transient behavior of a vertical natural-circulation U-tube steam generator together with its main steam system. The steam generator is considered to consist of a heat exchange section, a top plenum, a down-comer region and a main steam system (with a sequence of relief and/or safety valves, isolation, bypass, turbine-trip and turbine-control valves and a steam turbine). Possible perturbations from outsidemore » can be: inlet water temperature, inlet water mass flow and system pressure on the primary side, feedwater temperature, feed-water mass flow and outlet steam mass flow disturbed by actions of the different valves within the main steam system on the secondary side.« less

  15. Energy Department Invests Nearly $8 Million to Develop Next-Generation HVAC Systems for Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced nearly $8 million to advance research and development of next-generation heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies, supporting the Administration's goal of saving money by saving energy, and phasing down the use of chemicals that have a devastating effect on the global climate.

  16. EIS-0416: Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System, San Bernardino County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to support a proposal from Solar Partners I, II, IV, and VIII, limited liability corporations formed by BrightSource Energy (BrightSource), to construct and operate a solar thermal electric generating facility in San Bernardino County, California on BLM Land.

  17. Heat recovery steam generator outlet temperature control system for a combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martens, A.; Myers, G.A.; McCarty, W.L.; Wescott, K.R.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a command cycle electrical power plant including: a steam turbine and at least one set comprising a gas turbine, an afterburner and a heat recovery steam generator having an attemperator for supplying from an outlet thereof to the steam turbine superheated steam under steam turbine operating conditions requiring predetermined superheated steam temperature, flow and pressure; with the gas turbine and steam turbine each generating megawatts in accordance with a plant load demand; master control means being provided for controlling the steam turbine and the heat recovery steam generator so as to establish the steam operating conditions; the combination of: first control means responsive to the gas inlet temperature of the heat recovery steam generator and to the plant load demand for controlling the firing of the afterburner; second control means responsive to the superheated steam predetermined temperature and to superheated steam temperature from the outlet for controlling the attemperator between a closed and an open position; the first and second control means being operated concurrently to maintain the superheated steam outlet temperature while controlling the load of the gas turbine independently of the steam turbine operating conditions.

  18. Second generation PFBC systems research and development: Phase 2, Topping combustor testing at UTSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanson, N.R.; Foote, J.P.

    1992-12-01

    This report describes a second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. The topping combustor testing is briefly described. The topping combustor burns low BTU gas produced from substoichiometric combustion of coal in a pressurized carbonizer. Char produced is burned in a PFBC.

  19. Second generation PFBC systems research and development: Phase 2, Topping combustor testing at UTSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanson, N.R.; Foote, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. The topping combustor testing is briefly described. The topping combustor burns low BTU gas produced from substoichiometric combustion of coal in a pressurized carbonizer. Char produced is burned in a PFBC.

  20. Cycle Evaluations of Reversible Chemical Reactions for Solar Thermochemical Energy Storage in Support of Concentrating Solar Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Shankar; Palo, Daniel R.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2010-07-25

    The production and storage of thermochemical energy is a possible route to increase capacity factors and reduce the Levelized Cost of Electricity from concentrated solar power generation systems. In this paper, we present the results of cycle evaluations for various thermochemical cycles, including a well-documented ammonia closed-cycle along with open- and closed-cycle versions of hydrocarbon chemical reactions. Among the available reversible hydrocarbon chemical reactions, catalytic reforming-methanation cycles are considered; specifically, various methane-steam reforming cycles are compared to the ammonia cycle. In some cases, the production of an intermediate chemical, methanol, is also included with some benefit being realized. The best case, based on overall power generation efficiency and overall plant capacity factor, was found to be an open cycle including methane-steam reforming, using concentrated solar energy to increase the chemical energy content of the reacting stream, followed by combustion to generate heat for the heat engine.

  1. Energy Department Announces $10.5 Million for Next-Generation Marine Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced $10.5 million in available funding to support the design and operation of innovative marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) systems through survivability and reliability-related testing of these systems.

  2. 3rd Generation SCR System Using Solid Ammonia Storage and Direct Gas Dosing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SCR system provides direct ammonia gas dosing for optimal SCR performance with simplified and flexible exhaust layout.

  3. Emerging Issues and Challenges with Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Electrical Generation and Transmission Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Increasing the use of grid-flexibility options (improved grid management, demand response, and energy storage) could enable 25% or higher penetration of PV at low costs (see Denholm et al. 2016). Considering the large-scale integration of solar into electric-power systems complicates the calculation of the value of solar. In fact a comprehensive examination reveals that the value of solar technologies—or any other power-system technology or operating strategy—can only be understood in the context of the generation system as a whole. This is well illustrated by analysis of curtailment at high PV penetrations within the bulk power and transmission systems. As the deployment of PV increases, it is possible that during some sunny midday periods due to limited flexibility of conventional generators, system operators would need to reduce (curtail) PV output in order to maintain the crucial balance between electric supply and demand. As a result, PV’s value and cost competitiveness would degrade. For example, for utility-scale PV with a baseline SunShot LCOE of 6¢/kWh, increasing the annual energy demand met by solar energy from 10% to 20% would increase the marginal LCOE of PV from 6¢/kWh to almost 11¢/kWh in a California grid system with limited flexibility. However, this loss of value could be stemmed by increasing system flexibility via enhanced control of variable-generation resources, added energy storage, and the ability to motivate more electricity consumers to shift consumption to lower-demand periods. The combination of these measures would minimize solar curtailment and keep PV cost-competitive at penetrations at least as high as 25%. Efficient deployment of the grid-flexibility options needed to maintain solar’s value will require various innovations, from the development of communication, control, and energy storage technologies to the implementation of new market rules and operating procedures.

  4. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  5. Studies on a self-excited closed cycle MHD generator for pulse power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harada, N.

    1998-07-01

    The authors have been proposing to use a closed cycle disk MHD generator as an alternative of an open cycle linear generator for applications to portable pulsed power supply because of its special advantages of durability and reliability. Steady state operation with applied magnetic field mode, magnet coil design and dynamic behavior of a disk type MHD generator in self-excited mode were studied numerically. One-dimensional numerical code based on MacCormack method were used. Thermal input to the disk channel was 40MW and working medium was argon seeded with potassium driven by the nonequilibrium plasma generator. At first, steady state solutions were obtained for both initial applied field of 0.7T and for full magnetic field 4T. For any load conditions examined, generator behaved quite stable and output current reaches its certain final value. Based on these steady state output current, they successfully designed suitable magnet coils. Current density was about 15A/mm{sup 2} . This value was quite reasonable and durable even for relatively long duration. With the designed magnet coils, dynamic behavior of the disk generator was studied. For transition from initial applied field mode to self-excited mode, switching was succeeded and there was no abnormal fluctuations in current trace. Noticeable instability did not develop in this period. However, in self-excited mode, the output current significantly increases and becomes much higher than the rated current of 1720A at B=4T after time=4sec., in spite of the fact that the output current increases steadily and very smoothly until that time. Sudden development of ionization instability was suggested from distributions of electron temperature and number density. They tried to limit excitation current to the magnet coils exactly to the designed value using bypass circuit to prevent from development of ionization instability. Then stable operation in the self-excited mode was successfully achieved. Further the authors

  6. Systems and methods that generate height map models for efficient three dimensional reconstruction from depth information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frahm, Jan-Michael; Pollefeys, Marc Andre Leon; Gallup, David Robert

    2015-12-08

    Methods of generating a three dimensional representation of an object in a reference plane from a depth map including distances from a reference point to pixels in an image of the object taken from a reference point. Weights are assigned to respective voxels in a three dimensional grid along rays extending from the reference point through the pixels in the image based on the distances in the depth map from the reference point to the respective pixels, and a height map including an array of height values in the reference plane is formed based on the assigned weights. An n-layer height map may be constructed by generating a probabilistic occupancy grid for the voxels and forming an n-dimensional height map comprising an array of layer height values in the reference plane based on the probabilistic occupancy grid.

  7. SE-72/AS-72 generator system based on Se extraction/ As reextraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Michael Ernst; Ballard, Beau D

    2013-09-10

    The preparation of a .sup.72Se/.sup.72As radioisotope generator involves forming an acidic aqueous solution of an irradiated alkali bromide target such as a NaBr target, oxidizing soluble bromide in the solution to elemental bromine, removing the elemental bromine, evaporating the resulting solution to a residue, removing hydrogen chloride from the residue, forming an acidic aqueous solution of the residue, adding a chelator that selectively forms a chelation complex with selenium, and extracting the chelation complex from the acidic aqueous solution into an organic phase. As the .sup.72Se generates .sup.72As in the organic phase, the .sup.72As may be extracted repeatedly from the organic phase with an aqueous acid solution.

  8. On-board ammonia generation and exhaust after treatment system using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driscoll, Josh; Robel, Wade J.; Brown, Cory A.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.

    2010-03-30

    Often NOx selective catalysts that use ammonia to reduce NOx within exhaust to a harmless gas require on-board storage of ammonia which can be hazardous and inconvenient. In order to generate ammonia in exhaust, the present disclosure increases a NOx concentration in exhaust from at least one combustion chamber, at least in part, by injecting fuel in a predetermined increased NOx generation sequence that includes a first injection during non-auto ignition conditions and a second injection during auto ignition conditions. At least a portion of the NOx is converted to ammonia by passing at least a portion of the exhaust with the increased NOx concentration over an ammonia-producing catalyst.

  9. A system dynamic modeling approach for evaluating municipal solid waste generation, landfill capacity and related cost management issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng Huan; Yu Danlin

    2010-11-15

    As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework for Newark urban region in the US, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-processes that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity of the state, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by different waste processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.

  10. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 1 presents a general assessment of produced water generation in the San Juan Basin in Four Corners Area of New Mexico. Oil and gas production, produced water handling and disposal, and produced water quantities and chemistry are discussed. Legislative efforts to enable the use of this water at SJGS are also described.

  11. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System Paul Denholm, Robert Margolis, Bryan Palmintier, Clayton Barrows, Eduardo Ibanez, and Lori Bird National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jarett Zuboy Independent Consultant Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-62447 September 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable

  12. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  13. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Produced water is generated nationally as a byproduct of oil and gas production. Seven states generate 90 percent of the produced water in the continental US. About 37 percent of the sources documented in the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Produced Waters Database have a TDS of less than 30,000 mg/l. This is significant because produced water treatment for reuse in power plants was found to be very costly above 30,000 mg/l TDS. For the purposes of this report, produced water treatment was assessed using the technologies evaluated for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) in Deliverable 3, Treatment and Disposal Analysis. Also, a methodology was developed to readily estimate capital and operating costs for produced water treatment. Two examples are presented to show how the cost estimating methodology can be used to evaluate the cost of treatment of produced water at power plants close to oil and gas production.

  14. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system safety analysis report for packaging. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1996-04-18

    This SARP describes the RTG Transportation System Package, a Type B(U) packaging system that is used to transport an RTG or similar payload. The payload, which is included in this SARP, is a generic, enveloping payload that specifically encompasses the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG payload. The package consists of two independent containment systems mounted on a shock isolation transport skid and transported within an exclusive-use trailer.

  15. Compressed Air System Upgrade Generates Significant Energy Savings at a Steel Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    In 1996, U.S. Steel completed a project in which the main compressed air system at their Edgar Thomson plant in Braddock, Pennsylvania was overhauled.

  16. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented

  17. NERI Final Project Report: On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring System for Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Meador, Richard J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Watkins, Kenneth S.; Chai, Jangbom; Kim, Wooshik

    2003-06-20

    This project provides a proof-of-principle technology demonstration for SDMS, where a distributed suite of sensors is integrated with active components and passive structures of types expected to be encountered in next generation nuclear power reactor and plant systems. The project employs state-of-the-art operational sensors, advanced stressor-based instrumentation, distributed computing, RF data network modules and signal processing to improve the monitoring and assessment of the power reactor system and gives data that is used to provide prognostics capabilities.

  18. Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the sun is not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNLs metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800C). A high-temperature tank in PNNLs storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNLs thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

  19. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Conainer Inspection, March 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. James Clayton, Ph.D., Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products; Dr. Emma Regentova, Ph.D, University of Nevada Las Vegas; Dr. Evangelos Yfantis, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2007-03-27

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a "next-generation" mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the "next-generation" Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible.

  20. System for generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model using topological analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiek, Richard

    2006-06-20

    A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.

  1. Air feed tube support system for a solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doshi, Vinod B. (Monroeville, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Zelienople, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator (12), containing tubular fuel cells (36) with interior air electrodes (18), where a supporting member (82) containing a plurality of holes (26) supports oxidant feed tubes (51), which pass from an oxidant plenum (52") into the center of the fuel cells, through the holes (26) in the supporting member (82), where a compliant gasket (86) around the top of the oxidant feed tubes and on top (28) of the supporting member (82) helps support the oxidant feed tubes and center them within the fuel cells, and loosen the tolerance for centering the air feed tubes.

  2. Coal-fired power generation: Proven technologies and pollution control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balat, M.

    2008-07-01

    During the last two decades, significant advances have been made in the reduction of emissions from coal-fired power generating plants. New technologies include better understanding of the fundamentals of the formation and destruction of criteria pollutants in combustion processes (low nitrogen oxides burners) and improved methods for separating criteria pollutants from stack gases (FGD technology), as well as efficiency improvements in power plants (clean coal technologies). Future demand for more environmentally benign electric power, however, will lead to even more stringent controls of pollutants (sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide.

  3. Photovoltaic and other remote-site power generation systems for the Papua New Guinea Telecommunications network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olden, A.H.

    1983-10-01

    Over the past six years the Papua New Guinea Telecommunications network has expanded considerably necessitating the requirements for high reliability power supplies for mountain top repeater sites and small capacity telephone exchange terminals in remote locations. Photovoltaic (solar) power systems are considered the most suited for these applications. Furthermore, new microwave systems and large trunk VHF systems are now being installed. This paper discusses these photovoltaic power supplies in detail with respect to their design, technical composition, configuration with reference to performance and installation requirements.

  4. Techno-economical analysis of an integrated hydrogen generator - fuel cell system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recupero, V.; Maggio, G.; Di Leonardo, R.; Lagana, M.

    1996-12-31

    As well known, the most acknowledged process for generation of hydrogen for fuel cells is based upon the steam reforming of methane or natural gas (SRM). The reaction is endothermic ({Delta}H{sub 298}= 206 kJ/mole) and high H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratios are required in order to limit coke formation at T higher than 1000 K. Moreover, a common practice indicates that the process fuel economy is highly sensitive to proper heat fluxes, reactor design (tubular type) and to operational conditions. Efficient heat recovery can be accomplished only on large scale units (> 40,000 Nm{sup 3}/h), far from the range of interest for {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} fuel cells. Even if, to fit the needs of the fuel cell technology, medium sized external reforming units (50-200 Nm{sup 3} H{sub 2}/h) have been developed and/or planned for integration with both the first and the second generation fuel cells; amelioration in their heat recovery and efficiency is at the expense of an increased sophistication and therefore an higher per unit costs. In all cases, SRM requires an extra {open_quotes}fuel{close_quotes} supply (to substain the, endothermicity of the reaction) in addition to stoichiometric requirements ({open_quotes}feed{close_quotes} gas). An alternative would be the partial oxidation of methane, which is not energy intensive.

  5. Method and system for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson Paul A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Guyer, Robert; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-02-14

    A compact array of transducers is employed as a downhole instrument for acoustic investigation of the surrounding rock formation. The array is operable to generate simultaneously a first acoustic beam signal at a first frequency and a second acoustic beam signal at a second frequency different than the first frequency. These two signals can be oriented through an azimuthal rotation of the array and an inclination rotation using control of the relative phases of the signals from the transmitter elements or electromechanical linkage. Due to the non-linearity of the formation, the first and the second acoustic beam signal mix into the rock formation where they combine into a collimated third signal that propagates in the formation along the same direction than the first and second signals and has a frequency equal to the difference of the first and the second acoustic signals. The third signal is received either within the same borehole, after reflection, or another borehole, after transmission, and analyzed to determine information about rock formation. Recording of the third signal generated along several azimuthal and inclination directions also provides 3D images of the formation, information about 3D distribution of rock formation and fluid properties and an indication of the dynamic acoustic non-linearity of the formation.

  6. Energy Department Awards $10.5 Million for Next-Generation Marine Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced six organizations selected to receive up to $10.5 million to support the design and operation of innovative marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) systems through survivability and reliability-related improvements.

  7. Power System Modeling of 20% Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M.; Blair, N.; Bolinger, M.; Wiser, R.; O'Connell, R.; Hern, T.; Miller, B.

    2008-06-01

    This paper shows the results of the Wind Energy Deployment System model used to estimate the costs and benefits associated with producing 20% of the nation's electricity from wind technology by 2030.

  8. Observations on A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: Technical Roadmap Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The development of advanced nuclear energy systems in the U.S. will depend greatly on the continued success of currently operating light water nuclear power plants and the ordering of new...

  9. Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2011-05-01

    Report on the results of the power performance test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on Entegrity Wind System Inc.'s EW50 small wind turbine.

  10. Control Scheme Modifications Increase Efficiency of Steam Generation System at Exxon Mobil Gas Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights control scheme modifications made to the steam system at ExxonMobil's Mary Ann Gas Plant in Mobile, Alabama, which improved steam flow efficiency and reduced energy costs.

  11. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  12. 2nd Generation PFBC Systems R&D Phase 2 and Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archie Robertson

    2000-03-17

    No work was performed; the two remaining Multi Annular Swirl Burner test campaigns are on hold pending selection of a new test facility (replacement for the shut down UTSI burner test facility) and identification of associated testing costs. The Second-Generation PFB Combustion Plant conceptual design prepared in 1987 is being updated to reflect the benefit of pilot plant test data and the latest advances in gas turbine technology. The updated plant is being designed to operate with 95 percent sulfur capture and a single Siemens Westinghouse (SW) 501G gas turbine. Using carbonizer and gas turbine data generated by Foster Wheeler (FW) and SW respectively, Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group prepared preliminary plant heat and materials based on carbonizer operating temperatures of 1700 and 1800 F and found the former to yield the higher plant efficiency. As a result, 1700 F has been selected as the preferred operating condition for the carbonizer. The previous first cut plant heat and material balance was refined and it predicts a 47.7% plant efficiency (HHV) with a net power output of 421.1 MWe. The latter includes a plant auxiliary load estimated to be 23.5 MWe or 5.26% of the gross plant power and a transformer loss of 1.5 MWe. Coal drying is through natural gas combustion, and the thermal energy input of the natural gas has also been included in the heat rate calculation. Figure 1 presents the plant preliminary full load heat and material balance. In this arrangement, evaporation and primary steam superheating tube surfaces are placed in both the pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler (PCFB) and the gas turbine heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The superheated steam from these units is mixed and then heated to 1050 F in the PCFB finishing superheater. With regard to steam reheating, the primary stage is located at the front of the HRSG and the final stage is located in the PCFB. Although this circuitry arrangement appears workable at full load, minimum

  13. Challenges to Integration of Safety and Reliability with Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Khalil; P. F. Peterson; R. Bari; G. -L. Fiorini; T. Leahy; R. Versluis

    2012-07-01

    The optimization of a nuclear energy system's performance requires an integrated consideration of multiple design goals - sustainability, safety and reliability (S&R), proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP), and economics - as well as careful evaluation of trade-offs for different system design and operating parameters. Design approaches motivated by each of the goal areas (in isolation from the other goal areas) may be mutually compatible or in conflict. However, no systematic methodology approach has yet been developed to identify and maximize synergies and optimally balance conflicts across the possible design configurations and operating modes of a nuclear energy system. Because most Generation IV systems are at an early stage of development, design, and assessment, designers and analysts are only beginning to identify synergies and conflicts between PR&PP, S&R, and economics goals. The close coupling between PR&PP and S&R goals has motivated early attention within the Generation IV International Forum to their integrated consideration to facilitate the optimization of their effects and the minimization of potential conflicts. This paper discusses the status of this work.

  14. System and method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, Jay V; Brandt, Timothy G; Conger, James L; Lawson, Janice K

    2013-05-21

    A method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array according to one embodiment includes gathering a data set for a focal plane array when exposed to light or radiation from a first known target; analyzing the data set for determining which pixels or subpixels of the focal plane array to add to a deselect mapping; adding the pixels or subpixels to the deselect mapping based on the analysis; and storing the deselect mapping. A method for gathering data using a focal plane array according to another embodiment includes deselecting pixels or subpixels based on a deselect mapping; gathering a data set using pixels or subpixels in a focal plane array that are not deselected upon exposure thereof to light or radiation from a target of interest; and outputting the data set.

  15. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  16. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Togore, Sam; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  17. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

  18. Experimentally validated long-term energy production prediction model for solar dish/Stirling electric generating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stine, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    Dish/Stirling solar electric systems are currently being tested for performance and longevity in order to bring them to the electric power generation market. Studies both in Germany and the United States indicate that a significant market exists for these systems if they perform in actual installations according to tested conditions, and if, when produced in large numbers their cost will drop to goals currently being projected. In the 1980`s, considerable experience was gained operating eight dish/Stirling systems of three different designs. One of these recorded the world`s record for converting solar energy into electricity of 29.4%. The approach to system performance prediction taken in this presentation results from lessons learned in testing these early systems, and those currently being tested. Recently the IEA through the SolarPACES working group, has embarked on a program to develop uniform guidelines for measuring and presenting performance data. These guidelines are to help potential buyers who want to evaluate a specific system relative to other dish/Stirling systems, or relative to other technologies such as photovoltaic, parabolic trough or central receiver systems. In this paper, a procedure is described that permits modeling of long-term energy production using only a few experimentally determined parameters. The benefit of using this technique is that relatively simple tests performed over a period of a few months can provide performance parameters that can be used in a computer model requiring only the input of insolation and ambient temperature data to determine long-term energy production information. A portion of this analytical procedure has been tested on the three 9-kW(e) systems in operation in Almeria, Spain. Further evaluation of these concepts is planned on a 7.5-kW(e) system currently undergoing testing at Cal Poly University in Pomona, California and later on the 25 kW(e) USJVP systems currently under development.

  19. A Novel Neutron Imaging Calibration System Using a Neutron Generating Accelerator Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Z., Davis, B., Tinsley, J. R., Miller, E. K.

    2009-09-04

    Neutron Imaging is a key diagnostic for use in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, and has been fielded on experiments at Omega and Z. It will also be a key diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and eventually at the Laser Megajoule in France. Most systems are based on a neutron pinhole array placed at the target chamber while it is imaged by a scintillating fiber block. The light output of this scintillator is coupled via a reducer to a fiber bundle which transports the image to a CCD camera. Alternatively some systems use optical lens assemblies to focus the light onto a camera.For ICF applications the neutron imaging systems will primarily look at 14.2 MeV neutrons. However, 2.2 MeV and 20+ MeV neutrons will also be present and will potentially provide key information.

  20. Development and Demonstration of an Innovative Thermal Energy Storage System for Baseload Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Y. Goswami

    2012-09-04

    The objective of this project is to research and develop a thermal energy storage system (operating range 3000C ???¢???????? 450 0C ) based on encapsulated phase change materials (PCM) that can meet the utility-scale base-load concentrated solar power plant requirements at much lower system costs compared to the existing thermal energy storage (TES) concepts. The major focus of this program is to develop suitable encapsulation methods for existing low-cost phase change materials that would provide a cost effective and reliable solution for thermal energy storage to be integrated in solar thermal power plants. This project proposes a TES system concept that will allow for an increase of the capacity factor of the present CSP technologies to 75% or greater and reduce the cost to less than $20/kWht.

  1. Wind turbine/generator set having a stator cooling system located between stator frame and active coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2012-11-13

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  2. EA-1862: Oneida Seven Generation Corporation Waste-To-Energy System, Ashwaubenon, Wisconsin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oneidas Energy Recovery Project would construct and operate a solid waste-to-electricity power plant on vacant property within the Bayport Industrial Center in the City of Green Bay, Brown County, Wisconsin. This energy recovery process would involve bringing municipal solid waste into the plant for sizing (shredding), sorting (removing recyclable material), and conveying into one of three pyrolytic gasification systems.

  3. Managing Model Data Introduced Uncertainties in Simulator Predictions for Generation IV Systems via Optimum Experimental Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turinsky, Paul J; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S; Stover, Tracy E

    2011-03-31

    An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept’s core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment

  4. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  5. Nurbs and grid generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnhill, R.E.; Farin, G.; Hamann, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a basic overview of NURBS and their application to numerical grid generation. Curve/surface smoothing, accelerated grid generation, and the use of NURBS in a practical grid generation system are discussed.

  6. Spin force and the generation of sustained spin current in time-dependent Rashba and Dresselhaus systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Cong Son Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2014-05-14

    The generation of spin current and spin polarization in a two-dimensional electron gas structure is studied in the presence of Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings (SOC), the strength of the latter being modulated in time by an ac gate voltage. By means of the non-Abelian gauge field approach, we established the relation between the Lorentz spin force and the spin current in the SOC system, and showed that the longitudinal component of the spin force induces a transverse spin current. For a constant (time-invariant) Rashba system, we recover the universal spin Hall conductivity of e/(8π) , derived previously via the Berry phase and semi-classical methods. In the case of a time-dependent SOC system, the spin current is sustained even under strong impurity scattering. We evaluated the ac spin current generated by a time-modulated Rashba SOC in the absence of any dc electric field. The magnitude of the spin current reaches a maximum when the modulation frequency matches the Larmor frequency of the electrons.

  7. Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation Electricore, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daye, Tony

    2013-09-30

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  8. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  9. Systems simulation of cotton gin waste as a supplemental fuel in a coal powered generating plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parnell, C.B.; Grubaugh, E.K.; Johnston, M.T.; Ladd, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    A systems simulation model of gin trash use at a Lamb County, Texas, power plant was developed. The model is being used to study gin trash supply, both quantity and transportation, fixed and variable cost, and economic benefit/costs of gin trash utilization. Preliminary results indicate the positive feasibility of using gin trash as a supplemental fuel in a coal fired power plant. (MHR)

  10. Combined heat and power generation with a HCPV system at 2000 suns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paredes, Filippo; Montagnino, Fabio M.; Milone, Sergio; Salinari, Piero; Agnello, Simonpietro; Gelardi, Franco M.; Sciortino, Luisa; Cannas, Marco; Bonsignore, Gaetano; Barbera, Marco; Collura, Alfonso; Lo Cicero, Ugo

    2015-09-28

    This work shows the development of an innovative solar CHP system for the combined production of heat and power based upon HCPV modules working at the high concentration level of 2000 suns. The solar radiation is concentrated on commercial InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells designed for intensive work. The primary optics is a rectangular off-axis parabolic mirror while a secondary optic at the focus of the parabolic mirror is glued in optical contact with the cell. Each module consist of 2 axis tracker (Alt-Alt type) with 20 multijunction cells each one integrated with an active heat sink. The cell is connected to an active heat transfer system that allows to keep the cell at a high level of electrical efficiency (ηel > 30 %), bringing the heat transfer fluid (water and glycol) up to an output temperature of 90°C. Accordingly with the experimental data collected from the first 1 kWe prototype, the total amount of extracted thermal energy is above the 50% of the harvested solar radiation. That, in addition the electrical efficiency of the system contributes to reach an overall CHP efficiency of more than the 80%.

  11. Workshop Proceedings: Communication and Control Systems for Distribute...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ramifications of owning and operating DG - liability, insurance, etc. * IEEE 1547 standards for DG interconnect * Security hierarchy for information * Information ...

  12. Resolution Improvement and Pattern Generator Development for theMaskless Micro-Ion-Beam Reduction Lithography System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Ximan

    2006-05-18

    have been studied. The dependence of the throughput with the exposure field size and the speed of the mechanical stage has been investigated. In order to perform maskless lithography, different micro-fabricated pattern generators have been developed for the MMRL system. Ion beamlet switching has been successfully demonstrated on the MMRL system. A positive bias voltage around 10 volts is sufficient to switch off the ion current on the micro-fabricated pattern generators. Some unexpected problems, such as the high-energy secondary electron radiations, have been discovered during the experimental investigation. Thermal and structural analysis indicates that the aperture displacement error induced by thermal expansion can satisfy the 3{delta} CD requirement for lithography nodes down to 25 nm. The cross-talking effect near the surface and inside the apertures of the pattern generator has been simulated in a 3-D ray-tracing code. New pattern generator design has been proposed to reduce the cross-talking effect. In order to eliminate the surface charging effect caused by the secondary electrons, a new beam-switching scheme in which the switching electrodes are immersed in the plasma has been demonstrated on a mechanically fabricated pattern generator.

  13. Development of a High Fidelity System Analysis Code for Generation IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Haihua Zhao

    2008-06-01

    Traditional nuclear reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP and TRAC employ an operator split methodology. In this approach, each of the physics (fluid flow, heat conduction and neutron diffusion) is solved separately and the coupling terms are done explicitly. This approach limits accuracy (first order in time at best) and makes the codes slow in running since the explicit coupling imposes stability restrictions on the time step size. These codes have been extensively tested and validated for the existing LWRs. However, for GEN IV nuclear reactor designs which tend to have long lasting transients resulting from passive safety systems, the performance is questionable and modern high fidelity simulation tools will be required. The requirement for accurate predictability is the motivation for a large scale overhaul of all of the models and assumptions in transient nuclear reactor safety simulation software. At INL we have launched an effort with the long term goal of developing a high fidelity system analysis code that employs modern physical models, numerical methods, and computer science for transient safety analysis of GEN IV nuclear reactors. Modern parallel solution algorithms will be employed through utilizing the nonlinear solution software package PETSc developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The physical models to be developed will have physically realistic length scales and time scales. The solution algorithm will be based on the physics-based preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solution methods. In this approach all of the physical models are solved implicitly and simultaneously in a single nonlinear system. This includes the coolant flow, nonlinear heat conduction, neutron kinetics, and thermal radiation, etc. Including modern physical models and accurate space and time discretizations will allow the simulation capability to be second order accurate in space and in time. This paper presents the current status of the development efforts as

  14. Second generation PFBC system research and development: Phase 2, Topping combustor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domeracki, W.; Pillsbury, P.W.; Dowdy, T.E.; Foote, J.

    1992-12-01

    The use of a Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (CPFBC) as the primary combustion system for a combustion turbine requires transporting compressor air to the CPFBC and vitiated air/flue gas back to the turbine. In addition, the topping combustion system must be located in the returning vitiated airflow path. The conventional fuel system and turbine center section require major change for the applications. The selected arrangement, which utilizes two topping combustor assemblies, one on each side of the unit, is shown in Figure 1. Half of the vitiated air from the CPFBC enters an intemal plenum chamber in which topping combustors are mounted. Fuel gas enters the assembly via the fuel nozzles at the head end of the combustor. Combustion occurs, and the products of combustion are ducted into the main shell for distribution to the first-stage turbine vanes. Compressor discharge air leaves the main shell, flowing around the annular duct into the adjacent combustion shells. The air flows around the vitiated air plenums and leaves each combustion assembly via nozzles and is ducted to the CPFBC and carbonizer. Because the air entering the combustor is at 1600{degrees}F rather than the 700{degrees}F usual for gas turbines, the conventional type of combustor is not suitable. Both emissions and wall cooling problems preclude the use of the conventional design. Therefore, a combustor that will meet the requirements of utilizing the higher temperature air for both wall cooling and combustion is required. In selecting a combustor design that will withstand the conditions expected in the topping application, the effective utilization of the 1600{degrees}F air mentioned above could satisfy the wall cooling challenge by maintaining a cooling air layer of substantial thickness.

  15. Advanced power generation systems for the 21st Century: Market survey and recommendations for a design philosophy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andriulli, J.B.; Gates, A.E.; Haynes, H.D.; Klett, L.B.; Matthews, S.N.; Nawrocki, E.A.; Otaduy, P.J.; Scudiere, M.B.; Theiss, T.J.; Thomas, J.F.; Tolbert, L.M.; Yauss, M.L.; Voltz, C.A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of a study designed to enhance the performance of future military generator sets (gen-sets) in the medium power range. The study includes a market survey of the state of the art in several key component areas and recommendations comprising a design philosophy for future military gen-sets. The market survey revealed that the commercial market is in a state of flux, but it is currently or will soon be capable of providing the technologies recommended here in a cost-effective manner. The recommendations, if implemented, should result in future power generation systems that are much more functional than today's gen-sets. The number of differing units necessary (both family sizes and frequency modes) to cover the medium power range would be decreased significantly, while the weight and volume of each unit would decrease, improving the transportability of the power source. Improved fuel economy and overall performance would result from more effective utilization of the prime mover in the generator. The units would allow for more flexibility and control, improved reliability, and more effective power management in the field.

  16. Theory and experiments on the effects of perturbations on nonlinear chemical systems: Generation of multiple attractors and efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hjelmfelt, A.; Harding, R.H.; Tsujimoto, K.K.; Ross, J. (Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (US))

    1990-03-15

    Periodic perturbations are applied to the input fluxes of reactants in a system which exhibits autonomous oscillations, the combustion of acetaldehyde (ACH) and oxygen, and a system which exhibits damped oscillations, the combustion of methane and oxygen. The ACH system is studied by experiments and numerical analysis and the methane system is studied by numerical analysis. The periodic perturbations are in the form of a two-term Fourier series. Such perturbations may generate multiple attractors, which are either periodic or chaotic. We discuss two types of bistable responses: a new phase bistability, in which a subharmonic frequency is added to a sinusoidal perturbation at different phases relative to the periodic response; and jump phenomena, in which the resonant frequency of a nonlinear oscillator depends on the amplitude of the periodic perturbation. Both the ACH and the methane systems confirm the phase bistability. The additional complex behavior of bistability due to jump phenomena is seen only in calculations in the methane system. In both types of bistability a hysteresis loop is formed as we vary the form of the periodic perturbation. In the methane system, we find period doubling to chaos occuring on one branch of the hysteresis loop while the other branch remains periodic. The methane system has been studied in the context of the efficiency of power production. We calculate the efficiency corresponding to each bistable attractor and find one branch of each pair to be the more efficient mode of operation. In the case of the coexisting periodic and chaotic attractors the chaotic attractor is the more efficient mode of operation.

  17. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation: A comprehensive review of current strategies, studies, and fundamental research on the impact that increased penetration of variable renewable generation has on power system operating reserves.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operating Reserves and Variable Generation A comprehensive review of current strategies, studies, and fundamental research on the impact that increased penetration of variable renewable generation has on power system operating reserves. Erik Ela, Michael Milligan, and Brendan Kirby NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-51978 August

  18. Alternative generation and analysis for phase I privatization transfer system needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbraith, J.D.

    1996-09-10

    This decision document provides input for the Phase I Privatization waste staging plans for the High-Level Waste (HLW)and Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Programs. This AGA report evaluates what infrastructure upgrades to existing 200 East waste transfer systems are necessary for delivery of HLW and LLW streams to the Phase I Privatization vendor. The AGA identifies the transfer routing alternatives for supernatant waste transfers from the 241-AN, 241-AW, and 241-AP Tank Farms to the 241-AP-102 tank and/or the 241-AP-104 tank. These two tanks have been targeted as the initial LLW feed staging tanks. In addition,this report addresses the transfer of slurry waste from the 241-AY and 241-AZ Tank Farms to the Phase I Privatization vendor`s facilities for HLW immobilization.

  19. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Timothy C.; Wham, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  20. Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, J.; Baker, D.; Jager, D.

    2010-05-01

    This test is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, four turbines are being tested at the NWTC as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a grid connected ARE 442 wind turbine mounted on a 30.5 meter (100 ft) lattice tower manufactured by Abundant Renewable Energy. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Abundant Renewable Energy.

  1. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knecht, Sean D.; Mead, Franklin B.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David

    2006-01-20

    The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean 'aneutronic' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced 'lifting body'-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, {eta}prop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and {eta}prop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons.

  2. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2011-01-27

    The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

  3. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MWe combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (FUTAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. The Cycle Optimization effort under Task 2 outlines the evolution of our designs. The basic combined cycle approach now includes exhaust gas recirculation to quench the flue gas before it enters the convective air heater. By selecting the quench gas from a downstream location it will be clean enough and cool enough (ca. 300F) to be driven by a commercially available fan and still minimize the volume of the convective air heater. Further modeling studies on the long axial flame, under Task 3, have demonstrated that this configuration is capable of providing the necessary energy flux to the radiant air panels. This flame with its controlled mixing constrains the combustion to take place in a fuel rich environment, thus minimizing the NO{sub x} production. Recent calculations indicate that the NO{sub x} produced is low enough that the SNCR section can further reduce it to within the DOE goal of 0. 15 lbs/MBTU of fuel input. Also under Task 3 the air heater design optimization continued.

  4. ARCADIA{sup R} - A New Generation of Coupled Neutronics / Core Thermal- Hydraulics Code System at AREVA NP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curca-Tivig, Florin; Merk, Stephan; Pautz, Andreas; Thareau, Sebastien

    2007-07-01

    Anticipating future needs of our customers and willing to concentrate synergies and competences existing in the company for the benefit of our customers, AREVA NP decided in 2002 to develop the next generation of coupled neutronics/ core thermal-hydraulic (TH) code systems for fuel assembly and core design calculations for both, PWR and BWR applications. The global CONVERGENCE project was born: after a feasibility study of one year (2002) and a conceptual phase of another year (2003), development was started at the beginning of 2004. The present paper introduces the CONVERGENCE project, presents the main feature of the new code system ARCADIA{sup R} and concludes on customer benefits. ARCADIA{sup R} is designed to meet AREVA NP market and customers' requirements worldwide. Besides state-of-the-art physical modeling, numerical performance and industrial functionality, the ARCADIA{sup R} system is featuring state-of-the-art software engineering. The new code system will bring a series of benefits for our customers: e.g. improved accuracy for heterogeneous cores (MOX/ UOX, Gd...), better description of nuclide chains, and access to local neutronics/ thermal-hydraulics and possibly thermal-mechanical information (3D pin by pin full core modeling). ARCADIA is a registered trademark of AREVA NP. (authors)

  5. Emergency Diesel Generation System Surveillance Test Policy Optimization Through Genetic Algorithms Using Non-Periodic Intervention Frequencies and Seasonal Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapa, Celso M.F.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [CNEN, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rua General Severiano 90, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-22-294-900 (Brazil); Frutuoso e Melo, P.F. [COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco G, sala 101, Ilha do Fundao, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Nuclear standby safety systems must frequently, be submitted to periodic surveillance tests. The main reason is to detect, as soon as possible, the occurrence of unrevealed failure states. Such interventions may, however, affect the overall system availability due to component outages. Besides, as the components are demanded, deterioration by aging may occur, penalizing again the system performance. By these reasons, planning a good surveillance test policy implies in a trade-off between gains and overheads due to the surveillance test interventions. In order maximize the systems average availability during a given period of time, it has recently been developed a non-periodic surveillance test optimization methodology based on genetic algorithms (GA). The fact of allowing non-periodic tests turns the solution space much more flexible and schedules can be better adjusted, providing gains in the overall system average availability, when compared to those obtained by an optimized periodic tests scheme. The optimization problem becomes, however, more complex. Hence, the use of a powerful optimization technique, such as GAs, is required. Some particular features of certain systems can turn it advisable to introduce other specific constraints in the optimization problem. The Emergency Diesel Generation System (EDGS) of a Nuclear Power Plant (N-PP) is a good example for demonstrating the introduction of seasonal constraints in the optimization problem. This system is responsible for power supply during an external blackout. Therefore, it is desirable during periods of high blackout probability to maintain the system availability as high as possible. Previous applications have demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the methodology. However, no seasonal constraints have ever been imposed. This work aims at investigating the application of such methodology in the Angra-II Brazilian NPP EDGS surveillance test policy optimization, considering the blackout probability

  6. Automatic system for regulating the frequency and power of the 500 MW coal-dust power generating units at the Reftinskaya GRES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilenko, V. A.; Gal'perina, A. I.; Mikushevich, E. E.; Nikol'skii, D. Yu.; Zhugrin, A. G.; Bebenin, P. A.; Syrchin, M. V.

    2009-03-15

    The monitoring and control systems at the 500 MW coal-dust power generating units No. 7, 8, and 9 at the Reftinskaya GRES have been modernized using information-regulator systems. Layouts for instrumental construction of these systems and expanded algorithmic schemes for the automatic frequency and power control system and for the boiler supply and fuelling are discussed. Results from tests and normal operation of the automatic frequency and power control system are presented.

  7. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  8. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-09-01

    This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  10. Magnetocumulative generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettibone, J.S.; Wheeler, P.C.

    1981-06-08

    An improved magnetocumulative generator is described that is useful for producing magnetic fields of very high energy content over large spatial volumes. The polar directed pleated magnetocumulative generator has a housing providing a housing chamber with an electrically conducting surface. The chamber forms a coaxial system having a small radius portion and a large radius portion. When a magnetic field is injected into the chamber, from an external source, most of the magnetic flux associated therewith positions itself in the small radius portion. The propagation of an explosive detonation through high-explosive layers disposed adjacent to the housing causes a phased closure of the chamber which sweeps most of the magnetic flux into the large radius portion of the coaxial system. The energy content of the magnetic field is greatly increased by flux stretching as well as by flux compression. The energy enhanced magnetic field is utilized within the housing chamber itself.

  11. Petroleum generation and expulsion in the constrained Bakken petroleum system and its relevance to the formation of fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muscio, G.P.A.; Horsfield, B.; Welte, D.

    1995-08-01

    The lack of direct and unequivocal evidence for the existence of fractures in the Bakken petroleum system (Williston Basin, U.S.A./Canada) has led to controversial discussions with respect to the magnitude, orientation and frequency of fractures and especially their formation mechanism. Amongst other hypotheses, the creation of overpressuring as a result of high petroleum generation rates was called upon to induce fracturing. On the basis of a comprehensive organic geochemical study incorporating source rock and reservoir data, the present contribution provides evidence for an alternative pressure-controlled fracture formation mechanism: Mass balance calculations performed on Bakken Shale samples covering a maturity spectrum from 0.3% to 1.1% R{sub o} has revealed that the main phase of petroleum formation took place very early during catagenesis (ca. 0.4 - 0.8% R{sub o}) and that its potential has already been realized in those areas of the basin which currently produce from Bakken reservoirs. (1) It has been shown recently that the Bakken petroleum system represents a closed system, i.e. the Bakken sourced oils have not entered the Madison reservoirs. Hence, overall high expulsion efficiencies indicate that Bakken Shale over- and underlying units might represent the principal reservoirs and, most importantly, the strata where overpressuring should be expected. (2) Detailed analysis of Bakken sourced oils which are produced from Bakken reservoirs imply that their bulk and molecular composition may have been altered by significant in-situ thermal alteration which took place after the main phase of expulsion. (3) The hypothesized process of reimpregnation of petroleum from the reservoir back into the source rock system may account for locally occurring high concentrations of solvent extractable organic matter in Bakken Shales.

  12. System and method for generating a displacement with ultra-high accuracy using a fabry-perot interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    A system and method for generating a desired displacement of an object, i.e., a target, from a reference position with ultra-high accuracy utilizes a Fabry-Perot etalon having an expandable tube cavity for resolving, with an Iodine stabilized laser, displacements with high accuracy and for effecting (as an actuator) displacements of the target. A mechanical amplifier in the form of a micropositioning stage has a platform and a frame which are movable relative to one another, and the tube cavity of the etalon is connected between the platform and frame so that an adjustment in length of the cavity effects a corresponding, amplified movement of the frame relative to the cavity. Therefore, in order to provide a preselected magnitude of displacement of the stage frame relative to the platform, the etalon tube cavity is adjusted in length by a corresponding amount. The system and method are particularly well-suited for use when calibrating a high accuracy measuring device.

  13. Status report on multigroup cross section generation code development for high-fidelity deterministic neutronics simulation system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W. S.; Lee, C. H.

    2008-05-16

    Under the fast reactor simulation program launched in April 2007, development of an advanced multigroup cross section generation code was initiated in July 2007, in conjunction with the development of the high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code UNIC. The general objectives are to simplify the existing multi-step schemes and to improve the resolved and unresolved resonance treatments. Based on the review results of current methods and the fact that they have been applied successfully to fast critical experiment analyses and fast reactor designs for last three decades, the methodologies of the ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2/SDX code system were selected as the starting set of methodologies for multigroup cross section generation for fast reactor analysis. As the first step for coupling with the UNIC code and use in a parallel computing environment, the MC{sup 2}-2 code was updated by modernizing the memory structure and replacing old data management package subroutines and functions with FORTRAN 90 based routines. Various modifications were also made in the ETOE-2 and MC{sup 2}-2 codes to process the ENDF/B-VII.0 data properly. Using the updated ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2 code system, the ENDF/B-VII.0 data was successfully processed for major heavy and intermediate nuclides employed in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Initial verification tests of the MC{sup 2}-2 libraries generated from ENDF/B-VII.0 data were performed by inter-comparison of twenty-one group infinite dilute total cross sections obtained from MC{sup 2}-2, VIM, and NJOY. For almost all nuclides considered, MC{sup 2}-2 cross sections agreed very well with those from VIM and NJOY. Preliminary validation tests of the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries of MC{sup 2}-2 were also performed using a set of sixteen fast critical benchmark problems. The deterministic results based on MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT calculations were in good agreement with MCNP solutions within {approx}0.25% {Delta}{rho}, except a few small LANL fast assemblies

  14. Thermophotovoltaic energy generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celanovic, Ivan; Chan, Walker; Bermel, Peter; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Marton, Christopher; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Araghchini, Mohammad; Jensen, Klavs F.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert; Fisher, Peter

    2015-08-25

    Inventive systems and methods for the generation of energy using thermophotovoltaic cells are described. Also described are systems and methods for selectively emitting electromagnetic radiation from an emitter for use in thermophotovoltaic energy generation systems. In at least some of the inventive energy generation systems and methods, a voltage applied to the thermophotovoltaic cell (e.g., to enhance the power produced by the cell) can be adjusted to enhance system performance. Certain embodiments of the systems and methods described herein can be used to generate energy relatively efficiently.

  15. Development of a reverse genetics system to generate a recombinant Ebola virus Makona expressing a green fluorescent protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albariño, César G. Wiggleton Guerrero, Lisa; Lo, Michael K.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential application of reverse genetics technology in studying a broad range of aspects of viral biology, including gene regulation, protein function, cell entry, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe a highly efficient reverse genetics system used to generate recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a recent isolate from a human patient infected during the 2014–2015 outbreak in Western Africa. We also rescued a recombinant EBOV expressing a fluorescent reporter protein from a cleaved VP40 protein fusion. Using this virus and an inexpensive method to quantitate the expression of the foreign gene, we demonstrate its potential usefulness as a tool for screening antiviral compounds and measuring neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from Makona variant was rescued. • New protocol for viral rescue allows 100% efficiency. • Modified EBOV expresses a green fluorescent protein from a VP40-fused protein. • Modified EBOV was tested as tool to screen antiviral compounds and measure neutralizing antibodies.

  16. GPHS-RTG system explosion test direct course experiment 5000. [General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) has been designed and is being built to provide electrical power for spacecrafts to be launched on the Space Shuttle. The objective of the RTG System Explosion Test was to expose a mock-up of the GPHS-RTG with a simulated heat source to the overpressure and impulse representative of a potential upper magnitude explosion of the Space Shuttle. The test was designed so that the heat source module would experience an overpressure at which the survival of the fuel element cladding would be expected to be marginal. Thus, the mock-up was placed where the predicted incident overpressure would be 1300 psi. The mock-up was mounted in an orientation representative of the launch configuration on the spacecraft to be used on the NASA Galileo Mission. The incident overpressure measured was in the range of 1400 to 2100 psi. The mock-up and simulated heat source were destroyed and only very small fragments were recovered. This damage is believed to have resulted from a combination of the overpressure and impact by very high velocity fragments from the ANFO sphere. Post-test analysis indicated that extreme working of the iridium clad material occurred, indicative of intensive impulsive loading on the metal.

  17. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31

    This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hawaii has established simplified interconnection rules for small renewables and separate rules for all other distributed generation (DG). For inverter-based systems up to 10...

  19. A Generic Biogeochemical Module for Earth System Models: Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module (NGBGC), Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yilin; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Chongxuan; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-11-13

    Physical and biogeochemical processes regulate soil carbon dynamics and CO2 flux to and from atmosphere, influencing global climate changes. Integration of these processes into earth system models (e.g., community land models (CLM)), however, currently faces three major challenges: 1) extensive efforts are required to modify modeling structures and to rewrite computer programs to incorporate new or updated processes as new knowledge is being generated, 2) computational cost is prohibitively expensive to simulate biogeochemical processes in land models due to large variations in the rates of biogeochemical processes, and 3) various mathematical representations of biogeochemical processes exist to incorporate different aspects of fundamental mechanisms, but systematic evaluation of the different mathematical representations is difficult, if not possible. To address these challenges, we propose a new computational framework to easily incorporate physical and biogeochemical processes into land models. The new framework consists of a new biogeochemical module with a generic algorithm and reaction database so that new and updated processes can be incorporated into land models without the need to manually set up the ordinary differential equations to be solved numerically. The reaction database consists of processes of nutrient flow through the terrestrial ecosystems in plants, litter and soil. This framework facilitates effective comparison studies of biogeochemical cycles in an ecosystem using different conceptual models under the same land modeling framework. The approach was first implemented in CLM and benchmarked against simulations from the original CLM-CN code. A case study was then provided to demonstrate the advantages of using the new approach to incorporate a phosphorus cycle into the CLM model. To our knowledge, the phosphorus-incorporated CLM is a new model that can be used to simulate phosphorus limitation on the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Solaire Generation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generation Place: New York, New York Zip: 10001 Sector: Solar Product: New York-based rooftop PV mounting systems and solar canopy maker. References: Solaire Generation1 This...

  1. Isolated trigger pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, K.

    1980-02-19

    A trigger pulse generation system capable of delivering a multiplicity of isolated 100 kV trigger pulses with picosecond simultaneity. 2 figs.

  2. Isolated trigger pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-19

    A trigger pulse generation system capable of delivering a multiplicity of isolated 100 kV trigger pulses with picosecond simultaneity.

  3. An integrated CMOS 0.15 ns digital timing generator for TDC`s and clock distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, J.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes the architecture and performance of a new high resolution timing generator used as a building block for time to Digital Converters (TDC) and clock alignment functions. The timing generator is implemented as an array of locked loops. This architecture enables a timing generator with sub-gate delay resolution to be implemented in a standard digital CMOS process. The TDC function is implemented by storing the state of the timing generator signals in an asynchronous pipeline buffer when a hit signal is asserted. The clock alignment function is obtained by selecting one of the timing generator signals as an output clock. The proposed timing-generator has been mapped into a 1.0 {micro}m CMOS process a RMS error of the time taps of 48 ps has been measured with a bin size 0.15 ns. Used as a TDC device a RMS error of {minus}6 ps has been obtained. A short overview of the basic principles of major TDC and timing generator architectures is given to compare the merits of the proposed scheme to other alternatives.

  4. Magnetocumulative generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettibone, Joseph S.; Wheeler, Paul C.

    1983-01-01

    An improved magnetocumulative generator is described that is useful for producing magnetic fields of very high energy content over large spatial volumes. The polar directed pleated magnetocumulative generator has a housing (100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105) providing a housing chamber (106) with an electrically conducting surface. The chamber (106) forms a coaxial system having a small radius portion and a large radius portion. When a magnetic field is injected into the chamber (106), from an external source, most of the magnetic flux associated therewith positions itself in the small radius portion. The propagation of an explosive detonation through high-explosive layers (107, 108) disposed adjacent to the housing causes a phased closure of the chamber (106) which sweeps most of the magnetic flux into the large radius portion of the coaxial system. The energy content of the magnetic field is greatly increased by flux stretching as well as by flux compression. The energy enhanced magnetic field is utilized within the housing chamber itself.

  5. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G; Lee, Denise L; Roach, Benjamin D; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Williams, Neil J

    2013-01-01

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  6. Reliable, Low-Cost Distributed Generator/Utility System Interconnect: Final Subcontract Report, November 2001-March 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.; Li, L.; Zhou, R.; Garces, L.; Dame, M.

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the detailed study and development of new GE anti-islanding controls for two classes of distributed generation. One is inverter-interfaced, while the other is synchronous machine interfaced.

  7. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G; Ward, Richard C; Wright, Michael C; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNM detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. The approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information

  8. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G.; Ward, Richard C.; Wright, Michael C.; Kruse, Kara L.; Bhaduri, Budhendra; Slepoy, Alexander

    2015-05-22

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNM detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. Furthermore, the approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information

  9. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G.; Ward, Richard C.; Wright, Michael C.; Kruse, Kara L.; Bhaduri, Budhendra; Slepoy, Alexander

    2015-05-22

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNMmore » detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. Furthermore, the approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information« less

  10. Synthetic guide star generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Stephen A; Page, Ralph H; Ebbers, Christopher A; Beach, Raymond J

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  11. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.

    2004-03-09

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  12. Making the Economic Case for Small-Scale Distributed Wind -- A Screening for Distributed Generation Wind Opportunities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Brown, E.; Dominick, J.; Jurotich, T.

    2007-06-01

    This study was an offshoot of a previous assessment, which examined the potential for large-scale, greater than 50 MW, wind development on occupied federal agency lands. The study did not find significant commercial wind development opportunities, primarily because of poor wind resource on available and appropriately sized land areas or land use or aesthetic concerns. The few sites that could accommodate a large wind farm failed to have transmission lines in optimum locations required to generate power at competitive wholesale prices. The study did identify a promising but less common distributed generation (DG) development option. This follow-up study documents the NREL/Global Energy Concepts team efforts to identify economic DG wind projects at a select group of occupied federal sites. It employs a screening strategy based on project economics that go beyond quantity of windy land to include state and utility incentives as well as the value of avoided power purchases. It attempts to account for the extra costs and difficulties associated with small projects through the use of project scenarios that are more compatible with federal facilities and existing land uses. These benefits and barriers of DG are discussed, and the screening methodology and results are included. The report concludes with generalizations about the screening method and recommendations for improvement and other potential applications for this methodology.

  13. Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

  14. Non-ambipolar radio-frequency plasma electron source and systems and methods for generating electron beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershkowitz, Noah; Longmier, Benjamin; Baalrud, Scott

    2009-03-03

    An electron generating device extracts electrons, through an electron sheath, from plasma produced using RF fields. The electron sheath is located near a grounded ring at one end of a negatively biased conducting surface, which is normally a cylinder. Extracted electrons pass through the grounded ring in the presence of a steady state axial magnetic field. Sufficiently large magnetic fields and/or RF power into the plasma allow for helicon plasma generation. The ion loss area is sufficiently large compared to the electron loss area to allow for total non-ambipolar extraction of all electrons leaving the plasma. Voids in the negatively-biased conducting surface allow the time-varying magnetic fields provided by the antenna to inductively couple to the plasma within the conducting surface. The conducting surface acts as a Faraday shield, which reduces any time-varying electric fields from entering the conductive surface, i.e. blocks capacitive coupling between the antenna and the plasma.

  15. 200 kHz Commercial Sonar Systems Generate Lower Frequency Side Lobes Audible to Some Marine Mammals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Southall, Brandon; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xu, Jinshan; Martinez, Jayson J.; Weiland, Mark A.; Ingraham, John M.

    2014-04-15

    The spectral properties of pulses transmitted by three commercially available 200 kHz echo sounders were measured to assess the possibility that sound energy in below the center (carrier) frequency might be heard by marine mammals. The study found that all three sounders generated sound at frequencies below the center frequency and within the hearing range of some marine mammals and that this sound was likely detectable by the animals over limited ranges. However, at standard operating source levels for the sounders, the sound below the center frequency was well below potentially harmful levels. It was concluded that the sounds generated by the sounders could affect the behavior of marine mammals within fairly close proximity to the sources and that that the blanket exclusion of echo sounders from environmental impact analysis based solely on the center frequency output in relation to the range of marine mammal hearing should be reconsidered.

  16. System and method for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation with acoustic sources generating conical broadcast signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre -Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-08-18

    A method of interrogating a formation includes generating a conical acoustic signal, at a first frequency--a second conical acoustic signal at a second frequency each in the between approximately 500 Hz and 500 kHz such that the signals intersect in a desired intersection volume outside the borehole. The method further includes receiving, a difference signal returning to the borehole resulting from a non-linear mixing of the signals in a mixing zone within the intersection volume.

  17. Application of Spatial Data Modeling and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for Identification of Potential Siting Options for Various Electrical Generation Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Blevins, Brandon R; Hadley, Stanton W; Harrison, Thomas J; Jochem, Warren C; Neish, Bradley S; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Rose, Amy N

    2012-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) initiated an internal National Electric Generation Siting Study, which is an ongoing multiphase study addressing several key questions related to our national electrical energy supply. This effort has led to the development of a tool, OR-SAGE (Oak Ridge Siting Analysis for power Generation Expansion), to support siting evaluations. The objective in developing OR-SAGE was to use industry-accepted approaches and/or develop appropriate criteria for screening sites and employ an array of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data sources at ORNL to identify candidate areas for a power generation technology application. The initial phase of the study examined nuclear power generation. These early nuclear phase results were shared with staff from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which formed the genesis and support for an expansion of the work to several other power generation forms, including advanced coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS), solar, and compressed air energy storage (CAES). Wind generation was not included in this scope of work for EPRI. The OR-SAGE tool is essentially a dynamic visualization database. The results shown in this report represent a single static set of results using a specific set of input parameters. In this case, the GIS input parameters were optimized to support an economic study conducted by EPRI. A single set of individual results should not be construed as an ultimate energy solution, since US energy policy is very complex. However, the strength of the OR-SAGE tool is that numerous alternative scenarios can be quickly generated to provide additional insight into electrical generation or other GIS-based applications. The screening process divides the contiguous United States into 100 x 100 m (1-hectare) squares (cells), applying successive power generation-appropriate site selection and evaluation criteria (SSEC) to each cell. There are just under 700 million cells representing the

  18. Automated quadrilateral surface discretization method and apparatus usable to generate mesh in a finite element analysis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blacker, Teddy D.

    1994-01-01

    An automatic quadrilateral surface discretization method and apparatus is provided for automatically discretizing a geometric region without decomposing the region. The automated quadrilateral surface discretization method and apparatus automatically generates a mesh of all quadrilateral elements which is particularly useful in finite element analysis. The generated mesh of all quadrilateral elements is boundary sensitive, orientation insensitive and has few irregular nodes on the boundary. A permanent boundary of the geometric region is input and rows are iteratively layered toward the interior of the geometric region. Also, an exterior permanent boundary and an interior permanent boundary for a geometric region may be input and the rows are iteratively layered inward from the exterior boundary in a first counter clockwise direction while the rows are iteratively layered from the interior permanent boundary toward the exterior of the region in a second clockwise direction. As a result, a high quality mesh for an arbitrary geometry may be generated with a technique that is robust and fast for complex geometric regions and extreme mesh gradations.

  19. Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the Minnesota net metering policy is to give the maximum possible encouragement to distributed generation assets, especially solar electric systems (MN 2008). However, according to a published set of best practices (NNEC 2008) that prioritize the maximum development of solar markets within states, the Minnesota policy does not incorporate many of the important best practices that may help other states transform their solar energy markets and increase the amount of grid-connected distributed solar generation assets. Reasons cited include the low system size limit of 40kW (the best practices document recommends a 2 MW limit) and a lack of language protecting generators from additional utility fees. This study was conducted to compare Minnesota's policies to national best practices. It provides an overview of the current Minnesota policy in the context of these best practices and other jurisdictions' net metering policies, as well as a qualitative assessment of the impacts of raising the system size cap within the policy based on the experiences of other states.

  20. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  1. Generation Planning (pbl/generation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Generation Planning Thumbnail image of BPA White Book BPA White Book (1998-2014) Draft Dry...

  2. Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation Generation Southeastern’s Power Operations employees perform the tasks of declaring, scheduling, dispatching, and accounting for capacity and energy generated at the 22 hydroelectric projects in the agency’s 11-state marketing area. Southeastern has Certified System Operators, meeting the criteria set forth by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. Southeastern's Power Operations employees perform the tasks of declaring, scheduling, dispatching, and accounting

  3. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis-Membrane Distillation System for Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat: Thermodynamic Analysis and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Yip, NY; Cath, TY; Osuji, CO; Elimelech, M

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 degrees C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 degrees C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for

  4. A review of current anti-islanding methods for photovoltaic power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Byunggyu; Yu, Gwonjong; Matsui, Mikihiko

    2010-05-15

    Islanding phenomenon is undesirable because it leads to a safety hazard to utility service personnel and may cause damage to power generation and power supply facilities as a result of unsynchronized re-closure. Until now, various anti-islanding methods (AIMs) for detecting and preventing islanding of photovoltaic and other distributed generations (DGs) have been proposed. This paper presents an overview of recent anti-islanding method developments for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation, focusing on the concept and operating principle, mainly based on single phase system. For the performance comparison, the experimental results of the various AIMs with 3 kW PV inverter are provided based on the islanding detection capability and power quality. As a result, the active AIMs have better islanding detection capability rather than the passive one. However, the active AIMs have power quality degradation on harmonic distortion or displacement power factor based on the injected active signal type. In addition to the evaluation and comparison of the main anti-islanding methods, this paper also summarizes the related anti-islanding standards to evaluate anti-islanding capability for PV system. This paper can be used as a useful anti-islanding reference for future work in DG like PV, and wind turbine. (author)

  5. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized

  6. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, ...

  7. validation and Enhancement of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer Predictive Capabilities for Generation IV Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert E. Spall; Barton Smith; Thomas Hauser

    2008-12-08

    Nationwide, the demand for electricity due to population and industrial growth is on the rise. However, climate change and air quality issues raise serious questions about the wisdom of addressing these shortages through the construction of additional fossil fueled power plants. In 1997, the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology Energy Research and Development Panel determined that restoring a viable nuclear energy option was essential and that the DOE should implement a R&D effort to address principal obstacles to achieving this option. This work has addressed the need for improved thermal/fluid analysis capabilities, through the use of computational fluid dynamics, which are necessary to support the design of generation IV gas-cooled and supercritical water reactors.

  8. Code System to Process WIMSD4 Interface Output Files and Generate Two-Group Data for Reactor Calculations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-03

    Version 00 The code processes the WIMS-D/4 binary output files for producing two-group microscopic cross sections and macroscopic lattice cell constants (zone and cell macroscopic cross sections, D, M, and K-infinity) in a more flexible format needed for reactor burnup codes like CITATION, for reactor dynamics codes like NADYP-W and for other reactor codes. The purpose of the WIMSCORE-ENEA code is to facilitate the automation of data transfer between the cell calculation code WIMS andmore » the diffusion-burnup codes. Use is made of the VARY storage manipulation package. WIMSCORE generates output files to be used by the codes TDB, TRITON, CITATION.« less

  9. System performance and cost sensitivity comparisons of stretched membrane heliostat reflectors with current generation glass/metal concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L.M.; Anderson, J.V.; Short, W.; Wendelin, T.

    1985-12-01

    Heliostat costs have long been recognized as a major factor in the cost of solar central receiver plants. Research on stretched membrane heliostats has been emphasized because of their potential as a cost-effective alternative to current glass/metal designs. However, the cost and performance potential of stretched membrane heliostats from a system perspective has not been studied until this time. The optical performance of individual heliostats is predicted here using results established in previous structural studies. These performance predictions are used to compare both focused and unfocused stretched membrane heliostats with state-of-the-art glass/metal heliostats from a systems perspective. We investigated the sensitivity of the relative cost and performance of fields of heliostats to a large number of parameter variations, including system size, delivery temperature, heliostat module size, surface specularity, hemispherical reflectance, and macroscopic surface quality. The results indicate that focused stretched membrane systems should have comparable performance levels to those of current glass/metal heliostat systems. Further, because of their relatively lower cost, stretched membrane heliostats should provide an economically attractive alternative to current glass/metal heliostats over essentially the entire range of design parameters studied. Unfocused stretched membrane heliostats may also be attractive for a somewhat more limited range of applications, including the larger plant sizes and lower delivery temperatures.

  10. JV Task 46 - Development and Testing of a Thermally Integrated SOFC-Gasification System for Biomass Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip Hutton; Nikhil Patel; Kyle Martin; Devinder Singh

    2008-02-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has designed a biomass power system using a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermally integrated with a downdraft gasifier. In this system, the high-temperature effluent from the SOFC enables the operation of a substoichiometric air downdraft gasifier at an elevated temperature (1000 C). At this temperature, moisture in the biomass acts as an essential carbon-gasifying medium, reducing the equivalence ratio at which the gasifier can operate with complete carbon conversion. Calculations show gross conversion efficiencies up to 45% (higher heating value) for biomass moisture levels up to 40% (wt basis). Experimental work on a bench-scale gasifier demonstrated increased tar cracking within the gasifier and increased energy density of the resultant syngas. A series of experiments on wood chips demonstrated tar output in the range of 9.9 and 234 mg/m{sup 3}. Both button cells and a 100-watt stack was tested on syngas from the gasifier. Both achieved steady-state operation with a 22% and 15% drop in performance, respectively, relative to pure hydrogen. In addition, tar tolerance testing on button cells demonstrated an upper limit of tar tolerance of approximately 1%, well above the tar output of the gasifier. The predicted system efficiency was revised down to 33% gross and 27% net system efficiency because of the results of the gasifier and fuel cell experiments. These results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of thermally integrating a gasifier and a high-temperature fuel cell in small distributed power systems.

  11. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  12. System and method for generating 3D images of non-linear properties of rock formation using surface seismic or surface to borehole seismic or both

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt Toshimi; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2016-06-07

    A system and method of characterizing properties of a medium from a non-linear interaction are include generating, by first and second acoustic sources disposed on a surface of the medium on a first line, first and second acoustic waves. The first and second acoustic sources are controllable such that trajectories of the first and second acoustic waves intersect in a mixing zone within the medium. The method further includes receiving, by a receiver positioned in a plane containing the first and second acoustic sources, a third acoustic wave generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic waves in the mixing zone; and creating a first two-dimensional image of non-linear properties or a first ratio of compressional velocity and shear velocity, or both, of the medium in a first plane generally perpendicular to the surface and containing the first line, based on the received third acoustic wave.

  13. System and method for generating micro-seismic events and characterizing properties of a medium with non-linear acoustic interactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-12-29

    A method and system includes generating a first coded acoustic signal including pulses each having a modulated signal at a central frequency; and a second coded acoustic signal each pulse of which includes a modulated signal a central frequency of which is a fraction d of the central frequency of the modulated signal for the corresponding pulse in the first plurality of pulses. A receiver detects a third signal generated by a non-linear mixing process in the mixing zone and the signal is processed to extract the third signal to obtain an emulated micro-seismic event signal occurring at the mixing zone; and to characterize properties of the medium or creating a 3D image of the properties of the medium, or both, based on the emulated micro-seismic event signal.

  14. Development of a multiphysics analysis system for sodium-water reaction phenomena in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchibori, Akihiro; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-31

    A multiphysics analysis system for sodium-water reaction phenomena in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors was newly developed. The analysis system consists of the mechanistic numerical analysis codes, SERAPHIM, TACT, and RELAP5. The SERAPHIM code calculates the multicomponent multiphase flow and sodium-water chemical reaction caused by discharging of pressurized water vapor. Applicability of the SERAPHIM code was confirmed through the analyses of the experiment on water vapor discharging in liquid sodium. The TACT code was developed to calculate heat transfer from the reacting jet to the adjacent tube and to predict the tube failure occurrence. The numerical models integrated into the TACT code were verified through some related experiments. The RELAP5 code evaluates thermal hydraulic behavior of water inside the tube. The original heat transfer correlations were corrected for the tube rapidly heated by the reacting jet. The developed system enables evaluation of the wastage environment and the possibility of the failure propagation.

  15. Next Generation Materials:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Materials: 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 1 4 1.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 1 5 1.2 Public and private roles and activities .......................................................................................... 3 6 2.

  16. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  17. Oscillating fluid power generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  18. Dynamic Analysis of Hybrid Energy Systems under Flexible Operation and Variable Renewable Generation -- Part I: Dynamic Performance Analysis and Part II: Dynamic Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humberto E. Garcia; Amit Mohanty; Wen-Chiao Lin; Robert S. Cherry

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic analysis of hybrid energy systems (HES) under flexible operation and variable renewable generation is considered in order to better understand various challenges and opportunities associated with the high system variability arising from the integration of renewable energy into the power grid. Unique consequences are addressed by devising advanced HES solutions in which multiple forms of energy commodities, such as electricity and chemical products, may be exchanged. Dynamic models of various unit operations are developed and integrated within two different HES options. One HES option, termed traditional, produces electricity only and consists of a primary heat generator (PHG) (e.g., a small modular reactor), a steam turbine generator, a wind farm, and a battery storage. The other HES option, termed advanced, includes not only the components present in the traditional option but also a chemical plant complex to repurpose excess energy for non-electricity services, such as for the production of chemical goods (e.g., transportation fuel). In either case, a given HES is connected to the power grid at a point of common coupling and requested to deliver a certain electricity generation profile as dictated by a regional power grid operator based on a predicted demand curve. Dynamic analysis of these highly-coupled HES are performed to identify their key dynamical properties and limitations and to prescribe solutions for best managing and mitigating the high variability introduced from incorporating renewable energy into the energy mix. A comparative dynamic cost analysis is also conducted to determine best HES options. The cost function includes a set of metrics for computing fixed costs, such as fixed operations and maintenance (O&M) and overnight capital costs, and also variable operational costs, such as cost of variability, variable O&M cost, and cost of environmental impact, together with revenues. Assuming different options for implementing PHG (e

  19. Distributed generation hits market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it`s highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can`t handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities.

  20. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part II: Prismatic Reactor Cross Section Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent Descotes

    2011-03-01

    The deep-burn prismatic high temperature reactor is made up of an annular core loaded with transuranic isotopes and surrounded in the center and in the periphery by reflector blocks in graphite. This disposition creates challenges for the neutronics compared to usual light water reactor calculation schemes. The longer mean free path of neutrons in graphite affects the neutron spectrum deep inside the blocks located next to the reflector. The neutron thermalisation in the graphite leads to two characteristic fission peaks at the inner and outer interfaces as a result of the increased thermal flux seen in those assemblies. Spectral changes are seen at least on half of the fuel blocks adjacent to the reflector. This spectral effect of the reflector may prevent us from successfully using the two step scheme -lattice then core calculation- typically used for light water reactors. We have been studying the core without control mechanisms to provide input for the development of a complete calculation scheme. To correct the spectrum at the lattice level, we have tried to generate cross-sections from supercell calculations at the lattice level, thus taking into account part of the graphite surrounding the blocks of interest for generating the homogenised cross-sections for the full-core calculation. This one has been done with 2 to 295 groups to assess if increasing the number of groups leads to more accurate results. A comparison with a classical single block model has been done. Both paths were compared to a reference calculation done with MCNP. It is concluded that the agreement with MCNP is better with supercells, but that the single block model remains quite close if enough groups are kept for the core calculation. 26 groups seems to be a good compromise between time and accu- racy. However, some trials with depletion have shown huge variations of the isotopic composition across a block next to the reflector. It may imply that at least an in- core depletion for the

  1. System for generating pluralities of optical pulses with predetermined frequencies in a temporally and spatially overlapped relationship

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerhofer, D.D.; Schmid, A.W.; Chuang, Y.

    1992-03-10

    Ultrashort (pico second and shorter) laser pulses having components of different frequency which are overlapped coherently in space and with a predetermined constant relationship in time, are generated and may be used in applications where plural spectrally separate, time-synchronized pulses are needed as in wave-length resolved spectroscopy and spectral pump probe measurements for characterization of materials. A Chirped Pulse Amplifier (CPA), such as a regenerative amplifier, which provides amplified, high intensity pulses at the output thereof which have the same spatial intensity profile, is used to process a series of chirped pulses, each with a different central frequency (the desired frequencies contained in the output pulses). Each series of chirped pulses is obtained from a single chirped pulse by spectral windowing with a mask in a dispersive expansion stage ahead of the laser amplifier. The laser amplifier amplifies the pulses and provides output pulses with like spatial and temporal profiles. A compression stage then compresses the amplified pulses. All the individual pulses of different frequency, which originated in each single chirped pulse, are compressed and thereby coherently overlapped in space and time. The compressed pulses may be used for the foregoing purposes and other purposes wherien pulses having a plurality of discrete frequency components are required. 4 figs.

  2. System for generating pluralities of optical pulses with predetermined frequencies in a temporally and spatially overlapped relationship

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerhofer, David D. (Spencerport, NY); Schmid, Ansgar W. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Chuang, Yung-ho (Rochester, NY)

    1992-01-01

    Ultra short (pico second and shorter) laser pulses having components of different frequency which are overlapped coherently in space and with a predetermined constant relationship in time, are generated and may be used in applications where plural spectrally separate, time-synchronized pulses are needed as in wave-length resolved spectroscopy and spectral pump probe measurements for characterization of materials. A Chirped Pulse Amplifier (CPA), such as a regenerative amplifier, which provides amplified, high intensity pulses at the output thereof which have the same spatial intensity profile, is used to process a series of chirped pulses, each with a different central frequency (the desired frequencies contained in the output pulses). Each series of chirped pulses is obtained from a single chirped pulse by spectral windowing with a mask in a dispersive expansion stage ahead of the laser amplifier. The laser amplifier amplifies the pulses and provides output pulses with like spatial and temporal profiles. A compression stage then compresses the amplified pulses. All the individual pulses of different frequency, which originated in each single chirped pulse, are compressed and thereby coherently overlapped in space and time. The compressed pulses may be used for the foregoing purposes and other purposes wherien pulses having a plurality of discrete frequency components are required.

  3. A Modification of the Isotope Generation and Depletion Code System ORIGEN. CCC-702/ORIGEN-ARP is recommended for new ORIGEN users.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1984-05-04

    Version 00 KORIGEN is a modification of the isotope generation and depletion code system CCC-217/ORIGEN. ORIGEN solved the equations of radioactive growth and decay allowing continuous first order chemical processing and a neutron flux described by a three-region spectrum. Complex decay and transmutation schemes were treated. Note that this package has not been updated in many years; and all new ORIGEN users are advised to request the CCC-702/ORIGEN-ARP package, which is a PC application formore » Windows 95/NT or later.« less

  4. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  5. Graph Generator Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lothian, Josh; Powers, Sarah S; Sullivan, Blair D; Baker, Matthew B; Schrock, Jonathan; Poole, Stephen W

    2013-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of dierent application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.

  6. Quantum random number generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Bing

    2016-06-28

    Here, quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness -- coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at amore » high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.« less

  7. Development and Demonstration of a New Generation High Efficiency 10kW Stationary Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Thomas Russell

    2013-04-30

    The overall project objective is to develop and demonstrate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell combined heat and power (PEMFC CHP) system that provides the foundation for commercial, mass produced units which achieve over 40% electrical efficiency (fuel to electric conversion) from 50-100% load, greater than 70% overall efficiency (fuel to electric energy + usable waste heat energy conversion), have the potential to achieve 40,000 hours durability on all major process components, and can be produced in high volumes at under $400/kW (revised to $750/kW per 2011 DOE estimates) capital cost.

  8. Rate Structures for Customers With Onsite Generation: Practice and Innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, L.; Takahashi, K.; Weston, F.; Murray, C.

    2005-12-01

    Recognizing that innovation and good public policy do not always proclaim themselves, Synapse Energy Economics and the Regulatory Assistance Project, under a contract with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), undertook a survey of state policies on rates for partial-requirements customers with onsite distributed generation. The survey investigated a dozen or so states. These varied in geography and the structures of their electric industries. By reviewing regulatory proceedings, tariffs, publications, and interviews, the researchers identified a number of approaches to standby and associated rates--many promising but some that are perhaps not--that deserve policymakers' attention if they are to promote the deployment of cost-effective DG in their states.

  9. Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator - Business

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Owners | Department of Energy Business Owners Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator - Business Owners Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator - Business Owners Identify essential systems and equipment-What do you need to keep your business operating? These may include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems; industrial equipment and major appliances, such as refrigerators and freezers; lights (interior and exterior), computers, and other

  10. June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels ... Wilson, D.G. (1982) 19 Wind power forecasting : state-of-the-art 2009. Monteiro, C.; ...

  11. Transition Metal Catalyzed Hydroarylation of Multiple Bonds: Exploration of Second Generation Ruthenium Catalysts and Extension to Copper Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Brent Gunnoe

    2011-02-17

    Catalysts provide foundational technology for the development of new materials and can enhance the efficiency of routes to known materials. New catalyst technologies offer the possibility of reducing energy and raw material consumption as well as enabling chemical processes with a lower environmental impact. The rising demand and expense of fossil resources has strained national and global economies and has increased the importance of accessing more efficient catalytic processes for the conversion of hydrocarbons to useful products. The goals of the research are to develop and understand single-site homogeneous catalysts for the conversion of readily available hydrocarbons into useful materials. A detailed understanding of these catalytic reactions could lead to the development of catalysts with improved activity, longevity and selectivity. Such transformations could reduce the environmental impact of hydrocarbon functionalization, conserve energy and valuable fossil resources and provide new technologies for the production of liquid fuels. This project is a collaborative effort that incorporates both experimental and computational studies to understand the details of transition metal catalyzed C-H activation and C-C bond forming reactions with olefins. Accomplishments of the current funding period include: (1) We have completed and published studies of C-H activation and catalytic olefin hydroarylation by TpRu{l_brace}P(pyr){sub 3}{r_brace}(NCMe)R (pyr = N-pyrrolyl) complexes. While these systems efficiently initiate stoichiometric benzene C-H activation, catalytic olefin hydroarylation is hindered by inhibition of olefin coordination, which is a result of the steric bulk of the P(pyr){sub 3} ligand. (2) We have extended our studies of catalytic olefin hydroarylation by TpRu(L)(NCMe)Ph systems to L = P(OCH{sub 2}){sub 3}CEt. Thus, we have now completed detailed mechanistic studies of four systems with L = CO, PMe{sub 3}, P(pyr){sub 3} and P(OCH{sub 2}){sub 3}CEt

  12. Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the Gaia-Wind 11 kW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

    2010-09-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NRELs) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a Gaia-Wind 11 kW wind turbine mounted on an 18 m monopole tower. Gaia-Wind Ltd. manufactured the turbine in Denmark, although the company is based in Scotland. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Gaia-Wind.

  13. PULSE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  14. Microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  15. Development of a Markerless Genetic Exchange System in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Its Use in Generating a Strain with Increased Transformation Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Kimberly L.; Bender, Kelly S.; Wall, Judy D.

    2009-07-21

    In recent years, the genetic manipulation of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough has seen enormous progress. In spite of this progress, the current marker exchange deletion method does not allow for easy selection of multiple sequential gene deletions in a single strain because of the limited number of selectable markers available in D. vulgaris. To broaden the repertoire of genetic tools for manipulation, an in-frame, markerless deletion system has been developed. The counterselectable marker that makes this deletion system possible is the pyrimidine salvage enzyme, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, encoded by upp. In wild-type D. vulgaris, growth was shown to be inhibited by the toxic pyrimidine analog 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); whereas, a mutant bearing a deletion of the upp gene was resistant to 5-FU. When a plasmid containing the wild-type upp gene expressed constitutively from the aph(3')-II promoter (promoter for the kanamycin resistance gene in Tn5) was introduced into the upp deletion strain, sensitivity to 5-FU was restored. This observation allowed us to develop a two-step integration and excision strategy for the deletion of genes of interest. Since this inframe deletion strategy does not retain an antibiotic cassette, multiple deletions can be generated in a single strain without the accumulation of genes conferring antibiotic resistances. We used this strategy to generate a deletion strain lacking the endonuclease (hsdR, DVU1703) of a type I restriction-modification system, that we designated JW7035. The transformation efficiency of the JW7035 strain was found to be 100 to 1000 times greater than that of the wild-type strain when stable plasmids were introduced via electroporation.

  16. BPA Power Generation (pbl/main)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Power Generation Hydro Power Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Hydro Projects FCRPS...

  17. Reducing gas generators and methods for generating a reducing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scotto, Mark Vincent; Perna, Mark Anthony

    2015-11-03

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique reducing gas generator. Another embodiment is a unique method for generating a reducing gas. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for generating reducing gas. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  18. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  19. Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagy, Peter

    2013-09-30

    materials. Through the results obtained from this integrated materials behavior and NDE study, new insight will be gained into the best nondestructive creep and microstructure monitoring methods for the particular mechanisms identified in these materials. The proposed project includes collaboration with a national laboratory partner and the results will also serve as a foundation to guide the efforts of scientists in the DOE laboratory, university, and industrial communities concerned with the technological challenges of monitoring creep and microstructural evolution in materials planned to be used in Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems.

  20. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1958-03-11

    This patent describes apparatus for producing an electricity neutral ionized gas discharge, termed a plasma, substantially free from contamination with neutral gas particles. The plasma generator of the present invention comprises a plasma chamber wherein gas introduced into the chamber is ionized by a radiofrequency source. A magnetic field is used to focus the plasma in line with an exit. This magnetic field cooperates with a differential pressure created across the exit to draw a uniform and uncontaminated plasma from the plasma chamber.

  1. Thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pryslak, N.E.

    1974-02-26

    A thermoelectric generator having a rigid coupling or stack'' between the heat source and the hot strap joining the thermoelements is described. The stack includes a member of an insulating material, such as ceramic, for electrically isolating the thermoelements from the heat source, and a pair of members of a ductile material, such as gold, one each on each side of the insulating member, to absorb thermal differential expansion stresses in the stack. (Official Gazette)

  2. Cluster generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donchev, Todor I.; Petrov, Ivan G.

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  3. Photon generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  4. Particulate Generation in Tritium Systems

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis SEM Photomicrograph X-ray Spectrum C Cu F Si 6 Analysis of Particulates ... Analysis X-Ray Spectrum O F 13 SEM images of lint free cloth used to collect particles. ...

  5. Electric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  6. Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

    2007-12-31

    ) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/MBR system to remove carboxylates and BTEX from produced water in a field trial. Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide a better understanding of each component of the SMZ/VPB and SMZ/MBR process. Laboratory VPB studies were designed to address the issue of influent variability and periodic operation (see DE-FC26-02NT15461). These experiments examined multiple influent loading cycles and variable concentration loadings that simulate air sparging as the regeneration option for the SMZ system. Two pilot studies were conducted at a produced water processing facility near Farmington, New Mexico. The first field test evaluated SMZ adsorption, SMZ regeneration, VPB buffering, and VPB performance, and the second test focused on MBR and SMZ/MBR operation. The design of the field studies were based on the results from the previous field tests and laboratory studies. Both of the biological treatment systems were capable of removing the BTEX constituents in the laboratory and in the field over a range of operating conditions. For the VPB, separation of the BTEX constituents from the saline aqueous phase yielded high removal efficiencies. However, carboxylates remained in the aqueous phase and were not removed in the combined VPB/SMZ system. In contrast, the MBR was capable of directly treating the saline produced water and simultaneously removing the BTEX and carboxylate constituents. The major limitation of the MBR system is the potential for membrane fouling, particularly when the system is treating produced water under field conditions. The combined process was able to effectively pretreat water for reverse osmosis treatment and subsequent downstream reuse options including utilization in power generation facilities. The specific conclusions that can be drawn from this study are summarized.

  7. System Impact Study of the Eastern Grid of Sumba Island, Indonesia: Steady-State and Dynamic System Modeling for the Integration of One and Two 850-kW Wind Turbine Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oswal, R.; Jain, P.; Muljadi, Eduard; Hirsch, Brian; Castermans, B.; Chandra, J.; Raharjo, S.; Hardison, R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to study the impact of integrating one and two 850-kW wind turbine generators into the eastern power system network of Sumba Island, Indonesia. A model was created for the 20-kV distribution network as it existed in the first quarter of 2015 with a peak load of 5.682 MW. Detailed data were collected for each element of the network. Load flow, short-circuit, and transient analyses were performed using DIgSILENT PowerFactory 15.2.1.

  8. Compact neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  9. Advanced natural gas-fired turbine system utilizing thermochemical recuperation and/or partial oxidation for electricity generation, greenfield and repowering applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    The performance, economics and technical feasibility of heavy duty combustion turbine power systems incorporating two advanced power generation schemes have been estimated to assess the potential merits of these advanced technologies. The advanced technologies considered were: Thermochemical Recuperation (TCR), and Partial Oxidation (PO). The performance and economics of these advanced cycles are compared to conventional combustion turbine Simple-Cycles and Combined-Cycles. The objectives of the Westinghouse evaluation were to: (1) simulate TCR and PO power plant cycles, (2) evaluate TCR and PO cycle options and assess their performance potential and cost potential compared to conventional technologies, (3) identify the required modifications to the combustion turbine and the conventional power cycle components to utilize the TCR and PO technologies, (4) assess the technical feasibility of the TCR and PO cycles, (5) identify what development activities are required to bring the TCR and PO technologies to commercial readiness. Both advanced technologies involve the preprocessing of the turbine fuel to generate a low-thermal-value fuel gas, and neither technology requires advances in basic turbine technologies (e.g., combustion, airfoil materials, airfoil cooling). In TCR, the turbine fuel is reformed to a hydrogen-rich fuel gas by catalytic contact with steam, or with flue gas (steam and carbon dioxide), and the turbine exhaust gas provides the indirect energy required to conduct the endothermic reforming reactions. This reforming process improves the recuperative energy recovery of the cycle, and the delivery of the low-thermal-value fuel gas to the combustors potentially reduces the NO{sub x} emission and increases the combustor stability.

  10. Advanced Micro Turbine System (AMTS) -C200 Micro Turbine -Ultra-Low Emissions Micro Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capstone Turbine Corporation

    2007-12-31

    In September 2000 Capstone Turbine Corporation commenced work on a US Department of Energy contract to develop and improve advanced microturbines for power generation with high electrical efficiency and reduced pollutants. The Advanced MicroTurbine System (AMTS) program focused on: (1) The development and implementation of technology for a 200 kWe scale high efficiency microturbine system (2) The development and implementation of a 65 kWe microturbine which meets California Air Resources Board (CARB) emissions standards effective in 2007. Both of these objectives were achieved in the course of the AMTS program. At its conclusion prototype C200 Microturbines had been designed, assembled and successfully completed field demonstration. C65 Microturbines operating on natural, digester and landfill gas were also developed and successfully tested to demonstrate compliance with CARB 2007 Fossil Fuel Emissions Standards for NOx, CO and VOC emissions. The C65 Microturbine subsequently received approval from CARB under Executive Order DG-018 and was approved for sale in California. The United Technologies Research Center worked in parallel to successfully execute a RD&D program to demonstrate the viability of a low emissions AMS which integrated a high-performing microturbine with Organic Rankine Cycle systems. These results are documented in AMS Final Report DOE/CH/11060-1 dated March 26, 2007.

  11. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, J.M.; Baker, W.R.

    1963-09-17

    This invention is a magnetohydrodynamic device for generating a highly ionized ion-electron plasma at a region remote from electrodes and structural members, thus avoiding contamination of the plasma. The apparatus utilizes a closed, gas-filled, cylindrical housing in which an axially directed magnetic field is provided. At one end of the housing, a short cylindrical electrode is disposed coaxially around a short axial inner electrode. A radial electrical discharge is caused to occur between the inner and outer electrodes, creating a rotating hydromagnetic ionization wave that propagates aiong the magnetic field lines toward the opposite end of the housing. A shorting switch connected between the electrodes prevents the wave from striking the opposite end of the housing. (AEC)

  12. Triboelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L; Fan, Fengru; Lin, Long; Zhu, Guang; Pan, Caofeng; Zhou, Yusheng

    2015-11-03

    A generator includes a thin first contact charging layer and a thin second contact charging layer. The thin first contact charging layer includes a first material that has a first rating on a triboelectric series. The thin first contact charging layer has a first side with a first conductive electrode applied thereto and an opposite second side. The thin second contact charging layer includes a second material that has a second rating on a triboelectric series that is more negative than the first rating. The thin first contact charging layer has a first side with a first conductive electrode applied thereto and an opposite second side. The thin second contact charging layer is disposed adjacent to the first contact charging layer so that the second side of the second contact charging layer is in contact with the second side of the first contact charging layer.

  13. ESF Subsurface Standby Generator Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Fernandez

    1998-04-17

    The purpose of this analysis is to outline and recommend two standby generator systems. These systems shall provide power during a utility outage to critical Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and to subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Critical loads that will be supported by these generator systems will be identified and evaluated. Additionally, other requirements from the Exploratory Studies Facilities Design Requirements (ESFDR) document will be evaluated. Finally, the standby generator systems will be integrated into the existing ESF subsurface distribution system. The objective of this analysis is to provide design inputs for an efficient and reliable standby generator systems which will provide power for critical loads during a power outage; specifically, Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and the subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Additionally, preliminary one-line diagrams will be developed using this analysis as a primary input.

  14. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  15. A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System for Light-Duty Vehicles Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

  16. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System ...

  17. Current-carrying element based on second-generation high-temperature superconductor for the magnet system of a fusion neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novikov, M. S. Ivanov, D. P. E-mail: denis.ivanov30@mail.ru; Novikov, S. I. Shuvaev, S. A. E-mail: sergey.shuvaev@phystech.edu

    2015-12-15

    Application of current-carrying elements (CCEs) made of second-generation high-temperature superconductor (2G HTS) in magnet systems of a fusion neutron source (FNS) and other fusion devices will allow their magnetic field and thermodynamic stability to be increased substantially in comparison with those of low-temperature superconductor (LTS) magnets. For a toroidal magnet of the FNS, a design of a helical (partially transposed) CCE made of 2G HTS is under development with forced-flow cooling by helium gas, a current of 20–30 kA, an operating temperature of 10–20 K, and a magnetic field on the winding of 12–15 T (prospectively ∼20 T). Short-sized samples of the helical flexible heavy-current CCE are being fabricated and investigated; a pilot-line unit for production of long-sized CCE pieces is under construction. The applied fabrication technique allows the CCE to be produced which combines a high operating current, thermal and mechanical stability, manufacturability, and low losses in the alternating modes. The possibility of fabricating the CCE with the outer dimensions and values of the operating parameter required for the FNS (and with a significant margin) using already available serial 2G HTS tapes is substantiated. The maximum field of toroidal magnets with CCEs made of 2G HTS will be limited only by mechanical properties of the magnet’s casing and structure, while the thermal stability will be approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of toroidal magnets with LTS-based CCEs. The helical CCE made of 2G HTS is very promising for fusion and hybrid electric power plants, and its design and technologies of production, as well as the prototype coils made of it for the FNS and other tokamaks, are worth developing now.

  18. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  19. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  20. Distributed generation implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzy, L.; O`Sullivan, J.B.; Jacobs, K.; Major, W.

    1999-11-01

    The overall economics of a distributed generation project is based on cost elements which include: Equipment and financing, fuel, displaced electricity cost, operation and maintenance. Of critical importance is how the facility is managed, including adequate provision for a comprehensive operator training program. Proper equipment maintenance and fuel procurement policy will also lead to greater system availability and optimal system economics. Various utility tariffs are available which may be economically attractive, with an added benefit to the utility of providing a peak shaving resource during peak periods. Changing modes of operation of the distributed generation system may affect staff readiness, require retraining and could affect maintenance costs. The degree of control and oversight that is provided during a project`s implementation and construction phases will impact subsequent maintenance and operating costs. The long term effect of siting impacts, such as building facades that restrict turbine inlet airflow will affect subsequent operations and require supplemental maintenance action. It is possible to site a variety of distributed generation technologies in settings which vary from urban to remote unattended locations with successful results from both an economic and operational perspective.

  1. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 4 Report: Virtual Mockup Maintenance Task Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 4 report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. This report focuses on using Full-scale virtual mockups for nuclear power plant training applications.

  2. STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinyon, B.W.; Whitman, G.D.

    1963-07-16

    The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

  3. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  4. Submersible Generator for Marine Hydrokinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinq-Mars, Robert S; Burke, Timothy; Irish, James; Gustafson, Brian; Kirtley, James; Alawa, Aiman

    2011-09-01

    A submersible generator was designed as a distinct and critical subassembly of marine hydrokinetics systems, specifically tidal and stream energy conversion. The generator is designed to work with both vertical and horizontal axis turbines. The final product is a high-pole-count, radial-flux, permanent magnet, rim mounted generator, initially rated at twenty kilowatts in a two-meter-per-second flow, and designed to leverage established and simple manufacturing processes. The generator was designed to work with a 3 meter by 7 meter Gorlov Helical Turbine or a marine hydrokinetic version of the FloDesign wind turbine. The team consisted of experienced motor/generator design engineers with cooperation from major US component suppliers (magnetics, coil winding and electrical steel laminations). Support for this effort was provided by Lucid Energy Technologies and FloDesign, Inc. The following tasks were completed: Identified the conditions and requirements for MHK generators. Defined a methodology for sizing and rating MHK systems. Selected an MHK generator topology and form factor. Completed electromechanical design of submersible generator capable of coupling to multiple turbine styles. Investigated MHK generator manufacturing requirements. Reviewed cost implications and financial viability. Completed final reporting and deliverables

  5. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Final report Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G. (1982) 104 Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers Levy, ...

  6. March 2016 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Final report Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G. (1982) 164 Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers Levy, ...

  7. Maui Smart Grid Demonstration Project Managing Distribution System Resources for Improved Service Quality and Reliability, Transmission Congestion Relief, and Grid Support Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-09-30

    The Maui Smart Grid Project (MSGP) is under the leadership of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The project team includes Maui Electric Company, Ltd. (MECO), Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (HECO), Sentech (a division of SRA International, Inc.), Silver Spring Networks (SSN), Alstom Grid, Maui Economic Development Board (MEDB), University of Hawaii-Maui College (UHMC), and the County of Maui. MSGP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC26-08NT02871, with approximately 50% co-funding supplied by MECO. The project was designed to develop and demonstrate an integrated monitoring, communications, database, applications, and decision support solution that aggregates renewable energy (RE), other distributed generation (DG), energy storage, and demand response technologies in a distribution system to achieve both distribution and transmission-level benefits. The application of these new technologies and procedures will increase MECO’s visibility into system conditions, with the expected benefits of enabling more renewable energy resources to be integrated into the grid, improving service quality, increasing overall reliability of the power system, and ultimately reducing costs to both MECO and its customers.

  8. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    simplified interconnection rules for small renewables and separate rules for all other distributed generation (DG). For inverter-based systems up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in ca......

  10. Interconnection Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hawaii has established simplified interconnection rules for small renewables and separate rules for all other distributed generation (DG). For inverter-based systems up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in ca...

  11. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  12. Hermetic turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meacher, John S.; Ruscitto, David E.

    1982-01-01

    A Rankine cycle turbine drives an electric generator and a feed pump, all on a single shaft, and all enclosed within a hermetically sealed case. The shaft is vertically oriented with the turbine exhaust directed downward and the shaft is supported on hydrodynamic fluid film bearings using the process fluid as lubricant and coolant. The selection of process fluid, type of turbine, operating speed, system power rating, and cycle state points are uniquely coordinated to achieve high turbine efficiency at the temperature levels imposed by the recovery of waste heat from the more prevalent industrial processes.

  13. Generation of Radixenon Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Pitts, W. K.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Reeder, Paul L.; Thomas, Charles W.

    2003-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air and can detect the following radioxenon isotopes, 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. This report details the techniques used to generate the various radioxenon isotopes that are used for the calibration of the detector as well as other isotopes that have the potential to interfere with the fission produced radioxenon isotopes. Fission production is covered first using highly enriched uranium followed by a description and results from an experiment to produce radioxenon isotopes from neutron activation of ambient xenon.

  14. Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-04-03

    Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Details analysis indicates that the design offers a substantial improvement in specific power over the present generator of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There are three copies in the file.

  15. Underwater slow current turbo generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wracsaricht, L.J.

    1981-12-15

    A self-contained electrical generating device for placement in a naturally flowing stream. The generating device converts the kinetic energy generated by fluid flow or gravity contained within the flowing stream whether river or ocean current into useful electric energy using blade configuration and placement to maximize the usable energy. The present invention also using auxiliary means to increase the rate of flow of the fluid by the blades of the generator thus increasing the energy capable of conversion. The rotor and the stator are located radially outwardly from the rotating hub of the generating system and are supported by spoke like legs thus greatly reducing any resistance to water flow, minimizing the disturbance to the flowing stream and maximizing the relative linear velocity between the rotor and the stator.

  16. Technical-evaluation report on the adequacy of station electric-distribution-system voltages for the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2. (Docket Nos. 50-282, 50-306)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selan, J C

    1982-09-17

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the adequacy of the station electric distribution system voltages for the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2. The evaluation is to determine if the onsite distribution system in conjunction with the offsite power sources has sufficient capacity to automatically start and operate all Class 1E loads within the equipment voltage ratings under certain conditions established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The evaluation finds that with some minor transformer loading modifications, hardware changes and the results of equipment testing and manufacturer data, the offsite sources were demonstrated to supply adequate voltage to the Class 1E equipment under worst case conditions.

  17. Property:Distributed Generation Prime Mover | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    G3508 + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Caterpillar G379 + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Capstone C60 +...

  18. MHK Technologies/Tidal Hydraulic Generators THG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description The concept of generating energy in this way is made unique by our novel design feature. The generator, devised in 1998, is a hydraulic accumulator system,...

  19. Previous Wind Power Announcements (generation/wind)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    following as the list of resources with Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System (WREGIS) Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) associated with them that will be...

  20. Environmentally Protective Power Generation EPPG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Environmentally Protective Power Generation (EPPG) Place: Tucson, Arizona Sector: Wind energy Product: Seeking financing for a Tower system, about which little has been disclosed,...