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1

Alternative methods of modeling wind generation using production costing models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper examines the methods of incorporating wind generation in two production costing models: one is a load duration curve (LDC) based model and the other is a chronological-based model. These two models were used to evaluate the impacts of wind generation on two utility systems using actual collected wind data at two locations with high potential for wind generation. The results are sensitive to the selected wind data and the level of benefits of wind generation is sensitive to the load forecast. The total production cost over a year obtained by the chronological approach does not differ significantly from that of the LDC approach, though the chronological commitment of units is more realistic and more accurate. Chronological models provide the capability of answering important questions about wind resources which are difficult or impossible to address with LDC models.

Milligan, M.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Pang, C.K. [P Plus Corp., Cupertino, CA (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration of a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emissions trade-offs. The base case results, using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax credit of 1.8cents/kwhr.

DRENNEN, THOMAS E.; KAMERY, WILLIAM

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim).  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration of a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercuty. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emissions trade-offs. The base case results, using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax credit of 1.8cents/kwhr.

Kamery, William (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

New Zealand Interactive Electricity Generation Cost Model 2010 | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » New Zealand Interactive Electricity Generation Cost Model 2010 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: New Zealand Interactive Electricity Generation Cost Model 2010 Agency/Company /Organization: New Zealand Energy Authority Sector: Energy Topics: Finance, Implementation, Co-benefits assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.med.govt.nz/templates/MultipageDocumentTOC____45553.aspx Country: New Zealand Cost: Free Australia and New Zealand Coordinates: -40.900557°, 174.885971°

6

Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost and Performance Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies Rick Tidball, Joel Bluestein, Nick Rodriguez, and Stu Knoke ICF International Fairfax, Virginia Subcontract Report NREL/SR-6A20-48595 November 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies Rick Tidball, Joel Bluestein, Nick Rodriguez, and Stu Knoke ICF International Fairfax, Virginia NREL Technical Monitor: Jordan Macknick

7

Modeling of Cost Curves 1.0 Costs of Generating Electrical Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production costs. Some typical average costs of fuel are given in the following table for coal, petroleum [1] Petroleum [2] Natural Gas [3] All Fossil Fuels Receipts (Billion BTU) Average Cost Avg. Sulfur fuel, kerosene, petroleum coke (converted to liquid petroleum, see Technical Notes for conversion

McCalley, James D.

8

Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes how Learning-by-Doing (LBD) is implemented endogenously in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for generating plants. LBD is experiential learning that correlates to a generating technology's capacity growth. The annual amount of Learning-by-Doing affects the annual overnight cost reduction. Currently, there is no straightforward way to integrate and make sense of all the diffuse information related to the endogenous learning calculation in NEMS. This paper organizes the relevant information from the NEMS documentation, source code, input files, and output files, in order to make the model's logic more accessible. The end results are shown in three ways: in a simple spreadsheet containing all the parameters related to endogenous learning; by an algorithm that traces how the parameters lead to cost reductions; and by examples showing how AEO 2004 forecasts the reduction of overnight costs for generating technologies over time.

Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

9

Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

other than distributed generation. The cost reductionsWind Solar Thermal Photovoltaic Distributed Generation-Base Distributed Generation-Peak D Vintage PLANT TYPE C

Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generation-peak, biomass, and advanced combustion turbineCombustion gas turbine, gas combined- cycle, conventional coal Biomass,Biomass plants change from Revolutionary to Evolutionary vintage, while the Advanced Combustion

Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

A.M. Gandrik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

The Rising Cost of Electricity Generation  

SciTech Connect

Through most of its history, the electric industry has experienced a stable or declining cost structure. Recently, the economic fundamentals have shifted and generating costs are now rising and driving up prices at a time when the industry faces new challenges to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. New plant investment faces the most difficult economic environment in decades.

Tobey Winters

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

The rising cost of electricity generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through most of its history, the electric industry has experienced a stable or declining cost structure. Recently, the economic fundamentals have shifted and generating costs are now rising and driving up prices at a time when the industry faces new challenges to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. New plant investment faces the most difficult economic environment in decades. (author)

Winters, Tobey

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Draft Submission; Social Cost of Energy Generation  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to provide a general understanding of the social costs associated with electric power generation. Based on a thorough review of recent literature on the subject, the report describes how these social costs can be most fully and accurately evaluated, and discusses important considerations in applying this information within the competitive bidding process. [DJE 2005

1990-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

15

Capital cost models for geothermal power plants  

SciTech Connect

A computer code, titled GEOCOST, has been developed at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, to rapidly and systematically calculate the potential costs of geothermal power. A description of the cost models in GEOCOST for the geothermal power plants is given here. Plant cost models include the flashed steam and binary systems. The data sources are described, along with the cost data correlations, resulting equations, and uncertainties. Comparison among GEOCOST plant cost estimates and recent A-E estimates are presented. The models are intended to predict plant costs for second and third generation units, rather than the more expensive first-of-a-kind units.

Cohn, P.D.; Bloomster, C.H.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Reduce generating costs and eliminate brownouts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving the manoeuverability of a coal-fired plant to allow it to participate in primary frequency support will reduce generation cost and minimize brownouts. The challenge is to do so without compromising efficiency or emissions. This article describes an approach - activation of stored energy - that is cost-effective and applicable to both greenfield and brownfield installations. It requires a new control philosophy, plus the correct application of new level and flow measurement 'best practices'. 4 refs., 1 tab.

Nogaja, R.; Menezes, M. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energys Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative Island approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this islands used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an islands cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

BestPractices Steam tip sheet regarding ways to assess steam system efficiency. To determine the effective cost of steam, use a combined heat and power simulation model that includes all the significant effects.

Papar, R. [U.S. Department of Energy (US)

2000-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

19

Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation An...

20

External Costs Associated to Electricity Generation Options in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses external costs associated with electricity generation options in Brazil.

Jacomino, V.M.F.; Arrone, I.D.; Albo, J.; Grynberg, S.; Spadaro, J.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on Facebook icon Twitter icon Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation Jump to: navigation, search Name Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide...

22

Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power...

23

Generative model transformer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Generative Model Transformer (GMT) project is an Open Source initiative to build a Model Driven Architecure tool that allows fully customisable Platform Independent Models, Platform Description Models, Texture Mappings, and Refinement Transformations. ... Keywords: QVT, domain-specific languages, generative model transformer (GMT), model driven architecture (MDA), model transformation, open source

Jorn Bettin; Ghica van Emde Boas

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

EIA - Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2011. ... such as investment or production tax credits for specified generation sources, ...

25

Cost Analysis of Proposed National Regulation of Coal Combustion Residuals from the Electric Generating Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This analysis quantifies the potential cost to the coal-fired electric generation industry from EPA's proposed rule on the disposal of coal combustion residuals. It includes an assessment of the incremental compliance costs of the Subtitle C proposed regulatory option. Costs for this analysis were developed at the individual generating unit and plant level and aggregated to develop a national industry cost estimate. The analytical model used to estimate the costs utilizes a Monte Carlo framework to accou...

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

26

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DeCesaro, Kevin Lynn United States Department of Energy Introduction Wind and solar power generation are prized for their environmental benefits, their low and stable...

28

Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.

Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Comparing the Costs of Intermittent and Dispatchable Electricity Generating Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic evaluations of alternative electric generating technologies typically rely on comparisons between their expected life-cycle production costs per unit of electricity supplied. The standard life-cycle cost metric ...

Joskow, Paul L.

30

An economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the Natural Gas-Fired Fuel Cell: a model of the operations cost.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This model description establishes the revenues, expenses incentives and avoided costs of Operation of a Natural Gas-Fired Fuel Cell-Based. Fuel is the major element of the cost of operation of a natural gas-fired fuel cell. Forecasts of the change in the price of this commodity a re an important consideration in the ownership of an energy conversion system. Differences between forecasts, the interests of the forecaster or geographical areas can all have significant effects on imputed fuel costs. There is less effect on judgments made on the feasibility of an energy conversion system since changes in fuel price can affect the cost of operation of the alternatives to the fuel cell in a similar fashion. The forecasts used in this model are only intended to provide the potential owner or operator with the means to examine alternate future scenarios. The operations model computes operating costs of a system suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. The user may also select large office buildings that are characterized by 12 to 16 hours per day of operation or industrial users with a steady demand for thermal and electrical energy around the clock.

Not Available

1993-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

31

Energy Tips: Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | ENERGY...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

You are here Home Buildings & Plants Energy Tips: Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login...

32

Figure 38. Levelized costs of nuclear electricity generation in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 38. Levelized costs of nuclear electricity generation in two cases, 2025 (2011 dollars per megawatthour) Reference Small Modular Reactor

33

EIA - Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Electricity Generation Plants  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Almost all of these factors can vary by region, as do capacity factors for renewable generation, operations and maintenance costs associated with individual ...

34

EIA - Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Electricity Generation Plants  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... by the costs has changed significantly. Prior estimates were for a highly efficient plant employing gasification and a combined cycle generator; the new ...

35

Total cost model for making sourcing decisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a total cost model based on the work done during a six month internship with ABB. In order to help ABB better focus on low cost country sourcing, a total cost model was developed for sourcing decisions. ...

Morita, Mark, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Minimizing electricity costs with an auxiliary generator using stochastic programming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis addresses the problem of minimizing a facility's electricity costs by generating optimal responses using an auxiliary generator as the parameter of the control systems. The-goal of the thesis is to find an ...

Rafiuly, Paul, 1976-

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Incentive Cost Recovery Rule for Nuclear Power Generation (Louisiana) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Incentive Cost Recovery Rule for Nuclear Power Generation (Louisiana) Incentive Cost Recovery Rule for Nuclear Power Generation (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Utility Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Fees Generating Facility Rate-Making Provider Louisiana Public Service Commission The Incentive Cost Recovery Rule for Nuclear Power Generation establishes guidelines for any utility seeking to develop a nuclear power plant in Louisiana. The rule clarifies, as well as supplements the Louisiana Public Service Commission's 1983 General Order for the acquisition of nuclear generation resources. The goal of the rule is to provide a transparent process that identifies the responsibilities parties in the regulatory

38

Updating MIT's cost estimation model for shipbuilding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis project will update the MIT ship cost estimation model by combining the two existing models (the Basic Military Training School (BMTS) Cost Model and the MIT Math Model) in order to develop a program that can ...

Smith, Matthew B., Lieutenant, junior grade

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Costs for Distributed Generation Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed generation (DG) is a broad term that encompasses both mature and emerging onsite power generation technologies with power output as small as 1 kW and as large as 20 MW. While the equipment or purchase cost of a DG system is very important, installation, operation, and maintenance (IOM) costs also are significant and often overlooked. This report reviews IOM costs for both mature and emerging DG technologies. Some equipment cost data is included for reference, but is not the focus of this repo...

2003-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

40

Energy Tips: Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Type (sales unit) Type (sales unit) Energy Content Combustion (Btu/sales unit) Efficiency (%) Natural Gas (therm) 100,000 81.7 Natural Gas (cubic foot) 1,030 81.7 Distillate/No. 2 Oil (gallon) 138,700 84.6 Residual/No. 6 Oil (gallon) 149,700 86.1 Coal (ton) 27,000,000 87.6 Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmarking the fuel cost of steam generation ($/1000 lbs of steam) is an effective way to assess the efficiency of your steam system. This cost is dependent upon fuel type, unit fuel cost, boiler efficiency, feedwater temperature, and steam pressure. This calculation provides a good first approximation for the cost of generating steam and serves as a tracking device to allow for boiler performance monitoring. Table 1 shows the heat input required to produce one pound of saturated

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1.6 mb) 1.6 mb) Appendix A - Photovoltaic (PV) Cost and Performance Characteristics for Residential and Commercial Applications (1.0 mb) Appendix B - The Cost and Performance of Distributed Wind Turbines, 2010-35 (0.5 mb) Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector Release date: August 7, 2013 Distributed generation in the residential and commercial buildings sectors refers to the on-site generation of energy, often electricity from renewable energy systems such as solar photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines. Many factors influence the market for distributed generation, including government policies at the local, state, and federal level, and project costs, which vary significantly depending on time, location, size, and application.

42

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling Oak Ridge National been identified by carbon fiber manufacturers as a market with substantial growth potential. When manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able

43

Short-run interfuel substitution in West European power generation : a restriced cost function approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper analyzes short-run interfuel substitution between fossil fuels in West European power generation. The problem is studied within a restricted translog cost model, which is estimated by pooling time-series data ...

Sderholm, Patrik

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

General Equilibrium, Electricity Generation Technologies and the Cost of Carbon Abatement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electricity generation is a major contributor to carbon dioxide emissions, and a key determinant of abatement costs. Ex-ante assessments of carbon policies mainly rely on either of two modeling paradigms: (i) partial ...

Lanz, Bruno, 1980-

45

Integration of Variable Generation and Cost-Causation (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Variable renewable energy generation sources, such as wind and solar energy, provide benefits such as reduced environmental impact, zero fuel consumption, and low and stable costs. Advances in both technologies can reduce capital costs and provide significant control capabilities. However, their variability and uncertainty - which change with weather conditions, time of day, and season - can cause an increase in power system operating costs compared to a fully controllable power plant. Although a number of studies have assessed integration costs, calculating them correctly is challenging because it is difficult to accurately develop a baseline scenario without variable generation that properly accounts for the energy value. It is also difficult to appropriately allocate costs given the complex, nonlinear interactions between resources and loads.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model Focus Area: Ethanol Topics: Market Analysis Website: www.ecn.nl/units/ps/models-and-tools/biotrans/ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/biotrans-cost-optimization-model,http Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Demonstration & Implementation BIOTRANS optimizes the biofuel supply chain allocation by finding the least-cost configuration of resources and trade to meet a specified biofuel demand in the European transportation sector. The user can constrain the optimization by inputting a number of economic and technological assumptions for a specific target year. References Retrieved from

47

Expert judgement in cost estimating: Modelling the reasoning process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Expert Judgement (EJ) is used extensively during the generation of cost estimates. Cost estimators have to make numerous assumptions and judgements about what they think a new product will cost. However, the use of EJ is often frowned upon, not well accepted or understood by non-cost estimators within a concurrent engineering environment. Computerised cost models, in many ways, have reduced the need for EJ but by no means have they, or can they, replace it. The cost estimates produced from both algorithmic and non-algorithmic cost models can be widely inaccurate; and, as the work of this paper highlights, require extensive use of judgement in order to produce a meaningful result. Very little research tackles the issues of capturing and integrating EJ and rationale into the cost estimating process. Therefore, this

Christopher Rush; Rajkumar Roy

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Regional comparison of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear's main disadvantages are its high capital investment cost and uncertainty in schedule compared with alternatives. Nuclear plant costs continue to rise whereas coal plant investment costs are staying relative steady. Based on average experience, nuclear capital investment costs are nearly double those of coal-fired generation plants. The capital investment cost disadvantage of nuclear is balanced by its fuel cost advantages. New base load nuclear power plants were projected to be competitive with coal-fired plants in most regions of the country. Nuclear power costs wre projected to be significantly less (10% or more) than coal-fired power costs in the South Atlantic region. Coal-fired plants were projected to have a significant economic advantage over nuclear plants in the Central and North Central regions. In the remaining seven regions, the levelized cost of power from either option was projected to be within 10%. Uncertainties in future costs of materials, services, and financing affect the relative economics of the nuclear and coal options significantly. 10 figures.

Bowers, H.I.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

On-site generated nitrogen cuts cost of underbalanced drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of on-site generated nitrogen, instead of liquid nitrogen, has reduced the cost of drilling underbalanced horizontal wells in Canada and the western US. Because nitrogen is inert and inflammable, it is the preferred gas for underbalanced drilling. Nitrogen can be supplied for oil field use by three different methods: cryogenic liquid separation, pressure swing adsorption, and hollow fiber membranes. The selection of nitrogen supply from one of these methods depends on the cost of delivered nitrogen, the required flow rates and pressure, the required nitrogen purity, and the availability and reliability of the equipment for nitrogen generation. These three methods are described, as well as the required equipment.

Downey, R.A. [Energy Ingenuity Co., Englewood, CO (United States)

1997-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

50

Cost modelling using automobile warranty data.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis sets out to model, from the manufacturer's point of view, the warranty cost of a repairable product. The product can be a complex (more)

Summit, Raymond

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model  

SciTech Connect

This model intends to provide projections of the impact on cost from changes in economic indicators such as the Gross Domestic Product and Producer Price Index.

Fingersh, L.; Hand, M.; Laxson, A.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Updated Capital Cost Estimates Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants April 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies.

53

Avoiding Distribution System Upgrade Costs Using Distributed Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PNNL, in cooperation with three utilities, developed a database and methodology to analyze and characterize the avoided costs of Distributed Generation (DG) deployment as an alternative to traditional distribution system investment. After applying a number of screening criteria to the initial set of 307 cases, eighteen were selected for detailed analysis. Alternative DG investment scenarios were developed for these cases to permit capital, operation, maintenance, and fuel costs to be identified and incorporated into the analysis. The customer-owned backup power generator option was also investigated. The results of the analysis of the 18 cases show that none yielded cost savings under the alternative DG scenarios. However, the DG alternative systems were configured using very restrictive assumptions concerning reliability, peak rating, engine types and acceptable fuel. In particular it was assumed that the DG alternative in each case must meet the reliability required of conventional distribution systems (99.91% reliability). The analysis was further constrained by a requirement that each substation meet the demands placed upon it by a one in three weather occurrence. To determine if, by relaxing these requirements, the DG alternative might be more viable, one project was re-examined. The 99.91% reliability factor was still assumed for normal operating conditions but redundancy required to maintain reliability was relaxed for the relatively few hours every three years where extreme weather caused load to exceed present substation capacity. This resulted in the deferment of capital investment until later years and reduced the number of engines required for the project. The cost of both the conventional and DG alternative also dropped because the centralized power generation, variable O&M, and DG fuels costs were calculated based on present load requirements in combination with long-term forecasts of load growth, as opposed to load requirements plus a buffer based on predictions of extraordinary weather conditions. Application of the relaxed set of assumptions reduced the total cost of the DG alternative by roughly 57 percent from $7.0 million to $3.0 million. The reduction, however, did not change the overall result of the analysis, as the cost of the conventional distribution system upgrade alternative remained lower at $1.7 million. This paper also explores the feasibility of using a system of backup generators to defer investment in distribution system infrastructure. Rather than expanding substation capacity at substations experiencing slow load growth rates, PNNL considered a scenario where diesel generators were installed on location at customers participating in a program designed to offer additional power security and reliability to the customer and connection to the grid. The backup generators, in turn, could be used to meet peak demand for a limited number of hours each year, thus deferring distribution system investment. Data from an existing program at one of the three participating utilities was used to quantify the costs associated with the backup generator scenario. The results of the customer owned backup power generator analysis showed that in all cases the nominal cost of the DG scenario is more than the nominal cost of the base-case conventional distribution system upgrade scenario. However, in two of the cases the total present value costs of the alternative backup generator scenarios were between 15 and 22% less than those for the conventional scenarios. Overall, the results of the study offer considerable encouragement that the use of DG systems can defer conventional distribution system upgrades under the right conditions and when the DG configurations are intelligently designed. Using existing customer-owned DG to defer distribution system upgrades appears to be an immediate commercially-viable opportunity.

Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; DeSteese, John G.; Speer, Gregory A.

2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

54

Cost and schedule reduction for next-generation Candu  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AECL has developed a suite of technologies for Candu{sup R} reactors that enable the next step in the evolution of the Candu family of heavy-water-moderated fuel-channel reactors. These technologies have been combined in the design for the Advanced Candu Reactor TM1 (ACRTM), AECL's next generation Candu power plant. The ACR design builds extensively on the existing Candu experience base, but includes innovations, in design and in delivery technology, that provide very substantial reductions in capital cost and in project schedules. In this paper, main features of next generation design and delivery are summarized, to provide the background basis for the cost and schedule reductions that have been achieved. In particular the paper outlines the impact of the innovative design steps for ACR: - Selection of slightly enriched fuel bundle design; - Use of light water coolant in place of traditional Candu heavy water coolant; - Compact core design with unique reactor physics benefits; - Optimized coolant and turbine system conditions. In addition to the direct cost benefits arising from efficiency improvement, and from the reduction in heavy water, the next generation Candu configuration results in numerous additional indirect cost benefits, including: - Reduction in number and complexity of reactivity mechanisms; - Reduction in number of heavy water auxiliary systems; - Simplification in heat transport and its support systems; - Simplified human-machine interface. The paper also describes the ACR approach to design for constructability. The application of module assembly and open-top construction techniques, based on Candu and other worldwide experience, has been proven to generate savings in both schedule durations and overall project cost, by reducing premium on-site activities, and by improving efficiency of system and subsystem assembly. AECL's up-to-date experience in the use of 3-D CADDS and related engineering tools has also been proven to reduce both engineering and construction costs through more efficient work planning and use of materials, through reduced re-work and through more precise configuration management. Full-scale exploitation of AECL's electronic engineering and project management tools enables further reductions in cost. The Candu fuel-channel reactor type offers inherent manufacturing and construction advantages through the application of a simple, low-pressure low-temperature reactor vessel along with modular fuel channel technology. This leads to cost benefits and total project schedule benefits. As a result, the targets which AECL has set for replication units - overnight capital cost of $1000 US/kW and total project schedule (engineering/manufacturing/construction/commissioning) of 48 months, have been shown to be achievable for the reference NG Candu design. (authors)

Hopwood, J.M.; Yu, S.; Pakan, M.; Soulard, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Distributed Generation System Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector August 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the U.S. Department of Energy or other Federal agencies.

56

Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

extra-heavy oil and shale have zero Resource- Cost), whileof the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, andof the oil transition: modeling capacity, costs, and

Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Waste management facilities cost information: System cost model product description. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

In May of 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) in Idaho Falls, Idaho and subcontractors developed the System Cost Model (SCM) application. The SCM estimates life-cycle costs of the entire US Department of Energy (DOE) complex for designing; constructing; operating; and decommissioning treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, transuranic, and mixed transuranic waste. The SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing facilities at DOE installations. In addition, SCM can model new facilities based on capacity needs over the program life cycle. The SCM also provides transportation costs for DOE wastes. Transportation costs are provided for truck and rail and include transport of contact-handled, remote-handled, and alpha (transuranic) wastes. The user can provide input data (default data is included in the SCM) including the volume and nature of waste to be managed, the time period over which the waste is to be managed, and the configuration of the waste management complex (i.e., where each installation`s generated waste will be treated, stored, and disposed). Then the SCM uses parametric cost equations to estimate the costs of pre-operations (designing), construction costs, operation management, and decommissioning these waste management facilities.

Lundeen, A.S.; Hsu, K.M.; Shropshire, D.E.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

New low cost IGCC designs for competitive power generation  

SciTech Connect

Design studies of coal based 450 MW new IGCC power plants reveal their ability to compete in today's power generation market. Single train unit designs coupled with significant improvements in IGCC net output and efficiency have brought down the installed costs to the range of 850--1,000 $/kW and net thermal efficiency up to 43--47%. These improvements are shown to result from IGCC design configurations integrating new generation gas turbine combined cycles with High Pressure Texaco Gasification Technology and Elevated Pressure Air Separation Units.

Brdar, D.R.; Depuy, R.A.; Gulko, G.; Jandrisevits, M.; Paolino, J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Low cost high performance generator technology program. Addendum report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a system weight, efficiency, and size analysis which was performed on the 500 W(e) low cost high performance generator (LCHPG) are presented. The analysis was performed in an attempt to improve system efficiency and specific power over those presented in June 1975, System Design Study Report TES-SNSO-3-25. Heat source volume, configuration, and safety as related to the 500 W(e) LCHPG are also discussed. (RCK)

Not Available

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Automotive System Cost Modeling Tool (ASCM)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technology vehicles (i.e., diesel, hybrid, and fuel cell) developed for improved fuel economy remains either be done through Argonne National laboratory's hybrid vehicle cost model algorithm (adapted the Tool Can Help Answer · What is the life cycle cost of today's midsize hybrid vehicle? · How does

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Comparing cost prediction models by resampling techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accurate software cost prediction is a research topic that has attracted much of the interest of the software engineering community during the latest decades. A large part of the research efforts involves the development of statistical models based ... Keywords: Accuracy measure, Bootstrap, Confidence interval, Permutation test, Software cost estimation

Nikolaos Mittas; Lefteris Angelis

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

An economic model of software quality costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As of today there is very little knowledge is available about the economics of software quality. The costs incurred and benefits of implementing different quality practices over the software development life cycle are not well understood. There are some ... Keywords: TQM, quality cost model, software quality

Amel Kolainac; Ljubomir Lazic; Denan Avdic

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Simple cost model for EV traction motors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

Cuenca, R.M.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Minimum cost model energy code envelope requirements  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the analysis underlying development of the U.S. Department of Energy`s proposed revisions of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. This analysis resulted in revised MEC envelope conservation levels based on an objective methodology that determined the minimum-cost combination of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for residences in different locations around the United States. The proposed MEC revision resulted from a cost-benefit analysis from the consumer`s perspective. In this analysis, the costs of the EEMs were balanced against the benefit of energy savings. Detailed construction, financial, economic, and fuel cost data were compiled, described in a technical support document, and incorporated in the analysis. A cost minimization analysis was used to compare the present value of the total long-nm costs for several alternative EEMs and to select the EEMs that achieved the lowest cost for each location studied. This cost minimization was performed for 881 cities in the United States, and the results were put into the format used by the MEC. This paper describes the methodology for determining minimum-cost energy efficiency measures for ceilings, walls, windows, and floors and presents the results in the form of proposed revisions to the MEC. The proposed MEC revisions would, on average, increase the stringency of the MEC by about 10%.

Connor, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.; Turchen, S.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Cost model for a small glass manufacturing enterprise.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The cost model developed is for small, glass-manufacturing enterprises to help themdetermine their product costs. It estimates the direct cost in glass manufacturing such as (more)

Gopisetti, Swetha.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or design of improved production cost models. to assess thelearning which lowers production costs, and resourcewhich increases production costs. Each of these modules are

Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

A Nonlinear Generalized Additive Error Model of Production and Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Additive Error Model of Production and Cost by Quirino ParisError Model of Production and Cost Quirino Paris* UniversityAdditive Error Model of Production and Cost I. Introduction

Paris, Quirino; Caputo, Michael R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Efficient Estimates of a Model of Production and Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimates of a Model of Production and Cost by Quirino ParisEstimates of a Model of Production and Cost Quirino Paris*Estimates of a Model of Production and Cost I. Introduction

Paris, Quirino; Caputo, Michael R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Development of an Operations and Maintenance Cost Model to Identify Cost of Energy Savings for Low Wind Speed Turbines: July 2, 2004 -- June 30, 2008  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the operatons and maintenance cost model developed by Global Energy Concepts under contract to NREL to estimate the O&M costs for commercial wind turbine generator facilities.

Poore, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Low-Cost Reflector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Next-Generation Low-Cost Next-Generation Low-Cost Reflector to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Low-Cost Reflector on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Low-Cost Reflector on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Low-Cost Reflector on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Low-Cost Reflector on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Low-Cost Reflector on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Low-Cost Reflector on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative CSP Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Deployment

72

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Automotive System Cost Model...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Automotive System Cost Model (ASCM) Project Summary Full Title: Automotive System Cost Model (ASCM) Project ID: 118 Principal Investigator: Sujit Das Purpose Estimate current and...

73

Electric Utility Rate Design Study: embedded generation costs on a time-of-day basis for Iowa Southern Utilities Company  

SciTech Connect

This report develops a method for determining average embedded generation costs on a time-of-day basis and describes the application of the method to Iowa Southern Utilities. These costs are not allocated to customer classes. Since average embedded costs are composed of the running (or variable) costs and the capital costs, the analysis examines each of these separately. Running costs on a time-of-day basis are determined through the use of a generation dispatch model that reports the loadings by generating unit and the running costs of meeting the load. These costs are reported on an hour-by-hour basis. The dispatch model takes into account the operating characteristics of each unit and the major engineering constraints on a system; e.g., must-run units, minimum up and down time, startup cost. After reviewing several suggested capital-cost allocation procedures, a method is developed that allocates capital costs on a time-of-day basis by using a recontracting-for-capacity procedure that allows capacity to vary by hour for each month. The method results in allocations to customers who benefit from its use. An important and distinguishing feature of this method is that it allows calculation of the costs before rating periods are chosen.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Process-Based Cost Modeling to Support Target Value Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Designing to Target Cost. 12th Annual Conference of thethe Hurdle of First Cost: Action Research in TargetD.T. (1987). A Future for Cost Modelling: Building Cost

Nguyen, Hung Viet

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model DOE Tool for Assessing Impact of Research on Cost of Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a spreadsheet model to provide insight as to how its research activities can impact of cost of producing power from geothermal energy. This model is referred to as GETEM, which stands for Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model. Based on user input, the model develops estimates of costs associated with exploration, well field development, and power plant construction that are used along with estimated operating costs to provide a predicted power generation cost. The model allows the user to evaluate how reductions in cost, or increases in performance or productivity will impact the predicted power generation cost. This feature provides a means of determining how specific technology improvements can impact generation costs, and as such assists DOE in both prioritizing research areas and identifying where research is needed.

Greg Mines

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Capital cost models for geothermal power plants and fluid transmission systems. [GEOCOST  

SciTech Connect

The GEOCOST computer program is a simulation model for evaluating the economics of developing geothermal resources. The model was found to be both an accurate predictor of geothermal power production facility costs and a valid designer of such facilities. GEOCOST first designs a facility using thermodynamic optimization routines and then estimates costs for the selected design using cost models. Costs generated in this manner appear to correspond closely with detailed cost estimates made by industry planning groups. Through the use of this model, geothermal power production costs can be rapidly and accurately estimated for many alternative sites making the evaluation process much simpler yet more meaningful.

Schulte, S.C.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wind Turbine Design Cost Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model L. Fingersh, M. Hand, and A. Laxson Technical Report NREL/TP-500-40566 December 2006 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model L. Fingersh, M. Hand, and A. Laxson Prepared under Task No. WER6.0703 Technical Report NREL/TP-500-40566 December 2006 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

78

Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

costs, the levelized cost ... 4 These results do not include targeted tax credits such as the production or investment tax credit available for some technologies.

79

Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Electricity Generation Plants  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This paper provides information on the cost of building new electricity power plants. These cost estimates are critical inputs in the development of energy projections and analyses.

Michael Leff

2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

80

Solid-State Lighting: Simple Modular LED Cost Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simple Modular LED Cost Model to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Simple Modular LED Cost Model on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Simple Modular LED Cost...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Marginal cost of electricity 1980-1995: an approximation based on the cost of new coal and nuclear generating plants  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of the costs of new coal and nuclear base-load generating capacity which is either currently under construction or planned by utilities to meet their load-growth expectations during the period from 1980 to 1995. These capacity cost estimates are used in conjunction with announced plant capacities and commercial-operation dates to develop state-level estimates of busbar costs of electricity. From these projected busbar costs, aggregated estimates of electricity costs at the retail level are developed for DOE Regions. The introductory chapter explains the rationale for using the cost of electricity from base-load plants to approximate the marginal cost of electricity. The next major section of the report outlines the methodology and major assumptions used. This is followed by a detailed description of the empirical analysis, including the equations used for each of the cost components. The fourth section presents the resultant marginal cost estimates.

Nieves, L.A.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Emery, J.C.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

A cost analysis model for heavy equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total cost is one of the most important factors for a heavy equipment product purchase decision. However, the different cost views and perspectives of performance expectations between the different involved stakeholders may cause customer relation problems ... Keywords: Cost responsibilities, Operating costs, Ownership costs, Post-Manufacturing Product Cost (PMPC), System life-cycle cost

Shibiao Chen; L. Ken Keys

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

On EOQ Cost Models with Arbitrary Purchase and Transportation ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: We analyze an economic order quantity cost model with unit ... For the remaining purchase-transportation cost functions, when this problem becomes a ...

85

Total Cost Per MwH for all common large scale power generation sources |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Total Cost Per MwH for all common large scale power generation sources Total Cost Per MwH for all common large scale power generation sources Home > Groups > DOE Wind Vision Community In the US DOEnergy, are there calcuations for real cost of energy considering the negative, socialized costs of all commercial large scale power generation soruces ? I am talking about the cost of mountain top removal for coal mined that way, the trip to the power plant, the sludge pond or ash heap, the cost of the gas out of the stack, toxificaiton of the lakes and streams, plant decommision costs. For nuclear yiou are talking about managing the waste in perpetuity. The plant decomission costs and so on. What I am tring to get at is the 'real cost' per MWh or KWh for the various sources ? I suspect that the costs commonly quoted for fossil fuels and nucelar are

86

DOE G 430.1-1 Chp 22, Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

87

Generation and Transmission Maximization Model | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Generation and Transmission Maximization Model Generation and Transmission Maximization Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Generation and Transmission Maximization Model Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Pathways analysis Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.dis.anl.gov/projects/Gtmax.html Cost: Paid Generation and Transmission Maximization Model Screenshot References: Generation and Transmission Maximization Model [1] Logo: Generation and Transmission Maximization Model The GTMax model helps researchers study complex marketing and system operational issues. With the aid of this comprehensive model, utility operators and managers can maximize the value of the electric system, taking into account not only its limited energy and transmission resources,

88

Process-Based Cost Modeling to Support Target Value Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

elemental analysis (cost-per-square-foot) are referred to asTraditional models (cost per square foot, elementalunit costs per an area unit (i.e. , $/Square Foot) or per a

Nguyen, Hung Viet

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

How much does it cost to generate electricity with different types ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How much does it cost to generate electricity with different types of power plants? EIA has historical data on the average annual operation, maintenance, ...

90

How much does it cost to generate electricity with different types ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Reserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, ... How much does it cost to generate electricity with different types of power plants?

91

Quantifying the system balancing cost when wind energy is incorporated into electricity generation system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Incorporation of wind energy into the electricity generation system requires a detailed analysis of wind speed in order to minimize system balancing cost and avoid (more)

Issaeva, Natalia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model; Final report: Documentation of waste management process, development of Cost Estimation Model, and model reference manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs.

Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic analysis indicates that hydrogen could be produced for $3.79 per gge at an electricity cost of $0.05/kWh by the lower-cost PEM electrolyzer developed in this project, assuming high-volume production of large-scale electrolyzer systems.

Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

94

Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation system leads to higher thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. However, in a CSP system, higher operating temperature also leads to greater thermal losses. These two effects combine to give an optimal system-level operating temperature that may be less than the upper operating temperature limit of system components. The overall efficiency may be improved by developing materials, power cycles, and system-integration strategies that enable operation at elevated temperature while limiting thermal losses. This is particularly true for the TES system and its components. Meeting the SunShot cost target will require cost and performance improvements in all systems and components within a CSP plant. Solar collector field hardware will need to decrease significantly in cost with no loss in performance and possibly with performance improvements. As higher temperatures are considered for the power block, new working fluids, heat-transfer fluids (HTFs), and storage fluids will all need to be identified to meet these new operating conditions. Figure 1 shows thermodynamic conversion efficiency as a function of temperature for the ideal Carnot cycle and 75% Carnot, which is considered to be the practical efficiency attainable by current power cycles. Current conversion efficiencies for the parabolic trough steam cycle, power tower steam cycle, parabolic dish/Stirling, Ericsson, and air-Brayton/steam Rankine combined cycles are shown at their corresponding operating temperatures. Efficiencies for supercritical steam and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) are also shown for their operating temperature ranges.

Glatzmaier, G.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

on-site generation of energy, often electricity from renewable energy systems such as solar photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines. Many factors influence the market for...

96

Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance and cost assumptions as well as explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region as well as with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global wind potential under central assumptions is estimated to be approximately 89 petawatt hours per year at less than 9 cents/kWh with substantial regional variations. One limitation of global wind analyses is that the resolution of current global wind speed reanalysis data can result in an underestimate of high wind areas. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly those related to land suitability and turbine density as well as cost and financing assumptions which have important policy implications. Transmission cost has a relatively small impact on total wind costs, changing the potential at a given cost by 20-30%. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

97

APT cost scaling: Preliminary indications from a Parametric Costing Model (PCM)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Parametric Costing Model has been created and evaluate as a first step in quantitatively understanding important design options for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) concept. This model couples key economic and technical elements of APT in a two-parameter search of beam energy and beam power that minimizes costs within a range of operating constraints. The costing and engineering depth of the Parametric Costing Model is minimal at the present {open_quotes}entry level{close_quotes}, and is intended only to demonstrate a potential for a more-detailed, cost-based integrating design tool. After describing the present basis of the Parametric Costing Model and giving an example of a single parametric scaling run derived therefrom, the impacts of choices related to resistive versus superconducting accelerator structures and cost of electricity versus plant availability ({open_quotes}load curve{close_quotes}) are reported. Areas of further development and application are suggested.

Krakowski, R.A.

1995-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

98

LBNL-52559 Learning and Cost Reductions for Generating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) incorporates endogenous learning into its cost calculations for power plants. The parameters that affect reductions due to learning for each of 21 power plants types. Technological learning is represented two ways, solar thermal, and photovoltaic plants. The initial TOFs are shown in Table 3. In NEMS, the first plant

99

NREL Sheds Light on Integration Costs of Variable Generation and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as wind and solar energy, provide benefits such as reduced environmental impact, lack of fuel consumption, and low and stable costs. However, their variability and uncertainty--which can change with weather and not unique to wind and solar. Key Result Operational changes--such as wind and solar forecasting, larger

100

Production cost models with regard to liberalised electricity markets.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This book makes a contribution to the formulation and implementation of production cost models for the modelling of liberalized electricity markets by addressing issues associated (more)

Martinez Diaz, David Jos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Financial and Cost Assessment Model (FICAM) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Financial and Cost Assessment Model (FICAM) Financial and Cost Assessment Model (FICAM) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Financial and Cost Assessment Model (FICAM) Agency/Company /Organization: UNEP-Risoe Centre Sector: Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Topics: Finance, Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: tech-action.org/models.htm Cost: Free Financial and Cost Assessment Model (FICAM) Screenshot References: FICAM[1] "The Financial and Cost Assessment Model (FICAM) evaluates the contribution of technologies and practices towards mitigation of greenhouse gases, and carries a comprehensive financial analysis." References ↑ "FICAM" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Financial_and_Cost_Assessment_Model_(FICAM)&oldid=383091"

102

TIBER-II cost models and estimates  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of a series of viewgraphs dealing with cost associated with construction of a thermonuclear power plant. (JDH)

Thomson, S.L.

1987-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

103

The Integration of Process and Cost Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For information on the symposium, refer to the November Meetings Calendar, beginning ... The managers of materials enterprises are market and cost driven. ... The fact that matter and thermal energy must be conserved (i.e., they cannot be .... sheet to a cost analysis and obtain information on the projected production costs.

104

Nonlinear regression model generation using hyperparameter optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm of the inductive model generation and model selection is proposed to solve the problem of automatic construction of regression models. A regression model is an admissible superposition of smooth functions given by experts. Coherent Bayesian ... Keywords: Coherent Bayesian inference, Hyperparameters, Model generation, Model selection, Regression

Vadim Strijov; Gerhard Wilhelm Weber

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

ONTOCOM: A Cost Estimation Model for Ontology Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: This paper introduces ONTOCOM, a parametric cost estimation model for Semantic Web ontologies. After analyzing established, general-purpose cost estimation methodologies we propose a methodology, which can be applied to develop cost models for ontology engineering. We examine the particularities of this engineering field on the basis of the proposed methodology, in order to identify cost factors which influence the effort invested in ontology building, reuse and maintenance. 1

Elena Paslaru Bontas; Malgorzata Mochol; Freie Universitt

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

On-Site Diesel Generation- How You Can Reduce Your Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interruptible power rates, Utility special rate negotiations, and the emergence of a spot electrical power market all can lead to lower industrial energy costs. The installation of low cost on-site diesel powered generation, or the proposed intention to install, provides the means for obtaining lower purchased power costs. The functionality of a standby power system and its inherent value in the coming free market purchase of electrical energy are added benefits. Project feasibility, conceptual design, on-site generation facility requirements, interconnection requirements, and operation and maintenance costs will be examined. Installation costs in the range of $350 to $400 per KW and operating costs of approximately $0.06 to $0.07 per kWhr compared to purchased power rates determine the feasibility of an on-site generation system. In some cases avoided demand charges offer an opportunity for savings such that special rates are not needed for a feasible project. Depending on the manufacturer, low capital cost diesel generators are available in 1000 to 2000 KW blocks. Capacity requirements determine the number of engines required. Large capacity installations are somewhat restricted by voltage and current ratings. Some variants for multiple engine generator installations will yield greater reliability or lower costs depending on objectives. Specific requirements for basic building blocks of an on-site generation system will be examined as well as an example of a 5,500 KW installation. IEA provides an alternative to installing and operating an on-site generation system. IEA owns and operates diesel standby generation systems for customers, with responsibility for all maintenance and operation as well as associated costs. This allows customers to focus on core business, not the generation of electrical energy.

Charles, D.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams November 4, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to $30.6 million in Recovery Act funding for the selection of seven hydropower projects that modernize hydropower infrastructure by increasing efficiency and reducing environmental impacts at existing facilities. The expanded hydro generation projects have estimated incremental costs of less than 4 cents per kWh on average. The selections announced today will deploy innovative technologies such as high-efficiency, fish-friendly turbines, improved water intakes, and

108

Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 5. Heat Pipe Topical  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research progress towards the development of a heat pipe for use in the Low Cost High Performance Thermoelectric Generator Program is reported for the period May 15, 1975 through June 1975. (TFD)

Not Available

1975-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING COST MODEL: SIMULATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE, MANUFACTURING, AND COST OF PRODUCTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earlier model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin goals.

Eric J. Carlson; Yong Yang; Chandler Fulton

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

110

Reliability Models for Facility Location: The Expected Failure Cost ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 25, 2003 ... Reliability Models for Facility Location: The Expected Failure Cost Case. Lawrence V. Snyder (larry.snyder ***at*** lehigh.edu) Mark S. Daskin...

111

Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

112

Low-Cost Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: High Performance, Low Cost Superconducting Wires and Coils for High Power Wind Generators  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: The University of Houston will develop a low-cost, high-current superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. The University of Houstons innovation is based on engineering nanoscale defects in the superconducting film. This could quadruple the current relative to todays superconducting wires, supporting the same amount of current using 25% of the material. This would make wind generators lighter, more powerful and more efficient. The design could result in a several-fold reduction in wire costs and enable their commercial viability of high-power wind generators for use in offshore applications.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Nuclear economics 2000: Deterministic and probabilistic projections of nuclear and coal electric power generation costs for the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base-load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 2000. For the Midwest region a complete data set that specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results is supplied. When based on the reference set of input variables, the comparison of power generation costs is found to favor nuclear in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is most favored in the northeast and western regions where coal must be transported over long distances; however, coal-fired generation is most competitive in the north central region where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. In several regions small changes in the reference variables could cause either option to be preferred. The reference data set reflects the better of recent electric utility construction cost experience (BE) for nuclear plants. This study assumes as its reference case a stable regulatory environment and improved planning and construction practices, resulting in nuclear plants typically built at the present BE costs. Today's BE nuclear-plant capital investment cost model is then being used as a surrogate for projected costs for the next generation of light-water reactor plants. An alternative analysis based on today's median experience (ME) nuclear-plant construction cost experience is also included. In this case, coal is favored in all ten regions, implying that typical nuclear capital investment costs must improve for nuclear to be competitive.

Williams, K.A.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Staff Draft Report. Comparative Cost of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Energy Commission staff draft report presents preliminary levelized cost estimates for several generic central-station electricity generation technologies. California has traditionally adopted energy policies that balance the goals of supporting economic development, improving environmental quality and promoting resource diversity. In order to be effective, such policies must be based on comprehensive and timely gathering of information. With this goal in mind, the purpose of the report is to provide comparative levelized cost estimates for a set of renewable (e.g., solar) and nonrenewable (e.g., natural gas-fired) central-station electricity generation resources, based on each technology's operation and capital cost. Decision-makers and others can use this information to compare the generic cost to build specific technology. These costs are not site specific. If a developer builds a specific power plant at a specific location, the cost of siting that plant at that specific location must be considered. The Energy Commission staff also identifies the type of fuel used by each technology and a description of the manner in which the technology operates in the generation system. The target audiences of this report are both policy-makers and anyone wishing to understand some of the fundamental attributes that are generally considered when evaluating the cost of building and operating different electricity generation technology resources. These costs do not reflect the total cost to consumers of adding these technologies to a resources portfolio. These technology characterizations do not capture all of the system, environmental or other relevant attributes that would typically be needed by a portfolio manager to conduct a comprehensive ''comparative value analysis''. A portfolio analysis will vary depending on the particular criteria and measurement goals of each study. For example, some form of firm capacity is typically needed with wind generation to support system reliability. [DJE-2005

Badr, Magdy; Benjamin, Richard

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

115

Staff Draft Report. Comparative Cost of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies.  

SciTech Connect

This Energy Commission staff draft report presents preliminary levelized cost estimates for several generic central-station electricity generation technologies. California has traditionally adopted energy policies that balance the goals of supporting economic development, improving environmental quality and promoting resource diversity. In order to be effective, such policies must be based on comprehensive and timely gathering of information. With this goal in mind, the purpose of the report is to provide comparative levelized cost estimates for a set of renewable (e.g., solar) and nonrenewable (e.g., natural gas-fired) central-station electricity generation resources, based on each technology's operation and capital cost. Decision-makers and others can use this information to compare the generic cost to build specific technology. These costs are not site specific. If a developer builds a specific power plant at a specific location, the cost of siting that plant at that specific location must be considered. The Energy Commission staff also identifies the type of fuel used by each technology and a description of the manner in which the technology operates in the generation system. The target audiences of this report are both policy-makers and anyone wishing to understand some of the fundamental attributes that are generally considered when evaluating the cost of building and operating different electricity generation technology resources. These costs do not reflect the total cost to consumers of adding these technologies to a resources portfolio. These technology characterizations do not capture all of the system, environmental or other relevant attributes that would typically be needed by a portfolio manager to conduct a comprehensive ''comparative value analysis''. A portfolio analysis will vary depending on the particular criteria and measurement goals of each study. For example, some form of firm capacity is typically needed with wind generation to support system reliability. [DJE-2005

Badr, Magdy; Benjamin, Richard

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

116

Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and placed into production 25 MW/yr manufacturing capacity for complete MegaModules, including cell packages, receiver plates, and structures with lenses; (6) Designed and deployed Amonix 7700 series systems rated at 63 kW PTC ac and higher. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, Amonix met DOE's LCOE targets: Amonix 2011 LCOE 12.8 cents/kWh (2010 DOE goal 10-15); 2015 LCOE 6.4 cents/kWh (2015 goal 5-7) Amonix and TPP participants would like to thank the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technology Program for funding received under this program through Agreement No. DE-FC36-07GO17042.

McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Generator Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Generator Modeling Generator Modeling NREL works with the solar and wind industries to provide utilities and grid operators with generator models to help them analyze the impact of variable generation on power system performance and reliability. As the amount of variable generation increases, the need for such models increases. Ensuring the models are as generic as possible allows for ease of use, model validation, data exchange, and analysis. To address this need, NREL researchers are developing generic dynamic models of wind and solar power plants. NREL's dynamic modeling efforts include: Collecting wind plant output data with corresponding wind resource data (speed, direction, and air density) from meteorological towers and performing multivariate analysis of the data to develop an equivalent wind

118

Study of Possible Applications of Currently Available Building Information Modeling Tools for the Analysis of Initial Costs and Energy Costs for Performing Life Cycle Cost Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cost of design, construction and maintenance of facilities is on continual rise. The demand is to construct facilities which have been designed by apply life cycle costing principles. These principles have already given strong decision making power to the manufacturing industry. The need to satisfy the environmental sustainability requirements, improve operational effectiveness of buildings and apply value engineering principles has increased the dependency on life cycle costing analysis. The objective is to obtain economically viable solutions by analyzing the alternatives during the design of a building. Though the LCCA process is able to give the desired results, it does have some problems which have stood as hindrances to the more widespread use of the LCCA concept and method. The literature study has highlighted that the problem areas are the lack of frameworks or mechanisms for collecting and storing data and the complexity of LCCA exercise, which involves the analysis of a thousand of building elements and a number of construction-type options and maintenance activities for each building element at detailed design stages. Building Information Modeling has been able to repeatedly answer the questions raised by the AEC industry. The aim of this study is to identify the areas where BIM can be effectively applied to the LCCA process and become a part of the workflow. In this study, initially four LCCA case studies are read and evaluated from the point of view of understanding the method in which the life cycle costing principles have been applied. The purpose, the type alternatives examined, the process of analysis, the type of software used and the results are understood. An attempt has been carried out to understand the workflow of the LCCA process. There is a confidence that Building Information Modeling is capable of handling changes during the design, construction and maintenance phases of the project. Since applying changes to any kind of information of the building during LCC analysis forms the core, it has become necessary to use computer building models for examining these changes. The building modeling softwares are enumerated. The case studies have highlighted that the evaluation of the alternatives are primarily to achieve energy efficient solutions for the buildings. Applying these solutions involves high initial costs. The return on investment is the means by which these solutions become viable to the owners of the facilities. This is where the LCCA has been applied. Two of the important cost elements of the LCC analysis are initial costs and the operating costs of the building. The collaboration of these modeling tools with other estimating software where the initial costs of the building can be generated is studied. The functions of the quantity take-off tools and estimating tools along with the interoperability between these tools are analyzed. The operating costs are generated from the software that focuses on sustainability. And the currently used tools for performing the calculations of the life cycle costing analysis are also observed. The objective is to identify if the currently available BIM tools and software can help in obtaining LCCA results and are able to offset the hindrances of the process. Therefore, the software are studied from the point of view of ease of handling data and the type of data that can be generated. Possible BIM workflows are suggested depending on the functions of the software and the relationship between them. The study has aimed at taking a snapshot the current tools available which can aid the LCCA process. The research is of significance to the construction industry as it forms a precursor to the application of Building Information Modeling to the LCCA process as it shows that it has the capacity of overcoming the obstacles for life cycle costing. This opens a window to the possibility of applying BIM to LCCA and furthering this study.

Mukherji, Payal Tapandev

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

An enumerative technique for modeling wind power variations in production costing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Production cost, generation expansion, and reliability models are used extensively by utilities in the planning process. Most models do not provide adequate means for representing the full range of potential variation in wind power plants. In order to properly account for expected variation in wind-generated electricity with these models, the authors describe an enumerated probabilistic approach that is performed outside the production cost model, compare it with a reduced enumerated approach, and present some selected utility results. The technique can be applied to any model, and can considerably reduce the number of model runs as compared to the full enumerated approach. They use both a load duration curve model and a chronological model to measure wind plant capacity credit, and also present some other selected results.

Milligan, M.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Graham, M.S. [Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Ensemble Generation for Models of Multimodal Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work the performance of ensembles generated by commonly used methods in a nonlinear system with multiple attractors is examined. The model used here is a spectral truncation of a barotropic quasigeostrophic channel model. The system ...

Robert N. Miller; Laura L. Ehret

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Amonix, Inc. Amonix, Inc. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. A series of brief fact sheet on various topics including:Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation,High Efficiency Concentrating Photovoltaic Power System,Reaching Grid Parity Using BP Solar Crystalline Silicon Technology, Fully Integrated Building Science Solutions for Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Energy Generation,A Value Chain Partnership to Accelerate U.S. Photovoltaic Industry Growth,AC Module PV System,Flexible Organic Polymer-Based PV For Building Integrated Commercial Applications,Flexable Integrated PV System,Delivering Grid-Parity Solar Electricity On Flat Commercial Rooftops,Fully Automated Systems Technology, Concentrating Solar Panels: Bringing the Highest Power and Lowest Cost to

123

Cost of New Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Coal Electricity Generation...................... 17  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Future demand for electricity can be met with a range of technologies, with fuels including coal, nuclear, natural gas, biomass and other renewables, as well as with energy efficiency and demand management approaches. Choices among options will depend on factors including capital cost, fuel cost, market and regulatory uncertainty, greenhouse gas emissions, and other environmental impacts. This paper estimates the costs of new electricity generation. The approach taken here is to provide a transparent and verifiable analysis based mainly on recent data provided

Seth Borin; Todd Levin; Valerie M. Thomas; Seth Borin; Todd Levin; Valerie M. Thomas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

A hydrogeophysical synthetic model generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HGmod is a computer program that builds on stochastic realizations of porosity fields to derive electrical conductivity, dielectric permittivity and hydraulic permeability models. The presence of clay, the influence of salinity as well as temperature ... Keywords: Dielectric permittivity, Electrical conductivity, Hydrogeophysics, Modeling, Porosity

Bernard Giroux; Michel Chouteau

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Design of a low-cost thermoacoustic electricity generator and its experimental verification  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and testing of a low cost thermoacoustic generator. A travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a configuration of a looped-tube resonator is designed and constructed to convert heat to acoustic power. A commercially available, low-cost loudspeaker is adopted as the alternator to convert the engine's acoustic power to electricity. The whole system is designed using linear thermoacoustic theory. The optimization of different parts of the thermoacoustic generator, as well as the matching between the thermoacoustic engine and the alternator are discussed in detail. A detailed comparison between the preliminary test results and linear thermoacoustic predictions is provided.

Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu, Z [UNIV OF MANCHESTER; Jaworski, A J [UNIV OF MANCHESTER

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Battery-level material cost model facilitates high-power li-ion battery cost reductions.  

SciTech Connect

Under the FreedomCAR Partnership, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously enhancing the calendar life and inherent safety of high-power Li-Ion batteries. Material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in batteries designed to meet the requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In order to quantify the material costs, relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared to the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. The most recent freedomCAR cost goals for 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries are $500 and $800, respectively, which is $20/kW in both cases. In 2001, ANL developed a high-power cell chemistry that was incorporated into high-power 18650 cells for use in extensive accelerated aging and thermal abuse characterization studies. This cell chemistry serves as a baseline for this material cost study. It incorporates a LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode, a synthetic graphite anode, and a LiPF6 in EC:EMC electrolyte. Based on volume production cost estimates for these materials-as well as those for binders/solvents, cathode conductive additives, separator, and current collectors--the total cell winding material cost for a 25-kW power-assist HEV battery is estimated to be $399 (based on a 48- cell battery design, each cell having a capacity of 15.4 Ah). This corresponds to {approx}$16/kW. Our goal is to reduce the cell winding material cost to <$10/kW, in order to allow >$10/kW for the cell and battery manufacturing costs, as well as profit for the industrial manufacturer. The material cost information is obtained directly from the industrial material suppliers, based on supplying the material quantities necessary to support an introductory market of 100,000 HEV batteries/year. Using its battery design model, ANL provides the material suppliers with estimates of the material quantities needed to meet this market, for both 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries. Also, ANL has funded a few volume-production material cost analyses, with industrial material suppliers, to obtain needed cost information. In a related project, ANL evaluates and develops low-cost advanced materials for use in high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries. [This work is the subject of one or more separate papers at this conference.] Cell chemistries are developed from the most promising low-cost materials. The performance characteristics of test cells that employ these cell chemistries are used as input to the cost model. Batteries, employing these cell chemistries, are designed to meet the FreedomCAR power, energy, weight, and volume requirements. The cost model then provides a battery-level material cost and material cost breakdown for each battery design. Two of these advanced cell chemistries show promise for significantly reducing the battery-level material costs (see Table 1), as well as enhancing calendar life and inherent safety. It is projected that these two advanced cell chemistries (A and B) could reduce the battery-level material costs by an estimated 24% and 43%, respectively. An additional cost advantage is realized with advanced chemistry B, due to the high rate capability of the 3-dimensional LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel cathode. This means that a greater percentage of the total Ah capacity of the cell is usable and cells with reduced Ah capacity can be used. This allows for a reduction in the quantity of the anode, electrolyte, separator, and current collector materials needed f

Henriksen, G.; Chemical Engineering

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

CAES (conventional compressed-air energy storage) plant with steam generation: Preliminary design and cost analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study was performed to evaluate the performance and cost characteristics of two alternative CAES-plant concepts which utilize the low-pressure expander's exhaust-gas heat for the generation of steam in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Both concepts result in increased net-power generation relative to a conventional CAES plant with a recuperator. The HRSG-generated steam produces additional power in either a separate steam-turbine bottoming cycle (CAESCC) or by direct injection into and expansion through the CAES-turboexpander train (CAESSI). The HRSG, which is a proven component of combined-cycle and cogeneration plants, replaces the recuperator of a conventional CAES plant, which has demonstrated the potential for engineering and operating related problems and higher costs than were originally estimated. To enhance the credibility of the results, the analyses performed were based on the performance, operational and cost data of the 110-MW CAES plant currently under construction for the Alabama Electric Cooperative (AEC). The results indicate that CAESCC- and CAESSI-plant concepts are attractive alternatives to the conventional CAES plant with recuperator, providing greater power generation, up to 44-MW relative to the AEC CAES plant, with competitive operating and capital costs. 5 refs., 43 figs., 26 tabs.

Nakhamkin, M.; Swensen, E.C.; Abitante, P.A. (Energy Storage and Power Consultants, Mountainside, NJ (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

System cost model user`s manual, version 1.2  

SciTech Connect

The System Cost Model (SCM) was developed by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies in Idaho Falls, Idaho and MK-Environmental Services in San Francisco, California to support the Baseline Environmental Management Report sensitivity analysis for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The SCM serves the needs of the entire DOE complex for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. The model can be used to evaluate total complex costs based on various configuration options or to evaluate site-specific options. The site-specific cost estimates are based on generic assumptions such as waste loads and densities, treatment processing schemes, existing facilities capacities and functions, storage and disposal requirements, schedules, and cost factors. The SCM allows customization of the data for detailed site-specific estimates. There are approximately forty TSD module designs that have been further customized to account for design differences for nonalpha, alpha, remote-handled, and transuranic wastes. The SCM generates cost profiles based on the model default parameters or customized user-defined input and also generates costs for transporting waste from generators to TSD sites.

Shropshire, D.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

BatPaC - Battery Performance and Cost model - Home  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

> BatPaC Home About BatPaC Download BatPaC Contact Us BatPaC: A Lithium-Ion Battery Performance and Cost Model for Electric-Drive Vehicles The recent penetration of...

130

Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

Perry, Nicolas; Bernard, Alain

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

Nicolas Perry; Magali Mauchand; Alain Bernard

2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

132

Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Reactive Routing Protocols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing is sum of the cost paid in the form of energy consumed and time spent. These protocols majorly focus on the optimization performed by expanding ring search algorithm to control the flooding generated by the mechanism of blind flooding. So, we have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route maintenance. The proposed framework is evaluated in NS-2 to compare performance of the chosen routing protocols.

Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Specialization and extrapolation of software cost models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite the widespread availability of software effort estimation models (e.g. COCOMO [2], Price-S [12], SEER-SEM [13], SLIM [14]), most managers still estimate new projects by extrapolating from old projects [3, 5, 7]. In this delta method, the ...

Tim Menzies; Dan Port; Zhihao Chen; Jairus Hihn

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Comparative Analysis of the Cost Models Used for Estimating Renovation Costs of Universities in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Facility managers use various cost models and techniques to estimate the cost of renovating a building and to secure the required funds needed for building renovation. A literature search indicates that these techniques offer both advantages and disadvantages that need to be studied and analyzed. Descriptive statistical methods and qualitative analysis are employed to identify and compare techniques used by facility managers to calculate the expected renovation costs of a building. The cost models presently used to predict the cost and accumulate the budget required for renovation of a building were determined through interviews with ten Texas-based university facilities managers. The data and information gathered were analyzed and compared. Analysis of results suggests that traditional methods like Floor Area Method (FAM) is the most accurate, less time consuming, easy to use as well as convenient for data collection. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), though not as widely used as FAM, is known to facilities managers. This is due to the fact that, if a new type of project needs to be renovated, and the data for a similar project is not available with the facilities manager, a completely new database needs to be created. This issue can be resolved by creating a common forum where data for all types of project could be made available for the facilities managers. Methods such as regression analysis and neural networks are known to give more accurate results. However, of the ten interviewees, only one was aware of these new models but did not use them as they would be helpful for very large projects and they would need expertise. Thus such models should be simplified to not only give accurate results in less time but also be easy to use. These results may allow us to discuss changes needed within the various cost models.

Faquih, Yaquta Fakhruddin

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Cost Effectiveness of On-Site Chlorine Generation for Chlorine Truck Attack Prevention  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A chlorine tank truck attack could cause thousands of fatalities. As a means of preventing chlorine truck attacks, I consider the on-site generation of chlorine or hypochlorite at all U.S. facilities currently receiving chlorine by truck. I develop and ... Keywords: applications, cost-effectiveness, public policy, risk analysis, terrorism, uncertainty

Anthony M. Barrett

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

FUEL CELL SYSTEM ECONOMICS: COMPARING THE COSTS OF GENERATING POWER WITH STATIONARY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during many months of the year). * Similarly, use of PEM fuel cell waste heat for hot water heating wouldFUEL CELL SYSTEM ECONOMICS: COMPARING THE COSTS OF GENERATING POWER WITH STATIONARY AND MOTOR VEHICLE PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEMS UCD-ITS-RP-04-21 April 2004 by Timothy Lipman University of California

Kammen, Daniel M.

137

Bulk Electricity Generating Technologies This appendix describes the technical characteristics and cost and performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

foundations complete Start of boiler steel erection to commercial operation Time to complete (single unit factor of 1.10. May 2005 I-10 #12;petrochemical industry for processing of coal and petroleum residues the North American power generation industry. This is attributable to the availability of low- cost natural

138

Economic Modeling of Mid-Term Electric Generation Scenarios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The type and stringency of environmental mandates and carbon regulation in the next 10 years continue to be a topic of substantial uncertainty and debate. This study applies a model-based approach for exploring the potential magnitude of shifts in electric generation trends that could occur over a broad range of future environmental regulatory outcomes. Cases examined include a path of stringent environmental regulations, a high cost carbon policy, and their combination. This study is a follow-on modelin...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

EUVL reticle factory model and reticle cost analysis  

SciTech Connect

The key issues in reticle manufacturing are cost and delivery time, both of which are dependent upon the yield of the process line. To estimate the cost and delivery time for EUVL reticles in commercial manufacturing, we have developed the first model for an EUV reticle factory which includes all the tools required for a presumed EUVL reticle fabrication process. This model includes the building, support tools and sufficient ``in-line`` process tools for the manufacture of (more than) 2500 reticles per year. Industry specifications for the tool performance are used to determine the number of tools required per process step and the average number of reticles fabricated per year. Building and capital equipment depreciation costs, tool installation costs, tool maintenance costs, labor, clean room costs, process times and process yields are estimated and used to calculate the yearly operating cost of the reticle factory and the average reticle fabrication cost. We estimate the sales price of an EUV reticle to be $60K for non-critical levels and $120K for ``leading-edge.`` The average reticle fabrication time is calculated for three different process-line yields.

Hawryluk, A.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Shelden, G. [SEMATECH, Austin, TX (United States); Troccolo, P. [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

1996-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

140

Modeling distributed generation in the buildings sectors  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Modeling distributed generation Modeling distributed generation in the buildings sectors August 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Modeling distributed generation in the buildings sectors i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. July 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Modeling distributed generation in the buildings sectors 1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Hardware model of a shipboard generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A hardware model of the Gas Turbine Generator (GTG) in use on the US Navy's DDG-51 Class Destroyer is constructed for use as a lab apparatus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Laboratory for Electromagnetic and ...

Elkins, Gregory L. (Gregory Lewis)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Stochastic Market Equilibrium Model For Generation Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is widely accepted that medium-term generation planning can be advantageously modeled through market equilibrium representation. There exist several methods to define and solve this kind of equilibrium in a deterministic way. Medium-term planning ...

J. Barqun; E. Centeno; J. Reneses

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

Cost effectiveness of the 1993 Model Energy Code in Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This report documents an analysis of the cost effectiveness of the Council of American Building Officials` 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family homes in Colorado. The goal of this analysis was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1993 MEC to current construction practice in Colorado based on an objective methodology that determined the total life-cycle cost associated with complying with the 1993 MEC. This analysis was performed for the range of Colorado climates. The costs and benefits of complying with the 1993 NIEC were estimated from the consumer`s perspective. The time when the homeowner realizes net cash savings (net positive cash flow) for homes built in accordance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to vary from 0.9 year in Steamboat Springs to 2.4 years in Denver. Compliance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to increase first costs by $1190 to $2274, resulting in an incremental down payment increase of $119 to $227 (at 10% down). The net present value of all costs and benefits to the home buyer, accounting for the mortgage and taxes, varied from a savings of $1772 in Springfield to a savings of $6614 in Steamboat Springs. The ratio of benefits to costs ranged from 2.3 in Denver to 3.8 in Steamboat Springs.

Lucas, R.G.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Nuclear electric generation: Political, social, and economic cost and benefit to Indonesia. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

Indonesia, the largest archipelagic country with a population the fourth biggest in the world, is now in the process of development. It needs a large quantity of energy electricity to meet the industrial and household demands. The currently available generating capacity is not sufficient to meet the electricity demand for the rapidly growing industries and the increasing population. In order to meet the future demand for electricity, new generating capacity is required to be added to the current capacity. Nuclear electricity generation is one possible alternative to supplement Indonesia`s future demand of electricity. This thesis investigates the possibility of developing nuclear electricity generation in Indonesia, considering the political, social, and economic cost and benefit to Indonesia.

Waliyo

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Technology and Cost of the Model Year (MY) 2007 Toyota Camry HEV Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides research and development (R&D) support to the Department of Energy on issues related to the cost and performance of hybrid vehicles. ORNL frequently benchmarks its own research against commercially available hybrid components currently used in the market. In 2005 we completed a detailed review of the cost of the second generation Prius hybrid. This study examines the new 2007 Camry hybrid model for changes in technology and cost relative to the Prius. The work effort involved a detailed review of the Camry hybrid and the system control strategy to identify the hybrid components used in the drive train. Section 2 provides this review while Section 3 presents our detailed evaluation of the specific drive train components and their cost estimates. Section 3 also provides a summary of the total electrical drive train cost for the Camry hybrid vehicle and contrasts these estimates to the costs for the second generation Prius that we estimated in 2005. Most of the information on cost and performance were derived from meetings with the technical staff of Toyota, Nissan, and some key Tier I suppliers like Hitachi and Panasonic Electric Vehicle Energy (PEVE) and we thank these companies for their kind cooperation.

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

147

Computing confidence intervals on solution costs for stochastic grid generation expansion problems.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A range of core operations and planning problems for the national electrical grid are naturally formulated and solved as stochastic programming problems, which minimize expected costs subject to a range of uncertain outcomes relating to, for example, uncertain demands or generator output. A critical decision issue relating to such stochastic programs is: How many scenarios are required to ensure a specific error bound on the solution cost? Scenarios are the key mechanism used to sample from the uncertainty space, and the number of scenarios drives computational difficultly. We explore this question in the context of a long-term grid generation expansion problem, using a bounding procedure introduced by Mak, Morton, and Wood. We discuss experimental results using problem formulations independently minimizing expected cost and down-side risk. Our results indicate that we can use a surprisingly small number of scenarios to yield tight error bounds in the case of expected cost minimization, which has key practical implications. In contrast, error bounds in the case of risk minimization are significantly larger, suggesting more research is required in this area in order to achieve rigorous solutions for decision makers.

Woodruff, David L..; Watson, Jean-Paul

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Benchmarking Distributed Generation Cost of Electricity and Characterization of Green House Gas Emission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding the economic competitiveness and green house gas (GHG) footprint of all energy supply-side options has been identified by EPRI advisors as a key priority. This project benchmarks the cost of electricity and characterizes the GHG footprint of distributed generation (DG) options in various applications. DG technologies include small gas turbines, spark-ignited and diesel internal combustion engines, micro turbines, several types of fuel cells, Stirling engines, and photovoltaic systems.

2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

149

Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 2. Design study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The systems studies directed towards up-rating the performance of an RTG using selenide thermoelectrics and a heat source with improved safety are reported. The resulting generator design, designated LCHPG, exhibits conversion efficiency of greater than 10 percent, a specific power of 3 W/lb., and a cost of $6,000/W(e). In the course of system analyses, the significant development activities required to achieve this performance by the 1980 time period are identified.

Not Available

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

HVAC Modeling for Cost of Ownership Assessment in Biotechnology & Drugs Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2000 Broomes, Peter. , HVAC Modeling for Cost of Ownership2000 Broomes, Peter. , HVAC Results Comparison, April,HVAC Modeling for Cost of Ownership Assessment in

Broomes, Peter; Dornfeld, David A

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Introduction to Simplified Generation Risk Assessment Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Life cycle management (LCM) and risk-informed asset management of nuclear power plants can benefit from improved prediction of the effect of equipment failures or degradation on plant productivity. The Generation Risk Assessment (GRA) model described in this report provides a systematic approach to estimating how equipment reliability relates to the risk of future lost generation from trips and derates and to prioritizing components and systems based on their importance to productivity.

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

152

A fresh look at cost estimation, process models and risk analysis, EDSER-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliable cost estimation is indispensable for industrial software development. A detailed analysis shows why the existing cost models are unreliable. Cost estimation should integrate software process modelling and risk analysis. A novel approach based on probability theory is proposed. A probabilistic cost model could provide a solid basis for cost-benefit analyses. 1

Frank Padberg

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Neutron generator power supply modeling in EMMA  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has prime responsibility for neutron generator design and manufacturing, and is committed to developing predictive tools for modeling neutron generator performance. An important aspect of understanding component performance is explosively driven ferroelectric power supply modeling. EMMA (ElectroMechanical Modeling in ALEGRA) is a three dimensional compile time version of Sandia`s ALEGRA code. The code is built on top of the general ALEGRA framework for parallel shock-physics computations but also includes additional capability for modeling the electric potential field in dielectrics. The overall package includes shock propagation due to explosive detonation, depoling of ferroelectric ceramics, electric field calculation and coupling with a general lumped element circuit equation system. The AZTEC parallel iterative solver is used to solve for the electric potential. The DASPK differential algebraic equation package is used to solve the circuit equation system. Sample calculations are described.

Robinson, A.C.; Farnsworth, A.V.; Montgomery, S.T.; Peery, J.S; Merewether, K.O.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Lawrence Livermore National Security Cost Model Functional Management Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scope of the Functional Management Assessment of the cost model included a review of the plan and progress of the Cost Model Review Team. The review focused on processes in place to ensure simplicity, compliance with cost accounting standards and indirect cost allocation methodology, and the change management plan. This was intended to be a high-level initial review in order to provide recommendations for a subsequent more comprehensive review. The single document reviewed by the team during the assessment was the Indirect Cost Recovery Model Review, which describes how the indirect rate restructure and new organizational structure have resulted in streamlined charging practices to better understand and strategically manage costs. ISSUE 1: The cost model focuses heavily on rate structure but not on cost management. Significant progress has been made to simplify the rate structure. The number of indirect rates has been reduced from 67 different indirect rates used under the prior contract to 32 rates in the first year of the LLNS contract, with a goal of further reduction to 16 for FY09. The reductions are being recommended by a broad-based Working Group driven by Lab leadership desiring a simplified rate structure that would make it easier to analyze the true cost of overhead, be viewed as equitable, and ensure appropriate use of Service, i.e., operations, Centers. This has been a real challenge due to the significant change in approach from one that previously involved a very complex rate structure. Under this prior approach, the goal was to manage the rates, and rates were established at very detailed levels that would 'shine the light' on pools of overhead costs. As long as rates stayed constant or declined, not as much attention tended to be given to them, particularly with so many pools to review (184 indirect rate pools in FY05). However, as difficult and important as simplifying the rate structure has been, the fundamental reason for the simplification is to make it easier to analyze the true cost of overhead so the costs can be effectively managed. For the current year, the overall the goal of keeping the total cost of an FTE to FY07 levels. This approach reflects the past practice of managing to rates rather than focusing on costs, although streamlined with the more simplified rate structure. Given all the challenges being faced with the contract transition, this was a reasonable interim tactic for dealing with the known cost increases such as fees and taxes. Nonetheless, in order to take full advantage of the opportunities that exist for making sound decisions for further reducing the rates themselves, the Laboratory needs to implement an ongoing and disciplined approach to understanding and managing overhead cost. ISSUE 2: The NIF has a significantly different rate structure than other Laboratory work. Because of its significant size and unique organizational structure as a major construction project, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has indirect charges that vary from the norm. These variations were reviewed and approved by and disclosed to the NNSA in the Laboratory's past annual Disclosure Statements. In mid-FY 09, NIF will begin transition from a construction line item to an operational center. The reallocation of costs when this occurs could significantly impact the Laboratory's rates and rate structure planning for that transition from a cost- and rate- impact standpoint should begin soon. ISSUE 3: The new rate model must be finalized shortly in order to implement the model beginning in FY 09. As noted in Issue No.1, a Working Group has developed a simplified rate structure for the Lab to use for FY09. The Working Group has evaluated the cost impacts of the simplified rate structure at the major program level and identified a disparate impact in the Safeguards and Security area where a substantial increase in overhead cost allocation may need to be mitigated. The simplified rate structure will need to be approved by the Laboratory Director and issued within the Laboratory to formulate detailed bu

Tevis, J; Hirahara, J; Thomas, B; Mendez, M

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

155

Empirical Memory-Access Cost Models in Multicore NUMA Architectures  

SciTech Connect

Data location is of prime importance when scheduling tasks in a non-uniform memory access (NUMA) architecture. The characteristics of the NUMA architecture must be understood so tasks can be scheduled onto processors that are close to the task's data. However, in modern NUMA architectures, such as AMD Magny-Cours and Intel Nehalem, there may be a relatively large number of memory controllers with sockets that are connected in a non-intuitive manner, leading to performance degradation due to uninformed task-scheduling decisions. In this paper, we provide a method for experimentally characterizing memory-access costs for modern NUMA architectures via memory latency and bandwidth microbenchmarks. Using the results of these benchmarks, we propose a memory-access cost model to improve task-scheduling decisions by scheduling tasks near the data they need. Simple task-scheduling experiments using the memory-access cost models validate the use of empirical memory-access cost models to significantly improve program performance.

McCormick, Patrick S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Braithwaite, Ryan Karl [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feng, Wu-chun [Virginia Tech

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

A natural lexicalization model for language generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a general lexicalization model which accounts for how lexical units are selected and introduced in linguistic utterances during language generation. This model aims at naturalness by being based on actual lexical knowledge used in speech; consequently, it should be compatible with standard patterns of behavior shown by humans when they speak (flexibility in computing both content and form of linguistic utterances, prototypical types of mistakes and backtracking, etc.). The main advantage of our model, once implemented in automatic language generation, is that it takes into account fundamental differences that exist between lexical units, with regard to why and how they are used in texts. This is achieved by means of a stratificational approach to lexicalization, where each type of lexical unit is introduced at a proper level of representation, according to the role it plays in the enunciation. Section 1 offers a general characterization of the approach and makes explicit its main assumptions. Sections 2 to 4 successively examine the three levels of transition implied by the stratificational structuring of the model. Section 5 concludes with an examination of its relevance to the design of text generation systems. Keywords: language/text generation, lexicalization, lexical choice, Meaning-Text theory.

A. Polgure

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

A stochastic model for the measurement of electricity outage costs  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of customer outage costs has recently become an important subject of research for electric utilities. This paper uses a stochastic dynamic model as the starting point in developing a market-based method for the evaluation of outage costs. Specifically, the model postulates that once an electricity outage occurs, all production activity stops. Full production is resumed once the electricity outage is over. This process repeats itself indefinitely. The business customer maximizes his expected discounted profits (the expected value of the firm), taking into account his limited ability to respond to repeated random electricity outages. The model is applied to 11 industrial branches in Israel. The estimates exhibit a large variation across branches. 34 refs., 3 tabs.

Grosfeld-Nir, A.; Tishler, A. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Short-term hydroelectric generation model. Model documentation report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Alternative wind power modeling methods using chronological and load duration curve production cost models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As an intermittent resource, capturing the temporal variation in windpower is an important issue in the context of utility production cost modeling. Many of the production cost models use a method that creates a cumulative probability distribution that is outside the time domain. The purpose of this report is to examine two production cost models that represent the two major model types: chronological and load duration cure models. This report is part of the ongoing research undertaken by the Wind Technology Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in utility modeling and wind system integration.

Milligan, M R

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Work Costs and Nonconvex Preferences in the Estimation of Labor Supply Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We first critique the manner in which work costs have been introduced into labor supply estimation, and note the difficulty of incorporating a realistic rendering of the costs of work. We then show that, if work costs are not acounted for in the budget and time constraints in a structural labor supply model, they will be subsumed into the data generating preferences. We show that even if underlying preferences over consumption and leisure are convex, the presence of unobservable work costs can make these preferences appear nonconvex. Absent strong functional form assumptions, these work costs are not identified in data commonly used for labor supply estimation. However, we show that even if work costs cannot be separately identified, policy relevant calculations, such as estimates of the effect of tax changes on labor supply and deadweight loss calculations, are not affected by the fact that estimated preferences incorporate work costs. We would like to thank Joe Altonji and Chris Taber for valuable conversations, and seminar participants

Bradley T. Heim; Bruce D. Meyer

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

2004-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

162

Process-Based Cost Modeling to Support Target Value Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maintaining Activity-based Cost Estimates with Feature-Based2004). Effective Cost Estimate and Construction Processesof new designs. These cost estimates are inflated by the

Nguyen, Hung Viet

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

AVCEM: Advanced-Vehicle Cost and Energy Use Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the battery, according to the battery cost equations (seediscussion of battery cost above). There actually are twoin the amount and cost of fuel-storage, battery, vehicle

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Advanced gas turbines: The choice for low-cost, environmentally superior electric power generation  

SciTech Connect

In July 1993, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated an ambitious 8-year program to advance state-of-the-art gas turbine technology for land-based electric power generation. The program, known as the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Program, is a joint government/industry program with the objective to demonstrate advanced industrial and utility gas turbine systems by the year 2000. The goals of the ATS Program are to develop gas turbine systems capable of providing low-cost electric power, while maintaining environmental superiority over competing power generation options. A progress report on the ATS Program pertaining to program status at DOE will be presented and reviewed in this paper. The technical challenges, advanced critical technology requirements, and systems designs meeting the goals of the program will be described and discussed.

Zeh, C.M.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Modeling and Model Validation for Variable Generation Technologies: Focus on Wind Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influx of variable-generation technologies, particularly wind generation, into the bulk transmission grid has been tremendous over the past decade. This trend will likely continue, in light of national and state renewable portfolio standards. Thus, there is a need for generic, standard, and publicly available models for variable-generation technologies for power system planning studies. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in collaboration with the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (...

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

166

Modeling and Simulation Data Generation.pub  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simulation Data Simulation Data Generation Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract number DE-AC05-00OR22725 Research Areas Freight Flows Passenger Flows Supply Chain Efficiency Transportation: Energy Environment Safety Security Vehicle Technologies Research Brief A n ORNL team supported the Rapid Data Generation (RDG) Project from 2009 to 2012. This work was performed for the Joint Training Integration and Evaluation Center and the Modeling and Simulation Coordination Office. The objective of RDG is to reduce the resources required to produce, integrate, and correlate data, eliminate or reduce duplicative efforts, and promote data commonality for modeling and simulation (M&S) activities across the Department of

167

Model documentation report: Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Generalized linear model-based expert system for estimating the cost of transportation projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Timely effective cost management requires reliable cost estimates at every stage of project development. While underestimation of transportation costs seems to be a global trend, improving early cost prediction accuracy in estimates is difficult. This ... Keywords: Cost management, Expert system, Generalized linear model, Relational database, Transportation projects

Jui-Sheng Chou

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Summary of: Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

171

Validation and Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Project Cost Models with Project Cost Data Obtained from the Southwest Partnership  

SciTech Connect

Obtaining formal quotes and engineering conceptual designs for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration sites and facilities is costly and time-consuming. Frequently, when looking at potential locations, managers, engineers and scientists are confronted with multiple options, but do not have the expertise or the information required to quickly obtain a general estimate of what the costs will be without employing an engineering firm. Several models for carbon compression, transport and/or injection have been published that are designed to aid in determining the cost of sequestration projects. A number of these models are used in this study, including models by J. Ogden, MIT's Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies Program Model, the Environmental Protection Agency and others. This report uses the information and data available from several projects either completed, in progress, or conceptualized by the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) to determine the best approach to estimate a project's cost. The data presented highlights calculated versus actual costs. This data is compared to the results obtained by applying several models for each of the individual projects with actual cost. It also offers methods to systematically apply the models to future projects of a similar scale. Last, the cost risks associated with a project of this scope are discussed, along with ways that have been and could be used to mitigate these risks.

Robert Lee; Reid Grigg; Brian McPherson

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

A MODEL FOR DETERMINING DIPOLE, QUADRUPOLE, AND COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNET COSTS.  

SciTech Connect

One of the most important considerations in designing large accelerators is cost. This paper describes a model for estimating accelerator magnet costs, including their dependences on length, radius, and field. The reasoning behind the cost model is explained, and the parameters of the model are chosen so as to correctly give the costs of a few selected magnets. A comparison is made with earlier formulae. Estimates are also given for other costs linearly dependent on length, and for 200 MHz superconducting RF.

PALMER, R.B.; BERG,S.J.

2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

173

Statistical Models for Next Generation Sequencing Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three statistical models are developed to address problems in Next-Generation Sequencing data. The first two models are designed for RNA-Seq data and the third is designed for ChIP-Seq data. The first of the RNA-Seq models uses a Bayesian non- parametric model to detect genes that are differentially expressed across treatments. A negative binomial sampling distribution is used for each genes read count such that each gene may have its own parameters. Despite the consequent large number of parameters, parsimony is imposed by a clustering inherent in the Bayesian nonparametric framework. A Bayesian discovery procedure is adopted to calculate the probability that each gene is differentially expressed. A simulation study and real data analysis show this method will perform at least as well as existing leading methods in some cases. The second RNA-Seq model shares the framework of the first model, but replaces the usual random partition prior from the Dirichlet process by a random partition prior indexed by distances from Gene Ontology (GO). The use of the external biological information yields improvements in statistical power over the original Bayesian discovery procedure. The third model addresses the problem of identifying protein binding sites for ChIP-Seq data. An exact test via a stochastic approximation is used to test the hypothesis that the treatment effect is independent of the sequence count intensity effect. The sliding window procedure for ChIP-Seq data is followed. The p-value and the adjusted false discovery rate are calculated for each window. For the sites identified as peak regions, three candidate models are proposed for characterizing the bimodality of the ChIP-Seq data, and the stochastic approximation in Monte Carlo (SAMC) method is used for selecting the best of the three. Real data analysis shows that this method produces comparable results as other existing methods and is advantageous in identifying bimodality of the data.

Wang, Yiyi

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Discrete Event Model Development of Pilot Plant Scale Microalgae Facilities: An Analysis of Productivity and Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

America's reliance on foreign oil has raised economic and national security issues, and in turn the U.S. has been active in reducing its dependence on foreign oil to mitigate these issues. Also, the U.S. Navy has been instrumental in driving bio-fuel research and production by setting an ambitious goal to purchase 336M gallons of bio-fuel by 2020. The production of microalgae biomass is a promising field which may be able to meet these demands. The utilization of microalgae for the production of bio-fuel requires the implementation of efficient culturing processes to maximize production and reduce costs. Therefore, three discrete rate event simulation models were developed to analyze different scaling scenarios and determine total costs associated with each scenario. Three scaling scenarios were identified by this analysis and included a stepwise, volume batching and intense culturing process. A base case and potential best case were considered in which the culturing duration, lipid content and lipid induction period were adjusted. A what-if analysis was conducted which identified and reduced capital and operational costs contributing greatly to total costs. An NPV analysis was performed for each scenario to identify the risk associated with future cash flows. The research findings indicate that the intense culturing scaling scenario yielded the greatest model throughput and least total cost for both the base case and potential best case. However, this increased productivity and cost reduction were not significantly greater than the productivity generated by the stepwise scaling scenario, suggesting that the implementation of flat plate bio-reactors in the intense culturing process may be non-advantageous given the increased operational costs of these devices. The volume batching scenario yielded the greatest total cost L^-1 of microalgae bio-oil for both, indicating an inefficient process. The scaling scenarios of the base case and potential best case yielded negative NPV's while the stepwise and intense culturing scenarios of the what-if analysis generated positive NPV's. The base case is based on current technological advances, biological limitations and costs of microalgae production therefore, a negative NPV suggests that utilizing microalgae for bio-fuel production is not an economically feasible project at this time.

Stepp, Justin Wayne

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

SVM-Based Multiclass Cost-sensitive Classification with Reject Option for Fault Diagnosis of Steam Turbine Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The steam turbine generator faults not only damage the generator itself, but also cause outages and loss of profits, for this reason, many researchers work on the fault diagnosis. But misdiagnosing may also lead to serious losses. In order to improve ... Keywords: SVM, multiclass, cost-sensitive, fault diagnosis, reject option

Chao Zou; En-hui Zheng; Hong-wei Xu; Le Chen

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Modeling Distributed Electricity Generation in the NEMS Buildings Models  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This paper presents the modeling methodology, projected market penetration, and impact of distributed generation with respect to offsetting future electricity needs and carbon dioxide emissions in the residential and commercial buildings sector in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000) reference case.

Erin Boedecker

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

177

Dual Estimates of the Optimal Plan Model and Regional Market Costs: A Relationship  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between linear programming dual estimates for the optimal production plan model and real regional market costs is studied. A two-stage linear programming model is necessary for exact approximation of cost allocation in analyzing with ...

Yu. M. Tsodikov; Ya. Yu. Tsodikova

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Towards a "personal cost" model for end-user development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Software cost estimation techniques are used to provide a useful measure of the complexities, efforts, and costs involved in system development. Despite three decades of research on software cost estimation, the research community has yet to provide ... Keywords: EUD, cost-estimation, end-user development, motivation, qualitative evaluation, software quality

Roderick A. Farmer; Baden Hughes

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030  

SciTech Connect

The Wind Energy Deployment System model was used to estimate the costs and benefits associated with producing 20% of the nation's electricity from wind technology by 2030. This generation capacity expansion model selects from electricity generation technologies that include pulverized coal plants, combined cycle natural gas plants, combustion turbine natural gas plants, nuclear plants, and wind technology to meet projected demand in future years. Technology cost and performance projections, as well as transmission operation and expansion costs, are assumed. This study demonstrates that producing 20% of the nation's projected electricity demand in 2030 from wind technology is technically feasible, not cost-prohibitive, and provides benefits in the forms of carbon emission reductions, natural gas price reductions, and water savings.

Bolinger, Mark A; Hand, Maureen; Blair, Nate; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Hern, Tracy; Miller, Bart; O'Connell, R.

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

180

Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030  

SciTech Connect

The Wind Energy Deployment System model was used to estimate the costs and benefits associated with producing 20% of the nation's electricity from wind technology by 2030. This generation capacity expansion model selects from electricity generation technologies that include pulverized coal plants, combined cycle natural gas plants, combustion turbine natural gas plants, nuclear plants, and wind technology to meet projected demand in future years. Technology cost and performance projections, as well as transmission operation and expansion costs, are assumed. This study demonstrates that producing 20% of the nation's projected electricity demand in 2030 from wind technology is technically feasible, not cost-prohibitive, and provides benefits in the forms of carbon emission reductions, natural gas price reductions, and water savings.

Bolinger, Mark A; Hand, Maureen; Blair, Nate; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Hern, Tracy; Miller, Bart; O& #39; Connell, R.

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Emission Cuts Realities Electricity Generation Cost and CO2 emissions projections for different electricity generation options for Australia to 2050 By  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Five options for cutting CO2 emissions from electricity generation in Australia are compared with a Business as Usual ? option over the period 2010 to 2050. The six options comprise combinations of coal, gas, nuclear, wind and solar thermal technologies. The conclusions: The nuclear option reduces CO2 emissions the most, is the only option that can be built quickly enough to make the deep emissions cuts required, and is the least cost of the options that can cut emissions sustainably. Solar thermal and wind power are the highest cost of the options considered. The cost of avoiding emissions is lowest with nuclear and highest with solar and wind power.

Peter Lang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Steam generation in line-focus solar collectors: a comparative assessment of thermal performance, operating stability, and cost issues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The engineering and system benefits of using direct steam (in situ) generation in line-focus collectors are assessed. The major emphasis of the analysis is a detailed thermal performance comparison of in situ systems (which utilize unfired boilers). The analysis model developed for this study is discussed in detail. An analysis of potential flow stability problems is also provided along with a cursory cost analysis and an assessment of freeze protection, safety, and control issues. Results indicated a significant thermal performance advantage over the more conventional oil and flash systems and the flow stability does not appear to be a significant problem. In particular, at steam temperatures of 220/sup 0/C (430/sup 0/F) under the chosen set of assumptions, annual delivered energy predictions indicate that the in situ system can deliver 15% more energy than an oil system and 12% more energy than a flash system, with all of the systems using the same collector field. Further, the in situ system may result in a 10% capital cost reduction. Other advantages include improvement in simpler control when compared with flash systems, and fluid handling and safety enhancement when compared with oil systems.

Murphy, L.M.; May, E.K.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Modeling Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost, and Financing with Solar Advisor Model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comprehensive solar technology systems analysis model, the Solar Advisor Model (SAM), has been developed to support the federal R&D community and the solar industry by staff at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratory. This model is able to model the finances, incentives, and performance of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV), concentrating PV, and concentrating solar power (specifically, parabolic troughs). The primary function of the model is to allow users to investigate the impact of variations in performance, cost, and financial parameters to better understand their impact on key figures of merit. Figures of merit related to the cost and performance of these systems include, but aren't limited to, system output, system efficiencies, levelized cost of energy, return on investment, and system capital and O&M costs. SAM allows users to do complex system modeling with an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI). In fact, all tables and graphics for this paper are taken directly from the model GUI. This model has the capability to compare different solar technologies within the same interface, making use of similar cost and finance assumptions. Additionally, the ability to do parametric and sensitivity analysis is central to this model. There are several models within SAM to model the performance of photovoltaic modules and inverters. This paper presents an overview of each PV and inverter model, introduces a new generic model, and briefly discusses the concentrating solar power (CSP) parabolic trough model. A comparison of results using the different PV and inverter models is also presented.

Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Cameron, C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on

185

Distributed Generation Capabilities National Energy Modeling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1.4 Case 4: 40% Fuel Cell and PV Tax Credit with Advanced Technology Costs ........ 16 3.1.5 Case 5: 40% Fuel Cell Tax Credit with Advanced Technology Costs ..................... 17 3.1.6 Case 6: 40% Tax cooling. The average electricity and hot water consumption is used to determine building fuel demand

186

Dynamic Analysis of Hybrid Energy Systems under Flexible Operation and Variable Renewable Generation -- Part I: Dynamic Performance Analysis and Part II: Dynamic Cost  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic analysis of hybrid energy systems (HES) under flexible operation and variable renewable generation is considered in order to better understand various challenges and opportunities associated with the high system variability arising from the integration of renewable energy into the power grid. Unique consequences are addressed by devising advanced HES solutions in which multiple forms of energy commodities, such as electricity and chemical products, may be exchanged. Dynamic models of various unit operations are developed and integrated within two different HES options. One HES option, termed traditional, produces electricity only and consists of a primary heat generator (PHG) (e.g., a small modular reactor), a steam turbine generator, a wind farm, and a battery storage. The other HES option, termed advanced, includes not only the components present in the traditional option but also a chemical plant complex to repurpose excess energy for non-electricity services, such as for the production of chemical goods (e.g., transportation fuel). In either case, a given HES is connected to the power grid at a point of common coupling and requested to deliver a certain electricity generation profile as dictated by a regional power grid operator based on a predicted demand curve. Dynamic analysis of these highly-coupled HES are performed to identify their key dynamical properties and limitations and to prescribe solutions for best managing and mitigating the high variability introduced from incorporating renewable energy into the energy mix. A comparative dynamic cost analysis is also conducted to determine best HES options. The cost function includes a set of metrics for computing fixed costs, such as fixed operations and maintenance (O&M) and overnight capital costs, and also variable operational costs, such as cost of variability, variable O&M cost, and cost of environmental impact, together with revenues. Assuming different options for implementing PHG (e.g., natural gas, coal, nuclear), preliminary results identify the level of renewable penetration at which a given advanced HES option (e.g., a nuclear hybrid) becomes increasingly more economical than a traditional electricity-only generation solution. Conditions are also revealed under which carbon resources may be better utilized as carbon sources for chemical production rather than as combustion material for electricity generation.

Humberto E. Garcia; Amit Mohanty; Wen-Chiao Lin; Robert S. Cherry

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Does Competition Reduce Costs? Assessing the Impact of Regulatory Restructuring on U.S. Electric Generation Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 3 One exception is Hiebert (2002), who uses stochastic frontier production functions to estimate generation plant efficiency over 1988-1997. One set of independent variables he includes is indicators for regulatory orders or legislative enactment... to customers. Joskow (1974) and Hendricks (1975) demonstrate that frictions in cost-of-service regulation, particularly those arising from regulatory lag (time between price- resetting hearings), may provide some incentives at the margin for cost...

Markiewicz, Karl; Rose, Nancy L; Wolfram, Catherine

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

188

Total Cost Per MwH for all common large scale power generation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

per MWh or KWh for the various sources ? I suspect that the costs commonly quoted for fossil fuels and nucelar are artificially low and that these fake costs are used to 'sell'...

189

Analytic framework for TRL-based cost and schedule models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many government agencies have adopted the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale to help improve technology development management under ever increasing cost, schedule, and complexity constraints. Many TRL-based cost and ...

El-Khoury, Bernard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Introduction to production cost models 1.0 Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(t) is total maintenance costs in year t. · O(t) is the cost associated with outages. and the overbar in (1 · I(t) is total investment costs at year t · S(t) is total salvage value of retired plants at year t (and for all plants still in operation at year T). · F(t) is total fuel costs in year t. · M

McCalley, James D.

191

Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CTL production Oil shale production Biofuels productionshale have zero Resource- Cost), while in GTL and CTL production,

Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GTL production CTL production Oil shale production Biofuelsoil and shale have zero Resource- Cost), while in GTL and CTL production,

Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Abstract The natural gas price surged in 2004. As a result, the marginal cost of some generators burning gas also rose sharply.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract ­ The natural gas price surged in 2004. As a result, the marginal cost of some generators marginal cost, which is closely related to the natural gas price. Since gas units are usually the marginal the sensitivity of Var benefit with respect to generation cost. The U.S. natural gas industry has been

Tolbert, Leon M.

195

Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

ORCED: A model to simulate the operations and costs of bulk-power markets  

SciTech Connect

Dramatic changes in the structure and operation of US bulk-power markets require new analytical tools. The authors developed the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to analyze a variety of public-policy issues related to the many changes underway in the US electricity industry. Such issues include: policy and technology options to reduce carbon emissions from electricity production; the effects of electricity trading between high- and low-cost regions on consumers and producers in both regions; the ability of the owners of certain generating units to exercise market power as functions of the transmission link between two regions and the characteristics of the generating units and loads in each region; and the market penetration of new energy-production and energy-use technologies and the effects of their adoption on fuel use, electricity use and costs, and carbon emissions. ORCED treats two electrical systems connected by a single transmission link ORCED uses two load-duration curves to represent the time-varying electricity consumption in each region. The two curves represent peak and offpeak seasons. User specification of demand elasticities permits ORCED to estimate the effects of changes in electricity price, both overall and hour by hour, on overall electricity use and load shapes. ORCED represents the electricity supply in each region with 26 generating units. The two regions are connected by a single transmission link. This link is characterized by its capacity (MW), cost ({cents}/kWh), and losses (%). This report explains the inputs to, outputs from, and operation of ORCED. It also presents four examples showing applications of the model to various public-policy issues related to restructuring of the US electricity industry.

Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

A Model of U.S. Commercial Distributed Generation Adoption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-scale (100 kW-5 MW) on-site distributed generation (DG) economically driven by combined heat and power (CHP) applications and, in some cases, reliability concerns will likely emerge as a common feature of commercial building energy systems over the next two decades. Forecasts of DG adoption published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) are made using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which has a forecasting module that predicts the penetration of several possible commercial building DG technologies over the period 2005-2025. NEMS is also used for estimating the future benefits of Department of Energy research and development used in support of budget requests and management decisionmaking. The NEMS approach to modeling DG has some limitations, including constraints on the amount of DG allowed for retrofits to existing buildings and a small number of possible sizes for each DG technology. An alternative approach called Commercial Sector Model (ComSeM) is developed to improve the way in which DG adoption is modeled. The approach incorporates load shapes for specific end uses in specific building types in specific regions, e.g., cooling in hospitals in Atlanta or space heating in Chicago offices. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) uses these load profiles together with input cost and performance DG technology assumptions to model the potential DG adoption for four selected cities and two sizes of five building types in selected forecast years to 2022. The Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model (DER-MaDiM) is then used to then tailor the DER-CAM results to adoption projections for the entire U.S. commercial sector for all forecast years from 2007-2025. This process is conducted such that the structure of results are consistent with the structure of NEMS, and can be re-injected into NEMS that can then be used to integrate adoption results into a full forecast.

LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Ryan Firestone; Zhou, Nan; Maribu,Karl; Marnay, Chris

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

199

Study of photovoltaic cost elements. Volume 4. Installation cost model for residential PV systems: users manual. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A quantitative methodology is presented for estimating installation costs of residential photovoltaic systems. The Installation Cost Model for Residential PV Systems is comprised of 144 estimating equations selectively exercised, based on user definition of the system. At the input stage, Residential PV systems can be fully described by 9 design option categories and 9 system specification categories. All assumptions have been validated with installers of solar thermal systems and with TB and A's Architects and Engineers Division. A discussion of the model is included as well as an example of its use with an 8 KW PV system for a Southwest All-Electric Residential design.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Periodic Flow Gas Turbine for Distributed Energy Generation  

SciTech Connect

The proposed effort served as a feasibility study for an innovative, low-cost periodic flow gas turbine capable of realizing efficiencies in the 39-48% range.

Dr. Adam London

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Potentially Low Cost Solution to Extend Use of Early Generation Computed Tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of image analysis. (Platforms: PC; Cost: Varies) MicroVisionII MicroVision II can be used for for visualising point-

Tonna, Joseph E; Balanoff, Amy M; Lewin, Matthew R; Saandari, Namjilmaa; Wintermark, Max

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Enabling Thin Silicon Technologies for Next Generation Low-cost c ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Solar Cell Silicon ... from fossil fuels to renewable sources has spurred companies to reduce the cost of their solar photovoltaics (PV) systems.

203

Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects.

VanKuiken, J.C.; Guziel, K.A.; Tompkins, M.M.; Buehring, W.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Systematic Testing of Model-Based Code Generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unlike for conventional compilers for imperative programming languages such as C or ADA, no establishedmethods for safeguarding artifacts generated by model-based code generators exist despite progress in the field of formalverification. Several test ... Keywords: Testing and Debugging

Ingo Stuermer; Mirko Conrad; Heiko Doerr; Peter Pepper

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Numerical Modeling of Gravity Wave Generation by Deep Tropical Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although convective clouds are known to generate internal gravity waves, the mechanisms responsible are not well understood. The present study seeks to clarify the dynamics of wave generation using a high-resolution numerical model of deep ...

Todd P. Lane; Michael J. Reeder; Terry L. Clark

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Stochastic Precipitation Generation Based on a Multivariate Autoregression Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of stochastic precipitation generation has long been of interest. A good generator should produce time series with statistical properties to match those of the real precipitation. Here, a multivariate autoregression model designed to ...

Oleg V. Makhnin; Devon L. McAllister

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Five Facts About Prices: A Reevaluation of Menu Cost Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We establish five facts about prices in the U.S. economy: 1) The median implied duration of consumer prices when sales are excluded at the product level is between 8 and 11 months. The median implied duration of finished goods producer prices is 8.7 months. 2) One-third of regular price changes are price decreases. 3) The frequency of price increases responds strongly to inflation while the frequency of price decreases and the size of price increases and price decreases do not. 4) The frequency of price change is highly seasonal: It is highest in the 1st quarter and lowest in the 4th quarter. 5) The hazard function of price changes for individual consumer and producer goods is downward sloping for the first few months and then flat (except for a large spike at 12 months in consumer services and all producer prices). These facts are based on CPI microdata and a new comprehensive data set of microdata on producer prices that we construct from raw production files underlying the PPI. We show that the 1st, 2nd and 3rd facts are consistent with a benchmark menu-cost model, while the 4th and 5th facts are not.

Emi Nakamura; Jn Steinsson

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

GEOCITY: a computer model for systems analysis of geothermal district heating and cooling costs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GEOCITY is a computer-simulation model developed to study the economics of district heating/cooling using geothermal energy. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating/cooling based on climate, population, resource characteristics, and financing conditions. The basis for our geothermal-energy cost analysis is the unit cost of energy which will recover all the costs of production. The calculation of the unit cost of energy is based on life-cycle costing and discounted-cash-flow analysis. A wide variation can be expected in the range of potential geothermal district heating and cooling costs. The range of costs is determined by the characteristics of the resource, the characteristics of the demand, and the distance separating the resource and the demand. GEOCITY is a useful tool for estimating costs for each of the main parts of the production process and for determining the sensitivity of these costs to several significant parameters under a consistent set of assumptions.

Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Technology commercialization cost model and component case study. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells seem poised to emerge as a clean, efficient, and cost competitive source of fossil fuel based electric power and thermal energy. Sponsors of fuel cell technology development need to determine the validity and the attractiveness of a technology to the market in terms of meeting requirements and providing value which exceeds the total cost of ownership. Sponsors of fuel cell development have addressed this issue by requiring the developers to prepare projections of the future production cost of their fuel cells in commercial quantities. These projected costs, together with performance and life projections, provide a preliminary measure of the total value and cost of the product to the customer. Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. and Michael A. Cobb & Company have been retained in several assignments over the years to audit these cost projections. The audits have gone well beyond a simple review of the numbers. They have probed the underlying technical and financial assumptions, the sources of data on material and equipment costs, and explored issues such as the realistic manufacturing yields which can be expected in various processes. Based on the experience gained from these audits, the DOE gave Booz-Allen and Michael A. Cobb & company the task to develop a criteria to be used in the execution of future fuel cell manufacturing cost studies. It was thought that such a criteria would make it easier to execute such studies in the future as well as to cause such studies to be more understandable and comparable.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Technology commercialization cost model and component case study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells seem poised to emerge as a clean, efficient, and cost competitive source of fossil fuel based electric power and thermal energy. Sponsors of fuel cell technology development need to determine the validity and the attractiveness of a technology to the market in terms of meeting requirements and providing value which exceeds the total cost of ownership. Sponsors of fuel cell development have addressed this issue by requiring the developers to prepare projections of the future production cost of their fuel cells in commercial quantities. These projected costs, together with performance and life projections, provide a preliminary measure of the total value and cost of the product to the customer. Booz-Allen Hamilton Inc. and Michael A. Cobb Company have been retained in several assignments over the years to audit these cost projections. The audits have gone well beyond a simple review of the numbers. They have probed the underlying technical and financial assumptions, the sources of data on material and equipment costs, and explored issues such as the realistic manufacturing yields which can be expected in various processes. Based on the experience gained from these audits, the DOE gave Booz-Allen and Michael A. Cobb company the task to develop a criteria to be used in the execution of future fuel cell manufacturing cost studies. It was thought that such a criteria would make it easier to execute such studies in the future as well as to cause such studies to be more understandable and comparable.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system  

SciTech Connect

This report describes Berkeley Lab's exploration of how the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models distributed generation (DG) and presents possible approaches for improving how DG is modeled. The on-site electric generation capability has been available since the AEO2000 version of NEMS. Berkeley Lab has previously completed research on distributed energy resources (DER) adoption at individual sites and has developed a DER Customer Adoption Model called DER-CAM. Given interest in this area, Berkeley Lab set out to understand how NEMS models small-scale on-site generation to assess how adequately DG is treated in NEMS, and to propose improvements or alternatives. The goal is to determine how well NEMS models the factors influencing DG adoption and to consider alternatives to the current approach. Most small-scale DG adoption takes place in the residential and commercial modules of NEMS. Investment in DG ultimately offsets purchases of electricity, which also eliminates the losses associated with transmission and distribution (T&D). If the DG technology that is chosen is photovoltaics (PV), NEMS assumes renewable energy consumption replaces the energy input to electric generators. If the DG technology is fuel consuming, consumption of fuel in the electric utility sector is replaced by residential or commercial fuel consumption. The waste heat generated from thermal technologies can be used to offset the water heating and space heating energy uses, but there is no thermally activated cooling capability. This study consists of a review of model documentation and a paper by EIA staff, a series of sensitivity runs performed by Berkeley Lab that exercise selected DG parameters in the AEO2002 version of NEMS, and a scoping effort of possible enhancements and alternatives to NEMS current DG capabilities. In general, the treatment of DG in NEMS is rudimentary. The penetration of DG is determined by an economic cash-flow analysis that determines adoption based on the n umber of years to a positive cash flow. Some important technologies, e.g. thermally activated cooling, are absent, and ceilings on DG adoption are determined by some what arbitrary caps on the number of buildings that can adopt DG. These caps are particularly severe for existing buildings, where the maximum penetration for any one technology is 0.25 percent. On the other hand, competition among technologies is not fully considered, and this may result in double-counting for certain applications. A series of sensitivity runs show greater penetration with net metering enhancements and aggressive tax credits and a more limited response to lowered DG technology costs. Discussion of alternatives to the current code is presented in Section 4. Alternatives or improvements to how DG is modeled in NEMS cover three basic areas: expanding on the existing total market for DG both by changing existing parameters in NEMS and by adding new capabilities, such as for missing technologies; enhancing the cash flow analysis but incorporating aspects of DG economics that are not currently represented, e.g. complex tariffs; and using an external geographic information system (GIS) driven analysis that can better and more intuitively identify niche markets.

LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Modeling and Analysis of Renewable Generation in a Sustainable Portfolio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update reports the results of work to enhance EPRIs financial model of the U.S. electric sector by improving the representations for the role wind and biomass generation in the future U.S. generation mix. The model simulates generation capacity expansion and dispatch at the national and regional levels over the period 2010 to 2050. The model evaluates the possible effects of climate policy, renewable portfolio standard (RPS), energy efficiency, technology availability, and market scenarios...

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

213

Proceedings: Workshop on CO2 Transport/Storage Cost Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If reductions in CO2 emissions are needed in the utility industry, one of the potential solutions is application of CO2 capture and storage. In order to make informed decisions on applying CO2 capture and storage to the utility industry, high quality estimates of the costs are needed. While significant efforts have been made to evaluate the costs of CO2 capture from power plants, relatively little has been done to develop costs of transport and storage of CO2. This report presents the results of a worksh...

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

214

Developing Models and Test Structures of Next-Generation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, We are developing models and test structures of next-generation photovoltaics. In order to flexibly treat 2D and 3D nanostructures, with full...

215

Bayesian Modeling of Pitting Corrosion in Steam Generators.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Steam generators in nuclear power plants experienced varying degrees of under-deposit pitting corrosion. A probabilistic model to accurately predict pitting corrosion is necessary for effective (more)

Mao, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Mechanical Characterization and Modeling of Next-Generation Solid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Conversion/Fuel Cells. Presentation Title, Mechanical Characterization and Modeling of Next-Generation Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Stacks.

217

Impacts of Renewable Generation on Fossil Fuel Unit Cycling: Costs and Emissions (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prepared for the Clean Energy Regulatory Forum III, this presentation looks at the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and reexamines the cost and emissions impacts of fossil fuel unit cycling.

Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Denholm, P.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Integrated modelling of risk and uncertainty underlying the cost and effectiveness of water quality measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present an overview of the most important sources of uncertainty when analysing the least cost way to improve water quality. The estimation of the cost-effectiveness of water quality measures is surrounded by environmental, economic ... Keywords: Cost-effectiveness, Integrated modelling, Risk, Uncertainty, Water quality

Roy Brouwer; Chris De Blois

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Cash Flow Forecasting Model for General Contractors Using Moving Weights of Cost Categories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Navon's model 1995, 1997 automatically in- tegrates the bill of quantity BOQ , cost estimate. Moreover, the main obstacle to automating the integration process is compatibility between cost items, and equipment which are specified as percentages of total cost. This approach is very realistic because

Sheridan, Jennifer

220

Plug-in Hybrid Modeling and Application: Cost/Benefit Analysis (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presents data from a simulation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle efficiency and cost, including baseline vehicle assumptions, powertrain technology scenarios, and component modeling.

Simpson, A.

2006-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Cost modeling approach and economic analysis of biomass gasification integrated solid oxide fuel cell systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a cost modeling approach and the economic feasibility for selected plant configurations operating under three modes: air gasification

Rajesh S. Kempegowda; yvind Skreiberg; Khanh-Quang Tran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Abstract--An optimization model that incorporates demand in the paradigm of smart grids and distributed generation is  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Maximum expected demand in the optimization period Cost associated to energy generated by demand from1 Abstract--An optimization model that incorporates demand in the paradigm of smart grids and distributed generation is formulated. The objective is to transform the demand into an active agent that helps

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

223

A generative model for dynamic canvas motion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present techniques for constructing realistic canvas and paper models and for enabling interactive dynamic canvas motion. Dynamic canvas motion means that there is a correspondence between the motion of canvas features and the motion of the models ...

Matthew Kaplan; Elaine Cohen

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Low Cost Production of InGaN for Next-Generation Photovoltaic Devices  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost and low-energy technology for production of photovoltaic devices based on InGaN materials. This project builds on the ongoing development by Structured Materials Industries (SMI), of novel thin film deposition technology for Group III-Nitride materials, which is capable of depositing Group-III nitride materials at significantly lower costs and significantly lower energy usage compared to conventional deposition techniques. During this project, SMI demonstrated deposition of GaN and InGaN films using metalorganic sources, and demonstrated compatibility of the process with standard substrate materials and hardware components.

Nick M. Sbrockey, Shangzhu Sun, Gary S. Tompa,

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

225

Spherical Harmonic Analysis of a Model-Generated Climatology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly mean fields of 850 mb temperature (T850), 500 mb geopetential height (G500) and sea level pressure (SLP) were generated in the course of a 5-year climate simulation run with a global general circulation model. Both the model-generated ...

Zaphiris D. Christidis; Jerome Spar

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Steam Generator Modelling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the use of different Artificial Intelligence methods to predict the values of several continuous variables from a Steam Generator. The objective was to determine how the different artificial intelligence methods performed in making predictions on the given dataset. The artificial intelligence methods evaluated were Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems. The types of neural networks investigated were Multi-Layer Perceptions, and Radial Basis Function. Bayesian and committee techniques were applied to these neural networks. Each of the AI methods considered was simulated in Matlab. The results of the simulations showed that all the AI methods were capable of predicting the Steam Generator data reasonably accurately. However, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system out performed the other methods in terms of accuracy and ease of implementation, while still achieving a fast execution time as well as a reasonable training time.

Wright, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

New-generation CRT-controller ICS cut display costs, increase capabilities  

SciTech Connect

The newest VLSI CRT-controller chips, by condensing into one 40-pin dip the capabilities of hundreds of TTL devices, are dramatically lowering the cost of advanced raster-scanned CRT displays. The author considers these CRT controllers, and their applications, including graphics terminals.

Cushman, R.H.

1982-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

228

Bread Basket: a gaming model for estimating home-energy costs  

SciTech Connect

An instructional manual for answering the twenty variables on COLORADO ENERGY's computerized program estimating home energy costs. The program will generate home-energy cost estimates based on individual household data, such as total square footage, number of windows and doors, number and variety of appliances, heating system design, etc., and will print out detailed costs, showing the percentages of the total household budget that energy costs will amount to over a twenty-year span. Using the program, homeowners and policymakers alike can predict the effects of rising energy prices on total spending by Colorado households.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Extending Simulation Modeling to Activity-Based Costing for Clinical Procedures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simulation model was developed to measure costs in an Emergency Department setting for patients presenting with possible cervical-spine injury who needed radiological imaging. Simulation, a tool widely used to account for process variability but typically ... Keywords: activity-based costing, animated simulation modeling

Noah D. Glick; C. Craig Blackmore; William N. Zelman

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

A Transaction Cost Perspective of the "Software as a Service" Business Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application service providers (ASP), which host and maintain information technology (IT) applications across the Internet, offer an alternative to traditional models of IT service for user firms. We build on prior literature in transaction cost economics ... Keywords: Application Service Providers, Contract Choice, Logit Models, Transaction Cost Economics

Anjana Susarla; Anitesh Barua; Andrew Whinston

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

Frey, H.C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, R.B. [Carneigie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Production Cost Modeling of Cogenerators in an Interconnected Electric Supply System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Optimal State Electricity Supply System in Texas (OSEST) research project is part of the continuing Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) effort to identify possible improvements in the production, transmission, and use of electricity in the state. The OSEST project is designed to identify the general configuration of the optimal electric supply system resulting from coordinated system planning and operation from a statewide perspective. The Optimized Generation Planning Program (OGP) and Multi-Area Production Simulation Program with Megawatt Flow (MAPS/MWFLOW) are two computer programs developed by General Electric that are being used in the study. Both of these programs perform production costing calculations to evaluate the performance of various electric supply system configurations necessary to appropriately model the present and future cogeneration activity in the service areas of the electric utilities that compose the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT).

Ragsdale, K.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Mathematical modeling to predict residential solid waste generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the challenges faced by waste management authorities is determining the amount of waste generated by households in order to establish waste management systems, as well as trying to charge rates compatible with the principle applied worldwide, and design a fair payment system for households according to the amount of residential solid waste (RSW) they generate. The goal of this research work was to establish mathematical models that correlate the generation of RSW per capita to the following variables: education, income per household, and number of residents. This work was based on data from a study on generation, quantification and composition of residential waste in a Mexican city in three stages. In order to define prediction models, five variables were identified and included in the model. For each waste sampling stage a different mathematical model was developed, in order to find the model that showed the best linear relation to predict residential solid waste generation. Later on, models to explore the combination of included variables and select those which showed a higher R{sup 2} were established. The tests applied were normality, multicolinearity and heteroskedasticity. Another model, formulated with four variables, was generated and the Durban-Watson test was applied to it. Finally, a general mathematical model is proposed to predict residential waste generation, which accounts for 51% of the total.

Ojeda Benitez, Sara [Engineering Institute, UABC, Boulevard Benito Juarez y Calle de la Normal S/N, Col. Insurgentes Este, C.P. 21280, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)], E-mail: sojedab@uabc.mx; Lozano-Olvera, Gabriela [Engineering Institute, UABC, Boulevard Benito Juarez y Calle de la Normal S/N, Col. Insurgentes Este, C.P. 21280, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Morelos, Raul Adalberto [CESUES Superior Studies Center, San Luis R.C. Sonora (Mexico); Vega, Carolina Armijo de [Engineering Faculty, UABC, Km 103, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22860, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Natural circulation steam generator model for optimal steam generator water level control  

SciTech Connect

Several authors have cited the control of steam generator water level as an important problem in the operation of pressurized water reactor plants. In this paper problems associated with steam generator water level control are identified, and advantages of modern estimation and control theory in dealing with these problems are discussed. A new state variable steam generator model and preliminary verification results using data from the loss of fluid test (LOFT) plant are also presented.

Feeley, J.J.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

The economic impact of state ordered avoided cost rates for photovoltaic generated electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978 requires that electric utilities purchase electricity generated by small power producers (QFs) such as photovoltaic systems at rates that will encourage the ...

Bottaro, Drew

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Technical Manual for the SAM Biomass Power Generation Model  

SciTech Connect

This technical manual provides context for the implementation of the biomass electric power generation performance model in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) System Advisor Model (SAM). Additionally, the report details the engineering and scientific principles behind the underlying calculations in the model. The framework established in this manual is designed to give users a complete understanding of behind-the-scenes calculations and the results generated.

Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Technical Manual for the SAM Biomass Power Generation Model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technical manual provides context for the implementation of the biomass electric power generation performance model in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) System Advisor Model (SAM). Additionally, the report details the engineering and scientific principles behind the underlying calculations in the model. The framework established in this manual is designed to give users a complete understanding of behind-the-scenes calculations and the results generated.

Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equipment; AHP, Analytic Hierarchy Process; AMCM, Advanced Missions Cost Model; ASPE, American SocietyReview of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space Cost estimation Cost model Parametrics Space hardware Early mission phase a b s t r a c t The primary

Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

239

Distributed Generation versus Centralised Supply: a Social Cost-Benefit Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the prospect of revolutionary new scenarios. In particular, the performance of the small power technologies (the reciprocating engine, gas turbine, and fuel cells) has improved remarkably over the last decade. This has aroused the interest of operators... include Stirling (1997) who provides some interesting arguments to support his thesis. However, we will try to demonstrate that such scepticism is perhaps exaggerated and that external cost methodologies can be very useful despite the considerable...

Gulli, Francesco

2004-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

240

Automatic generation of weather forecast texts using comprehensive probabilistic generation-space models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two important recent trends in natural language generation are (i) probabilistic techniques and (ii) comprehensive approaches that move away from traditional strictly modular and sequential models. This paper reports experiments in which pCRU ...

Anja Belz

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A model of the Capital Cost of a natural gas-fired fuel cell based Central Utilities Plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This model defines the methods used to estimate the cost associated with acquisition and installation of capital equipment of the fuel cell systems defined by the central utility plant model. The capital cost model estimates the cost of acquiring and installing the fuel cell unit, and all auxiliary equipment such as a boiler, air conditioning, hot water storage, and pumps. The model provides a means to adjust initial cost estimates to consider learning associated with the projected level of production and installation of fuel cell systems. The capital cost estimate is an input to the cost of ownership analysis where it is combined with operating cost and revenue model estimates.

Not Available

1993-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

Stochastic Equilibrium Models for Generation Capacity Expansion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in household and tertiary and hence reduction of demand. The second reason is that the increasing interest for de- mand side management and the development of new technologies of the smart grid type will progressively introduce a true price response... , for the integrability property). This variant of the equilibrium model can be stated as follows. Let D(?) = (d(`, ?), ` ? L) and P (?) = (p(`, ?), ` ? L) denote the vectors of demand and price in the different time segments. Smart grid technologies aim, among other...

Ehrenmann, Andreas; Smeers, Yves

243

Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015  

SciTech Connect

The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Source Terms in a Third-Generation Wind Wave Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new third-generation ocean wind wave model is presented. This model is based on previously developed input and nonlinear interaction source terms and a new dissipation source term. It is argued that the dissipation source term has to be modeled ...

Hendrik L. Tolman; Dmitry Chalikov

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Arbitrage Free Models In Markets With Transaction Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In \\cite{Gua} the notion of stickiness for stochastic processes was introduced. It was also shown that stickiness implies absense of arbitrage in a market with proportional transaction costs. In this paper, we investigate the notion of stickiness further. In particular, we show that stickiness is invariant under composition with continuous functions. We also prove a time change result on stickiness. As an application we provide sufficient conditions for continuous semimartingales to be sticky (A counter example show that not all semi-martingales are sticky). As a result, our paper provides an extended class of stochastic processes that are consistent with the no arbitrage property in a market with friction.

Bayraktar, Erhan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Feasibility of a MHD generator as a transmitter for electromagnetic sounding of the earth. [Mathematical models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of a high-intensity source for use in time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings would permit investigation of geothermal systems to much greater depth than is now possible with controlled-source methods. The development of such a source is critically dependent upon a powerful, mobile generator. Magnetohydrodynamic pulse generators satisfy the weight and power requirements for such a generator. However, existing MHD generators which are used in geophysical applications are solid fueled, and therefore, very expensive to operate. Moreover, the pulse length from such a generator is limited to about 10 seconds, which may be too short to permit the maximum advantage to be gained from the available power. The shortcomings of the MHD generator will be remedied in a liquid-fueled generator now under development for the U.S. Air Force. A field program designed to compare available conventional and MHD generators would provide the necessary information for final generator selection, as well as an abundance of information on the nature of geothermal systems at depth. Operation and cost studies on MHD generators are given, and model calculations for TDEM soundings of geothermal hot-dry-rock systems are presented.

Fleming, D.B.

1976-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

247

Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Bottom-up generative modeling of tree-structured data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce a compositional probabilistic model for treestructured data that defines a bottom-up generative process from the leaves to the root of a tree. Contextual state transitions are introduced from the joint configuration of the children to the ...

Davide Bacciu; Alessio Micheli; Alessandro Sperduti

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

A Hybrid Model for Hydroturbine Generating Unit Trend Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

According to the nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics of hydroelectricity systems, an hybrid prediction model based on wavelet transform and support vector machines is proposed in this paper for the trend analysis of hydroturbine generating unit ...

Min Zou; Jianzhong Zhou; Zhong Liu; Liangliang Zhan

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

PRISM 2.0: Regional Energy and Economic Model Development and Initial Application: Phase 2: Electric Sector CO2 Reduction Options to 2050: Dimensions of Technology, Energy Costs, and Environmental Scenarios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI conducted an analysis of electric sector CO2 reduction options to 2050 across a range of scenarios covering dimensions of technology costs and availability, energy costs, and CO2 constraints. Using its U.S. Regional Economy, Greenhouse Gas, and Energy (US-REGEN) model, EPRI calculated the impact of changes in generation portfolio, generation capacity, expenditures, and electricity prices on power sector costs. This analysis estimates different levels of ...

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

251

Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report  

SciTech Connect

OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

2002-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

252

Core Information Model: A Practical Solution to Costly Integration Problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a whole. Thus, an enterprise information model is critical to CIM. A missing element in many CIM, CIM-OSA [3]), which are recommended by international standards communities as an economical way is then fully engineered to integrate with a generic, basic CIM data model developed from industrial scenarios

Hsu, Cheng

253

Language model rest costs and space-efficient storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximate search algorithms, such as cube pruning in syntactic machine translation, rely on the language model to estimate probabilities of sentence fragments. We contribute two changes that trade between accuracy of these estimates and memory, holding ...

Kenneth Heafield; Philipp Koehn; Alon Lavie

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model Darlene Steward/ Mike Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory Integrated Stationary Power and Transportation Workshop Phoenix, Arizona October 27, 2008 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 2 Introduction Goal: Develop a cost analysis tool that will be flexible and comprehensive enough to realistically analyze a wide variety of potential combined heat and power/hydrogen production scenarios Approach: Rely on the H2A discounted cash flow methodology to develop a new stationary systems model With the help of industry partners, develop and analyze a range of realistic case studies for tri-generation systems. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

255

A Neural Network Model for Construction Projects Site Overhead Cost Estimating in Egypt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimating of the overhead costs of building construction projects is an important task in the management of these projects. The quality of construction management depends heavily on their accurate cost estimation. Construction costs prediction is a very difficult and sophisticated task especially when using manual calculation methods. This paper uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to develop a parametric cost-estimating model for site overhead cost in Egypt. Fifty-two actual real-life cases of building projects constructed in Egypt during the seven year period 2002-2009 were used as training materials. The neural network architecture is presented for the estimation of the site overhead costs as a percentage from the total project price.

ElSawy, Ismaail; Razek, Mohammed Abdel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Modeling of Performance, Cost, and Financing of Concentrating Solar, Photovoltaic, and Solar Heat Systems (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This poster, submitted for the CU Energy Initiative/NREL Symposium on October 3, 2006 in Boulder, Colorado, discusses the modeling, performance, cost, and financing of concentrating solar, photovoltaic, and solar heat systems.

Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christiansen, C.

2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

257

Dynamic Cost-Loss Ratio Decision-making Model with an Autocorrelated Climate Variable  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamic decision-making problem is considered involving the use of information about the autocorrelation of a climate variable. Specifically, an infinite horizon, discounted version of the dynamic cost-loss ratio model is treated, in which only ...

Richard W. Katz

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

A chronological probabilistic production cost model to evaluate the reliability contribution of limited energy plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The growth of renewables in power systems has reinvigorated research and regulatory interest in reliability analysis algorithms such as the Baleriaux/Booth convolution-based probabilistic production cost (PPC) model. ...

Leung, Tommy (Tommy Chun Ting)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Lifecycle Cost and Energy-Use Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Auto Industry Models to Review Electric Vehicle Costing andElectric Vehicles in the Nation's Energy Future , DE86-003295, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, November (1984). Auto industry

Delucchi, Mark; Burke, Andy; Lipman, Timothy; Miller, Marshall

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Model of Gamma Frequency Burst Discharge Generated by Conditional Backpropagation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Doiron, Brent, Andre´ Longtin, Ray W. Turner, and Leonard Maler. Model of gamma frequency burst dischargeModel of Gamma Frequency Burst Discharge Generated by Conditional Backpropagation BRENT DOIRON,1 ANDRE´ LONGTIN,1 RAY W. TURNER,2 AND LEONARD MALER3 1 Physics Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa

Longtin, André

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Generating seamless surfaces for transport and dispersion modeling in GIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A standard use of triangulation in GIS is to model terrain surface using TIN. In many simulation models of physical phenomena, triangulation is often used to depict the entire spatial domain, which may include buildings, landmarks and other surface objects ... Keywords: CAD, Computational fluid dynamics, Computational geometry, GIS, Mesh generation, Transport and dispersion

Fernando Camelli; Jyh-Ming Lien; Dayong Shen; David W. Wong; Matthew Rice; Rainald Lhner; Chaowei Yang

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Program on Technology Innovation: Development of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Performance and Cost Modeling Tool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the development of an integrated performance and cost model for advanced coal power plant undertaken to enable users to screen technologies prior to engaging in more extensive studies of their preferred choice. Such screening activities generally require utilities to contract with outside engineering firms with access to sophisticated engineering modeling software and experienced staff to perform the studies, thus costing significant time and investment.

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Draft Fourth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan, Appendix F GENERATION COST AND PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emissions reductions of 50% to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050; the other establishes a tightening target of biofuels, and analysis is provided of the implications of these proposals for land use and agriculture. Simulations using the MIT Integrated System Model show that the 50% to 80% targets are consistent with global

264

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Second Generation Model (SGM)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Second Generation Model (SGM) Second Generation Model (SGM) Project Summary Full Title: Second Generation Model (SGM) Project ID: 166 Principal Investigator: Roland Sands Brief Description: The SGM projects economic activity, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for each region in five-year time steps from 1990 through 2050. Purpose Project economic activity, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for various regions. Performer Principal Investigator: Roland Sands Organization: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Address: 8400 Baltimore Avenue, JGCRI College Park, MD 20740 Telephone: 301-314-6765 Email: roland.sands@pnl.gov Project Description Type of Project: Model Category: Energy Infrastructure, Environmental, Macro-Economic User Inputs: Factor productivity growth rates by sector (9 in SGM 98) and region; capital stocks by vintage, demographic determinants (endogenous demographics), fossil and non-fossil fuel resources

265

2002 EIA Models Directory - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Levelized Nuclear Fuel Cycle Cost Model (LNFCC-PC) Propane Market Model (PPMM) Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM)

266

Plant-Wide Performance and Cost Analysis of ITM-Based IGCC Power Generation Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in conjunction with Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (AP), and WorleyParsons, Inc. (WP), has reviewed and modeled integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. IGCC is a method of burning coal in which the coal is gasified, creating a synthetic gas, or syngas. After being cleanedincluding potentially of carbon dioxide (CO2)this syngas can be used in a traditional combined cycle to produce power. This ...

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

267

Sensitivity of Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost and Financing with Solar Advisor Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive solar technology systems analysis model, the Solar Advisor Model (SAM) was developed to support the federal R&D community and the solar industry. This model, developed by staff at NREL and Sandia National Laboratory, is able to model the costs, finances, and performance of concentrating solar power and photovoltaics (PV). Currently, parabolic troughs and concentrating PV are the two concentrating technologies modeled within the SAM environment.

Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A cost/benefit model for insertion of technological innovation into a total quality management program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study provides economic justification for insertion of technological innovation into a total quality management (TQM) program in a remanufacturing environment. One of the core principles of TQM is continuous improvement. A preferred metric for measuring quality improvement is the cost of quality. Traditionally, comprehensive quality cost reports have regularly been issued in a fixed format to identify opportunities for improvement and provide guidelines for improvement over time. However, current research has shown that continuous improvement is enhanced by a quality cost approach that is much more flexible [1]. This approach is based upon exposure of the cost savings directly related to quality improvement. in many cases a process-level engineer, who may not be trained in quality costing techniques, will be responsible for the economic analysis to justify a quality improvement initiative. Research has shown that most engineers, simply do not have the training or experience to adequately cost justify quality improvement. The results of this study provide process-level engineers with a cost/benefit model template, which can be used to cost justify technological improvement based upon total quality costs.

Ratliff, William L

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for geothermal district heating cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer model called GEOCITY has been developed to systematically calculate the potential cost of district heating using hydrothermal geothermal resources. GEOCITY combines climate, demographic factors, and heat demand of the city, resource conditions, well drilling costs, design of the distribution system, tax rates, and financial factors into one systematic model. The GEOCITY program provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heat from a geothermal resource. Both the geothermal reservoir and distribution system are simulated to model the complete district heating system. GEOCITY consists of two major parts: the geothermal reservoir submodel and the distribution submodel. The reservoir submodel calculates the unit cost of energy by simulating the exploration, development, and operation of a geothermal reservoir and the transmission of this energy to a distribution center. The distribution submodel calculates the unit cost of heat by simulating the design and operation of a district heating distribution system. GEOCITY calculates the unit cost of energy and the unit cost of heat for the district heating system based on the principle that the present worth of the revenues will be equal to the present worth of the expenses including investment return over the economic life of the distribution system.

Huber, H.D.; McDonald, C.L.; Bloomster, C.H.; Schulte, S.C.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Steam generator and circulator model for the HELAP code  

SciTech Connect

An outline is presented of the work carried out in the 1974 fiscal year on the GCFBR safety research project consisting of the development of improved steam generator and circulator (steam turbine driven helium compressor) models which will eventually be inserted in the HELAP (1) code. Furthermore, a code was developed which will be used to generate steady state input for the primary and secondary sides of the steam generator. The following conclusions and suggestions for further work are made: (1) The steam-generator and circulator model are consistent with the volume and junction layout used in HELAP, (2) with minor changes these models, when incorporated in HELAP, could be used to simulate a direct cycle plant, (3) an explicit control valve model is still to be developed and would be very desirable to control the flow to the turbine during a transient (initially this flow will be controlled by using the existing check valve model); (4) the friction factor in the laminar flow region is computed inaccurately, this might cause significant errors in loss-of-flow accidents; and (5) it is felt that HELAP will still use a large amount of computer time and will thus be limited to design basis accidents without scram or loss of flow transients with and without scram. Finally it may also be used as a test bed for the development of prototype component models which would be incorporated in a more sophisticated system code, developed specifically for GCFBR's. (auth)

Ludewig, H.

1975-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Modeling natural gas prices as a random walk: The advantages for generation planning  

SciTech Connect

Random walk modeling allows decision makers to evaluate risk mitigation strategies. Easily constructed, the random walk provides probability information that long-term fuel forecasts do not. This is vital to meeting the ratepayers` need for low-cost power, the shareholders` financial objectives, and the regulators` desire for straightforward information. Power generation planning depends heavily on long-term fuel price forecasts. This is particularly true for natural gas-fired plants, because fuel expenses are a significant portion of busbar costs and are subject to considerable uncertainty. Accurate forecasts, then, are critical - especially if electric utilities are to take advantage of the current low cost of natural gas technologies and their relatively clean burning characteristics, without becoming overdependent on a fuel that might significantly increase in price. Moreover, the transition to a more competitive generation market requires a more market-driven planning process. Current planning techniques use several long-term fuel forecasts - one serving as an expected case and others for sensitivity analysis - as inputs for modeling production costs. These forecasts are deterministic: For every time interval there is one, and only one projected fuel price - a serious limitation. Further, past natural gas price predictions have been erroneous and may be susceptible to bias. Today, deregulation of the natural gas production industry allows for a new approach in long-term fuel forecasting. Using NYMEX information, a random walk model of natural gas prices can be constructed. A random walk assumes that prices move randomly, and in modeling prices in this context one would be sure to include this all-important price volatility.

Felder, F.A.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Microsoft Word - 20110321_LTI_PPM_Tetra Tech_Cost Effective Wireless Application in Power Generation Markets.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11/1483 11/1483 Cost-Effective Wireless Application in the Power Generation Market 21 March, 2011 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or

273

ERCOT's Dynamic Model of Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

By the end of 2003, the total installed wind farm capacity in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system was approximately 1 gigawatt (GW) and the total in the United States was about 5 GW. As the number of wind turbines installed throughout the United States increases, there is a greater need for dynamic wind turbine generator models that can properly model entire power systems for different types of analysis. This paper describes the ERCOT dynamic models and simulations of a simple network with different types of wind turbine models currently available.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Conto, J.; Donoho, K.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Modeling Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost, and Financing with the Solar Advisor Model: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive solar technology systems analysis model, the Solar Advisor Model (SAM), has been developed to support the federal R&D community and the solar industry by staff at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratory. This model is able to model the finances, incentives, and performance of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV), concentrating PV, and concentrating solar power (specifically, parabolic troughs). The primary function of the model is to allow users to investigate the impact of variations in performance, cost, and financial parameters to better understand their impact on key figures of merit. Figures of merit related to the cost and performance of these systems include, but aren't limited to, system output, system efficiencies, levelized cost of energy, return on investment, and system capital and O&M costs. There are several models within SAM to model the performance of photovoltaic modules and inverters. This paper presents an overview of each PV and inverter model, introduces a new generic model, and briefly discusses the concentrating solar power (CSP) parabolic trough model. A comparison of results using the different PV and inverter models is also presented.

Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Cameron, C.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Modeling regional end user price/cost relationships in a widespread interconnected power system  

SciTech Connect

A combined programming and regression modeling approach is developed to analyze regional retail price/cost relationships for a widespread interconnected power system characterized by low population density and uniform (regulated) retail tariffs. The programming model is designed to calculate on the hour the delivered cost of electricity from 5 thermal power stations and one pumped storage hydrostation to end users in 8 distribution regions. A simultaneous equation regression model then analyses the link between retail prices charged end users, regional demand and supply characteristics, industry financial objectives and departures from economically efficient pricing. The electricity supply industry in Queensland Australia is used as a framework.

Tamaschke, R.; Docwra, G.; Stillman, R. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

High Cost/High Risk Components to Chalcogenide Molded Lens Model: Molding Preforms and Mold Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This brief report contains a critique of two key components of FiveFocal's cost model for glass compression molding of chalcogenide lenses for infrared applications. Molding preforms and mold technology have the greatest influence on the ultimate cost of the product and help determine the volumes needed to select glass molding over conventional single-point diamond turning or grinding and polishing. This brief report highlights key areas of both technologies with recommendations for further study.

Bernacki, Bruce E.

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

277

Pricing and Cost Recovery for Internet Services: Practical Review, Classification, and Application of Relevant Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Suitable pricing models for Internet services represent one of the main prerequisites for a successfully running implementation of a charging and accounting system. This paper introduces general aspects influencing the choice of a pricing model in practical ... Keywords: Internet pricing, auction pricing, cost recovery, peering agreements

Burkhard Stiller; Peter Reichl; Simon Leinen

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Probabilistic Modeling and Evaluation of the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Texaco Gasifier-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Probabilistic Modeling and Evaluation of the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Texaco Gasifier.0 DOCUMENTATION OF THE PLANT PERFORMANCE SIMULATION MODEL IN ASPEN OF THE COAL-FUELED TEXACO-GASIFIER BASED IGCC to the Gasifier............................... 40 3.2.2 Gasification

Frey, H. Christopher

279

HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT ENHANCED MISSION PLANNING THROUGH INNOVATIVE TOOLS LIFECYCLE COST MODELING AND AQUEOUS THERMODYNAMIC MODELING - 12134  

SciTech Connect

Two notable modeling efforts within the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) are currently underway to (1) increase the robustness of the underlying chemistry approximations through the development and implementation of an aqueous thermodynamic model, and (2) add enhanced planning capabilities to the HTWOS model through development and incorporation of the lifecycle cost model (LCM). Since even seemingly small changes in apparent waste composition or treatment parameters can result in large changes in quantities of high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glass, mission duration or lifecycle cost, a solubility model that more accurately depicts the phases and concentrations of constituents in tank waste is required. The LCM enables evaluation of the interactions of proposed changes on lifecycle mission costs, which is critical for decision makers.

PIERSON KL; MEINERT FL

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

280

Generating exact D-optimal designs for polynomial models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares several optimization algorithms that can be used to generate exact D-optimal designs (i.e., designs for a specified number of runs) for any polynomial model. The merits and limitations of each algorithm are demonstrated on ... Keywords: general linear regression, mathematical optimization, optimal experimental design

Jacob E. Boon

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Estimating market penetration of new district heating and cooling systems using a combination of economic cost and diffusion models  

SciTech Connect

The economic-cost model and the diffusion model are among the many market-penetration forecasting approaches that are available. These approaches have been used separately in many applications. In this paper, the authors briefly review these two approaches and then describe a methodology for forecasting market penetration using both approaches sequentially. This methodology is illustrated with the example of market-penetration forecasting of new district heating and cooling (DHC) systems in the Argonne DHC Market Penetration Model, which was developed and used over the period 1979--1983. This paper discusses how this combination approach, which incorporates the strengths of the economic-cost and diffusion models, has been superior to any one approach for market forecasts of DHC systems. Also discussed are the required modifications for revising and updating the model in order to generate new market-penetration forecasts for DHC systems. These modifications are required as a result of changes in DHC engineering, economic, and market data from 1983 to 1990. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Teotia, A.P.S.; Karvelas, D.E.

1991-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

BatPaC - Battery Performance and Cost model - About BatPaC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About BatPaC About BatPaC The starting point for this work is based on the decades of battery design work headed by Paul Nelson at Argonne National Laboratory. These design models were based in Microsoft Office Excel® resulting in a flexible and straightforward format. The current effort builds on this previous experience by adding a manufacturing cost calculation as well as increasing the fidelity of the performance calculations all while maintaining efficient calculations (e.g. fractions of a second). The cost of a battery will change depending upon the materials chemistry, battery design, and manufacturing process. Therefore, it is necessary to account for all three areas with a bottom-up cost model. Other bottom-up cost models exist but are not generally available and have not been explicitly detailed in a public document. The motivation for our approach is based on a need for a battery performance and cost model that meets the following requirements:

283

Revisions to the hydrogen gas generation computer model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Waste Management Technology has requested SRTC to maintain and extend a previously developed computer model, TRUGAS, which calculates hydrogen gas concentrations within the transuranic (TRU) waste drums. TRUGAS was written by Frank G. Smith using the BASIC language and is described in the report A Computer Model of gas Generation and Transport within TRU Waste Drums (DP- 1754). The computer model has been partially validated by yielding results similar to experimental data collected at SRL and LANL over a wide range of conditions. The model was created to provide the capability of predicting conditions that could potentially lead to the formation of flammable gas concentrations within drums, and to assess proposed drum venting methods. The model has served as a tool in determining how gas concentrations are affected by parameters such as filter vent sizes, waste composition, gas generation values, the number and types of enclosures, water instrusion into the drum, and curie loading. The success of the TRUGAS model has prompted an interest in the program`s maintenance and enhancement. Experimental data continues to be collected at various sites on such parameters as permeability values, packaging arrangements, filter designs, and waste contents. Information provided by this data is used to improve the accuracy of the model`s predictions. Also, several modifications to the model have been made to enlarge the scope of problems which can be analyzed. For instance, the model has been used to calculate hydrogen concentrations inside steel cabinets containing retired glove boxes (WSRC-RP-89-762). The revised TRUGAS computer model, H2GAS, is described in this report. This report summarizes all modifications made to the TRUGAS computer model and provides documentation useful for making future updates to H2GAS.

Jerrell, J.W.

1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

284

Low Wind Speed Technology Phase II: Development of an Operations and Maintenance Cost Model for LWST; Global Energy Concepts  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes a subcontract with Global Energy Concepts to evaluate real-world data on O&M costs and to develop a working model to describe these costs for low wind speed sites.

Not Available

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Decision Support System (DSS) for Machine Selection: A Cost Minimization Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within any manufacturing environment, the selection of the production or assembly machines is part of the day to day responsibilities of management. This is especially true when there are multiple types of machines that can be used to perform each assembly or manufacturing process. As a result, it is critical to find the optimal way to select machines when there are multiple related assembly machines available. The objective of this research is to develop and present a model that can provide guidance to management when making machine selection decisions of parallel, non-identical, related electronics assembly machines. A model driven Decision Support System (DSS) is used to solve the problem with the emphasis in optimizing available resources, minimizing production disruption, thus minimizing cost. The variables that affect electronics product costs are considered in detail. The first part of the Decision Support System was developed using Microsoft Excel as an interactive tool. The second part was developed through mathematical modeling with AMPL9 mathematical programming language and the solver CPLEX90 as the optimization tools. The mathematical model minimizes total cost of all products using a similar logic as the shortest processing time (SPT) scheduling rule. This model balances machine workload up to an allowed imbalance factor. The model also considers the impact on the product cost when expediting production. Different scenarios were studied during the sensitivity analysis, including varying the amount of assembled products, the quantity of machines at each assembly process, the imbalance factor, and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the assembly processes. The results show that the higher the CV, the total cost of all products assembled increased due to the complexity of balancing machine workload for a large number of products. Also, when the number of machines increased, given a constant number of products, the total cost of all products assembled increased because it is more difficult to keep the machines balanced. Similar results were obtained when a tighter imbalance factor was used.

Mendez Pinero, Mayra I.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

WELCST: engineering cost model of geothermal wells. Description and user's guide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

WELCST, a FORTRAN code for estimating the effects of R and D project results upon the future cost of geothermal wells is described. The code simulates the drilling and completion of a well at 27 specific US geothermal prospects, given assumptions about well design and casing plan, formation drillability, and selected engineering and cost characteristics of today's drilling technology. The user may change many of the assumptions about engineering and cost characteristics to allow WELCST to simulate impacts of specific R and D projects on the estimated cost of wells at the prospects. An important capability of WELCST is that it simulates rates and costs of major drilling mishaps, based on drilling incident data from the Imperial Valley and Geysers geothermal fields. WELCST is capable of estimating geothermal well costs at liquid-dominated (hydrothermal) sites, vapor-dominated sites, geopressured sites, and Hot Dry Rock sites. The model can contribute to many system-optimization studies, and could be easily adapted to estimate well costs outside of the United States.

Entingh, D.J.; Lopez, A.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Revisions to the hydrogen gas generation computer model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Waste Management Technology has requested SRTC to maintain and extend a previously developed computer model, TRUGAS, which calculates hydrogen gas concentrations within the transuranic (TRU) waste drums. TRUGAS was written by Frank G. Smith using the BASIC language and is described in the report A Computer Model of gas Generation and Transport within TRU Waste Drums (DP- 1754). The computer model has been partially validated by yielding results similar to experimental data collected at SRL and LANL over a wide range of conditions. The model was created to provide the capability of predicting conditions that could potentially lead to the formation of flammable gas concentrations within drums, and to assess proposed drum venting methods. The model has served as a tool in determining how gas concentrations are affected by parameters such as filter vent sizes, waste composition, gas generation values, the number and types of enclosures, water instrusion into the drum, and curie loading. The success of the TRUGAS model has prompted an interest in the program's maintenance and enhancement. Experimental data continues to be collected at various sites on such parameters as permeability values, packaging arrangements, filter designs, and waste contents. Information provided by this data is used to improve the accuracy of the model's predictions. Also, several modifications to the model have been made to enlarge the scope of problems which can be analyzed. For instance, the model has been used to calculate hydrogen concentrations inside steel cabinets containing retired glove boxes (WSRC-RP-89-762). The revised TRUGAS computer model, H2GAS, is described in this report. This report summarizes all modifications made to the TRUGAS computer model and provides documentation useful for making future updates to H2GAS.

Jerrell, J.W.

1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on cost and energy density from changes in cell capacity, parallel cell groups, and manufacturing capabilities are easily assessed with the model. New proposed materials may also be examined to translate bench-scale values to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. The model will be openly distributed to the public in the year 2011. Currently, the calculations are based in a Microsoft{reg_sign} Office Excel spreadsheet. Instructions are provided for use; however, the format is admittedly not user-friendly. A parallel development effort has created an alternate version based on a graphical user-interface that will be more intuitive to some users. The version that is more user-friendly should allow for wider adoption of the model.

Nelson, P. A.

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

289

Modeling a Helical-coil Steam Generator in RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant  

SciTech Connect

Options for the primary heat transport loop heat exchangers for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant are currently being evaluated. A helical-coil steam generator is one heat exchanger design under consideration. Safety is an integral part of the helical-coil steam generator evaluation. Transient analysis plays a key role in evaluation of the steam generators safety. Using RELAP5-3D to model the helical-coil steam generator, a loss of pressure in the primary side of the steam generator is simulated. This report details the development of the steam generator model, the loss of pressure transient, and the response of the steam generator primary and secondary systems to the loss of primary pressure. Back ground on High Temperature Gas-cooled reactors, steam generators, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant is provided to increase the readers understanding of the material presented.

Nathan V. Hoffer; Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan A. Anderson

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

High-resolution modeling of the western North American power system demonstrates low-cost and low-carbon futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Administration, 2008). A number of low- carbon power generation technologies are available today, but many-rated by their forced outage rates to represent the amount of power generation capacity that is available on average). Rather, it does so indirectly, by changing the relative costs of power generating technologies

Kammen, Daniel M.

292

Traders' collective portfolio optimization with transaction costs: towards microscopic validation of agent-based models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite the availability of very detailed data on financial market, agent-based modeling is hindered by the lack of information about real-trader behavior. This makes it impossible to validate agent-based models, which are thus reverse-engineering attempts. This work is a contribution to the building of a set of stylized facts about the traders themselves. Using the client database of Swissquote Bank SA, we find that the transaction cost structure determines on average to a large extend the relationship between the mean turnover per transaction of an investor and his mean wealth. A simple extension of CAPM that includes variable transaction costs is able to reproduce qualitatively the observed behaviors. We argue that this shows the collective ability of a population to construct a mean-variance portfolio that takes into account transaction costs.

de Lachapelle, David Morton

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Development of a fourth generation predictive capability maturity model.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated for an intended application. The primary application of this tool at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been for physics-based computational simulations in support of nuclear weapons applications. The two main goals of a PCMM evaluation are 1) the communication of computational simulation capability, accurately and transparently, and 2) the development of input for effective planning. As a result of the increasing importance of computational simulation to SNL's mission, the PCMM has evolved through multiple generations with the goal to provide more clarity, rigor, and completeness in its application. This report describes the approach used to develop the fourth generation of the PCMM.

Hills, Richard Guy; Witkowski, Walter R.; Urbina, Angel; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE) generation system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to 'burn' spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

Meier, W R; Anklam, T M; Erlandson, A C; Miles, R R; Simon, A J; Sawicki, R; Storm, E

2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

295

Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent expected conditions in an emplacement drift, but nevertheless illustrate the potential for acid-gas generation at moderate temperatures (<150 C).

Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

296

On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particular, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive model that describes the seabed displacement during an underwater earthquake. This model is based on the finite fault solution for the slip distribution under some assumptions on the kinematics of the rupturing process. We also consider an unusual source for tsunami generation: the sinking of a cruise ship. Then we review some aspects of tsunami run-up. In particular, we explain why the first wave of a tsunami is sometimes less devastating than the subsequent waves. A resonance effect can boost the waves that come later. We also look at a particular feature of the 11 March 2011 tsunami in Japan - the formation of macro-scale vortices - and show that these macr...

Dias, Frdric; O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Product Positioning in a Two-Dimensional Vertical Differentiation Model: The Role of Quality Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study a duopoly model where consumers are heterogeneous with respect to their willingness to pay for two product characteristics and marginal costs are increasing with the quality level chosen on each attribute. We show that although firms seek to ... Keywords: competitive strategy, differentiation, game theory, multiattribute products, product positioning

Dominique Oli Lauga; Elie Ofek

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Geothermal probabilistic cost model with an application to a geothermal reservoir at Heber, California  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A financial accounting model that incorporates physical and institutional uncertainties has been developed for geothermal projects. Among the uncertainties it can handle are well depth, flow rate, fluid temperature, and permit and construction times. The outputs of the model are cumulative probability distributions of financial measures such as capital cost, levelized cost, and profit. These outputs are well suited for use in an investment decision incorporating risk. The model has the powerful feature that conditional probability distribution can be used to account for correlations among any of the input variables. The model has been applied to a geothermal reservoir at Heber, California, for a 45-MW binary electric plant. Under the assumptions made, the reservoir appears to be economically viable.

Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.

1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B ENEFITS Other benefits associated with wind energy includeof carbon costs, the benefit of wind energy in reducing theWind Energy Deployment System model used to estimate the costs and benefits

Hand, Maureen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Modeling cooling water discharges from the Burrard Generating Station  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract-A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to examine the impact of the Burrard Generating Station cooling water on the circulation patterns and thermal regime in the receiving water of Port Moody Arm. A key aspect of this study involved properly incorporating the submerged cooling water buoyant jet into the 3D model. To overcome the scale and interface barriers between the near-field and far-field zones of the buoyant jet, a sub-grid scheme was applied, and the coupled system of equations of motion, heat conservation and state are solved with a single modeling procedure over the complete field. Special care was taken with the diffusion and jet entrainment by using a second order turbulence closure model for vertical diffusion and the Smagorinsky formula for horizontal diffusion as well as jet entrainment. The model was calibrated and validated in terms of buoyant jet trajectory, centerline dilution, and temperature and velocity profiles. Extensive modeling experiments without and with the Burrard Generating Station in operation were then carried out to investigate the receiving water circulations and thermal processes under the influence of the cooling water discharge. The model results reveal that under the influence of the cooling water discharge, peak ebb currents are stronger than peak flood currents in the near-surface layer, and the reverse is true in the near-bottom layer. Meanwhile, the model revealed a well-developed eddy at the southeast side of the buoyant jet in the near-surface layer. It is also found that the warmer water released from the cooling water discharge is mainly confined to the upper layer of the Arm, which is largely flushed out of the Arm through tidal mixing processes, and a corresponding inflow of colder water into the Arm occurs within the lower layer. I.

J. Jiang; D. B. Fissel; D. D. Lemon

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Performance and Cost Model for Solar Energy Technologies in Support of the Systems-Driven Approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comprehensive solar technology systems analysis model is being developed to support the implementation of the systems driven approach to program planning for the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP). Use of this systems model, together with technology and cost benchmarking, market penetration analysis, and other relevant considerations, will support the development of program priorities and direction, and the subsequent investment needed to support R&D activities.

Mehos, M.; Mooney, D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Marginal Abatement Costs and Marginal Welfare Costs for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Results from the EPPA Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves, relationships between tons of emissions abated and the CO2 (or GHG) price, have been widely used as pedagogic devices to illustrate simple economic concepts such as the benefits of ...

Morris, Jennifer

303

Stochastic Modeling of Future Highway Maintenance Costs for Flexible Type Highway Pavement Construction Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transportation infrastructure systems in the United States were built between the 50's and 80's, with 20 years design life. As most of them already exceeded their original life expectancy, state transportation agencies (STAs) are now under increased needs to rebuild deteriorated transportation networks. For major highway maintenance projects, a federal rule enforces to perform a life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA). The lack of analytical methods for LCCA creates many challenges of STAs to comply with the rule. To address these critical issues, this study aims at developing a new methodology for quantifying the future maintenance cost to assist STAs in performing a LCCA. The major objectives of this research are twofold: 1) identify the critical factors that affect pavement performances; 2) develop a stochastic model that predicts future maintenance costs of flexible-type pavement in Texas. The study data were gathered through the Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) containing more than 190,000 highway sections in Texas. These data were then grouped by critical performance-driven factor which was identified by K-means cluster analysis. Many factors were evaluated to identify the most critical factors that affect pavement maintenance need. With these data, a series of regression analyses were carried out to develop predictive models. Lastly, a validation study with PRESS statistics was conducted to evaluate reliability of the model. The research results reveal that three factors, annual average temperature, annual precipitation, and pavement age, were the most critical factors under very low traffic volume conditions. This research effort was the first of its kind undertaken in this subject. The maintenance cost lookup tables and stochastic model will assist STAs in carrying out a LCCA, with the reliable estimation of maintenance costs. This research also provides the research community with the first view and systematic estimation method that STAs can use to determine long-term maintenance costs in estimating life-cycle costs. It will reduce the agency's expenses in the time and effort required for conducting a LCCA. Estimating long-term maintenance cost is a core component of the LCCA. Therefore, methods developed from this project have the great potential to improve the accuracy of LCCA.

Kim, Yoo Hyun

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Modeling Resource, Infrastructure, and Policy Cost Layers for Optimizing Renewable Energy Investment and Deployment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a framework for creating a common spatial canvass that can bring together considerations of resource availability, infrastructure reliability, and development costs while strategizing renewable energy investment. We describe the underlying models and methodologies that annotate an investment plan for potential sites over a time-period with costs and constraints which may be imposed on distance from infrastructure, system impact on infrastructure, and policy incentives. The framework is intended as an enabler for visualization, optimization and decision making across diverse dimensions while searching for lucrative investment-plans.

Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Protopopescu, Vladimir A [ORNL; Malinchik, Sergey [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Ives, Barry [Lockheed Martin Corporation

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analysis of the levelized cost of producing hydrogen via different pathways using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's H2A Hydrogen Production Model, Version 2.

Ramsden, T.; Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N ATIONAL L ABORATORY Distributed Generation Capabilities ofemployer. LBNL-52432 Distributed Generation Capabilities of1.1 Definition of Distributed Generation and Interpretation

LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Supercomputer Assisted Generation of Machine Learning Agents for the Calibration of Building Energy Models  

SciTech Connect

Building Energy Modeling (BEM) is an approach to model the energy usage in buildings for design and retrot pur- poses. EnergyPlus is the agship Department of Energy software that performs BEM for dierent types of buildings. The input to EnergyPlus can often extend in the order of a few thousand parameters which have to be calibrated manu- ally by an expert for realistic energy modeling. This makes it challenging and expensive thereby making building en- ergy modeling unfeasible for smaller projects. In this paper, we describe the \\Autotune" research which employs machine learning algorithms to generate agents for the dierent kinds of standard reference buildings in the U.S. building stock. The parametric space and the variety of building locations and types make this a challenging computational problem necessitating the use of supercomputers. Millions of En- ergyPlus simulations are run on supercomputers which are subsequently used to train machine learning algorithms to generate agents. These agents, once created, can then run in a fraction of the time thereby allowing cost-eective cali- bration of building models.

Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Edwards, Richard [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Generic Models and Model Validation for Wind and Solar PV Generation: Technical Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influx of variable generation technologies, particularly wind generation, into the bulk transmission grid in the U.S. and internationally has been significant over the past decade. This trend will most likely continue in light of national (in other countries) and state renewable portfolio standards. Thus, there is at present a need for generic, standard and publicly available models for variable generation technologies for the purpose of power system planning studies. EPRI has been a key participant ...

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

309

Towards next generation ocean models : novel discontinuous Galerkin schemes for 2D unsteady biogeochemical models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new generation of efficient parallel, multi-scale, and interdisciplinary ocean models is required for better understanding and accurate predictions. The purpose of this thesis is to quantitatively identify promising ...

Ueckermann, Mattheus P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

The WAM ModelA Third Generation Ocean Wave Prediction Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A third generation wave model is presented that integrates the basic transport equation describing the evolution of a two-dimensional ocean wave spectrum without additional ad hoe assumptions regarding the spectral shape. The three source ...

The Wamdi Group

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Design Optimization and Construction of the Thyratron/PFN Based Cost Model Modulator for the NLC  

SciTech Connect

As design studies and various R and D efforts continue on Next Linear Collider (NLC) systems, much R and D work is being done on X-Band klystron development, and development of pulse modulators to drive these X-Band klystrons. A workshop on this subject was held at SLAC in June of 1998, and a follow-up workshop is scheduled at SLAC June 23-25, 1999. At the 1998 workshop, several avenues of R and D were proposed using solid state switching, induction LINAC principles, high voltage hard tubes, and a few more esoteric ideas. An optimized version of the conventional thyratron-PFN-pulse transformer modulator for which there is extensive operating experience is also a strong candidate for use in the NLC. Such a modulator is currently under construction for base line demonstration purposes. The performance of this ''Cost Model'' modulator will be compared to other developing technologies. Important parameters including initial capital cost, operating maintenance cost, reliability, maintainability, power efficiency, in addition to the usual operating parameters of pulse flatness, timing and pulse height jitter, etc. will be considered in the choice of a modulator design for the NLC. This paper updates the progress on this ''Cost Model'' modulator design and construction.

Koontz, Roland F

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Variable fuel tax models. [Revenue generated via 4 models for Alabama  

SciTech Connect

Four variable fuel tax models are investigated with respect to Alabama Highway Department operations. The Fixed Percentage Fuel Tax Model establishes the state gasoline tax as a constant percentage of the wholesale price of gasoline. The Price Index Economic Model pegs state fuel taxes to a ratio of price indexes. The Fuel Efficiency Tax Model relates the gasoline tax to the variables of Consumer Price Index and vehicle efficiency. The Sales Tax Model establishes a sales tax on the purchase of gasoline and motor fuel sold in the state. Estimates of the amount of revenue expected to be generated by each model are made. Advantages and disadvantages of each model are presented.

Vecellio, R.L.; Moore, R.K.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

New Methods for Modeling and Estimating the Social Costs of Motor Vehicle Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Valuation and External Cost Estimates* VOD (Bootstrap) Std.accident externalities, cost estimates are di- rectlyand presents external cost estimates, along with related

Steimetz, Seiji Sudhana Carl

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

AVCEM: Advanced Vehicle Cost and Energy Use Model. Overview of AVCEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the battery, according to the battery cost equations (seediscussion of battery cost above). There actually are twoin the amount and cost of fuel-storage, battery, vehicle

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

geographic regions via transmission lines. We assumed thatthe costs of building transmission lines directly from theevaluated. 3) New transmission lines the WinDS model can

Hand, Maureen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Cost effectiveness of the 1993 model energy code in New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

This is an analysis of cost effectiveness the Council of American Building Officials` 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family houses and multifamily housing units in New Jersey. Goal was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1993 MEC to the alternate allowed in the 1993 Building Officials & Code Administrators (BOCA) National Energy Conservation Code -- American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90A-1980 -- based on a comparison of the costs and benefits associated with complying with each. This comparison was performed for Camden, New Brunswick; Somerville, and Sparta. The analysis was done for two different scenarios: a ``move-up`` home buyer purchasing a single-family house and a ``first-time`` financially limited home buyer purchasing a multifamily unit. For the single-family home buyer, compliance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to increase first costs by $1028 to $1564, resulting in an incremental down payment increase of $206 to $313 (at 20% down). The time when the homeowner realizes net cash savings (net positive cash flow) for houses built in accordance with the 1993 MEC was from 1 to 5 years. The home buyer who paid 20% down had recovered increases in down payments and mortgage payments in energy cost savings by the end of the fifth year or sooner and thereafter will save more money each year. For the multifamily unit home buyer first costs were estimated to increase by $121 to $223, resulting in an incremental down payment increase of $12 to $22 (at 10% down). The time when the homeowner realizes net cash savings (net positive cash flow) for houses built in accordance with the 1993 MEC was 1 to 3 years.

Lucas, R.G.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Total Cost of Ownership Model for Current Plug-in Electric Vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market has grown dramatically in the past three years, but the central question concerning PEV acceptance in the marketplace still remains: When compared to a hybrid or conventional vehicle, is a PEV worth the additional up-front cost to consumers? Given the incomplete understanding of changes in driving patterns due to vehicle purchases, the baseline analysis described in this report does not model customer adaptation, nor does it attempt to address non-tangible ...

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

318

Agent-based computational models and generative social science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article argues that the agent-based computational model permits a distinctive approach to social science for which the term generative is suitable. In defending this terminology, features distinguishing the approach from both inductive and deductive science are given. Then, the following specific contributions to social science are discussed: The agent-based computational model is a new tool for empirical research. It offers a natural environment for the study of connectionist phenomena in social science. Agent-based modeling provides a powerful way to address certain enduringand especially interdisciplinaryquestions. It allows one to subject certain core theoriessuch as neoclassical microeconomicsto important types of stress (e.g., the effect of evolving preferences). It permits one to study how rules of individual behavior give riseor map upto macroscopic regularities and organizations. In turn, one can employ laboratory behavioral research findings to select among competing agent-based (bottom up) models. The agent-based approach may well have the important effect of decoupling individual rationality from macroscopic equilibrium and of separating decision science from social science more generally. Agent-based modeling offers powerful new forms of hybrid theoretical-computational work; these are particularly relevant to the study of non-equilibrium systems. The agentbased approach invites the interpretation of society as a distributed computational device, and in turn the interpretation of social dynamics as a type of computation. This interpretation raises important foundational issues in social sciencesome related to intractability, and some to undecidability proper. Finally, since emergence figures prominently in this literature, I take up the connection between agent-based modeling and classical emergentism, criticizing the latter and arguing that the two are incompatible. ? 1999 John Wiley &

Joshua M. Epstein

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 19, NO. 1, MARCH 2004 151 Production Cost Analysis of Dispersed Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) resources to meet forecasted load growth, particularly the application of photovoltaic (PV) generation. II, called area , has self-sufficiency in generation capacity to meet its current and forecasted load for area to meet its forecasted load effectively. This re- quires the installation of additional generation

Gross, George

320

System performance and cost sensitivity comparisons of stretched membrane heliostat reflectors with current generation glass/metal concepts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Heliostat costs have long been recognized as a major factor in the cost of solar central receiver plants. Research on stretched membrane heliostats has been emphasized because of their potential as a cost-effective alternative to current glass/metal designs. However, the cost and performance potential of stretched membrane heliostats from a system perspective has not been studied until this time. The optical performance of individual heliostats is predicted here using results established in previous structural studies. These performance predictions are used to compare both focused and unfocused stretched membrane heliostats with state-of-the-art glass/metal heliostats from a systems perspective. We investigated the sensitivity of the relative cost and performance of fields of heliostats to a large number of parameter variations, including system size, delivery temperature, heliostat module size, surface specularity, hemispherical reflectance, and macroscopic surface quality. The results indicate that focused stretched membrane systems should have comparable performance levels to those of current glass/metal heliostat systems. Further, because of their relatively lower cost, stretched membrane heliostats should provide an economically attractive alternative to current glass/metal heliostats over essentially the entire range of design parameters studied. Unfocused stretched membrane heliostats may also be attractive for a somewhat more limited range of applications, including the larger plant sizes and lower delivery temperatures.

Murphy, L.M.; Anderson, J.V.; Short, W.; Wendelin, T.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Geothermal completion technology life cycle cost model (GEOCOM). Volume I. Final report. Volume II. User instruction manual  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Just as with petroleum wells, drilling and completing a geothermal well at minimum original cost may not be the most cost-effective way to exploit the resource. The impacts of the original completion activities on production and costs later in the life of the well must also be considered. In order to evaluate alternate completion and workover technologies, a simple computer model has been developed to compare total life-cycle costs for a geothermal well to total production or injection. Volume I discusses the mechanics of the model and then presents detailed results from its application to different completion and workover questions. Volume II is the user instruction manual.

Anderson, E.R.; Hoessel, W.C.; Mansure, A.J.; McKissen, P.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Electric power substation capital costs  

SciTech Connect

The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GEs DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

Determining Wind Turbine Gearbox Model Complexity Using Measurement Validation and Cost Comparison: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has conducted extensive field and dynamometer test campaigns on two heavily instrumented wind turbine gearboxes. In this paper, data from the planetary stage is used to evaluate the accuracy and computation time of numerical models of the gearbox. First, planet-bearing load and motion data is analyzed to characterize planetary stage behavior in different environments and to derive requirements for gearbox models and life calculations. Second, a set of models are constructed that represent different levels of fidelity. Simulations of the test conditions are compared to the test data and the computational cost of the models are compared. The test data suggests that the planet-bearing life calculations should be made separately for each bearing on a row due to unequal load distribution. It also shows that tilting of the gear axes is related to planet load share. The modeling study concluded that fully flexible models were needed to predict planet-bearing loading in some cases, although less complex models were able to achieve good correlation in the field-loading case. Significant differences in planet load share were found in simulation and were dependent on the scope of the model and the bearing stiffness model used.

LaCava, W.; Xing, Y.; Guo, Y.; Moan, T.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water Electrolysis Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hour-by-Hour Cost Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water Electrolysis Production Genevieve Saur (PI), Chris Ainscough (Presenter), Kevin Harrison, Todd Ramsden National Renewable Energy Laboratory January 17 th , 2013 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Acknowledgements * This work was made possible by support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). http://www.eere.energy.gov/topics/hydrogen_fuel_cells.html * NREL would like to thank our DOE Technology Development Managers for this project, Sara Dillich, Eric Miller, Erika Sutherland, and David Peterson. * NREL would also like to acknowledge the indirect

326

The value of windpower: An investigation using a qualified production cost model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the US Department of Energy`s Wind Energy Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, we are using the Environmental Defense Fund`s Electric Utility Financial & Production Cost Model (Elfin) as a tool to determine the value of wind energy to specific utilities. The cases we have developed exercise a number of options in the way in which wind energy is treated: (1) as a load modifer (negative load); (2) as a quick-start supply-side resource with hourly varying output; and (3) probabilistically, using time-varying Weibull distributions. By using two wind speed distributions, two different wind turbines, and two different utilities, we show what the wind turbine cost/kW might be that results in a positive value of wind energy for these utilities.

Milligan, M.R.; Miller, A.H.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Forecasting models for operating and maintenance cost of the pilot plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study was conducted in cooperation with the Department of Industrial Engineering of King Abdulaziz University. The main objective of this study is to meet some of the goals of the Solar Energy Water Desalination Plant (SEWDP) plan in the area of economic evaluation. The first part of this project focused on describing the existing trend in the operation and maintenance (OandM) cost for the SOLERAS Solar Energy Water Desalination Plant in Yanbu. The second part used the information obtained on existing trends to find suitable forecasting models. These models, which are found here, are sensitive to changes in costs trends. Nevertheless, the study presented here has established the foundation for (OandM) costs estimating in the plant. The methodologies used in this study should continue as more data on operation and maintenance costs become available, because, in the long run, the trend in costs will help determine where cost effectiveness might be improved. 7 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

Al-Idrisi, M.; Hamad, G.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

User manual for GEOCOST: a computer model for geothermal cost analysis. Volume 2. Binary cycle version  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer model called GEOCOST has been developed to simulate the production of electricity from geothermal resources and calculate the potential costs of geothermal power. GEOCOST combines resource characteristics, power recovery technology, tax rates, and financial factors into one systematic model and provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate their impacts on the cost of geothermal power. Both the geothermal reservoir and power plant are simulated to model the complete energy production system. In the version of GEOCOST in this report, geothermal fluid is supplied from wells distributed throughout a hydrothermal reservoir through insulated pipelines to a binary power plant. The power plant is simulated using a binary fluid cycle in which the geothermal fluid is passed through a series of heat exchangers. The thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles are calculated for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. Physical properties of working fluids at the state points are calculated.

Huber, H.D.; Walter, R.A.; Bloomster, C.H.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study  

SciTech Connect

Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

330

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2018 Levelized Costs AEO 2013 1 2018 Levelized Costs AEO 2013 1 January 2013 Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 This paper presents average levelized costs for generating technologies that are brought on line in 2018 1 as represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013) Early Release Reference case. 2 Both national values and the minimum and maximum values across the 22 U.S. regions of the NEMS electricity market module are presented. Levelized cost is often cited as a convenient summary measure of the overall competiveness of different generating technologies. It represents the per-kilowatthour cost (in real dollars) of building and operating a generating plant over an assumed financial life and duty cycle. Key

331

Conceptual design and cost evaluation of organic Rankine cycle electric generating plant powered by medium temperature geothermal water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The economic production of electrical power from high temperature steam and liquid dominated geothermal resources has been demonstrated. Large quantities of geothermal energy are considered to exist at moderate temperatures, however, the economics of converting this energy into electricity has not been established. This paper presents the design concept of a dual boiler isobutane cycle selected for use with the moderate temperature hydrothermal resource and presents a cost estimate for a 10 and 50 MW power plant. Cost of electrical power from these plants is estimated and compared with that from coal, oil and nuclear plants. The impact of selling a portion of the residual heat in the geothermal effluent is assessed. (auth)

Dart, R.H.; Neill, D.T.; Whitbeck, J.F.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

An Evolutionary Path for Concentrating Thermal Solar Power Technologies: A New Approach for Modeling CSP Power Costs and Potential  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) technology is a potentially competitive power generation option, particularly in arid regions where direct sunlight is abundant. We examine the potential role of CSP power plants and their contribution to carbon emissions reduction. The answers to these questions depend on the cost of electricity generated by CSP plants. Although a few studies have projected future CSP costs based on assumptions for technology advancement and the effect of economies of scale and learning curves, few studies have considered the combined effects of intermittency, solar irradiance changes by season, and diurnal and seasonal system load changes. Because the generation of a solar plant varies over a day and by season, the interactions between CSP generators and other generators in the electric system can play an important role in determining costs. In effect, CSP electricity generation cost will depend on the CSP market penetration. This paper examines this relationship and explores possible evolutionary paths for CSP technologies with and without thermal storage.

Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.

2008-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

333

MODELING OF SYNGAS REACTIONS AND HYDROGEN GENERATION OVER SULFIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the research is to analyze pathways of reactions of hydrogen with oxides of carbon over sulfides, and to predict which characteristics of the sulfide catalyst (nature of metal, defect structure) give rise to the lowest barriers toward oxygenated hydrocarbon product. Reversal of these pathways entails the generation of hydrogen, which is also proposed for study. During this study, adsorption reactions of H atoms and H{sub 2} molecules with MoS{sub 2}, both in molecular and solid form, have been modeled using high-level density functional theory. The relative stabilities of pure MoS{sub 2} edges were calculated and small clusters exhibiting properties of the edges were modeled. The results were finalized and published in the journal ''Surface Science''. Hydrogen adsorption energies on both the edges and the clusters were calculated, and the thermodynamics of hydrogen adsorption on both systems were evaluated. The adsorption locations and vibrational frequencies were also determined. These additional results were published in a second paper in ''Surface Science''. Most recently, the bonding and effect of alkali and transition metal ions was investigated on the MoS{sub 2} clusters. Potassium atoms bind to the clusters and increase the binding of hydrogen to the clusters while reducing the activation barriers for hydrogen adsorption. Silver attaches to the Mo7S14 cluster and donates its odd electron to the nearby Mo atoms and should have a similar effect to hydrogen as potassium does.

Kamil Klier; Jeffery A. Spirko; Michael L. Neiman

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

A New User-Friendly Model to Reduce Cost for Headwater Benefits Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Headwater benefits at a downstream hydropower project are energy gains that are derived from the installation of upstream reservoirs. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is required by law to assess charges of such energy gains to downstream owners of non-federal hydropower projects. The high costs of determining headwater benefits prohibit the use of a complicated model in basins where the magnitude of the benefits is expected to be small. This paper presents a new user-friendly computer model, EFDAM (Enhanced Flow Duration Analysis Method), that not only improves the accuracy of the standard flow duration method but also reduces costs for determining headwater benefits. The EFDAM model includes a MS Windows-based interface module to provide tools for automating input data file preparation, linking and executing of a generic program, editing/viewing of input/output files, and application guidance. The EDFAM was applied to various river basins. An example was given to illustrate the main features of EFDAM application for creating input files and assessing headwater benefits at the Tulloch Hydropower Plant on the Stanislaus River Basin, California.

Bao, Y.S.; Cover, C.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Sale, M.J.; Sarma, V.

1999-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

335

The Evaluation of Steam Generator Level Measurement Model for OPR1000 Using RETRAN-3D  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam generator level measurement is important factor for plant transient analyses using best estimate thermal hydraulic computer codes since the value of steam generator level is used for steam generator level control system and plant protection system. Because steam generator is in the saturation condition which includes steam and liquid together and is the place that heat exchange occurs from primary side to secondary side, computer codes are hard to calculate steam generator level realistically without appropriate level measurement model. In this paper, we prepare the steam generator models using RETRAN-3D that include geometry models, full range feedwater control system and five types of steam generator level measurement model. Five types of steam generator level measurement model consist of level measurement model using elevation difference in downcomer, 1D level measurement model using fluid mass, 1D level measurement model using fluid volume, 2D level measurement model using power and fluid mass, and 2D level measurement model using power and fluid volume. And we perform the evaluation of the capability of each steam generator level measurement model by simulating the real plant transient condition, the title is 'Reactor Trip by The Failure of The Deaerator Level Control Card of Ulchin Unit 3'. The comparison results between real plant data and RETRAN-3D analyses for each steam generator level measurement model show that 2D level measurement model using power and fluid mass or fluid volume has more realistic prediction capability compared with other level measurement models. (authors)

Doo Yong Lee; Soon Joon Hong; Byung Chul Lee [FNC Technology Co., SNU Research Park Innovation Center 516, San4-2, Bongchun-7 dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Heok Soon Lim [KHNP Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Munji-dong 103-16, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Modeling of solar thermal selective surfaces and thermoelectric generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator is a solid-state device that converts a heat flux into electrical power via the Seebeck effect. When a thermoelectric generator is inserted between a solar-absorbing surface and a heat sink, a ...

McEnaney, Kenneth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Triangle geometry processing for surface modeling and cartesian grid generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cartesian mesh generation is accomplished for component based geometries, by intersecting components subject to mesh generation to extract wetted surfaces with a geometry engine using adaptive precision arithmetic in a system which automatically breaks ties with respect to geometric degeneracies. During volume mesh generation, intersected surface triangulations are received to enable mesh generation with cell division of an initially coarse grid. The hexagonal cells are resolved, preserving the ability to directionally divide cells which are locally well aligned.

Aftosmis, Michael J. (San Mateo, CA); Melton, John E. (Hollister, CA); Berger, Marsha J. (New York, NY)

2002-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

338

Reliable, Low-Cost Distributed Generator/Utility System Interconnect: Final Subcontract Report, November 2001-March 2004  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the detailed study and development of new GE anti-islanding controls for two classes of distributed generation. One is inverter-interfaced, while the other is synchronous machine interfaced.

Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.; Li, L.; Zhou, R.; Garces, L.; Dame, M.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Plant power : the cost of using biomass for power generation and potential for decreased greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To date, biomass has not been a large source of power generation in the United States, despite the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from displacing coal with carbon neutral biomass. In this thesis, the fuel cycle ...

Cuellar, Amanda Dulcinea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Water Mass Distribution and Ventilation Time Scales in a Cost-Efficient, Three-Dimensional Ocean Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A cost-efficient, seasonally forced three-dimensional frictional geostrophic balance ocean model (Bern3D) has been developed that features isopycnal diffusion and GentMcWilliams transport parameterization, 32 depth layers, and an implicit ...

S. A. Mller; F. Joos; N. R. Edwards; T. F. Stocker

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the combined cycle gas turbine - an experience curveTechnologies Combustion gas turbine, gas combined- cycle,Integrated Gas CC Gas/Oil Steam Turbine Existing CT Conv CT

Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrated Gas CC Gas/Oil Steam Turbine Existing CT Conv CTGas Comb Cycle Gas/Oil Steam Turbine Existing CombustionGas Comb Cycle Gas/Oil Steam Turbine Existing Combustion

Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a Mun Solid Waste Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Wind Dist.Geothermal Mun Solid Waste Hydroelectric Pumped Storage WindGeothermal Mun Solid Waste Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Wind

Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

steps for an example Combined Cycle plant. 1. Identify thean advanced natural gas combined cycle plant results in the2002. The economics of the combined cycle gas turbine - an

Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waste Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Wind Dist. Gen. BaseSolid Waste Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Wind Solar ThermalSolid Waste Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Wind Solar Thermal

Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Assessment of generic solar thermal systems for large power applications: analysis of electric power generating costs for systems larger than 10 MWe  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Seven generic types of collectors, together with associated subsystems for electric power generation, were considered. The collectors can be classified into three categories: (1) two-axis tracking (with compound-curvature reflecting surfaces); (2) one-axis tracking (with single-curvature reflecting surfaces); and (3) nontracking (with low-concentration reflecting surfaces). All seven collectors were analyzed in conceptual system configurations with Rankine-cycle engines. In addition, two of the collectors were analyzed with Brayton-cycle engines, and one was analyzed with a Stirling-cycle engine. With these engine options, and the consideration of both thermal and electrical storage for the Brayton-cycle central receiver, 11 systems were formulated for analysis. Conceptual designs developed for the 11 systems were based on common assumptions of available technology in the 1990 to 2000 time frame. No attempt was made to perform a detailed optimization of each conceptual design. Rather, designs best suited for a comparative evaluation of the concepts were formulated. Costs were estimated on the basis of identical assumptions, ground rules, methodologies, and unit costs of materials and labor applied uniformly to all of the concepts. The computer code SOLSTEP was used to analyze the thermodynamic performance characteristics and energy costs of the 11 concepts. Year-long simulations were performed using meteorological and insolation data for Barstow, California. Results for each concept include levelized energy costs and capacity factors for various combinations of storage capacity and collector field size.

Apley, W.J.; Bird, S.P.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Patton, W.P.; Williams, T.A.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hide data for this chart (-)Show data for this chart (+) Loading data... Transparent Cost Database Generation Showing: Historical Projections Year Published: Release mouse to...

348

The Canadian Climate Centre Second-Generation General Circulation Model and Its Equilibrium Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Canadian Climate Centre second generation general circulation model (GCMII) is described. The description emphasizes aspects in which the new model differs from the 1984 model (GCMI) as described by Boer and collaborators. Important features ...

N. A. McFarlane; G. J. Boer; J-P. Blanchet; M. Lazare

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

The cost of geothermal energy in the western US region:a portfolio-based approach a mean-variance portfolio optimization of the regions' generating mix to 2013.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem. Investors commonly evaluate such problems using portfolio theory to manage risk and maximize portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. Energy planners need to similarly abandon their reliance on traditional, ''least-cost'' stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy sources on the basis of their portfolio cost--their cost contribution relative to their risk contribution to a mix of generating assets. This report describes essential portfolio-theory ideas and discusses their application in the Western US region. The memo illustrates how electricity-generating mixes can benefit from additional shares of geothermal and other renewables. Compared to fossil-dominated mixes, efficient portfolios reduce generating cost while including greater renewables shares in the mix. This enhances energy security. Though counter-intuitive, the idea that adding more costly geothermal can actually reduce portfolio-generating cost is consistent with basic finance theory. An important implication is that in dynamic and uncertain environments, the relative value of generating technologies must be determined not by evaluating alternative resources, but by evaluating alternative resource portfolios. The optimal results for the Western US Region indicate that compared to the EIA target mixes, there exist generating mixes with larger geothermal shares at equal-or-lower expected cost and risk.

Beurskens, Luuk (ECN-Energy Research Centre of the Netherland); Jansen, Jaap C. (ECN-Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands); Awerbuch, Shimon Ph.D. (.University of Sussex, Brighton, UK); Drennen, Thomas E.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Title: Electrical Power Generation from Produced Water: Field Demonstration of Ways to Reduce Operating Costs of Small Producers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: Electrical Power Generation from Produced Water: Field Demonstration of Ways to Reduce produced water to create "green" electricity usable on site or for transmission off site . The goal the environmental impact by creating green electricity using produced water and no additional fossil fuel. Approach

351

Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

Elliott, Jeannine

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential from a Harmonized Model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Program has begun an initiative to obtain consistent quantitative metrics for algal biofuel production to establish an 'integrated baseline' by harmonizing and combining the Program's national resource assessment (RA), techno-economic analysis (TEA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA) models. The baseline attempts to represent a plausible near-term production scenario with freshwater microalgae growth, extraction of lipids, and conversion via hydroprocessing to produce a renewable diesel (RD) blendstock. Differences in the prior TEA and LCA models were reconciled (harmonized) and the RA model was used to prioritize and select the most favorable consortium of sites that supports production of 5 billion gallons per year of RD. Aligning the TEA and LCA models produced slightly higher costs and emissions compared to the pre-harmonized results. However, after then applying the productivities predicted by the RA model (13 g/m2/d on annual average vs. 25 g/m2/d in the original models), the integrated baseline resulted in markedly higher costs and emissions. The relationship between performance (cost and emissions) and either productivity or lipid fraction was found to be non-linear, and important implications on the TEA and LCA results were observed after introducing seasonal variability from the RA model. Increasing productivity and lipid fraction alone was insufficient to achieve cost and emission targets; however, combined with lower energy, less expensive alternative technology scenarios, emissions and costs were substantially reduced.

Davis, R.; Fishman, D.; Frank, E. D.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Aden, A.; Coleman, A. M.; Pienkos, P. T.; Skaggs, R. J.; Venteris, E. R.; Wang, M. Q.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Power System Modeling of 20% Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper shows the results of the Wind Energy Deployment System model used to estimate the costs and benefits associated with producing 20% of the nation's electricity from wind technology by 2030.

Hand, M.; Blair, N.; Bolinger, M.; Wiser, R.; O'Connell, R.; Hern, T.; Miller, B.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Power System Modeling of 20% Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows the results of the Wind Energy Deployment System model used to estimate the costs and benefits associated with producing 20% of the nation's electricity from wind technology by 2030.

Hand, M.; Blair, N.; Bolinger, M.; Wiser, R.; O' Connell, R.; Hern, T.; Miller, B.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Estimating the Market Penetration of Residential Cool Storage Technology Using Economic Cost Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study estimated the market penetration for residential cool storage technology using economic cost modeling. Residential cool storage units produce and store chill during off-peak periods of the day to be used during times of peak electric power needs. This paper provides projections of unit sales expected in 5-year intervals for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, Such projections help to determine the maximum amount o f energy that could be displaced by this technology in the future. This study also found that price incentives offered to households must be varied dramatically by region for residential cool storage systems to be economically competitive relative to conventional systems. Under the most likely scenario, this analysis estimated that residential cool storage units will eventually capture about one-half of the central air conditioning (A/C) market.

Weijo, R. O.; and Brown, D. R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Estimating the market penetration of residential cool storage technology using economic cost modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study estimated the market penetration for residential cool storage technology using economic cost modeling. Residential cool storage units produce and store chill during off-peak periods of the day to be used during times of peak electric power needs. This paper provides projections of unit sales expected in 5-year intervals for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Such projections help to determine the maximum amount of energy that could be displaced by this technology in the future. This study also found that price incentives offered to households must be varied dramatically by region for residential cool storage systems to be economically competitive relative to conventional systems. Under the most likely scenario, this analysis estimated that residential cool storage units will eventually capture about one-half of the central air conditioning (A/C) market. 14 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

Weijo, R.O.; Brown, D.R.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Application of Low-Cost Digital Elevation Models to Detect Change in Forest Carbon Sequestration Projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This two-year study evaluated advanced multispectral digital imagery applications for assessment of forest carbon stock change. A series of bench and field studies in North Carolina and Ohio tested aerial assessments of forest change between two time periods using two software packages (ERDAS and TERREST) for Digital Elevation Model (DEM) creation, automated classification software (eCognition) for canopy segmentation and a multiple ranging laser designed to improve quality of elevation data. Results of the DEM software comparison showed that while TERREST has the potential to produce much higher resolution DEM than ERDAS, it is unable to resolve crucial canopy features adequately. Lab tests demonstrated that additional laser data improves image registration and Z-axis DEM quality. Data collected in the field revealed difficult challenges in correctly modeling the location of laser strike and subsequently determining elevations in both software packages. Automated software segmentation of tree canopies provided stem diameter and biomass carbon estimates that were within 3% of comparable ground based estimates in the Ohio site and produced similar biomass estimates for a limited number of plots in the Duke forest. Tree height change between time periods and canopy segmentation from multispectral imagery allowed calculation of forest carbon stock change at costs that are comparable to those for ground-based methods. This work demonstrates the potential of lower cost imagery systems enhanced with laser data to collect high quality imagery and paired laser data for forestry and environmental applications. Additional research on automated canopy segmentation and multi-temporal image registration is needed to refine these methods for commercial use.

Kenneth Glenn MacDicken

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

Photovoltaic generator modeling for large scale distribution system studies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Geographic regions with favorable conditions for photovoltaic (PHV) power generation are seeing increasing numbers of three-phase commercial installations and single-phase residential sized installations. PHV sources (more)

Golder, Andrew S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

A cost modeling approach using learning curves to study the evolution of technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work looks into the concept of learning curves to decipher the underlying mechanism in cost evolution. The concept is not new and has been used since last seven decades to understand cost walk down in various ...

Kar, Ashish M. (Ashish Mohan)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Sustainability and socio-enviro-technical systems: modeling total cost of ownership in capital facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Investment in sustainability strategies and technologies holds promise for significant cost savings over the operational phase of a facility's life cycle, while more effectively meeting stakeholder needs. However, accurately estimating the first costs ...

Annie R. Pearce; Kristen L. Sanford Bernhardt; Michael J. Garvin

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Kernel principal component analysis for stochastic input model generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic analysis of random heterogeneous media provides useful information only if realistic input models of the material property variations are used. These input models are often constructed from a set of experimental samples of the underlying random ... Keywords: Data-driven models, Flow in random porous media, Kernel principal component analysis, Non-linear model reduction, Stochastic partial differential equations

Xiang Ma; Nicholas Zabaras

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

SCICHEM: A New Generation Plume-in-Grid Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If plume dispersion and chemistry in air quality models are not accurately simulated, those models may over-predict both ozone produced by large elevated point source NOx emissions and ozone reduction when those emissions are decreased. The plume-in-grid (PiG) model developed in this project succeeds in simulating these processes more realistically than in existing regulatory models.

1999-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

363

Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Lifecycle Cost and Energy-Use Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the product of the cost per kWh and the total number ofmethod assumes that the cost per kWh does not vary with theper kg (rather than the cost per kWh) as a function of the

Delucchi, Mark; Burke, Andy; Lipman, Timothy; Miller, Marshall

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Modelling the costs of energy crops: A case study of U.S. corn and Brazilian sugar cane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EPRG WORKING PAPER High crude oil prices, uncertainties about the consequences of climate change and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the prospects of alternative fuels, such as biofuels. This paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of energy crops, drawing on the user's degree of belief about a series of parameters as an input. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of production constraints and experience on the costs of corn and sugar cane, which can then be converted to bioethanol. Land is a limited and heterogeneous resource: the crop cost model builds on the marginal land suitability, which is assumed to decrease as more land is taken into production, driving down the marginal crop yield. Also, the maximum achievable yield is increased over time by technological change, while the yield gap between the actual yield and the maximum yield decreases through improved management practices. The results show large uncertainties in the future costs of producing corn and sugar cane, with a 90% confidence interval of 2.9 to 7.2 $/GJ in 2030 for marginal corn costs, and 1.5 to 2.5 $/GJ in 2030 for marginal sugar cane costs. The influence of each parameter on these costs is examined.

Aurlie Mjean; Chris Hope; Aurlie Mjean; Chris Hope

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Does competition reduce costs? : assessing the impact of regulatory restructuring on U.S. electric generation efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although the allocative efficiency benefits of competition are a tenet of microeconomic theory, the relation between competition and technical efficiency is less well understood. Neoclassical models of profit-maximization ...

Rose, Nancy L.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Plant-Wide Performance and Cost Analysis of Ion Transport Membrane-Based Oxy-Combustion Power Generation Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in conjunction with Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., (AP) and WorleyParsons, Inc. (WP) has reviewed and modeled oxy-combustion, a method of burning coal using oxygen rather than air to facilitate the separation, capture, and remediation of carbon by producing a flue gas stream more concentrated in carbon dioxide (CO2). This report presents modeling results for oxy-combustion systems using two different oxygen separation techniques: traditional ...

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

367

Steam Generator Management Program: Simulation Model for Eddy Current Steam Generator Inspection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BackgroundEddy current techniques are used widely to evaluate the integrity of steam generator (SG) tubes in nuclear power plants. A variety of commercial probes have been used by industry; it is well known that eddy current probe responses change as the tube condition changes. Other factors that influence the eddy current signal include deposits, loose parts, and denting. Postulated SG conditions have been mocked up in the laboratory; however, capabilities are limited ...

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

368

Evaluation of Model-generated Cloudiness: Satellite-observed and Model-generated Diurnal Variability of Brightness Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an attempt to validate the ECMWF models cloudiness, model output has been processed to reproduce satellite measurements as closely as possible. Brightness temperatures in the longwave window channel of Meteosat are simulated from cloudiness, ...

Jean-Jacques Morcrette

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Recursive operation time maximization model for the maintenance of power generation equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Repairable equipment requires preventive maintenance (PM) to maintain proper function. An appropriate PM strategy can extend the life of equipment and reduce variable costs. A power generation company in Taiwan that has a fixed-period PM strategy is ... Keywords: Maintenance improvement factor, Mathematical programming, Preventive maintenance (PM)

Der-Chiang Li; Chiao-Wen Liu; Tung-Liang Chen

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Schedule and Cost Buffer Sizing How to account for the bias between project performance and your model.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Schedule and Cost Buffer Sizing How to account for the bias between project performance and your model. Bias in project performance causes schedule and cost to over-run baseline estimates (your model). Bias is the one-sided tendency of actual schedule or cost to over-run the model. The PMBOK Guide and supporting literature recommend estimating the variability for all project time and cost estimates, and sizing appropriate schedule or cost buffers (also known as contingency or management reserve) using Monte-Carlo analysis or PERT. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) uses a similar approach to size buffers (the Square Root of the Sum of the Squares, or SSQ method). These techniques pool the variance from individual task estimates. Statistical pooling of variance does not account for sources of bias 1 in the estimates; i.e., systematic reasons that the estimates may be high or low. This paper describes a number of sources of bias in performance of projects to schedule and cost estimates, and provides recommendations to size buffers that ensure your projects come in under your baseline schedule and budget.

Chain Ccpm; Larry Leach

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Temporal model-based diagnostics generation for HVAC control systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimizing energy usage in buildings requires global models that integrate multiple factors contributing to energy, such as lighting, "Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning" (HVAC), security, etc. Model transformation methods can then use these ...

Marion Behrens; Gregory Provan

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Generation of Infrasound by Evaporating Hydrometeors in a Cloud Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical core of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System has been tailored to simulate the infrasound of vortex motions and diabatic cloud processes in a convective storm. Earlier studies have shown that the customized model (c-RAMS) ...

David A. Schecter; Melville E. Nicholls

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Dynamic simulation model for non-supplementary firing triple-pressure heat recovery steam generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By using the modular modeling method, a real-time dynamic simulation model for the non-supplementary tri-pressure reheat Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) is developed. On the basis of mass and energy conservation law, the paper discusses the model ... Keywords: HRSG, dynamic model, modular modelling, simulation

Ning Cui; Bing-Shu Wang; Xiang-Yang Gong; Jian-Qiang Gao

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Analyzing interacting WS-BPEL processes using flexible model generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We address the problem of analyzing the interaction between WS-BPEL processes. We present a technology chain that starts out with a WS-BPEL process and translates it into a Petri net model. On the model we decide controllability of the process (the existence ... Keywords: Business process modeling and analysis, Formal models in business process management, Petri nets, Process verification and validation, WS-BPEL

Niels Lohmann; Peter Massuthe; Christian Stahl; Daniela Weinberg

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Modeling and control of a cascaded doubly-fed induction generator based on dynamical equivalent circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the control of an autonomous cascaded doubly-fed induction generator operating in a variable speed constant frequency mode. The proposed structure is a full stand-alone generating system dedicated to isolated grids in embedded systems ... Keywords: Aircraft applications, Cascaded doubly-fed induction generator, Isolated grid, Modeling, Control, Topology analysis, Variable speed constant frequency

N. Patin; E. Monmasson; J. -P. Louis

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

An energy systems modelling approach for the planning of power generation: a North American case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to Saskatchewan's growing energy demands, the public's environmental concerns and the decommissioning of existing coal-fired facilities, the province will need to construct new electric generating facilities with high economic performance ... Keywords: Canada, electricity generation, energy modelling, energy planning, energy technology, environment, environmental performance, greenhouse gas emissions, power generation technologies, renewable energy

Q. G. Lin; G. H. Huang; B. Bass

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Steam Generator Management Program: Empirical Model for Predicting Recirculating PWR Steam Generator Broached-Hole Blockage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since their initial use in commercial plants in the 1960s, the steam generators (SGs) in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) have exhibited a number of reliability problems. Even though many of these are related to the integrity of the heat-transfer tubing and other internal components or to decreases in heat-transfer efficiency, some SG designs have been subject to a different issuedeposit-induced blockage of the broached flow holes in the tube support plates (TSPs) located within the SG ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

378

Steam Generator Management Program: Empirical Model for Predicting Recirculating PWR Steam Generator Broached-Hole Blockage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since their initial use in commercial plants in the 1960s, the steam generators (SGs) in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) have exhibited a number of reliability problems. Even though many of these are related to the integrity of the heat-transfer tubing and other internal components or to decreases in heat-transfer efficiency, some SG designs have been subject to a different issuedeposit-induced blockage of the broached flow holes in the tube support plates (TSPs) located within the SG shell. This study...

2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

379

Mathematical model of steam generator feed system at power unit of nuclear plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mathematical model of a steam generator feed system at a power unit of a nuclear plant with variable values of transfer function coefficients is presented. The model is realized in the MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow event-driven simulation.

E. M. Raskin; L. A. Denisova; V. P. Sinitsyn; Yu. V. Nesterov

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Requirements model generation to support requirements elicitation: the Secure Tropos experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years several efforts have been devoted by researchers in the Requirements Engineering community to the development of methodologies for supporting designers during requirements elicitation, modeling, and analysis. However, these methodologies ... Keywords: Lightweight text analysis, Model generation

Nadzeya Kiyavitskaya; Nicola Zannone

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

A Two-Dimensional Model of Inertial Oscillations Generated by a Propagating Wind Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear, two-dimensional, continuously stratified, viscous model has been developed to study the inertial oscillations generated by a propagating wind field. The model, an extension of that of Kundu and Thomson, includes the presence of a coast ...

Pijush K. Kundu

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Effects of Numerics on the Physics in a Third-Generation Wind-Wave Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical errors in third-generation ocean wave models can result in a misinterpretation of the physics in the model. Using idealized situations, it is shown that numerical errors significantly influence the initial growth, the response of wave ...

Hendrik L. Tolman

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

A stochastic multiscale model for electricity generation capacity ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exist in many energy planning problems, in particular load demand uncertainty and uncertainties in generation .... Therefore we only comment on the relations between the analysis here and the literature. In [Jiang ..... Information about long term demand arrives at slower rate. It is not ...... optimization in a pool market. Math.

384

Polish plant beats the odds to become model EU generator  

SciTech Connect

Once a Soviet satellite, Poland is now transforming into a thoroughly modern nation. To support its growing economy, this recent European Union member country is modernizing its power industry. Exemplifying the advances in the Polish electricity generation market is the 460 MW Patnow II power plant - the largest, most efficient (supercritical cycle) and environmentally cleanest lignite-fired unit in the country. 3 photos.

Neville, A.

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

An electrical modeling and fuzzy logic control of a fuel cell generation system  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cell generation system consists of a stack, a reformer, and converters. The stack generates DC power by electrochemical reaction. For system design and analysis, it is necessary to obtain electrical models. Simplified electrical models of a fuel cell generation system for system control are proposed. Then using the electrical models, system performance of a fuel cell generation system in which power is boosted by step-up choppers is analyzed. A fuzzy controller is designed for improved system performance. Simulation and experimental results confirmed the high performance capability of the designed system.

Kim, Y.H.; Kim, S.S. [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Modeling Regional Electricity Generation - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... satisfactorily for historical 2004 and preliminary 2006 data The model is capable of capturing seasonal fluctuations Shape of load curves (max and min ...

387

Modeling of biogas generation in bioreactor landfills using neuro-fuzzy system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biogas generation in anaerobic bioreactor landfills is modeled using the neuro-fuzzy system. The implemented inference system was an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The fuzzy logic controller featured a Multi-Input-Single-Output (MISO) ... Keywords: biogas generation, bioreactor landfills, neuro-fuzzy model

Mohamed S. Abdallah; Leta Fernandes; Mostafa A. Warith

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Incorporating oligopoly, CO2 emissions trading and green certificates into a power generation expansion model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a generation expansion model for the power sector which incorporates several features that make it very interesting for application to current electricity markets: it considers the possible oligopolistic behavior of firms, and incorporates ... Keywords: Carbon emissions trading, Generation-expansion modeling, Green certificates, Oligopoly

Pedro Linares; Francisco Javier Santos; Mariano Ventosa; Luis Lapiedra

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

A systematic approach to unstructured mesh generation for ocean modelling using GMT and Terreno  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic approach to unstructured mesh generation for ocean modelling is presented. The method optimises unstructured meshes to approximate bathymetry to a user specified accuracy which may be defined as a function of longitude, latitude and bathymetry. ... Keywords: Bathymetry, Ocean modelling, Optimisation, Shoreline, Simplification, Unstructured mesh generation

G. J. Gorman; M. D. Piggott; M. R. Wells; C. C. Pain; P. A. Allison

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

A next-generation modeling capability assesses wind turbine array fluid dynamics and aeroelastic simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A next-generation modeling capability assesses wind turbine array fluid dynamics and aeroelastic of multi-megawatt turbines requires a new generation of modeling capability to assess individual turbine performance as well as detailed turbine- turbine and turbine-atmosphere interactions. Scientists

391

Production structure models and applications within a Statistical Activity Cost Theory (SACT) Framework.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Statistical Activity Cost Theory (SACT) is an axiomatic and statistical theory of basic accounting measurement practice. The aim of the SACT analysis, among others, is (more)

Turner, Lyle Robert

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Feature based cost and carbon emission modelling for wire and arc additive manufacturing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a CNC and welding deposition based additive manufacturing method. This novel manufacturing technique has potential cost and (more)

Guo, Jianing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

A knowledge representation model for the nuclear power generation domain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A knowledge representation model for the nuclear power field is proposed. The model is a generalized production rule function inspired by a neural network approach that enables the representation of physical systems of nuclear power plants. The article ... Keywords: Knowledge representation, Nuclear power plant, Physical systems, Production rules

Thiago Tinoco Pires

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Risk Aversion and CO2 Regulatory Uncertainty in Power Generation Investment: Policy and Modeling Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

functions over the year within the second stage (e.g., peak vs baseload demands). This distribution is known ahead of time to all market players, and is the reason why in equilibrium there is a mix of high- and low-variable cost generation technologies... functions including demand variability, which is a fundamental feature of electricity economics, resulting in the need for a mix of capital-intensive baseload versus high fuel cost peaking capacity [35]. The degree of in- tra-annual demand variability...

Fan, L; Hobbs, Benjamin F; Norman, C S

395

Simulation-based automatic generation of signomial and posynomial performance models for analog integrated circuit sizing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a method to automatically generate posynomial response surface models for the performance parameters of analog integrated circuits. The posynomial models enable the use of efficient geometric programming techniques for circuit sizing ... Keywords: analog circuit modeling, design of experiments, geometric programming, posynomial and signomial response surface modeling

Walter Daems; Georges Gielen; Willy Sansen

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) Agency/Company /Organization: Latin American Energy Organization Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Hydro Topics: Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Website: www.olade.org/superEn.html References: SUPER website [1] "This model is useful for multi-year electricity system planning studies, making it possible to analyze, optimize, simulate and develop hydrothermal power system expansion plans." References ↑ "SUPER website" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Power_System_Generation_and_Inter-Connection_Planning_Model_(SUPER)&oldid=329

397

Repetitive Decision Making and the Value of Forecasts in the Cost?Loss Ratio Situation: A Dynamic Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purposes of this paper are to describe a dynamic model for repetitive decision?making in the costloss ratio situation and to present some theoretical and numerical results related to the optimal use and economic value of weather forecasts ...

Allan H. Murphy; Richard W. Katz; Robert L. Winkler; Wu-Ron Hsu

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Waste generation process modeling and analysis for fuel reprocessing technologies  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of electric power generation requirements for the next century, even when taking the most conservative tack, indicate that the United States will have to increase its production capacity significantly. If the country determines that nuclear power will not be a significant component of this production capacity, the nuclear industry will have to die, as maintaining a small nuclear component will not be justifiable. However, if nuclear power is to be a significant component, it will probably require some form of reprocessing technology. The once-through fuel cycle is only feasible for a relatively small number of nuclear power plants. If we are maintaining several hundred reactors, the once-through fuel cycle is more expensive and ethically questionable.

Kornreich, D. E. (Drew E.); Koehler, A. C. (Andrew C.); Farman, Richard F.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

GENERATION OF TRANSITION CLASS MODELS FROM FORMAL QUEUEING NETWORK DESCRIPTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for service. The state is changed accordingly. The service rate, the number of queues, and transition probabil probabilities and the transition rates or the transition probabilities (Markov reward mod- els). The holding is a translator into transition class models. The expressive power of the method is indicated. TRANSITION CLASSES

Strelen, Christoph

400

Numerical Modeling of Internal Tide Generation along the Hawaiian Ridge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Internal M2 tides near Hawaii are investigated with a two-dimensional, two-layer numerical model. It is seen that along the Hawaiian Ridge barotropic tidal energy is transformed into baroclinic internal tides that propagate in both northeast and ...

S. K. Kang; M. G. G. Foreman; W. R. Crawford; J. Y. Cherniawsky

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.

Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

402

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation from model organic wastewater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the membrane systems selected, additional equipment such as knockout drums, coalescing filters, and guard beds far and modeling predictions is quite reasonable. Methane 20% H2S/ 80%N2 Air MFC MFC MFC Proceedings of the 2002 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Review NREL/CP-610-32405 #12;MFC-3 MFC-1 MFC-2 N2 H2S O2

403

The development of a life cycle cost model for railroad tunnels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today, Life Cycle Costing is one of the most popular ways of assessing a project's or an investment's worth to a company. This method of assessment is often applied to all stages of a investment's lifecycle, starting from ...

Angeles, Jon Virgil V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Using a total landed cost model to foster global logistics strategy in the electronics industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global operation strategies have been widely used in the last several decades as many companies and industries have taken advantage of lower production costs. However, in choosing a location, companies often only consider ...

Jearasatit, Apichart

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Isotopic Generation and Confirmation of the PWR Application Model  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to establish an isotopic database to represent commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) from pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in criticality analyses performed for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Confirmation of the conservatism with respect to criticality in the isotopic concentration values represented by this isotopic database is performed as described in Section 3.5.3.1.2 of the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2000). The isotopic database consists of the set of 14 actinides and 15 fission products presented in Section 3.5.2.1.1 of YMP 2000 for use in CSNF burnup credit. This set of 29 isotopes is referred to as the principal isotopes. The oxygen isotope from the UO{sub 2} fuel is also included in the database. The isotopic database covers enrichments of {sup 235}U ranging from 1.5 to 5.5 weight percent (wt%) and burnups ranging from approximately zero to 75 GWd per metric ton of uranium (mtU). The choice of fuel assembly and operating history values used in generating the isotopic database are provided is Section 5. Tables of isotopic concentrations for the 29 principal isotopes (plus oxygen) as a function of enrichment and burnup are provided in Section 6.1. Results of the confirmation of the conservatism with respect to criticality in the isotopic concentration values are provided in Section 6.2.

L.B. Wimmer

2003-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

406

Commercial second-generation PFBC plant transient model: Task 15  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustor (APFBC) power plant combines an efficient gas-fired combined cycle, a low-emission PFB combustor, and a coal pyrolysis unit (carbonizer) that converts coal, America`s most plentiful fuel, into the gas turbine fuel. From an operation standpoint, the APFBC plant is similar to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, except that the PFBC and fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE) allow a considerable fraction of coal energy to be shunted around the gas turbine and sent directly to the steam turbine. By contrast, the fuel energy in IGCC plants and most other combined cycles is primarily delivered to the gas turbine and then to the steam turbine. Another characteristic of the APFBC plant is the interaction among three large thermal inertias--carbonizer, PFBC, and FBHE--that presents unique operational challenges for modeling and operation of this type of plant. This report describes the operating characteristics and dynamic responses of the APFBC plant and discusses the advantages and shortcomings of several alternative control strategies for the plant. In particular, interactions between PFBC, FBHE, and steam bottoming cycle are analyzed and the effect of their interactions on plant operation is discussed. The technical approach used in the study is described in Section 2. The dynamic model is introduced in Section 3 and described is detail in the appendices. Steady-state calibration and transient simulations are presented in Sections 4 and 5. The development of the operating philosophy is discussed in Section 6. Potential design changes to the dynamic model and trial control schemes are listed in Sections 7 and 8. Conclusions derived from the study are presented in Section 9.

White, J.S.; Getty, R.T.; Torpey, M.R.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The Estimation of Wind-Wave Generation in a Discrete Spectral Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimation of wind-wave generation using a new discrete spectral model is compared to Hasselmann et al.'s (1976) parametric model and to models driven primarily by direct transfer of energy from the atmosphere into the surface waves. The main ...

Donald T. Resio

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Considering baseline homophily when generating spatial social networks for agent-based modelling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Social networks have become an important part of agent-based models, and their structure may have remarkable impact on simulation results. We propose a simple and efficient but empirically based approach for spatial agent-based models which explicitly ... Keywords: Agent milieus, Empirical social networks, Network generator, Spatial agent-based modelling

Sascha Holzhauer; Friedrich Krebs; Andreas Ernst

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

A Novel MPPT Control Technology Based on Cloud Model for Photovoltaic Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cloud model is a mathematical representation to fuzziness and randomness in linguistic concepts, and integrates the fuzziness and randomness of a linguistic concept in a unified way. This model is a new method for transformation between qualitative ... Keywords: photovoltaic power generation, MPPT, duty factor, cloud model

Lei An; Wei Fan

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation. In this paper, we apply this modeling principle to a well known case study, the steam boiler problem which has model and to assess the difficulty of such a process in a realistic case study. The steam boiler case

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

A dynamic model system of household car ownership, trip generation, and modal split: model development and simulation experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1987) Why do people buy cars? Paper presented at the 5thRegression Model of Private Car Use. Report AE 4/87, FacultyEffects of Income and Car Ownership on Trip Generation: A

Kitamura, Ryuichi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Modelling and Analysis of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Induction Generator during Grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modelling and Analysis of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Induction Generator during Grid Fault Wind Turbines with Induction Generator during Grid Fault by Sigrid M. Bolik Institute of Energy turbine technology has undergone rapid developments. Growth in size and the optimization of wind turbines

Hansen, René Rydhof

413

A Simplified Lumped Parameter Model for U-Tube Steam Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simplified lumped parameter model for U-tube steam generator (UTSG) is presented, according to its working principle and the mass and energy conservation theory as well as the principle of thermal system dynamics. A three-element controller of water ... Keywords: Steam generator, Lumped parameter, Dynamic, Simplified

Zhang Yongsheng; Ma Yunyi

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

A Generative Model for Statistical Determination of Information Content from Conversation Threads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a generative model for determining the information content of a message without analyzing the message content. Such a tool is useful for automated analysis of the vast contents of online communication which are extensively contaminated by ...

Yingjie Zhou; Malik Magdon-Ismail; William A. Wallace; Mark Goldberg

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Greenhouse Gasinduced Climate Change Simulated with the CCC Second-Generation General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Canadian Climate Centre second-generation atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a mixed-layer ocean incorporating thermodynamic sea ice is used to simulate the equilibrium climate response to a doubling of C02. Features of the ...

G. J. Boer; N. A. McFarlane; M. Lazare

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

On Imbalance Generated by Vortical Flows in a Two-Layer Spherical Boussinesq Primitive Equation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spontaneous adjustment emission of inertiagravity waves is investigated by examining the amount of imbalance generated during the evolution of unstable jets in an isentropic two-layer primitive equation model on the sphere. To determine the ...

Mohammad Mirzaei; Ali R. Mohebalhojeh; Farhang Ahmadi-Givi

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

TWO POSTDOC POSITIONS IN MULTISCALE MODELLING OF RELIABILITY OF NEW GENERATION NANO-DEVICES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TWO POSTDOC POSITIONS IN MULTISCALE MODELLING OF RELIABILITY OF NEW GENERATION NANO-DEVICES Two nano-devices. These posts are part of an international MORDRED project funded by EU FP7 to develop new

Saunders, Mark

418

Radiative Characteristics of the Canadian Climate Centre Second-Generation General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several observational datasets were used to assess the quality of the radiative characteristics of the Canadian Climate Centre (CCC) second-generation GCM. The GCM data were obtained from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) ...

Howard W. Barker; Zhanqing Li; Jean-Pierre Blanchet

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Mesoscale Forecasts Generated from Operational Numerical Weather-Prediction Model Output  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique called Model Output Enhancement (MOE) has been developed for the generation and display of mesoscale weather forecasts. The MOE technique derives mesoscale or high-resolution (order of 1 km) weather forecasts from synoptic-scale ...

John G. W. Kelley; Joseph M. Russo; Toby N. Carlson; J. Ronald Eyton

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

An electromagnetic and thermodynamic lumped parameter model of an explosively driven regenerative magnetohydrodynamic generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to develop a simple, yet accurate, lumped parameter mathematical model for an explosively driven magnetohydrodynamic generator that can predict the pulse power variables of voltage and current from startup through regenerative operation. The inputs to the model will be the plasma properties entering the generator as predicted by the explosive shock model of Reference [1]. The strategy used was to simplify electromagnetic and thermodynamic three dimensional effects into a zero dimensional model. The model will provide a convenient tool for researchers to optimize designs to be used in pulse power applications. The model is validated using experimental data of Reference [1]. An overview of the operation of the explosively driven generator is first presented. Then a simplified electrical circuit model that describes basic performance of the device is developed. Then a lumped parameter model that incorporates the coupled electromagnetic and thermodynamic effects that govern generator performance is described and developed. The model is based on fundamental physical principles and parameters that were either obtained directly from design data or estimated from experimental data. The model was used to obtain parameter sensitivities and predict beyond the limits observed in the experiments to the levels desired by the potential Department of Defense sponsors. The model identifies process limitations that provide direction for future research.

Morrison, J.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Higgs production cross-section in a Standard Model with four generations at the LHC  

SciTech Connect

We present theoretical predictions for the Higgs boson production cross-section via gluon fusion at the LHC in a Standard Model with four generations. We include QCD corrections through NLO retaining the full dependence on the quark masses, and the NNLO corrections in the heavy quark effective theory approximation. We also include electroweak corrections through three loops. Electroweak and bottom-quark contributions are suppressed in comparison to the Standard Model with three generations.

Furlan E.; Anastasiou, C.; Buehler, S.; Herzog, F.; Lazopoulos, A.

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

422

Internal Tide Generation over Topography: Experiments with a Free-Surface z-Level Ocean Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional, z-level, primitive-equation ocean circulation model (DieCAST) is modified to include a free-surface and partial cells. The updating of free-surface elevation is implicit in time so that the extra computational cost is minimal ...

Youyu Lu; Daniel G. Wright; David Brickman

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Cost, Energy Use, and Emissions of Tri-Generation Systems - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Mark F. Ruth* (Primary Contact), Michael E. Goldsby † , Timothy J. Sa † , Victor Diakov* *National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Pkwy. Golden, CO 80401 Phone: (303) 817-6160 Email: Mark.Ruth@nrel.gov † Sandia National Laboratories DOE Manager HQ: Fred Joseck Phone: (202) 586-7932 Email: Fred.Joseck@ee.doe.gov Project Start Date: December 1, 2010 Project End Date: October 31, 2011 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop a macro-system model (MSM): * Aimed at performing rapid cross-cutting analysis - Utilizing and linking other models - Improving consistency between models - Incorporate tri-generation systems into the MSM and * develop a methodology for MSM users to analyze

424

Growth-optimal investments and numeraire portfolios under transaction costs: An analysis based on the von Neumann-Gale model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to extend the capital growth theory developed by Kelly, Breiman, Cover and others to asset market models with transaction costs. We define a natural generalization of the notion of a numeraire portfolio proposed by Long and show how such portfolios can be used for constructing growth-optimal investment strategies. The analysis is based on the classical von Neumann-Gale model of economic dynamics, a stochastic version of which we use as a framework for the modelling of financial markets with frictions.

Bahsoun, Wael; Taksar, Michael I

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

CAES Updated Cost Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems (CAES) for bulk energy storage applications have been receiving renewed interest. Increased penetration of large quantities of intermittent wind generation are requiring utilities to re-examine the cost and value of CAES systems. New second generation CAES cycles have been identified which offer the potential for lower capital and operating costs. This project was undertaken to update and summarize the capital and operating costs and performance features of second ge...

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

426

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Appendix J. Models Used To Generate  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

J. Models Used To Generate the IEO2008 Projections J. Models Used To Generate the IEO2008 Projections International Energy Outlook 2008 Appendix J. Models Used To Generate the IEO2008 Projections World Energy Projections Plus (WEPS+) The IEO2008 projections of world energy consumption and supply were generated from EIA’s World Energy Projections Plus (WEPS+) model. WEPS+ is a system of sectoral energy models that provide a loosely linked, integrated equilibrium modeling system. It is used primarily to provide alternative energy projections based on different assumptions for GDP growth and fossil fuel prices. The WEPS+ common platform allows the models to communicate with each other and provides a comprehensive, central series of output reports for analysis. For IEO2008, WEPS+ incorporates a separate transportation sector model with an extensive level of detail for modes and vehicle types. WEPS+ also incorporates some additional detail on industrial energy use in China and India, additional detail on end-use electricity consumption, and an interface to the System for the Analysis of Global Energy Markets/Global Electricity Module (see below) for generation, capacity, and fuel consumption in the electricity sector.

427

Modeling the Performance, Emissions, and Costs of Texaco Gasifier-Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are an advanced power generation concept with the flexibility to use coal, heavy oils, petroleum coke, biomass, and waste (more)

Akunuri, Naveen

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Gas generation and bubble formation model for crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange columns  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed a transient model to describe the process of gas generation due to radiolysis and bubble formation in crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange (IX) columns using the Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) software package. The model calculates gas concentrations and onset of bubble formation for large CST IX columns. The calculations include cesium loading as a function of time, gas generation as a function of cesium loading, and bubble formation as a function of gas solubility. This report summarizes the model development and predictions.

Hang, T.

2000-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

429

Combination, a model vehicle engine and a direct-current generator  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an engine for a model vehicle and a direct-current generator, comprising: an internal-combustion engine; and a direct-current generator operatively coupled to the engine; wherein the generator comprises an armature, and a drive coupling member drivingly engaged with the armature; the armature has three poles; each of the poles has not less than six hundred turns of magnetic wire; the engine having first means comprising a crankshaft, and second means comprising a connecting rod; and one of the first a second means has means for drivingly engaging the drive coupling for imparting rotation to the generator from the engine.

Williams, G.A.

1987-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

430

Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies  

SciTech Connect

Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport.

Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Hybrid Powertrain Optimization for Plug-In Microgrid Power Generation Automated Modeling Laboratory Slide 1 of 28  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hybrid Powertrain Optimization for Plug-In Microgrid Power Generation Automated Modeling LaboratoryPlug--InIn MicrogridMicrogrid Power GenerationPower Generation Scott J. MouraScott J. Moura DongsukDongsuk KumKum Hosam Powertrain Optimization for Plug-In Microgrid Power Generation Automated Modeling Laboratory Slide 2 of 28

Krstic, Miroslav

432

Neural Network Based Modeling of a Large Steam Turbine-Generator Rotor Body Parameters from On-Line Disturbance Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neural Network Based Modeling of a Large Steam Turbine-Generator Rotor Body Parameters from On technique to estimate and model rotor- body parameters of a large steam turbine-generator from real time

433

Modeling the Performance, Emissions, and Cost of an Entrained-Flow Gasification Combined Cycle System Using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 1990 Table 1. Characteristics of the Coal Assumed for IGCC System Studies Proximate Analysis Wt-%, run-of-mine for the conversion of a variety of feedstocks, including coal, heavy residue oil, biomass, solid waste, and others is presented to illustrate the typical performance, emissions, and cost of a coal- based system

Frey, H. Christopher

434

www.cepe.ethz.ch A Real Options Evaluation Model for the Diffusion Prospects of New Renewable Power Generation Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

www.cepe.ethz.ch A real options evaluation model for the diffusion prospects of new renewable power generation technologies

Grkan Kumbaroglu; Reinhard Madlener; Mustafa Demirel; Grkan Kumbaroglu; Reinhard Madlener; Mustafa Demirel

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Automatic generation of CSP || B skeletons from xUML models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Automatic generation of CSP || B skeletons from xUML models Edward Turner, Helen Treharne, Steve. CSP B is a formal approach to specification that combines CSP and B. In this paper we present our tool that automatically trans- lates a subset of executable UML (xUML) models into CSP B, for the purpose of verification

Doran, Simon J.

436

Expanding the Model-Tracing Architecture: A 3rd Generation Intelligent Tutor for Algebra Symbolization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following Computer Aided Instruction systems, 2nd generation tutors are Model-Tracing Tutors (MTTs) (Anderson & Pelletier, 1991) which are intelligent tutoring systems that have been very successful at aiding student learning, but have not reached the ... Keywords: Intelligent tutoring systems, algebra, model-tracing, student learning, teaching strategies

Neil T. Heffernan; Kenneth R. Koedinger; Leena Razzaq

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

A next-generation modeling capability assesses wind turbine array fluid dynamics and aeroelastic simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A next-generation modeling capability assesses wind turbine array fluid dynamics and aeroelastic conditions with turbine models covering the range of scales important for wind plant dynamics to help address the impacts that upwind turbines have on turbines in their wake and give greater insight into overall wind

438

A Simplified Quasi-Linear Model for Wave Generation and AirSea Momentum Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simplified model is described for wave generation and airsea momentum flux. The model is based upon the quasilinear theory employed by Fabrikant and Janssen, in which the mean flow is approximated to second order in the wave amplitude and ...

Alastair D. Jenkins

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

An emission time series generator for pollutant release modelling in urban areas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic priority pollutant (PP) fate models are being developed to assess appropriate strategies for limiting the release of PPs from urban sources and for treating PPs on a variety of spatial scales. Different possible sources of PP releases were mapped ... Keywords: Emission pattern, Generator, Priority pollutants, Release dynamics, Sewer catchment model, Time series

W. De Keyser; V. Gevaert; F. Verdonck; B. De Baets; L. Benedetti

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

Weng, Yu-Chi, E-mail: clyde.weng@gmail.com [Solid Waste Management Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Fujiwara, Takeshi [Solid Waste Management Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generation cost model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A Comparison of Forecast Error Generators for Modeling Wind and Load Uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents four algorithms to generate random forecast error time series, including a truncated-normal distribution model, a state-space based Markov model, a seasonal autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model, and a stochastic-optimization based model. The error time series are used to create real-time (RT), hour-ahead (HA), and day-ahead (DA) wind and load forecast time series that statistically match historically observed forecasting data sets, used for variable generation integration studies. A comparison is made using historical DA load forecast and actual load values to generate new sets of DA forecasts with similar stoical forecast error characteristics. This paper discusses and compares the capabilities of each algorithm to preserve the characteristics of the historical forecast data sets.

Lu, Ning; Diao, Ruisheng; Hafen, Ryan P.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

442

Modeling the Impacts of Electricity Tarrifs on PHEV Charging, Costs, and Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

R&M Project 2A: R&M Project 2A: Evaluating the Effects of Managing Controllable Demand and Distributed Energy Resources Locally on System Performance and Costs Tim Mount, Eilyan Bitar and Ray Zimmerman Cornell University Alberto Lamadrid Lehigh University CERTS Review, Cornell, August 6 th - 7 th , 2013 An NSF I/UCRC PART I: Storage (Mount) PART II: Ramping* (Lamadrid) PART III: Robust Optimization* (Bitar) *(Note: This is a new part of the project that began on 3/30/13) 2 OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION An NSF I/UCRC PART I: Storage Wooyoung Jeon Hao Lu Jung Youn Mo 3 An NSF I/UCRC Context of the Research: An Integrated Multi-Scale Framework 4 SuperOPF  Costs PEV charger capacities  Commuting Patterns  Nodal Capabilities

443

Modelling Dynamic Constraints in Electricity Markets and the Costs of Uncertain Wind Output  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III that we sub- sume supply technologies in different groups. To be more precise, we distinguish 16 supply technology groups (nuclear, three lignite, four hard coal, two combined cycle gas turbine, three open cycle gas turbine, two oil... shifts between periods. Finally, higher variable costs, incurred if power stations are operated below their optimal rating, are allocated to the locally lowest de- mand. For inflexible power stations like nuclear, combined cycle gas turbines or coal...

Musgens, Felix; Neuhoff, Karsten

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

444

SMES benefit analysis using a product cost model for Puget Sound applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology that is expected to provide a means of storing electrical energy for use during peak demand periods. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has estimated benefits and costs associated with the use of SMES technology and has provided insight into the overall future potential of SMES in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and on systems that connect and exchange power with BPA.

Dagle, J.E.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Calculating Wind Integration Costs: Separating Wind Energy Value from Integration Cost Impacts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accurately calculating integration costs is important so that wind generation can be fairly compared with alternative generation technologies.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

curve for wind energy: energy costs including connection toavailable to transport wind energy, the cost of feeder linescapital and financing costs of wind and conventional energy

Hand, Maureen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Cost Benefit Analysis Modeling Tool for Electric vs. ICE Airport Ground Support Equipment Development and Results  

SciTech Connect

This report documents efforts to develop a computer tool for modeling the economic payback for comparative airport ground support equipment (GSE) that are propelled by either electric motors or gasoline and diesel engines. The types of GSE modeled are pushback tractors, baggage tractors, and belt loaders. The GSE modeling tool includes an emissions module that estimates the amount of tailpipe emissions saved by replacing internal combustion engine GSE with electric GSE. This report contains modeling assumptions, methodology, a users manual, and modeling results. The model was developed based on the operations of two airlines at four United States airports.

James Francfort; Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Modeling of a second-generation solar-driven Rankine air conditioner. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ten configurations of a second-generation (2G), solar-powered, Rankine-driven air conditioner were simulated and the data presented for use in companion studies. The results of the analysis show that the boiling-in-collector (BIC) configuration generates more power per collector area than the other configurations. The models used to simulate the configuration are presented in this report. The generated data are also presented. Experimental work was done under this study to both improve a novel refrigerant and oil lubrication system for the centrifugal compressor and investigate the aerodynamic unloading characteristics of the centrifugal compressor. The information generated was used to define possible turbo-gearbox configurations for use in the second generation computer simulation.

Denius, M.W.; Batton, W.D.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

EIA - Distributed Generation in Buildings  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Previous reports Previous reports Distributed Generation in Buildings - AEO2005 Modeling Distributed Electricity Generation in the NEMS Buildings Models - July 2002 Modeling Distributed Generation in the Buildings Sectors Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 - Release date: August 29, 2013 Distributed and dispersed generation technologies generate electricity near the particular load they are intended to serve, such as a residential home or commercial building. EIA defines distributed generation (DG) as being connected to the electrical grid and intended to directly offset retail sales, and dispersed generation as being off-grid and often used for remote applications where grid-connected electricity is cost-prohibitive. Dispersed generation in the buildings sector is not currently gathered by

450

A model for estimation of potential generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Literature of WEEE generation in developing countries is reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyse existing estimates of WEEE generation for Brazil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a model for WEEE generation estimate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WEEE generation of 3.77 kg/capita year for 2008 is estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of constant lifetime should be avoided for non-mature market products. - Abstract: Sales of electrical and electronic equipment are increasing dramatically in developing countries. Usually, there are no reliable data about quantities of the waste generated. A new law for solid waste management was enacted in Brazil in 2010, and the infrastructure to treat this waste must be planned, considering the volumes of the different types of electrical and electronic equipment generated. This paper reviews the literature regarding estimation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), focusing on developing countries, particularly in Latin America. It briefly describes the current WEEE system in Brazil and presents an updated estimate of generation of WEEE. Considering the limited available data in Brazil, a model for WEEE generation estimation is proposed in which different methods are used for mature and non-mature market products. The results showed that the most important variable is the equipment lifetime, which requires a thorough understanding of consumer behavior to estimate. Since Brazil is a rapidly expanding market, the 'boom' in waste generation is still to come. In the near future, better data will provide more reliable estimation of waste generation and a clearer interpretation of the lifetime variable throughout the years.

Araujo, Marcelo Guimaraes, E-mail: marcel_g@uol.com.br [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Energy Planning Department (Brazil); Magrini, Alessandra [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Energy Planning Department (Brazil); Mahler, Claudio Fernando [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, GETRES (Brazil); Bilitewski, Bernd [Technical University of Dresden, Institute of Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment (IAA) (Germany)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

A Comparison of Forecast Error Generators for Modeling Wind and Load Uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents four algorithms to generate random forecast error time series. The performance of four algorithms is compared. The error time series are used to create real-time (RT), hour-ahead (HA), and day-ahead (DA) wind and load forecast time series that statistically match historically observed forecasting data sets used in power grid operation to study the net load balancing need in variable generation integration studies. The four algorithms are truncated-normal distribution models, state-space based Markov models, seasonal autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models, and a stochastic-optimization based approach. The comparison is made using historical DA load forecast and actual load values to generate new sets of DA forecasts with similar stoical forecast error characteristics (i.e., mean, standard deviation, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation). The results show that all methods generate satisfactory results. One method may preserve one or two required statistical characteristics better the other methods, but may not preserve other statistical characteristics as well compared with the other methods. Because the wind and load forecast error generators are used in wind integration studies to produce wind and load forecasts time series for stochastic planning processes, it is sometimes critical to use multiple methods to generate the error time series to obtain a statistically robust result. Therefore, this paper discusses and compares the capabilities of each algorithm to preserve the characteristics of the historical forecast data sets.

Lu, Ning; Diao, Ruisheng; Hafen, Ryan P.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.

2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

452

Modelling, simulation and analysis of low-cost direct torque control of PMSM using hall-effect sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on the development of a novel Direct Torque Control (DTC) scheme for permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors (surface and interior types) in the constant torque region with the help of cost-effective hall-effect sensors. This method requires no DC-link sensing, which is a mandatory matter in the conventional DTC drives, therefore it reduces the cost of a conventional DTC of a permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motor and also removes common problems including; resistance change effect, low speed and integration drift. Conventional DTC drives require at least one DC-link voltage sensor (or two on the motor terminals) and two current sensors because of the necessary estimation of position, speed, torque, and stator flux in the stationary reference frame. Unlike the conventional DTC drive, the proposed method uses the rotor reference frame because the rotor position is provided by the three hall-effect sensors and does not require expensive voltage sensors. Moreover, the proposed algorithm takes the acceleration and deceleration of the motor and torque disturbances into account to improve the speed and torque responses. The basic theory of operation for the proposed topology is presented. A mathematical model for the proposed DTC of the PMSM topology is developed. A simulation program written in MATLAB/SIMULINK?® is used to verify the basic operation (performance) of the proposed topology. The mathematical model is capable of simulating the steady-state, as well as dynamic response even under heavy load conditions (e.g. transient load torque at ramp up). It is believed that the proposed system offers a reliable and low-cost solution for the emerging market of DTC for PMSM drives. Finally the proposed drive, considering the constant torque region operation, is applied to the agitation part of a laundry washing machine (operating in constant torque region) for speed performance comparison with the current low-cost agitation cycle speed control technique used by washing machine companies around the world.

Ozturk, Salih Baris

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Evaluation of the DRI quarterly macroeconomic model's response to energy and environmental cost shocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the 1970's two major energy price shocks occurred. Each was accompanied by cost shocks for industrial environmental control technology and reductions in the rate of growth of the money supply. Each was followed by a recession. A third energy-price shock and contractions of monetary growth occurred when President Reagan took office. The present recession followed. The DRI macromodel was used to evaluate the impacts of various impacts of various environmental regulations over the 1982 to 1987 period, under different assumptions about energy-price shocks and money-supply growth. The simulation results are critically evaluated in light of the historical evidence of the 1970's.

Dossani, N.G.; Santini, D.J.

1983-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

454

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Appendix J. Models Used To Generate  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

J. Models Used To Generate the IEO2009 Projections J. Models Used To Generate the IEO2009 Projections International Energy Outlook 2009 Appendix J. Models Used To Generate the IEO2009 Projections The IEO2009 projections of world energy consumption and supply were generated from EIA’s World Energy Projections Plus (WEPS+) model. WEPS+ consists of a system of individual sectoral energy models, using an integrated iterative solution process that allows for convergence of consumption and prices to an equilibrium solution. It is used primarily to provide alternative energy projections based on different assumptions for GDP growth and fossil fuel prices and can also be used to perform other analyses. WEPS+ produces projections for 16 regions or countries of the world, including North America (United States, Canada, and Mexico), OECD Europe, OECD Asia (Japan, South Korea, and Australia/New Zealand), Russia, other non-OECD Europe and Eurasia, China, India, other non-OECD Asia, Brazil, and other Central and South America. Currently, the projections extend to 2030.

455

A Statistical Model for Generating a Population of Unclassified Objects and Radiation Signatures Spanning Nuclear Threats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes an approach for generating a simulated population of plausible nuclear threat radiation signatures spanning a range of variability that could be encountered by radiation detection systems. In this approach, we develop a statistical model for generating random instances of smuggled nuclear material. The model is based on physics principles and bounding cases rather than on intelligence information or actual threat device designs. For this initial stage of work, we focus on random models using fissile material and do not address scenarios using non-fissile materials. The model has several uses. It may be used as a component in a radiation detection system performance simulation to generate threat samples for injection studies. It may also be used to generate a threat population to be used for training classification algorithms. In addition, we intend to use this model to generate an unclassified 'benchmark' threat population that can be openly shared with other organizations, including vendors, for use in radiation detection systems performance studies and algorithm development and evaluation activities. We assume that a quantity of fissile material is being smuggled into the country for final assembly and that shielding may have been placed around the fissile material. In terms of radiation signature, a nuclear weapon is basically a quantity of fissile material surrounded by various layers of shielding. Thus, our model of smuggled material is expected to span the space of potential nuclear weapon signatures as well. For computational efficiency, we use a generic 1-dimensional spherical model consisting of a fissile material core surrounded by various layers of shielding. The shielding layers and their configuration are defined such that the model can represent the potential range of attenuation and scattering that might occur. The materials in each layer and the associated parameters are selected from probability distributions that span the range of possibilities. Once an object is generated, its radiation signature is calculated using a 1-dimensional deterministic transport code. Objects that do not make sense based on physics principles or other constraints are rejected. Thus, the model can be used to generate a population of spectral signatures that spans a large space, including smuggled nuclear material and nuclear weapons.

Nelson, K; Sokkappa, P

2008-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

456

ERCOT's Dynamic Model of Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

By the end of 2003, the total installed wind farm capacity in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system was approximately 1 gigawatt (GW) and the total in the United States was about 5 GW. As the number of wind turbines installed throughout the United States increases, there is a greater need for dynamic wind turbine generator models that can properly model entire power systems for different types of analysis. This paper describes the ERCOT dynamic models and simulations of a simple network with different types of wind turbine models currently available.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Conto, J.; Donoho, K.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z