Sample records for generation cesium solvent

  1. RESULTS OF CESIUM MASS TRANSFER TESTING FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT WITH HANFORD WASTE SIMULANT AP-101

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    SRNL has performed an Extraction, Scrub, Strip (ESS) test using the next generation solvent and AP-101 Hanford Waste simulant. The results indicate that the next generation solvent (MG solvent) has adequate extraction behavior even in the face of a massive excess of potassium. The stripping results indicate poorer behavior, but this may be due to inadequate method detection limits. SRNL recommends further testing using hot tank waste or spiked simulant to provide for better detection limits. Furthermore, strong consideration should be given to performing an actual waste, or spiked waste demonstration using the 2cm contactor bank. The Savannah River Site currently utilizes a solvent extraction technology to selectively remove cesium from tank waste at the Multi-Component Solvent Extraction unit (MCU). This solvent consists of four components: the extractant - BoBCalixC6, a modifier - Cs-7B, a suppressor - trioctylamine, and a diluent, Isopar L{trademark}. This solvent has been used to successfully decontaminate over 2 million gallons of tank waste. However, recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a basis to implement an improved solvent blend. This new solvent blend - referred to as Next Generation Solvent (NGS) - is similar to the current solvent, and also contains four components: the extractant - MAXCalix, a modifier - Cs-7B, a suppressor - LIX-79{trademark} guanidine, and a diluent, Isopar L{trademark}. Testing to date has shown that this 'Next Generation' solvent promises to provide far superior cesium removal efficiencies, and furthermore, is theorized to perform adequately even in waste with high potassium concentrations such that it could be used for processing Hanford wastes. SRNL has performed a cesium mass transfer test in to confirm this behavior, using a simulant designed to simulate Hanford AP-101 waste.

  2. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  3. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  4. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  5. RESULTS OF ANALYSES OF THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR PARSONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared a nominal 150 gallon batch of Next Generation Solvent (NGS) for Parsons. This material was then analyzed and tested for cesium mass transfer efficiency. The bulk of the results indicate that the solvent is qualified as acceptable for use in the upcoming pilot-scale testing at Parsons Technology Center. This report describes the analysis and testing of a batch of Next Generation Solvent (NGS) prepared in support of pilot-scale testing in the Parsons Technology Center. A total of {approx}150 gallons of NGS solvent was prepared in late November of 2011. Details for the work are contained in a controlled laboratory notebook. Analysis of the Parsons NGS solvent indicates that the material is acceptable for use. SRNL is continuing to improve the analytical method for the guanidine.

  6. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  7. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  8. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF A CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM TO REMOVE CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Earl Brass, E; Stanley Brown, S; Mark Geeting, M; Lcurtis Johnson, L; Charles02 Coleman, C; S Crump, S; Mark Barnes, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel have completed construction and assembly of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) facility. Following assembly, they conducted testing to evaluate the ability of the process to remove non-radioactive cesium and to separate the aqueous and organic phases. They conducted tests at salt solution flow rates of 3.5, 6.0, and 8.5 gpm. During testing, the MCU Facility collected samples and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel for analysis of cesium, Isopar{reg_sign} L, and Modifier [1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol]. SRNL personnel analyzed the aqueous samples for cesium by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and the solvent samples for cesium using a Parr Bomb Digestion followed by ICP-MS. They analyzed aqueous samples for Isopar{reg_sign} L and Modifier by gas chromatography (GC).

  9. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign}, Tefzel{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign}) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of the guanidine suppressor and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that guanidine (LIX{reg_sign}79) selectively affected Tefzel{reg_sign} (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel{reg_sign} and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of guanidine. Tefzel{reg_sign} is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to guanidine, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel{reg_sign}) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel{reg_sign} in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel{reg_sign} seating material. PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign} were not affected by guanidine and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and limited uptake of Isopar{reg_sign} L/Modifier by the polymers probably due to the polymers porosity and rough surfaces. Spectroscopic data on the organic liquid and the polymer surfaces showed no preferential adsorption of any component in the NGS to the polymers and no leachate was observed in the NGS from any of the polymers studied.

  10. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

  11. Solvent Blending Strategy to Upgrade MCU CSSX Solvent to Equivalent Next-Generation CSSX Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the present study have validated an equal-volume blending strategy for upgrading freshly prepared CSSX solvent to a blended solvent functionally equivalent to NG-CSSX solvent. It is shown that blending fresh CSSX solvent as currently used in MCU with an equal volume of an NG-CSSX solvent concentrate of appropriate composition yields a blended solvent composition (46.5 mM of MaxCalix, 3.5 mM of BOBCalixC6, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, 3 mM of guanidine suppressor, and 1.5 mM of TOA in Isopar L) that exhibits equivalent batch ESS performance to that of the NG-CSSX solvent containing 50 mM of MaxCalix, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, and 3 mM of guanidine suppressor in Isopar L. The solvent blend composition is robust to third-phase formation. Results also show that a blend containing up to 60% v/v of CSSX solvent could be accommodated with minimal risk. Extraction and density data for the effect of solvent concentration mimicking diluent evaporation or over-dilution of the equal-volume blended solvent are also given, providing input for setting operational limits. Given that the experiments employed all pristine chemicals, the results do not qualify a blended solvent starting with actual used MCU solvent, which can be expected to have undergone some degree of degradation. Consequently, further work should be considered to evaluate this risk and implement appropriate remediation if needed.

  12. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and limited uptake of Isopar{reg_sign} L/Modifier by the polymers probably due to the polymers porosity and rough surfaces. Spectroscopic data on the organic liquid and the polymer surfaces showed no preferential adsorption of any component in the NGS to the polymers and with the exception of CPVC, no leachate was observed in the NGS from any of the polymers studied. The testing shows no major concerns for compatibility over the short duration of these tests but does indicate that longer duration exposure studies are warranted, especially for Tefzel. However, the physical changes experienced by Tefzel in the improved solvent were comparable to the physical changes obtained when Tefzel is placed in CSSX baseline solvent. Therefore, there is no effect of the improved solvent beyond those observed in CSSX baseline solvent.

  13. Impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF CPC processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J. D.

    2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic-side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and new strip acid will be deployed. Processing will begin with a blend of the current solvent and the NGS. Compositional changes in the NGS solvent and blending with the current solvent require review of previously performed work to determine if additional experimental work is required to address any impacts to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The composition change involved the substitution of the N,N’-dicyclohexyl-N”-isotridecylguanidine LIX® 79 guanidine suppressor with N,N’,N”-tris (3,7-dimethyloctyl) guanidine (TiDG) guanidine suppressor. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by DWPF to evaluate any impacts to offgas generation, solvent buildup or carryover, chemical, thermal, and radiolytic stability of the blended and pure TiDG based NGS. Previous work has been performed by SRNL to evaluate impacts to CPC processing using the next generation solvent containing LIX® 79 suppressor with boric acid strip effluent. Based on previous experimental work and current literature, the following conclusions are made for processing in the CPC: No mechanism for a change in the catalytic hydrogen evolution in the CPC was identified for the NGS TiDG based solvent; The transition from the LIX® 79 based suppressor to the TiDG based suppressor is not expected to have any impact on solvent or Isopar® L accumulation; Transitioning from the current solvent to the TiDG based NGS is not expected to have an impact on solvent carryover or partitioning; No changes to the chemical stability of the solvent in the CPC process are expected; No changes to the thermal stability of the solvent in the CPC process are expected; A “worst case” scenario was examined in which all of the hydrogen atoms from the TiDG based NGS and blended solvent form hydrogen gas in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) as a result of radiolytic degradation. This represented a ~4% increase in the volume percent hydrogen in the SRAT. Given the chemical similarity and very low concentrations of the suppressor, it is not recommended that additional experimental work be performed to qualify any impacts to the DWPF CPC from the change in suppressor or the revised value for partitioning of the suppressor into the strip effluent.

  14. Miscibility Evaluation Of The Next Generation Solvent With Polymers Currently Used At DWPF, MCU, And Saltstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.

    2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, funded the development of an enhanced Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. This effort lead to the development of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) with Tris (3,7-dimethyl octyl) guanidine (TiDG). The first deployment target for the NGS solvent is within the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the new chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the affected facility. This report provides the calculated data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers known to be used or present in the MCU, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Saltstone facilities that will be exposed to the NGS showed that TiDG could selectively affect the elastomers and some thermoplastics to varying extents, but the typical use of these polymers in a confined geometry will likely prevent the NGS from impacting component performance. The polymers identified as of primary concern include Grafoil® (flexible graphite), Tefzel®, Isolast®, ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and fluorocarbon rubber (FKM). Certain polymers like NBR and EPDM were found to interact mildly with NGS but their calculated swelling and the confined geometry will impede interaction with NGS. In addition, it was found that Vellumoid (cellulose fibers-reinforced glycerin and protein) may leach protein and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) may leach plasticizer (such as Bis-Ethylhexyl-Phthalates) into the NGS solvent. Either case will not impact decontamination or immobilization operations at Savannah River Site (SRS). Some applications have zero tolerance for dimensional changes such as the operation of valves while other applications a finite dimensional change improves the function of the application such as seals and gaskets. Additional considerations are required before using the conclusions from this work to judge outcomes in field applications. Decane, a component of Isopar?L that is most likely to interact with the polymers, mildly interacted with the elastomers and the propylene based polymers but their degree of swelling is at most 10% and the confined geometry that they are typically placed in indicate this is not significant. In addition, it was found that Vellumoid may leach protein into the NGS solvent. Since Vellumoid is used at the mixer in Saltstone where it sees minimum quantities of solvent, this leaching has no effect on the extraction process at MCU or the immobilization process at saltstone. No significant interaction is expected between MaxCalix and the polymers and elastomers used at MCU, DWPF, and Saltstone. Overall, minimal and insignificant interactions are expected on extraction and immobilization operations when MCU switches from CSSX to NGS solvent. It is expected that contacting NGS will not accelerate the aging rate of polymers and elastomers under radiation and heat. This is due to the minimal interaction between NGS and the polymers and the confined geometries for these polymers. SRNL recommends the use of the HSP method (for screening) and some testing to evaluate the impact of other organic such as alcohols, glycolate, and their byproducts on the polymers used throughout the site.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF PLUTONIUM AND URANIUM UPTAKE INTO MCU SOLVENT AND NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) customer, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) examined the plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) uptake into the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) that will be used at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). SRNL examined archived samples of solvent used in Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests, as well as samples from new tests designed explicitly to examine the Pu and U uptake. Direct radiocounting for Pu and U provided the best results. Using the radiocounting results, we found that in all cases there were <3.41E-12 g Pu/g of NGS and <1.17E-05 g U/g of NGS in multiple samples, even after extended contact times and high aqueous:organic volume phase ratios. These values are conservative as they do not allow for release or removal of the actinides by scrub, strip, or solvent wash processes. The values do not account for extended use or any increase that may occur due to radiolytic damage of the solvent.

  16. Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitsev, Boris N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M. (St. Petersburg, RU); Lazarev, Leonard N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Dzekun, Evgeniy G. (Ozersk, RU); Romanovskiy, Valeriy N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIGUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Pak, D.; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.; Caldwell, T.

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive is used to improve stripping performance and to mitigate the effects of any surfactants present in the feed stream. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008.

  18. Mass Transfer And Hydraulic Testing Of The V-05 And V-10 Contactors With The Next Generation Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D. T.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Peters, T. B.; Poirier, M. R.; Fondeur, F. F.

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facilities, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing differs from prior testing by utilizing a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the full (0.05 M) concentration of the MaxCalix as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. Stage efficiency and mass distribution ratios were determined by measuring Cs concentration in the aqueous and organic phases during single contactor testing. The nominal cesium distribution ratio, D(Cs) measured for extraction ranged from 37-60. The data showed greater than 96% stage efficiency for extraction. No significant differences were noted for operations at 4, 8 or 12 gpm aqueous salt simulant feed flow rates. The first scrub test (contact with weak caustic solution) yielded average scrub D(Cs) values of 3.3 to 5.2 and the second scrub test produced an average value of 1.8 to 2.3. For stripping behavior, the “first stage” D Cs) values ranged from 0.04 to 0.08. The efficiency of the low flow (0.27 gpm aqueous) was calculated to be 82.7%. The Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) predicted equivalent DF for MCU from this testing is greater than 3,500 assuming 95% efficiency during extraction and 80% efficiency during scrub and strip. Hydraulically, the system performed very well in all tests. Target flows were easily obtained and stable throughout testing. Though some issues were encountered with plugging in the coalescer, they were not related to the solvent. No hydraulic upsets due to the solvent were experienced during any of the tests conducted. The first extraction coalescer element used in testing developed high pressure drop that made it difficult to maintain the target flow rates. Analysis showed an accumulation of sodium aluminosilicate solids. The coalescer was replaced with one from the same manufacturer’s lot and pressure drop was no longer an issue. Concentrations of Isopar™ L and Modifier were measured using semi-volatile organic analysis (SVOA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the amount of solvent carryover. For low-flow (0.27 gpm aqueous) conditions in stripping, SVOA measured the Isopar™ L post-contactor concentration to be 25 mg/L, HPLC measured 39 mg/L of Modifier. For moderate-flow (0.54 gpm aqueous) conditions, SVOA measured the Isopar™ L postcontactor to be ~69 mg/L, while the HPLC measured 56 mg/L for Modifier. For high-flow (0.8 gpm aqueous) conditions, SVOA measured the Isopar™ L post-contactor to be 39 mg/L. The post-coalescer (pre-decanter) measurements by SVOA for Isopar™ L were all less than the analysis detection limit of 10 mg/L. The HPLC measured 18, 22 and 20 mg/L Modifier for the low, medium, and high-low rates respectively. In extraction, the quantity of pre-coalescer Isopar™ L carryover measured by SVOA was ~280-410 mg/L at low flow (4 gpm aqueous), ~400-450 mg/L at moderate flow (8 gpm aqueous), and ~480 mg/L at high flow (12 gpm aqueous). The amount of post coalescer (pre-decanter) Isopar™ L carryover measured by SVOA was less than 45 mg/L for all flow rates. HPLC results for Modifier were 182, 217 and 22

  19. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF NGS CONCENTRATE DRUM SAMPLES [Next Generation Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Williams, M.

    2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared two drums (50 gallons each in ?Drum#2? and ?Drum#4?) of NGS-MCU (Next Generation Solvent-Modular CSSX Unit) concentrate for future use at MCU in downblending the BOBCalixC6 based solvent to produce NGS-MCU solvent. Samples of each drum were sent for analysis. The results of all the analyses indicate that the blend concentrate is of the correct composition and should produce a blended solvent at MCU of the desired formulation.

  20. Recovery of cesium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Izatt, Reed M. (Provo, UT); Christensen, James J. (Provo, UT); Hawkins, Richard T. (Orem, UT)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of recovering cesium ions from mixtures of ions containing them and other ions, e.g., a solution of nuclear waste materials, which comprises establishing a separate source phase containing such a mixture of ions, establishing a separate recipient phase, establishing a liquid membrane phase in interfacial contact with said source and recipient phases, said membrane phase containing a ligand, preferably a selected calixarene as depicted in the drawing, maintaining said interfacial contact for a period of time long enough to transport by said ligand a substantial portion of the cesium ion from the source phase to the recipient phase, and recovering the cesium ion from the recipient phase. The separation of the source and recipient phases may be by the membrane phase only, e.g., where these aqueous phases are emulsified as dispersed phases in a continuous membrane phase, or may include a physical barrier as well, e.g., an open-top outer container with an inner open-ended container of smaller cross-section mounted in the outer container with its open bottom end spaced from and above the closed bottom of the outer container so that the membrane phase may fill the outer container to a level above the bottom of the inner container and have floating on its upper surface a source phase and a recipient phase separated by the wall of the inner container as a physical barrier. A preferred solvent for the ligand is a mixture of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride.

  1. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT PROGRAM REAL WASTE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.

    2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  2. Sample Results From The Next Generation Solvent Program Real Waste Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  3. Waste and Solvent Composition Limits for Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, Kofi; Waler, Douglas D.; Edwards, Thomas B

    2005-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examined waste feed and solvent limits for the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) currently being designed and built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove cesium from highly alkaline radioactive waste. The study involved proposing ranges for 12 waste feed components (i.e., Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, OH{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and AlO{sub 2}{sup -}) through a compilation of SRS waste data. Statistical design methods were used to generate numerous wastes with varying compositions from the proposed ranges. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) model called SXFIT was used to predict the cesium extraction distribution coefficients (D-values) between the organic (solvent) phase and the aqueous waste phase using the waste component concentrations as inputs. The D-values from the SXFIT model were used as input along with MCU base case process parameters to a SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) model to calculate final cesium concentrations for the MCU. The SASSE model was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The SXFIT D-value and the waste component concentration data were used to develop a handier alternative model (neural network model) to the SXFIT model that predicts D-values within 15% of the SXFIT D-values. Both the SXFIT and the neural network model revealed the following. The solvent extractant concentration ratios are approximately equal to the corresponding D-value ratios; a useful feature that could be used to predict extraction D-values when the extractant concentration in the solvent changes in the MCU operation. Also, potassium is the only waste component out of the 12 that shows a distinct relationship with the cesium extraction D-values; an indication of potassium's competition with cesium in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. A waste feed acceptance model suitable for assessing wastes within relatively wide ranges of D-values (0.6-40) and initial cesium-137 concentrations (0.2-12.8 Ci/gal) has been developed from the SASSE outputs. The waste feed acceptance model is an equation involving initial cesium-137 concentration and D-value that results in a final cesium-137 concentration of 0.1 Ci/gal, the target concentration for the MCU. For example, the waste feed acceptance model shows the minimum acceptable extraction D-value based on MCU base conditions is 5.73. The waste feed acceptance model is defined by a simple linear relationship for extraction D-values {ge} 7. This facilitates quicker calculations. For a given extraction D-value, final cesium-137 concentration (C{sub f}) and initial cesium-137 concentration (C{sub 0}) are linearly related; while for a given C{sub 0}, log (C{sub f}) and log (extraction D-value) are linear with a slope of -1.43. These two relationships allow one to quickly calculate C{sub f} at other MCU conditions without resorting to the SASSE model. The SASSE runs indicate that broad changes in the MCU process parameters for the extraction, scrub and strip stages (i.e., flow rate, temperature, fraction of interstage carryover, total liquid volume per contactor stage, and efficiency per contactor stage) will not result in C{sub f} exceeding target, at least for the MCU base conditions.

  4. V5 AND V10 CONTACTOR TESTING WITH THE NEXT GENERATION (CSSX) SOLVENT FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Restivo, M.; Peters, T.; Pierce, R.; Fondeur, F.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Giddings, B.; Hickman, B.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium (Cs) from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A Modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive, called a suppressor, is used to improve stripping performance. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008. Subsequent development efforts by ORNL identified an improved solvent system that can raise the expected decontamination factor (DF) in MCU from {approx}200 to more than 40,000. The improved DF is attributed to an improved distribution ratio for cesium [D(Cs)] in extraction from {approx}15 to {approx}60, an increased solubility of the calixarene in the solvent from 0.007 M to >0.050 M, and use of boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) stripping that also yields improved D(Cs) values. Additionally, the changes incorporated into the Next Generation CSSX Solvent (NGS) are intended to reduce solvent entrainment by virtue of more favorable physical properties. The MCU and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) facilities are actively pursuing the changeover from the current CSSX solvent to the NGS solvent. To support this integration of the NGS into the MCU and SWPF facilities, the Savannah River Remediation (SRR)/ARP/MCU Life Extension Project requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform testing of the new solvent for the removal of Cs from the liquid salt waste stream. Additionally, SRNL was tasked with characterizing both strip (20-in long, 10 micron pore size) and extraction (40-in long, 20 micron pore size) coalescers. SRNL designed a pilot-scale experimental program to test the full size strip (V5) and extraction (V10) centrifugal contactors and the associated strip and extraction effluent coalescers to determine the hydraulic and mass transfer characteristics with the NGS. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the carryover phases using several analytical methods. Provisions were also made to enable an evaluation of coalescer performance. Stage efficiency and mass distribution ratios were determined using Cs mass transfer measurements. Using 20 millimolar (mM) extractant (instead of 50 mM), the nominal D(Cs) measured was 16.0-17.5. The data indicate that equilibrium is achieved rapidly and maintained throughout sampling. The data showed good stage efficiency for extraction (Tests 1A-1D), ranging from 98.2% for Test 1A to 90.5% for Test 1D. No statistically-significant differences were noted for operations at 12 gpm aqueous flow when compared with either 4 gpm or 8 gpm of aqueous flow. The stage efficiencies equal or exceed those previously measured using the baseline CSSX solvent system. The nominal target for scrub Cs distribution values are {approx}1.0-2.5. The first scrub test yielded an average scrub value of 1.21 and the second scrub test produced an average value of 0.78. Both values are considered acceptable. Stage efficiency was not calculated for the scrub tests. For stripping behavior, six tests were completed in a manner to represent the first strip stage. For three tests at the baseline flow ratios (O:A of 3.75:1) but at different total flow rates, the D(Cs) values were all similar at {approx}0.052. Similar behavior was observed for two tests performed at an O:A ratio of 7:1 instead of 3.75:1. The data for the baseline strip tests exhibited acceptable stage efficiency, ranging from 82.0% for low flow to 89-90% for medium and high flow. The difference in efficiency may be attributable to the low volume in the contactor housing at lower flow rates. The concentrations of Isopar L{reg_sign} and Modifier were measured using semi-volatile organic analysis (SVOA

  5. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL; Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Ensor, Dale [Tennessee Technological University; Hill, Talon G [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL; Roach, Benjamin D [ORNL; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V [ORNL; Williams, Neil J [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIFUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Caldwell, T.; Pak, D; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.

    2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. Conclusions from this work include the following. The CSSX process is capable of reducing {sup 137}Cs in high level radioactive waste by a factor of more than 40,000 using five extraction, two scrub, and five strip stages. Tests demonstrated extraction and strip section stage efficiencies of greater than 93% for the Tank 49H waste test and greater than 88% for the simulant waste test. During a test with HLW, researchers processed 39 liters of Tank 49H solution and the waste raffinate had an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.78E+04, with a maximum of 1.08E+05. A simulant waste solution ({approx}34.5 liters) with an initial Cs concentration of 83.1 mg/L was processed and had an average DF greater than 5.9E+03, with a maximum DF of greater than 6.6E+03. The difference may be attributable to differences in contactor stage efficiencies. Test results showed the solvent can be stripped of cesium and recycled for {approx}25 solvent turnovers without the occurrence of any measurable solvent degradation or negative effects from minor components. Based on the performance of the 12-stage 2-cm apparatus with the Tank 49H HLW, the projected DF for MCU with seven extraction, two scrub, and seven strip stages operating at a nominal efficiency of 90% is {approx}388,000. At 95% stage efficiency, the DF in MCU would be {approx}3.2 million. Carryover of organic solvent in aqueous streams (and aqueous in organic streams) was less than 0.1% when processing Tank 49H HLW. The entrained solvent concentration measured in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) was as much as {approx}140 mg/L, although that value may be overstated by as much as 50% due to modifier solubility in the DSS. The entrained solvent concentration was measured in the strip effluent (SE) and the results are pending. A steady-state concentration factor (CF) of 15.9 was achieved with Tank 49H HLW. Cesium distribution ratios [D(Cs)] were measured with non-radioactive Tank 49H waste simulant and actual Tank 49H waste. Below is a comparison of D(Cs) values of ESS and 2-cm tests. Batch Extraction-Strip-Scrub (ESS) tests yielded D(Cs) values for extraction of {approx}81-88 for tests with Tank 49H waste and waste simulant. The results from the 2-cm contactor tests were in agreement with values of 58-92 for the Tank 49H HLW test and 54-83 for the simulant waste test. These values are consistent with the reference D(Cs) for extraction of {approx}60. In tests with Tank 49H waste and waste simulant, batch ESS tests measured D(Cs) values for the two scrub stages as {approx}3.5-5.0 for the first scrub stage and {approx}1.0-3.0 for the second scrub stage. In the Tank 49H test, the D(Cs) values for the 2-cm test were far from the ESS values. A D(Cs) value of 161 was measured for the first scrub stage and 10.8 for the second scrub stage. The data suggest that the scrub stage is not operating as effectively as intended. For the simulant test, a D(Cs) value of 1.9 was measured for the first scrub stage; the sample from the second scrub stage was compromised. Measurements of the pH of all stage samples for the Tank 49H test showed that the pH for extraction and scrub stages was 14 and the pH for the strip stages was {approx}7. It is expected that the pH of the second scrub stage would be {approx}12-13. Batch ESS tests measured D(Cs) values for the strip stages to be {approx}0.002-0.010. A high value in Strip No.3 of a test with simulant solution has been attributed to issues associated with the limits of detection for the

  7. Results From The Salt Disposition Project Next Generation Solvent Demonstration Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Fondeur, F. F.; Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L.

    2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples were taken throughout the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Demonstration Plan. These samples were analyzed and the results are reported. SHT: The solvent behaved as expected, with no bulk changes in the composition over time, with the exception of the TOA and TiDG. The TiDG depletion is higher than expected, and consideration must be taken on the required rate of replenishment. Monthly sampling of the SHT is warranted. If possible, additional SHT samples for TiDG analysis (only) would help SRNL refine the TiDG degradation model. CWT: The CWT samples show the expected behavior in terms of bulk chemistry. The 137Cs deposited into the CWT varies somewhat, but generally appears to be lower than during operations with the BOBCalix solvent. While a few minor organic components were noted to be present in the Preliminary sample, at this time these are thought to be artifacts of the sample preparation or may be due to the preceding solvent superwash. DSSHT: The DSSHT samples show the predicted bulk chemistry, although they point towards significant dilution at the front end of the Demonstration. The 137Cs levels in the DSSHT are much lower than during the BOBCalix operations, which is the expected observation. SEHT: The SEHT samples represent the most different output of all four of the outputs from MCU. While the bulk chemistry is as expected, something is causing the pH of the SEHT to be higher than what would be predicted from a pure stream of 0.01 M boric acid. There are several possible different reasons for this, and SRNL is in the process of investigating. Other than the pH issue, the SEHT is as predicted. In summary, the NGS Demonstration Plan samples indicate that the MCU system, with the Blend Solvent, is operating as expected. The only issue of concern regards the pH of the SEHT, and SRNL is in the process of investigating this. SRNL results support the transition to routine operations.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING SUPPRESSOR CONCENTRATION IN THE MCU NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT (NGS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Diprete, D.; Milliken, C.

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with identifying and developing at least one, but preferably two methods for quantifying the suppressor in the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) system. The suppressor is a guanidine derivative, N,N',N"-tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). A list of 10 possible methods was generated, and screening experiments were performed for 8 of the 10 methods. After completion of the screening experiments, the non-aqueous acid-base titration was determined to be the most promising, and was selected for further development as the primary method. {sup 1}H NMR also showed promising results from the screening experiments, and this method was selected for further development as the secondary method. Other methods, including {sup 36}Cl radiocounting and ion chromatography, also showed promise; however, due to the similarity to the primary method (titration) and the inability to differentiate between TiDG and TOA (tri-n-ocytlamine) in the blended solvent, {sup 1}H NMR was selected over these methods. Analysis of radioactive samples obtained from real waste ESS (extraction, scrub, strip) testing using the titration method showed good results. Based on these results, the titration method was selected as the method of choice for TiDG measurement. {sup 1}H NMR has been selected as the secondary (back-up) method, and additional work is planned to further develop this method and to verify the method using radioactive samples. Procedures for analyzing radioactive samples of both pure NGS and blended solvent were developed and issued for the both methods.

  9. DWPF FLOWSHEET STUDIES WITH SIMULANT TO DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT ON THE CPC PROCESS AND GLASS FORMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.; Hay, M.; Stone, M.

    2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS), a new strip acid, and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) will be deployed. The NGS is comprised of four components: 0.050 M MaxCalix (extractant), 0.50 M Cs-7SB (modifier), 0.003 M guanidine-LIX-79, with the balance ({approx}74 wt%) being Isopar{reg_sign} L. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST was required to determine the impact of these changes in 512-S and Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) operations, as well as Chemical Process Cell (CPC), glass formulation activities, and melter operations. Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST is required to determine the impact of these changes. A Technical Task Request (TTR) was issued to support the assessments of the impact of the next generation solvent and mMST on the downstream DWPF flowsheet unit. The TTR identified five tasks to be investigated: (1) CPC Flowsheet Demonstration for NGS; (2) Solvent Stability for DWPF CPC Conditions; (3) Glass Formulation Studies; (4) Boron Volatility and Melt Rate; and (5) CPC Flowsheet Demonstration for mMST.

  10. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under construction, will use the same process chemistry. The Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) expressed an interest in investigating the further optimization of the organic solvent by replacing the BoBCalixC6 extractant with a more efficient extractant. This replacement should yield dividends in improving cesium removal from the caustic waste stream, and in the rate at which the caustic waste can be processed. To that end, EM-31 provided funding for both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SRNL wrote a Task Technical Quality and Assurance Plan for this work. As part of the envisioned testing regime, it was decided to perform an ESS test using a simulated waste that simulated a typical envisioned SWPF feed, but with added potassium to make the waste more challenging. Potassium interferes in the cesium removal, and its concentration is limited in the feed to <1950 mg/L. The feed to MCU has typically contained <500 mg/L of potassium.

  11. Methods of producing cesium-131

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  12. The effects of hazardous waste taxes on generation and disposal of chlorinated solvent waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigman, Hilary

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1989, 30 states levied taxes on e generation or management of hazardous waste. These taxes constitute one of the broadest applications of an emissions tax in U.S. environmental policy and provide a natural experiment ...

  13. Life extension program for the modular caustic side solvent extraction unit at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samadi-Dezfouli, Azadeh

    2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. At SRS, the CSSX process is deployed in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. Coalescers and decanters process the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) and Strip Effluent (SE) streams to allow recovery and reuse of the organic solvent and to limit the quantity of solvent transferred to the downstream facilities. MCU is operated in series with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) which removes strontium and actinides from salt waste utilizing monosodium titanate. ARP and MCU were developed and implemented as interim salt processing until future processing technology, the CSSX-based Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), is operational. SWPF is slated to come on-line in October 2014. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU process, however, was reached in April 2011. Nevertheless, most of the individual process components are capable of operating longer. An evaluation determined ARP/MCU can operate until 2015 before major equipment failure is expected. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU Life Extension (ARP/MCU LE) program will bridge the gap between current ARP/MCU operations and the start of SWPF operation. The ARP/MCU LE program introduces no new technologies. As a portion of this program, a Next Generation Solvent (NGS) and corresponding flowsheet are being developed to provide a major performance enhancement at MCU. This paper discusses all the modifications performed in the facility to support the ARP/MCU Life Extension. It will also discuss the next generation chemistry, including NGS and new stripping chemistry, which will increase cesium removal efficiency in MCU. Possible implementation of the NGS chemistry in MCU accomplishes two objectives. MCU serves as a demonstration facility for improved flowsheet deployment at SWPF; operating with NGS and boric acid validates improved cesium removal performance and increased throughput as well as confirms Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) ability to vitrify waste streams containing boron. NGS implementation at MCU also aids the ARP/MCU LE operation, mitigating the impacts of delays and sustaining operations until other technology is able to come on-line.

  14. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  15. Life Extension Program for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit at Savannah River Site - 13179

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samadi, Azadeh [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. Currently, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the CSSX process are deployed in the (ARP)/Modular CSSX Unit (MCU), to process salt waste for permanent disposition. The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. The original plant was permitted for a three year design life; however, given the successful operation of the plant, a life extension program was completed to continue operations. The program included detailed engineering analyses of the life-expectancy of passive and active components, resulting in component replacement and/or maintenance and monitoring program improvements. The program also included a review of the operations and resulted in a series of operational improvements. Since the improvements have been made, an accelerated processing rate has been demonstrated. In addition, plans for instituting a next-generation solvent are in place and will enhance the decontamination factors. (author)

  16. CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE OPERATING EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) is the first, production-scale Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction process for cesium separation to be constructed. The process utilizes an engineered solvent to remove cesium from waste alkaline salt solution resulting from nuclear processes. While the application of this solvent extraction process is unique, the process uses commercially available centrifugal contactors for the primary unit operation as well as other common methods of physical separation of immiscible liquids. The fission product, cesium-137, is the primary focus of the process due to the hazards associated with its decay. The cesium is extracted from the waste, concentrated, and stripped out of the solvent resulting in a low-level waste salt solution and a concentrated cesium nitrate stream. The concentrated cesium stream can be vitrified into borosilicate glass with almost no increase in glass volume, and the salt solution can be dispositioned as a low-level grout. The unit is deployed as an interim process to disposition waste prior to start-up of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The Salt Waste Processing Facility utilizes the same cesium removal technology, but will treat more contaminated waste. The MCU is not only fulfilling a critical need, it is the first demonstration of the process at production-scale.

  17. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue University and is detailed in Appendix A. Steam reforming proved to be too rigorous for efficient The second stage of this project was carried out at Texas A&M University and is Detailed in Appendix B. In this stage, a gentler ceramic synthesis process using Cs and Sr loaded kaolinite and bentonite clays was developed in collaboration with Dr. M. Kaminski at Argonne National Laboratory.

  18. RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ADSORPTION OF CESIUM (Cs+) FROM HANFORD WASTE SOLUTIONS-PART I: BATCH EQUILIBRIUM STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HASSAN, NEGUIBM

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Batch equilibrium measurements were conducted with a granular Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) resin to determine the distribution coefficients (Kds) for cesium. In the tests, Hanford Site actual waste sample containing radioactive cesium and a pretreated waste sample that was spiked with non-radioactive cesium were used. Initial concentrations of non-radioactive cesium in the waste sample were varied to generate an equilibrium isotherm for cesium. Two additional tests were conducted using a liquid to solid phase ratio of 10 and a contact time of 120 hours. The measured distribution coefficient (Kd) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) was 948 mL/g; the Kd for non-radioactive cesium (133Cs) was 1039 mL/g. The Kd for non-radioactive cesium decreased from 1039 to 691 mL/g as the initial cesium concentration increased. Very little change of the Kd was observed at initial cesium concentrations above 64 mg/mL. The maximum sorption capacity for cesium on granular RF resin was 1.17 mmole/g dry resin. T his value was calculated from the fit of the equilibrium isotherm data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Previously, a total capacity of 2.84 mmole/g was calculated by Bibler and Wallace for air-dried RF resin.

  19. N,N'-DICYCLOHEXYL-N"-ISOTRIDECYLGUANIDINE AS SUPPRESSOR FOR THE NEXT GENERATION CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION (NG-CSSX) PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Roach, Benjamin D [ORNL; Williams, Neil J [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Rajbanshi, Arbin [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The purity, concentration, and source of the N,N'-dicyclohexyl-N"-isotridecylguanidine (DCiTG) suppressor (guanidine) used in the NG-CSSX process were found to influence solvent performance. As the starting isotridecanol used in the preparation of DCiTG is comprised of a mixture of branched-chain aliphatic alcohols, varying in composition with manufacturer, the resulting DCiTG itself is a mixture. Thus, it is necessary to address how the solvent performance will be affected by the different preparations of the DCiTG solvent component. In this study, four preparations of DCiTG from three sources were analyzed and evaluated for purity and performance, both in the absence and presence of an anionic surfactant impurity.

  20. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  1. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abney, Kent D. (30 San Juan St., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Kinkead, Scott A. (70 Canada Cir., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Mason, Caroline F. V. (148 Piedra Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Rais, Jiri (Fr. Krizka 11, 17000 Praha 7, CZ)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

  2. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komarneni, Sridhar (Altoona, PA); Roy, Rustum (State College, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time.

  3. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carson, Jr., Neill J. (Clarendon Hills, IL); Noland, Robert A. (Oak Park, IL); Ruther, Westly E. (Skokie, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  4. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, R.

    1988-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  6. Method for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes using a solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich (St. Petersburg, RU); Smirnov, Igor V. (St. Petersburg, RU); Babain, Vasiliy A. (St. Petersburg, RU); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  7. Solvent for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich (St. Petersburg, RU); Smirnov, Igor V. (St. Petersburg, RU); Babain, Vasiliy A. (St. Petersburg, RU); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  8. Cesium Ion Exchange Using Tank 241-AN-104 Supernate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2003-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The River Protection Project is to design and build a high level nuclear waste treatment facility. The waste treatment plant is to process millions of gallons of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. The high level nuclear waste treatment process includes various unit operations, such as ultrafiltration, precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange, and vitrification. Ion exchange is identified as the optimal treatment method for removal of cesium-137 and Tc-99 from the waste. Extensive ion exchange testing was performed using small-scale columns with actual waste samples. The objectives of this study were to: demonstrate SuperLig 644 ion exchange performance and process steps for the removal of cesium from actual AN-104 tank waste; pretreat actual AN-104 tank waste to reduce the concentration of cesium-137 in the waste below LAW vitrification limit; produce and characterize cesium eluate solutions for use in eluate evaporation tests. The experiments consisted of batch contact and small-scale column tests. The batch contact tests measured sorption partition coefficients Kds. The Kds were used to predict the effective resin capacity. The small-scale column tests, which closely mimic plant conditions, generated loading and elution profile data used to determine whether removal targets and design requirements were met.

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D. [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan); Sawada, K. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)] [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

  10. Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiency. Current photocathodes degrade because cesium, the alkali material, leaves the emitting surface over the lifetime of the device. The RTDP, on the other hand,...

  11. Thermal analysis of the ATI thermionic converter for optimum cesium reservoir location

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, T.J. (Aerospace Power Division, Wright Laboratory/POOC, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-6563 (United States)); Thayer, K.L.; Ramalingam, M.L. (UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, Ohio 45432-1894 (United States))

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A first-order thermal analysis was performed on the emitter lead region of the Advanced Thermionic Initiative (ATI) Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) design. The lead region is the candidate location for a metal-matrix, cesium-graphite reservoir to supply cesium vapor to the thermionic converter. The cesium pressure developed is dependent upon the temperature and cesium-carbon equilibrium reaction of the reservoir. Steady-state, one dimensional conduction, with thermal radiation losses and Joulean heat generation, was used to calculate the temperature distribution in the non-fueled lead region. This temperature distribution was linked to the ATI reactor core design through the integration of axial emitter temperature distributions for the maximum, minimum, and average power TFE fuel pins. The axial temperature distribution in the emitter lead region was found to be most pronounced for the maximum power fuel element and least pronounced for the minimum power TFE.

  12. Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium Halide/Copper...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium HalideCopper Photocathode. Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium HalideCopper Photocathode. Abstract: The quantum efficiency of Cu...

  13. SOLVENT DISPERSION AND FLOW METER CALCULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) found that the dispersion numbers for the six combinations of CSSX:Next Generation Solvent (NGS) “blend” and pure NGS versus salt solution, caustic wash, and strip aqueous solutions are all good. The dispersion numbers are indications of processability with centrifugal contactors. A comparison of solvent physical and thermal properties shows that the Intek™ solvent flow meter in the plant has a reading biased high versus calibrated flow when NGS is used, versus the standard CSSX solvent. The flow meter, calibrated for CSSX solvent, is predicted to read 2.8 gpm of NGS in a case where the true flow of NGS is 2.16 gpm.

  14. Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

  15. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  16. Solvent wash solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  17. Solvent wash solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neace, James C. (Blackville, SC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  18. Redox Transformations and Transport of Cesium and Iodine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    isotopes of cesium (137 Cs) and iodine (131 I and 129 I) are environmental contaminants derived fromRedox Transformations and Transport of Cesium and Iodine (-1, 0, +5) in Oxidizing and Reducing, to study the redox chemistry (I) and transport (Cs, I) of cesium and iodine in a field setting. Injection

  19. Small-Column Cesium Ion Exchange Elution Testing of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Garrett N.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed to evaluate multiple, cesium loading, and elution cycles for small columns containing SRF resin using a simple, high-level waste (HLW) simulant. Cesium ion exchange loading and elution curves were generated for a nominal 5 M Na, 2.4E-05 M Cs, 0.115 M Al loading solution traced with 134Cs followed by elution with variable HNO3 (0.02, 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 M) containing variable CsNO3 (5.0E-09, 5.0E-08, and 5.0E-07 M) and traced with 137Cs. The ion exchange system consisted of a pump, tubing, process solutions, and a single, small ({approx}15.7 mL) bed of SRF resin with a water-jacketed column for temperature-control. The columns were loaded with approximately 250 bed volumes (BVs) of feed solution at 45 C and at 1.5 to 12 BV per hour (0.15 to 1.2 cm/min). The columns were then eluted with 29+ BVs of HNO3 processed at 25 C and at 1.4 BV/h. The two independent tracers allowed analysis of the on-column cesium interaction between the loading and elution solutions. The objective of these tests was to improve the correlation between the spent resin cesium content and cesium leached out of the resin in subsequent loading cycles (cesium leakage) to help establish acid strength and purity requirements.

  20. Cesium and heavy metal removal from flue dusts and other matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderstrom, D.J.; May, R.; Spaulding, S. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Technology Applications Div.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A problem exists in the steel industry because of the generation of radioactive waste that is caused by the accidental destruction of nuclear detection instruments. The flue dust from electric Arc Furnaces (EAF) becomes contaminated with the radionuclide used. Typically the radionuclide is cesium 137. The problem is a concern to the industry since the contamination results in the generation of a mixed waste which is costly to dispose of properly. In the interest of providing a viable solution to the problem, Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies has developed a process for removal of cesium from flue dust. While removing the cesium from the treatment residue, the process also isolates the other major elements of concern and renders them innocuous, saleable, or readily disposable. However, several innovative techniques have been applied which make the process far more economical, and in addition, the changes simplify the operation and render it controllable. The process involves the dissolution of the various metallic and non-metallic constituents through the use of a mild mineral acid leach. This treatment solubilizes the majority of the constituents including the cesium.

  1. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  2. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  3. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark L. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX); Barrans, Jr., Richard E. (Downers Grove, IL); Rausch, David (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

  4. Solvent recycle/recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  5. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, Mari L. (West Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 Si.sub.4 O.sub.13 pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs.sub.2 O and TiO.sub.2 loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO.sub.2 and Cs.sub.2 that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass.

  6. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, M.L.

    1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 13} pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass. 10 figs.

  7. ANALYSIS OF SOLVENT RECOVERED FROM WRIGHT INDUSTRIES, INCORPORATED TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to process liquid waste for an interim period. The MCU Project Team conducted testing of the contactors, coalescers, and decanters at Wright Industries, Incorporated (WII) in Nashville, Tennessee. That testing used MCU solvent and simulated SRS dissolved salt. Because of the value of the solvent, the MCU Project wishes to recover it for use in the MCU process in the H-Tank Farm. Following testing, WII recovered approximately 62 gallons of solvent (with entrained aqueous) and shipped it to SRS. The solvent arrived in two stainless steel drums. The MCU Project requested SRNL to analyze the solvent to determine whether it is suitable for use in the MCU Process. SRNL analyzed the solvent for Isopar{reg_sign} L by Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), for Modifier and BOBCalixC6 by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and for Isopar{reg_sign} L-to-Modifier ratio by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. They also measured the solvent density gravimetrically and used that measurement to calculate the Isopar{reg_sign} L and Modifier concentration. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The constituents of the used WII solvent are collectively low in Isopar{reg_sign} L, most likely due to evaporation. This can be easily corrected through the addition of Isopar{reg_sign} L. (2) Compared to a sample of the WII Partial Solvent (without BOBCalixC6) archived before transfer to WII, the Reworked WII Solvent showed a significant improvement (i.e., nearly doubling) in the dispersion numbers for tests with simulated salt solution and with strip acid. Hence, the presence of the plasticizer impurity has no detrimental impact on phase separation. While there are no previous dispersion tests using the exact same materials, the results seem to indicate that the washing of the solvent gives a dispersion benefit. (3) WII Solvent that underwent a cleaning cycle provides an acceptable set of cesium distribution (i.e., D) values when used in a standard Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test.

  8. Cesium legacy safety project management work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, J.S.

    1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This Management Work Plan (MWP) describes the process flow, quality assurance controls, and the Environment, Safety, and Health requirements of the Cesium Legacy Safety Project. This MWP provides an overview of the project goals and methods for repackaging the non-conforming Type W overpacks and packaging the CsCl powder and pellets. This MWP is not intended to apply to other activities associated with the CsCl Legacy Safety Program (i.e., clean out of South Cell).

  9. Effects of Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism. Effects of Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield...

  10. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pereira, Candido (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700.degree. C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite.

  11. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pereira, C.

    1999-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs.

  12. Cleaning Cesium Radionuclides from BN-350 Primary Sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanenko, O.G.; Allen, K.J.; Wachs, D.M.; Planchon, H.P.; Wells, P.B.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Nazarenko, P.; Dumchev, I.; Maev, V.; Zemtzev, B.; Tikhomirov, L.; Yakovlev, V.; Synkov, A

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the successful design and operation of a system to remove highly radioactive cesium from the sodium coolant of the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan. As an international effort between the United States and the Republic of Kazakhstan, a cesium-trapping system was jointly designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully operated. The results are significant for a number of reasons, including (a) a significant reduction of radioactivity levels of the BN-350 coolant and reactor surfaces, thereby reducing exposure to workers during shutdown operations; (b) demonstration of scientific ideas; and (c) the engineering application of effective cesium trap deployment for commercial-sized liquid-metal reactors. About 255 300 GBq (6900 Ci) of cesium was trapped, and the {sup 137}Cs specific activity in BN-350 primary sodium was decreased from 296 MBq/kg (8000 {mu}Ci/kg) to 0.37 MBq/kg (10 {mu}Ci/kg) by using seven cesium traps containing reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as the cesium adsorbent. Cesium trapping was accomplished by pumping sodium from the primary circuit, passing it through a block of RVC within each trap, and returning the cleaned sodium to the primary circuit. Both to predict and to analyze the behavior of the cesium traps in the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, a model was developed that satisfactorily describes the observed results of the cesium trapping. By using this model, thermodynamic parameters, such as the heat of adsorption of cesium atoms on RVC and on internal piping surfaces of the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, -22.7 and -5.0 kJ/mole, respectively, were extracted from the experimental data.

  13. Integral cesium reservoir: Design and transient operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.N. Jr.; Horner, M.H.; Begg, L.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Wrobleski, W.J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., West Mifflin, PA (United States). Bettis Atomic Power Lab.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically heated thermionic converter has been designed built and successfully tested in air (Homer et.al., 1995). One of the unique features of this converter was an integral cesium reservoir thermally coupled to the emitter. The reservoir consisted of fifteen cesiated graphite pins located in pockets situated in the emitter lead with thermal coupling to the emitter, collector and the emitter terminal; there were no auxiliary electric heaters on the reservoir. Test results are described for conditions in which the input thermal power to the converter was ramped up and down between 50% and 100% of full power in times as short as 50 sec, with data acquisition occurring every 12 sec. During the ramps the emitter and collector temperature profiles. the reservoir temperature and the electric output into a fixed load resistor are reported. The converter responded promptly to the power ramps without excessive overshoot and with no tendency to develop instabilities. This is the rust demonstration of the performance of a cesium-graphite integral reservoir in a fast transient

  14. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  15. Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rasor, Ned S. (Cupertino, CA); Riley, David R. (West Newton, PA); Murray, Christopher S. (Bethel Park, PA); Geller, Clint B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

  16. Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasor, N.S.; Riley, D.R.; Murray, C.S.; Geller, C.B.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided, wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha Kothandaraman Students #12;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha with electricity generation accounting for 40% of the total1 . Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one

  18. Cesium return program lessons learned FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, E.P.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is returning leased cesium capsules from IOTECH, Incorporated (IOTECH), Northglenn, Colorado, and the Applied Radiant Energy Company (ARECO), Lynchburg, Virginia, to the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) on the Hanford Site, to ensure safe management and storage, pending final capsule disposition. Preparations included testing and modifying the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask, preparing an Environmental Assessment (EA), development of a comprehensive Transportation Plan, coordination with the Western Governors` Association (WGA) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR), and interface with the public and media. Additional activities include contracting for a General Electric (GE) 2000 cask to expedite IOTECH capsule returns, and coordination with Eastern and Midwestern States to revise the transportation plan in support of ARECO capsule returns.

  19. Halogenated solvent remediation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sorenson, Kent S.

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for enhancing bioremediation of ground water contaminated with nonaqueous halogenated solvents are disclosed. A preferred method includes adding a composition to the ground water wherein the composition is an electron donor for microbe-mediated reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated solvents and enhances mass transfer of the halogenated solvents from residual source areas into the aqueous phase of the ground water. Illustrative compositions effective in these methods include surfactants such as C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, salts thereof, esters of C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, and mixtures thereof. Especially preferred compositions for use in these methods include lactic acid, salts of lactic acid, such as sodium lactate, lactate esters, and mixtures thereof. The microbes are either indigenous to the ground water, or such microbes can be added to the ground water in addition to the composition.

  20. Halogenated solvent remediation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sorenson, Jr., Kent S. (Windsor, CO)

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for enhancing bioremediation of ground water contaminated with nonaqueous halogenated solvents are disclosed. An illustrative method includes adding an electron donor for microbe-mediated anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated solvents, which electron donor enhances mass transfer of the halogenated solvents from residual source areas into the aqueous phase of the ground water. Illustrative electron donors include C.sub.2-C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, salts thereof, esters of C.sub.2-C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, and mixtures thereof, of which lactic acid, salts of lactic acid--such as sodium lactate, lactate esters, and mixtures thereof are particularly illustrative. The microbes are either indigenous to the ground water, or such microbes can be added to the ground water in addition to the electron donor.

  1. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  2. Extraction of Cs-137 by alcohol-water solvents from plants containing cardiac glycosides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dzyubak, S N; Dzyubak, O P; Sorokin, P V; Popov, V F; Orlov, A A; Krasnov, V P; Gubin, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of nuclear power plant accidents, large areas receive radioactive inputs of Cs-137. This cesium accumulates in herbs growing in such territories. The problem is whether the herbs contaminated by radiocesium may be used as a raw material for medicine. The answer depends on the amount of Cs-137 transfered from the contaminated raw material to the medicine. We have presented new results of the transfer of Cs-137 from contaminated Digitalis grandiflora Mill. and Convallaria majalis L. to medicine. We found that the extraction of Cs-137 depends strongly on the hydrophilicity of the solvent. For example 96.5%(vol.) ethyl alcohol extracts less Cs-137 (11.6%) than 40%(vol.) ethyl alcohol or pure water (66.2%). The solubility of the cardiac glycosides is inverse to the solubility of cesium, which may be of use in the technological processes for manufacturing ecologically pure herbal medicine.

  3. Cesium removal using crystalline silicotitanate. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 100 million gallons of radioactive waste is stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation, and Savannah River Site (SRS). Most of the radioactivity comes from {sup 137}Cs, which emits high-activity gamma radiation. The Cesium Removal System is a modular, transportable, ion-exchange system configured as a compact processing unit. Liquid tank waste flows through columns packed with solid material, called a sorbent, that selectively adsorbs cesium and allows the other materials to pass through. The sorbent is crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an engineered material with a high capacity for sorbing cesium from alkaline wastes. The Cesium Removal System was demonstrated at Oak Ridge using Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste for feed. Demonstration operations began in September 1996 and were completed during June 1997. Prior to the demonstration, a number of ion-exchange materials were evaluated at Oak Ridge with MVST waste. Also, three ion-exchange materials and three waste types were tested at Hanford. These bench-scale tests were conducted in a hot cell. Hanford's results showed that 300 times less sorbent was used by selecting Ionsiv IE-911 over organic ion-exchange resins for cesium removal. This paper gives a description of the technology and discusses its performance, applications, cost, regulatory and policy issues and lessons learned.

  4. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.; Stone, M. E.

    2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B2O3 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 flowsheet to additions of B2O3 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence of ARP and SE (up to 2 wt% B2O3 contained in the SRAT and up to 2000 gallons of ARP). It should be noted that 0.95 wt% B2O3 is the nominal projected concentration in the SRAT based on a 0.0125M boric acid flowsheet with 70,000 liters of SE being added to the SRAT. The impact on CPC processing of a 0.01M boric acid solution for elution of cesium during Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing has previously been evaluated by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Increasing the acid strength to 0.0125M boric acid to account for variations in the boric acid strength has been reviewed versus the previous evaluation. The amount of acid from the boric acid represented approximately 5% of the total acid during the previous evaluation. An increase from 0.01 to 0.0125M boric acid represents a change of approximately 1.3% which is well within the error of the acid calculation. Therefore, no significant changes to CPC processing (hydrogen generation, metal solubilities, rheological properties, REDOX control, etc.) are expected from an increase in allowable boric acid concentration from 0.01M to 0.0125M.

  5. Cesium removal from Savannah River Site radioactive waste using crystalline silicotitanate (IONSIV(R) IE-911)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study measured the ability of crystalline silicotitanate to remove cesium from Savannah River Site radioactive waste.

  6. Extractant compositions for co-extracting cesium and strontium, a method of separating cesium and strontium from an aqueous feed, and calixarene compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterman,Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Meikrantz,David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law,Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Riddle,Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd,Terry A. (Firth, ID); Greenhalgh,Mitchell R. (Iona, ID); Tillotson,Richard D. (Moore, ID); Bartsch,Richard A. (Lubbock, TX); Moyer,Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Delmau,Laetitia H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bonnesen,Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixed extractant solvent that includes at least one dialkyloxycalix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 compound, 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclohexano)-18-crown-6, at least one modifier, and, optionally, a diluent. The dialkyloxycalix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 compound is 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(octyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(decyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(dodecyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(2-ethylhexyl-1-oxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(3,7-dimethyloctyl-1-oxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(4-butyloctyl-1-oxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, or combinations thereof. The modifier is a primary alcohol. A method of separating cesium and strontium from an aqueous feed is also disclosed, as are dialkyloxycalix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 compounds and an alcohol modifier.

  7. Title of Dissertation: CHARACTERIZATION OF QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AND ROBUSTNESS OF CESIUM-BASED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    efficiency for contaminated cesium-coated surfaces, affirming the dispenser prescription of cesium resupplyABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: CHARACTERIZATION OF QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AND ROBUSTNESS OF CESIUM to maintain high current density. But faced with contamination, heating, and ion back-bombardment, the highest

  8. CESIUM SORPTION TO ILLITE AS AFFECTED BY OXALATE LAURA A. WENDLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    contaminant that is amenable to phytoextraction is cesium-137 (137 Cs+ ), a radionuclide commonly foundCESIUM SORPTION TO ILLITE AS AFFECTED BY OXALATE LAURA A. WENDLING 1, *, JAMES B. HARSH 1 , CARL D Abstract--Cesium uptake by plants depends on adsorption/desorption reactions in the soil, as well as root

  9. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, R.P.

    1983-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium inventory thereof further into the carbon matrix while simultaneously redispersing a portion into the regeneration system for absorption at a reduced temperature by the secondary trap.

  10. Solvent Fractionation of Lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. The major issues for the commercial production of value added high performance lignin products are lignin s physical and chemical heterogenities. To overcome these problems, a variety of procedures have been developed to produce pure lignin suitable for high performace applications such as lignin-derived carbon materials. However, most of the isolation procedures affect lignin s properties and structure. In this chapter, a short review of the effect of solvent fractionation on lignin s properties and structure is presented.

  11. SOLvent | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to:RoscommonSBY Solutions Jump to:SM EnvironmentalSOLvent Jump to:

  12. The reaction of cesium hydroxide with 4-phenylvaleric acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caughfield, Arvie Jeane

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , but with other alkali metal ions. Also, it was desirable to learn more about the fundamental nature of the excess solubility of 4-phenylvaleric acid in aqueous cesium hydroxide. Of special interest was to deter- mine whether any n-bonding may be involved.... Similarly, nuclear magnetic resonance techniques may be used to determine whether any TT-bonding involving the phenyl ring of 4- phenylvaleric acid occurs during its reaction with cesium hydroxide. If any such bonding to the n-electrons of the ring occurs...

  13. Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally...

  14. A transient model for a cesium vapor thermionic converter. [Cs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Murray, C.S.; Chaudhuri, S. (Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA))

    1991-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an analytical model for simulating the transient and steady-state operation of cesium vapor thermionic converters. A parametric analysis is performed to assess the transient response of the converter to changes in fission power and width of interelectrode gap. The model optimizes the converter performance for maximum electric power to the load.(AIP)

  15. absorption du cesium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    absorption du cesium First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 TRAITEMENT THORIQUE DU SPECTRE...

  16. Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

  17. Occupational neurotoxicology of organic solvents and solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triebig, G. (Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of two field studies in painters and spray painters, the outcomes of examinations of workers with suspected work-related disease due to solvents, as well as data from an evaluation of an epidemiologic study in painters with confirmed occupational disease, are presented and discussed. The results of these studies and the experiences in occupational medicine in the Federal Republic of Germany do not support the assumption of high neurotoxic risks in solvent-exposed workers, which can be postulated from various epidemiologic studies from Scandinavian countries. Several factors may explain the different conclusions: (1) lower solvent exposures of German painters in the past decades; (2) false positive diagnosis of a toxic encephalopathy; (3) aetiological misclassification; (4) differences in legislation relevant for the acknowledgement of occupational diseases. In conclusion, there is a need for further well-designed epidemiologic studies in occupationally solvent-exposed workers. Suggestions regarding assessment of exposure and neurobehavioral tests are given.

  18. Method and article for primary containment of cesium wastes. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelini, P.; Lackey, W.J.; Stinton, D.P.; Blanco, R.E.; Bond, W.D.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.

    1981-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a cesium-retentive waste form, characterized by a high degree of compositional stability and mechanical integrity, is provided by subjecting a cesium-loaded zeolite to heat under conditions suitable for stabilizing the zeolite and immobilizing the cesium, and coating said zeolite for sufficient duration within a suitable environment with at least one dense layer of pyrolytic carbon to seal therein said cesium to produce a final, cesium-bearing waste form. Typically, the zolite is stabilized and the cesium immobilized in less than four hours by confinement within an air environment maintained at about 600/sup 0/C. Coatings are thereafter applied by confining the calcined zeolite within a coating environment comprising inert fluidizing and carbon donor gases maintained at 1000/sup 0/C for a suitable duration.

  19. Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

  20. Fission product solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

  1. Linking Cesium and Strontium Uptake to Kaolinite Weathering in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    Linking Cesium and Strontium Uptake to Kaolinite Weathering in Simulated Tank Waste Leachate J O N at the Hanford Site, WA (0.05 M AlT, 2 M Na+, 1 M NO3 -, pH 14, Cs+ and Sr2+ present as co-contaminants). Time of contaminants into increasingly recalcitrant solid phases over the 1-yr time period. Introduction Clay minerals

  2. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jr., Milton W. (Lexington, SC); Bowers, Jr., Charles B. (Columbia, SC)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5') [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution.

  3. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, M.W. Jr.; Bowers, C.B. Jr.

    1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5[prime]) [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. 3 figs.

  4. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  5. MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

    2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

  6. Cesium Removal at Fukushima Nuclear Plant - 13215

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, James L.; Barker, Tracy A. [Avantech Incorporated, 95A Sunbelt Blvd Columbia, SC 29203 (United States)] [Avantech Incorporated, 95A Sunbelt Blvd Columbia, SC 29203 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that took place on March 11, 2011 created a number of technical challenges at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. One of the primary challenges involved the treatment of highly contaminated radioactive wastewater. Avantech Inc. developed a unique patent pending treatment system that addressed the numerous technical issues in an efficient and safe manner. Our paper will address the development of the process from concept through detailed design, identify the lessons learned, and provide the updated results of the project. Specific design and operational parameters/benefits discussed in the paper include: - Selection of equipment to address radionuclide issues; - Unique method of solving the additional technical issues associated with Hydrogen Generation and Residual Heat; - Operational results, including chemistry, offsite discharges and waste generation. Results show that the customized process has enabled the utility to recycle the wastewater for cooling and reuse. This technology had a direct benefit to nuclear facilities worldwide. (authors)

  7. Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Dohee (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

  8. SUPPLEMENTAL ANALYSES FOR SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES MCU-11-314, MCU-11-315, MCU-11-316, MCU-11-317, MCU-11-318 AND MCU-11-319

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) periodically analyses solvent samples from Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) in support of continuing operations. A quarterly analysis of the solvent is required to maintain solvent composition within specifications. Analytical results of the analyses of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples MCU-11-314, MCU-11-315, MCU-11-316, MCU-11-317, MCU-11-318 and MCU-11-319 have been previously reported. MCU has experienced a modest decline in cesium removal efficiency while processing the current feed, 'Macrobatch 3'. While the target decontamination factor (DF) is 200, the fiscal year 2011 DF average is 161. The results of the prior solvent analysis report did not identify a specific factor that would correlate with the poor cesium decontamination beyond a low concentration of the suppressor, trioctylamine. New analyses of the quarterly sample are reported in this document, as well as a cross-check of {sup 137}Cs measurements for SRNL and F/H lab. Furthermore, in an attempt to discover the reason for the decline in DF at MCU, SRNL was tasked with analyzing numerous Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and chemical feed samples.

  9. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components. Final test report: TFE Verification Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir.

  10. Multi-decadal projections of surface and interior pathways of the Fukushima Cesium-137 radioactive plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    England, Matthew

    contaminated with radionuclides, including Cesium-137, were released into the Pacific Ocean. With a halfMulti-decadal projections of surface and interior pathways of the Fukushima Cesium-137 radioactive of the leaked Cs-137 in the North Pacific Ocean. The simulations suggest that the contaminated plume would have

  11. Cesium-137 deposition and contamination of Japanese soils due to the Fukushima nuclear accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Cesium-137 deposition and contamination of Japanese soils due to the Fukushima nuclear accident (received for review July 25, 2011) The largest concern on the cesium-137 (137 Cs) deposition and its soil contamination due to the emission from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) showed up after a massive

  12. Preparation of Genomic DNA from Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes) Tissue by Cesium Chloride Gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruby, Edward G.

    by Cesium Chloride Gradient Centrifugation Patricia N. Lee1,2 , Margaret J. McFall-Ngai3 , Patrick Callaerts from adult bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) tissues by cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient centrifugation modifications of nucleic acids are inhibited by these contaminants. The method described here yields high

  13. Journal of Directed Energy, 3, Fall 2008, 6679 Advances in Cesium Dispenser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Journal of Directed Energy, 3, Fall 2008, 66­79 Advances in Cesium Dispenser Photocathodes (hence high quantum efficiency), possible drive laser heating, and vacuum contamination. We those responsive to visible wavelengths (e.g., alkali antimonides), are prone to cesium loss in harsh

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) singly encapsulated cesium chloride capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyth, W.W.

    1997-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Three nonstandard Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium chloride capsules are being shipped from WESF (225B building) to the 324 building. They would normally be shipped in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask under its US Department of Energy (DOE) license (DOE 1996), but these capsules are nonstandard: one has a damaged or defective weld in the outer layer of encapsulation, and two have the outer encapsulation removed. The 3 capsules, along with 13 other capsules, will be overpacked in the 324 building to meet the requirements for storage in WESF`s pool.

  15. Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Molnar, Linda K. (Philadelphia, PA); Hatton, T. Alan (Sudbury, MA); Buchwald, Stephen L. (Newton, MA)

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

  16. Uranium and cesium diffusion in fuel cladding of electrogenerating channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasil’ev, I. V., E-mail: fnti@mail.ru; Ivanov, A. S.; Churin, V. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of reactor tests of a carbonitride fuel in a single-crystal cladding from a molybdenum-based alloy can be used in substantiating the operational reliability of fuels in developing a project of a megawatt space nuclear power plant. The results of experimental studies of uranium and cesium penetration into the single-crystal cladding of fuel elements with a carbonitride fuel are interpreted. Those fuel elements passed nuclear power tests in the Ya-82 pilot plant for 8300 h at a temperature of about 1500°C. It is shown that the diffusion coefficients for uranium diffusion into the cladding are virtually coincident with the diffusion coefficients measured earlier for uranium diffusion into polycrystalline molybdenum. It is found that the penetration of uranium into the cladding is likely to occur only in the case of a direct contact between the cladding and fuel. The experimentally observed nonmonotonic uranium-concentration profiles are explained in terms of predominant uranium diffusion along grain boundaries. It is shown that a substantially nonmonotonic behavior observed in our experiment for the uranium-concentration profile may be explained by the presence of a polycrystalline structure of the cladding in the surface region from its inner side. The diffusion coefficient is estimated for the grain-boundary diffusion of uranium. The diffusion coefficients for cesium are estimated on the basis of experimental data obtained in the present study.

  17. Design alternatives report for the cesium removal demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cesium Removal Demonstration (CRD) project will use liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stored in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Melton Valley Storage Tanks to demonstrate cesium removal from sodium nitrate-based supernates. This report presents the results of a conceptual design study to scope the alternatives for conducting the demonstration at ORNL. Factors considered included (1) sorbent alternatives, (2) facility alternatives, (3) process alternatives, (4) process disposal alternatives, and (5) relative cost comparisons. Recommendations included (1) that design of the CRD system move forward based on information obtained to date from tests with Savannah River Resin, (2) that the CRD system be designed so it could use crystalline silicotitanates (CST) if an engineered form of CST becomes available prior to the CRD, (3) that the system be designed without the capability for resin regeneration, (4) that the LLLW solidification facility be used for the demonstration (5) that vitrification of the loaded resins from the CRD be demonstrated at the Savannah River Site, and (6) that permanent disposal of the loaded and/or vitrified resin at the Nevada Test Site be pursued.

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF PHENOLS FROM WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greminger, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste Water Treatment by Solvent Extraction," Canadian J.A.F. Preuss, "Extraction of Phenol from Water with a Liquid1980 SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF PHENOLS FROM WATER LP,WRENCE BERv

  19. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  20. Solvent-induced forces in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

  1. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  2. Microstructure analysis for chemical interaction between cesium and SUS 316 steel in fast breeder reactor application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, K.; Fukumoto, K. I.; Oshima, T.; Tanigaki, T.; Masayoshi, U. [RINE, Univ. of Fukui, 3-9-1, Bunkyo, Fukui, 910-8507 (Japan)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study the corrosion products on a surface after cesium corrosion examination at 650 deg. C for 100 hrs were characterized by TEM observation around the corroded area on the surface in order to understand the corrosion mechanism of cesium fission product for cladding materials in fast reactor. The experimental results suggest the main corrosion mechanism occurred in the process of the separation of cesium chromate and metal (Fe, Ni). The main reaction of corrosion process was considered to be equation, 2Cs + 7/2 O{sub 2} + 2Cr {yields} Cs{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}(L). (authors)

  3. Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  4. Reciprocal-space solvent flattening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure is described for improvement of crystallographic phases by reciprocal-space maximization of a likelihood function including experimental phases and characteristics of the electron-density map. Solvent flattening is a powerful tool for improving crystallographic phases for macromolecular structures obtained at moderate resolution, but uncertainties in the optimal weighting of experimental phases and modified phases make it difficult to extract all the phase information possible. Solvent flattening is essentially an iterative method for maximizing a likelihood function which consists of (i) experimental phase information and (ii) information on the likelihood of various arrangements of electron density in a map, but the likelihood function is generally not explicitly defined. In this work, a procedure is described for reciprocal-space maximization of a likelihood function based on experimental phases and characteristics of the electron-density map. The procedure can readily be applied to phase improvement based on solvent flattening and can potentially incorporate information on a wide variety of other characteristics of the electron-density map.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CAUSTIC WASH TANK AND SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MCU FROM AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During processing of Salt Batches 3 and 4 in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the decontamination efficiency for cesium declined from historical values and from expectations based on laboratory testing. This report documents efforts to analyze samples of solvent and process solutions from MCU in an attempt to understand the cause of the reduced performance and to recommend mitigations. CWT Solutions from MCU from the time period of variable decontamination factor (DF) performance which covers from April 2011 to September 2011 (during processing of Salt Batch 4) were examined for impurities using chromatography and spectroscopy. The results indicate that impurities were found to be of two types: aromatic containing impurities most likely from Modifier degradation and aliphatic type impurities most likely from Isopar{reg_sign} L and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) degradation. Caustic washing the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) solution with 1M NaOH improved its extraction ability as determined from {sup 22}Na uptake tests. Evidence from this work showed that pH variance in the aqueous solutions within the range of 1M nitric acid to 1.91M NaOH that contacted the solvent samples does not influence the analytical determination of the TOA concentration by GC-MS.

  6. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  7. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

    2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

  8. Motivation Atmospheric Contamination Rejuvenation of a Cesium-Based Dispenser Photocathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Motivation Atmospheric Contamination Results Rejuvenation of a Cesium-Based Dispenser Photocathode in Response to Atmospheric Contamination Alexandra Day, Dr. Eric Montgomery, Dr. Kevin Jensen, Blake Riddick, Saara Khan, Scott Eustice Quantum Efficiency Key Conclusions Cs + contaminants higher work function

  9. Ion exchange kinetics of cesium for various reaction designs using crystalline silicotitanate, UOP IONSIV IE-911

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Hyun

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Through collaborative efforts at Texas A&M University and Sandia National Laboratories, a crystalline silicotitanate (CST), which shows extremely high selectivity for radioactive cesium removal in highly concentrated sodium solutions...

  10. SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLE RESULTS FOR MCU-11-314, MCU-11-315, MCU-11-316, MCU-11-317, MCU-11-318 AND MCU-11-319

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed solvent samples from Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) in support of continuing operations. A quarterly analysis of the solvent is required to maintain solvent composition within specifications. Analytical results of the analyses of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples MCU-11-314, MCU-11-315, MCU-11-316, MCU-11-317, MCU-11-318 and MCU-11-319 are reported. The results show that the solvent at MCU does not require an Isopar{reg_sign} L addition, but it will require addition of trioctylamine. Cesium mass transfer testing with the solvent matches expected extraction behavior but shows a slightly lower stripping efficiency than seen in the original process demonstration for Macrobatch 3. The entrained aqueous solution indicates the scrub wash is significantly out of specification. As a result, the facility replaced the scrub wash. Unlike the previous solvent sample results, these analyses indicate that the solvent does not require minor Isopar{reg_sign} L trimming at this time. However, addition of TOA is warranted. These findings indicate that the new protocols for solvent monitoring and control are yielding favorable results. Nevertheless, the deviation in the TOA concentration since the last analysis indicates continued periodic (i.e., quarterly) monitoring is recommended. The {sup 137}Cs mass transfer results from the solvent sample testing show possible evidence of slightly reduced stripping efficiency. An evaluation (using a model) of expected system performance for MCU using the measured distribution values predicts an {approx}50% decline in DFs given the ESS test results. The customer should consider pulling a SHT sample for reanalysis.

  11. Organic solvent technical basis document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2003-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical basis document was developed to support the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for the organic solvent fire representative and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described in this report.

  12. Chromatic instabilities in cesium-doped tungsten bronze nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adachi, Kenji, E-mail: kenji-adachi@ni.smm.co.jp; Ota, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okada, Mika; Oshimura, Nobumitsu; Tofuku, Atsushi [Ichikawa Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., Ichikawa 272-8588 (Japan)

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticles of alkali-doped tungsten bronzes are an excellent near-infrared shielding material, but exhibit slight chromatic instabilities typically upon applications of strong ultra-violet light or heating in humid environment, which acts detrimentally to long-life commercial applications. Origin of the chromatic instabilities in cesium-doped tungsten bronze has been investigated, and it has been found that the coloration and bleaching processes comprised electronic exchanges which accelerate or depress the polaron excitation and the localized surface plasmon resonance. Coloration on UV illumination is evidenced by electron diffraction as due to the formation of H{sub x}WO{sub 3}, which is considered to take place in the surface Cs-deficient WO{sub 3} region via the double charge injection mechanism. On the other hand, bleaching on heating in air and in humid environment is shown to accompany the extraction of Cs and electrons from Cs{sub 0.33}WO{sub 3} by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis and is concluded to be an oxidation of Cs{sub 0.33}WO{sub 3} on the particle surface.

  13. Cesium Delivery System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382 428 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Singh, M. J. [ITER- India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique of surface production of negative ions using cesium, Cs, has been efficiently exploited over the years for producing negative ion beams with increased current densities from negative ion sources used on neutral beam lines. Deposition of Cs on the source walls and the plasma grid lowers the work function and therefore enables a higher yield of H{sup -}, when hydrogen particles (H and/or H{sub x}{sup +}) strike these surfaces.A single driver RF based (100 kW, 1 MHz) negative ion source test bed, ROBIN, is being set up at IPR under a technical collaboration between IPR and IPP, Germany. The optimization of the Cs oven design to be used on this facility as well as multidriver sources is underway. The characterization experiments of such a Cs delivery system with a 1 g Cs inventory have been carried out using surface ionization technique. The experiments have been carried by delivering Cs into a vacuum chamber without plasma. The linear motion of the surface ionization detector, SID, attached with a linear motion feedthrough allows measuring the angular distribution of the Cs coming out of the oven. Based on the experimental results, a Cs oven for ROBIN has been proposed. The Cs oven design and experimental results of the prototype Cs oven are reported and discussed in the paper.

  14. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  15. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L. [National Management Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Water quality criteria for colored smokes: Solvent Green 3: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of Solvent Green 3, an anthraquinone dye used in colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of human health and of aquatic life and its uses. Sufficient data to determine the toxicity of Solvent Green 3 in freshwater aquatic organisms are lacking. The 96-hr TL/sub 50/ for Pimephales promelas is >100 mg/L. Solvent Green 3, at a concentration of 10 mg/L, causes a transient reduction in growth of the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. No data are available concerning the chronic toxicity or bioaccumulation of Solvent Green 3 in aquatic organisms. No data are available on any of the toxicity parameters for Solvent Green 3 in humans. No data on the pharmacokinetics of Solvent Green 3 administered orally in laboratory animals are available. Solvent Green 3 has a low order of toxicity whether administered by the oral, dermal, or inhalation route. The acute oral LD/sub 50/ is >3.16 g/kg in rats, but may be as high as 15 g/kg, >1 g/kg in dogs, and 10 g/kg in rabbits. Sufficient pertinent data were not available for deriving a water quality criterion for the protection of human health. 83 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Apparatus for generating coherent infrared energy of selected wavelength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tunable source (11) of coherent infrared energy includes a heat pipe (12) having an intermediate region (24) at which cesium (22) is heated to vaporizing temperature and end regions (27, 28) at which the vapor is condensed and returned to the intermediate region (24) for reheating and recirculation. Optical pumping light (43) is directed along the axis of the heat pipe (12) through a first end window (17) to stimulate emission of coherent infrared energy which is transmitted out through an opposite end window (18). A porous walled tubulation (44) extends along the axis of the heat pipe (12) and defines a region (46) in which cesium vapor is further heated to a temperature sufficient to dissociate cesium dimers which would decrease efficiency by absorbing pump light (43). Efficient generation of any desired infrared wavelength is realized by varying the wavelength of the pump light (43).

  18. Kinetics and Solvent Effects in the Synthesis of Ionic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schleicher, Jay C.

    2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are being recognized as environmentally friendly ("green") solvents. However, their synthesis is often conducted in the very solvents that they will reportedly replace. This research has investigated the kinetics and solvent...

  19. ALTERATION OF KAOLINITE TO CANCRINITE AND SODALITE BY SIMULATED HANFORD TANK WASTE AND ITS IMPACT ON CESIUM RETENTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    ON CESIUM RETENTION HONGTING ZHAO, YOUJUN DENG, JAMES B. HARSH, MARKUS FLURY* AND JEFFREY S. BOYLE--Cancrinite, Cation Exchange, Cesium Sorption, Feldspathoid , Hanford Waste Tanks, Kaolinite, Mineral Stability and transport of tank contaminants. Recent studies have shown that cancrinite, a feldspathoid, was formed after

  20. SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLE RESULTS FOR MCU-13-1403/1404/1405/1406/1407/1408: QUARTERLY SAMPLE FROM SEPTEMBER 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed solvent samples from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) in support of continuing operations. A quarterly analysis of the solvent is required to maintain solvent composition within specifications. Analytical results of the analyses of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples MCU-13-1403, MCU-13-1404, MCU-13-1405, MCU-13-1406, MCU-13-1407, and MCU-13-1408 received on September 17, 2013 are reported. This sample was taken after the addition of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) cocktail to produce a NGS-MCU blended solvent. The results show that the solvent contains a slight excess of Isopar? L and a deficit concentration of modifier and TiDG when compared to the target composition. Addition of TiDG trim is recommended. SRNL also analyzed the SHT sample for {sup 137}Cs content and determined the measured value is within tolerance and that the value has returned to levels observed in 2011. In contrast to what was observed in the heel prior to adding the NGS cocktail, no organic impurities were detected in these solvent samples.

  1. Physical Property Modeling of Concentrated Cesium Eluate Solutions, Part I - Derivation of Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.; Pierce, R. A.; Edwards, T. B.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Major analytes projected to be present in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant cesium ion-exchange eluate solutions were identified from the available analytical data collected during radioactive bench-scale runs, and a test matrix of cesium eluate solutions was designed within the bounding concentrations of those analytes. A computer model simulating the semi-batch evaporation of cesium eluate solutions was run in conjunction with a multi-electrolyte aqueous system database to calculate the physical properties of each test matrix solution concentrated to the target endpoints of 80% and 100% saturation. The calculated physical properties were analyzed statistically and fitted into mathematical expressions for the bulk solubility, density, viscosity, heat capacity and volume reduction factor as a function of temperature and concentration of each major analyte in the eluate feed. The R{sup 2} of the resulting physical property models ranged from 0.89 to 0.99.

  2. The effects of using Cesium-137 teletherapy sources as a radiological weapon (dirty bomb)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liolios, Theodore

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis do not pose a great security risk due to their low level of radioactivity, therapeutic sources are extremely radioactive and can presumably be used as a radiological weapon. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 sources are the most common ones used in radiotherapy with over 10,000 of such sources currently in use worldwide, especially in the developing world, which cannot afford modern accelerators. The present study uses computer simulations to investigate the effects of using Cesium-137 sources from teletherapy devices as a radiological weapon. Assuming a worst-case terrorist attack scenario, we estimate the ensuing cancer mortality, land contamination, evacuation area, as well as the relevant evacuation, decontamination, and health costs in the framework of the linear risk model. The results indicate that an attack with a Cesium-137 dirty bomb in a large metropolitan city (especially one that would involve several teletherapy sources) although would not cause any sta...

  3. Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium in a two-species magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlöder, U; Schünemann, U; Grimm, R; Weidemüller, M

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate collisional properties of lithium and cesium which are simultaneously confined in a combined magneto-optical trap. Trap-loss collisions between the two species are comprehensively studied. Different inelastic collision channels are identified, and inter-species rate coefficients as well as cross sections are determined. It is found that loss rates are independent of the optical excitation of Li, as a consequence of the repulsive Li$^*$-Cs interaction. Li and Cs loss by inelastic inter-species collisions can completely be attributed to processes involving optically excited cesium (fine-structure changing collisions and radiative escape). By lowering the trap depth for Li, an additional loss channel of Li is observed which results from ground-state Li-Cs collisions changing the hyperfine state of cesium.

  4. Determining Reactor Flux from Xenon-136 and Cesium-135 in Spent Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Hayes; Gerard Jungman

    2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to infer the reactor flux from spent fuel or seized fissile material would enhance the tools of nuclear forensics and nuclear nonproliferation significantly. We show that reactor flux can be inferred from the ratios of xenon-136 to xenon-134 and cesium-135 to cesium-137. If the average flux of a reactor is known, the flux inferred from measurements of spent fuel could help determine whether that spent fuel was loaded as a blanket or close to the mid-plane of the reactor. The cesium ratio also provides information on reactor shutdowns during the irradiation of fuel, which could prove valuable for identifying the reactor in question through comparisons with satellite reactor heat monitoring data. We derive analytic expressions for these correlations and compare them to experimental data and to detailed reactor burn simulations. The enrichment of the original uranium fuel affects the correlations by up to 3 percent, but only at high flux.

  5. Decontamination of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant - 13277

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parajuli, Durga; Minami, Kimitaka; Tanaka, Hisashi; Kawamoto, Tohru [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST (Japan)] [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peculiar binding of Cesium to the soil clay minerals remained the major obstacle for the immediate Cs-decontamination of soil and materials containing clay minerals like sludge. Experiments for the removal of Cesium from soil and ash samples from different materials were performed in the lab scale. For soil and sludge ash formed by the incineration of municipal sewage sludge, acid treatment at high temperature is effective while washing with water removed Cesium from ashes of plants or burnable garbage. Though total removal seems a difficult task, water-washing of wood-ash or garbage-ash at 40 deg. C removes >90% radiocesium, while >60% activity can be removed from soil and sludge-ash by acid washing at 95 deg. C. (authors)

  6. Cesium and Strontium Specific Exchangers for Nuclear Waste Effluent Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Clearfield; A. I. Bortun; L. A. Bortun; E. A. Bhlume; P. Sylvester; G. M. Graziano

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past 50 years, nuclear defense activities have produced large quantities of nuclear waste that now require safe and permanent disposal. The general procedure to be implemented involves the removal of cesium and strontium from the waste solutions for disposal in permanently vitrified media. This requires highly selective sorbents or ion exchangers. Further, at the high radiation doses present in the solution, organic exchangers or sequestrants are likely to decompose over time. Inorganic ion exchangers are resistant to radiation damage and can exhibit remarkably high selectivities. We have synthesized three families of tunnel-type ion exchangers. The crystal structures of these compounds as well as their protonated phases, coupled with ion exchange titrations, were determined and this information was used to develop an understanding of their ion exchange behavior. The ion exchange selectivities of these phases could be regulated by isomorphous replacement of the framework metals by larger or smaller radius metals. In the realm of layered compounds, we prepared alumina, silica, and zirconia pillared clays and sodium micas. The pillared clays yielded very high Kd values for Cs+ and were very effective in removing Cs+ from groundwaters. The sodium micas also had a high affinity for Cs+ but an even greater attraction for S42+. They also possess the property of trapping these ions permanently as the layers slowly decrease their interlayer distance as loading occurs. Sodium nonatitanate exhibited extremely high Kd values for Sr2+ in alkaline tank wastes and should be considered for removal of Sr2+ in such cases. For tank wastes containing complexing agents, we have found that adding Ca2+ to the solution releases the complexed Sr2+ which may then be removed with the CST exchanger.

  7. Alternate Methods for Eluting Cesium from Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Heather Lauren [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A small-column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high-level-waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent, or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The baseline method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid that would be used to elute the RF resin, using the current elution protocol, exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing environment in the glass melt. Installing a denitration evaporator at SRS is technically feasible but would add considerable cost to the project. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 BV of 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the baseline elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. A summary of the elution methods that have been tested are listed.

  8. Solvent composition and process for the isolation of radium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J. (Knoxville, TN); Case, Gerald N. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent extraction composition for radium including a high molecular wet organophilic carboxylic acid and an organophilic macrocycle dissolved in a suitable solvent.

  9. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic Efficiency of Lithium Electrode. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic...

  10. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  11. Switchable solvents and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jessop, Philip G; Eckert, Charles A; Liotta, Charles L; Heldebrant, David J

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent that reversibly converts from a nonionic liquid mixture to an ionic liquid upon contact with a selected trigger, e.g., contact with CO.sub.2, is described. In preferred embodiments, the ionic solvent is readily converted back to the nonionic liquid mixture. The nonionic liquid mixture includes an amidine or guanidine or both, and water, alcohol, or a combination thereof. Single component amine solvents that reversibly convert between ionic and non-ionic states are also described. Some embodiments require increased pressure to convert; others convert at 1 atmosphere.

  12. Optimizing injected solvent fraction in stratified reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Gary Michael

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , . . . 22 4. 2 Water-Oil and Water-Solvent Fractional Flow Curves . . 4. 3 Mobility of Water-Oil-Solvent Mixtures. . . . . . . . 25 5. 1 Injected Solvent Displacing Formation Oil at 0. 5 PVI . . . . 31 5. 2 Comparison of Simulator Results and Buckley...-Levcrctt Analytic Solution at 0. 3 PVI . 5. 3 Comparison of Simulator Results and Walsh-Lake Analytic Solution for Secondary Flood (S, =- S;?= 0. 2) at "Equal Velocity" f?& (f, & ? 0. 35) and 0. 3 PVI?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 4 Saturation Plot...

  13. Switchable solvents and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jessop, Philip G.; Eckert, Charles A.; Liotta, Charles L.; Heldebrant, David J.

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent that reversibly converts from a nonionic liquid mixture to an ionic liquid upon contact with a selected trigger, e.g., contact with CO.sub.2, is described. In preferred embodiments, the ionic solvent is readily converted back to the nonionic liquid mixture. The nonionic liquid mixture includes an amidine or guanidine or both, and water, alcohol, or a combination thereof. Single component amine solvents that reversibly convert between ionic and non-ionic states are also described. Some embodiments require increased pressure to convert; others convert at 1 atmosphere.

  14. Concentration Ratios for Cesium and Strontium in Produce Near Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Salazar, M.McNaughton, P.R. Fresquez

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ratios of the concentrations of radionuclides in produce (fruits, vegetables, and grains) to the concentrations in the soil have been measured for cesium and strontium at locations near Los Alamos. The Soil, Foodstuffs, and Biota Team of the Meteorology and Air Quality Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) obtained the data at locations within a radius of 50 miles of LANL. The concentration ratios are in good agreement with previous measurements: 0.01 to 0.06 for cesium-137 and 0.1 to 0.5 for strontium-90 (wet-weight basis).

  15. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions are among the waste treatment plans in the DOE-complex. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) is the ion exchange resin selected for use in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). It is also the primary ion exchange material under consideration for SCIX at the Hanford site. The elution step of the multi-step ion exchange process is typically done with 0.5 M nitric acid. An acid eluant is a potential hazard in the event of a spill, leak, etc. because the high-level waste tanks are made of carbon steel. Corrosion and associated structural damage may ensue. A study has been conducted to explore non-acid elution as an alternative. Batch contact sorption equilibrium screening tests have been conducted with 36 potential non-acid eluants. The sorption tests involve equilibrating each cesium-containing eluant solution with the sRF resin for 48 hours at 25 C in a shaker oven. In the sorption tests, an eluant is deemed to have a high cesium elution potential if it minimizes cesium sorption onto the sRF resin. The top candidates (based on lowest cesium sorption distribution coefficients) include ammonium carbonate, ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate, rubidium carbonate, ammonium acetate, ammonium acetate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate/ammonium hydroxide, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride. A select few of the top candidate eluants from the screening tests were subjected to actual sorption (loading) and elution tests to confirm their elution ability. The actual sorption (loading) and elution tests mimicked the typical sRF-cesium ion exchange process (i.e., sorption or loading, caustic wash, water rinse, and elution) via batch contact sorption and quasi column caustic wash/water rinse/elution. The eluants tested included ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, and nitric acid. Calcium acetate and magnesium acetate were substitutes for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride respectively due to corrosion concerns. Nitric acid was selected for benchmarking since it is the baseline cesium eluant for sRF resin. The cesium elution performance of ammonium carbonate and ammonium acetate was approximately the same as the benchmark eluant, nitric acid. Ninety-seven (97), 94, and 100% percent of the cesium sorbed or loaded were eluted by ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, and nitric acid was respectively. The performance of calcium acetate and magnesium acetate, on the other hand, was mediocre. Percent elution was 16 and 8 respectively.

  16. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for cesium chloride capsules with type W overpacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1997-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) documents the evaluation of a new basket design and overpacked cesium chloride capsule payload for the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask in accordance with the onsite transportation requirements of the Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping manual, WHC-CM-2-14. This design supports the one-time onsite shipment of 16 cesium chloride capsules with Type W overpacks from the 324 Building to the 224T Building at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The SEP is valid for a one-time onsite shipment or until August 1, 1998, whichever occurs first.

  17. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  18. Optimizing injected solvent fraction in stratified reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Gary Michael

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waterflooding has become standard practice for extending the productive life of many solution gas drive reservoirs, but has the disadvantage of leaving a substantial residual oil volume in the reservoir. Solvent flooding has been offered as a...

  19. Brayton Solvent Recovery Heat Pump Technology Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enneking, J. C.

    The Brayton cycle technology was developed to reduce the temperature of gas streams containing solvents in order to condense and recover them. While the use of turbo compressor/expander machinery in conjunction with an energy recuperator...

  20. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Romanovskiy, Valeriy N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Smirnov, Igor V. (St.-Petersburg, RU); Babain, Vasily A. (St-Petersburg, RU); Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M. (St-Petersburg, RU)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  1. Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

  2. New approaches for the reduction of plasma arc drop in second-generation thermionic converters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatziprokopiou, M.E.; Shaw, D.T.

    1981-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations of ion generation and recombination mechanisms in the cesium plasma as they pertain to the advanced mode thermionic energy converter are described. The changes in plasma density and temperature within the converter have been studied under the influence of several promising auxiliary ionization candidate sources. Three novel approaches of external cesium ion generation have been investigated in some detail, namely vibrationally excited N/sub 2/ as an energy source of ionization of Cs ions in a DC discharge, microwave power as a means of resonant sustenance of the cesium plasma, and ion generation in a pulse N/sub 2/-Cs mixture. The experimental data obtained and discussed show that all three techniques - i.e. the non-LTE high-voltage pulsing, the energy transfer from vibrationally excited diatomic gases, and the external pumping with a microwave power - have considerable promise as schemes in auxiliary ion generation applicable to the advanced thermionic energy converter.

  3. Assessment of the amount of cesium-137 released into the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Assessment of the amount of cesium-137 released into the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima accident into the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima accident and analysis of its dispersion in Japanese coastal waters, J into the ocean from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) after the accident in March 2011 and to gain

  4. Deciphering the measured ratios of Iodine-131 to Cesium-137 at the Fukushima reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsui, T

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the relative abundance of the radioactive isotopes Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 produced by nuclear fission in reactors and compare it with data taken at the troubled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The ratio of radioactivities of these two isotopes can be used to obtain information about when the nuclear reactions terminated.

  5. Deciphering the measured ratios of Iodine-131 to Cesium-137 at the Fukushima reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Matsui

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the relative abundance of the radioactive isotopes Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 produced by nuclear fission in reactors and compare it with data taken at the troubled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The ratio of radioactivities of these two isotopes can be used to obtain information about when the nuclear reactions terminated.

  6. Performance modeling of an integral, self-regulating cesium reservoir for the ATI-TFE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, K.L.; Ramalingam, M.L. (UES, In., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, Ohio 45432-1894 (United States)); Young, T.J. (Aerospace Power Division, Wright Laboratory/POOC, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-6563 (United States))

    1993-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This work covers the performance modeling of an integral metal-matrix cesium-graphite reservoir for operation in the Advanced Thermionic Initiative-Thermionic Fuel Element (ATI-TFE) converter configuration. The objectives of this task were to incorporate an intercalated cesium-graphite reservoir for the 3C[sub 24]Cs[r arrow]2C[sub 36]Cs+Cs[sub (g)] two phase equilibrium reaction into the emitter lead region of the ATI-TFE. A semi two-dimensional, cylindrical TFE computer model was used to obtain thermal and electrical converter output characteristics for various reservoir locations. The results of this study are distributions for the interelectrode voltage, output current density, and output power density as a function of axial position along the TFE emitter. This analysis was accomplished by identifying an optimum cesium pressure for three representative pins in the ATI driverless'' reactor core and determining the corresponding position of the graphite reservoir in the ATI-TFE lead region. The position for placement of the graphite reservoir was determined by performing a first-order heat transfer analysis of the TFE lead region to determine its temperature distribution. The results of this analysis indicate that for the graphite reservoirs investigated the 3C[sub 24]Cs[r arrow]2C[sub 36]Cs+Cs[sub (g)] equilibrium reaction reservoir is ideal for placement in the TFE emitter lead region. This reservoir can be directly coupled to the emitter, through conduction, to provide the desired cesium pressure for optimum performance. The cesium pressure corresponding to the optimum converter output performance was found to be 2.18 torr for the ATI core least power TFE, 2.92 torr for the average power TFE, and 4.93 torr for the maximum power TFE.

  7. Preferential Solvent Partitioning within Asphaltenic Aggregates Dissolved in Binary Solvent Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Preferential Solvent Partitioning within Asphaltenic Aggregates Dissolved in Binary SolventVised Manuscript ReceiVed December 9, 2006 The heaviest fraction of crude oils, asphaltenes, has been shown to play-assembled interfacially active asphaltenic aggregates. Thus, careful characterization of these aggregates is of great

  8. Review Article: The Effects of Radiation Chemistry on Solvent Extraction 3: A Review of Actinide and Lanthanide Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce J. Mincher; Giuseppe Modolo; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The partitioning of the long-lived ?-emitters and the high-yield fission products from dissolved nuclear fuel is a key component of processes envisioned for the safe recycling of nuclear fuel and the disposition of high-level waste. These future processes will likely be based on aqueous solvent extraction technologies for light water reactor fuel and consist of four main components for the sequential separation of uranium, fission products, group trivalent actinides and lanthanides, and then trivalent actinides from lanthanides. Since the solvent systems will be in contact with highly radioactive solutions, they must be robust toward radiolytic degradation in an irradiated mixed organic, aqueous acidic environment. Therefore, an understanding of their radiation chemistry is important to the design of a practical system. In the first paper in this series we reviewed the radiation chemistry of irradiated aqueous nitric acid and the tributyl phosphate ligand for uranium extraction in the first step of these extractions. In the second, we reviewed the radiation chemistry of the ligands proposed for use in the extraction of cesium and strontium fission products. Here, we review the radiation chemistry of the ligands that might be used in the third step in the series of separations, for the group extraction of the lanthanides and actinides. This includes traditional organophosphorous reagents such as CMPO and HDEHP, as well as novel reagents such as the amides and diamides currently being investigated.

  9. Solvent interactions with a triphenylated benzoxazole polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eversdyk, David Allen

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 4-Dimethyl-3-penta Dimethylsulfoxide n-Dodecane Ethanol 2-Ethoxyethanol 2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy) -e N-Ethylacetamide Ethyl Acetate Ethylbenzene Ethyl Carbonate Ethylcyclohexane none thanol 10. 6 13. 1 9. 9 9. 1 11. 2 15. 3 11. 1 12. 3 10. 8 9... Molar Gi. bbs Energv of Adsorption for Solvent. s DCE ? NI3z at 270 C 30 9. Additional Molar Gibbs Energy of AdsorpLion for Solvent NO C~ ? II 0 at. ?70'C 3 2 9. Solubility Plot for Tviphcnylated Pf)O at 270'C 35 10 Interaction of m ? Cresol Kith...

  10. Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1989-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed a composite immobilized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation. 3 figs.

  11. Solvent treatment of coal for improved liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Appell, Herbert R. (Pitcairn, PA); Narain, Nand K. (Bethel Park, PA); Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased liquefaction yield is obtained by pretreating a slurry of solid carbonaceous material and a liquid hydrocarbonaceous solvent at a temperature above 200.degree. C. but below 350.degree. C. for a period of 10 minutes to four hours prior to exposure to liquefaction temperatures.

  12. Solvent extraction of bitumen from tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoon, A.Y.; Thomas, S. [Univ. of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the measurement of mass transfer rates for the extraction of bitumen from tar sands using organic solvents. The experiment was carried out in an agitated vessel using a six-blade turbine mixer on a laboratory scale. To facilitate the determination of absolute mass transfer coefficients, tar sands were specially prepared in the form of spherical particles so that mass transfer area can be computed. The variables investigated in the study included: (1) solvent type (kerosene, toluene, benzene), (2) stirrer speed, 25 rpm to 1000 rpm, and (3) particle diameter, 0.4 cm to 1.2 cm. The results indicated that solvency power varied markedly with the various solvents used and that high aromatic content promoted rapid dissolution when compared with paraffinic solvents. The mass transfer rates increased with increasing stirrer speed in accordance with the relationship: k {alpha} N{sup 0.56} where k is the mass transfer coefficient and N the stirrer speed. Increasing particle diameter also resulted in decreased mass transfer rates. The results were satisfactorily correlated in terms of a Frossling type equation, Sh {alpha} Re{sub p}{sup a}Sc{sup b}.

  13. Light storage via coherent population oscillation in a thermal cesium vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. F. de Almeida; J. Sales; M. -A. Maynard; T. Laupretre; F. Bretenaker; D. Felinto; F. Goldfarb; J. W. R. Tabosa

    2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the storage of light via the phenomenon of Coherent Population Oscillation (CPO) in an atomic cesium vapor at room temperature. In the experiment the optical information of a probe field is stored in the CPO of two ground states of a Lambda three-level system formed by the Zeeman sublevels of the hyperfine transition F = 3 - F' = 2 of cesium D2 line. We show directly that this CPO based memory is very insensitive to stray magnetic field inhomogeneities and presents a lifetime which is mainly limited only by atomic motion. A theoretical simulation of the measured spectra was also developed and is in very good agreement with the experiment.

  14. Low Level Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of Radium and Cesium in Lucerne (Medicago Sativa)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fokapic, S.; Bikit, I.; Mrda, D.; Veskovic, M.; Slivka, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 4, 21 000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Mihaljev, Z. [Scientific Veterinary Institute, Rumenacki put 20, 21 000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Cupic, Z. [Research Institute for Reproduction, A.I. and Embryo Transfer Temerin, 21235 Temerin, Industrijska zona bb. (Serbia)

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Nineteen years after Chernobyl nuclear accident, activity concentration of 137Cs still could be detected in food and soil samples in Central and Eastern Europe. In this paper radiation levels of radium and cesium in Lucerne will be presented. It is a perennial plant with a deep root system and it is widely grown throughout the world as forage for cattle. The samples of Lucerne were taken from twelve different locations in Vojvodina in the summer period July-September 2004. The samples were specially dried on the air and after that ground, powdered and mineralized by method of dry burning on the temperature of 450 deg. C. Gamma spectrometry measurements of the ash were performed by means of actively shielded germanium detector with maximal background reduction. For cesium 137Cs 10 mBq/kg order of magnitude detection limits were achieved.

  15. Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1982-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  16. Solvent extraction process for recovering bitumen from tar sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, C.R.; Clifford, R.K.

    1987-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for recovering bitumen from tar sand which comprises: (a) preparing a mixture containing divided tar sand and an organic solvent the ratio of the solvent to the bitumen in the tar sand is at least 2 parts solvent to 1 part bitumen form a bitument/solvent phase with a viscosity low enough to facilitate the physical separation of a significant portion of the bitumen/solvent phase from the mineral matrix of the tar sand; (b) separating by physical means at least a portion of the bitumen/solvent phase from the mineral matrix; (c) mixing the separated mineral matrix of step (b) with additional solvent in a washing stage to recover bitumen remaining with the mineral matrix; (d) introducing the recovered solvent/bitumen mixture from wash step (c) back into step (a); (e) recovering organic solvent from the mineral matrix of step (c) using an aqueous/organic solvent froth flotation phase separation where the majority of the mineral matrix remains with the aqueous phase; (f) recycling the solvent recovered from the phase separation of step (e) back to the washing step of (c); (g) separating bitumen from the bitumen/solvent phase of step (b); and (h) returning solvent collected from step (g) back to step (a).

  17. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maginn, Edward J.

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic science goal in this project is to identify structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The research will then apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations.

  18. Modeling the Effect of Sedimentation on Cesium Transport in Fourmile Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.F.

    2001-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The major mechanisms of radioactive material transport and fate in surface water are (1) sources, (2) dilution, advection and dispersion of radionuclides by flow and surface waves, (3) radionuclide decay, and (4) interaction between sediment and radionuclides. STREAM II, an aqueous transport module of the Savannah River Site emergency response WIND system, accounts for the source term, and the effects of dilution, advection and dispersion. Although the model has the capability to account for nuclear decay, due to the short time interval of interest for emergency response, the effect of nuclear decay is very small and so it is not employed. The interactions between the sediment and radionuclides are controlled by the flow conditions and physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the sediment constituents. The STREAM II version used in emergency response does not model the effects of sediment deposition/resuspension to minimize computing time. This study estimates the effects of sediment deposition/resuspension on radionuclide aqueous transport. For radionuclides that adsorb onto suspended sediment, the omission of deposition/resuspension effects overestimates the downstream radionuclide peak concentration and is therefore conservative. For the case of cesium transport in the Fourmile Branch, the calculated reduction in peak concentration as the cesium is transported downstream is greater with sediment deposition modeled than without. For example, including the effects of sediment deposition/resuspension in the STREAM II calculation results in a 72 percent reduction in the downstream (5075 meters downstream from H-Area) peak cesium concentration. It is important to note that the high partition coefficient appropriate for cesium enhances the importance of sediment deposition/resuspension; the reduction in the calculated peak concentration would be less for radioisotopes with lower partition coefficients.

  19. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents For Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.; Nyman, M.; Clearfield, A.; Maginn, E.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic science goal in this project identifies structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The task will apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of new sorbents that will exhibit increased affinity for cesium, strontium and actinide separations. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to nonradioactive separations.

  20. Sintered Bentonite Ceramics for the Immobilization of Cesium- and Strontium-Bearing Radioactive Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortega, Luis H.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    with kaolin clays to produce feldspars [3]. Spitsyn looked at roasting bentonite specifically for the immobilization of stron- tium [4]. Investigations by Strachan and Shultz done on pollucite, a cesium bearing alumino-silicate, for radioactive waste storage... is 1050?C [44]. 3.2 Other Waste Forms Spent fuel and radioactive waste must be isolated from the environment. In the following sections a brief review of engineered barriers that will be employed in conjunction with sequestration. Sequestration may...

  1. Temperature and number evolution of cold cesium atoms inside a glass cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, J Q; Wang, S G; Wang, Z B; Wang, L J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an experimental study on the temperature and number evolution of the cold cesium atoms diffusively cooled inside a wall-coated glass cell by measuring the absorption profile of the 62S1/2 (F=4)-62P3/2 (F'=5) transition line with a weak probe laser in the evolution process. We found that the temperature of the cold atoms first gradually decreases from 16 mK to 9 mK, and then rapidly increases. A theoretical model of the number evolution is built, which includes the temperature of the cold atoms and the fraction p of the cold cesium atoms elastically reflected by the cell wall. The theoretical model is consistent with the experimental result very well, and the fraction p is obtained to be (0.58 +/- 0.03), which reveals that the cold cesium atoms are not all heated to the ambient temperature by a single collision with the cell wall.

  2. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L. [and others] [and others

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  3. Immobilization of Cesium Traps from the BN-350 Fast Reactor (Aktau, Kazakhstan)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Michelbacher; C. Knight; O. G. Romanenko; I. L. Tazhibaeva; I. L. Yakovlev; A. V. Rovneyko; V. I. Maev; D. Wells; A. Herrick

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During BN-350 reactor operations and also during the initial stages of decommissioning, cesium traps were used to decontaminate the reactor’s primary sodium coolant. Two different types of carbon-based trap were used – the MAVR series, low ash granulated graphite adsorber (LAG) contained in a carrier designed to be inserted into the reactor core during shutdown; and a series of ex-reactor trap accumulators(TAs) which used reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) to reduce Cs-137 levels in the sodium after final reactor shutdown. In total four MAVRs and seven TAs were used at BN-350 to remove an estimated cumulative 755 TBq of cesium. The traps, which also contain residual sodium, need to be immobilized in an appropriate way to allow them to be consigned as waste packages for long term storage and, ultimately, disposal. The present paper reports on the current status of the implementation phase, with particular reference to the work done to date on the trap accumulators, which have the most similarity with the cesium traps used at other reactors.

  4. Fire Safety Tests for Cesium-Loaded Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The results of initial fire safety tests on the SRF resin were documented in a previous report (WTP-RPT-218). The present report summarizes the results of additional tests performed by SwRI on the cesium-loaded SRF resin. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. The as-received SwRI report is attached to this report in the Appendix A. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the cesium-loaded SRF resin.

  5. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low activity and high level waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The ion exchange removal of cesium (Cs) and technetium (Tc) ions is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as pertechnetate), from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Technology Center demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with a similar Hanford tank sample (241-AW-101). Those experiments included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

  6. The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries. The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries....

  7. Construction of prototype system for directional solvent extraction desalination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, Michael James

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Directional solvent extraction has been demonstrated as a low temperature, membrane free desalination process. This method dissolves the water into an inexpensive, benign directional solvent, rejects the contaminants, then ...

  8. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  9. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.

    1986-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal. 2 figs.

  10. STATISTICAL REVIEW OF CESIUM CARBONATE FUSION MEASUREMENTS OF ARCHIVED GLASS SAMPLES FROM THE DWPF PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical report provides a statistical review of measurements that the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory (Lab) generated by Inductively-Coupled Plasma--Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for samples of archived Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) glass that were prepared using a cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) fusion dissolution method. Measurements were generated by both of the Lab's ICPs, which are designated as M-13 and M-14. Comparisons between the two ICPs suggest that for the ARG-1 measurements the M-14 provided lower (on average) concentration measurements for about 13 of the 16 elements reported by DWPF with Cr, Mn, Ni, and Zr being statistically lower (at a 5% significance level) for the ARG-1 samples. One of the three exceptions is Li, for which the M-14 yielded (on average) higher concentration measurements than the M-13. For the SME samples, the M-14 and M-13 measurements had statistically different (at the 5% significance level) means for B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Si, Ti, U, and Zr with the M-14 being lower than the M-13 for all of these elements except for Li. For the screened SME samples, statistically significant (at the 5% level) differences between the means of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and prototypic preparations are seen for Ca (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} higher for both ICPs), Cr (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} higher for both ICPs), Cu (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} higher for M-13), K (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} higher for M-13), Mn (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} lower for M-14), Ni (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} lower for M-14), Si (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} lower for M-14), Ti (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} higher for M-13), U (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} higher for both ICPs), and Zr (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} lower for M-14). The Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion method provided elemental of glass samples made from SME batches that were statistically comparable to the DWPF prototypic dissolution methods when the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions were analyzed by the M-13. However, when the same solutions were analyzed with the M-15, the elemental analyses from the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} method were slightly lower and more prone to fail the 95% sum of oxides criterion imposed by DWPF's Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion method dissolutions also provided slightly lower waste loading values than the prototypic dissolutions because of slightly higher lithium values when the M-14 was used. In essence, subtle differences in the analyses form the M-13 and M-14 ICPs make it difficult to assess the viability of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion method to replace the prototypic dissolution methods. The DWFP Laboratory should investigate the causes of these subtle differences between the M-13 and M-14 ICPs as the effort to employ the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion method for SME elemental analyses continues.

  11. Experiments Performed in Substantiation of the Conditioning of BN-350 Spent Cesium Traps Using Lead or Lead-Bismuth Alloy Filling Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O. Romanenko; I. Tazhibaeva; I. Yakovlev; A. Ivanov; D. Wells; A. Herrick; J. Michelbacher; S. Shiganakov

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology of cleaning cesium radionuclides from sodium coolant at the BN-350 fast reactor was realized in the form of cesium traps of two types: stationary devices connected to the circuit that was to be cleaned and in-core devices installed into the core of reactor when it was not under operation. Carbon-graphite materials were used as sorbents to collect and concentrate radioactive cesium, accumulated in the BN-350 reactor circuits over the decades of their operation, in relatively small volume traps which provided effective radiation-safe conditions for personnel working in proximity to the coolant and equipment of the primary circuit during BN-350 decommissioning. Spent cesium traps, as products unfit for further use, represent solid radioactive wastes. The presence of chemically active sodium, potassium and cesium that are able to react violently with water results in series of problems related to their disposal in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Considering the technology of filling spent cesium traps with lead/lead-bismuth alloy as a priority one for their conditioning, evaluations for safety substantiation were implemented. A set of experiments was implemented aimed at verification of calculations performed in substantiation of the proposed technology: filling a full scale cesium trap mock-up with sodium followed by its draining to determine the optimal regimes of draining; filling bench scale cesium trap mock-ups with sodium and cesium followed by sodium draining and filling with lead or lead-bismuth alloy at different temperatures and filling rates to chose the optimal regimes for filling spent cesium traps; implementation of leachability tests to determine the rate of cesium release from the filling materials into water. This paper provides a description of the experimental program carried out and the main results obtained.

  12. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

    1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

  13. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Thompson, Lisa M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140.degree. F. and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140.degree. F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

  14. Assessment of the exposure pathway in the uptake and distribution of1 americium and cesium in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) at different stages of2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Assessment of the exposure pathway in the uptake and distribution of1 americium and cesium experiments were performed to study the uptake,19 assimilation and retention of americium (241 Am) and cesium;3 INTRODUCTION40 41 Contamination of marine waters by radionuclides is a major concern in coastal areas which42

  15. Initial evaluation of Sandia National Laboratory-prepared crystalline silico-titanates for cesium recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bray, L.A.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a study of a new class of inorganic ion exchange materials that selectively extracts cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr), and plutonium (Pu) from alkaline radioactive waste solutions. These materials, identified as crystalline silico-titanates (CST), were developed by scientists at the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and Texas A&M. This report summarizes preliminary results for the measurement of batch distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) values for the powdered CST materials compared to previously tested ion exchange materials: IONSIV IE-96 (a zeolite produced by UOP), CS-100 (an organic resin produced by Rohm and Haas), and BIB-DJ (a new resorcinol-formaldehyde organic resin produced by Boulder Scientific). Excellent results were obtained for CST inorganic exchangers that could be significant in the development of processes for the near-term pretreatment of Hanford alkaline wastes. The following observations and conclusions resulted from this study: (1) Several CST samples prepared at SNL had a higher capacity to remove Cs from solution as compared to BIB-DJ, IE-96, and CS-100. (2) Cesium distribution results showed that CST samples TAM-40, -42, -43, -70, and -74 had {lambda} values of {approximately}2,200 ({lambda} = Cs K{sub d} {times} {rho}{sub b}; where {lambda} represents the number of exchanger bed volumes of feed that can be loaded on an ion exchange column) at a pH value >14. (3) Cesium distribution values for CST exchangers doubled as the aqueous temperature decreased from 40{degrees} to 10{degrees}C. (4) Crystalline silico-titanates have the capacity to remove Cs as well as Sr and Pu from alkaline wastes unless organic complexants are present. Experimental results indicated that complexed Sr was not removed, and Pu is not expected to be removed.

  16. Emission and transport of cesium-137 from boreal biomass burning in the summer of 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strode, S.; Ott, Lesley E.; Pawson, Steven; Bowyer, Ted W.

    2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    While atmospheric concentrations of cesium-137 have decreased since the nuclear testing era, resuspension of Cs-137 during biomass burning provides an ongoing emission source. The summer of 2010 was an intense biomass burning season in western Russia, with high levels of particulate matter impacting air quality and visibility. A radionuclide monitoring station in western Russia shows enhanced airborne Cs-137 concentrations during the wildfire period. Since Cs-137 binds to aerosols, satellite observations of aerosols and fire occurrences can provide a global-scale context for Cs-137 emissions and transport during biomass burning events.

  17. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  18. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Westmont, IL); Gatsis, John G. (Des Plaines, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  19. Conserve Energy: Modernize Your Solvent Deasphalting Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, J. S.; Gleitsmann, J. W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    refining and salt crystallization. It has also been used for more than 45 years in petroleum refining to recover solvents such as furfural, phenol, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), methyl-ethyl- ketone/toluene mixtures, and other luble oil extraction... recovery is shown in Table I. Calculations were based on charging 1700 BPSD of vacuum residue to obtain a 93 volume percent yield of DAO, operating for 350 days a year. Payouts before taxes are estimated to be 0.9 year for converting to double effect...

  20. Mixed Solvent Electrolyte Model | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,Official FileEnergyAERMOD-PRIME,Department ofMixed Solvent

  1. H{sup -} beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, A.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Tanaka, N. [School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    H{sup -} beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H{sup -} ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents.

  2. Method for destroying halocarbon compositions using a critical solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.; Janikowski, Stuart K.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for destroying halocarbons. Halocarbon materials are reacted in a dehalogenation process wherein they are combined with a solvent in the presence of a catalyst. A hydrogen-containing solvent is preferred which functions as both a solvating agent and hydrogen donor. To augment the hydrogen donation capacity of the solvent if needed (or when non-hydrogen-containing solvents are used), a supplemental hydrogen donor composition may be employed. In operation, at least one of the temperature and pressure of the solvent is maintained near, at, or above a critical level. For example, the solvent may be in (1) a supercritical state; (2) a state where one of the temperature or pressure thereof is at or above critical; or (3) a state where at least one of the temperature and pressure thereof is near-critical. This system provides numerous benefits including improved reaction rates, efficiency, and versatility.

  3. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  4. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, Stephen L. (Harvard, MA); Lee, Eric K. L. (Acton, MA); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Kelly, Donald J. (Bend, OR)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  5. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Zalupski

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  6. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System (DCS). In order to provide user friendly software for the process personnel, the software was broken down into just a few software modules. These software modules are the Application Window, Detector Selection, Detector Configuration Settings, Background Counting, and Routine Data Acquisition. Instructions for using the software have been included in a user's manual that is appended to this report. The work presented in this report meets all of the requirements set forth in the project task plan to design and implement gamma ray monitors for the MCU. Additional setup and testing of the system will be required when it implemented in the process.

  7. Permeation of Tank C-103 sludge simulant by organic solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plan for stabilizing underground storage tanks (USTs) calls for draining the supernate from the tanks; however, there is concern that draining the supernate from Tank C-103 will degrade safety in the tank. The sludge in Tank C-103 contains ranges in depth from 1 to 1.5 m and is covered by both an aqueous phase and a separate organic layer. The main concern is that draining the supernate will cause the solvent to permeate the sludge solids and provide a source of fuel for a fire on the surface of the drained sludge. The question of whether the solvent will permeate sludge that is 1 to 1.5 m deep after the tank is dewatered is the purpose of the tests conducted and described in this report. Evaluation of the solvent permeation mechanism required the preparation of solvent, supernate, and sludge simulants based on the known chemistry of Tank C-103. Solvent and aqueous phase supernate simulants are based on the results of fiscal year 1994 sampling of the tank solvent and supernate. Sludge simulant is based on the chemical analyses of tank sludge samples retrieved in 1986. Experiments were conducted with each simulant to evaluate solvent permeation under matric potentials ranging from 0.8 m to 1.8 m of supernate. The amount of solvent recovered for each experiment was recorded as well as the maximum amount of solvent that could be din the sludge based on solvent recovered from resuspended sludge and solvent not recovered. The wt% of water remaining in the sludge was also recorded for each experiment, which was determined by measuring the weight of the sludge after drying it. One observation noted from the test results is that the finer sludge material tended to have a greater amount of solvent loss compared to the coarser sludge material at comparable levels of vacuum. At this time, there is no explanation.

  8. Strontium and cesium radionuclide leak detection alternatives in a capsule storage pool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, D.E.; Crawford, T.W.; Joyce, S.M.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was performed to assess radionuclide leak-detection systems for use in locating a capsule leaking strontium-90 or cesium-137 into a water-filled pool. Each storage pool contains about 35,000 L of water and up to 715 capsules, each of which contains up to 150 kCi strontium-90 or 80 kCi cesium-137. Potential systems assessed included instrumental chemical analyses, radionuclide detection, visual examination, and other nondestructive nuclear-fuel examination techniques. Factors considered in the assessment include: cost, simplicity of maintenance and operation, technology availability, reliability, remote operation, sensitivity, and ability to locate an individual leaking capsule in its storage location. The study concluded that an adaption of the spent nuclear-fuel examination technique of wet sipping be considered for adaption. In the suggested approoch, samples would be taken continuously from pool water adjacent to the capsule(s) being examined for remote radiation detection. In-place capsule isolation and subsequent water sampling would confirm that a capsule was leaking radionuclides. Additional studies are needed before implementing this option. Two other techniques that show promise are ultrasonic testing and eddy-current testing.

  9. advanced integrated solvent: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rheology of solvent-responsive complex fluids by integrating microrheology and microfluidics Materials Science Websites Summary: 11927.00 12;In order to optimize the...

  10. A study of a solvent extraction desalination process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFerrin, Arthur Ransom

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of possible solvents were carefully evaluated, secondary and tertiary amines of 5 and 6 total carbon atoms were found to have by far the best solvent properties (9, 10, 26). In the developed process, the amine solvent extracts water selectively from salt... water to produce a solvent phase containing considerable water but little salt, and a water phase of increased salt content. The amine has a lower consolute temperature with water, and the fresh ~ster is recovered by heating the extract to a higher...

  11. alternative solvent systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Evaluation of Alternative Solvents for Jatropha Curcas L. Seed Oil Extraction in Biodiesel Production Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: alternatives for conventional...

  12. acetonitrila como solvente: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (CE) was investigated. Nonaqueous solvents used included methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, and molten salts. Both indirect, and (more) Salimi-Moosavi,...

  13. Experimental solution thermodynamics of a ternary solvent/polymer/solvent system by inverse gas chromatography / by Dominic Wai Wah Ching 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ching, Dominic Wai Wah

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the composition and of the orientation parameter y, The negative values of gG (Table V) obtained from this ex- pression indicate that the polymer dissolves in the solvents at this temperature. Third, the orientation parameter y that was determined did not vary... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1978 Major Subjects Chemical Engineering EXPERIMENTAL SOLUTION THERMODYNAMICS OF A TERNARY SOLVENT/POLYMER/SOLVENT SYSTEM BY INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY A Thesis DOMINIC WAI WAH CHING Approved...

  14. Documentation associated with the WESF preparation for receiving 25 cesium capsules from the Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawlak, M.W.

    1996-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to compile all documentation associated with facility preparation of WESF to receive 25 cesium capsules from ARECO. The WESF validated it`s preparedness by completing a facility preparedness review using a performance indicator checklist.

  15. Solvent polarity and nanoscale morphology in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Ajith [Centre for Nano-Bio-Polymer Science and Technology, Department of Physics, St. Thomas College, Pala, Kerala 686574 (India); Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu 641046 (India); Elsa Tom, Anju; Ison, V. V., E-mail: isonvv@yahoo.in, E-mail: praveen@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Centre for Nano-Bio-Polymer Science and Technology, Department of Physics, St. Thomas College, Pala, Kerala 686574 (India); Rao, Arun D.; Varman, K. Arul; Ranjith, K.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C., E-mail: isonvv@yahoo.in, E-mail: praveen@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Karnataka 560012 (India); Vinayakan, R. [Department of Chemistry, SVR NSS College Vazhoor, Kerala 686505 (India)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated under identical experimental conditions, except by varying the solvent polarity used for spin coating the active layer components and their performance was evaluated systematically. Results showed that presence of nitrobenzene-chlorobenzene composition governs the morphology of active layer formed, which is due to the tuning of solvent polarity as well as the resulting solubility of the P3HT:PCBM blend. Trace amount of nitrobenzene favoured the formation of better organised P3HT domains, as evident from conductive AFM, tapping mode AFM and surface, and cross-sectional SEM analysis. The higher interfacial surface area thus generated produced cells with high efficiency. But, an increase in the nitrobenzene composition leads to a decrease in cell performance, which is due to the formation of an active layer with larger size polymer domain networks with poor charge separation possibility.

  16. Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

  17. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

  18. Droplet Formation via Solvent Shifting in a Microfluidic Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajian, Ramin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent shifting is a process in which a non-solvent is added to a solvent/solute mixture and extracts the solvent. The solvent and the non-solvent are miscible. Because of solution supersaturation a portion of the solute transforms to droplets. In this paper, based on this process, we present an investigation on droplet formation and their radial motion in a microfluidic device in which a jet is injected in a co-flowing liquid stream. Thanks to the laminar flow, the microfluidic setup enables studying diffusion mass transfer in radial direction and obtaining well-defined concentration distributions. Such profiles together with Ternary Phase Diagram (TPD) give detailed information about the conditions for droplet formation condition as well as their radial migration in the channel. The ternary system is composed of ethanol (solvent), de-ionized water (non-solvent) and divinyle benzene (solute). We employ analytical/numerical solutions of the diffusion equation to obtain concentration profiles of the component...

  19. Electrostatic Free Energy and its Variations in Implicit Solvent Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Bo

    Electrostatic Free Energy and its Variations in Implicit Solvent Models Jianwei Che , Joachim. The unique set of such concentrations that minimize this free energy are given by the usual Boltzmann. The variation of the electrostatic free energy with respect to the location change of solute-solvent interfaces

  20. Upgrading of solvent extracted athabasca bitumen by membrane ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, B.D.; Hazlett, J.D.; Kutowy, O.; Tweddle, T.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Montreal Road Campus, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R9 (CA))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on solvent extraction processes that have been tested extensively for the separation of bitumen from surface-mineable, oil-bearing deposits. The end result of these processes is a solution of bitumen in a hydrocarbon solvent, usually a light naphtha. The bitumen solution contains only minimal amounts of solids and water; but, because of the constraints of the solid- liquid separation and washing steps, the bitumen concentration in the produced solutions can be quite low. Solvent must be separated from these solutions for recycle back to the extraction step of the process. This is usually accomplished by conventional techniques such as distillation, multiple-effect evaporation, or steam stripping. Sometimes a combination of these techniques is required. As a result of the low bitumen content of the solutions, the energy and capital costs associated with solvent recycle can be substantial. The use of membranes for nonaqueous liquid separations is a recent application of this developing technology. Several patents can be found describing processes for the recovery of solvent used in lube oil dewaxing or the regeneration of used automotive oils. A Japanese company has reported the development of several solvent-stable ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of solids from a number of solvents. The use of spiral-wound polysulfone membranes for the recovery of pentane solvent used in heavy oil deasphalting has been described by an American firm.

  1. The Effect of Solvent on the Analysis of Secondary Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    for OA constituents, were extracted in methanol, d3-methanol, acetonitrile, and d3- acetonitrile that acetonitrile is the preferred solvent for SOA extraction. The use of solvent-analyte reactivity as a tool between mass spectra of the same SOA samples extracted in methanol versus acetonitrile was used

  2. Effect on Non-Uniform Heat Generation on Thermionic Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The penalty resulting from non-uniform heat generation in a thermionic reactor is examined. Operation at sub-optimum cesium pressure is shown to reduce this penalty, but at the risk of a condition analogous to burnout. For high pressure diodes, a simple empirical correlation between current, voltage and heat flux is developed and used to analyze the performance penalty associated with two different heat flux profiles, for series-and parallel-connected converters. The results demonstrate that series-connected converters require much finer power flattening than parallel converters. For example, a ±10% variation in heat generation across a series array can result in a 25 to 50% power penalty.

  3. Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abotsi, G.M.K. [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States); Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere.

  4. Greener Solvent Selection and Solvent Recycling for CO2 Capture Economically removing CO2 from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants would alleviate concerns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    to remove CO2 from dilute gas streams because they have very high affinity for CO2. Unfortunately high solvents that balance high affinity for CO2 with ease of solvent recovery and reuse. Because the numberGreener Solvent Selection and Solvent Recycling for CO2 Capture Economically removing CO2 from

  5. Criteria for cesium capsules to be shipped as special form radioactive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to compile all the documentation which defines the criteria for Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium capsules at the IOTECH facility and Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO) to be shipped as special form radioactive material in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask. The capsules were originally approved as special form in 1975, but in 1988 the integrity of the capsules came into question. WHC developed the Pre-shipment Acceptance Test Criteria for capsules to meet in order to be shipped as special form material. The Department of Energy approved the criteria and directed WHC to ship the capsules at IOTECH and ARECO meeting this criteria to WHC as special form material.

  6. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winslow, C D

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -5/ M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week.

  7. Investigation of Hybrid Steam/Solvent Injection to Improve the Efficiency of the SAGD Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardali, Mojtaba

    2013-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    but also reservoir properties and operational conditions such as operating pressure and injection strategy. Pure heated solvent injection requires significant quantities. A vaporized solvent chamber is not sustainable due to low latent heat of the solvents...

  8. Thermodynamics of the solvent swelling of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, T.K.

    1991-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorption of benzene by the pyridine-extracts of premium Argonne Illinois {number sign}6 coal was studied at several relative vapor pressures at 50{degrees}C and 70{degrees}C. The amount of benzene sorbed by the extract increases linearly or nearly linearly with benzene vapor pressure. The extrapolated lines do not pass through the origin. At low pressures, a dual-mode sorption mechanism is proposed, whereby benzene concurrently fills holes (microvoids) and dissolves into the extract. At higher pressures, we propose that the holes are saturated and that only dissolution is occurring. Dissolution thus increases linearly with pressure of benzene. The heat of dilution, calculated from the change in slope of the curve with temperature, is positive, indicating a endothermic process. This result is in distinct contrast to results obtained previously using pyridine as solvent. The O-methylated extract absorbs considerably more benzene at 50{degrees}C compared to the extract. Again, the sorption curve is linearly, with a slope 1.5 times that of the extract. The increase in slope is consistent with the disruption of hydrogen bonds by O-methylation. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. An approach for solvent selection in extractive distillation systems including safety considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of bioethanol, for which solvents that offer the best cost-safety compromise are identified. Keywords. Extractive distillation; Multiobjective optimization; Process safety; Solvents; Bioethanol 1. Introduction

  10. Co-Solvent Enhanced Production of Platform Fuel Precursors From Lignocellulosic Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Charles Miao-Zi

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THF is a promising green solvent that is relatively non-is a biomass-sourced green solvent with catalytic qualities

  11. Folding of a DNA Hairpin Loop Structure in Explicit SolventUsingRepli...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a DNA Hairpin Loop Structure in Explicit Solvent UsingReplica-Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Folding of a DNA Hairpin Loop Structure in Explicit Solvent...

  12. Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process.

  13. Acetone as a solvent for extraction of cottonseed oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui, In-Wai

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ACETONE AS A SOLVENT FOR EXTRACTION GP COTTONSEED OIL A Thesis In-Wai Hui June 1950 Approval as to style and content recommended c t Head oi' the Department of Chemical Engineering ACETONE AS A SOLVENT FOR EXT "ACTION OF COTTONSEED OIL A... Thesis In-Nai Hui June 1950 ACETONE AS A SOLVENT FOR EXTRACTION QF COTTONSEED OIL A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas Partis1 Fulfillment of the Recuirements for the Degree of Master of Science...

  14. Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweighardt, F.K.

    1986-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process. 4 figs.

  15. Next generation solar bimodal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babanin, V.I.; Ender, A.Y.; Kolyshkin, I.N.; Kuznetsov, V.I.; Sitnov, V.I. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Paramonov, D.V. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal advantages of a solar thermal propulsion system as compared to a conventional chemical propulsion one is high specific impulse which is proportional to the square root of a propellant temperature. Obviously, next generation solar propulsion and bimodal systems must take advantage of high and ultra-high temperatures. This requires use of an appropriate energy conversion system capable to take advantage of high temperature potentially achievable in a solar receiver. High efficiency and power density of a high temperature thermionic converter open new perspectives in the development of advanced bimodal power systems having performance significantly higher than that achievable by the state-of-the-art technology. The paper presents an innovative concept of a cascaded solar bimodal power system with a high temperature Cs-Ba thermionic converter. The paper shows that the use of high temperature Knudsen cesium-barium thermionic converter in a solar bimodal system allows to eliminate thermal insulation sleeve, generate electrical power in the propulsion mode, and precise control thermal state of the solar receiver. In the Cs-Ba thermionic converter an electron instability and high amplitude current oscillations develop. These effects can be used to obtain alternate current power directly in the converter. Possibility and potential advantage of such a generator are discussed.

  16. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  17. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.

    2011-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion Exchange column loading and elution of cesium from spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde resin have been conducted for two potential non-acid eluants -(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}. The results revealed encouraging cesium elution performance. 100% elution was achieved in at most 22 hours ({approx}28 bed volumes) of elution. Elution performance was fairly high at 6 hours ({approx}8 bed volumes) of elution for some of the eluants and also practically comparable to the benchmark acid eluant (HNO{sub 3}). Hence, it is quite possible 100% percent elution will be closer to the 6th hour than the 22nd hour. Elution is generally enhanced by increasing the concentration and pH of the eluants, and combining the eluants.

  18. aqueous organic solvents: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Excel 15 16... Choi, Jihyun 2000-01-01 2 Additional Studies on the Softening of Rigid PVC by Aqueous Solutions of Organic Solvents CiteSeer Summary: This study examined whether...

  19. Integrating Safety Issues in Optimizing Solvent Selection and Process Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Suhani Jitendra

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    ICAS-ProCAMD, and consequence models were integrated into Aspen Plus simulator using a calculator sheet. Upon integrating flammable and toxic hazard modeling, solvents such as 5-nonanone, 2-nonanone and 5-methyl-2-hexanone provide inherently safer...

  20. Improved mass transport efficiency in copper solvent extraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Ross John

    2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis considers methods which can be employed to increase the mass of copper transferred into and out of the organic phase during the load and strip stages of commercial solvent extraction processes. Conventional ...

  1. Solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Holt, Jerrid S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings, the solvent having a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide as constituents. In some embodiments the solvent consists only of miscible constituents. In some embodiments the carbaldehyde is benzaldehyde and in some embodiments the cyclic amide is N-methylpyrrolidone (M-pyrole). An extender may be added to the solvent. In some embodiments the extender is miscible with the other ingredients, and in some embodiments the extender is non-aqueous. For example, the extender may include isopropanol, ethanol, tetrahydro furfuryl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, Gamma-butyrolactone or a caprolactone. In some embodiments a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide are heated and used to separate a urethane bonded to a component.

  2. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells.

  3. Computer-aided rational solvent selection for pharmaceutical crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvents play an important role in crystallization, a commonly used separation and purification technique in the pharmaceutical, chemical and food industries. They affect crystal properties such as particle size distribution, ...

  4. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  5. Heats of dissolution of tar sand bitumen in various solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ensley, E.K.; Scott, M.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissolution of tar sand bitumen from a tar sand matrix was examined using three solvents: (1) dichloromethane, a polar-polarizable solvent; (2) toluene, a nonpolar-polarizable solvent; and (3) hexane, a nonpolar-nonpolarizable solvent. The dichloromethane had the highest dissolution energy, followed by toluene, with hexane having the lowest dissolution energy. These data were combined with heat of dissolution of recovered bitumen and heat of wetting of spent sand to calculate the bonding energy between bitumen and the mineral matrix. The interfacial bonding energy between tar sand bitumen and the mineral matrix was found to be in the region of 0 to 0.09 cal/g of bitumen, which is very small. This conclusion may find application in recovery of energy or bitumen from bitumen-wet tar sand deposits. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Universal iso-density polarizable continuum model for molecular solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunceler, Deniz

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Implicit electron-density solvation models based on joint density-functional theory offer a computationally efficient solution to the problem of calculating thermodynamic quantities of solvated systems from first-principles quantum mechanics. However, despite much recent interest in such models, to date the applicability of such models to non-aqueous solvents has been limited because the determination of the model parameters requires fitting to a large database of experimental solvation energies for each new solvent considered. This work presents an alternate approach which allows development of new solvation models for a large class of protic and aprotic solvents from only simple, single-molecule ab initio calculations and readily available bulk thermodynamic data. We find that this model is accurate to nearly 1.7 kcal/mol even for solvents outside our development set.

  7. The behavior and separation of polystyrene in mixed solvent systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Patrick Neal

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-polar phase selective solubility of modified poly(4-n-alkylstyrene) supports can be measured using fluorescent dyes as catalyst surrogates with thermomorphic and latent biphasic systems. By modifying the solvent compositions in heptane...

  8. Ion exchange columns for selective removal of cesium from aqueous radioactive waste using hydrous crystalline silico-titanates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricci, David Michael

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conscious society. In Hanford, WA, hundreds of underground storage tanks hold tens of millions of gallons of aqueous radioactive waste. This liquid waste, which has a very high sodium content, contains trace amounts of radioactive cesium 137. Since... the material for batch ion exchange of the nuclear waste solution. More research was needed to investigate the material's effectiveness in a column operation. An ion exchange column system was developed to study column performance. The column design...

  9. Isotopic dilution and solvent effect studies using raman difference spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew Norman

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ISOTOPIC DILUTION AND SOLVENT EFFECT STUDIES USING RAMAN DIFFERENCE SPECTROSCOPY A Thesis by ANDREW NORMAN JOHNSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major Subject: Chemistry ISOTOPIC DILUTION AND SOLVENT EFFECT STUDIES USING RAMAN DIFFERENCE SPECTROSCOPY A Thesis by ANDREW NORMAN JOHNSON Approved as to style and content by: Jaan Laane (Chairman of Committee) J. . Bevan...

  10. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, R.N.

    1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

  11. A study of a solvent extraction desalination process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFerrin, Arthur Ransom

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to separate salt from water has been known for decades, it was not investigated for use in desalination until 1953 (21). Since 1953, the Office of Saline Water, Department of Interior has supported an exhaustive study of the solvent extractjon desalinat... water to produce a solvent phase containing considerable water but little salt, and a water phase of increased salt content. The amine has a lower consolute temperature with water, and the fresh ~ster is recovered by heating the extract to a higher...

  12. Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

  13. Initiate test loop irradiations of ALSEP process solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean R. Peterman; Lonnie G. Olson; Rocklan G. McDowell

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the initial results of the study of the impacts of gamma radiolysis upon the efficacy of the ALSEP process and is written in completion of milestone M3FT-14IN030202. Initial irradiations, up to 100 kGy absorbed dose, of the extraction section of the ALSEP process have been completed. The organic solvent used for these experiments contained 0.05 M TODGA and 0.75 M HEH[EHP] dissolved in n-dodecane. The ALSEP solvent was irradiated while in contact with 3 M nitric acid and the solutions were sparged with compressed air in order to maintain aerated conditions. The irradiated phases were used for the determination of americium and europium distribution ratios as a function of absorbed dose for the extraction and stripping conditions. Analysis of the irradiated phases in order to determine solvent composition as a function of absorbed dose is ongoing. Unfortunately, the failure of analytical equipment necessary for the analysis of the irradiated samples has made the consistent interpretation of the analytical results difficult. Continuing work will include study of the impacts of gamma radiolysis upon the extraction of actinides and lanthanides by the ALSEP solvent and the stripping of the extracted metals from the loaded solvent. The irradiated aqueous and organic phases will be analyzed in order to determine the variation in concentration of solvent components with absorbed gamma dose. Where possible, radiolysis degradation product will be identified.

  14. CMPO purity tests in the TRUEX solvent using americium-241

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) Process was developed by E.P. Horwitz and coworkers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to separate the +4, +6, and +3 actinides from acidic aqueous solutions of nuclear wastes. Octyl (phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) is the active actinide complexant used in the TRUEX solvent. CMPO is combined with tributyl phosphate (TBP) in an organic diluent, typically n-dodecane, to form the TRUEX solvent. Small quantities of impurities in the CMPO resulting from: (1) synthesis, (2) acid hydrolysis, or (3) radiolysis can result in actinide stripping problems from the solvent. The impurity, octylphenylphosphinic acid (POPPA), ia a powerful extractant at low acid concentrations which may be formed during CMPO synthesis. Consequently, commercial CMPO may contain sufficient quantities of POPPA to significantly impact the stripping of actinides from the TRUEX solvent. The purpose of these tests was to (1) determine if commercially available CMPO is sufficiently pure to alleviate actinide stripping problems from the TRUEX process and (2) to determine if solvent cleanup methods are sufficient to purify the commercially purchased CMPO. Extraction and solvent cleanup methodologies used by Horwitz and coworkers at ANL were used to determine CMPO purity with {sup 241}Am. The improvement of the americium distribution coefficient in dilute nitric acid resulting from further purifying this CMPO is not significant enough to warrant additional CMPO purifying steps. The commercially purchased CMPO is found to be acceptable to use, as received, in a full-scale TRUEX process.

  15. Simulation of Sediment and Cesium Transport in the Ukedo River and the Ogi Dam Reservoir during a Rainfall Event using the TODAM Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Kurikami, Hiroshi

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011 caused widespread environmental contamination. Although decontamination activities have been performed in residential areas of the Fukushima area, decontamination of forests, rivers, and reservoirs is still controversial because of the economical, ecological, and technical difficulties. Thus, an evaluation of contaminant transport in such an environment is important for safety assessment and for implementation of possible countermeasures to reduce radiation exposure to the public. The investigation revealed that heavy rainfall events play a significant role in transporting radioactive cesium deposited on the land surface, via soil erosion and sediment transport in rivers. Therefore, we simulated the sediment and cesium transport in the Ukedo River and its tributaries in Fukushima Prefecture, including the Ogaki Dam Reservoir, and the Ogi Dam Reservoir of the Oginosawa River in Fukushima Prefecture during and after a heavy rainfall event by using the TODAM (Time-dependent, One-dimensional Degradation And Migration) code. The main outcomes are the following: • Suspended sand is mostly deposited on the river bottom. Suspended silt and clay, on the other hand, are hardly deposited in the Ukedo River and its tributaries except in the Ogaki Dam Reservoir in the Ukedo River even in low river discharge conditions. • Cesium migrates mainly during high river discharge periods during heavy rainfall events. Silt and clay play more important roles in cesium transport to the sea than sand does. • The simulation results explain variations in the field data on cesium distributions in the river. Additional field data currently being collected and further modeling with these data may shed more light on the cesium distribution variations. • Effects of 40-hour heavy rainfall events on clay and cesium transport continue for more than a month. This is because these reservoirs slow down the storm-induced high flow moving through these reservoirs. • The reservoirs play a major role as a sink of sediment and cesium in the river systems. Some amounts of sediment pass through them along with cesium in dissolved and clay-sorbed cesium forms. • Effects of countermeasures such as overland decontamination, dam control and sorbent injection were tentatively estimated. The simulation suggested that overland decontamination and sorbent injection would be effective for decreasing the contamination of water in the reservoir and in the river below the dam.

  16. Benzene Generation Testing for Tank 48H Waste Disposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T

    2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In support for the Aggregation option1, researchers performed a series of tests using actual Tank 48H slurries. The tests were designed to examine potential benzene generation issues if the Tank 48H slurry is disposed to Saltstone. Personnel used the archived Tank 48H sample (HTF-E-03-127, collected September 17, 2003) for the experiments. The tests included a series of three experiments (Tests A, B, and F) performed in duplicate, giving a total of six experiments. Test A used Tank 48H slurry mixed with {approx}20:1 with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle from Tanks 21H and 22H. Test B used Tank 48H slurry mixed with {approx}2.7:1 with DWPF Recycle from Tanks 21H and 22H, while Test F used Tank 48H slurry as-is. Tests A and B occurred at 45 C, while Test F occurred at 55 C. Over a period of 8 weeks, personnel collected samples for analysis, once per week. Each sample was tested with the in-cell gamma counter. The researchers noted a decline in the cesium activity in solution which is attributed to temperature dependence of the complex slurry equilibrium. Selected samples were sent to ADS for potassium, boron, and cesium analysis. The benzene generation rate was inferred from the TPB destruction which is indirectly measured by the in-growth of cesium, potassium or boron. The results of all the analyses reveal no discernible in-growth of radiocesium, potassium or boron, indicating no significant tetraphenylborate (TPB) decomposition in any of the experiments. From boron measurements, the inferred rate of TPB destruction remained less than 0.332 mg/(L-h) implying a maximum benzene generation rate of <0.325 mg/(L-h).

  17. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam. [For access denial

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.

    1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  18. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions are among the waste treatment plans in the DOE-complex. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) is the ion exchange resin selected for use in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). It is also the primary ion exchange material under consideration for SCIX at the Hanford site. The elution step of the multi-step ion exchange process is typically done with 0.5 M nitric acid. An acid eluant is a potential hazard in the event of a spill, leak, etc. because the high-level waste tanks are made of carbon steel. Corrosion and associated structural damage may ensue. Studies are ongoing to explore non-acid elution as an alternative. Batch contact sorption equilibrium screening tests have been conducted with 36 potential non-acid eluants. The sorption tests involve equilibrating each cesium-containing eluant solution with the sRF resin for 48 hours at 25 C in a shaker oven. In the sorption tests, an eluant is deemed to have a high cesium elution potential if it minimizes cesium sorption onto the sRF resin. The top candidates (based on lowest cesium sorption distribution coefficients) include ammonium carbonate, ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate, rubidium carbonate, ammonium acetate, ammonium acetate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate/ammonium hydroxide, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride. The next phase of testing for this work will focus on the following down selected eluants: Ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide. The next testing phase is a confirmation of the elution ability of the selected eluants. It will mimic a typical sRF cesium ion exchange process i.e., sorption or loading, caustic wash, water rinse, and elution via batch contact sorption and quasi column caustic wash/water rinse/elution. Due to corrosion concerns, calcium acetate and magnesium acetate will be tested instead of calcium chloride and magnesium chloride respectively. Nitric acid is for benchmarking since it is the baseline sRF eluant. The information at hand indicates ammonium hydroxide, while a weak base, may hold promise as an effective eluant. Hence, its inclusion among the eluants to be studied despite the fact that it was not tested as a stand-alone eluant earlier.

  19. Solvent extraction and recovery of the transuranic elements from waste solutions using the TRUEX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Schulz, W.W.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level liquid waste is produced during the processing of irradiated nuclear fuel by the PUREX process. In some cases the treatment of metallurgical scrap to recover the plutonium values also generates a nitric acid waste solution. Both waste solutions contain sufficient concentrations of transuranic elements (mostly /sup 241/Am) to require handling and disposal as a TRU waste. This paper describes a recently developed solvent extraction/recovery process called TRUEX (transuranium extraction) which is designed to reduce the TRU concentration in nitric waste solutions to <100 nCi/g of disposed form (1,2). (In the USA, non-TRU waste is defined as <100 nCi of TRU/g of disposed form.) The process utilizes PUREX process solvent (TBP in a normal paraffinic hydrocarbon or carbon tetrachloride) modified by a small concentration of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (abbrev. CMPO). The presence of CMPO enables the modified PUREX process solvent to extract trivalent actinides as well as tetra- and hexavalent actinides. A major feature of the TRUEX process is that is is applicable to waste solutions containing a wide range of nitric acid, salt, and fission product concentrations and at the same time is very compatible with existing liquid-liquid extraction technology as usually practiced in a fuel reprocessing plant. To date the process has been tested on two different types of synthetic waste solutions. The first solution is a typical high-level nitric acid waste and the second a typical waste solution generated in metallurgical scrap processing. Results are discussed. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  1. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clearfield, Abraham

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been determined that poorly crystalline CST and SNT prepared at low temperature (100-150 C) exhibit much faster kinetics in uptake of Sr2+. In-situ X-ray studies has shown that SNT is a precursor phase to the formation of CST. It is possible to form mixtures of CST and SNT in a single reactant mix by control of temperature and time of reaction. It has been found that addition of a small amount of Cs+ to the reactant mix for the preparation of Nb-CST allows formation of the crystals in one day rather than ten days at 200 C. These discoveries suggest that a proper mix of sorbents (SNT, CST, Nb-CST) can be made easily at low cost that would remove all the HLW at the Savannah River site with a single in-tank procedure. The basic science goal in this project is to identify structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The research will then apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations.

  2. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clearfield, Abraham

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been determined that poorly crystalline CST and SNT prepared at low temperature (100-150 deg. C) exhibit much faster kinetics in uptake of Sr2+. 2. In-situ X-ray studies has shown that SNT is a precursor phase to the formation of CST. 3. It is possible to form mixtures of CST and SNT in a single reactant mix by control of temperature and time of reaction. 4. It has been found that addition of a small amount of Cs+ to the reactant mix for the preparation of Nb-CST allows formation of the crystals in one day rather than ten days at 200 deg. C. 5. These discoveries suggest that a proper mix of sorbents (SNT, CST, Nb-CST) can be made easily at low cost that would remove all the HLW at the Savannah River site with a single in-tank procedure. Research Objective The basic science goal in this project is to identify structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The research will then apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations.

  3. Methods for recovering a solvent from a fluid volume and methods of removing at least one compound from a nonpolar solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Wendt, Daniel S.; Petkovic, Lucia M.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing a nonpolar solvent from a fluid volume that includes at least one nonpolar compound, such as a fat, an oil or a triglyceride, is provided. The method comprises contacting a fluid volume with an expanding gas to expand the nonpolar solvent and form a gas-expanded solvent. The gas-expanded solvent may have a substantially reduced density in comparison to the at least one nonpolar compound and/or a substantially reduced capacity to solubilize the nonpolar compound, causing the nonpolar compounds to separate from the gas-expanded nonpolar solvent into a separate liquid phase. The liquid phase including the at least one nonpolar compound may be separated from the gas-expanded solvent using conventional techniques. After separation of the liquid phase, at least one of the temperature and pressure may be reduced to separate the nonpolar solvent from the expanding gas such that the nonpolar solvent may be recovered and reused.

  4. Phase Behavior of Light Gases in Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L., Jr.; Trvedi, N.J., Gao, W.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, our solubility apparatus was refurbished and restored to full service. To test the experimental apparatus and procedures used, measurements were obtained for the solubility Of C0{sub 2} in benzene at 160{degrees}F. Having confirmed the accuracy of the newly acquired data in comparison with our previous measurements and data reported in the literature for this test system, we have begun to measure the solubility of hydrogen in hexane. The measurements for this system will cover the temperature range from 160 to 280{degrees}F at pressures to 2,500 psia. As part of our model evaluation efforts, we examined the predictive abilities of an alternative approach we have proposed for calculating the phase behavior properties of highly non-ideal systems. Using this approach, the liquid phase fugacities generated from an equation of state (EOS) are augmented by a fugacity deviation function correction. The correlative abilities of this approach are compared with those of an EOS equipped with the recently introduced Wong-Sandler (MWS) mixing rules. These two approaches are compared with the current methods for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations, i.e., the EOS (0/0) approach with the van der Waals mixing rules and the split (y/0) approach. The evaluations were conducted on a database comprised of non-ideal low pressure binary systems as well as asymmetric high pressure binary systems. These systems are of interest in the coal liquefaction and utilization processes. The Peng-Robinson EOS was selected for the purposes of this evaluation.

  5. Acute toxicity of organic solvents on Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barahona-Gomariz, M.V.; Sanz-Barrera, F.; Sanchez-Fortun, S. (Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain))

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic solvents can make their way into the environment as industrial wastes and components of pesticide formulation. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic formulations. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic solvents is often unavoidable, since many pesticides and organic pollutants have low water solubility and must be dissolved in organic solvents prior to addition into experimental systems. In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species are of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian test systems. Toxic effects of organic solvents have been tested with a few aquatic species, but information on the comparative toxicity of solvents towards Artemia salina is not available. Artemia salina have, within recent years, gained popularity as test organisms for short-term toxicity testing. Because Artemia salina exhibit rapid development and growth within 48 hr after hatch, their potential as a model organism for toxicology screening has been considered. To do this, synchronous populations of Artemia salina at different development intervals must be available.

  6. Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: Supramolecular Aspects of Solvent Exchange Volume 21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gloe, Karsten [Technischen Universität Dresden] [Technischen Universität Dresden; Tasker, Peter A [ORNL] [ORNL; Oshima, Tatsuya [University of Miyazaki] [University of Miyazaki; Watarai, Hitoshi [Institute for NanoScience Design at Osaka University] [Institute for NanoScience Design at Osaka University; Nilsson, Mikael [University of California, Irvine] [University of California, Irvine

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preface The theme of supramolecular chemistry (SC), entailing the organization of multiple species through noncovalent interactions, has permeated virtually all aspects of chemical endeavor over the past several decades. Given that the observed behavior of discrete molecular species depends upon their weak interactions with one another and with matrix components, one would have to conclude that SC must indeed form part of the fabric of chemistry itself. A vast literature now serves to categorize SC phenomena within a body of consistent terminology. The word supramolecular itself appears in the titles of dozens of books, several journals, and a dedicated encyclopedia. Not surprisingly, the theme of SC also permeates the field of solvent extraction (SX), inspiring the framework for this volume of Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction. It is attempted in the six chapters of this volume to identify both how supramolecular behavior occurs and is studied in the context of SX and how SC is influencing the current direction of SX. Researchers and practitioners have long dealt with supramolecular interactions in SX. Indeed, the use of polar extractant molecules in nonpolar media virtually assures that aggregative interactions will dominate the solution behavior of SX. Analytical chemists working in the 1930s to the 1950s with simple mono- and bidentate chelating ligands as extractants noted that extraction of metal ions obeyed complicated mass-action equilibria involving complex stoichiometries. As chemists and engineers developed processes for nuclear and hydrometallurgical applications in the 1950s and 1960s, the preference for aliphatic diluents only enhanced the complexity and supramolecular nature of extraction chemistry. Use of physical techniques such as light scattering and vapor-pressure measurements together with various spectroscopic methods revealed organic-phase aggregates from well-defined dimers to small aggregates containing a few extractant molecules to large inverse micelles swollen with water molecules. Extraction systems involving long-chain cations such as alkylammonium species or long-chain anions such as sulfonates or carboxylates proved especially prone to extensive aggregate formation. The related phenomenon of third-phase formation in SX systems, long misunderstood, is now yielding to spectroscopic and scattering techniques showing extensive long-range organization. Over the last 50 years, tools for studying the structure and thermodynamics of aggregation have grown increasingly sophisticated, leading to a rich and detailed understanding of what we can now recognize as SC phenomena in SX. In the 1970s and 1980s, the rapid growth of SC elicited a paradigm shift in SX. The influence of SC principles had two major effects on the course of SX research. First, it provided a framework for understanding the supramolecular behavior that was already well appreciated in the field of SX, though earlier without the SC terminology. Second, it provided the conceptual tools to control supramolecular behavior in SX, direct it for intended functionality, and to simplify it. Extraction by designed reagents has been steadily progressing ever since, with commercial applications emerging to successfully validate this approach. With the discovery of crown ethers in the late 1960s, the advancement of extractant design has fruitfully employed the concept of inclusion. While considerable initial progress occurred with such molecules, especially because of their affinity and selectivity for alkali and alkaline earth metals, other molecular platforms such as calixarenes have proven more versatile. Multidentate receptors for partial to full inclusion of cations, anions, ion pairs, as well as neutral species, have now become commonplace for selective extraction. This volume of Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction examines how the principles of SC are being employed both in advancing the design of new highly selective SX systems and in understanding aggregation phenomena in SX systems. Chapter 1 discusses the nature and definition of SC

  7. Solvent dehydration system cuts energy use, improves dewaxed oil yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scalise, J.M.; Button, H.O.; Graves, D.C.

    1984-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent development can be applied in solvent dewaxing plants to reduce energy requirements, simplify operations, reduce maintenance, improve oil yields, and offer capacity gains. Known as the Nofsinger Solvent Dehydration System, this development is being successfully utilized by Ashland Oil Inc. in its Catlettsburg, Ky., refinery to achieve several of these goals. A net savings of approximately $490,000/year was calculated at design throughput. This yields a return on investment of approximately 20% without consideration of any yield effects. Improvements in yield were not included because simultaneous design changes in the unit did not permit Ashland to quantify any yield savings that may have occurred.

  8. Rational enhancement of enzyme performance in organic solvents. Final technical report, 1992--1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klibanov, A.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focused on the following: the dependence of enzymatic activity of several model hydrolases in nonaqueous solvents; control of substrate selectivity of the protease subtilisin Carlsberg by the solvent; control of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of this enzyme in organic solvents by immobilization support; lipase-catalyzed acylation of sugars in anhydrous hydrophobic media; the possibility of accelerating enzymatic processes in organic solvents by certain cosolvents; whether lipase catalysis in organic solvents can be enhanced by introducing interfaces in the in the reaction medium; the structure of proteins suspended in organic solvents; improving enzymatic enantioselectivity in organic solvents; analyzing the plunge in enzymatic activity upon replacing water with organic solvents; and the structural basis for the phenomenon of molecular memory of imprinted proteins in organic solvents.

  9. US Department of Energy, Westinghouse Hanford Company ARECO cesium transportation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to the safe, efficient, and cost-effective transportation of all materials that support its various programs and activities. DOE strives to ensure that hazardous materials (particularly radioactive),hazardous substances, and hazardous mixed waste are handled and transported in compliance with all applicable federal, state,tribal, and local rules and regulations. This plan outlines the activities and responsibilities of DOE and other agencies that will be followed to conclude a significant movement of radioactive cesium (Cs) chloride capsules in a safe and uneventful manner. DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) has directed that Cs capsules manufactured at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) be returned to WESF, located at DOE`s Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Currently, there are 25 Cs capsules at the Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO)facility utilized for the polymerization of wood products in Lynchburg, Virginia, that requires removal as part of the overall Cs capsule return effort. This plan has been prepared in cooperation with member states of the Western Governors` Association (WGA) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB);the Council of State Governments Midwestern Office; and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservations, through whose jurisdictions these shipments will pass, and is an example of DOE-HQ`s commitment to early coordination and substantive involvement in its decision-making processes. This transportation plan identifies responsibilities, requirements,and procedures to ensure the success of the capsule return program. The plan summarizes transportation activities,organizational responsibilities, emergency preparedness guidelines, and other methods for achieving safe transport.

  10. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange for separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penwell, D.L.

    1994-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. The flowsheet also discusses process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs associated with the ion exchange process. It is expected that this flowsheet will evolve as open issues are resolved and progress is made on development needs. This is part of the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. 26 refs, 6 figs, 25 tabs.

  11. 2012 Annual Report: Simulate and Evaluate the Cesium Transport and Accumulation in Fukushima-Area Rivers by the TODAM Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated the application of the time-varying, one-dimensional sediment-contaminant transport code, TODAM (Time-dependent, One-dimensional, Degradation, And Migration) to simulate the cesium migration and accumulation in the Ukedo River in Fukushima. This report describes the preliminary TODAM simulation results of the Ukedo River model from the location below the Ougaki Dam to the river mouth at the Pacific Ocean. The major findings of the 100-hour TODAM simulation of the preliminary Ukedo River modeling are summarized as follows:

  12. Experimental solution thermodynamics of a ternary solvent/polymer/solvent system by inverse gas chromatography / by Dominic Wai Wah Ching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ching, Dominic Wai Wah

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fraction of solvent vapor i in the gas 1 phase. Solving for p. /w gives p. /w. = ['I /(v N )j (R + pB . Qv) Substituting equation 12 into equation 8 gives (12) T (R+PB JT) exp[2/v(y B. +y B. +Y~B. ~)] ( 2 i2 4 (]3) i%3 V M. 2 + 2 + 2 here B = yi... Properties of Solvents. . iV V3. 3. Vi3. 3. 13 19 21 28 4. O 51 Page C. Development of Flory Thermodynamic Equations for Solutions of a Rod-Like Polymer D. Sample Calculations. 53 76 LIST OF TABLES T ABLE Page I Activity Expressions...

  13. Aggregation Behavior of Two Asphaltenic Fractions in Aromatic Solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    Aggregation Behavior of Two Asphaltenic Fractions in Aromatic Solvents Rahoma S. Mohamed* and Anto. The results indicated possible asphaltene aggregation as well as the probable existence of critical micelle fraction. Average molecular areas for asphaltenes adsorbed at different interfaces estimated from surface

  14. ROSE Process Offers Energy Savings for Solvent Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gearheart, J. A.; Nelson, S. R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of solvent is dictated by the nature of the feedstock and the desired specifications for the materials to be produced. In addi tion to residual feedstocks der ived from crude petroleum, oil from tar sands and oil shales, pyrolysis tar residues and tall...

  15. Environmental-control considerations in the production and use of solvent-refined coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.S.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an environmental-control study of the solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. The report complements a previous Argonne report: Assessment of Status of Technology for Solvent Refining of Coal (ANL/ECT-3, Appendix B). The current review separates discussion of environmental control into two broad sections: production of SRC fuels, both solid and liquid, and their utilization. Control technologies are briefly reviewed for the gas, liquid, and solid wastes generated by the production of SRC. For an SRC-I plant, producing solid product, potential waste streams are then identified and discussed in terms of applicable control technologies and promulgated EPA standards. The SRC-production section concludes with a discussion of the biological activity of certain products of an SRC-II plant, producing liquid fuel. The author summarizes recent experimental findings and recommends accelerated research at SRC plants to quantify the effects of biological activity and develop measures needed to reduce those effects. No unusual environmental-control problems have been detected in the combustion of SRC fuels. It is recommended, however, that more SRC combustion studies be made and that the solid and liquid fuels used in them be derived from a variety of parent coals. Such studies will establish the broad data base needed to demonstrate that SRC fuels burn efficiently within environmentally safe limits.

  16. SOLVENT PURIFICATION AND FLUOR SELECTION FOR GADOLINIUM-LOADED LIQUID SCINTILLATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesete, T.; Storm, A.; Hahn, R. L.; Yeh, M.; Seleem, S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The last decade has seen huge progress in the study of neutrinos, elementary sub-atomic particles. Continued growth in the fi eld of neutrino research depends strongly on the calculation of the neutrino mixing angle ?13, a fundamental neutrino parameter that is needed as an indicative guideline for proposed next-generation neutrino experiments. Experiments involving reactor antineutrinos are favored for the calculation of ?13 because their derivation equation for ?13 is relatively simple and unambiguous. A Gd-loaded liquid scintillator (Gd-LS) is the centerpiece of the detector and it consists of ~99% aromatic solvent, ~0.1% Gd, and < 1% fl uors. Key required characteristics of the Gd-LS are long-term chemical stability, high optical transparency, and high photon production by the scintillator. This summer’s research focused on two important aspects of the detector: (1) purifi cation of two selected scintillation solvents, 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene (PC) and linear alkyl benzene (LAB), to improve the optical transparency and long-term chemical stability of the Gd-LS, and (2) investigation of the added fl uors to optimize the photon production. Vacuum distillation and column separation were used to purify PC and LAB, respectively. Purifi cation was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectra and verifi ed in terms of decreased solvent absorption at 430nm. Absorption in PC at 430nm decreased by a factor slightly >10 while the absorption in LAB was lowered by a factor of ~5. Photon production for every possible combination of two solvents, four primary shifters, and two secondary shifters was determined by measuring the Compton-Scattering excitation induced by an external Cs-137 gamma source (E? ~ 662-keV). The ideal shifter concentration was identifi ed by measuring the photon production as a function of shifter quantity in a series of samples. Results indicate that 6g/L p-terphenyl with 150mg/L 1,4-Bis(2-methylstyryl)-benzene (bis-MSB) produces the maximum light yield for PC and 6g/L 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butyl-phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole with 50mg/L bis-MSB optimizes the light yield for LAB. Future work should focus on obtaining the fl uorescence spectra for each of the shifters and studying the optical transparency of the LS as a function of shifter quantity.

  17. Precision lifetime measurement of the cesium $6P_{3/2}$ level using ultrafast pump-probe laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Brian M; Ehrenreich, Thomas; Gearba, Mirela A; Brooke, George M; Scoville, James; Knize, Randy J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the inherent timing stability of pulses from a mode-locked laser, we have precisely measured the cesium $6P_{3/2}$ excited state lifetime. An initial pump pulse excites cesium atoms in two counter-propagating atomic beams to the $6P_{3/2}$ level. A subsequent synchronized probe pulse ionizes atoms which remain in the excited state, and the photo-ions are collected and counted. By selecting pump pulses which vary in time with respect to the probe pulses, we obtain a sampling of the excited state population in time, resulting in a lifetime value of 30.462(46) ns. The measurement uncertainty (0.15%) is larger than our previous report of 0.12% [Phys. Rev. A 84, 010501(R) (2011)] due to the inclusion of additional data and systematic errors. In this follow-up paper we present details of the primary systematic errors encountered in the measurement, which include atomic motion within the intensity profiles of the laser beams, quantum beating in the photo-ion signal, and radiation trapping. Improvements to furt...

  18. Interim salt disposition program macrobatch 6 tank 21H qualification monosodium titanate and cesium mass transfer tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 6 processing. This qualification material was a set of six samples from Tank 21H in October 2012. This sample was used as a real waste demonstration of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests process. The Tank 21H sample was contacted with a reduced amount (0.2 g/L) of MST and characterized for strontium and actinide removal at 0 and 8 hour time intervals in this salt batch. {sup 237}Np and {sup 243}Am were both observed to be below detection limits in the source material, and so these results are not reported in this report. The plutonium and uranium samples had decontamination factor (DF) values that were on par or slightly better than we expected from Batch 5. The strontium DF values are slightly lower than expected but still in an acceptable range. The Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) testing demonstrated cesium removal, stripping and scrubbing within the acceptable range. Overall, the testing indicated that cesium removal is comparable to prior batches at MCU.

  19. Consecutive Solvent Evaporation and Co-Rolling Techniques for Polymer Multilayer Hollow Fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    /toluene (95/5) Polymer Solvents #12;Polymer Preform Fabrication Laboratory Polymer Combinations: · PMMA (n-processed to relieve internal stresses which otherwise lead to tube cracking when exposed to organic solvents #12

  20. Ionic Liquids as an Attractive Alternative Solvent for Thermal Lens Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    in volatile organic solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and hexane. However, the ILs are more,2 Nonpolar, volative organic solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and hexane should provide good

  1. Use of Life Cycle Assessment in Evaluating Solvent Recovery Alternatives in Pharmaceutical Manufacture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savelski, Mariano J.

    was developed to measure the environmental performance of several green solvent recovery alternatives. In a cooperative effort between Pfizer, Inc. and Rowan University, several green solvent recovery methods were

  2. New calorimetric studies of inorganic fluorine compounds. [Silver uranium fluoride, AgUF/sub 6/; cesium fluoroxysulfate, CsSO/sub 4/F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hare, P.A.G.; Flotow, H.E.; Appleman, E.H.; Malm, J.G.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, recently determined enthalpies of formation are presented for two fluorides, silver(I) uranium(V) fluoride, AgUF/sub 6/, and cesium fluoroxysulfate, CsSO/sub 4/F. In addition the derivation of entropy is presented for CsSO/sub 4/F.

  3. Preliminary Three-Dimensional Simulation of Sediment and Cesium Transport in the Ogi Dam Reservoir using FLESCOT – Task 6, Subtask 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a collaborative project on environmental restoration. In October 2013, the collaborative team started a task of three-dimensional modeling of sediment and cesium transport in the Fukushima environment using the FLESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment Contaminant Transport) code. As the first trial, we applied it to the Ogi Dam Reservoir that is one of the reservoirs in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency’s (JAEA’s) investigation project. Three simulation cases under the following different temperature conditions were studied: • incoming rivers and the Ogi Dam Reservoir have the same water temperature • incoming rivers have lower water temperature than that of the reservoir • incoming rivers have higher water temperature than that of the reservoir. The preliminary simulations suggest that seasonal temperature changes influence the sediment and cesium transport. The preliminary results showed the following: • Suspended sand, and cesium adsorbed by sand, coming into the reservoirs from upstream rivers is deposited near the reservoir entrance. • Suspended silt, and cesium adsorbed by silt, is deposited farther in the reservoir. • Suspended clay, and cesium adsorbed by clay, travels the farthest into the reservoir. With sufficient time, the dissolved cesium reaches the downstream end of the reservoir. This preliminary modeling also suggests the possibility of a suitable dam operation to control the cesium migration farther downstream from the dam. JAEA has been sampling in the Ogi Dam Reservoir, but these data were not yet available for the current model calibration and validation for this reservoir. Nonetheless these preliminary FLESCOT modeling results were qualitatively valid and confirmed the applicability of the FLESCOT code to the Ogi Dam Reservoir, and in general to other reservoirs in the Fukushima environment. The issues to be addressed in future are the following: • Validate the simulation results by comparison with the investigation data. • Confirm the applicability of the FLESCOT code to Fukushima coastal areas. • Increase computation speed by parallelizing the FLESCOT code.

  4. Donor solvent coal liquefaction with bottoms recycle at elevated pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauman, Richard F. (Houston, TX); Taunton, John W. (Seabrook, TX); Anderson, George H. (Houston, TX); Trachte, Ken L. (Baytown, TX); Hsia, Steve J. (Friendswood, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein increased naphtha yields are achieved by effecting the liquefaction at a pressure within the range from about 1750 to about 2800 psig in the presence of recycled bottoms and a hydrogen-donor solvent containing at least 0.8 wt % donatable hydrogen. The liquefaction is accomplished at a temperature within the range from about 700.degree. to about 950.degree. F. The coal:bottoms ratio in the feed to liquefaction will be within the range from about 1:1 to about 5:1 and the solvent or diluent to total solids ratio will be at least 1.5:1 and preferably within the range from about 1.6:1 to about 3:1. The yield of naphtha boiling range materials increases as the pressure increases but generally reaches a maximum at a pressure within the range from about 2000 to about 2500 psig.

  5. Investigation of HNO2 Production in Solvent Extraction Organic Phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh R. Martin

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a letter report that was prepared to meet FCR&D level 4 milestone M4FT-14IN0304054, “Investigate HNO2 production in solvent extraction organic phases.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Fundamental Radiation Chemistry FCR&D work package. This document reports on an initial tests performed to follow HNO2 formation in reference flowsheet relevant organic phases.

  6. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both strontium-85 and cesium-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor for strontium-85 with monosodium titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% strontium-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the strontium-85 instantaneous decontamination factor with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the monosodium titanate impregnated membrane cartridges and crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges and co-sintered active crystalline silicotitanate cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of cesium-137 with co-sintered crystalline silicotitanate cartridges. Tests results with crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges for cesium-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semicontinuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  7. Solvent control of crack dynamics in a reversible hydrogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan Baumberger; Christiane Caroli; David Martina

    2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The resistance to fracture of reversible biopolymer hydrogels is an important control factor of the cutting/slicing and eating characteristics of food gels. It is also critical for their utilization in tissue engineering, for which mechanical protection of encapsulated components is needed. Its dependence on loading rate and, recently, on the density and strength of cross-links has been investigated. But no attention was paid so far to solvent nor to environment effects. Here we report a systematic study of crack dynamics in gels of gelatin in water/glycerol mixtures. We show on this model system that: (i) increasing solvent viscosity slows down cracks; (ii) soaking with solvent increases markedly gel fragility; (iii) tuning the viscosity of the (miscible) environmental liquid affects crack propagation via diffusive invasion of the crack tip vicinity. The results point toward the fact that fracture occurs by viscoplastic chain pull-out. This mechanism, as well as the related phenomenology, should be common to all reversibly cross-linked (physical) gels.

  8. Vibrational spectroscopy for online monitoring of extraction solvent degradation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J.; Robinson, T.; Bryan, S.A.; Levitskaia, T.G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-25 Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In our research, we are exploring the potential of online monitoring of the organic solvents for the flowsheets relevant to the used nuclear fuel reprocessing and tributyl phosphate (TBP)- based extraction processes in particular. Utilization of vibrational spectroscopic techniques permits the discrimination of the degradation products from the primary constituents of the loaded extraction solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitates development of the regression models for their quantification in real time and potentially enables online implementation of a monitoring system. Raman and FTIR spectral databases were created and used to develop the regression partial least squares (PLS) chemometric models for the quantitative prediction of HDBP (dibutyl phosphoric acid) degradation product, TBP, and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} extraction organic product phase. It was demonstrated that both these spectroscopic techniques are suitable for the quantification of the Purex solvent components in the presence of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Developed PLS models successfully predicted HDBP and TBP organic concentrations in simulated Purex solutions.

  9. Ethylmethylcarbonate, a promising solvent for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ein-Eli, Y.; Thomas, S.R.; Koch, V. [Covalent Associates Inc., Woburn, MA (United States); Aurbach, D.; Markovsky, B.; Schechter, A. [Bar-Ilan Univ., Ramat Gan (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylmethylcarbonate (EMC) has been found to be a promising solvent for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Graphite electrodes, which are usually sensitive to the composition of the electrolyte solution, can be successfully cycled at high reversible capacities in several Li salt solutions in this solvent (LiAsF{sub 6}, LiPF{sub 6}, etc.). These results are interesting because lithium ions cannot intercalate into graphite in diethyl carbonate solutions and cycle poorly in dimethyl carbonate solutions. To understand the high compatibility of EMC for Li-ion battery systems as compared with the other two open-chain alkyl carbonates mentioned above, the surface chemistry developed in both Li and carbon electrodes in EMC solution was studied and compared with that developed on these electrodes in other alkyl carbonate solutions. Basically, the major surface species formed on both electrodes in EMC include ROLi, ROCO{sub 2}Li, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} species. The uniqueness of EMC as a battery solvent is discussed in light of these studies.

  10. Dielectric anisotropy in polar solvents under external fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahin Buyukdagli

    2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate dielectric saturation and increment in polar liquids under external fields. We couple a previously introduced dipolar solvent model to a uniform electric field and derive the electrostatic kernel of interacting dipoles. This procedure allows an unambiguous definition of the liquid dielectric permittivity embodying non-linear dielectric response and correlation effects.We find that the presence of the external field results in a dielectric anisotropy characterized by a two-component dielectric permittivity tensor. The increase of the electric field amplifies the permittivity component parallel to the field direction, i.e. dielectric increment is observed along the field. However, the perpendicular component is lowered below the physiological permittivity, indicating dielectric saturation perpendicular to the field. By comparison with Molecular Dynamics simulations from the literature, we show that the mean-field level dielectric response theory underestimates dielectric saturation. The inclusion of dipolar correlations at the weak-coupling level intensify the mean-field level dielectric saturation and improves the agreement with simulation data at weak electric fields. The correlation-corrected theory predicts as well the presence of a metastable configuration corresponding to the antiparallel alignment of dipoles with the field. This prediction can be verified by solvent-explicit simulations where solvent molecules are expected to be trapped transiently in this metastable state.

  11. Polymeric Assembly of Gluten Proteins in an Aqueous Ethanol Solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsen Dahesh; Amélie Banc; Agnès Duri; Marie-Hélène Morel; Laurence Ramos

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The supramolecular organization of wheat gluten proteins is largely unknown due to the intrinsic complexity of this family of proteins and their insolubility in water. We fractionate gluten in a water/ethanol (50/50 v/v) and obtain a protein extract which is depleted in gliadin, the monomeric part of wheat gluten proteins, and enriched in glutenin, the polymeric part of wheat gluten proteins. We investigate the structure of the proteins in the solvent used for extraction over a wide range of concentration, by combining X-ray scattering and multi-angle static and dynamic light scattering. Our data show that, in the ethanol/water mixture, the proteins display features characteristic of flexible polymer chains in a good solvent. In the dilute regime, the protein form very loose structures of characteristic size 150 nm, with an internal dynamics which is quantitatively similar to that of branched polymer coils. In more concentrated regimes, data highlight a hierarchical structure with one characteristic length scale of the order of a few nm, which displays the scaling with concentration expected for a semi-dilute polymer in good solvent, and a fractal arrangement at much larger length scale. This structure is strikingly similar to that of polymeric gels, thus providing some factual knowledge to rationalize the viscoelastic properties of wheat gluten proteins and their assemblies.

  12. Oak Ridge K-25 Site chlorinated solvent pollution prevention opportunity assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to identify opportunities to reduce and better manage the use of chlorinated solvents. At the K-25 Site, 67 control areas were examined for their potential use of chlorinated solvents. Of these areas, 27 were found to be using (1) chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubricating; (2) laboratory standards and solvents; and (3) test medium. Current management practices encourage the identification and use of nonhazardous chemicals, including the use of chlorinated solvents. The main pollution prevention principles are source reduction and recycling, and a number of pollution prevention options based on these principles were identified and evaluated as part of this chlorinated solvent PPOA. Source reduction options evaluated for the K-25 Site include the substitution of chlorinated solvents with nonchlorinated solvents. Recycling was identified for those areas that would benefit most from the reuse of the chlorinated solvents in use. The pollution prevention options that offer the greatest opportunity for success at the K-25 Site are the implementation of substitutes at the 10 control areas using chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubrication. A change in the process may be all that is needed to eliminate the use of a chlorinated solvent. Once a decision is made to implement a substitution, the information should be communicated to all shops and laboratories. Another option to consider is the installation of recycling units to recycle the large amounts of methylene chloride used in the analytical sampling procedure.

  13. An assessment of potential health impacts on Utrok Atoll from exposure to cesium-137 (137Cs) and plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, T

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Residual fallout contamination from the nuclear test program in the Marshall Islands is a concern to Marshall Islanders because of the potential health risks associated with exposure to residual fallout contamination in the environment. Scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been monitoring the amount of fallout radiation delivered to Utrok Atoll residents over the past 4 years. This briefing document gives an outline of our findings from the whole body counting and plutonium bioassay monitoring programs. Additional information can be found on the Marshall Islands web site (http://eed.lnl.gov/mi/). Cesium-137 is an important radioactive isotope produced in nuclear detonations and can be taken up from coral soils into locally grown food crop products that form an important part of the Marshallese diet. The Marshall Islands whole body counting program has clearly demonstrated that the majority of Utrok Atoll residents acquire a very small but measurable quantity of cesium-137 in their bodies (Hamilton et al., 2006; Hamilton et. al., 2007a; 2007b;). During 2006, a typical resident of Utrok Atoll received about 3 mrem of radiation from internally deposited cesium-137 (Hamilton et al., 2007a). The population-average dose contribution from cesium-137 is around 2% of the total radiation dose that people normally experience from naturally occurring radiation sources in the Marshall Islands and is thousands of times lower than the level where radiation exposure is known to produce measurable health effects. The existing dose estimates from the whole body counting and plutonium bioassay programs are also well below radiological protection standards for protection of the public as prescribed by U.S. regulators and international agencies including the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claim Tribunal (NCT). Similarly, the level of internally deposited plutonium found in Utrok Atoll residents is well within the range normally expected for people living in the Northern Hemisphere. In addition, the preliminary results of the bioassay program on Utrok Atoll (Hamilton et al., 2007b) provide clear evidence that residents of Utrok Atoll have never acquired a significant uptake of plutonium either through an acute exposure event or from long-term chronic exposure to plutonium in the environment. This information and data should provide a level of assurance to the Utrok Atoll population group and its leadership that the dose contribution from exposure to residual radioactive fallout contamination on Utrok Atoll is very low, and is not likely to have any discernible impact on human health. We also estimate that the dose contribution based on current radiological exposure conditions will not produce any additional cancer fatalities (or any other measurable health condition) above that normally expected to arise in a population group of similar size. The potential risks from any genetic illnesses caused by exposure to residual fallout contamination in the environment will be even lower still. In conclusion, the data and information developed from the radiological protection monitoring program on Utrok appear to support a consensus that it is safe to live on Utrok Atoll. The health risks from exposure to residual fallout contamination on the atoll are minimal when compared with other lifetime risks that people normally experience, and are very small when compared to the threshold where radiation health effects could be either medically diagnosed in an individual or epidemiologically discerned in a group of people.

  14. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesic, B.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  15. The Air or Brayton Cycle Solvent Recovery System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, B. J.

    compressor wheeland a turbi ne wheel are mounted on opposite ends of a common shaft. A counter flow heat exchanger serves to precool the turbine inlet air by heat exchange with the colder turbine exhaust air. This also reheats the cold exhaust air before... it is returned to the oven. Drive energy may be supplied with a gear drive to the shaft or by furnishing the compressor with solvent laden air precompressed to about 10-12 psig. The ai r is compressed to about 2 atmospheres (15-20 psig) before expansion...

  16. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange process for the separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eager, K.M.; Penwell, D.L.; Knutson, B.J.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin to remove cesium from Hanford Tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. Process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs are discussed which relate to the process.

  17. Vapor-liquid equilibria of sulfur dioxide in polar organic solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demyanovich, R.J.; Lynn, S.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for SO/sub 2/ in eight polar organic solvents and three mixtures of organic solvents were investigated over the temperature range 30-95/sup 0/C and over a concentration range of 0.02-0.16 weight fraction of SO/sub 2/. The solvents investigated were N, N-dimethylaniline (DMA); quinoline; the dimethyl ethers of diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, and tetraethylene glycol; the monomethyl ether of diethylene glycol (DGM); tetramethylene sulfone; and tributyl phosphate. The mixed solvents investigated were various mixtures of DMA and DGM. The data were correlated by using the UNIQUAC, NRTL, Wilson, and Henry's law phase-equilibrium models.

  18. Thermoelectric Generators 1. Thermoelectric generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ho Sung

    1 Thermoelectric Generators HoSung Lee 1. Thermoelectric generator 1.1 Basic Equations In 1821 effects are called the thermoelectric effects. The mechanisms of thermoelectricity were not understood. Cold Hot I - -- - - - - -- Figure 1 Electron concentration in a thermoelectric material. #12;2 A large

  19. Methods for recovering a polar solvent from a fluid stream contaminated with at least one polar impurity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Wendt, Daniel S.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing a polar solvent from a fluid volume contaminated with at least one polar impurity, such as a free fatty acid, is provided. The method comprises providing a fluid volume that includes at least one polar impurity dissolved in at least one solvent. The fluid volume is contacted with an expanding gas to remove the at least one solvent. The expanding gas may be dissolved into the at least one solvent in the fluid volume to form a gas-expanded solvent. The immiscibility of the polar impurities in the gas-expanded solvent enables separation of the polar impurities from the gas-expanded solvent. After separation of the polar impurities, at least one of the temperature and pressure may be reduced to separate the solvent from the expanding gas such that the clean solvent may be reused.

  20. Solvent deasphalting effects on whole Cold Lake bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brons, G. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States); Yu, J.M. [Imperial Oil Limited, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent separation of bitumen from the Cold Lake region of Alberta, Canada, into deasphalted oils and asphaltenes has been studied using propane, i-butane, n-butane and n-pentane. The resulting range of deasphalting was from 20 to 50 wt.% of the whole bitumen. An extensive study of the fractions, as a function of yield, has shown how and to what extent volatiles, aromatics, sulfur and metals are distributed between the fractions. It was found that the highest molecular weight asphaltenes have the most impact on the viscous nature of such heavy oils, suggesting that even low levels of deasphalting can have a dramatic impact in reducing viscosity. In addition, thiophenic sulfur is more concentrated in the asphaltenes, but the sulfides, acting as cross-links, may be responsible for the highest molecular weight fractions of the asphaltenes.

  1. Enhanced sampling and applications in protein folding in explicit solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Cheng

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a single-copy tempering method for enhancing sampling in simulating large complex systems. A continuous temperature space random walk is achieved by a Langevin equation, which is guided by a runtime estimate of the thermal average energy through a novel integral identity. We first validated the method in a two-dimensional Ising model and a Lennard-Jones liquid system. Then the method was applied to folding of three small proteins, trpzip2, trp-cage, and villin headpiece in explicit solvent. Within 0.5~1 microsecond, all three systems were folded into atomic accuracy: the alpha carbon root mean square deviation of the best folded conformations from the native states are 0.2 A, 0.4 A, and 0.4 A, for trpzip2, trp-cage, and villin headpiece, respectively.

  2. A low phase noise microwave frequency synthesis for a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    François, B.; Boudot, R. [FEMTO-ST, CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, 26 chemin de l'Epitaphe, 25030 Besançon (France); Calosso, C. E. [INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Danet, J. M. [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS-UPMC, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the development, absolute phase noise, and residual phase noise characterization of a 9.192?GHz microwave frequency synthesis chain devoted to be used as a local oscillator in a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). It is based on frequency multiplication of an ultra-low phase noise 100 MHz oven-controlled quartz crystal oscillator using a nonlinear transmission line-based chain. Absolute phase noise performances of the 9.192?GHz output signal are measured to be ?42, ?100, ?117 dB?rad{sup 2}/Hz and ?129 dB?rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Compared to current results obtained in a state-of-the-art CPT-based frequency standard developed at LNE-SYRTE, this represents an improvement of 8 dB and 10 dB at f = 166 Hz and f = 10 kHz, respectively. With such performances, the expected Dick effect contribution to the atomic clock short term frequency stability is reported at a level of 6.2 × 10{sup ?14} at 1 s integration time, that is a factor 3 higher than the atomic clock shot noise limit. Main limitations are pointed out.

  3. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Enolizations: Solvent-Dependent Mixed Aggregation Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Enolizations: Solvent-Dependent Mixed Aggregation Effects Xiufeng spectroscopic investigations of lithium diisopropylamide-mediated ester enolization in THF, t-BuOMe, HMPA that the metalations by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) homonuclear dimers proceed at nearly solvent-independent rates

  4. "Solvent Usage in Biorefineries Biphasic Dehydration of Xylose to Furfural" Maheen Khan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    to replace THF in this process. Ideally, the solvent would be produced from the biomass as part of an integrated biorefinery. Therefore not relying on external petrochemical supplies and utilizing he renewable of separating the solvent from the furfural. In addition, in the current process the aqueous phase is saturated

  5. Hydrophobic Aided Replica Exchange: an Efficient Algorithm for Protein Folding in Explicit Solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berne, Bruce J.

    Hydrophobic Aided Replica Exchange: an Efficient Algorithm for Protein Folding in Explicit Solvent protein folding in explicit solvent. This method is based on exaggerating the hydrophobic effect understanding of protein folding and misfolding is critical to many problems in computational biology.1 Many

  6. Polymers in poor solvents : loop expansion of irreducible diagrams (II) J. des Cloizeaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    761 Polymers in poor solvents : loop expansion of irreducible diagrams (II) J. des Cloizeaux polydispersion. Abstract. 2014 Properties of polymers in poor solvent are found by calculating irreducible. Expressions are given for the osmotic pressure, the size of a polymer in a solution and the density

  7. Prediction of protein solvent profile using SVR Zheng Yuan1,2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Timothy L.

    Prediction of protein solvent profile using SVR Zheng Yuan1,2, , Timothy L. Bailey1,2, 1 Institute--We describe a support vector regression (SVR) approach to predict the accessible surface area (ASA accuracy in predicting ASA when compared with an earlier method. Keywords--protein; solvent profile

  8. Process for preparing chemically modified micas for removal of cesium salts from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Stephen Frederic (1539 S. Kennicott Dr., Arlington Heights, IL 60005); DeFilippi, Irene (208 E. Edgewood La., Palatine, IL 60067); Gaita, Romulus (6646 Davis Rd., Morton Grove, IL 60053); Clearfield, Abraham (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Lyudmila (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Anatoly (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843)

    2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemically modified mica composite formed by heating a trioctahedral mica in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride having a concentration of at least 1 mole/liter at a temperature greater than 180 degrees Centigrade for at least 20 hours, thereby replacing exchangeable ions in the mica with sodium. Formation is accomplished at temperatures and pressures which are easily accessed by industrial equipment. The reagent employed is inexpensive and non-hazardous, and generates a precipitate which is readily separated from the modified mica.

  9. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  10. Modeling morphology evolution during solvent-based fabrication of organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wodo, Olga

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent-based techniques usually involve preparing dilute blends of electron-donor and electron-acceptor materials dissolved in a volatile solvent. After some form of coating onto a substrate, the solvent evaporates. An initially homogeneous mixture separates into electron-acceptor rich and electron-donor rich regions as the solvent evaporates. Depending on the specifics of the blend and processing conditions different morphologies are typically formed. Experimental evidence consistently confirms that the morphology critically affects device performance. A computational framework that can predict morphology evolution can significantly augment experimental analysis. Such a framework will also allow high throughput analysis of the large phase space of processing parameters, thus yielding insight into the process-structure-property relationships. In this paper, we formulate a computational framework to predict evolution of morphology during solvent-based fabrication of organic thin films. This is accomplished by...

  11. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  12. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  13. Experimentation and application of directional solvent extraction for desalination of seawater and shale gas 'frac' flowback water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinguetl, Kevin (Kevin G.)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently demonstrated directional solvent technique for desalination of water has been tested for desalting seawater and shale gas 'frac' flowback water. The premise behind directional solvent extraction is that when ...

  14. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  15. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY)

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  16. 1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, E

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

  17. A study of substitution solvents in asphalt fume extraction and the effects of heating duration and temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curry, Noel Thomas

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    may be used as substitute solvents for the solvent extraction analytical method for asphalt furres proposed by NlnSH and currently in use by OSHA. Benzene is known to orovide IC0% effic- 1 iency in asphalt fume extraction. The results..., rather than the solvents' effic- iency loss, was responsible for the differences. The importance of the data lies in the fact that the other two test solvents exhibited a consiatency equal to that of benzene. 'Ahile the exact coefficient of any...

  18. Organic solvent soluble oxide supported hydrogenation catalyst precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Finke, Richard G. (Eugene, OR); Saxton, Robert J. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention discloses two polyoxoanion supported metal complexes found to be useful in olefin hydrogenation. The complexes are novel compositions of matter which are soluble in organic solvents. In particular, the compositions of matter comprise A.sub.x [L.sub.n Ir.sup.(I) .multidot.X.sub.2 M.sub.15 M'.sub.3 O.sub.62 ].sup.x- and A.sub.y [L.sub.n Ir.sup.(I) .multidot.X.sub.2 M.sub.9 M'.sub.3 O.sub.40 ].sup.y- where L is a ligand preferably chosen from 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD), ethylene, cyclooctene, norbornadiene and other olefinic ligands; n=1 or 2 depending upon the number of double bonds present in the ligand L; X is a "hetero" atom chosen from B, Si, Ge, P, As, Se, Te, I, Co, Mn and Cu; M is either W or Mo; M' is preferably Nb or V but Ti, Zr, Ta, Hf are also useful; and A is a countercation preferably selected from tetrabutyl ammonium and alkali metal ions.

  19. Presidential Rapid Commercialization Initiative for mixed waste solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D. [Fluor Daniel Fernald, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Sattler, J. [USDOE Fernald Area Office, OH (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has made some major steps in mixed waste treatment which have taken it closer to meeting final remediation goals. However, one major hurdle remains for the FEMP mixed waste treatment program, and that hurdle is tri-mixed waste. Tri-mixed is a term coined to describe low-level waste containing RCRA hazardous constituents along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The prescribed method for disposal of PCBs is incineration. In mixed waste treatment plans developed by the FEMP with public input, the FEMP committed to pursue non-thermal treatment methods and avoid the use of incineration. Through the SITE Program, the FEMP identified a non-thermal treatment technology which uses solvents to extract PCBs. The technology belongs to a small company called Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. A question arose as to how can this new and innovative technology be implemented by a small company at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The answer came in the form of the Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) and the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). RCI is a program sponsored by the Department of commerce (DOC), DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), US EPA and various state agencies to aid companies to market new and innovative technologies.

  20. Optimized Solvent for Energy-Efficient, Environmentally-Friendly Capture of CO{sub 2} at Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farthing, G. A.; Rimpf, L. M.

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this project, as originally proposed, was to optimize the formulation of a novel solvent as a critical enabler for the cost-effective, energy-efficient, environmentally-friendly capture of CO{sub 2} at coal-fired utility plants. Aqueous blends of concentrated piperazine (PZ) with other compounds had been shown to exhibit high rates of CO{sub 2} absorption, low regeneration energy, and other desirable performance characteristics during an earlier 5-year development program conducted by B&W. The specific objective of this project was to identify PZ-based solvent formulations that globally optimize the performance of coal-fired power plants equipped with CO{sub 2} scrubbing systems. While previous solvent development studies have tended to focus on energy consumption and absorber size, important issues to be sure, the current work seeks to explore, understand, and optimize solvent formulation across the full gamut of issues related to commercial application of the technology: capital and operating costs, operability, reliability, environmental, health and safety (EH&S), etc. Work on the project was intended to be performed under four budget periods. The objective of the work in the first budget period has been to identify several candidate formulations of a concentrated PZ-based solvent for detailed characterization and evaluation. Work in the second budget period would generate reliable and comprehensive property and performance data for the identified formulations. Work in the third budget period would quantify the expected performance of the selected formulations in a commercial CO{sub 2} scrubbing process. Finally, work in the fourth budget period would provide a final technology feasibility study and a preliminary technology EH&S assessment. Due to other business priorities, however, B&W has requested that this project be terminated at the end of the first budget period. This document therefore serves as the final report for this project. It is the first volume of the two-volume final report and summarizes Budget Period 1 accomplishments under Tasks 1-5 of the project, including the selection of four solvent formulations for further study.

  1. The Natural Enrichment of Stable Cesium in Weathered Micaceous Materials and Its Implications for 137Cs Sorption.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ELLIOTT, W CRAWFORD; KAHN, BERND; ROSSON, ROBERT; WAMPLER, J MARION; ROSE, SETH E; KROGSTAD, EIRIK J; KAPLAN, DANIEL; ZAUNBRECHER, LAURA

    2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this exploratory project, we are testing two interrelated hypotheses about the sorption of Cs within weathered micaceous materials in subsurface regolith materials from the Savannah River Site (SRS) located on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: 1) that stable cesium has become significantly enriched relative to potassium in subsurface micaceous particles as a result of chemical weathering processes; and 2) that the Cs so present is sufficient to be a major factor determining the ability of the subsurface materials to take up and hold 137Cs. To test these hypotheses, we collected by hand augur soil samples corresponding to soils representative at the SRS: upland regolith (Fuquay series); soils formed on Tobacco Road Sandstone; and, soils formed on Quaternary Alluvium. From our data, the quantification of the amounts of stable cesium concentrated in various sites within 2:1 phyllosilicates by natural processes is highly relevant toward understanding the future sorption of 137Cs by the mica, illite, vermiculite, and hydroxyl interstratified vermiculite (HIV) phases present in the subsurface at and in proximity to SRS. Studying sorption and fixation of Cs in these micaceous phases�¢���� interlayers potentially leads to increased knowledge to the extent that stable Cs resists exchange with ion exchange cations (Mg, NH4, or even alkyl ammonium compounds) and to the extent that Cs can become fixed over the long term. Such knowledge will help in the development of 137Cs remediation strategies for the long-term, which is a critical aspect of the SBR goals. We characterized the mineralogy, K-Ar ages of the soil and soil clay fractions (before and after acid treatment), and alkali element chemistry (K, Rb, Cs) of the clay fractions of soils collected from these three different types of soils. The clay fractions of the Fuquay soils are composed of kaolinite, and hydroxy interstratified vermiculite (HIV). Kaolinite, HIV, quartz, gibbsite and illite are found in the quaternary soils. Leach experiments using 10% nitric acid and 50% nitric acid were performed on �¢���� 62 mesh fractions to show the amounts of Cs and Rb relative to K (Cs/K, Rb/K) that are exchangeable in these soils compared to Coastal Plain micas and upper continental crust. The Cs/K and Rb/K of the leachates are considerably higher relative to both upper continental crust and relative to weathered micas found in Georgia Coast Plain sediments. The K-Ar ages of the clay fractions of five different SRS soil series were ca. 320 Ma. After leaching with nitric acid, the ages of the soil clay fractions were approximately the same as the unleached soil clays. Based on the similarity of these ages to the ages of Coastal Plain micas, the K and Ar remaining after treatment is believed to be enclosed in a relect mica in the HIV phases in the soils. The HIV is likely a mica-HIV intergrade. Based on these data, stable cesium has become significantly enriched relative to potassium in subsurface micaceous particles as a result of chemical weathering processes in the SRS Fuquay soils studied thus far. Our data permit the interpretation describing the sorption of Cs and Rb in an apex site or in a hard to reach hard-to-exchange sorption site during pedogenesis. In terms of testing the second hypothesis, our work is ongoing and we report some preliminary data on Cs-137 and Rb-85 exchange experiments on select SRS Fuquay soils (-2 mm). Our isotopic equilibration experiments using Cs and Rb isotopes in separate exchange experiments show only small amounts of Cs and Rb in the original sample is exchangeable isotopically for a period of a few weeks in acidified conditions. The isotope exchange experiments provide support for our interpretation that pedogenically accumulated Cs (and Rb) occupy sites that are unavailable to exchange or exchange slowly in acid conditions corresponding to present conditions in SRS soils. In more basic solutions, greater exchange isotopic exchange is noted and suggests an expansion of interlay

  2. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashbrook, A.W. , Process Metallurgy I , Solvent Extraction,and Applications to Process Metallurgy, Elsevier ScienceAshbrook, A.W. , Process Metallurgy 1, Solvent Extraction:

  3. Automated apparatus for solvent separation of a coal liquefaction product stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An automated apparatus for the solvent separation of a coal liquefaction product stream that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In use of the apparatus, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control means. The mixture in the filter is agitated by means of ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process.

  4. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tedder, Daniel W. (Marietta, GA)

    1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  5. Ribbon polymers in poor solvents: layering transitions in annular and tubular condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Y. Suzuki; D. R. M. Williams

    2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the structures of a ribbon or ladder polymer immersed in poor solvents. The anisotropic bending rigidity coupled with the surface tension leads ribbon polymers to spontaneous formation of highly anisotropic condensates in poor solvents. Unlike ordinary flexible polymers these condensates undergo a number of distinct layering transitions as a function of chain length or solvent quality, and the size of condensates becomes non-monotonic function of chain length. We show that the fluctuations of the condensates are in general small and these condensates are stable.

  6. alkaline-side solvent extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    than the actual one. Yoram Burak; David Andelman 2000-04-06 210 A study of solvent refining of cottonseed oil by use of a rotating core countercurrent extraction column Texas...

  7. Controlling the assembly of CdS nanorods via solvent and acidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koster, L.J.A.; Khodabakhsh, S.; Greenham, N.C.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    us to cast films from different solvents. By replacing toluene with ethanol or water the rod-rod interactions dominate over rod-substrate interactions, thereby favoring simple hexagonal ordering (2D). When dispersed in water, a net electrostatic...

  8. The effect of solvent on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campo, Karen Kay

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its introduction in 1988, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI) has developed into a useful analytical tool in the biological field. The work presented here focuses on the effect of solvent on MALDI ion yields...

  9. Method for sizing and desizing yarns with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Yonker, Clement R. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard R. (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Bowman, Lawrence E. (Richland, WA); Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of sizing and desizing yarn, or more specifically to a method of coating yarn with size and removing size from yarn with liquid carbon dioxide solvent.

  10. A Polarizable QM/MM Explicit Solvent Model for Computational Electrochemistry in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lee-Ping

    We present a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) explicit solvent model for the computation of standard reduction potentials E[subscript 0]. The QM/MM model uses density functional theory (DFT) to model the ...

  11. Synthesis of controlled release drug device with supercritical CO2 and co-solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, Joshua R.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    for prolonged periods. Made from biodegradable and bioerodable polymers, unwanted side effects and the need of return trips for treatment diminish. However, a usable device must be free of organic solvents normally used to dissolve large drug molecules. Many...

  12. THE EFFECTS OF SOLVENTS ON SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL BELOW ITS PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grens III., Edward A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    48. Table 1. Roland seam coal analyses Proximate analysis: (some ext'racts of Roland seam coal - 4 hours extraction at5. Extraction of Roland seam coal with solvent mixtures for

  13. Molecular insights on the solvent effect of methanol additive in glycine polymorph selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patala, Srikanth

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to improve control and design in organic crystallization, the effect of solvent on polymorph selection has gained tremendous interest in recent years. In this thesis, molecular simulation techniques are used ...

  14. Application of novel methods using synthetic biology tools to investigate solvent toxicity in bacteria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Eugene Kobina Arhin

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxicity of organic solvents to microbial hosts is a major consideration in the economical production of biofuels such as ethanol and especially butanol, with low product concentrations leading to high recovery costs. ...

  15. Droplet-Based Microfluidics for Emulsion and Solvent Evaporation Synthesis of Monodisperse Mesoporous Silica Microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering, UniVersity of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, and School of Engineering and Applied and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading

  16. Comparison of solvents for post-combustion capture of CO2 by chemical absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kothandaraman, Anusha

    Post combustion absorption technologies represent one of the most commercially ready technologies for CO2 capture. Solvent selection is the critical consideration in post-combustion absorption capture technology. In order ...

  17. Safety and Techno-Economic Analysis of Solvent Selection for Supercritical Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamad, Natalie

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis is a primary pathway for gas-to-liquid technology. In order to overcome commercial problems associated with reaction and transport phenomena, the use of supercritical solvents has been proposed to increase chemical...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  19. Method for sizing and desizing yarns with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, J.L.; Yonker, C.R.; Hallen, R.R.; Baker, E.G.; Bowman, L.E.; Silva, L.J.

    1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of sizing and desizing yarn, or more specifically to a method of coating yarn with size and removing size from yarn with liquid carbon dioxide solvent. 3 figs.

  20. Use of once-through treat gas to remove the heat of reaction in solvent hydrogenation processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nizamoff, Alan J. (Convent Station, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein feed coal is contacted with molecular hydrogen and a hydrogen-donor solvent in a liquefaction zone to form coal liquids and vapors and coal liquids in the solvent boiling range are thereafter hydrogenated to produce recycle solvent and liquid products, the improvement which comprises separating the effluent from the liquefaction zone into a hot vapor stream and a liquid stream; cooling the entire hot vapor stream sufficiently to condense vaporized liquid hydrocarbons; separating condensed liquid hydrocarbons from the cooled vapor; fractionating the liquid stream to produce coal liquids in the solvent boiling range; dividing the cooled vapor into at least two streams; passing the cooling vapors from one of the streams, the coal liquids in the solvent boiling range, and makeup hydrogen to a solvent hydrogenation zone, catalytically hydrogenating the coal liquids in the solvent boiling range and quenching the hydrogenation zone with cooled vapors from the other cooled vapor stream.

  1. The effect of solvent on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campo, Karen Kay

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY A Thesis by KAREN KAY CAMPO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1996 Major Subject: Chemistry THE EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY A Thesis by KAREN KAY CAMPO Submitted to Texas A@M University in partial fulfillment...

  2. Generation Planning (pbl/generation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFundingGene ControlsCounselGeneral User Generation

  3. Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon, E-mail: shs3@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible systems.

  4. CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers as novel solvents for CO{sub 2} absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Matthew B; Luebke, David R; Enick, Robert M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desirable properties for an oligomeric CO{sub 2}-capture solvent in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant include high selectivity for CO{sub 2} over H{sub 2} and water, low viscosity, low vapor pressure, low cost, and minimal environmental, health, and safety impacts. The neat solvent viscosity and solubility of CO{sub 2}, measured via bubble-point loci and presented on a pressure?composition diagram (weight basis), and water miscibility in CO{sub 2}-philic solvents have been determined and compared to results obtained with Selexol, a commercial oligomeric CO{sub 2} solvent. The solvents tested include polyethyleneglycol dimethylether (PEGDME), polypropyleneglycol dimethylether (PPGDME), polypropyleneglycol diacetate (PPGDAc), polybutyleneglycol diacetate (PBGDAc), polytetramethyleneetherglycol diacetate (PTMEGDAc), glyceryl triacetate (GTA), polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), and perfluorpolyether (PFPE) that has a perfluorinated propyleneglycol monomer unit. Overall, PDMS and PPGDME are the best oligomeric solvents tested and exhibit properties that make them very promising alternatives for the selective absorption of CO{sub 2} from a mixed gas stream, especially if the absorption of water is undesirable.

  5. MESERAN Test Results for Elimination of Flammable Solvents in Wipe Applications at Pantex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. Benkovich

    2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, efforts have been made within the nuclear weapons complex (National Nuclear Security Administration) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to replace Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated solvents (i.e., flammable, toxic, corrosive, and reactive) and ozone-depleting chemicals (ODC) with more benign alternatives. Within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) sectors, these solvents are used for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. A primary goal of this study is to replace flammable solvents for wiping applications. Two cleaners, including a hydrofluoroether (HFE) and an azeotrope of the HFE and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), have been studied as potential replacements for flammable solvents. Cleaning efficacy, short-term and longterm materials compatibility, corrosion, drying times, flammability, environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues and accelerated aging studies are among the tests that are being conducted and that are used to screen candidate solvents by the interagency team performing this work. The results are compared to the traditionally used isopropyl alcohol, which serves as the baseline cleaner. This report details the results of MESERAN (Measurement and Evaluation of Surfaces by Evaporative Rate ANalysis) testing performed at the Kansas City Plant (KCP) to quantify the cleaning efficacy on samples contaminated with the various contaminants and cleaned by wiping with the various solvents being evaluated.

  6. RESULTS OF IONSIV® IE-95 STUDIES FOR THE REMOVAL OF RADIOACTIVE CESIUM FROM K-EAST BASIN SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL POOL DURING DECOMMISSIONING ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB; BURKE SP

    2008-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report delineates the results obtained from laboratory testing of IONISIV{reg_sign} IE-95 to determine the efficacy of the zeolite for the removal of radioactive cesium from the KE Basin water prior to transport to the Effluent Treatment Facility, as described in RPP-PLAN-36158, IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-95 Studies for the removal of Radioactive Cesium from KE Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Pool during Decommissioning Activities. The spent nuclear fuel was removed from KE Basin and the remaining sludge was layered with a grout mixture consisting of 26% Lehigh Type I/II portland cement and 74% Boral Mohave type F fly ash with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.43. The first grout pour was added to the basin floor to a depth of approximately 14 in. covering an area of 12,000 square feet. A grout layer was also added to the sludge containers located in the attached Weasel and Technical View pits.

  7. Requirements for a Dynamic Solvent Extraction Module to Support Development of Advanced Technologies for the Recycle of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Law; Veronica Rutledge; Candido Pereira; Jackie Copple; Kurt Frey; John Krebs; Laura Maggos; Kevin Nichols; Kent Wardle; Pratap Sadasivan; Valmor DeAlmieda; David Depaoli

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program has been established to create and deploy next generation, verified and validated nuclear energy modeling and simulation capabilities for the design, implementation, and operation of future nuclear energy systems to improve the U.S. energy security. As part of the NEAMS program, Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC's) are being produced to significantly advance the status of modeling and simulation of energy systems beyond what is currently available to the extent that the new codes be readily functional in the short term and extensible in the longer term. The four IPSC areas include Safeguards and Separations, Reactors, Fuels, and Waste Forms. As part of the Safeguards and Separations (SafeSeps) IPSC effort, interoperable process models are being developed that enable dynamic simulation of an advanced separations plant. A SafeSepss IPSC 'toolkit' is in development to enable the integration of separation process modules and safeguards tools into the design process by providing an environment to compose, verify and validate a simulation application to be used for analysis of various plant configurations and operating conditions. The modules of this toolkit will be implemented on a modern, expandable architecture with the flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options while preserving their stand-alone usability. Modules implemented at the plant-level will initially incorporate relatively simple representations for each process through a reduced modeling approach. Final versions will incorporate the capability to bridge to subscale models to provide required fidelity in chemical and physical processes. A dynamic solvent extraction model and its module implementation are needed to support the development of this integrated plant model. As a stand-alone application, it will also support solvent development of extraction flowsheets and integrated safeguards approaches within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) Program. The purpose of this document is to identify the requirements for this dynamic solvent extraction model to guide process modelers and code developers to produce a computational module that meets anticipated future needs.

  8. VOLUME 84, NUMBER 3 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 17 JANUARY 2000 Beyond Optical Molasses: 3D Raman Sideband Cooling of Atomic Cesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuletic, Vladan

    . The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even [1]. Although other techniques, such as evaporative cooling [2], velocity-selective coherent Molasses: 3D Raman Sideband Cooling of Atomic Cesium to High Phase-Space Density Andrew J. Kerman, Vladan

  9. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions using monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST)-laden filter cartridges. Four types of ion exchange cartridge media (CST and MST designed by both 3M and POROX{reg_sign}) were evaluated. In these proof-of-principle tests effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 was observed. However, the experiments were not performed long enough to determine the saturation levels or breakthrough curve for each filter cartridge. POREX{reg_sign} MST cartridges, which by design were based on co-sintering of the active titanates with polyethylene particles, seem to perform as well as the 3M-designed MST cartridges (impregnated filter membrane design) in the uptake of strontium. At low salt simulant conditions (0.29 M Na{sup +}), the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with the 3M-design MST cartridge measured 26, representing the removal of 96% of the Sr-85. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with the POREX{reg_sign} design MST cartridge measured 40 or 98% removal of the Sr-85. Strontium removal with the 3M-design MST and CST cartridges placed in series filter arrangement produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 or 97.6% removal compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 or 99.7% removal of the strontium with the POREX{reg_sign} MST and CST cartridge design placed in series. At high salt simulant conditions (5.6 M Na{sup +}), strontium removal with 3M-designed MST cartridge only and with 3M-designed MST and CST cartridges operated in a series configuration were identical. The instantaneous decontamination factor and the strontium removal efficiency, under the above configuration, averaged 8.6 and 88%, respectively. There were no POREX{reg_sign} cartridge experiments using the higher ionic strength simulant solution. At low salt simulant conditions, the uptake of Cs-137 with POREX{reg_sign} CST cartridge out performed the 3M-designed CST cartridges. The POREX{reg_sign} CST cartridge, with a Cs-137 instantaneous decontamination factor of 55 and a Cs-137 removal efficiency of 98% does meet the Cs-137 decontamination goals in the low salt simulant liquor. The Cs-137 removal with 3M-designed CST cartridge produced a decontamination factor of 2 or 49% removal efficiency. The Cs-137 performance graph for the 3M-designed CST cartridge showed an early cessation in the uptake of cesium-137. This behavior was not observed with the POREX{reg_sign} CST cartridges. No Cs-137 uptake tests were performed with the POREX{reg_sign} CST cartridges at high salt simulant conditions. The 3M-designed CST cartridges, with an instantaneous Cs-137 decontamination factor of less than 3 and a Cs-137 removal efficiency of less than 50% failed to meet the Cs-137 decontamination goals in both the low and high salt simulant liquors. This poor performance in the uptake of Cs-137 by the 3M CST cartridges may be attributed to fabrication flaws for the 3M-designed CST cartridges. The reduced number of CST membrane wraps per cartridge during the cartridge design phase, from 3-whole wraps to about 1.5, may have contributed to Cs-137 laden simulant channeling/by-pass which led to the poor performance in terms of Cs-137 sorption characteristics for the 3M designed CST cartridges. The grinding of CST ion exchange materials, to reduce the particle size distribution and thus enhance their easy incorporation into the filter membranes and the co-sintering of MST with polyethylene particles, did not adversely affect the sorption kinetics of both CST and MST in the uptake of Cs-137 and Sr-85, respectively. In general, the POREX{reg_sign} based cartridges showed more resistance to simulant flow through the filter cartridges as evidenced by higher pressure differences across the cartridges. Based on these findings they conclude that incorporating MST and CST sorbents into filter membranes represent a promising method for the semi-continuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium a

  10. Efficient Regeneration of Physical and Chemical Solvents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tande, Brian; Seames, Wayne; Benson, Steve

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the use of composite polymer membranes and porous membrane contactors to regenerate physical and chemical solvents for capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from synthesis gas or flue gas, with the goal of improving the energy efficiency of carbon capture. Both a chemical solvent (typical for a post-combustion capture of CO{sub 2} from flue gas) and a physical solvent (typical for pre- combustion capture of CO{sub 2} from syngas) were evaluated using two bench-scale test systems constructed for this project. For chemical solvents, polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene membranes were found to be able to strip CO{sub 2} from a monoethanolamine (MEA) solution with high selectivity without significant degradation of the material. As expected, the regeneration temperature was the most significant parameter affecting the CO{sub 2} flux through the membrane. Pore size was also found to be important, as pores larger than 5 microns lead to excessive pore wetting. For physical solvents, polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS)-based membranes were found to have a higher CO{sub 2} permeability than polyvinylalcohol (PVOH) based membranes, while also minimizing solvent loss. Overall, however, the recovery of CO{sub 2} in these systems is low – less than 2% for both chemical and physical solvents – primarily due to the small surface area of the membrane test apparatus. To obtain the higher regeneration rates needed for this application, a much larger surface area would be needed. Further experiments using, for example, a hollow fiber membrane module could determine if this process could be commercially viable.

  11. Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

  12. HEAT OF DISSOLUTION MEASUREMENTS FOR CO2 IN MIXED ALKANOLAMINE SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80 C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  13. HEAT OF DISSOLUTION MEASUREMENTS FOR CO2 IN MIXED ALKANOLAMINE SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80 C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  14. Stability of the solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr to common battery solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, D.J. [Department of Engineering Technology, College of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, 301B Still Gym, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hubaud, A.A. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Vaughey, J.T., E-mail: vaughey@anl.gov [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The stability of the anti-perovskite phase Li{sub 3}OBr has been assessed in a variety of battery solvents. - Highlights: • Lithium stable solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr unstable to polar organic solvents. • Solvation with no dissolution destroys long-range structure. • Ion exchange with protons observed. - Abstract: Recently a new class of solid lithium ion conductors was reported based on the anti-perovskite structure, notably Li{sub 3}OCl and Li{sub 3}OBr. For many beyond lithium-ion battery uses, the solid electrolyte is envisioned to be in direct contact with liquid electrolytes and lithium metal. In this study we evaluated the stability of the Li{sub 3}OBr phase against common battery solvents electrolytes, including diethylcarbonate (DEC) and dimethylcarbonate (DMC), as well as a LiPF{sub 6} containing commercial electrolyte. In contact with battery-grade organic solvents, Li{sub 3}OBr was typically found to be insoluble but lost its crystallinity and reacted with available protons and in some cases with the solvent. A low temperature heat treatment was able to restore crystallinity of the samples; however evidence of proton ion exchange was conserved.

  15. Clostridium acetobutylicum mutants that produce butyraldehyde and altered quantities of solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, P.; Palosaari, N.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spontaneous mutants of Clostridium acetobutylicum NRRL B643 that were resistant to allyl alcohol (AA) were selected and characterized. These mutants contained 10- to 100-fold reduced activities of butanol and ethanol alcohol dehydrogenase. The AA mutants formed two groups and produced no ethanol. Type 1 AA mutants produced significant amounts of a new solvent, butyraldehyde, and contained normal levels of the coenzyme A-dependent butyraldehyde dehydrogenase (BAD). Type 2 AA mutants produced no significant butyraldehyde and lower levels of all solvents, and they contained 45- to 100-fold lower activity levels of BAD. Following ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis, low-acid-producing (Acid/sup -/) mutants were selected and characterized as superinduced solvent producers, yielding more than 99% of theoretical glucose carbon as solvents and only small amounts of acetate and butyrate. Following ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis, 13 sporulation-negative (Spo/sup -/) mutants were characterized; and 3 were found to produce only butyrate and acetate, a minor amount of acetone, and no alcohols. These Spo/sup -/ mutants contained reduced butanol dehydrogenase activity and no BAD enzyme activity. The data support the view that the type 2 AA, the Acid/sup -/, and the Spo/sup -/ mutants somehow alter normal regulated expression of the solvent pathway in C. acetobutylicum.

  16. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  17. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2006-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  18. HEAT OF DISSOLUTION MEASUREMENTS FOR CO2 IN MIXED ALKANOLAMINE SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2005-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  19. Evaluation of solvent-based in situ processes for upgrading and recovery of heavy oil bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duerksen, J.H.; Eloyan, A. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent-based in situ recovery processes have been proposed as lower cost alternatives to thermal processes for recovery of heavy oil and bitumen. Advantages of solvent based processes are: reduced steam requirements, reduced water treating, and in situ upgrading of the produced oil. Lab results and process calculations show that low-pressure, low-energy solvent-based in situ processes have considerable technical and economic potential for upgrading and recovery of bitumen and heavy oil. In a lab flow test using Athabasca tar sand and propane as solvent, 50 percent of the bitumen was recovered as upgraded oil. Relative to the raw bitumen, API gravity increased by about 10{degrees}API, viscosity was reduced 30-fold, sulfur content was reduced about 50 percent, and metals content was also substantially reduced. Process uncertainties that will have a major impact on economics are: (1) oil production rate, (2) oil recovery, (3) extent of in situ upgrading, and (4) solvent losses. Additional lab development and field testing are required to reduce these process uncertainties and to predict commercial-scale economics.

  20. The Effect of Solvent on the Analysis of Secondary Organic Aerosol Using Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Walser, Maggie L.; Dessiaterik, Yury; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Serguei

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent-analyte reactions in organic aerosol (OA) extracts prepared for analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were examined. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced by ozonation of d-limonene as well as several test organic chemicals with functional groups typical for OA constituents were dissolved and stored in methanol, d3-methanol, acetonitrile, and d3-acetonitrile to investigate the extent and relative rates of reactions between analyte and solvent. High resolution ESI-MS showed that reactions of carbonyls with methanol produce significant amounts of hemiacetals and acetals on time scales ranging from several minutes to several days, with the reaction rates increasing in acidified solutions. Carboxylic acid groups were observed to react with methanol resulting in the formation of esters. In contrast, acetonitrile extracts showed no evidence of reactions with analyte molecules, suggesting that acetonitrile is the preferred solvent for SOA extraction. The use of solvent-analyte reactivity as an analytical chemistry tool for the improved characterization of functional groups in complex organic mixtures was also demonstrated. Direct comparison between ESI mass spectra of the same SOA samples extracted in reactive (methanol) versus non-reactive (acetonitrile) solvents was used to estimate the relative fractions of ketones (?38%), aldehydes (?6%), and carboxylic acids (?55%) in d-limonene SOA.

  1. Ions in mixed dielectric solvents: density profiles and osmotic pressure between charged interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan Ben-Yaakov; David Andelman; Daniel Harries; Rudi Podgornik

    2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The forces between charged macromolecules, usually given in terms of osmotic pressure, are highly affected by the intervening ionic solution. While in most theoretical studies the solution is treated as a homogeneous structureless dielectric medium, recent experimental studies concluded that, for a bathing solution composed of two solvents (binary mixture), the osmotic pressure between charged macromolecules is affected by the binary solvent composition. By adding local solvent composition terms to the free energy, we obtain a general expression for the osmotic pressure, in planar geometry and within the mean-field framework. The added effect is due to the permeability inhomogeneity and nonelectrostatic short-range interactions between the ions and solvents (preferential solvation). This effect is mostly pronounced at small distances and leads to a reduction in the osmotic pressure for macromolecular separations of the order 1--2 nm. Furthermore, it leads to a depletion of one of the two solvents from the charged macromolecules (modeled as planar interfaces). Lastly, by comparing the theoretical results with experimental ones, an explanation based on preferential solvation is offered for recent experiments on the osmotic pressure of DNA solutions.

  2. Cesium iodide alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyoun-Ee (Oak Ridge, TN); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transparent, strong CsI alloy havign additions of monovalent iodides. Although the perferred iodide is AgI, RbI and CuI additions also contribute to an improved polycrystalline CsI alloy.

  3. CESIUM EA [EA]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r k C o'IUHopper3 Environmental

  4. CESIUM EA [EA]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r k C o'IUHopper3 Environmental FINDING

  5. Effect of the inner glove environment on permeation rates and breakthrough times of selected solvent/glove combinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathurin, David Ring

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to offer complete protection (that is prevent chemical permeation) against all solvents tested. ( i In addition, the Bureau of Labor's annual survey of occupational injury and illnesses, for the year 1981, reported that approximately 40 percent... test material (18 mil, unsupported natural rubber gloves) was used in combination with six test chemicals (organic solvents). Each solvent/material/environment test combination, was run in triplicate to verify the permeation results. The test...

  6. Comparisons of amine solvents for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture: A multi-objective analysis approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Anita S.; Eslick, John C.; Miller, David C.; Kitchin, John R.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amine solvents are of great interest for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture applications. Although the development of new solvents is predominantly conducted at the laboratory scale, the ability to assess the performance of newly developed solvents at the process scale is crucial to identifying the best solvents for CO{sub 2} capture. In this work we present a methodology to evaluate and objectively compare the process performance of different solvents. We use Aspen Plus, with the electrolyte-NRTL thermodynamic model for the solvent CO{sub 2} interactions, coupled with a multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization to determine the best process design and operating conditions for each solvent. This ensures that the processes utilized for the comparison are those which are best suited for the specific solvent. We evaluate and compare the process performance of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) in a 90% CO{sub 2} capture process from a 550 MW coal fired power plant. From our analysis the best process specifications are amine specific and with those specific, optimized specifications DEA has the potential to be a better performing solvent than MEA, with a lower energy penalty and lower capital cost investment.

  7. FY06 ANNUAL REPORT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PROGRAM PROJECT #95061STRATEGIC DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF INORGANIC SORBENTSFOR CESIUM, STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D

    2006-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic science goal in this project identifies structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The task will apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of new sorbents that will exhibit increased affinity for cesium, strontium and actinide separations. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to nonradioactive separations. During the fifth year of the project our studies focused along the following paths: (1) determination of Cs{sup +} ion exchange mechanism in sodium titanium silicates with sitinikite topology and the influence of crystallinity on ion exchange, (2) synthesis and characterization of novel peroxo-titanate materials for strontium and actinide separations, and (3) further refinements in computational models for the CST and polyoxoniobate materials.

  8. Standard practice for fluorescent liquid penetrant testing using the Solvent-Removable process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for fluorescent penetrant examination utilizing the solvent-removable process. It is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface, such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics and certain nonporous plastics and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a fluorescent penetrant examination solvent-removable process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the fluorescent solvent-removable liquid penetrant examination of materials and parts. Agreement by...

  9. Standard practice for visible penetrant testing using Solvent-Removable process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for visible penetrant examination utilizing the solvent-removable process. It is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics and certain nonporous plastics and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a visible penetrant examination method using the solvent-removable process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the visible, solvent-removable liquid penetrant examination of materials and parts. Agreeme...

  10. Stable isotopic investigations of in situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturchio, N.C.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'The author has made significant progress in developing innovative methods for investigating the mechanism and extent of in situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents. These methods use precise isotopic ratio measurements of chlorine and carbon in reactant and product species in laboratory experiments and in materials from field demonstration sites. Specific tasks completed during FY 1997 include: (1) refinement and publication of a new analytical method for precise determination of chlorine and carbon isotope ratios in chlorinated volatile organic compounds; (2) laboratory experiments involving biological degradation of chlorinated solvents in liquid cultures and soil columns; and (3) use of chlorine and carbon isotope ratios to investigate natural attenuation of trichloroethene at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This work can have immediate impact because it will provide the fundamental basis for a new and cost-effective means of evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of in situ bioremediation schemes for chlorinated organic solvents in soils, vadose horizons, and groundwater plumes.'

  11. Solvent and water/surfactant process for removal of bitumen from tar sands contaminated with clay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guymon, E.P.

    1990-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for removing bitumen from a tar sand contaminated with clay. It comprises: obtaining a tar sand consisting of bitumen and clay mixed with sand; introducing the tar sand into a stripper vessel; dissolving the bitumen with a solvent, the solvent also removing the clay from the sand into a liquid medium formed with the solvent and bitumen; removing the liquid medium from the sand; and washing the sand with water to which a nonionic surface active agent has been added to remove residual bitumen from the sand, the surfactive agent comprising a linear alcohol having carbon atoms within the range on the order of about eight to fifteen carbon atoms and ethoxylate units on the carbon atoms within the range on the order of about two to eight ethoxylate units, the surfactant being present in the water in an effective amount less than about 0.5 percent by volume.

  12. 81891 - A New Class of Solvents for TRU Dissolution and Separation: Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin D. Rogers

    2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the current EMSP funding, solvent extraction technologies based on liquid-liquid partitioning of TRU to an Ionic Liquid phase containing conventional complexants has been shown to be viable. The growing understanding of the role that the different components of an ionic liquid can have on the partitioning mechanism, and on the nature of the subsequent dissolved species indicates strongly that ionic liquids are not necessarily direct replacements for volatile or otherwise hazardous organic solvents. Separations and partitioning can be exceptionally complex with competing solvent extraction, cation, anion and sacrificial ion exchange mechanisms are all important, depending on the selection of components for formation of the ionic liquid phase, and that control of these competing mechanisms can be utilized to provide new, alternative separations schemes.

  13. A Combustion Chemistry Analysis of Carbonate Solvents in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, S J; Timmons, A; Pitz, W J

    2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Under abusive conditions Li-ion batteries can rupture, ejecting electrolyte and other flammable gases. In this paper we consider some of the thermochemical properties of these gases that will determine whether they ignite and how energetically they burn. We show that flames of carbonate solvents are fundamentally less energetic than those of conventional hydrocarbons. An example of this difference is given using a recently developed mechanism for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) combustion, where we show that a diffusion flame burning DMC has only half the peak energy release rate of an analogous propane flame. We find a significant variation among the carbonate solvents in the factors that are important to determining flammability, such as combustion enthalpy and vaporization enthalpy. This result suggests that thermochemical and kinetic factors might well be considered when choosing solvent mixtures.

  14. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with MST impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% Sr-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with co-sintered active MST cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the MST impregnated membrane cartridges and CST impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active MST cartridges and co-sintered active CST cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of Cs-137 with co-sintered CST cartridges. Tests results with CST impregnated membrane cartridges for Cs-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating MST and CST sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semi-continuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  15. Actinide partitioning from actual ICPP dissolved zirconium calcine using the TRUEX solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J. [and others

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TRansUranic EXtraction process (TRUEX), as developed by E.P. Horwitz and coworkers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is being evaluated as a TRU extraction process for Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) wastes. A criteria that must be met during this evaluation, is that the aqueous raffinate must be below the 10 nCi/g limit specified in 10 CFR 61.55. A test was performed where the TRUEX solvent (0.2 M octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO), and 1.4 M tributylphosphate (TBP) in an Isopar-L diluent) was contacted with actual ICPP dissolved zirconium calcine. Two experimental flowsheets were used to determine TRU decontamination factors, and TRU, Zr, Fe, Cr, and Tc extraction, scrub, and strip distribution coefficients. Results from these two flowsheets show that >99.99% of the TRU alpha activity was removed from the acidic feed after three contacts with the TRUEX solvent (fresh solvent being used for each contact). The resulting aqueous raffinate solution contained an approximate TRU alpha activity of 0.02 nCi/g, which is well below the non-TRU waste limit of 10 nCi/g specified in 10 CFR 61.55. Favorable scrub and strip distribution coefficients were also observed for Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239, indicating the feasibility of recovering these isotopes from the TRUTEX solvent. A solution of 0.04 M 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) in 0.04 M HNO{sub 3} was used to successfully strip the TRUs from the TRUEX solvent. The results of the test using actual ICPP dissolved zirconium calcine, and subsequent GTM evaluation, show the feasibility of removing TRUs from the dissolved zirconium calcine with the TRUEX solvent and the deleterious effects zirconium poses with the ICPP zirconium calcine waste. Test results using actual ICPP zirconium calcine reveal the necessity of preventing zirconium from following the TRUs.

  16. Understanding and Managing Generation Y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Kevin

    2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    There are four generations in the workplace today; they consist of the Silent Generation, Baby Boom Generation, Generation X, and Generation Y. Generation Y, being the newest generation, is the least understood generation although marketers...

  17. The effect of pressure upon the equilibrium swelling of cross-linked polymers in nonpolar solvents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, James Kenneth

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE UPON THE EQUILIBRIUM SNELLDJG OF CROSS-LI!KED POLYMERS IN NONPOLAR SOLVENTS A Thesis James Kenneth Hughes Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the reguirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1960 Major Subjecti PhFsics THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE UPON THE ECUILTfSIUM SWELLING OF CROSS-LINKED POLYMERS IN NONPOLAR SOLVENTS A Thesis James Kenneth Hughes Approved as to style ALnd potent by...

  18. Exceptional ion rejection ability of directional solvent for non-membrane desalination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rish, Daniel [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Luo, Shirui; Kurtz, Brien [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Luo, Tengfei, E-mail: tluo@nd.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Center for Sustainable Energy at Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently demonstrated directional solvent extraction (DSE) is promising for very low temperature, membrane-free water desalination. In this paper, we combine atomistic simulations and experimental validation to demonstrate that the currently used directional solvent, decanoic acid, can reject all major salt ions in seawater, with very high rejection rates. The salinities of the DSE recovered water show that ion rejection rates are ?98%–99%—similar to those of the best reverse osmosis membranes. Our test also shows that the DSE process can desalt seawater to produce fresh water that meets drinking water standards.

  19. Sand pack residual oil saturations as affected by extraction with various solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Clarence

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Water Flood Extraction Test (Sand Packs J, K, L, and N) 8. Results of Water Flood Extraction Test (Sand Pack M) TABLES I. Behavior of Oils Mixed with Various Solvents 18 II. Sand and Sand Pack Properties III. Fluid Properties IV. Results of Water... solvents which do not alter the rock-fluM properties. The present work was performed on sand, packs composed of pure ~ Oica sand to provide wetting properties simflar to natural cores and to provide packs with reproducible characteristics. Fluids studied...

  20. Cleaning up our act: Alternatives for hazardous solvents used in cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker, J.D.; Meltzer, M.; Miscovich, D.; Montoya, D.; Goodrich, P.; Blycker, G.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has studied more than 70 alternative cleaners as potential replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene and trichloroethane), hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and Stoddard Solvent), and volatile organic compounds (e.g., acetone, alcohols). This report summarizes LLNL`s findings after testing more than 45 proprietary formulations on bench-scale testing equipment and in more than 60 actual shops and laboratories. Cleaning applications included electronics fabrication, machine shops, optical lenses and hardware, and general cleaning. Most of the alternative cleaners are safer than the solvents previously used and many are nonhazardous, according to regulatory criteria.

  1. Origin of carrier generation in photovoltaic perovskite variant Cs2SnI6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Zewen; Kamiya, Toshio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cs2SnI6 is an air-stable & non-toxic variant of perovskite-type photovoltaic materials. In this letter, stability of intrinsic defects in Cs2SnI6 was examined by density functional theory calculations. We found that iodine vacancy and tin interstitial are the dominant defects, mainly responsible for the intrinsic n-type conductivity in Cs2SnI6. However, the transition levels of the dominant defects are deep, which makes it difficult to achieve high-density n-type doping. Tin vacancy is expected for p-type doping, but it has a very high formation energy > 3.6 eV because of the strong Sn-I covalent bonds and can hardly be generated. Instead, cesium vacancy is formed at an extremely Cs-poor condition and explains already-reported p-type conductivity by SnI2 doping.

  2. Hydrogen Bond Lifetimes and Energetics for Solute/Solvent Complexes Studied with 2D-IR Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Hydrogen Bond Lifetimes and Energetics for Solute/Solvent Complexes Studied with 2D-IR Vibrational@stanford.edu Abstract: Weak hydrogen-bonded solute/solvent complexes are studied with ultrafast two the dissociation and formation rates of the hydrogen-bonded complexes. The dissociation rates of the weak hydrogen

  3. Extending the fast multipole method for charges inside a dielectric sphere in an ionic solvent: High-order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Wei

    Extending the fast multipole method for charges inside a dielectric sphere in an ionic solvent 2007 Abstract As a sequel to our previous paper on extending the Fast Multipole Method (FMM; 78M25; 92B99 Keywords: Method of images; Fast multipole method; Reaction field; Ionic solvent

  4. Bioavailability of Organic Solvents in Soils: Input into Biologically Based Dose-Response Models for Human Risk Assessments - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, R. C.

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compared to dermal exposures with neat or aqueous compound, little is understood about the dermal bioavailability of solvents in soil, dust, sludge, or sediment matrices. Therefore, research in this project was designed to provide an understanding of the influence of various environmental factors on the kinetics and bioavailability of solvent-laden soils.

  5. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR); Ko, Ching-Whan (Fayetteville, AR); Wade, Leslie E. (Corpus Christi, TX); Wikstrom, Carl V. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  6. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  7. Solvent Reorganization Energy and Free Energy Change for Donor/Acceptor Electron Transfer at Micelle Surfaces: Theory and Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Solvent Reorganization Energy and Free Energy Change for Donor/Acceptor Electron TransferVed: April 7, 1998 Theories are presented for calculating the solvent reorganization energy and the free region, and the surrounding water. The free energy change accompanying electron transfer can

  8. Tunable Solvents for Homogeneous Catalyst Recycle Jie Lu, Michael J. Lazzaroni, Jason P. Hallett, Andreas S. Bommarius,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tunable Solvents for Homogeneous Catalyst Recycle Jie Lu, Michael J. Lazzaroni, Jason P. Hallett-0100 A novel class of tunable solvents facilitates recycle of homogeneous catalysts for both economic phase and recycling enzyme-cofactor. Other OATS systems are discussed where the preferential dissolution

  9. Solvent Quality Changes the Structure of G8 PAMAM Dendrimer, a Disagreement with Some Experimental Interpretations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Solvent Quality Changes the Structure of G8 PAMAM Dendrimer, a Disagreement with Some Experimental with our earlier studies on G3-G6 and agrees with the Monte Carlo theory by Welch and Muthukumar of G8 (Macromolecules, 1998, 31, 5892) and the experiments on G5 and G8 PAMAM dendrimer by Topp et al. (Macromolecules

  10. EIS-0069: Solvent Refined Coal-II Demonstration Project, Fort Martin, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to assess the potential environmental, economic and social impacts associated with the construction and short-term operation of a 6,000-tons-per-stream-day-capacity facility that will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the solvent refined coal process at Fort Martin, West Virginia.

  11. Synthesis of charged cyclodextrin highly soluble in organic solvents for enantiomer separations in capillary electrophoresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maldonado, Omar

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of charged cyclodextrin highly soluble in organic solvents was made by exchanging the inorganic counter ion (Na+) of heptakis (2,3-di-Omethyl- 6-O-sulfo)-�²-CD (Na7HDMS) with tetrabutylammonium (TBA+), to produce TBA7HDMS. The same ion...

  12. ORNL/TM-2008/073 CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT-EXTRACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    .S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge: Web site: http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before) representatives, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS) representatives from the following sourceORNL/TM-2008/073 CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT-EXTRACTION MODELING FOR HANFORD INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM

  13. Electrochemical studies of moderately boron doped polycrystalline diamond in non-aqueous solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    Electrochemical studies of moderately boron doped polycrystalline diamond in non-aqueous solvent being marketed [83,84]. The first paper on the electrochemistry of boron doped polycrystalline diamond The electrochemistry of boron doped diamond is currently an active field of research. In the majority of studies

  14. Charting the known chemical space for non-aqueous Lithium-air battery electrolyte solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husch, Tamara

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Li-Air battery is a very promising candidate for powering future mobility, but finding a suitable electrolyte solvent for this technology turned out to be a major problem. We present a systematic computational investigation of the known chemical space for possible Li-Air electrolyte solvents. It is shown that the problem of finding better Li-Air electrolyte solvents is not only - as previously suggested - about maximizing Li+ and O2- solubilities, but about finding the optimal balance of these solubilities with the viscosity of the solvent. As our results also show that trial-and-error experiments on known chemicals are unlikely to succeed, full chemical sub-spaces for the most promising compound classes are investigated, and suggestions are made for further experiments. The proposed screening approach is transferable and robust and can readily be applied to optimize electrolytes for other electrochemical devices. It goes beyond the current state-of-the-art both in width (considering the number of compoun...

  15. Dynamics of Solvent Exchange in Organolithium Reagents. Lithium as a Center of Chirality1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich, Hans J.

    Dynamics of Solvent Exchange in Organolithium Reagents. Lithium as a Center of Chirality1 Hans J slow enough for direct NMR observation.3,4 However, the detailed nature of interactions with ethers advance was the recent report by Lucht and Collum that individual ether solvates of a lithium amide can

  16. Impulsive solvent heating probed by picosecond x-ray diffraction M. Cammarata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    Impulsive solvent heating probed by picosecond x-ray diffraction M. Cammarata European Synchrotron and J. H. Lee Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea Q. Y. Kong European Synchrotron

  17. CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluids as environmentally-friendly processing solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Pierce, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Physical Organic Chemistry Group; Tiefert, K. [Hewlett-Packard Co., Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of integrated circuits involves a number of discrete steps that utilize hazardous or regulated solvents. Environmental, safety and health considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign, solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}) is an excellent choice for IC manufacturing processes since it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, and is compatible with all substrate and metallizations systems. Also, conditions of temperature and pressure needed to achieve the supercritical state are easily achievable with existing process equipment. The authors first describe the general properties of supercritical fluids, with particular emphasis on their application as alternative solvents. Next, they review some of the work which has been published involving the use of supercritical fluids, and particularly CO{sub 2}, as they may be applied to the various steps of IC manufacture, including wafer cleaning, thin film deposition, etching, photoresist stripping, and waste treatment. Next, they describe the research work conducted at Los Alamos, on behalf of Hewlett-Packard, on the use of SCCO{sub 2} in a specific step of the IC manufacturing process: the stripping of hard-baked photoresist.

  18. Production and Characterization of Solvent Exfoliated Thin-Layer Amisha Jinandra,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UG-13 Production and Characterization of Solvent Exfoliated Thin-Layer TiSe2 Amisha exfoliated into quasi two-dimensional systems, comparable to graphene, they exhibit novel properties compared to bulk systems. While mechanical exfoliation is successful at producing thin-layer sheets of many TMDs

  19. Level-Set Variational Implicit-Solvent Modeling of Biomolecules with the Coulomb-Field Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Bo

    (2006) and J. Chem. Phys., 124, 084905 (2006))] of molecular sol- vation is a mean-field free-energy of the electrostatic free energy. Such an approximation is a volume integral over an arbitrary shaped solvent region approach by calculating solvation free energies and potentials of mean force for small and large molecules

  20. Solvent-Promoted Self-Healing Epoxy Materials Mary M. Caruso, David A. Delafuente, Victor Ho,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    , which can lead to cracking of the epoxy resin.2 Microcracks are often contained deep within a structural in an epoxy resin required high-temperature conditions greater than 250 °F (121 °C).4 After fractureSolvent-Promoted Self-Healing Epoxy Materials Mary M. Caruso, David A. Delafuente, Victor Ho, Nancy

  1. Influence of the solvent on the stability of bis(terpyridine) structures1 on graphite2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    . Although electronic structure calculations based on48 density functional theory can reproduce Influence of the solvent on the stability of bis(terpyridine) structures1 on graphite2 Daniela molecular dynamics simulations. As a model system, the sol-9 vation of a bis(terpyridine) (BTP) isomer

  2. Evaluation of Hydration Free Energy by Level-Set Variational Implicit-Solvent Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Bo

    Evaluation of Hydration Free Energy by Level-Set Variational Implicit-Solvent Model with Coulomb free energy but also the polar and nonpolar contributions individually. The correlation between VISM-CFA and experiments is R2 = 0.763 for total hydration free energy, with a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 1

  3. Viscosity and longest relaxation time of semi-dilute polymer solutions. I. Good solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1185 Viscosity and longest relaxation time of semi-dilute polymer solutions. I. Good solvent M expliqués par un modèle de reptation classique. Abstract. 2014 The zero shear viscosity and longest concentration (4 c/c* 70), we find that : 2014 both the relative viscosity ~r and the longest relaxation time TR

  4. Paper supercapacitors by a solvent-free drawing method Guangyuan Zheng,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Paper supercapacitors by a solvent-free drawing method Guangyuan Zheng,a Liangbing Hu,b Hui Wu designed and fabricated supercapacitors by directly drawing graphite on cellulose paper. The supercapacitors show stable long cycling performance and a high areal capacitance of 2.3 mF cmÃ?2 , which is much

  5. Dosimetry by means of the radiation reduction of hemin in aprotic solvents. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Simic, M.G.; Miller, A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron (III) porphyrins when dissolved in certain polar organic solvents are reduced by ionizing radiation. This results in a stable shift of both the Soret (B) and visible (Q) absorption bands, as long as the solution is maintained in a deaerated state, thus affording a means of radiation dosimetry.

  6. Prediction of solvent accessibility and sites of deleterious mutations from protein sequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Prediction of solvent accessibility and sites of deleterious mutations from protein sequence of deleteriousmutationshavepreviouslybeenidentified by stability measurement or functional assay. Of the total of 130 residues predicted as sites of computational biology. Currently, reliable 3D prediction is still limited to the proteins with sig- nificant

  7. authors demonstrate that the new polymer is highly soluble in common organic solvents,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicchitta, Chris

    . & Thelakkat, M. Appl.Phys.Lett. 92, 093302/1 (2008). 10. Cantatore, E. etal. IEEEJ.SolidStateCircuits 42, 84authors demonstrate that the new polymer is highly soluble in common organic solvents stabil- ity. The new material will undoubtedly inspire further work to synthesize other donor­accep- tor

  8. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  9. A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics inIonic Liquids and Neutral Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishart J. F.; Lee, H.Y.; Issa, J.B.; Isied, S.S.; Castner, Jr., E.W.; Pan, Y.; Hussey, C.L.; Lee, K.S.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a 1-N,1-N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine donor, a proline bridge, and a coumarin 343 acceptor. The photoinduced electron-transfer processes are in the inverted regime (-{Delta}G > {lambda}) in all four solvents, with driving forces of -1.6 to -1.9 eV and estimated reorganization energies of about 1.0 eV. The observed electron-transfer kinetics have broadly distributed rates that are generally slower in the ionic liquids compared to the neutral solvents, which also have narrower rate distributions. To describe the broad distributions of electron-transfer kinetics, we use two different models: a distribution of exponential lifetimes and a discrete sum of exponential lifetimes. Analysis of the donor-acceptor electronic coupling shows that for ionic liquids this intramolecular electron-transfer reaction should be treated using a solvent-controlled electron-transfer model.

  10. Study of the surface tension of polymer solutions: theory and experiments in theta solvent conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1035 Study of the surface tension of polymer solutions: theory and experiments in theta solvent interest for experimental measurements. In a previous paper [ 11 ], the surface tension of semi Cedex 05, France (Reçu le 24 fevrier 1983, accepté le 30 mai 1983) Resumé. 2014 La tension superficielle

  11. Cleaning and materials compatibility test results for elimination of flammable solvents in wipe applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Edwin Paul

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, efforts have been made within the nuclear weapons complex (National Nuclear Security Administration) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to replace Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated solvents (i.e., flammable, toxic, corrosive, and reactive) and ozone-depleting chemicals (ODC) with more benign alternatives. Within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) sectors, these solvents are used for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. A primary goal of this study is to replace flammable solvents used in wiping applications. Two cleaners, including a hydrofluoroether (HFE) and an azeotrope of the HFE and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), have been studied as potential replacements for flammable solvents. Cleaning efficacy, short-term and long-term materials compatibility, corrosion, drying times, flammability, environment, safety and health (ES&H) and accelerated aging issues were among the experiments used to screen candidate solvents by the interagency team performing this work. This report presents cleaning efficacy results as determined by the contact angle Goniometer as well as materials compatibility results of various metal alloys and polymers. The results indicate that IPA (baseline cleaner) and the HFE/IPA azeotrope are roughly equivalent in their ability to remove fluorinated grease, silicone grease, and a simulated finger print contaminant from various metal alloys. All of the ASTM sandwich and immersion corrosion tests with IPA, HFE or the HFE/IPA azeotrope on metal alloys showed no signs of corrosion. Furthermore, no deleterious effects were noted for polymeric materials immersed in IPA, HFE, or the HFE/IPA azeotrope.

  12. Modeling morphology evolution during solvent-based fabrication of organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olga Wodo; Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent-based techniques usually involve preparing dilute blends of electron-donor and electron-acceptor materials dissolved in a volatile solvent. After some form of coating onto a substrate, the solvent evaporates. An initially homogeneous mixture separates into electron-acceptor rich and electron-donor rich regions as the solvent evaporates. Depending on the specifics of the blend and processing conditions different morphologies are typically formed. Experimental evidence consistently confirms that the morphology critically affects device performance. A computational framework that can predict morphology evolution can significantly augment experimental analysis. Such a framework will also allow high throughput analysis of the large phase space of processing parameters, thus yielding insight into the process-structure-property relationships. In this paper, we formulate a computational framework to predict evolution of morphology during solvent-based fabrication of organic thin films. This is accomplished by developing a phase field-based model of evaporation-induced and substrate-induced phase-separation in ternary systems. This formulation allows all the important physical phenomena affecting morphology evolution during fabrication to be naturally incorporated. We discuss the various numerical and computational challenges associated with a three dimensional, finite-element based, massively parallel implementation of this framework. This formulation allows, for the first time, to model 3D morphology evolution over large time spans on device scale domains. We illustrate this framework by investigating and quantifying the effect of various process and system variables on morphology evolution. We explore ways to control the morphology evolution by investigating different evaporation rates, blend ratios and interaction parameters between components.

  13. Development of a Conceptual Process for Selective CO{sub 2} Capture from Fuel Gas Streams Using [hmim][Tf2N] Ionic Liquid as a Physical Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basha, Omar M.; Keller, Murphy J.; Luebke, David R.; Resnik, Kevin; P Morsi, Badie I.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ionic Liquid (IL) [hmim][Tf2N] was used as a physical solvent in an Aspen Plus simulation, employing the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (P-R EOS) with Boston-Mathias (BM) alpha function and standard mixing rules, to develop a conceptual process for CO{sub 2} capture from a shifted warm fuel gas stream produced from Pittsburgh # 8 coal for a 400 MWe power plant. The physical properties of the IL, including density, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure and heat capacity were obtained from literature and modeled as a function of temperature. Also, available experimental solubility values for CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, CO, and CH{sub 4} in this IL were compiled and their binary interaction parameters ({delta}{sub ij} and l{sub ij}) were optimized and correlated as functions of temperature. The Span-Wager Equation-of-State EOS was also employed to generate CO{sub 2} solubilities in [hmim][Tf2N] at high pressures (up to 10 MPa) and temperatures (up to 510 K). The conceptual process developed consisted of 4 adiabatic absorbers (2.4 m ID, 30 m high) arranged in parallel and packed with Plastic Pall Rings of 0.025 m for CO{sub 2} capture; 3 flash drums arranged in series for solvent (IL) regeneration with the pressure-swing option; and a pressure-intercooling system for separating and pumping CO{sub 2} up to 153 bar to the sequestration sites. The compositions of all process streams, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency, and net power were calculated using Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that, based on the composition of the inlet gas stream to the absorbers, 95.67 mol% of CO{sub 2} was captured and sent to sequestration sites; 99.5 mol% of H{sub 2} was separated and sent to turbines; the solvent exhibited a minimum loss of 0.31 mol%; and the net power balance of the entire system was 30.81 MW. These results indicated that [hmim][Tf2N] IL could be used as a physical solvent for CO{sub 2} capture from warm shifted fuel gas streams with high efficiency.

  14. Generation gaps in engineering?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, David J. (David Jinwoo)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is much enthusiastic debate on the topic of generation gaps in the workplace today; what the generational differences are, how to address the apparent challenges, and if the generations themselves are even real. ...

  15. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C l , supplP~?~e~~tau no 1, Tome 35, Janvier 1974, page C1-7 A STUDY OF THE HYPERFINE FIELD OF CESIUM IN NICKEL AND IRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OF THE HYPERFINE FIELD OF CESIUM IN NICKEL AND IRON F. N A M A V A R , M. ROTS, H. PATTYN, G. DUMONT and R. C O U,7 ,, 1017/cniz,I'activite IJjBa dans des feuilles de nickel et de fer. Nous avons mesure la correlation dans du nickel. On a cru [I], [2] que la vie nioyenne et le monient magnetique de I'etat 160 ke

  16. Small Generator Aggregation (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section establishes requirements for electricity providers to purchase electricity from small generators, with the goal of ensuring that small electricity generators (those with a nameplate...

  17. Generation to Generation: The Heart of Family Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Robin O

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ageism in the Workplace. Generations Spring, 5. Westman,of caring for multiple generations simultaneously. StronglyGeneration to Generation: The Heart of Family Medicine

  18. Gamma ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  19. Critical adsorption controls translocation of polymer chains through lipid bilayers and permeation of solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens-Uwe Sommer; Marco Werner; Vladimir A. Baulin

    2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo simulations using an explicit solvent model indicate a new pathway for translocation of a polymer chain through a lipid bilayer. We consider a polymer chain composed of repeat units with a given hydrophobicity and a coarse-grained model of a lipid bilayer in the self-organized liquid state. By varying the degree of hydrophobicity the chain undergoes an adsorption transition with respect to the lipid bilayer. Close to the transition point, at a properly balanced hydrophobicity of the chain, the membrane becomes transparent with respect to the chain. At the same time the solvent permeability of the bilayer is strongly increased in the region close to adsorbed chain. Our results indicate that the critical point of adsorption of the polymer chain interacting with the fluctuating lipid bilayer could play a key role for the translocation of molecules though biological membranes.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  1. Unsaturated Phosphazenes as Co-Solvents for Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason K Harrup; Harry W. Rollins; David K. Jamison; Eric J Dufek; Kevin L Gering; Thomas A Luther

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper covers the synthesis and use of a related family of cyclic phosphazene solvents containing terminal unsaturations. A brief synopsis on the synthesis and purification of these compounds is given. Data will be presented that covers physical and chemical properties of the phosphazenes as well as the properties when blended at various level with representative organic carbonate baseline solvents. Cycling data will be presented using commercially available electrode couples (LRMR/C) as well as studies focusing on cell performance at early lifetime as well as after repeated cycles. Conclusions regarding the effect of the unsaturated phosphazene compounds and their interaction with various alkyl carbonates, and their effect on cell performance will be presented.

  2. Master equation of proteins in interaction with implicit or explicit solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collet, Olivier

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical studies of protein folding on lattice models relie on the assumption that water close to amino-acids is always in thermal equilibrium all along the folding pathway. Within this framework, it has always been considered that out-of-equilibrium properties, such as folding time, could be evaluated equivalently from an averaging over a collection of trajectories of the protein with water described eitherexplicitly or through a mean-field approach. To critically assess this hypothesis, we built a two-dimensional lattice model of a protein in interaction with water molecules that can adopt a wide range of conformations. This microscopic description of the solvent has been used further to derive an effective model by averaging over all the degrees of freedom of the solvent. At thermal equilbrium, the two descriptions are rigourously equivalent, predicting the same folded conformation of the protein. The model allows exact calculations of some relaxation properties using the master equations associated to ...

  3. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert T. (Livermore, CA); Jackson, Kenneth J. (San Leandro, CA); Duba, Alfred G. (Livermore, CA); Chen, Ching-I (Danville, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating.

  4. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, R.T.; Jackson, K.J.; Duba, A.G.; Chen, C.I.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants are described. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating. 21 figs.

  5. Partition coefficients of substrates and products and solvent selection for biocatalysis under nearly anhydrous conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhen; Robb, D.A. (Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology)

    1994-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of solvent on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase toward three substrates was studied at a constant water activity of either 0.74 or 0.86. No simple correlation was observed between enzyme activity and log P, but partition coefficients of substrate (P[sub s]) and product (P[sub p]) gave systematic relations with enzyme activity. When initial reaction rates were considered, there was a bell-shaped relationship between enzyme and P[sub s] with an optimal P[sub s] for each substrate. This can be explained by assuming that the solvent affected the enzyme activity primarily by affecting the substrate concentration in the aqueous layer around the catalyst where the enzymic reaction occurs. When long-term reaction rates were considered, a high P[sub p]/P[sub s] ratio was consistent with preservation of enzyme activity.

  6. Solvent-mediated end-to-end assembly of gold nanorods.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; DePrince, E.; Gray, S.; Lin, X.-M.; Pelton, M.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a new method for the bottom-up assembly of anisotropic nanoparticles, showing that alkanethiol molecules can induce controlled end-to-end assembly of gold nanorods in mixed water/acetonitrile solutions. The assembly is driven by solvent-mediated interactions among hydrophobic alkanethiol ligands selectively bound to the ends of the nanorods and among hydrophilic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactants on the sides of the rods. It occurs only when the gold-nanorod samples have been aged for approximately two weeks. We compare the kinetics of solvent-mediated assembly using undecanethiol ligands to assembly processes driven by covalent bonding using {alpha},{omega}-undecanedithiol ligands and processes driven by hydrogen bonding using 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid ligands. Our experiments demonstrate the different assembly mechanisms involved as well as the conditions needed to obtain selective end-to-end assembly.

  7. Extraction of hydrochloric acid from dilute solutions by the use of organic solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandya, Harishkumar Chandulal

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dielectric constant. Benzene was found to be better than carbon tetrachloride. Because of its somewhat acidic nature, chloroform might be expected to stabilize the amine through weak hydrogen bonding and so depress the extrac- tion of the acids... heats of solu- tion which probably result from strong hydrogen bonds, The compounds which tend to form strong hydrogen bonds would preferentially extract acids with solvents like ethers which are electron donors. Glueckauf and McKay (10) noted...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  10. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  11. The breakthrough time and permeation rate of multi-component solvents for selected glove materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Bruce Gustav

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APPENDIX A TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page LIST OF VARIOUS PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RESEARCH SOLVENTS. APPENDIX B 65 LIST OF EQUIPMENT. APPENDIX C ASSEMBLY OF PESCE LAB SALES PERMEATION TEST CELL WITH TEST... the chemicals tested including the permeation rat s and breakthrough times through the glove. Vitron, Butyl and Nitrile Latex are just a few types of The citations used on the following pages follow the style of the American Industrial Hygiene Association...

  12. The effect of the volume of liquid injected on recovery in solvent slug flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowman, Charles Hay

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the effect of slug size on oil recovered. A series of verti. cal displacements was performed on a kerosene- and-water saturated core 10 feet in length, using butane as the solvent and methane as the inert dksplacing medium. Breakthrough recovery was fo... screen snd glass wool in the outlet nipple served to retain all sand within the pipe. Fluids used included technical grade methane, technical grade normal butane as the slug material, and kerosene to represent crude oil. Distilled water served...

  13. PCB extraction from ORNL tank WC-14 using a unique solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, G.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J.; Turner, E.N.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the development work of the Engineering Development Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an organic extraction method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from tank WC-14. Tank WC-14 is part of the ORNL liquid low-level radioactive tank waste system and does not meet new secondary containment and leak detection regulations. These regulations require the tank to be taken out of service, and remediated before tank removal. To remediate the tank, the PCBs must be removed; the tank contents can then be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks before final disposal. The solvent being used for the PCB extraction experiments is triethylamine, an aliphatic amine that is soluble in water below 60{degrees}F but insoluble in water above 90{degrees}F. This property will allow the extraction to be carried out under fully miscible conditions within the tank; then, after tank conditions have been changed, the solvent will not be miscible with water and phase separation will occur. Phase separation between sludge, water, and solvent will allow solvent (loaded with PCBs) to be removed from the tank for disposal. After removing the PCBs from the sludge and removing the sludge from the tank, administrative control of the tank can be transferred to ORNL`s Environmental Restoration Program, where priorities will be set for tank removal. Experiments with WC-14 sludge show that greater than 90% extraction efficiencies can be achieved with one extraction stage and that PCB concentration in the sludge can be reduced to below 2 ppm in three extractions. It is anticipated that three extractions will be necessary to reduce the PCB concentration to below 2 ppm during field applications. The experiments conducted with tank WC-14 sludge transferred less than 0.03% of the original alpha contamination and less than 0.002% of the original beta contamination.

  14. Passivating ligand and solvent contributions to the electronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Crotty, A.; Kilina, S.; Ivanov, I.; Tretiak, S

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine in detail the impact of passivating ligands (i.e., amines, phosphines, phosphine oxides and pyridines) on the electronic and optical spectra of Cd{sub 33}Se{sub 33} quantum dots (QDs) using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) quantum-chemical methodologies. Most ligand orbitals are found deep inside in the valence and conduction bands of the QD, with pyridine being an exception by introducing new states close to the conduction band edge. Importantly, all ligands contribute states which are highly delocalized over both the QD surface and ligands, forming hybridized orbitals rather than ligand-localized trap states. In contrast, the states close to the band gap are delocalized over the QD atoms only and define the lower energy absorption spectra. The random detachment of one of ligands from the QD surface results in the appearance of a highly localized unoccupied state inside the energy gap of the QD. Such changes in the electronic structure are correlated with the respective QD-ligand binding energy and steric ligand-ligand interactions. Polar solvent significantly reduces both effects leading to delocalization and stabilization of the surface states. Thus, trap and surface states are substantially eliminated by the solvent. Polar solvent also blue-shifts (e.g., 0.3-0.4 eV in acetonitrile) the calculated absorption spectra. This shift increases with an increase of the dielectric constant of the solvent. We also found that the approximate single-particle Kohn-Sham (KS) approach is adequate for calculating the absorption spectra of the ligated QDs. Besides a systematic blue-shift, the KS spectra are in very good agreement with their respective counterparts calculated with the more accurate TDDFT method.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  16. A comparison of lipase-catalyzed ester hydrolysis in reverse micelles, organic solvents, and biphase systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, F.; Russell, A.J. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of lipases from Candida rugosa and wheat germ have been investigated in three reaction media using three acetate hydrolyses as model reactions (ethyl acetate, allyl acetate, and prenyl acetate). The effect of substrate properties and water content were studied for each system (organic solvent, biphasic system, and reverse micelles). Not unexpectedly, the effect of water content is distinct for each system, and the optimal water content for enzyme activity is not always the same as that for productivity. A theoretical model has been used to simulate and predict enzyme performance in reverse micelles, and a proposed partitioning model for biphasic systems agrees well with experimental results. While the highest activities observed were in the micellar system, productivity in microemulsions is limited by low enzyme concentrations. Biphasic systems, however, support relatively good activity and productivity. The addition of water to dry organic solvents, combined with the dispersion of lyophilized enzyme powders in the solvent, resulted in significant enzyme aggregation, which not surprisingly limits the applicability of the ``anhydrous`` enzyme suspension approach.

  17. Coupling a transient solvent extraction module with the separations and safeguards performance model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaoli, David W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Birdwell, Joseph F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Gauld, Ian C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Cipiti, Benjamin B.; de Almeida, Valmor F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of codes have been developed in the past for safeguards analysis, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  18. Preliminary studies on the recovery of bitumen from Nigerian tar sands: I. Beneficiation and solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ademodi, B.; Oshinowo, T.; Sanni, S.A.; Dawodu, O.F.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent extraction of bitumen from Nigerian tar sands using toluene has been investigated. Pulverization of the tar sands followed by agglomeration in a mechanical shaker resulted in spherical agglomerates having higher bitumen contents than the mined tar sand. The extent of beneficiation was 4% and 19% for the high grade and low grade sands, respectively. Temperature, agitation, and tar sand/solvent (S/L) ratios were found to be significant variables affecting the dissolution of bitumen from the sand. S/L ratio has the greatest effect on extraction efficiency. The rate of bitumen extraction, expressed as extractability eta* showed great dependence on agitation. About 16- and 15-fold increases in extractability were obtained for S/L ratios of 1/20 and 1/5 respectively for a 2.8 fold increase in agitation. At the initial stages of extraction, asphaltene content of the bitumen extracted at 50/sup 0/C was less than that in the bitumen extracted at 25/sup 0/C. This finding could have significant implications for the overall economics of upgrading processes. A high extraction efficiency of about 99% was obtained with stagewise extraction at high tar sand/solvent ratios.

  19. Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Eckert; Charles Liotta

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

  20. Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, Charles; Liotta, Charles

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

  1. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  2. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  3. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  4. Solvent Effects on Structure and Reaction Mechanism: A Theoretical Study of [2 + 2] Polar Cycloaddition between Ketene and Imine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    self- consistent reaction field (SCRF) model.3-20 A general conclu- sion is that polar solvents] cycloadditions emerge as unusually challenging reactions for computational study. For instance, SCRF and the more

  5. Click grafting of seaweed bioactive polysaccharides onto PVC surfaces using ionic liquid as green solvent and catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Click grafting of seaweed bioactive polysaccharides onto PVC surfaces using ionic liquid as green solvent and catalyst Sandra Bigota , Guy Louarnb , Nasreddine Kébir*a and Fabrice Burela a Normandie

  6. Fabrication and characterization of poly(L-lactic acid) gels induced by fibrous complex crystallization with solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Yasuhiro [ORNL; Fukatsu, Akinobu [Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan; Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Miyamoto, Kazuaki [Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tasaka, Shigeru [Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex crystal induced gelation of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) solutions was studied for a series of solvents, including N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). By cooling the solutions prepared at elevated temperatures, PLLA gels were produced in solvents that induced complex crystals ( -crystals) with PLLA. Fibrous structure of PLLA in the gel with DMF was observed by polarizing optical microscopy, field emission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Upon heating, the crystal form of PLLA in the DMF gel changed from -crystal to a-crystal, the major crystal form in common untreated PLLA films, but the morphology and high elastic modulus of the gel remained until the a-crystal dissolved at higher temperature. In addition, a solvent exchanging method was developed, which allowed PLLA gels to be prepared in other useful solvents that do not induce -crystals without losing the morphology and mechanical properties.

  7. Effects of partial charge-transfer solute -- solvent interactions in absorption spectra of aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous and alcoholic solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Ar'ev; N. I. Lebovka; E. A. Solovieva

    2013-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for study of charge-transfer interactions between solute molecules and solvent based on the comparison of the ratios of spectral shifts of different electronic transitions in solute molecules in chemically inert solvent is proposed. The method is applicable to molecules that do not change their dipole moment on excitation. As an example, a presence of charge transfer interactions in higher electronic states of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, phenanthrene, and naphthalene) dissolved in water and alcohols was demonstrated.

  8. Reaction rate prediction for elementary reactions in binary mixed solvents assuming an additive solvation of reactant(s)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Woert, Howard Clark

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACTION RATE PREDICTION FOR ELEMENTARY REACTIONS IN BINARY MIXED SOLVENTS ASSUMING AN ADDITIVE SOLVATION OF REACTANT(S) A Thesis by HOWARD CLARK VAN WOERT, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkN University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Chemistry REACTION RATE PREDICTION FOR ELEMENTARY REACTIONS IN BINARY MIXED SOLVENTS ASSUMING AN ADDITIVE SOLVATION OF REACTANT(S) A Thesis HOWARD CLARK VAN WOERT, JR. Approved...

  9. Solvent viscosity effect on quenching rate constants of phenophytin a fluorescence by quinones. Role of non-stationary effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapinus, E.I.; Dilung II.; Kucherova, I.Y.; Kuz'min, M.G.; Zartsev, N.K.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fluorescence quenching of phenophytin a by quinones in different solvents has been studied with a steady-state and pulse photoexcitation. The quenching in alcohols is caused by complexes which are spectrally undetectable. In other solvents the quenching is dynamic. The effect of viscosity on the quenching rate has been studied. It has been found that the non-stationary effects play a substantial role in the quenching process.

  10. Hybrid Solvent-Membrane CO2 Capture: A Solvent/Membrane Hybrid Post-combustion CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: The University of Kentucky is developing a hybrid approach to capturing CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants. In the first, CO2 is removed as flue gas is passed through an aqueous ammonium-based solvent. In the second, carbon-rich solution from the CO2 absorber is passed through a membrane that is designed to selectively transport the bound carbon, enhancing its concentration on the permeate side. The team’s approach would combine the best of both membrane- and solventbased carbon capture technologies. Under the ARPA-E award, the team is enabling the membrane operation to be a drop-in solution.

  11. Impact of solvent quality on the density profiles of looped triblock copolymer brushes by neutron reflectivity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alonzo, Jose [Clemson University; Liu, Ming [ORNL; Ji, Haining [ORNL; Yin, Fang [University of Utah; Smith, Grant [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preferential adsorption of poly(2-vinylpyridine)-deuterated polystyrene-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PVP-dPS-PVP) triblock copolymers from toluene onto silicon leads to the formation of dPS loops tethered by the PVP end blocks. Using neutron reflectometry, we have determined the segment density profiles of these looped polymer brushes in toluene, a good solvent for the dPS block, and in cyclohexane at 20 C (poor solvent), 32 C, (near- solvent), and 50 C (marginal solvent). While the swelling behavior qualitatively agrees with that observed for singly grafted brushes, there are interesting differences in the local structural details: In a good solvent, the segment density profiles are composed of an inner parabolic region and a long, extended tail. In cyclohexane, the profiles are described by exponential decays. We ascribe these features to a novel polydispersity effect that arises due to tethering the PS loops by both ends. The results also show that the less dense layers undergo more significant changes in swollen height as solvent quality is changed and that the looped brushes of different molecular weight, asymmetry, and tethering density adhere to scaling relationships derived for lightly cross-linked polymer gels.

  12. New wave generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercier, Matthieu J.

    We present the results of a combined experimental and numerical study of the generation of internal waves using the novel internal wave generator design of Gostiaux et al. (Exp. Fluids, vol. 42, 2007, pp. 123–130). This ...

  13. Next Generation Manufacturing Processes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solvent-Extraction Technology New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor...

  14. Motor/generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  15. Deposition and resuspension of antimony-125 and cesium-137 in the soil-plant system in the environment of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghuman, G.S. [Savannah State Coll., GA (United States); Motes, B.G.; Fernandez, S.J.; Weesner, F.J.; McManus, G.J.; Wilcox, C.M. [Idaho Research Center, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Nuclear and Environmental Measurements Section

    1989-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Field studies were conducted during the summer of 1987 to characterize the levels of {sup 125}Sb and {sup 137}Cs releases and the distribution of the two radionuclides in vegetation and soil at distances of 0.45 and 0.75 km from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant stack. Samples were collected of sagebrush, wheatgrass, and rabbitbrush and their leaves, stems, roots, and litter were separated. Vegetation samples were dried at 70{degree}C for 48 hours, ground, and concentrations of {sup 125}Sb and {sup 137}Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry. Soil samples were collected from the surface to a depth of 18 cm (at 3 cm increments), dried at 45{degree}C, and the concentrations of {sup 125}Sb and {sup 137}Cs measured in the same manner as for vegetation samples. Results showed that the activity of {sup 125}Sb was higher in the leaves than in the stem and roots. Total activity of {sup 125}Sb (1041.77 Bq m{sup {minus}2}) was distributed as 33.4% in vegetation and 66.6% in soil. Deposition of airborne {sup 125}Sb measured through absorption by transplanted vegetation was about one Bq m{sup {minus}2} day{sup {minus}1}. The resuspension rate of {sup 125}Sb from vegetation determined by an air-flux chamber positioned over sagebrush plants was less than 61 x 10{sup {minus}11} sec{sup {minus}1}. Cesium-137 concentrations were lower in the leaves than in the stems and roots indicating slow movement through plant tissues.

  16. Creating a Cognitive Agent in a Virtual World: Planning, Navigation, and Natural Language Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewlett, William

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Language Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Language Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  17. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  18. Electrically conductive doped block copolymer of polyacetylene and polyisoprene. [Soluble in organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.

    1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive block copolymer of polyisoprene and polyacetylene and a method of making the same are disclosed. The polymer is prepared by first polymerizing isoprene with n-butyllithium in a toluene solution to form an active isoprenyllithium polymer. The active polymer is reacted with an equimolar amount of titanium butoxide and subsequently exposed to gaseous acetylene. A block copolymer of polyisoprene and polyacetylene is formed. The copolymer is soluble in common solvents and may be doped with I/sub 2/ to give it an electrical conductivity in the metallic regime.

  19. Variational Scheme to Compute Protein Reaction Pathways using Atomistic Force Fields with Explicit Solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. a Beccara; L. Fant; P. Faccioli

    2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a variational approximation to the microscopic dynamics of rare conformational transitions of macromolecules. Within this framework it is possible to simulate on a small computer cluster reactions as complex as protein folding, using state of the art all-atom force fields in explicit solvent. We test this method against molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the folding of an alpha- and a beta-protein performed with the same all-atom force field on the Anton supercomputer. We find that our approach yields results consistent with those of MD simulations, at a computational cost orders of magnitude smaller.

  20. Final Report - Energy Reduction and Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, John; Fanselow, Dan; Abbas, Charles; Sammons, Rhea; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    3M and Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a novel membrane solvent extraction (MSE) process that can substantially reduce energy and water consumption in ethanol production, and accelerate the fermentation process. A cross-flow membrane module was developed, using porous membrane manufactured by 3M. A pilot process was developed that integrates fermentation, MSE and vacuum distillation. Extended experiments of 48-72 hours each were conducted to develop the process, verify its performance and begin establishing commercial viability.

  1. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  2. Simultaneous sweetening and dehydration of natural gas using a mixed solvent solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garza, Jaime Javier

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Contactor. Water Saturator Flash Tank Reboiler. Solvent Pump. . Gas Booster. Neutralization Baths. . . . . . HtS Injection System. Gas Sampling. . HiS Analyzer. . 13 15 17 19 21 21 22 23 23 25 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES . . 26 Pre... into the column a few inches from the bottom through a perforated plate gas distributor. The water in the saturator is heated with a PVC coated copper heating wire wrapped around the base of the column. The wire is powered with 110 V and is covered using black...

  3. Aggregation of hexylammonium propionate in DMSO-benzene and DMSO-D?O solvent systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constein, Vernon George

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fig. 18. Aggregation number plots for HAP in 75@a DpO/25$ DMSO-de ~ 72 3. 0 CHg (CH p ) 4CH pNH 3 2. 00 1. 00 ~ 0. 00 I A U 0 i 3. 00 + CHp (CHg) 4CHpNH3 0 0 2. 00 1. 00 0. 0 1. 00 1. 20 1. 40 1. 60 1. 80 2. 00 2 + log tS] 73 Fig... The relationships between a micelle forming surfactant, hexylammonium propionate (1), and the overlapping mixed solvent systems of benzene/dimethyl- sulfoxide/water have been investigated using 'H nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The changes in t' he...

  4. Solvent Tuning of Properties of Iron-Sulfur Clusters in Proteins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYouof EnergyVehiclesSciTechSolvent Tuning of

  5. Method of grid generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnette, Daniel W. (Veguita, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  6. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  7. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  8. CO2 Capture and Regeneration at Low Temperatures: Novel Non-Aqueous CO2 Solvents and Capture Process with Substantially Reduced Energy Penalties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: RTI is developing a solvent and process that could significantly reduce the temperature associated with regenerating solvent and CO2 captured from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants. Traditional CO2 removal processes using water-based solvents require significant amount of steam from power plants in order to regenerate the solvent so it can be reused after each reaction. RTI’s solvents can be better at absorbing CO2 than many water-based solvents, and are regenerated at lower temperatures using less steam. Thus, industrial heat that is normally too cool to re-use can be deployed for regeneration, rather than using high-value steam. This saves the power plant money, which results in increased cost savings for consumers.

  9. Talkin’ Bout Wind Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The amount of electricity generated by the wind industry started to grow back around 1999, and since 2007 has been increasing at a rapid pace.

  10. SNE TRAFIC GENERATOR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003027MLTPL00 Network Traffic Generator for Low-rate Small Network Equipment Software  http://eln.lbl.gov/sne_traffic_gen.html 

  11. Hydrogen Generation for Refineries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single Cycle Shown for ATB SteamCarbon 3 * ATB reforming * Steamcarbon 3 * Syngas generated during reforming * 70% H 2 * 20% CO * Syngas composition agrees with...

  12. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more »Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  13. Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling Efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica Rutledge; Kristi Christensen; Troy Garn; Jack Law

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This testing will support NEAMS SafeSep Modeling efforts related to droplet simulation in liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Physical characteristic determinations will be completed for the fluids being used in the experiment including viscosity, density, surface tension, distribution coefficients, and diffusion coefficients. Then, experiments will be carried out to provide data for comparison to the simulation’s calculation of mass transfer coefficients. Experiments will be conducted with solutions used in the TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process extraction section. The TRUEX process was chosen since it is one solvent extraction system currently proposed for the separation of actinides and lanthanides from used nuclear fuel, it is diffusion limited, testing can be performed using non radioactive lanthanides to evaluate mass transfer. The extraction section involves transfer of one or more lanthanide species from an aqueous solution to an organic solvent. Single droplets rising by buoyancy will be studied first. Droplet size and number of species transferred will be varied independently to provide mass transfer coefficients as a function of each variable. An apparatus has been designed specifically for these experiments. In order to get more accurate measurements of droplet size, contact time, time of droplet formation, and possibly droplet breakup and coalescence, a high speed camera will be utilized for these experiments. Other potential experiments include examining the effects of jetted droplets and shear flow on the mass transfer coefficients.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  15. Regulation of dispersion of carbon nanotubes in a mixture of good and bad solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Deriabina; N. Lebovka; L. Bulavin; A. Goncharuk

    2013-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructure and electrical conductivity of suspensions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in binary liquid mixtures water-1-Cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) were studied in the heating and cooling cycles. The concentration of MWCNTs was varied in the interval between 0-1 wt.% and the content of water in a binary mixture X = [water]/([CHP]+[water]) was varied within 0-1.0. The experimental data have shown that dispersing quality of MWCNTs in a mixture of good (CHP) and bad (water) solvents may be finely regulated by adjustment of composition of the CHP+ water mixtures. The aggregation ability of MWCNTs in dependence on X was discussed. The surface of MWCNT clusters was highly tortuous, its fractal dimension df increased with increase of X, approaching -> 1.9 at X->1. It was concluded that the surface tension is not suitable characteristic for prediction of dispersion ability in the mixture of good and bad solvents. The electrical conductivity data evidenced the presence of a fuzzy-type percolation with multiple thresholds in the systems under investigation. This behavior was explained by formation of different percolation networks in dependence of MWCNT concentration.

  16. Solvent effects on the electronic spectrum of Reichardt`s dye

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bicca De Alencastro, R. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Da Motta Neto, J.; Zerner, M.C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The extreme sensitivity of the absorption spectrum to small changes in the medium polarity has made Reichardt`s dyes useful molecular probes in the study of micelle/solution interfaces and phospholipid bilayers. This work reports preliminary results of semiempirical quantum chemical calculations on some conformations of 2,6-diphenyl-(2,4,6-triphenyl-1-pyridinium)-N-phenoxide betaine (Reichardt`s betaine, RB), which exhibits negative solvatochromic effects. The authors have used the AM1 Hamiltonian of Dewar in the geometry optimizations, and the Intermediate Neglect of Differential Overlap method parameterized for spectroscopy (INDO/S). For RB, two low-lying conformations have been found. The small difference in energy between them suggest that both forms may be present in solution, an observation confirmed by calculations on the spectra using the SCRF model: the superposition of the calculated spectra for these two forms matches the experimental spectra very well. For nonpolar solvents, the general pattern consists of variation of Et(30) concurrent with variation of the dielectric constant. The authors have also carried out calculations for solvents which form specific (e.g., H-bond) binding to the solute, namely methanol and water, using a supermolecule approach. These results are in excellent agreement with the experiment and present an accurate description of the spectra.

  17. The hydrophobic effect and the influence of solute-solvent attractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, David M.; Chandler, David

    2001-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the effect of weak solute-solvent attractions on the solvation of nonpolar molecules in water at ambient conditions using an extension and improved parameterization of the theory of solvation due to Lum, Chandler, and Weeks [J. Phys. Chem. B 1999, 103, 4570]. With a reasonable strength of alkane-water interactions, an accurate prediction of the alkane-water interfacial tension is obtained. As previously established for solutes with no attractive interactions with water, the free energy of solvation scales with volume for small solutes and with surface area for large solutes. The crossover to the latter regime occurs on a molecular length scale. It is associated with the formation of a liquid-vaporlike interface, a drying interface,between the large hydrophobic solute and liquid water. In the absence of attractions, this interface typically lies more than one solvent molecular diameter away from the hard sphere surface. With the addition of attractive interactions between water and the hard sphere, the average separation of the interface and solute surface is decreased. For attractive force strengths typical of alkane-water interactions, we show that the drying interface adjacent to a large hydrophobic solute remains largely intact, but is moved into contact with the solute surface. This effect results from the ''soft modes'' characterizing fluctuations of liquid-vapor interfaces. We show that attractive interactions are of almost no consequence to the temperature dependence of the solvation free energies relevant to protein folding.

  18. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Samarasinghe, Nalin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Fernando, Sandun [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Faulkner, William B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  19. Solvent contribution to the stability of a physical gel characterized by quasi-elastic neutron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvie Spagnoli; Isabelle Morfin; Miguel A. Gonzalez; Pierre Carcabal; Marie Plazanet

    2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of a physical gel, namely the Low Molecular Mass Organic Gelator {\\textit Methyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-$\\alpha$ -D-mannopyranoside ($\\alpha$-manno)} in water and toluene are probed by neutron scattering. Using high gelator concentrations, we were able to determine, on a timescale from a few ps to 1 ns, the number of solvent molecules that are immobilised by the rigid network formed by the gelators. We found that only few toluene molecules per gelator participate to the network which is formed by hydrogen bonding between the gelators' sugar moieties. In water, however, the interactions leading to the gel formations are weaker, involving dipolar, hydrophobic or $\\pi-\\pi$ interactions and hydrogen bonds are formed between the gelators and the surrounding water. Therefore, around 10 to 14 water molecules per gelator are immobilised by the presence of the network. This study shows that neutron scattering can give valuable information about the behaviour of solvent confined in a molecular gel.

  20. Identification and Characterization of Solvent-Filled Channels in Human Ferrochelatase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medlock, Amy E.; Najahi-Missaoui, Wided; Ross, Teresa A.; Dailey, Tamara A.; Burch, Joseph; O’ Brien, Jessica R.; Lanzilotta, William N.; Dailey, Harry A. (Georgia)

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferrochelatase catalyzes the formation of protoheme from two potentially cytotoxic products, iron and protoporphyrin IX. While much is known from structural and kinetic studies on human ferrochelatase of the dynamic nature of the enzyme during catalysis and the binding of protoporphyrin IX and heme, little is known about how metal is delivered to the active site and how chelation occurs. Analysis of all ferrochelatase structures available to date reveals the existence of several solvent-filled channels that originate at the protein surface and continue to the active site. These channels have been proposed to provide a route for substrate entry, water entry, and proton exit during the catalytic cycle. To begin to understand the functions of these channels, we investigated in vitro and in vivo a number of variants that line these solvent-filled channels. Data presented herein support the role of one of these channels, which originates at the surface residue H240, in the delivery of iron to the active site. Structural studies of the arginyl variant of the conserved residue F337, which resides at the back of the active site pocket, suggest that it not only regulates the opening and closing of active site channels but also plays a role in regulating the enzyme mechanism. These data provide insight into the movement of the substrate and water into and out of the active site and how this movement is coordinated with the reaction mechanism.

  1. Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kavitha, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); Haripadmam, P.C.; Gopinath, Pramod; Krishnan, Bindu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? ZnO nanospheres and triangular structures synthesis by novel precipitation technique. ? The effect of precursor concentration on the size and shape of nano ZnO. ? Open aperture Z-scan measurements of the ZnO nanoparticle dispersions. ? Nanospheres exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than triangular nanostructures. ? Nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than its dispersion in 2-propanol. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of morphology and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different morphologies like nanospheres and triangular nanostructures are synthesized by novel precipitation technique and their two-photon absorption coefficient is measured using open aperture Z-scan technique. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance. The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide.

  2. Next-generation transcriptome assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technologies - the next generation. Nat Rev Genet 11, 31-algorithms for next-generation sequencing data. Genomicsassembly from next- generation sequencing data. Genome Res

  3. TRU decontamination of high-level Purex waste by solvent extraction using a mixed octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide/TBP/NPH (TRUEX) solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Diamond, H.; Kaplan, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Schulz, W.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process was tested on a simulated high-level dissolved sludge waste (DSW). A batch counter-current extraction mode was used for seven extraction and three scrub stages. One additional extraction stage and two scrub stages and all strip stages were performed by batch extraction. The TRUEX solvent consisted of 0.20 M octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide-1.4 M TBP in Conoco (C/sub 12/-C/sub 14/). The feed solution was 1.0 M in HNO/sub 3/, 0.3 M in H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and contained mixed (stable) fission products, U, Np, Pu, and Am, and a number of inert constituents, e.g., Fe and Al. The test showed that the process is capable of reducing the TRU concentration in the DSW by a factor of 4 x 10/sup 4/ (to <100 nCi/g of disposed form) and reducing the quantity of TRU waste by two orders of magnitude.

  4. SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLE RESULTS FOR MCU-13-189, MCU-13-190, AND MCU-13-191: QUARTERLY SAMPLE FROM SEPTEMBER 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed solvent samples from Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) in support of continuing operations. A quarterly analysis of the solvent is required to maintain solvent composition within specifications. Analytical results of the analyses of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples MCU-13-189, MCU-13-190, and MCU-13-191 received on September 4, 2013 are reported. The results show that the solvent (remaining heel in the SHT tank) at MCU contains excess Isopar? L and a deficit concentration of modifier and trioctylamine when compared to the standard MCU solvent. As with the previous solvent sample results, these analyses indicate that the solvent does not require Isopar? L trimming at this time. Since MCU is switching to NGS, there is no need to add TOA nor modifier. SRNL also analyzed the SHT sample for {{sup 137}Cs content and determined the measured value is within tolerance and the value has returned to levels observed in 2011.

  5. SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLE RESULTS FOR MCU-14-135/136 AND MCU-14-214/215/216: FEBRUARY AND MARCH 2014 MONTHLY SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    SRNL received two sets of SHT samples (MCU-14-135-136 in February 2014 and MCU-14-214-216 in March 2014) for analysis. The samples were analyzed for composition. As with the previous solvent sample results, these analyses indicate that the solvent does not require Isopar® L trimming at this time. However, the addition of TiDG (suppressor) to the blended solvent is recommended. Evidence of possible (slight) isomerization of the solvent, probably Isopar®L or TiDG degradation products, was observed.

  6. Second generation PFB for advanced power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A.; Van Hook, J.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is being conducted under a United States Department of Energy (USDOE) contract to develop a new type of coal-fueled plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant-called an advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (APFBC) plant-offers the promise of 45-percent efficiency (HHV), with emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. This paper summarizes the pilot plant R&D work being conducted to develop this new type of plant. Although pilot plant testing is still underway, preliminary estimates indicate the commercial plant Will perform better than originally envisioned. Efficiencies greater than 46 percent are now being predicted.

  7. Contracting for wind generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newbery, David

    The UK Government proposes offering long-term Feed-in-Tariffs (FiTs) to low-carbon generation to reduce risk and encourage new entrants. Their preference is for a Contract-for-Difference (CfD) or a premium FiT (pFiT) for all generation regardless...

  8. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

  9. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  10. The fifth generation computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moto-Oka, T.; Kitsuregawa, M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The leader of Japan's Fifth Generation computer project, known as the 'Apollo' project, and a young computer scientist elucidate in this book the process of how the idea came about, international reactions, the basic technology, prospects for realization, and the abilities of the Fifth Generation computer. Topics considered included forecasting, research programs, planning, and technology impacts.

  11. Evaluation of Ion Exchange Materials in K Basin Floor Sludge and Potential Solvents for PCB Extraction from Ion Exchange Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Klinger, G.S.; Bredt, P.R.

    1999-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. These small amounts are significant from a regulatory standpoint. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). Chemical pretreatment is required to address criticality issues and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Eleven technologies have been evaluated (Papp 1997) as potential pretreatment methods. Based on the evaluations and engineering studies and limited testing, Fluor Daniel Hanford recommended solvent washing of the K Basin sludge, followed by nitric acid dissolution and, potentially, peroxide addition (FDH 1997). The solvent washing (extraction) and peroxide addition would be used to facilitate PCB removal and destruction. Following solvent extraction, the PCBs could be distilled and concentrated for disposal as a low-level waste. The purpose of the work reported here was to continue investigating solvent extraction, first by better identifying the ion exchange materials in the actual sludge samples and then evaluating various solvents for removing the PCBs or possibly dissolving the resins. This report documents some of the process knowledge on ion exchange materials used and spilled in the K Basins and describes the materials identified from wet sieving KE Basin floor and canister sludge and the results of other analyses. Several photographs are included to compare materials and illustrate material behavior. A summary of previous tests on solvent extraction of PCB surrogates from simulant K Basin sludge is also given.

  12. Achieving Accelerated Cleanup of Cesium Contaminated Stream at the Savannah River Site; Collaboration between Stakeholders, Regulators, and the Federal Government - 13182

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergren, Chris; Flora, Mary; Socha, Ron; Burch, Joseph [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Bldg. 730-4B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Bldg. 730-4B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Freeman, Candice; Hennessey, Brian [United States Department of Energy, Bldg. 730-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [United States Department of Energy, Bldg. 730-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy (US DOE) nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina that contains six primary stream/river systems. The Lower Three Runs Stream (LTR) is one of the primary streams within the site that is located in the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site and is a large black water stream system that originates in the northeast portion of SRS and follows a southerly direction before it enters the Savannah River. During reactor operations, secondary reactor cooling water, storm sewer discharges, and miscellaneous wastewater was discharged and contaminated a 36 kilometer stretch of Lower Three Runs Stream that narrows providing a limited buffer of US DOE property along the stream and flood plain. Based on data collected during 2009 and 2010 under Recover Act Funding, the stream was determined to be contaminated with cesium-137 at levels that exceeded acceptable risk based limits. As efficiencies were realized within the SRS Recovery Act Program, funding was made available to design, permit and execute remediation of the LTR. This accelerated Project allowed for the remediation of 36 kilometers of LTR in only nine months from inception to completion, contributing significantly to the Foot Print Reduction of SRS. The scope consisted of excavation and disposal of more than 2064 cubic meters of contaminated soil, and installing 11 kilometers of fence and 2,000 signs at 1000 locations. Confirmatory sampling and analysis, and radiological surveying were performed demonstrating that soil concentrations met the cleanup goals. The project completed with a very good safety record considering the harsh conditions including, excessive rain in the early stages of the project, high summer temperatures, swampy terrain, snakes, wild boar, insects and dense vegetation. The regulatory approval process was compressed by over 75% and required significant efforts from SRS's stakeholders including the regulators, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), and the public including local property owners and the SRS Citizens Advisory Board. Stakeholder buy-in was critical in the up-front planning in order to achieve this challenging cleanup. (authors)

  13. Progress in carbon dioxide capture and separation research for gasification-based power generation point sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.; Luebke, D.; Jones, K.; Myers, C.; Morsi, B.; Heintz, Y.; Ilconich, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the present work is to investigate novel approaches, materials, and molecules for the abatement of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the pre-combustion stage of gasification-based power generation point sources. The capture/separation step for CO2 from large point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the Office of Research and Development of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the present research is focused on the capture/separation of carbon dioxide from fuel gas (precombustion gas) from processes such as the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process. For such applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical sorption, chemical sorption with solid sorbents, and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an “ideal” solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, processes based on dry, regenerable sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

  14. A study of solvent refining of cottonseed oil by use of a rotating core countercurrent extraction column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holbrook, Charles Ray

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -oleic acid and solvent solutions were added. The mixture was shaken several times and placed 1n a 30 C . atmosphere to reach thermal equilibrium and for the layers to break. The following data were observed for each phase: l Relative volume 2...A STUDY OF SOLVENT REFINING OF COTTONSEED OIL BY USE OF A ROTATING CORE COUNTERCURRENT EXTRACTION COLUMN A Thes1s by C. Ray Holbrook January- 1953 Approved as to style and content: aS a rman o u en s omm ee ea o epar men em ca -ng neer ng...

  15. Use of Slip Ring Induction Generator for Wind Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K Y Patil; D S Chavan

    Wind energy is now firmly established as a mature technology for electricity generation. There are different types of generators that can be used for wind energy generation, among which Slip ring Induction generator proves to be more advantageous. To analyse application of Slip ring Induction generator for wind power generation, an experimental model is developed and results are studied. As power generation from natural sources is the need today and variable speed wind energy is ample in amount in India, it is necessary to study more beneficial options for wind energy generating techniques. From this need a model is developed by using Slip ring Induction generator which is a type of Asynchronous generator.

  16. Advanced Low Energy Enzyme Catalyzed Solvent for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaks, Alex; Reardon, John

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A proof-of-concept biocatalyst enhanced solvent process was developed and demonstrated in an integrated bench-scale system using coal post combustion flue gas. The biocatalyst was deployed as a coating on M500X structured packing. Rate enhancement was evaluated using a non-volatile and non- toxic 20 wt% potassium carbonate solution. Greater than 500-fold volumetric scale-up from laboratory to bench scale was demonstrated in this project. Key technical achievements included: 10-fold mass transfer enhancement demonstrated in laboratory testing relative to blank potassium carbonate at 45°C; ~ 7-fold enhancement over blank in bench-scale field testing at National Carbon Capture Center; aerosol emissions were below detection limits (< 0.8 ppm); 90% capture was demonstrated at ~19.5 Nm{sup 3}/hr (dry basis); and ~ 80% CO{sub 2} capture was demonstrated at ~ 30 Nm{sup 3}/hr (dry basis) for more than 2800-hrs on flue gas with minimal detectible decline in activity. The regeneration energy requirement was 3.5 GJ/t CO{sub 2} for this solvent, which was below the target of <2.1 GJ/t CO{sub 2}. Bench unit testing revealed kinetic limitations in the un-catalyzed stripper at around 85°C, but process modeling based on bench unit data showed that equivalent work of less than 300 kWh/t CO{sub 2} including all CO{sub 2} compression can be achieved at lower temperature stripping conditions. Cost analysis showed that 20% potassium carbonate in a basic solvent flow sheet with biocatalyst coated packing has economic performance comparable to the reference NETL Case-12, 30% MEA. A detailed techno-economic analysis indicated that addition of catalyst in the stripper could reduce the cost of capture by ~6% and cost of avoided CO{sub 2} by ~10% below reference NETL Case-12. Based on these results, a directional plan was identified to reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture in future work.

  17. Compact neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  18. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.

    2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  19. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA) [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H. (Castro Valley, CA) [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  20. Graph Generator Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lothian, Josh [ORNL; Powers, Sarah S [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Baker, Matthew B [ORNL; Schrock, Jonathan [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of dierent application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.