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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

SYSTEM OPTIMIZTION OF HOT WATER CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMOELECTRIC GENERATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this report, we describe the design of a concentrated solar thermoelectric (TE) system which can provide both electricity and hot water. Today’s thermoelectric materials have a relatively low efficiency (~6 % for temperature difference across the thermoelement on the order of 300 o C). However since thermoelectrics don’t need their cold side to be near room temperature, (in another word, one can chose the particular thermoelectric material to match to the operational temperature) it is possible to use the waste heat to provide hot water and this makes the overall efficiency of the combined system to be quite high. A key factor in the optimization of the thermoelectric module is the thermal impedance matching with the incident solar radiation, and also with the hot water heat exchanger on the cold side of the thermoelectric module. We have developed an analytic model for the whole system and optimized each component in order to minimize the material cost. TE element fill factor is found to be an important parameter to optimize at low solar concentrations (generated per mass of the thermoelectric elements. Similarly the co-optimization of the microchannel heat exchanger and the TE module can be used to minimize the amount of material in the heat exchanger and the pumping power required for forced convection liquid cooling. Changing the amount of solar concentration, changes the input heat flux and this is another parameter that can be optimized in order to reduce the cost of heat exchanger (by size), the tracking requirement and the whole system. A series of design curves for different solar concentration are obtained. It is shown that the overall efficiency of the system can be more than 80 % at 200x concentration which is independent of the material ZT (TE figure-of-merit). For a material with ZThot~0.9, the electrical conversion efficiency is ~10%. For advanced materials with ZThot ~ 2.8, the electrical conversion efficiency could reach ~21%. 1.

Kazuaki Yazawa; Ali Shakouri

2

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13- Particulate Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Steam or Hot Water Generating Units (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of this regulation is to limit emissions of particulate matter from fossil fuel fired and wood-fired steam or hot water generating units.

3

Cornell University Hot Water Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hot Water System Hot Water System The production and delivery of hot water in the CUSD home is technologically advanced, economical, and simple. Hot water is produced primarily by the evacuated solar thermal tube collectors on the roof of the house. The solar thermal tube array was sized to take care of the majority of our heating and hot water needs throughout the course of the year in the Washington, DC climate. The solar thermal tube array also provides heating to the radiant floor. The hot water and radiant floor systems are tied independently to the solar thermal tube array, preventing the radiant floor from robbing the water heater of much needed thermal energy. In case the solar thermal tubes are not able to provide hot water to our system, the hot water tank contains an electric heating

4

dist_hot_water.pdf  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

District Hot Water Usage Form District Hot Water Usage Form 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 1. Timely submission of this report is mandatory under Public Law 93-275, as amended. 2. This completed questionnaire is due by 3. Data reported on this questionnaire are for the entire building identified in the label to the right. 4. Data may be submitted directly on this questionnaire or in any other format, such as a computer-generated listing, which provides the same i nformation and is conve nient for y our company. a. You may submit a single report for the entire building, or if it i s easier, a separate report for each of several accounts in the building. These will then be aggregated by the survey contractor. b. If you are concerned about your individual account information, you may c

5

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

6

NREL: Learning - Solar Hot Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hot Water Hot Water Photo of solar collectors on a roof for a solar hot water system. For solar hot water systems, flat-plate solar collectors are typically installed facing south on a rooftop. The shallow water of a lake is usually warmer than the deep water. That's because the sunlight can heat the lake bottom in the shallow areas, which in turn, heats the water. It's nature's way of solar water heating. The sun can be used in basically the same way to heat water used in buildings and swimming pools. Most solar water heating systems for buildings have two main parts: a solar collector and a storage tank. The most common collector is called a flat-plate collector. Mounted on the roof, it consists of a thin, flat, rectangular box with a transparent cover that faces the sun. Small tubes

7

Commercial Solar Hot Water Financing Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) and Paradigm Partners are offering a solar hot water financing program in order to meet MassCEC's objective of growing the commercial solar hot water...

8

Continuous Commissioning of a Central Chilled Water & Hot Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A central chilled water / hot water system provides cooling / heating energy from central utility plants to multiple customers (buildings) through campus distribution loops. To effectively transport the chilled water and hot water to the buildings...

Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Batten, T.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Solar Hot Water Market Development in Knoxville, TN | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Information Resources Solar Hot Water Market Development in Knoxville, TN Solar Hot Water Market Development in Knoxville, TN Assessment of local solar hot water markets, market...

10

Solar Works in Seattle: Domestic Hot Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Seattle's residential solar hot water workshop. Content also covers general solar resource assessment, siting, and financial incentives.

11

Hot-water power from the earth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article examines geothermal sites on the West Coast in order to show the progress that has been made in converting geothermal energy into usable electric power. Only about 0.5% of the earth's geothermal reserve can be brought to the surface as dry steam. California's Imperial Valley is possibly the largest geothermal resource in the US. Three demonstration generating plants are each producing between 10 and 14 MW of power near the valley's Salton Sea. The high-temperature water (above 410/sup 0/F) at Brawley is drawn from wells tapping the subterranean reservoir. It is proposed that hot-water power will be economical when methods are found to extract maximum energy from a geothermal deposit and to control clogging and corrosion caused by minerals dissolved in the hot fluid.

Not Available

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Chena Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal Fluid Coproduced from Oil andor Gas Wells Chena Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal...

13

Are we putting in hot water?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and habitat loss will increase. And while slightly warmer water may not sound so bad to many of us, its effectAre we putting our fish in hot water? Global warming and the world's fisheries · Hot, hungry, and gasping for air · Shrinking fish and fewer babies? · Global warming puts fish on the run · Warm water

Combes, Stacey A.

14

Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This page provides a brief overview of solar hot water (SHW) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply SHW within the Federal sector.

15

Monitoring SERC Technologies — Solar Hot Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyst Eliza Hotchkiss on Solar Hot Water systems and how to properly monitor their installation.

16

Disaggregating residential hot water use. Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major obstacle to gathering detailed data on end-use hot water consumption within residences and commercial buildings is the cost and complexity of the field tests. An earlier study by the authors presented a methodology that could accurately disaggregate hot water consumption into individual end-uses using only information on the flow of hot water from the water heater. The earlier methodology can be extended to a much larger population of buildings, without greatly increasing the cost and complexity of the data collection and analysis, by monitoring the temperature of the hot water lines that go to different parts of the building. For the three residences studied here, thermocouples /monitored the temperatures of four hot water lines at each site. The thermocouple readings provide a positive indication of when hot water starts to flow in a line. Since the end-uses served by each hot water line are known, the uncertainty in assigning a draw to a particular end-use is greatly reduced. Benefits and limitations for the methodology are discussed in the paper. Using the revised methodology, hot water usage in three residences is disaggregated into the following end-uses: showers, baths, clothes washing, dishwashing, kitchen sink, and bathroom sink. For two residences, the earlier methodology--which does not use the thermocouple data--is also used to disaggregate the same draw data.

Lowenstein, A. [AIL Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Hiller, C.C. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Hot water geothermal development: opportunities and pilot plant results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been projected that up to 11,000 MW of geothermal electric capacity may be on line in the United States by the year 2000. The majority of this capacity will come from hot water geothermal plants, as dry steam resources are limited. Currently, no commercial hot water geothermal capacity exists in the U.S., although, substantial capacity does exist in other countries. Large hot, high temperature resources exist in Southern California's Imperial Valley. Early research work has led to the technical success of a 10 MW unit at Brawley, and to the construction of second generation pilot unit at the Salton Sea resource.

Crane, G.K.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Hot Water DJ: Saving Energy by Pre-mixing Hot Water Md Anindya Prodhan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hot Water DJ: Saving Energy by Pre-mixing Hot Water Md Anindya Prodhan Department of Computer University of Virginia whitehouse@virginia.edu Abstract After space heating and cooling, water heating consumption. Current water heating systems waste up to 20% of their energy due to poor insulation in pipes

Whitehouse, Kamin

19

Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America Top Innovation Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America Top Innovation Image of a pipe...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes This presentation is from the Building America...

22

Boiling during high-velocity impact of water droplets on a hot stainless steel surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rho, V and p 0 are water density, impact velocity and atmospheric pressure, respectively. Assuming water vapour is a perfect...droplet-on-demand generator. Exp. Fluids. 34...of hot surfaces with water sprays. J. Heat Treating...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Green Systems Solar Hot Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,2; basement) Pre-heats water so water heaters don't need to use as much energy Gas-powered, high efficiency heated water before it is circulated through the building Two gas boilers (GWB-1,2; basement) can be used

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

24

University of Colorado Hot Water Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hot water system Brief Contest Report Hot water system Brief Contest Report Recognizing that the sun is an abundant source of clean energy that reaches the earth at an intensity of up to 1000 Watts/m 2 , the University of Colorado will be showcasing top-of-the-line technology in which solar radiation is converted into heat for the purposes of heating the home and providing domestic hot water. Solar Thermal System - Basics Colorado's 2005 Solar Decathlon team has chosen to harness the sun's thermal energy with 4 arrays of 20 Mazdon evacuated tube collectors manufactured by Thermomax, as shown in Figure 1 below. These collectors have incredibly high efficiencies - about 60% over the course of an entire day. In addition, the evacuated tube collectors resist internal condensation and corrosion more effectively than their counterparts

25

Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on an example of the reconstruction of a hot water heating system, this paper provides an analysis and comparison of the operations of hot water heating systems, including supply water temperature adjustment, flow adjustment during each...

Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Building Energy Efficiency Standards .. 4 Multi-Family Water Heating.. 4 Pipe HeatBuilding Energy Efficiency Standards The scope of this task included the following subtasks; Multi-Family Water Heating, Pipe Heat

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Alternatives for reducing hot-water bills  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two stage approach to reducing residential water heating bills is described. In Stage I, simple conservation measures were included to reduce the daily hot water energy consumption and the energy losses from the water tank. Once these savings are achieved, Stage II considers more costly options for further reducing the water heating bill. Four alternatives are considered in Stage II: gas water heaters; solar water heaters (two types); heat pump water heaters; and heat recovery from a heat pump or air conditioner. To account for variations within the MASEC region, information on water heating in Rapid City, Minneapolis, Chicago, Detroit, and Kansas City is presented in detail. Information on geography, major population centers, fuel prices, climate, and state solar incentives is covered. (MCW)

Bennington, G.E.; Spewak, P.C.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies October 7, 2013 - 11:49am Addthis Photo of a standalone solar hot water system standing in front of a clothesline with a backdrop of evergreen trees. This solar hot water system tracks sunlight using a standalone, single-axis mount to optimize hot water production for residential applications. This page provides a brief overview of solar hot water (SHW) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply SHW within the Federal sector. Overview Although a large variety of solar hot water systems exist, the basic technology is simple. A collector absorbs and transfers heat from the sun to water, which is stored in a tank until needed. Active solar heating systems use circulating pumps and controls. These are more expensive but

30

Chena Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Office 2013 Peer Review Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal Fluid Coproduced from Oil andor Gas Wells PI - Bernie Karl Chena Hot Springs Resort Track 1 Project Officer:...

31

Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Hot Water Resources and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Hot Water Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Technology Deployment Renewable Energy Federal Requirements Renewable Resources & Technologies

32

Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water in EnergyFaceoff Round 4? Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water in EnergyFaceoff Round 4?...

33

DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to Get it Right DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to Get it Right Watch the video or view the...

34

An Energy Policy Perspective on Solar Hot Water Equipment Mandates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Energy Policy Perspective on Solar Hot Water Equipmentlast dol- ENERGY POLICY lar spent on solar equipment gaveENERGY POLICY tween a new house with solar hot water

Williams, Stephen F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Savings Project: Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings Savings Project: Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings Addthis Project Level Medium Energy Savings $8-$12 annually Time to Complete 3 hours for a small house Overall Cost $10-$15 Insulating water pipes can save you water, energy, and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/nsj-images Insulating water pipes can save you water, energy, and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/nsj-images Insulating your hot water pipes reduces heat loss and can raise water temperature 2°F-4°F hotter than uninsulated pipes can deliver, allowing for a lower water temperature setting. You also won't have to wait as long for hot water when you turn on a faucet or showerhead, which helps conserve water. Paying for someone to insulate your pipes-as a project on its own-may

36

Under Pressure and in Hot Water: Algae Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

March 3rd Under Pressure and in Hot Water: Algae Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Dr. Phil:50 April 10th (Joint Seminar with EES) Fecal Sludge-Fed Biodiesel Plants: The Next-Generation Urban

Minsker, Barbara S.

37

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile Â… Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and the Davis Energy Group used the and the Davis Energy Group used the Domestic Hot Water Event Schedule Generator to accurately quantify effects of low and high water usage on distribution system measures such as pipe insulation, home run plumbing, and demand-controlled recirculation loops. As progress continues with high-R, tightly sealed thermal enclosures, domestic hot water becomes an increasingly important energy use in high-performance homes. Building America research has improved our ability to model hot water use so new hot water technologies can be more accurately assessed and more readily integrated into high-performance homes. Energy savings for certain residential building technologies depend greatly on occupant behavior. Domestic hot water use is a good example. Simulating

38

Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes 1 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Buildings Technologies Program Date: September 30, 2011 ENERGY STAR ® Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes Welcome to the Webinar! We will start at 11:00 AM Eastern. There is no call in number. The audio will be sent through your computer speakers. All questions will be submitted via typing. Video of presenters Energy Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes 2 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Energy Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes 3 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Building America Program: Introduction Building Technologies Program Energy Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes

39

Design package for solar domestic hot water system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I: What's...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

I: What's at Stake Watch the video or view the presentation below Zero Energy Ready Homes include critical systems to ensure both energy efficiency and performance. Hot water...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Mandating Solar Hot Water by California Local Governments: Legal Issues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the legality of solar mandates in California cities andCITIES & CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION, SOLAR HANDBOOK FORMandating Solar Hot Water By California Local Governments:

Hoffman,, Peter C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Constrained water cloud generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fast generation of large cloudy volumes with imposed cloud cover fractions and ambient vertical profiles is very important for the realistic simulation of atmospheric scenes. The model proposed here is the second step of a two-step model composed on the one hand of a volume generator based on a Fourier filtering method and on the other hand of a physical generator filling the volume with physical parameters. After a description of the general generation scheme, this paper focuses on the simulation of vertical profiles of water content (liquid, vapour) coupled with other state parameters (temperature, pressure, vertical velocity) via thermodynamic and hydrodynamic equations by local forcing of ambient conditions. The method for solving these equations is explained and applied to practical cases. First, by assuming that the actual temperature at the cloud base is equal to the dew temperature and by imposing a moist pseudo-adiabatic temperature gradient between the cloud top and bottom, the temperature profile in the cloud is found. When conditional instability occurs, the initial temperature profile between the ground and the cloud base is iteratively shifted to lower values until absolute stability is reached. Then the liquid water content is calculated by integrating the equation of water conservation, and the water vapour content by assuming that the cloud is everywhere saturated. Eventually, the vertical velocity is estimated by integration of the momentum equation. This method gives results in good agreement with published measurements, analytical and numerical models. Eventually, further developments of the column model, including the effects of phase transitions, turbulence, horizontal motions and mixing with the surrounding medium, are proposed in the concluding section.

Roland P.H. Berton

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Superheated water drops in hot oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drops of water at room temperature were released in hot oil, which had a temperature higher than that of the boiling point of water. Initially, the drop temperature increases slowly mainly due to heat transfer diffusion; convective heat transfer is small because the motion takes place at a small Reynolds number. Once the drop reaches the bottom of the container, it sticks to the surface with a certain contact angle. Then, a part of the drop vaporizes: the nucleation point may appear at the wall, the interface or the bulk of the drop. The vapor expands inside the drop and deforms its interface. The way in which the vapor expands, either smooth or violent, depends on the location of the nucleation point and oil temperature. Furthermore, for temperatures close to the boiling point of water, the drops are stable (overheated); the vaporization does not occur spontaneously but it may be triggered with an external perturbation. In this case the growth of the vapor bubble is rather violent. Many visualization for dif...

Soto, Enrique; Belmonte, Andrew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

45

Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings June 15, 2012 - 5:51pm Addthis Low-flow fixtures and showerheads can achieve water savings of 25%–60%. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DaveBolton. Low-flow fixtures and showerheads can achieve water savings of 25%-60%. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DaveBolton. What does this mean for me? Fix leaks, install low-flow fixtures, and purchase an energy-efficient dishwasher and clothes washer to use less hot water and save money. You can lower your water heating costs by using and wasting less hot water in your home. To conserve hot water, you can fix leaks, install low-flow fixtures, and purchase an energy-efficient dishwasher and clothes washer. Fix Leaks You can significantly reduce hot water use by simply repairing leaks in

46

Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters July 15, 2010 - 12:10pm Addthis Kevin Craft What are the key facts? Recovery Act funds are being used to install solar hot water systems at 5 Phoenix shelters. The systems will save Phoenox 33,452 kWh of energy -- about $4,000 -- annually. The systems will reduce about 40,000 pounds of carbon emissions annually. "This project will save us a huge amount of money," says Paul Williams, House of Refuge Sunnyslope's Executive Director. Williams is referring to a recent partnership between the state of Arizona and House of Refuge Sunnyslope to install solar hot water systems at five Phoenix-area housing sites for homeless men, which will make an immediate difference at the

47

NREL: Learning - Student Resources on Solar Hot Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Hot Water Solar Hot Water Photo of a school building next to a pond. Roy Lee Walker Elementary School in Texas incorporates many renewable energy design features, including solar hot water heating. The following resources will help you learn more about solar water heating systems. If you are unfamiliar with this technology, see the introduction to solar hot water. Grades 7-12 NREL Educational Resources Educational resources available to students from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. High School and College Level U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Savers: Solar Water Heaters Features comprehensive basic information and resources. U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Savers: Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Features comprehensive basic information and resources. U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon

48

Solar Hot Water Contractor Licensing | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hot Water Contractor Licensing Hot Water Contractor Licensing Solar Hot Water Contractor Licensing < Back Eligibility Installer/Contractor Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Solar/Wind Contractor Licensing Arkansas offers several limited, specialty licenses for solar thermal installers under the general plumbing license. There are three specialty classifications available for solar thermal installers: a Restricted Solar Mechanic license, a Supervising Solar Mechanic license, and a Solar Mechanic Trainee classification. Installers with a Restricted Solar Mechanic license can install and maintain systems used to heat domestic hot water, but are not allowed to perform any other plumbing work. Individuals holding a Supervising Solar Mechanic license are able to supervise, install

49

DOE Solar Decathlon: News Blog » Hot Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hot Water Hot Water Below you will find Solar Decathlon news from the Hot Water archive, sorted by date. New Contest Data Displays Provide Insight into Competition Scoring Saturday, October 5, 2013 By Solar Decathlon New contest data displays are now available on the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon website. If you are interested in the real-time performance of each house and want to keep a close eye on the competition, check out the Contests section pages. In the Contests section, the pages for the measured contests (Comfort Zone, Hot Water, Appliances, Home Entertainment, and Energy Balance) explain the contest requirements and provide real-time graphical displays of the accumulated measurements/scores for each team. Roll your cursor over the graphics to see more detailed information about each contest. For example,

50

ENERGY USE AND DOMESTIC HOT WATER CONSUMPTION Final Report  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

DOMESTIC HOT WATER CONSUMPTION Final Report Phase 1 Prepared for THE N E W YORK STATE ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY Project Manager Norine H. Karins Prepared by ENERGY...

51

High pressure generation by hot electrons driven ablation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A previous model [Piriz et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 122705 (2012)] for the ablation driven by the hot electrons generated in collisionless laser-plasma interactions in the framework of shock ignition is revisited. The impact of recent results indicating that for a laser wavelength ? = 0.35 ?m the hot electron temperature ?{sub H} would be independent of the laser intensity I, on the resulting ablation pressure is considered. In comparison with the case when the scaling law ?{sub H}?(I?{sup 2}){sup 1/3} is assumed, the generation of the high pressures needed for driving the ignitor shock may be more demanding. Intensities above 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} would be required for ?{sub H}=25?30 keV.

Piriz, A. R. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, CYTEMA, and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)] [E.T.S.I. Industriales, CYTEMA, and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Piriz, S. A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tahir, N. A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology April 18, 2013 - 1:15pm Addthis Learn how a cooperative R&D agreement with the Energy Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory helped contributed to the success of GE's GeoSpring Hybrid Water Heater -- one of the most efficient electric heat pump water heaters on the market today. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Got Energy Efficiency Questions? Our energy efficiency and renewable energy experts will answer your questions about ways to save money and incorporate renewable energy into your home during our Earth Day Google+ Hangout on April 22 at 3 pm ET. Submit your questions on Twitter, G+ and YouTube using #askEnergy,

53

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology April 18, 2013 - 1:15pm Addthis Learn how a cooperative R&D agreement with the Energy Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory helped contributed to the success of GE's GeoSpring Hybrid Water Heater -- one of the most efficient electric heat pump water heaters on the market today. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Got Energy Efficiency Questions? Our energy efficiency and renewable energy experts will answer your questions about ways to save money and incorporate renewable energy into your home during our Earth Day Google+ Hangout on April 22 at 3 pm ET. Submit your questions on Twitter, G+ and YouTube using #askEnergy,

54

TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is significant variation in hot water use and draw patterns among households. This report describes typical hot water use patterns in single-family residences in North America. We found that daily hot water use is highly variable both among residences and within the same residence. We compared the results of our analysis of the field data to the conditions and draw patterns established in the current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for residential water heaters. The results show a higher number of smaller draws at lower flow rates than used in the test procedure. The data from which the draw patterns were developed were obtained from 12 separate field studies. This report describes the ways in which we managed, cleaned, and analyzed the data and the results of our data analysis. After preparing the data, we used the complete data set to analyze inlet and outlet water temperatures. Then we divided the data into three clusters reflecting house configurations that demonstrated small, medium, or large median daily hot water use. We developed the three clusters partly to reflect efforts of the ASHRAE standard project committee (SPC) 118.2 to revise the test procedure for residential water heaters to incorporate a range of draw patterns. ASHRAE SPC 118.2 has identified the need to separately evaluate at least three, and perhaps as many as five, different water heater capacities. We analyzed the daily hot water use data within each cluster in terms of volume and number of hot water draws. The daily draw patterns in each cluster were characterized using distributions for volume of draws, duration of draws, time since previous draw, and flow rates.

Lutz, Jim; Melody, Moya

2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

55

Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Residential Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Residential Program Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Residential Program Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Residential Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Solar Heating Water Heating Maximum Rebate $3,500 per building or 25% of total installed costs Program Info Funding Source Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust Fund Start Date 02/07/2011 Expiration Date 12/31/2016 State Massachusetts Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Base rate: $45 X SRCC rating in thousands btu/panel/day (Category D, Mildly Cloudy Day) Additional $200/system for systems with parts manufactured in Massachusetts Additional $1,500/system for metering installation Adder for natural disaster relief of twice the base rebate.

56

NV Energy (Northern Nevada) - Solar Hot Water Incentive Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NV Energy (Northern Nevada) - Solar Hot Water Incentive Program NV Energy (Northern Nevada) - Solar Hot Water Incentive Program NV Energy (Northern Nevada) - Solar Hot Water Incentive Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Residential electric customers: Lesser of 50% or $2,000 Residential gas customers: Lesser of 30% or $3,000 Small commercial gas customers: Lesser of 30% or $7,500 Nonprofits, schools and other public gas customers: Lesser of 50% or $30,000 Program Info Start Date 2/1/2011 State Nevada Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Residential electric customers: Lesser of 50% or $2,000 Residential gas customers: $14.50 per therm Small commercial gas customers: $14.50 per therm

57

Solar Hot Water Contractor Licensing | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Hot Water Contractor Licensing Solar Hot Water Contractor Licensing Solar Hot Water Contractor Licensing < Back Eligibility Installer/Contractor Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Maine Program Type Solar/Wind Contractor Licensing In order to be eligible for Maine's solar thermal rebate program, systems must be installed by licensed plumbers who have received additional certification for solar thermal systems from the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP). The state solar thermal rebate program maintains a list of Efficiency Maine registered vendors/installers. In addition, Efficiency Maine has information for vendors interested in becoming registered and listed on the [http://www.efficiencymaine.com/at-home/registered-vendor-locator web

58

Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Commercial Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Commercial Program Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Commercial Program Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Commercial Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Feasibility study: $5,000; Construction: 25% system costs or $50,000 Program Info Funding Source Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust Fund Start Date 08/04/2011 State Massachusetts Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Feasibility study: $5,000; Construction grants: $45*number of collectors*SRCC Rating (Private); $55*number of collectors*SRCC Rating (Public/Non-Profit) Massachusetts Manufactured adder: $200-$500 Metering adder: Up to $1,500

59

Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries A Saleh1 and MA Al-Nimr2 1 Abstract: The present study proposes an evaporative refrigerating system used to keep water or other are found to be consistent with the available literature data. Keywords: evaporative refrigeration, heat

60

DOE Solar Decathlon: News Blog » Hot Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

'Hot Water' 'Hot Water' New Contest Data Displays Provide Insight into Competition Scoring Saturday, October 5, 2013 By Solar Decathlon New contest data displays are now available on the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon website. If you are interested in the real-time performance of each house and want to keep a close eye on the competition, check out the Contests section pages. In the Contests section, the pages for the measured contests (Comfort Zone, Hot Water, Appliances, Home Entertainment, and Energy Balance) explain the contest requirements and provide real-time graphical displays of the accumulated measurements/scores for each team. Roll your cursor over the graphics to see more detailed information about each contest. For example, in the Appliances Contest graphic, the scores for running the refrigerator,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Lessons and Measures Learned from Continuous Commissioning(SM) of Central Chilled/Hot Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water and hot water system operation. It can be performed before, during, or after building side continuous commissioning. Successful central chilled/hot water system CC not only results in improved production and distribution, but also achieves...

Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Bruner, H.; Chen, H.; Wei, G.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

CPS Energy- Solar Hot Water Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

As part of a larger program designed to reduce electricity demand within its service territory, CPS Energy now offers rebates for solar water heaters to its customers. In general, any CPS Energy...

63

Generation of hot carriers for photon management in future photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The most important limitation for the efficiency of photovoltaic energy conversion is related to the mismatch between the broadband character of the solar radiation and the spectral sensitivity of solar cells. Large losses appear at both sides of the solar spectrum. Low-energy photons are not absorbed and escape conversion, whereas high-energy photons can only be utilized partially. Here, we discuss how the loss related to low-energy photons can be reduced by spectral conversion, making use of active layers of Si nanocrystals in an SiO2 matrix. As a possible solution, we consider generation of hot carriers upon sequential intraband absorption of two or more low-energy photons and present experimental data in support of this. Configurations are proposed in which efficient spectral conversion could be achieved, and their feasibilities are discussed. We also address the fast emission from Er3+ ions, purposefully introduced into the active layer, which can be used to trace the successful generation of hot carriers, and in that way serve to evaluate specific excitation schemes.

E.M.L.D. de Jong; S. Saeed; W.C. Sinke; T. Gregorkiewicz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Ocala Utility Services - Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Ocala Utility Services - Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program Ocala Utility Services - Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate One rebate per account Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $450 per system Provider Ocala Utility Services The Solar Water Heater Rebate Program is offered to residential retail electric customers by the City of Ocala Utility Services. Interested customers must complete an application and receive approval from the Ocala Utility Services before installing equipment. The application can be found on the [http://www.ocalafl.org/COO3.aspx?id=947 program web site.] The system must be installed by a licensed Florida contractor on the customer's

65

Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water Presentation Slides and Text Version  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Download presentation slides from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on direct use for building heat and hot water.

66

DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution I-- What's At Stake Webinar (Text Version)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At Stake, presented in January 2014.

67

Water Heating: Energy-efficient strategies for supplying hot water in the home (BTS Technology Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fact sheet for homeowners and contractors on how to supply hot water in the home while saving energy.

NAHB Research Center; Southface Energy Institute; U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Laboratory; U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory

2001-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

advances to commercialize stand-alone electric heat-pump storage hot water heaters. These systems offer design uses multiple systems and fuels to provide thermal services, the emerging generation of heat to experience this change as air-source heat-pump water heaters deliver obvious energy savings over electric

California at Davis, University of

69

Overheating in Hot Water- and Steam-Heated Multifamily Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Apartment temperature data have been collected from the archives of companies that provide energy management systems (EMS) to multifamily buildings in the Northeast U.S. The data have been analyzed from more than 100 apartments in eighteen buildings where EMS systems were already installed to quantify the degree of overheating. This research attempts to answer the question, 'What is the magnitude of apartment overheating in multifamily buildings with central hot water or steam heat?' This report provides valuable information to researchers, utility program managers and building owners interested in controlling heating energy waste and improving resident comfort. Apartment temperature data were analyzed for deviation from a 70 degrees F desired setpoint and for variation by heating system type, apartment floor level and ambient conditions. The data shows that overheating is significant in these multifamily buildings with both hot water and steam heating systems.

Dentz, J.; Varshney, K.; Henderson, H.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to Get it Right  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Zero Energy Ready Homes include critical systems to ensure both energy efficiency and performance.  Hot water distribution is one of these critical systems – affecting energy use , water...

71

DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution I: What's at Stake  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Zero Energy Ready Homes include critical systems to ensure both energy efficiency and performance.  Hot water distribution is one of these critical systems – affecting energy use , water...

72

Solar hot water system installed at Mobile, Alabama. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report describes the solar energy hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Mobile, Alabama. The building is a 122 unit motel. The system consists of six rows of ten collectors and three rows of eleven collectors (1990 square feet) mounted on the roof. Griswald flow control valves were installed to regulate the flow to each row. Two Heliotrope electronic thermometers with a combined capability of measuring the temperatures of 22 different locations were installed for monitoring purposes. Engineering drawings, component specifications, and operator instructions are included.

None

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Water generator replaces bottled water in nuclear power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

WaterPure International Incorporated of Doylestown, Pennsylvania, USA, has announced that it has placed its atmospheric water generator (AWG) inside a selected nuclear power plant.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Experiments on adding a surfactant to water drops boiling on a hot surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...photographs of droplets of water impacting on a hot surface...to film boiling for water and hydrocarbons. Baumeister & Simon...predicting TLeid for hydrocarbons and cryogens, but failed...surfactant to boiling water drops 685 Figure 8...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Water and Energy Wasted During Residential Shower Events: Findings from a Pilot Field Study of Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

study to determine waste of water and energy in residential30 percent. The average waste of energy in the hot water ispaper examines the waste of water and energy associated with

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Numerical simulation of Large Solar Hot Water system in storage tank.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This research is aimed to study the storage tank design parameters effects on the efficiency of the large solar hot water system. Detailed CFD simulation… (more)

Shue, Nai-Shen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Feasibility Analysis of Two Indirect Heat Pump Assisted Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis is an analysis of the simulated performance of two indirect heat pump assisted solar domestic hot water (i-HPASDHW) systems compared to two base… (more)

Sterling, Scott Joseph

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Solar Hot Water Heater Augmented with PV-TEM Heat Pump.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solar assisted heat pumps (SAHPs) can provide higher collector efficiencies and solar fractions when compared against standard solar hot water heaters. Vapour compression (VC) heat… (more)

PRESTON, NATHANIEL

79

Feasibility study and roadmap to improve residential hot water distribution systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include: the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy to reheat water that was already heated once before. A feasibility study and an action plan for a proposed research project involving residential hot water distribution systems is being developed. The feasibility study will use past work to estimate of hot water and energy loses caused by current hot water distribution systems in residences. Proposed research project, or roadmap, will develop recommendations for improvements to residential hot water distribution systems. The roadmap addresses the technical obstacles and gaps in our knowledge that prevent water and energy reductions and market adoption of water- and energy-efficient technologies. The initial results of the feasibility study are presented here along with a discussion of a roadmap to improve the efficiency of residential hot water distribution systems.

Lutz, James D.

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

80

Archaeoglobus fulgidus Isolated from Hot North Sea Oil Field Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hydrothermal systems near Mexico (6). The sulfate-reducing...generation of H2S in geothermal heated oil wells when suitable substrates...and steel alloys in oil wells and in the oil-processing...in the production well head or in the oil-water...

Janiche Beeder; Roald Kåre Nilsen; Jan Thomas Rosnes; Terje Torsvik; Torleiv Lien

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Affordable Solar Hot Water and Power LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water and Power LLC Water and Power LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Affordable Solar Hot Water and Power LLC Place Dothan, Alabama Zip 36305 Sector Solar Product Solar and Energy Efficiency for buildings and homes Year founded 2006 Number of employees 1-10 Phone number 334-828-1024 Website http://www.asolarpro.com Coordinates 31.2070554°, -85.4994192° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.2070554,"lon":-85.4994192,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

82

Hot-electron generation from laser–pre-plasma interactions in cone-guided fast ignition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations were performed for the cone-in-shell integrated fast-ignition experiments at the Omega Laser Facility [W. Theobald et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056305 (2011)]. The initial plasma density profile in the PIC simulations was taken from hydrodynamic simulations of the prepulse interaction with the gold cone. Hot-electron generation from laser–pre-plasma interactions and transport up to 100× the critical density (n{sub c}) was studied. The simulation showed a mean divergence half-angle of 68° and 50% absorption for the hot electrons. The simulation results show that the generated hot electrons were dominated in number by low-energy electrons but in energy by multi-MeV electrons. Electron transport between 5 and 100 n{sub c} was ballistic. In the late stage of the simulation, all the results were largely independent of polarization, indicating a stochastic hot-electron–generation mechanism.

Li, J.; Davies, J. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States) [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Ma, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States) [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Mori, W. B.; Tonge, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ren, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States) [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Solodov, A. A.; Theobald, W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Fusion Science Center, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Development of a Combined Hot Water and Sorption Store for Solar Thermal Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The motivation for the development of a combined hot water and sorption store is to complement the advantages and to reduce the disadvantages of the two particular storage technologies. Hot water stores offer high heat supply rates but are particularly suitable for short term storage due to heat losses whereas for a sorption store the power drain is low but it shows the advantage of a high storage density and long-term heat storage almost without losses. The combined hot water and sorption store has been developed using the example of a solar thermal system for domestic hot water preparation. The store consists of a radial stream adsorber integrated in a hot water store. Adsorption and desorption experiments in laboratory have been conducted with a prototype store in full-scale. A numerical model of the combined store has been developed and annual simulations of a solar thermal system including a combined hot water and sorption store have been conducted. The thermal performance has been compared to those of reference hot water stores. The results of the experimental and numerical investigations will be presented in this paper and the benefit of a combined hot water and sorption store applied for solar thermal systems will be discussed.

Rebecca Weber; Henner Kerskes; Harald Drück

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads...

Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

85

Dynamics of microdroplets over the surface of hot water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When drinking a cup of coffee under the morning sunshine, you may notice white membranes of steam floating on the surface of the hot water. They stay notably close to the surface and appear to almost stick to it. Although the membranes whiffle because of the air flow of rising steam, peculiarly fast splitting events occasionally occur. They resemble cracking to open slits approximately 1 mm wide in the membranes, and leave curious patterns. We studied this phenomenon using a microscope with a high-speed video camera and found intriguing details: i) the white membranes consist of fairly monodispersed small droplets of the order of 10 $\\mu\\,{\\rm m}$; ii) they levitate above the water surface by 10$\\sim$100 $\\mu{\\rm m}$; iii) the splitting events are a collective disappearance of the droplets, which propagates as a wave front of the surface wave with a speed of 1$\\sim$2 m/s; and iv) these events are triggered by a surface disturbance, which results from the disappearance of a single droplet.

Takahiro Umeki; Masahiko Ohata; Hiizu Nakanishi; Masatoshi Ichikawa

2015-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

86

Remote maintenance for a new generation of hot cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For several years the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing facility concepts, designing specialized equipment, and testing prototypical hardware for reprocessing spent fuel from fast breeder reactors. The major facility conceptual design, the Hot Experimental Facility, was based on total remote maintenance to increase plant availability and to reduce radiation exposure. This thrust included designing modular equipment to facilitate maintenance and the manipulation necessary to accomplish maintenance. Included in the design repetoire was the development effort in advanced servomanipulator systems, a remote sampling system, television viewing, and a transporter for manipulator positioning. Demonstration of these developed items is currently ongoing, and the technology is available for applications where production operations in highly radioactive environments are required.

Feldman, M.J.; Grant, N.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Ch. III, Interpretation of water sample analyses Waunita Hot...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

analyses Waunita Hot Springs area Gunnison County, Colorado Author R. H. Carpenter Editor T. G. Zacharakis Published Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S....

88

Heat and Mass Transfer in a Wetted Thermal Insulation of hot Water Pipes Operating Under Flooding Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the results of numerical simulation of the thermal regimes of hot water pipes under flooding conditions with account for evaporation and diffusion ... modeling thermal regimes of hot water pipes under

V. Yu. Polovnikov; E. V. Gubina

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Impact of Hedonism on Domestic Hot Water Energy Demand for Showering ? The Case of the Schanzenfest, Hamburg  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The causes of variation in energy demand for hot water in showering or bathing ... was triangulated with electric meter data to examine energy use behaviours and explore changes in hot water demand. This occurred...

Stephen Lorimer; Marianne Jang; Korinna Thielen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Hot Water Draw Patterns in Single-Family Houses: Findings from Field  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hot Water Draw Patterns in Single-Family Houses: Findings from Field Hot Water Draw Patterns in Single-Family Houses: Findings from Field Studies Title Hot Water Draw Patterns in Single-Family Houses: Findings from Field Studies Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4830E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Lutz, James D., Renaldi, Alexander B. Lekov, Yining Qin, and Moya Melody Document Number LBNL-4830E Pagination 26 Date Published 05/2011 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract This report describes data regarding hot water draw patterns that Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory obtained from 10 studies. The report describes our purposes in collecting the data; the ways in which we managed, cleaned, and analyzed the data; and the results of our data analysis. We found that daily hot water use is highly variable both among residences and within the same residence. We also found that the distributions of daily hot water use are not symmetrical normal distributions. Thus we used median, not average, values to characterize typical daily hot water use. This report presents summary information that illustrates the results of our data collection and some initial analysis.

91

DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational Course on Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Direct Use for Building Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water Webinar (text version) Below is the text version of the Webinar titled "DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational Courses Renewable Energy Technologies: Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water." Slide 1 Amy Hollander: Hello, I'm Amy Hollander with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Welcome to today's webinar on Building Heat and Hot Water sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs. This webinar is being recorded from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's new state-of-the-art net zero

92

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Power Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Power Plant Water Management Power Plant Water Management The availability of clean and reliable sources of water is a critical issue across the United States and throughout the world. Under the Innovations for Existing Plants Program (IEP), the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has pursued an integrated water-energy R&D program that addresses water management issues relative to coal-based power generation. This initiative intended to clarify the link between energy and water, deepen the understanding of this link and its implications, and integrate current water-related R&D activities into a national water-energy R&D program. Please click on each research area for additional information. Non-Traditional Sources of Process and Cooling Water Non-Traditional Sources of Process and Cooling Water

93

Thermal and sanitary performance of domestic hot water cylinders: Conflicting requirements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to understand the sanitary implications around the demand side management of domestic hot water cylinders, microbial samples were taken from the bottom of 10 UK domestic electric hot water tanks whose heating elements are connected to a controlled off-peak supply. The results indicated high concentrations of bacteria in the water and biofilm. Microbial concentrations remained high in spite of the application of seven hours of heating during off-peak hours. Further numerical and experimental work shows that this problem arises due to the differing modes of heat transfer that prevail above and below the immersion element. The results from thermal and bacterial growth models suggest that it is impossible to achieve sanitary conditions throughout standard domestic hot water tanks without significantly increasing the heating element temperature or lowering the heating element from its current position. Raising the immersion thermostat temperature results in additional heat losses whilst lowering the immersion position compromises thermal stratification leading to uneconomical operation. Guidelines around storing hot water at temperatures that are sufficient for the purposes of sterilizing human pathogens such as Legionella, fail to take account of the conflict between thermal and sanitary performance. By better understanding the distribution of temperatures and bacteria within hot water tanks along with the associated risks, improved design and control strategies may be adopted to facilitate effective demand side management of hot water systems whilst meeting sanitary requirements.

Peter M. Armstrong; Meg Uapipatanakul; Ian Thompson; Duane Ager; Malcolm McCulloch

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Solar Hot Water Technology: Office of Power Technologies (OPT) Success Stories Series Fact Sheet  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Buildings Program Buildings Program Office of Solar Energy Technologies Every home, commercial building, and indus- trial facility requires hot water. An enormous amount of energy is consumed in the United States producing and maintaining our supply of on-demand hot water; the residential and commercial sectors combined use 3 quads (quadrillion Btus) of energy per year, roughly 3% of the total U.S. energy consumption. As of 1998, 1.2 million systems have been installed on homes in the United States, with 6000 currently being added each year. Yet the potential for growth is huge, as solar hot water systems are supplying less than 2% of the nation's hot water. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors which are being installed in increasing numbers in

95

Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use- Building America Top Innovation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Building America Innovations profile describes Building America research that is improving domestic hot water modeling capabilities to more effectively address one of the largest energy uses in residential buildings.

96

Tribal Renewable Energy Foundational Course: Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Watch the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy foundational course webinar on direct use for building heat and hot water by clicking on the .swf link below. You can also download the...

97

An investigation of numerical dispersion in the hot water injection process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dispersion is important in the simulation of the hot water injection process with heat loss. Numerical results are compared to the analytical solution of the simple convective-diffusion problem and Lauwerier's analytical solution to the hot water... simulated, then some type of method for controlling numerical dispersion will have to be implemented. It is obvious from the numerical results that numerical dispersion is affected by injection velocity and distance travelled, but these variables do...

McVay, Duane Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

98

Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

None

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Lake Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the

100

Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Crane Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Mccredie Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

102

Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

Wahl, III, Edward F. (Claremont, CA); Boucher, Frederic B. (San Juan Capistrano, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Tapping Solar for Hot Water and Cheaper Bills for Puerto Rico | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tapping Solar for Hot Water and Cheaper Bills for Puerto Rico Tapping Solar for Hot Water and Cheaper Bills for Puerto Rico Tapping Solar for Hot Water and Cheaper Bills for Puerto Rico November 3, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE What does this mean for me? 150 new jobs. 1200 solar water heaters installed. In Puerto Rico, solar water heaters have been popular for decades. But even with energy savings, not everyone can afford one. Through a new Recovery Act-funded program for the island, more families are showering with water heated by the sun. The U.S. Department of Energy's new Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) in Puerto Rico has made it a priority to install the systems in homes of income-eligible residents, as part of its weatherization assistance services. The Puerto Rico Energy Affairs Administration (PREAA), which

104

Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Alvord Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from

105

Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Beowawe Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from

106

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

None

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

New Hampshire Electric Co-Op - Solar Hot Water | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

New Hampshire Electric Co-Op - Solar Hot Water New Hampshire Electric Co-Op - Solar Hot Water New Hampshire Electric Co-Op - Solar Hot Water < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,500 Program Info State New Hampshire Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 20% of installed costs Provider New Hampshire Electric Co-Op New Hampshire Electric Co-Op (NHEC) offers rebates to residential customers who install qualified solar water-heating systems. The rebate is equal to 20% of installed system costs, with a maximum award of $1,500. Systems must be pre-approved, and installed in NHEC's service territory by a qualified installer. Program funds are available on a first-come, first-served basis. See the program web site listed above for more information, an application

108

Fuel from Water: The Photochemical Generation of Hydrogen from Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel from Water: The Photochemical Generation of Hydrogen from Water ... Hydrogen can be generated from fossil fuels using well established industrial scale chem.; while this is clearly not green, it can provide the transitional capacity as infrastructure is developed and alternate ways of generating hydrogen using solar, nuclear, hydro, wind, or wave energy come to the fore. ... Our renewed interest in alternative energy has fuelled research in understanding this simplest, in terms of active site organization, of the known hydrogenases over the last two decades. ...

Zhiji Han; Richard Eisenberg

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

109

Low rank coal upgrading in a flow of hot water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous hydrothermal degradation and extraction at around 350{sup o}C using flowing solvent as a reaction/extraction medium were proposed for upgrading brown coal, more specifically, for converting brown coal into several fractions having different molecular weight and chemical structure under mild conditions. When an Australian brown coal, Loy Yang coal, was treated by water at 350{sup o}C under 18 MPa, the coal was separated into four fractions: gaseous product by 8% yield, water-soluble extract at room temperature (soluble) by 23% yield, extract precipitates as solid at room temperature (deposit) by 23% yield, and residual coal (upgraded coal) by 46% yield on daf basis. The separation was found to be realized by in situ extraction of low-molecular-weight substances released from coal macromolecular structure and/or those generated by hydrothermal decomposition reactions at 350{sup o}C. The solid products obtained, deposit and upgraded coal, were characterized in detail to examine the possibility of their effective utilization as solid fuel and chemical feed stock. The upgraded coal showed higher heating value and higher gasification reactivity than the parent coal, indicating that the upgraded coal can be a better solid fuel than the parent coal. The solid extract, deposit, was found to show thermoplasticity at less than 200{sup o}C, suggesting the possibility of utilizing the deposit as a raw material of high performance carbon materials. Several variables affecting the performance of the proposed method are also examined in detail in this paper. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Masato Morimoto; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Kouichi Miura [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

111

New Infographic and Projects to Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Infographic and Projects to Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Infographic and Projects to Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water New Infographic and Projects to Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water April 19, 2013 - 3:21pm Addthis New Energy Saver 101 infographic lays out the different types of water heaters on the market and will help you figure out how to select the best model for your home. Download a high-resolution version of the infographic. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity. New Energy Saver 101 infographic lays out the different types of water heaters on the market and will help you figure out how to select the best model for your home. Download a high-resolution version of the infographic. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs

112

Water Sampling At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney, 2005) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Sampling At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area Water Sampling At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical Sampling of Thermal and Non-thermal Waters in Nevada, Shevenell and Garside. The objective of this project is to obtain geochemical data from springs (and some wells) for which data are not publicly available, or for which the analyses are incomplete, poor, or nonexistent. With these data, geothermometers are being calculated and a preliminary assessment of the geothermal potential and ranking of the sampled areas is being conducted using the new geochemical data. Objectives changed slightly in 2004. Samples are now being collected at sites identified by other

113

Assembly and comparison of available solar hot water system reliability databases and information.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed commercially for over 30 years, yet few quantitative details are known about their reliability. This report describes a comprehensive analysis of all of the known major previous research and data regarding the reliability of SHW systems and components. Some important conclusions emerged. First, based on a detailed inspection of ten-year-old systems in Florida, about half of active systems can be expected to fail within a ten-year period. Second, valves were identified as the probable cause of a majority of active SHW failures. Third, passive integral and thermosiphon SHW systems have much lower failure rates than active ones, probably due to their simple design that employs few mechanical parts. Fourth, it is probable that the existing data about reliability do not reveal the full extent of fielded system failures because most of the data were based on trouble calls. Often an SHW system owner is not aware of a failure because the backup system silently continues to produce hot water. Thus, a repair event may not be generated in a timely manner, if at all. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent details about this study, including the source of the data, the techniques to assure their quality before analysis, the organization of the data into perhaps the most comprehensive reliability database in existence, a detailed statistical analysis, and a list of recommendations for additional critical work. Important recommendations include the inclusion of an alarm on SHW systems to identify a failed system, the need for a scientifically designed study to collect high-quality reliability data that will lead to design improvements and lower costs, and accelerated testing of components that are identified as highly problematic.

Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Intermittent laser-plasma interactions and hot electron generation in shock ignition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study laser-plasma interactions and hot electron generation in the ignition phase of shock ignition through 1D and 2D particle-in-cell simulations in the regime of long density scale length and moderately high laser intensity. These long-term simulations show an intermittent bursting pattern of laser-plasma instabilities, resulting from a coupling of the modes near the quarter-critical-surface and those in the lower density region via plasma waves and laser pump depletion. The majority of the hot electrons are found to be from stimulated Raman scattering and of moderate energies. However, high energy electrons of preheating threat can still be generated from the two-plasmon-decay instability.

Yan, R.; Li, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Ren, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation is from the Building America research team BA-PIRC webinar on September 30, 2011 providing informationprovide information about how to achieve energy savings from solar water heating, electric dedicated heat pump water heating, and gas tankless systems.

116

Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Details Activities (5) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Two hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy reservoirs have been created by hydraulic fracturing of Precambrian granitic rock between two wells on the west flank of the Valles Caldera in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. Heat is extracted by injecting water into one well,

117

Why Is Nevada in Hot Water? Structural Controls and Tectonic Model of  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Why Is Nevada in Hot Water? Structural Controls and Tectonic Model of Why Is Nevada in Hot Water? Structural Controls and Tectonic Model of Geothermal Systems in the Northwestern Great Basin Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Why Is Nevada in Hot Water? Structural Controls and Tectonic Model of Geothermal Systems in the Northwestern Great Basin Abstract In the western Great Basin, the Walker Lane is a system of right-lateral strike-slip faults accommodating ~15-25% of relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates. Relatively high rates of recent (<10 Ma) west-northwest extension absorb northwestward declining dextral motion in the Walker Lane, diffusing that motion into the Basin-Range. Abundant geothermal fields cluster in several northeasttrending belts in the

118

City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State California Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider City of San Jose Building, Planning and Electrical Permits are required for Photovoltiac (PV) systems installed in San Jose. In most cases, PV systems must also undergo a Building Plan Review and an Electrical Plan Review. Building Plan Reviews are not required for installations that meet all of the following criteria: 1. Total panel weight (including frame) is not greater than 5 lbs. per

119

Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Colorado, Using Geoelectrical Methods Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Colorado, Using Geoelectrical Methods Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: In geothermal fields, open faults and fractures often act as high permeability pathways bringing hydrothermal fluids to the surface from deep reservoirs. The Mount Princeton area, in south-central Colorado, is an area that has an active geothermal system related to faulting and is therefore a suitable natural laboratory to test geophysical methods. The Sawatch range-front normal fault bordering the half-graben of the Upper Arkansas

120

DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution II-- How to Get it Right Webinar (Text Version)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to Get it Right, presented in January2014.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Sacramento Ordinance to Waive Fees for Solar Hot Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

An ordinance suspending for the calendar years 2007-2009 all fees related to installations of solar water heaters on existing residences.

122

On the Penetration of Water into Hot Rock  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......that maximizes the penetration rate can be found from...lower bound to the rate of water penetration, but, since there...one-dimensional model of water penetration so far derived has...it is the rapid rate of advance of the......

C. R. B. Lister

1974-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Solar Water Heating: What's Hot and What's Not  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A handful of electric utilities in the United States now pay incentives to their customers to install solar water heaters or are developing programs to do so. The solar water heater incentives are part of a broader utility demand-side management...

Stein, J.

124

Comparative Environmental and Economic Analysis of Conventional and Nanofluid Solar Hot Water Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Domestic solar hot water heaters for residential use in the Phoenix metropolitan area, as well as throughout the state of Arizona, are eligible for tax rebates at the state and federal level, in addition to incentive programs through local utilities. ... All of these studies have focused on utilizing solar hot water heaters in European countries, with most focusing only on the environmental aspect (8-10) and very limited prior works examining both the economic and environmental impacts (7). ... The nanofluid collector is expected to have the same lifetime as the conventional solar collector since it utilizes the same material technologies as a conventional collector. ...

Todd P. Otanicar; Jay S. Golden

2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

125

Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Mickey Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from

126

Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Umpqua Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from

127

Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Ablation driven by hot electrons generated during the ignitor laser pulse in shock ignition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analytical model for the ablation driven by hot electrons is presented. The hot electrons are assumed to be generated during the high intensity laser spike used to produce the ignitor shock wave in the shock ignition driven inertial fusion concept, and to carry on the absorbed laser energy in its totality. Efficient energy coupling requires to keep the critical surface sufficiently close to the ablation front and this goal can be achieved for high laser intensities provided that the laser wavelength is short enough. Scaling laws for the ablation pressure and the other relevant magnitudes of the ablation cloud are found in terms of the laser and target parameters. The effect of the preformed plasma assembled by the compression pulse, previous to the ignitor, is also discussed. It is found that a minimum ratio between the compression and the ignitor pulses would be necessary for the adequate matching of the corresponding scale lengths.

Piriz, A. R.; Rodriguez Prieto, G. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha and Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Tahir, N. A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Zhang, Y. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Liu, S. D.; Zhao, Y. T. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, 730000 Lanzhou (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

NV Energy (Southern Nevada)- Solar Hot Water Incentive Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

NV Energy is providing an incentive for its residential customers to install solar water heaters on their homes. As of July 26, 2013, NV Energy electric customers in Southern Nevada who own their...

130

Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2002) 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

131

Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood, 2002) Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Breitenbush Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

132

Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood, 2002) Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the

133

Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

Andrews, J.W.

1980-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

134

Development of a cogenerating thermophotovoltaic powered combination hot water heater/hydronic boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cogenerating thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device for hot water hydronic space heating and electric power generation was developed designed fabricated and tested under a Department of Energy contracted program. The device utilizes a cylindrical ytterbia superemissive ceramic fiber burner (SCFB) and is designed for a nominal capacity of 80 kBtu/hr. The burner is fired with premixed natural gas and air. Narrow band emission from the SCFB is converted to electricity by single crystal silicon (Si) photovoltaic (PV) arrays arranged concentrically around the burner. A three-way mixing valve is used to direct heated water to either the portable water storage tank radiant baseboard heaters or both. As part of this program QGI developed a microprocessor-based control system to address the safety issues as well as photovoltaic power management. Flame sensing is accomplished via the photovoltaics a technology borrowed from QGI’s Quantum Control™ safety shut-off system. Device testing demonstrated a nominal photovoltaic power output of 200 W. Power consumed during steady state operation was 33 W with power drawn from the combustion air blower hydronic system pump three-way switching valve and the control system resulting in a net power surplus of 142 W. Power drawn during the ignition sequence was 55 W and a battery recharge time of 1 minute 30 seconds was recorded. System efficiency was measured and found to be more than 83%. Pollutant emissions at determined operating conditions were below the South Coast Air Quality Management District’s (California) limit of 40 ng/J for NOx and carbon monoxide emissions were measured at less than 50 dppm.

Aleksandr S. Kushch; Steven M. Skinner; Richard Brennan; Pedro A. Sarmiento

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

High-Throughput Screening Technique for Biomass Conversion in Hot Compressed Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-Throughput Screening Technique for Biomass Conversion in Hot Compressed Water ... Formic acid is known to be converted completely to gaseous products, mainly CO2 and H2 at high temperatures. ... The Ru/TiO2 catalyst is able to convert WSIS (char) to gas, while leaving the oil product practically unaltered with respect to compn. ...

Pavlina Nanou; Wim P. M. van Swaaij; Sascha R. A. Kersten; Guus van Rossum

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

136

Targeted removal of ant colonies in ecological experiments, using hot water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a large tank through a long coil of copper tubing within the kiln to produce 4 to 5 l. of hot water per colonies were formed, and mature colonies expanded into the plots. A third treatment was made in the spring

137

Comparison Between TRNSYS Software Simulation and F-Chart Program on Solar Domestic Hot Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study presents the accuracy test of a TRNSYS Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) System simulation. The testing is based on comparing the results with the F-Chart software. The selected system to carry out the tests was the Active Solar Domestic...

Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mao, C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain Don't Let Your Money and Hot Water Go Down the Drain December 9, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis John Lippert Do you look at your retirement savings statements and feel like you're sending your money down the drain? Do you deposit more money each paycheck into your retirement account, but find the balance goes down, not up? Pssst, want to invest in a "sure thing?" No, this isn't a scam. It's a device that has no moving parts to break down, but is certain to save you energy, and thus save you money by lowering your utility bills. When we all take showers and baths, wash the dishes or clothes, and wash our hands, we send heated water literally down the drain. That typically represents 80%-90% of the energy used to heat water in a home. Drain-water (or

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

Bradley, D.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Experiments on adding a surfactant to water drops boiling on a hot surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...surfactant to boiling water drops 675 done with three...0 ppm (i.e. pure water), 100 ppm and 1000...and ambient pressure (atmospheric). 2. Experimental...surfactant to 800 g of water. The water was distilled...solution in the droplet generator the syringe, needle...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Hot water decontamination of beef carcasses to increase microbiological safety and shelf-life  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). The spraying system functioned by circulating hot water from the water bath to the spray gun at a given pressure and temperature. The pressure was constantly monitored by a pressure gauge (Marshall Town 88901, USA) installed in the valve junction.... The temperature m the water bath was monitored by a digital thermometer (Tegam 871, Digital Thermometer) with a type K thermocouple sensor. Also, the temperature of the spray coming out of the jet was measured with a thermocouple inserted and sealed in the tip...

Barakate, Michelle Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

144

Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Final Report of the Solar Hot Water System located at the Red Star Industrial Laundry, 3333 Sabre Avenue, Fresno, California, is presented. The system was designed as an integrated wastewater heat recovery and solar preheating system to supply a part of the hot water requirements. It was estimated that the natural gas demand for hot water heating could be reduced by 56 percent (44 percent heat reclamation and 12 percent solar). The system consists of a 16,500 gallon tube-and-shell wastewater heat recovery subsystem combined with a pass-through 6,528 square foot flat plate Ying Manufacturing Company Model SP4120 solar collector subsystem, a 12,500 gallon fiber glass water storage tank subsystem, pumps, heat exchangers, controls, and associated plumbing. The design output of the solar subsystem is approximately 2.6 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/year. Auxiliary energy is provided by a gas fired low pressure boiler servicing a 4,000 gallon service tank. This project is part of the US Department of Energy's Solar Demonstration Program with DOE sharing $184,841 of the $260,693 construction cost. The system was turned on in July 1977, and acceptance tests completed in September 1977. The demonstration period for this project ends September 2, 1982.

None

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Study on the LWT control schemes of a heat pump for hot water supply  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat pump systems have been widely used in buildings and industries due to their high performance. In this study, a leaving water temperature control scheme has been proposed for a water-to-water heat pump for hot water supply. The study was focused on the following four schemes: (1) using an auxiliary electric heater, (2) varying compressor speed, (3) adjusting water flow rate, and (4) adding heat to the secondary fluid flow of the heat source. With schemes (2) and (3), the system showed higher performance than other schemes. However, scheme (2) could not attain the appropriate LWT at low EWT heat source conditions. For all EWT conditions, using schemes (3) and (4) enabled the system to reach an appropriate LWT. Scheme (4) can be adopted as the best technology to control LWT, because it is not easy to vary flow rate of the secondary fluid as in scheme (3).

Jong Min Choi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Boiling Water at Hot Creek--The Dangerous and Dynamic Thermal Springs in California's Long Valley Caldera  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boiling Water at Hot Creek--The Dangerous and Dynamic Thermal Springs in California's Long Valley.S. Geological Survey USGS Fact Sheet 2007-3045 2007 T Hot Creek flows through the Long Valley Caldera Airport Fish hatchery CH-10B 44-16 Well Well Long Valley C aldera Area of Map Californ i a The thermal

Torgersen, Christian

147

Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Multielement geochemistry of solid materials in geothermal systems and its applications. Part 1. Hot-water system at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geochemical studies of the geothermal system at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah, have led to development of chemical criteria for recognition of major features of the system and to a three-dimensional model for chemical zoning in the system. Based on this improved level of understanding several new or modified geochemical exploration and assessment techniques have been defined and are probably broadly applicable to evaluation of hot-water geothermal systems. The main purpose of this work was the development or adaptation of solids geochemical exploration techniques for use in the geothermal environment. (MHR)

Bamford, R.W.; Christensen, O.D.; Capuano, R.M.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton: Using The Sun For Hot Water And Electricity, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, covering 125,000 acres including 17 miles of Southern-California coastline, is the largest expeditionary training facility on the West Coast. More than 41,500 marines and family members call the base home, which reaches a daytime population of approximately 100,000. In fiscal year 2007, Camp Pendleton saved energy and money and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through solar hot water (SHW) and photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The base implemented two integrated solar thermal/PV systems at its 53 Area and 62 Area training pools. The projects demonstrate Camp Pendleton's continuing commitment to energy conservation while helping meet Federal requirements for on-site renewable energy and solar hot water generation.

150

U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton: Using The Sun For Hot Water And Electricity, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, covering 125,000 acres including 17 miles of Southern-California coastline, is the largest expeditionary training facility on the West Coast. More than 41,500 marines and family members call the base home, which reaches a daytime population of approximately 100,000. In fiscal year 2007, Camp Pendleton saved energy and money and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through solar hot water (SHW) and photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The base implemented two integrated solar thermal/PV systems at its 53 Area and 62 Area training pools. The projects demonstrate Camp Pendleton's continuing commitment to energy conservation while helping meet Federal requirements for on-site renewable energy and solar hot water generation.

151

DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational Course on Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DIRECT USE FOR BUILDING HEAT & HOT WATER Presented by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Course Outline 2 What we will cover...  About the DOE Office of Indian Energy Education Initiative  Course Introduction  Solar Thermal and Solar Ventilation Air Pre-Heat - Resources, Technology, Examples & Cost, and References  Biomass Heat - Resources, Technology, Examples & Cost, and References  Geothermal Building Heat - Resources, Technology, Examples & Cost, and References  Additional Information & Resources Introduction The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs is responsible for assisting Tribes with energy planning and development, infrastructure, energy costs, and electrification of Indian

152

High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

Dayan, M.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Primary energy consumption of the dwelling with solar hot water system and biomass boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a new methodology, based on the energy performance of buildings Directive related European norms. It is developed to overcome ambiguities and incompleteness of these standards in determining the delivered and primary energy. The available procedures from the present “Algorithm for determining the energy demands and efficiency of technical systems in buildings”, normally used for energy performance certification of buildings, also allow detailed analyzes of the influence of particular system components on the overall system energy efficiency. The calculation example is given for a Croatian reference dwelling, equipped with a solar hot water system, backed up with a biomass boiler for space heating and domestic hot water purposes as a part of the dwelling energy performance certification. Calculations were performed for two cases corresponding to different levels of the dwelling thermal insulation with an appropriate heating system capacity, in order to investigate the influence of the building heat losses on the system design and energy consumption. The results are compared against those obtained for the conventional system with a gas boiler in terms of the primary energy consumption as well as of investment and operating costs. These results indicate great reduction in both delivered and primary energy consumption when a solar system with biomass boiler is used instead of the conventional one. Higher savings are obtained in the case of the dwelling with higher energy need for space heating. Such dwellings also have a shorter payback period than the ones with better thermal insulation.

Mihaela Berkovi?-Šubi?; Martina Rauch; Damir Dovi?; Mladen Andrassy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

New test methodologies to analyse direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps for domestic hot water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Since there are not specific standards for testing direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps for domestic hot water, new testing methodologies are proposed supported by laboratory experiments. Two methodologies were developed for performance measurement: modified BIN method and long term performance prediction with a TRNSYS model validated with specific experimental conditions. The long term performance prediction is a methodology similar to the already obtained for solar thermal systems. A system was tested in Lisbon during one year, covering almost all possible local weather conditions. The hot water tapping test cycle used was in agreement with recent standards EN16147:2011 or EN15316-3-1:2007. The influence of average daily air temperature, dew point temperature and solar irradiation was analysed. The seasonal performance factor was calculated for two cities in Portugal (Lisbon and Porto) and for additional four cities in Europe (Davos, Athens, Helsinki and Strasburg). The establishment of a procedure to calculate the seasonal performance of this kind of systems is very important according to the directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council.

Jorge Facão; Maria João Carvalho

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Probing Hot Electron Flow Generated on Pt Nanoparticles with Au/TiO2 Schottky Diodes during Catalytic CO Oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hot electron flow generated on colloid platinum nanoparticles during exothermic catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation was directly detected with Au/TiO{sub 2} diodes. Although Au/TiO{sub 2} diodes are not catalytically active, platinum nanoparticles on Au/TiO{sub 2} exhibit both chemicurrent and catalytic turnover rate. Hot electrons are generated on the surface of the metal nanoparticles and go over the Schottky energy barrier between Au and TiO{sub 2}. The continuous Au layer ensures that the metal nanoparticles are electrically connected to the device. The overall thickness of the metal assembly (nanoparticles and Au thin film) is comparable to the mean free path of hot electrons, resulting in ballistic transport through the metal. The chemicurrent and chemical reactivity of nanoparticles with citrate, hexadecylamine, hexadecylthiol, and TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide) capping agents were measured during catalytic CO oxidation at pressures of 100 Torr O{sub 2} and 40 Torr CO at 373-513 K. We found that chemicurrent yield varies with each capping agent, but always decreases with increasing temperature. We suggest that this inverse temperature dependence is associated with the influence of charging effects due to the organic capping layer during hot electron transport through the metal-oxide interface.

Park, Jeong Y.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Renzas, J. Russell; Zhang, Yawen; Somorjai, G.A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Hydrogen Generation through Static Feed Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Systems’ Static Feed Water Electrolysis System (SFWES) concept, developed under NASA...2...) production. The SFWES concept uses (1) an alkaline electrolyte to minimize power requirements and materials compat...

F. C. Jensen; F. H. Schubert

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of a Medium-Temperature Hot Water Boiler for the 300 GeV Accelerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of a Medium-Temperature Hot Water Boiler for the 300 GeV Accelerator

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 281 Solar Hot Water Application Assessment for U.S. Army IMCOM-Southeast Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires installations (EISA) to install solar systems of sufficient capacity to provide 30% of service hot water in new construction and renovations where cost-effective. However, installations are struggling with how to implement solar hot water, and while several installations are installing solar hot water on a limited basis, paybacks remain long. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked to address this issue to help determine how best to implement solar hot water projects. This documents discusses the results of that project.

Russo, Bryan J.; Chvala, William D.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

159

Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

Dennehy, G

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heat exchanger, nuclear waste repository, buried oil pipeline, and underground electricity transmission cable applications can be adapted to the simulation of under-slab water piping. A numerical model that permits detailed examination of and broad variations in many inputs while employing a technique to conserve computer run time is recommended.

Warner, J.L.; Lutz, J.D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Solar generator performance with load matching to water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 7 W generator, based on monocrystalline silicon solar cells, was directly wired to an electronic load, simulating the current-voltage characteristic of an advanced water electrolyser. System performance was ...

K. Freudenberg

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diagram 1: A Typical Tank Water Heater Source: http://to-unit comparisons of tank versus tankless water heaters.Energy Use MJ/(unit*year) Tank Tankless MJ/(unit*year) Tank

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Materials for Hydrogen Generation via Water Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review is presented of materials that could be utilized as electrolytes (and their associated electrodes and interconnect materials) in solid-state electrolysis cells to convert water (or steam) into hydrogen and oxygen. Electrolytes that function as oxygen ion conductors or proton conductors are considered for various operating temperatures from approximately 80 °C to 1000 °C. The fundamental electrochemical reactions are reviewed with some discussion of special sources of steam and DC electricity (advanced nuclear) to drive the reactions at the higher temperatures.

Paul A. Lessing

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... 18 GW of salinity-gradient power. Although 800 GW of power is currently obtained from hydroelectric processes globally, salinity-gradient energy remains a large and untapped resource. Capturing this energy ... not ions — through the membranes to produce pressurized water that generates electricity using mechanical turbines. RED uses membranes for ion — but not water — transport, and the electrical ...

Bruce E. Logan; Menachem Elimelech

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature

Berning, Torsten

166

Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150 l tank with a height to diameter ratio of 5. A tank with uniform temperatures and with thermal stratification is studied. A detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the tank is developed to calculate the natural convection flow in the tank. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is measured by experiments and used as input to the CFD model. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank are measured and compared to CFD calculated temperatures. The investigations focus on validation of the CFD model and on understanding of the CFD calculations. The results show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow is influenced by water temperatures in the tank. When the temperature gradient in the tank is smaller than 2 K/m, there is a downward fluid velocity of 0.003–0.015 m/s. With the presence of thermal stratification the buoyancy driven flow is significantly reduced. The dependence of the velocity magnitude of the downward flow on temperature gradient is not influenced by the tank volume and is only slightly influenced by the tank height to tank diameter ratio. Based on results of the CFD calculations, an equation is determined to calculate the magnitude of the buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall for a given temperature gradient in the tank.

Jianhua Fan; Simon Furbo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Improving thermosyphon solar domestic hot water system model performance. Final report, March 1994--February 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data from an indoor solar simulator experimental performance test is used to develop a systematic calibration procedure for a computer model of a thermosyphoning, solar domestic hot water heating system with a tank-in-tank heat exchanger. Calibration is performed using an indoor test with a simulated solar collector to adjust heat transfer in the heat exchanger and heat transfer between adjacent layers of water in the storage tank. An outdoor test is used to calibrate the calculation of the friction drop in the closed collector loop. Additional indoor data with forced flow in the annulus of the heat exchanger leads to improved heat transfer correlations for the inside and outside regions of the tank-in-tank heat exchanger. The calibrated simulation model is compared to several additional outdoor tests both with and without auxiliary heating. Integrated draw energies are predicted with greater accuracy and draw temperature profiles match experimental results to a better degree. Auxiliary energy input predictions improve significantly. 63 figs., 29 tabs.

Swift, T.N.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Water and Energy Savings using Demand Hot Water Recirculating Systems in Residential Homes: A Case Study of Five Homes in Palo Alto, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a preliminary study aimed at estimating the potential of saving potable water, (and the electrical energy used to heat it), that is presently lost directly to the drain while occupants wait for hot water to arrive at the faucet (point of use). Data were collected from five single-family homes in Palo Alto, California. Despite the small sample size in this study, the results make a compelling case for retrofitting homes with hot water recirculation systems to eliminate unnecessary wastage of water at the point of use. Technical as well as behavioral and attitudinal changes towards water conservation are necessary for a fulfilling and successful conservation effort. This report focuses on the technical issues, but behavioral issues are also noted, which may be factored into future studies involving local and state governments and utility companies.

Ally, M.R.

2002-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

170

Analysis of the behavior of an experimental absorption heat transformer for water purification for different mass flux rates in the generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present study, first and second laws of thermodynamics have been used to analyse the performance of an experimental absorption heat transformer for water purification. Irreversibilities, coefficients of performance (COP) and exergy coefficients of performance (ECOP) were determined as function of the mass flow of hot water supplied to the generator and as function of the overall thermal specific energy consumption (OSTEC) parameter defined in this paper. The results showed that the system irreversibilities increase meanwhile the coefficients of performance and the exergy coefficient of performance decrease with an increment of the mass flow of hot water supplied to the generator. Also it was shown that the system performance is better when the production of purified water increases due to the increment of the heat recycled to the generator and evaporator.

Armando Huicochea; Wilfrido Rivera; Hiram Martínez; Javier Siqueiros; Erasmo Cadenas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Learning from Interventions Aimed at Mainstreaming Solar Hot Water in the Australian Market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Domestic water heating in Australia conventionally uses electric resistance heating storage or gas fuelled water heaters. The Australian electricity supply has some of the highest greenhouse gas emissions factors in the world. Consequently, water heating is responsible for approximately 24 percent of residential sector greenhouse gas emissions in Australia. To assist households to move towards an energy efficient, low carbon future, a suite of market intervention programs to support solar hot water uptake have been introduced at both state and federal levels. These programs aim to improve the capacity of industry to deliver solar solutions, reduce the emissions intensity and net cost of household water heating, and increase the market share of the solar water heating sector. Incentives include:• Point of sale rebates and certificate-based programs for energy efficiency and renewable energy; • Regulations for new houses that encourage solar water heating installations; • Community awareness programs; and • Training programs for installers to ensure that tradespeople have the competencies to size systems and the skills to install them correctly. In some jurisdictions the incentive programs were performance-based, but in others a fixed rebate amount was available for all systems having performance above a minimum threshold. These programs have lead to the widespread expansion of the industry, with an almost doubling of the proportion of households with solar water heaters between 1999 and 2011. Installations in new homes have seen an even more marked increase: For example, regulations for new homes in the state of Victoria require the installation of a solar water heater or rainwater tank. This program has seen the adoption of solar water heaters in new homes increase fro m around 5% in 2004 to over 70% in 2011. Across most of Australia there are proposed regulations limiting the emissions intensity of replacement water heaters which will effectively ban resistance electric water heaters in most situations. Recently both South Australia and Queensland commenced their program for existing houses. It is expected that in the future these programs will drive an even greater uptake, which will go some way to insulating Australian households from price increases that may result from carbon driven future increases in the cost of energy. This paper discusses the various approaches and outcomes of the different programs and provides analysis of the basis of program success or improvements. Learning relevant to market interventions worldwide include• Continuity in program operation is necessary to allow industry to grow in a sustainable way. • Basing the incentive on independently derived performance results provides industry with a means of differentiating better products and provides purchasers with appropriate guidance. • Rebate program design should consider the consumer's purchasing priorities. For example, a point of sale discount awarded as part of the purchase transaction aligns with the urgency of the purchasing process and does not require additional cash to be available from the purchaser. • Design of the schemes can not only produce a greater market share, but can also encourage the manufacture of lower greenhouse gas emissions products. • Market interventions can have unintended consequences, so the programs need to be monitored and flexibility maintained to changes to avoid poor outcomes.

David Ferrari; Ken Guthrie; Sonja Ott; Robert Thomson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Economic analysis of residential combined solar-heating and hot-water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A brief description of a typical residential solar heating and hot water system and typical cost and performance information are presented. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. The economic evaluation of solar residential systems is presented in increasing levels of complexity. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described so that it can be determined whether the typical system economics are compatible with the particular situation. Methods for calculating the payback period for any non-typical solar system are described. This calculated payback period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the purchaser of the system would receive for a typical economic condition. A nomagraph is presented that performs this calculation. Finally, a method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. It is shown how to develop the relationship between payback period and the effective interest rate for any economic scenario.

None

1980-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

173

Economic analysis of residential and commercial solar heating and hot water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The economic evaluation of residential and commercial solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Commercial systems are further categorized as taxable and non-taxable applications in recognition of the effect of Federal and state tax incentives and disincentives for solar energy systems. The economic evaluation of each system type is performed utilizing two distinct methods of analysis. The economic analyses follow a brief description of each method. The Cash Flow Analyses provide insight into the short and long term effects of a solar investment on the budget of the solar energy system purchaser while the Return-On-Investment Analyses provide an appropriate method of measuring the attractiveness of a solar investment in comparison to alternative long term investments. Utilizing a typical system for each system type and application the Cash Flow and Return-On-Investment Analyses are presented. The sensitivity of the results on the numerous variables in the economic analyses is shown. Maps provide a graphic display of the results of the economic analysis of typical systems using Federal and state tax credits and average state conventional fuel costs for each system type. Conclusions based on the economic analyses performed and a thorough discussion of the present status of the data required for the complete economic evaluation of solar energy systems are summarized. The current availability and limitations of data and requirements for further work in this area are discussed.

None

1980-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

174

Low-Cost Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Mild Climates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In FY99, Solar Heating and Lighting set the goal to reduce the life-cycle cost of saved-energy for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems in mild climates by 50%, primarily through use of polymer technology. Two industry teams (Davis Energy Group/SunEarth (DEG/SE) and FAFCO) have been developing un-pressurized integral-collector-storage (ICS) systems having load-side heat exchangers, and began field-testing in FY04. DEG/SE?s ICS has a rotomolded tank and thermoformed glazing. Based upon manufacturing issues, costs, and poor performance, the FAFCO team changed direction in late FY04 from an un-pressurized ICS to a direct thermosiphon design based upon use of pool collectors. Support for the teams is being provided for materials testing, modeling, and system testing. New ICS system models have been produced to model the new systems. A new ICS rating procedure for the ICS systems is undergoing testing and validation. Pipe freezing, freeze protection valves, and overheating have been tested and analyzed.

Burch, J.; Christensen, C.; Merrigan, T.; Hewett, R.; Jorgensen, G.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

System analysis of membrane facilitated water generation from air humidity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The use of water vapor selective membranes can reduce the energy requirement for extracting water out of humid air by more than 50%. We performed a system analysis of a proposed unit, that uses membranes to separate water vapor from other atmospheric gases. This concentrated vapor can then be condensed specifically, rather than cooling the whole body of air. The driving force for the membrane permeation is maintained with a condenser and a vacuum pump. The pump regulates the total permeate side pressure by removing non-condensable gases that leak into the system. We show that by introducing a low-pressure, recirculated, sweep stream, the total permeate side pressure can be increased without impairing the water vapor permeation. This measure allows energy efficiency even in the presence of leakages, as it significantly lowers the power requirements of the vacuum pump. Such a constructed atmospheric water generator with a power of 62 kW could produce 9.19 m3/day of water (583 MJ/m3) as compared to 4.45 m3/day (1202 MJ/m3) that can be condensed without membranes. Due to the physical barrier the membrane imposes, fresh water generated in this manner is also cleaner and of higher quality than water condensed directly out of the air.

D. Bergmair; S.J. Metz; H.C. de Lange; A.A. van Steenhoven

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

E&WR - Water-Energy Interface: Power Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

E&WR - Water-Energy Interface E&WR - Water-Energy Interface Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation: A Modeling Framework The purpose of this study, conducted by the National Mine Land Reclamation Center at West Virginia University, is to develop and demonstrate a framework for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects, and environmental benefits of using mine water for thermo-electric power generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering, and environmental factors to be considered and evaluated in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. Development and demonstration of the framework involves the following activities: A field investigation and case study conducted for the proposed Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. This 300 megawatt power plant has been proposed to burn coal refuse from the Champion coal refuse pile, which is the largest coal waste pile in Western Pennsylvania. The field study, based on previous mine pool research conducted by the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC), identifies mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2,000 to 3,000 gpm power plant water requirement.

177

Water chemistry of breeder reactor steam generators. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The water quality requirements will be described for breeder reactor steam generators, as well as specifications for balance of plant protection. Water chemistry details will be discussed for the following power plant conditions: feedwater and recirculation water at above and below 5% plant power, refueling or standby, makeup water, and wet layup. Experimental data will be presented from tests which included a departure from nucleate boiling experiment, the Few Tube Test, with a seven tube evaporator and three tube superheater, and a verification of control and on-line measurement of sodium ion in the ppB range. Sampling and instrumentation requirements to insure adherence to the specified water quality will be described. Evaporator cleaning criteria and data from laboratory testing of chemical cleaning solutions with emphasis on flow, chemical composition, and temperature will be discussed.

Simpson, J.L.; Robles, M.N.; Spalaris, C.N.; Moss, S.A.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama. [Includes engineering drawings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is provided on the solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center. The solar space heating and hot water facility and the project involved in its construction are described in considerable detail and detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are included. The facility was designed to provide 85 percent of the hot water and 85 percent of the space heating requirements. Two important factors concerning this project for commercial demonstration are the successful use of silicon oil as a heat transfer fluid and the architecturally aesthetic impact of a large solar energy system as a visual centerpoint. There is no overheat or freeze protection due to the characteristics of the silicon oil and the design of the system. Construction proceeded on schedule with no cost overruns. It is designed to be relatively free of scheduled maintenance, and has experienced practically no problems.

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Impact of a solar domestic hot water demand-side management program on an electric utility and its customers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A methodology to assess the economic and environmental impacts of a large scale implementation of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems is developed. Energy, emission and demand reductions and their respective savings are quantified. It is shown that, on average, an SDHW system provides an energy reduction of about 3200 kWH, avoided emissions of about 2 tons and a capacity contribution of 0.7 kW to a typical Wisconsin utility that installs 5000 SDHW system. The annual savings from these reductions to utility is {dollar_sign}385,000, providing a return on an investment of over 20{percent}. It is shown that, on average, a consumer will save {dollar_sign}211 annually in hot water heating bills. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Trzeniewski, J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Station, Kansas City, Missouri. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report of the solar energy heating and hot water system installed at the Kansas City Fire Station, Number 24, 2309 Hardesty Street, Kansas City, Missouri. The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1428 cubic feet of 1/2 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71 1/2 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120-gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30-kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation. This project is part of the Department of Energy PON-1 Solar Demonstration Program with DOE cost sharing $154,282 of the $174,372 solar system cost. The Final Design Review was held March 1977, the system became operational March 1979 and acceptance test was completed in September 1979.

None

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Report on the analysis of field data relating to the reliability of solar hot water systems.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilities are overseeing the installations of thousand of solar hot water (SHW) systems. Utility planners have begun to ask for quantitative measures of the expected lifetimes of these systems so that they can properly forecast their loads. This report, which augments a 2009 reliability analysis effort by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), addresses this need. Additional reliability data have been collected, added to the existing database, and analyzed. The results are presented. Additionally, formal reliability theory is described, including the bathtub curve, which is the most common model to characterize the lifetime reliability character of systems, and for predicting failures in the field. Reliability theory is used to assess the SNL reliability database. This assessment shows that the database is heavily weighted with data that describe the reliability of SHW systems early in their lives, during the warranty period. But it contains few measured data to describe the ends of SHW systems lives. End-of-life data are the most critical ones to define sufficiently the reliability of SHW systems in order to answer the questions that the utilities pose. Several ideas are presented for collecting the required data, including photometric analysis of aerial photographs of installed collectors, statistical and neural network analysis of energy bills from solar homes, and the development of simple algorithms to allow conventional SHW controllers to announce system failures and record the details of the event, similar to how aircraft black box recorders perform. Some information is also presented about public expectations for the longevity of a SHW system, information that is useful in developing reliability goals.

Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Application of membrane technology to power generation waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three membrane technlogies (reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis) for wastewater treatment and reuse at electric generating power plants were examined. Recirculating condenser water, ash sluice water, coal pile drainage, boiler blowdown and makeup treatment wastes, chemical cleaning wastes, wet SO/sub 2/ scrubber wastes, and miscellaneous wastes were studied. In addition, membrane separation of toxic substances in wastewater was also addressed. Waste characteristics, applicable regulations, feasible membrane processes, and cost information were analyzed for each waste stream. A users' guide to reverse osmosis was developed and is provided in an appendix.

Tang, T.L.D.; Chu, T.J.; Boroughs, R.D.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Self-Excited ac High Voltage Generation Using Water Droplets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By letting water drops fall through rings into cans high voltage can be spontaneously generated with no external electrical excitation. Previous work concerning this type of electric influence machine for dc and three-phase ac high voltage generation is extended to include multiphase multifrequency operation by considering N streams and N cans. A distributed equivalent circuit representation is used to calculate the natural frequencies of the system where it is found that many overstable modes are present. Experimental observations with up to five cans are presented. This device can serve as a model for phenomena concerned with atmospheric electricity.

Markus Zahn

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Property:Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating-Cooling Application Heating-Cooling Application Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application" Showing 21 pages using this property. D Distributed Generation Study/10 West 66th Street Corp + Domestic Hot Water +, Space Heat and/or Cooling + Distributed Generation Study/Aisin Seiki G60 at Hooligans Bar and Grille + Domestic Hot Water + Distributed Generation Study/Arrow Linen + Domestic Hot Water + Distributed Generation Study/Dakota Station (Minnegasco) + Space Heat and/or Cooling +, Other + Distributed Generation Study/Elgin Community College + Space Heat and/or Cooling +, Domestic Hot Water + Distributed Generation Study/Emerling Farm + Domestic Hot Water +, Process Heat and/or Cooling +

185

Pilot Phase of a Field Study to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in Residential Hot-Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

understanding the waste of energy and water in residentialStudy to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in ResidentialStudy to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in Residential

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a heat pump water heater in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

188

Performance and economic evaluation of the seahorse natural gas hot water heater conversion at Fort Stewart. Interim report, 1994 Summer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE laboratories that participate in the New Technologies Demonstration Program, providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied under that program. This interim report provides the results of a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology-a hot water heater conversion system to convert electrically heated hot water tanks to natural gas fuel. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Stewart, a US Army base in Georgia, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were Gas Fired Products, developers of the technology; the Public Service Company of North Carolina; Atlanta Gas Light Company; the Army Corps of Engineers; Fort Stewart; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

Winiarski, D.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Performance of an experimental ground-coupled heat pump system for heating, cooling and domestic hot-water operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is a type of renewable energy technology providing space heating and cooling as well as domestic hot water. However, experimental studies on GCHP systems are still insufficient. This paper first presents an energy-operational optimisation device for a GCHP system involving insertion of a buffer tank between the heat pump unit and fan coil units and consumer supply using quantitative adjustment with a variable speed circulating pump. Then, the experimental measurements are used to test the performance of the GCHP system in different operating modes. The main performance parameters (energy efficiency and CO2 emissions) are obtained for one month of operation using both classical and optimised adjustment of the GCHP system, and a comparative analysis of these performances is performed. In addition, using TRNSYS (Transient Systems Simulation) software, two simulation models of thermal energy consumption in heating, cooling and domestic hot-water operation are developed. Finally, the simulations obtained using TRNSYS are analysed and compared to experimental data, resulting in good agreement and thus the simulation models are validated.

Calin Sebarchievici; Ioan Sarbu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

In-situ parameter estimation for solar domestic hot water heating systems components. Final report, June 1995--May 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three different solar domestic hot water systems are being tested at the Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory; an unpressurized drain-back system with a load side heat exchanger, an integral collector storage system, and an ultra low flow natural convection heat exchanger system. The systems are fully instrumented to yield data appropriate for in-depth analyses of performance. The level of detail allows the observation of the performance of the total system and the performance of the individual components. This report evaluates the systems based on in-situ experimental data and compares the performances with simulated performances. The verification of the simulations aids in the rating procedure. The whole system performance measurements are also used to analyze the performance of individual components of a solar hot water system and to develop improved component models. The data are analyzed extensively and the parameters needed to characterize the systems fully are developed. Also resulting from this indepth analysis are suggested design improvements wither to the systems or the system components.

Smith, T.R.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Issue #4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost?  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

What are realistic energy savings associated with the latest advanced and forthcoming water heating technologies and are they cost effective?

192

Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water in #EnergyFaceoff Round 4?  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In the final #EnergyFaceoff round, the electric kettle takes on the microwave for the honor of heating your water.

193

A Precise Water Abundance Measurement for the Hot Jupiter WASP-43b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The water abundance in a planetary atmosphere provides a key constraint on the planet's primordial origins because water ice is expected to play an important role in the core accretion model of planet formation. However, the water content of the Solar System giant planets is not well known because water is sequestered in clouds deep in their atmospheres. By contrast, short-period exoplanets have such high temperatures that their atmospheres have water in the gas phase, making it possible to measure the water abundance for these objects. We present a precise determination of the water abundance in the atmosphere of the 2 $M_\\mathrm{Jup}$ short-period exoplanet WASP-43b based on thermal emission and transmission spectroscopy measurements obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find the water content is consistent with the value expected in a solar composition gas at planetary temperatures (0.4-3.5x solar at 1 $\\sigma$ confidence). The metallicity of WASP-43b's atmosphere suggested by this result extends th...

Kreidberg, Laura; Désert, Jean-Michel; Line, Michael R; Fortney, Jonathan J; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B; Showman, Adam P; Charbonneau, David; McCullough, Peter R; Seager, Sara; Burrows, Adam; Henry, Gregory W; Williamson, Michael; Kataria, Tiffany; Homeier, Derek

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Performance Evaluation of Hot Water Efficiency Plumbing System Using Thermal Valve  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Korea two popular water distribution systems—the branch type and the separate type systems—have serious drawbacks. The branch type suffers from temperature instability while the separate type suffers from excessive piping. Neither of them re...

Cha, K. S.; Park, M. S.; Seo, H. Y.

196

Present research within the EC on the application of solar energy for hot water production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, an overview is given of some of the research that has been done on solar water heating applications, introduced in the preceding chapter. This material is based on information provided by CEC ...

V. Goedseels; E. Van Der Stuyft…

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Analysis of recoverable waste heat of circulating cooling water in hot-stamping power system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article studies the possibility of using heat pump instead of cooling tower to decrease temperature and recover waste heat of circulating cooling water of power system. Making use of heat transfer theory ......

Panpan Qin; Hui Chen; Lili Chen; Chong Wang…

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Analysis of Energy-Rescued Potential of a Hot Water Heating Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Architecture energy consumption occupies a big ratio of overrall energy consumption, while heating energy consumption is a main part of it. Therefore, analyzing the generation of heat waste is important. In this paper, based on a test of a heating...

Han, J.; Wang, D.; Tian, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

San Diego Solar Panels Generate Clean Electricity Along with Clean Water |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Diego Solar Panels Generate Clean Electricity Along with Clean Diego Solar Panels Generate Clean Electricity Along with Clean Water San Diego Solar Panels Generate Clean Electricity Along with Clean Water May 26, 2010 - 12:11pm Addthis San Diego’s Otay Water Treatment Plant is generating clean electricity along with clean water, with a total capacity of 945 KW | Photo courtesy of SunEdison San Diego's Otay Water Treatment Plant is generating clean electricity along with clean water, with a total capacity of 945 KW | Photo courtesy of SunEdison Just north of the U.S.-Mexican border, San Diego's Otay Water Treatment Plant processes up to 34 million gallons of water a day. Thanks to the city's ambitious solar energy program, the facility may soon be able to do that with net zero electricity consumption. In early April, workers activated a 945-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) energy

200

Qualidex – A New Software for Generating Water Quality Indice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water quality indice are necessary for resolving lengthy, multi-parameter, water analysis reports into single digit scores. This, in turn, is essential for comparing the water quality of different sources and ...

Chinmoy Sarkar; S. A. Abbasi

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Instrument Qualification of Custom Fabricated Water Activity Meter for Hot Cell Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a custom fabricated water activity meter and the results of the qualification of this meter as described in the laboratory test plan LAB-PLN-11-00012, Testing and Validation of an Enhanced Acquisition and Control System. It was calibrated against several NaOH solutions of varying concentrations to quantify the accuracy and precision of the instrument at 20 °C and 60 °C. Also, a schematic and parts list of the equipment used to make the water activity meter will be presented in this report.

McCoskey, Jacob K.

2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

202

Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

None

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Experimental investigation of the night heat losses of hot water storage tanks in thermosyphon solar water heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of night heat losses on the performance of thermosyphon solar water heaters have been experimentally examined. Three typical thermosyphon solar water heating systems with different storage tank sizes were tested by utilising the method suggested by ISO 9459-2:95. The results were analysed to quantify the night heat losses and to investigate the effect that these may have on the system daily performance. Analysis of the results showed that a linear behavior of the heat losses with the night mean ambient temperature exists. The correlation coefficients of the linearity for the three systems under consideration range from 0.93 to 0.97 with the losses reaching almost 8000 kJ at a mean ambient air temperature of 10 °C. This value represents a significant percentage of the daily collected energy making the night losses one of the most important sources of energy loss in thermosyphonic systems.

Ioannis Michaelides; Polyvios Eleftheriou; George A. Siamas; George Roditis; Paraskevas Kyriacou

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Numerical simulation of solitary wave generation in a wind-water annular tunnel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We briefly describe laboratory experiments demonstrating wind-water solitary wave generation in a wind-water annular tunnel. A mathematical model of this phenomenon is constructed in the context of a shallow-w...

T. G. Elizarova; M. A. Istomina…

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Effect of Methanol on the Liquefaction Reaction of Biomass in Hot Compressed Water under Microwave Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It was found that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid are the dominate products using pure water as the liquefying agent. ... As an efficient method for biomass conversion, a thermal chemical reaction, such as liquefaction, has been considered as a potential pathway for production of biofuels and chemicals. ... It is perfectly suitable for these products to be used as potential platform chemicals, such as polyols, in the polyurethane industry because the appropriate viscosity and hydroxyl number of the final products can be obtained by a slight modification using ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. ...

Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chung-yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

207

Cross section generation strategy for high conversion light water reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High conversion water reactors (HCWR), such as the Resource-renewable Boiling Water Reactor (RBWR), are being designed with axial heterogeneity of alternating fissile and blanket zones to achieve a conversion ratio of ...

Herman, Bryan R. (Bryan Robert)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Generating Potable Water from Fuel Cell Technology Juan E. Tibaquir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with hydrogen economy scenario. 4. Research Approach and Results Survey of fuel cell water ASU lab fuel cell Capacity (kW) 5 ­ 150 5 ­ 250 5 50 ­ 1100 100 ­ 2000 100 ­ 250 PEM Fuel cell Oxygen (From air) Hydrogen Implications of Using water from Fuel Cells in a Hydrogen Economy · Hydrogen as an energy and water carrier

Keller, Arturo A.

209

Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Biological and Atmospheric Relevant Interfaces: Lipids, Organosulfur Species and Interfacial Water Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Biological and Atmospheric Relevant Interfaces frequency generation is employed to investigate the ordering of water at phospholipid/water interfaces: Lipids, Organosulfur Species and Interfacial Water Structure DISSERTATION Presented in Partial

210

Hydroelectric Voltage Generation Based on Water-Filled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydroelectric Voltage Generation Based on Water-Filled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes ... The hydroelectric voltage generator can be expressed by the model illustrated in Figure 6a and b. ... Individual water-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes as hydroelectric power converters ...

Quanzi Yuan; Ya-Pu Zhao

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

211

Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the treatment and recycling of wastewater. 7 In the recent past systematic methods for minimizing water of the ethanol production processes are designed by determining water consumption, reuse and recycle and wastewater treatment an important topic with new economic incentives for implementing technologies

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

212

Stability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

disturbance in water of finite depth. The steady waves take the form of a downstream wavetrain for subcritical and , the subcritical solutions were wavetrains solutions similar to those found in deep water, and became dragStability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water

213

Fuzzy control model and simulation of supply air system in a test rig of low-temperature hot-water radiator system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes a typical multi-variable, large time delay and nonlinear system, self-extracting rules fuzzy control (SERFC) method to maintain a stable temperature value in a built environment chamber with supply air system and hot-water system. The parameters of the transfer functions in every control loop were identified by experimental data in a format of time sequences obtained from the experiment of dynamical responding performance. Fuzzy control simulations were implemented based on adjustment of the supply air system and hot-water system by SERFC. The simulation results show that SERFC for environment chamber has satisfied performance. There is no higher overshoot and stable error. The work presented in here can be used to deal with those complex thermal processes with difficulties in modeling of fuzzy control rules and provide a foundation for further application of fuzzy control in HVAC system.

Zhen Lu; Jili Zhang; Yongpan Chen; Tianyi Zhao; Hui Liu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Analysis of Entropy Generation Due to Natural Convection for Hot and Cold Materials Confined within Two Entrapped Triangular Cavities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thus, hot inclined walls with cold horizontal walls (case 1) and cold inclined walls with hot horizontal walls (case 2) are considered as boundary conditions during convection (Ra = 103 to 105) for various fluids (Pr = 0.015, 0.7, and 1000) within/surrounded by the tubes. ... The various fields of application of indirect heat exchanger involve material processing, geophysical processes, pollution control, food processing, solar collectors, and solar stills etc.(12-18) Also, indirect contact heat exchangers play a vital role in energy conversion and energy conservation operations in various chemical processes such as in power transportation, cooling towers, desalination, air-conditioning, and refrigeration, heat recovery, alternate fuels, etc.(19-28) ... A numerical investigation to solve the laminar flow and convective problems was performed by Jan et al.(32) The performance of a prism-shaped solar collector with a right angled triangular enclosure was numerically investigated by Joudi et al.(33) Kamiyo et al.(34) presented a comprehensive review on natural convection inside triangular cavity with various boundary conditions using pitch angle and Ra as major parameters. ...

Tanmay Basak; R. Anandalakshmi; T. P. Akshaya Sruthi

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

215

Hydrogen Generation by Solid Polymer Electrolyte Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The General Electric Company -water electrolysis technology, which is based on a solid ... The inherent system advantages of the acid SPE electrolysis technology are explained. System performance predictions are....

L. J. Nuttall; A. P. Fickett; W. A. Titterington

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific recommendations are presented relative to the application of the technique, including ways to mitigate and manage potential sources of error.

He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Vorobieff, Peter V. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Engineering and economic evaluation of direct hot-water geothermal energy applications on the University of New Mexico campus. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential engineering and economic feasibility of low-temperature geothermal energy applications on the campus of the University of New Mexico is studied in detail. This report includes three phases of work: data acquisition and evaluation, system synthesis, and system refinement and implementation. Detailed process designs are presented for a system using 190/sup 0/F geothermal water to substitute for the use of 135 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/y (141 TJ/y) of fossil fuels to provide space and domestic hot water heating for approximately 23% of the campus. Specific areas covered in the report include economic evaluation, environmental impact and program implementation plans.

Kauffman, D.; Houghton, A.V.

1980-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

Removal of phenol and chlorophenols from water by new ozone generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Presence of phenol in river water occasionally disturbs the production of drinking water. Phenol often originated from coal power plants or pesticides. New ozone generator [Kuraica et al., Vacuum, 73 (2004) 705] was used for removal of phenol and chlorophenols from water. The ozone generator was based on coaxial dielectricbarrier-discharge and operated in the air at an atmospheric pressure. Flowing water was one of dielectric layers. Ozone and ozonized water were generated in the same volume of the discharge. This type of ozone generator has considerable advantages in comparison with the classical ones. In this paper five experiments were described, three with bidistilled water and two with different water samples from river Danube. In all cases, 5L of water containing 6mg/L of corresponding phenol was passed once through the ozonizer. The concentration of dissolved ozone in water was 7–40mg/L. The ozonization lasted 1 h, but the total contact time was up to 94 h. In all cases, before and after the treatment of water with ozone, the concentration of corresponding phenol [Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, method 510 B, Chloroform Extraction Method, American Public Health Association, Washington, 1985, p. 558], dissolved and residual ozone [Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, Methods 2-41, 2-42 (dissolved ozone) Iodometric Method; method 4-104 (ozone residual) Indigo Colorimetric Method, American Public Health Association, Washington, 1995] were determined by standard methods. In experiments with distilled water most of the phenol was removed during ozonization (89.5%). After 24 and 96 h the percentage of removed phenol increased to 93.3 and 98.9%, respectively. With 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, 99.8 and 98.9% of corresponding phenols were removed. In experiments with two different water samples from Danube, the phenol was also mostly removed during ozonization, 76.7 and 80.0%, respectively.

D. Manojlovic; D.R. Ostojic; B.M. Obradovic; M.M. Kuraica; V.D. Krsmanovic; J. Puric

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Hot Springs | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Springs Springs Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hot Springs Dictionary.png Hot Springs: A naturally occurring spring of hot water, heated by geothermal processes in the subsurface, and typically having a temperature greater than 37°C. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Modern Geothermal Features Typical list of modern geothermal features Hot Springs Fumaroles Warm or Steaming Ground Mudpots, Mud Pools, or Mud Volcanoes Geysers Blind Geothermal System Mammoth Hot Springs at Yellowstone National Park (reference: http://www.hsd3.org/HighSchool/Teachers/MATTIXS/Mattix%20homepage/studentwork/Laura%20Cornelisse%27s%20Web%20Page/Yellowstone%20National%20Park.htm) Hot springs occur where geothermally heated waters naturally flow out of the surface of the Earth. Hot springs may deposit minerals and spectacular

220

Energy spectrum of cascade showers generated in water by near-horizontal muons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss measuring cascade shower energy using the NEVOD Cherenkov water detector with ... applied to showers generated by near-horizontal high-energy muons selected using the DECOR coordinate detector deployed...

S. S. Khokhlov; N. S. Barbashina…

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

222

Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

McDermott, Daniel J. (Export, PA); Schrader, Kenneth J. (Penn Hills, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Propagation of the low-frequency noise generated by power station water-cooling towers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The propagation of low-frequency noise generated by air turbulent motion in water-cooling towers is investigated by the use of geometrical acoustics of moving media. It is shown that a cooling tower plum acts ...

Sergei P. Fisenko

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

MHK Technologies/Water Current Generator Motor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Generator Motor Generator Motor < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Technology Profile Primary Organization Global Energies Inc Technology Type Click here Cross Flow Turbine Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 5 6 System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration Technology Description Simple Vertical Axis fully submerged open design flow through unit operating an onboard Pump unit that drives an on shore power generation system Slow turning swim through for Marine life Anchoring depends on topography and composition of resource bed Removable Scalable Please note that the Website is very old and needs updating In 2007 we hired Independent Engineering firm in Seattle to conduct extensive fluid dynamic testing or our design concepts and overall system Tests were completed much more extensively than we envisioned and were very positive for our needs and build out of a full size model We have been stuck and broke as it s all out of pocket in this position ever since as those Engineering costs were much more than anticipated

225

USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 1 presents a general assessment of produced water generation in the San Juan Basin in Four Corners Area of New Mexico. Oil and gas production, produced water handling and disposal, and produced water quantities and chemistry are discussed. Legislative efforts to enable the use of this water at SJGS are also described.

Michael N. DiFilippo

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric power plants currently account for approximately one-half of the global industrial water withdrawal. While continued expansion of the electric sector seems likely into the future, the consequent water demands are quite uncertain, and will depend on highly variable water intensities by electricity technologies, at present and in the future. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we first establish lower-bound, median, and upper-bound estimates for present-day electric sector water withdrawals and consumption by individual electric generation technologies in each of 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates of regional industrial or electric sector water use. We then explore the evolution of global and regional electric sector water use over the next century, focusing on uncertainties related to withdrawal and consumption intensities for a variety of electric generation technologies, rates of change of power plant cooling system types, and rates of adoption of a suite of water-saving technologies. Results reveal that the water withdrawal intensity of electricity generation is likely to decrease in the near term with capital stock turnover, as wet towers replace once-through flow cooling systems and advanced electricity generation technologies replace conventional ones. An increase in consumptive use accompanies the decrease in water withdrawal rates; however, a suite of water conservation technologies currently under development could compensate for this increase in consumption. Finally, at a regional scale, water use characteristics vary significantly based on characteristics of the existing capital stock and the selection of electricity generation technologies into the future.

Davies, Evan; Kyle, G. Page; Edmonds, James A.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

A guide to RBF-generated finite differences for nonlinear transport: shallow water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A guide to RBF-generated finite differences for nonlinear transport: shallow water simulationsInstitute for Mathematics Applied to Geosciences, National Center for Atmospheric Research , Boulder, CO 80305 USA b of nodes. RBF- generated finite differences (RBF-FD) are conceptually similar to standard finite

Wright, Grady B.

228

Water Research 39 (2005) 49614968 Electricity generation from swine wastewater using microbial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Research 39 (2005) 4961­4968 Electricity generation from swine wastewater using microbial September 2005 Abstract Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a new method for treating animal wastewaters indicated that electricity could be generated from swine wastewater containing 83207190 mg/L of soluble

229

Rhodium Catalysts in the Oxidation of CO by O2 and NO: Shape, Composition, and Hot Electron Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that the activity, selectivity, and deactivation behavior of heterogeneous catalysts are strongly affected by a wide variety of parameters, including but not limited to nanoparticle size, shape, composition, support, pretreatment conditions, oxidation state, and electronic state. Enormous effort has been expended in an attempt to understand the role of these factors on catalytic behavior, but much still remains to be discovered. In this work, we have focused on deepening the present understanding of the role of nanoparticle shape, nanoparticle composition, and hot electrons on heterogeneous catalysis in the oxidation of carbon monoxide by molecular oxygen and nitric oxide. These reactions were chosen because they are important for environmental applications, such as in the catalytic converter, and because there is a wide range of experimental and theoretical insight from previous single crystal work as well as experimental data on nanoparticles obtained using new state-of-the-art techniques that aid greatly in the interpretation of results on complex nanoparticle systems. In particular, the studies presented in this work involve three types of samples: {approx} 6.5 nm Rh nanoparticles of different shapes, {approx} 15 nm Rh1-xPdx core-shell bimetallic polyhedra nanoparticles, and Rh ultra-thin film ({approx} 5 nm) catalytic nanodiodes. The colloidal nanoparticle samples were synthesized using a co-reduction of metal salts in alcohol and supported on silicon wafers using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. This synthetic strategy enables tremendous control of nanoparticle size, shape, and composition. Nanoparticle shape was controlled through the use of different organic polymer capping layers. Bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by careful choice of metal salt precursors. Rh/TiO{sub x} and Rh/GaN catalytic nanodiodes were fabricated using a variety of thin film device fabrication techniques, including reactive DC magnetron sputtering, electron beam evaporation, and rapid thermal annealing. The combination of these techniques enabled control of catalytic nanodiode morphology, geometry, and electrical properties.

Renzas, James R.

2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

230

Colloidal Petcoke-in-Water Suspensions as Fuels for Power Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Colloidal Petcoke-in-Water Suspensions as Fuels for Power Generation ... In this work, it is shown that, despite the low reactivity of petroleum coke (petcoke) and the presence of 40% water, a petcoke suspension having a large colloidal population burned with unprecedented high efficiencies (>99%) without a support fuel. ... Combustion tests of a typical heavy fuel oil (HFO) were carried out to produce baseline data for comparison to the colloidal petcoke in water suspension (CPW) performance. ...

Gustavo A. Núñez; María I. Briceño; Cebers Gómez; Takeshi Asa; Hamid Farzan; Shengteng Hu; Daniel D. Joseph

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

231

Task 15 -- Remediation of organically contaminated soil using hot/liquid (subcritical) water. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This activity involves a pilot-scale demonstration of the use of hot/liquid water for the removal of organic contaminants from soil at the pilot (20 to 40 kg) scale. Lab-scale studies are being performed to determine the optimum temperature, contact time, and flow rates for removal of the organic contaminants. Initial investigations into using carbon sorbents to clean the extractant water for recycle use and to concentrate the extracted contaminants in a small volume for disposal are also being performed. Liquid water is normally considered to be too polar a solvent to be effective for removal of organic contaminants from contaminated soils and sludges. However, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that the polarity of liquid water can be changed from that of a very polar solvent at ambient conditions to that of an organic solvent (e.g., ethanol or acetonitrile) by simply raising the temperature. The EERC has exploited this unique property of liquid water to obtain highly selective extractions of polar (at lower temperatures) to nonpolar (at 200 to 250 C) organics from contaminated soils and sludges. Only moderate pressures (a maximum of about 45 atm at 250 C and lower pressures at lower temperatures) are required. With this procedure, all detectable hazardous organics were removed from the sludge, thus making the remaining material (about 99% of the original mass) a nonhazardous material. The present understanding of hot/liquid water extraction for the removal of hazardous organics from contaminated soils and sludges is being used to develop the engineering parameters needed to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the remediation technology. Progress during the report period is summarized.

Hawthorne, S.B.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

233

Life cycle water use for electricity generation: a review and harmonization of literature estimates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article provides consolidated estimates of water withdrawal and water consumption for the full life cycle of selected electricity generating technologies, which includes component manufacturing, fuel acquisition, processing, and transport, and power plant operation and decommissioning. Estimates were gathered through a broad search of publicly available sources, screened for quality and relevance, and harmonized for methodological differences. Published estimates vary substantially, due in part to differences in production pathways, in defined boundaries, and in performance parameters. Despite limitations to available data, we find that: water used for cooling of thermoelectric power plants dominates the life cycle water use in most cases; the coal, natural gas, and nuclear fuel cycles require substantial water per megawatt-hour in most cases; and, a substantial proportion of life cycle water use per megawatt-hour is required for the manufacturing and construction of concentrating solar, geothermal, photovoltaic, and wind power facilities. On the basis of the best available evidence for the evaluated technologies, total life cycle water use appears lowest for electricity generated by photovoltaics and wind, and highest for thermoelectric generation technologies. This report provides the foundation for conducting water use impact assessments of the power sector while also identifying gaps in data that could guide future research.

J Meldrum; S Nettles-Anderson; G Heath; J Macknick

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Simulation of hydration/dehydration of CaO/Ca(OH){sub 2} chemical heat pump reactor for cold/hot heat generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump (CHP) utilizes reversible reactions involving significant endothermic and exothermic heats of reaction in order to develop a heat pump effect by storing and releasing energy while transforming it from chemical to thermal energy and vice versa. In this paper, the authors present a mathematical model and its numerical solution for the heat and mass transport phenomena occurring in the reactant particle bed of the CHP for heat storage and cold/hot heat generation based on the CaO/Ca(OH){sub 2} reversible hydration/dehydration reaction. Transient conservation equations of mass and energy transport including chemical kinetics are solved numerically subject to appropriate boundary and initial conditions to examine the influence of the mass transfer resistance on the overall performance of this CHP configuration. These results are presented and discussed with the aim of enhancing the CHP performance in the next generation reactor designs. The CHP can store thermal energy in industrial waste heat, solar heat, terrestrial heat, etc. in the form of chemical energy, and release it at various temperature levels during the heat-demand period.

Ogura, Hironao; Shimojyo, Rui; Kage, Hiroyuki; Matsuno, Yoshizo; Mujumdar, A.S.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and finishing. The market animals are shipped live by truck to slaughter in Modesto, California. A complete waste management facility will include manure collection from all raising areas, transport via a water flush sysem to methane (biogas) generators, manure separation, settling ponds and disposition of the surplus agricultural quality water. The design is based upon the best commercial practices in confined swine raising in the US today. The most unique feature of the facility is the utilization of geothermal hot water for space heating and process energy throughout the complex.

Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The water factors presented may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available. Major findings of the report include: water withdrawal and consumption factors vary greatly across and within fuel technologies, and water factors show greater agreement when organized according to cooling technologies as opposed to fuel technologies; a transition to a less carbon-intensive electricity sector could result in either an increase or a decrease in water use, depending on the choice of technologies and cooling systems employed; concentrating solar power technologies and coal facilities with carbon capture and sequestration capabilities have the highest water consumption values when using a recirculating cooling system; and non-thermal renewables, such as photovoltaics and wind, have the lowest water consumption factors. Improved power plant data and further studies into the water requirements of energy technologies in different climatic regions would facilitate greater resolution in analyses of water impacts of future energy and economic scenarios. This report provides the foundation for conducting water use impact assessments of the power sector while also identifying gaps in data that could guide future research.

J Macknick; R Newmark; G Heath; K C Hallett

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Modelling a feed-water control system of a steam generator in the framework of the dynamic reliability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modelling a feed-water control system of a steam generator in the framework of the dynamic with the exploration of an industrial complex system behaviour and its prob- abilistic safety assessment (PSA critical systems), the feed-water control system of a steam generator of a pressurised water nuclear

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

239

Ozonized water generator based on coaxial dielectric-barrier-discharge in air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A coaxial dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) as an ozonized water reactor system has been developed and described. It operates in the air at an atmospheric pressure. In the reactor one of the dielectric layers is flowing water. Ozone and ozonized water are generated in the same volume of the discharge. The ozone production and its dissolution in the water simultaneously occur leading to increases of the reactor efficiency. Filamentary 50 Hz DBD has been performed using up to 20 kV applied voltage. The obtained ozone concentrations correspond to the values typically suggested for the treatment of potable and wastewater. The efficiency can be further increased by addition of small amount of the oxygen in the DBD device. The periodical time dependence of the dissolved ozone concentration in Danube water is found and discussed.

Milorad M. Kuraica; Bratislav M. Obradovi?; Dragan Manojlovi?; Daliborka R. Ostoji?; Jagoš Puri?

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Electrodeposited Cobalt-Sulfide Catalyst for Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Generation from Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the use of strong acids and bases, thus reducing their environmental impact and increasing Generation from Water Yujie Sun,,,, Chong Liu,, David C. Grauer,, Junko Yano, Jeffrey R. Long,*,, Peidong, and long-term aqueous stability, offer promising features for potential use in solar energy applications

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Water Research 39 (2005) 16751686 Electricity generation using membrane and salt bridge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Research 39 (2005) 1675­1686 Electricity generation using membrane and salt bridge microbial Hydrogen Energy (H2E) Center, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Sackett Bld., University Park, PA, USA also examined power output in a MFC with a salt bridge instead of a membrane system. Power output

242

Generation and Initial Evolution of a Mode Water S Anomaly* GREGORY C. JOHNSON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generation and Initial Evolution of a Mode Water ­S Anomaly* GREGORY C. JOHNSON NOAA/Pacific Marine. Corresponding author address: Dr. Gregory C. Johnson, NOAA/PMEL, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Bldg. 3, Seattle, WA 98115-6349. E-mail: gregory.c.johnson@noaa.gov APRIL 2006

Johnson, Gregory C.

243

Use of Produced Water in Recirculating Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. This deliverable describes possible test configurations for produced water demonstration projects at SJGS. The ability to host demonstration projects would enable the testing and advancement of promising produced water treatment technologies. Testing is described for two scenarios: Scenario 1--PNM builds a produced water treatment system at SJGS and incorporates planned and future demonstration projects into the design of the system. Scenario 2--PNM forestalls or decides not to install a produced water treatment system and would either conduct limited testing at SJGS (produced water would have to be delivered by tanker trucked) or at a salt water disposal facility (SWD). Each scenario would accommodate demonstration projects differently and these differences are discussed in this deliverable. PNM will host a demonstration test of water-conserving cooling technology--Wet Surface Air Cooling (WSAC) using cooling tower blowdown from the existing SJGS Unit 3 tower--during the summer months of 2005. If successful, there may be follow-on testing using produced water. WSAC is discussed in this deliverable. Recall that Deliverable 4, Emerging Technology Testing, describes the pilot testing conducted at a salt water disposal facility (SWD) by the CeraMem Corporation. This filtration technology could be a candidate for future demonstration testing and is also discussed in this deliverable.

Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

InGaN working electrodes with assisted bias generated from GaAs solar cells for efficient water splitting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen generation through water splitting by n-InGaN working electrodes with bias generated from GaAs solar cell was studied. Instead of using an external bias provided by power...

Liu, Shu-Yen; Sheu, J K; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Tong; Tu, S J; Lee, M L; Lai, W C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Non-invasive field measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-invasive field measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator S to the atmosphere. Soil water sensors routinely are used in applications such as research on crop production, water-3120, United States 1. Introduction Knowledge of soil water content is critical to agricultural, hydrological

Johnson, Peter D.

247

Developing a tool to estimate water withdrawal and consumption in electricity generation in the United States.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Freshwater consumption for electricity generation is projected to increase dramatically in the next couple of decades in the United States. The increased demand is likely to further strain freshwater resources in regions where water has already become scarce. Meanwhile, the automotive industry has stepped up its research, development, and deployment efforts on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Large-scale, escalated production of EVs and PHEVs nationwide would require increased electricity production, and so meeting the water demand becomes an even greater challenge. The goal of this study is to provide a baseline assessment of freshwater use in electricity generation in the United States and at the state level. Freshwater withdrawal and consumption requirements for power generated from fossil, nonfossil, and renewable sources via various technologies and by use of different cooling systems are examined. A data inventory has been developed that compiles data from government statistics, reports, and literature issued by major research institutes. A spreadsheet-based model has been developed to conduct the estimates by means of a transparent and interactive process. The model further allows us to project future water withdrawal and consumption in electricity production under the forecasted increases in demand. This tool is intended to provide decision makers with the means to make a quick comparison among various fuel, technology, and cooling system options. The model output can be used to address water resource sustainability when considering new projects or expansion of existing plants.

Wu, M.; Peng, J. (Energy Systems); ( NE)

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

248

Case Study of Stratified Chilled Water Storage Utilization for Comfort and Process Cooling in a Hot, Humid Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the system and its operation is followed by presentation of operating data taken during 1997. INTRODUCTION Chilled water thermal energy storage ('TES) in naturally stratified tanks has been shown to be a valuable central cooling plant load management... and humid environment and presents new data on the performance of a large stratified chilled water storage tank. Figure 1. Plant Schematic. SITE The case study site is the Dallas, TX world headquarters of a major semiconductor manufacturer. The 6...

Bahnfleth, W. P.; Musser, A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. Download details: IP Address: 192.174.37.50 This content was downloaded on 04/11/2013 at 23:01 Please note that terms and conditions apply. Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more 2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 045802 (http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/7/4/045802) Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience IOP PUBLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 045802 (10pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/045802 Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies:

250

Evaluation of Hot Water Wash Parameters to Achieve Maximum Effectiveness in Reducing Levels of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and coliforms/Escherichia coli on Beef Carcass Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study measured and compared different temperatures and dwell times of hot water treatment on the reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium on beef carcass surfaces. Two different types of beef surfaces, lean and fat, were...

Davidson, Melissa A.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

251

Hot Canyon  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

None

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Performance of a Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate Windermere, Florida Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more read- ily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. A key feature of an HPWH unit is that it is a hybrid system. When conditions are favorable, the unit will operate in heat pump mode (using a vapor compression system that extracts heat from the surrounding air) to efficiently provide domestic hot water (DHW). Homeowners need not adjust their behavior to conform to the heat pump's capabilities. If a heat pump cannot meet a higher water draw demand, the heater will switch to electric resistance to provide a higher heating rate. This flexibility

253

Power estimation and reliability evaluation of municipal waste water and self-excited induction generator-based micro hydropower generation system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents power estimation and reliability evaluation of the micro hydro power generation system based on municipal waste water. Self-excited induction generator was used in the developed power plant, situated at IIT (BHU) campus, Varanasi, India. The hydro potential of the waste water flowing through sewage system of the Banaras Hindu University has been determined for annual flow duration and daily flow duration curves by ordering the recorded waste water from maximum to minimum flows. This paper estimates output power and determines reliability indices like: failure rate, repair rate, MTTF, MTTR and MTBF of the MWW-based developed generation plant. Design parameters of the SEIG with suitable values of the capacitor have been used and recommended for improvement of the power generation quality and reliability of the system.

Lokesh Varshney; R.K. Saket; Saeid Eslamian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

X-ray Diffraction and Molecular Dynamics Study of Medium-range Order in Ambient and Hot Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed x-ray diffraction measurements with high energy-resolution and accuracy to study water structure at three different temperatures (7, 25 and 66 C) under normal pressure. Using a spherically curved Ge crystal an energy resolution better than 15 eV has been achieved which eliminates influence from Compton scattering. The high quality of the data allows a precise oxygen-oxygen pair correlation function (PCF) to be directly derived from the Fourier transform of the experimental data resolving shell structure out to ~12 {\\AA}, i.e. 5 hydration shells. Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the TIP4P/2005 force-field reproduce excellently the experimental shell-structure in the range 4-12 {\\AA} although less agreement is seen for the first peak in the PCF. The Local Structure Index [J. Chem. Phys. 104, 7671 (1996)] identifies a tetrahedral minority giving the intermediate-range oscillations in the PCF and a disordered majority providing a more featureless background in this range. The current study supports the proposal that the structure of liquid water, even at high temperatures, can be described in terms of a two-state fluctuation model involving local structures related to the high-density and low-density forms of liquid water postulated in the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis.

Congcong Huang; K. T. Wikfeldt; D. Nordlund; U. Bergmann; T. McQueen; J. Sellberg; L. G. M. Pettersson; A. Nilsson

2011-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

255

Seasonal abundance, distribution and growth of commercially important marine crustaceans at a hot water discharge in Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

setiferus; and brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus were taken once a month, January 1968-December 1969, at 11 offshore (trawl) and 6 beach (seine) stations. The collecting stations were in and around the entrance of the discharge canal carrying heated water... each month at offshore stations, 1968-1969. 28 Number of blue crabs seined each month at beach stations, 1968-1969 30 Number of white shrimp trawled each month at offshore stations, 1968-1969 43 Number of white shrimp seined each month at beach...

Gallaway, B. J

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

256

Relationship between Hot Spot Residues and Ligand Binding Hot Spots in Protein-Protein Interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, while identification of a hot spot by alanine scanning establishes the potential to generate substantial, termed "hot spots", that comprise the subset of residues that contribute the bulk of the binding free proposed as prime targets for drug binding.1,4 The established approach to the identification of such hot

Vajda, Sandor

257

Performance and economic evaluation of the seahorse natural gas hot water heater conversion at Fort Stewart. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States with consumption of nearly 1.5 quads/year of energy (10{sup 15} quad = 1015 Btu) and cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) seeks to evaluate new energy -- saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE laboratories that participate in the New Technologies Demonstration Program, providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied under that program. This report provides the results of a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP with funding support from the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of 4 candidate energy-saving technology-a water heater conversion system to convert electrically powered water heaters to natural gas fuel. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Stewart, a US Army base in Georgia, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were Gas Fired Products, developers of the technology; the Public Service Company of North Carolina; Atlanta Gas Light Company; the Army Corps of Engineers; Fort Stewart; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

Winiarski, D.W.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Water footprint of electric power generation : modeling its use and analyzing options for a water-scarce future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The interdependency between water and energy, sometimes called the water-energy nexus, is growing in importance as demand for both water and energy increases. Energy is required for water treatment and supply, while virtually ...

Delgado Martín, Anna

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Testing Thermo-acoustic Sound Generation in Water with Proton and Laser Beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments were performed at a proton accelerator and an infrared laser acility to investigate the sound generation caused by the energy deposition of pulsed particle and laser beams in water. The beams with an energy range of 1 PeV to 400 PeV per proton beam spill and up to 10 EeV for the laser pulse were dumped into a water volume and the resulting acoustic signals were recorded with pressure sensitive sensors. Measurements were performed at varying pulse energies, sensor positions, beam diameters and temperatures. The data is well described by simulations based on the thermo-acoustic model. This implies that the primary mechanism for sound generation by the energy deposition of particles propagating in water is the local heating of the media giving rise to an expansion or contraction of the medium resulting in a pressure pulse with bipolar shape. A possible application of this effect would be the acoustical detection of neutrinos with energies greater than 1 EeV.

K. Graf; G. Anton; J. Hoessl; A. Kappes; T. Karg; U. Katz; R. Lahmann; C. Naumann; K. Salomon; C. Stegmann

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters May 7, 2012 - 9:52am Addthis Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use -- sunshine -- is free. How They Work Solar water heating systems include storage tanks and solar collectors. There are two types of solar water heating systems: active, which have circulating pumps and controls, and passive, which don't. Active Solar Water Heating Systems There are two types of active solar water heating systems: Direct circulation systems Pumps circulate household water through the collectors and into the home. They work well in climates where it rarely freezes. Indirect circulation systems

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Performance of a new micro-bubble generator with a spherical body in a flowing water tube  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new micro-bubble generator with a spherical body in a flowing water tube has been invented, and its trial products have been tested. In the generator, pressurized water is introduced into a pipe with a spherical body in the core. From conservation equations of mass and energy, the water velocity around the body especially in a downstream region becomes higher than the inlet velocity, and thus the pressure there becomes lower. If the pressure becomes less than atmospheric pressure, air is automatically sucked into the water stream through a number of small holes drilled on the pipe wall in the lower pressure region downstream from the center of the body. Since the water flow there is highly-turbulent and shear flow, the air sucked is well broken into a great number of micro-bubbles. In the tests of its trial products, experimental data on air suction rate, hydraulic power needed to introduce water, bubble generation efficiency, and variation of dissolved oxygen in water after bubbling were obtained by changing water supply rate systematically. From the tests, we found an optimum diameter ratio of spherical body to pipe, and confirmed that the generator could generate micro-bubbles with a lesser energy consumption rate within 40 W and raise effectively the dissolved oxygen, etc.

M. Sadatomi; A. Kawahara; K. Kano; A. Ohtomo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Blue energy: Current technologies for sustainable power generation from water salinity gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract “Salinity energy” stored as the salinity difference between seawater and freshwater is a large-scale renewable resource that can be harvested and converted to electricity, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. With the development of membrane science and technology, membrane-based techniques for energy extraction from water salinity, such as pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electro-dialysis, have seen tremendous development in recent years. Meanwhile, many other novel methods for harvesting exergy from water mixing processes, such as electrochemical capacitor and nano-fluidic energy harvesting systems, have been proposed. In this work, an overview and state-of-the-art of the current technologies for sustainable power generation from the water salinity gradient are presented. Characteristics of these technologies are analyzed and compared for this particular application. Based on these entropic energy extracting methods, the water salinity, as the “blue energy”, will be another source of renewable energy to satisfy the ever-growing energy demand of human society.

Zhijun Jia; Baoguo Wang; Shiqiang Song; Yongsheng Fan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A novel method of hydrogen generation by water electrolysis using an ultra-short-pulse power supply  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel method of hydrogen generation by water electrolysis using ultra-short-pulse power supply is ... pulse with the width of 300 ns, electrolysis takes place with a mechanism dominated by ... from the conventi...

Naohiro Shimizu; Souzaburo Hotta; Takayuki Sekiya…

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injector.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system for a diesel engine. The sprays were injected… (more)

Payne, Stephen Ellis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system for a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with quartz...

Payne, Stephen Ellis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

Hydordesulfurization of dibenzothiophene using hydrogen generated in situ by the water-gas shift reaction in a trickle bed reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDRODESULFURIZATION OF DIBENZOTHIOPHENE USING HYDROGEN GENERATED IN SITU BY THE WATER ? GAS SHIFT REACTION IN A TRICKLE BED REACTOR A Thesis BRUCE DAVID HOOK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering HYDRODESULFURIZATION OF DIBENZOTHIOPHENE USING HYDROGEN GENERATED IN SITU BY THE WATER ? GAS SHIFT REACTION IN A TRICKLE BED REACTOR A Thesis by BRUCE...

Hook, Bruce David

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

267

Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite depth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite pressure distribution moving with constant speed U in water of finite depth h . Localized solitary waves can only exist in subcritical flows where the Froude number F = U/(gh)1/2

268

Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous studies of mine water and power plant cooling. Visual basic software was used to create general information/evaluation modules for a range of power plant water needs that were tested/verified against the Beech Hollow project. The program allows for consideration of blending mine water as needed as well as considering potential thermal and environmental benefits that can be derived from using constant temperature mine water. Users input mine water flow, quality, distance to source, elevations to determine collection, transport and treatment system design criteria. The program also evaluates low flow volumes and sustainable yields for various sources. All modules have been integrated into a seamless user friendly computer design aid and user's manual for evaluating the capital and operating costs of mine water use. The framework will facilitate the use of mine water for thermoelectric generation, reduce demand on freshwater resources and result in environmental benefits from reduced emissions and abated mine discharges.

None

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector entities. The photoelectrochemical hydrogen task included formal collaborations with three universities and one national laboratory. The formal participants in these two tasks are listed above. Informal collaborations in both projects included one additional university (the University of Nevada, Reno) and two additional national laboratories (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).

Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

270

Chapter 14 - Marine Power Generation Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There are four ways in which the world’s oceans can provide an energy source for power generation. Marine currents around coastlines, inlets, and estuaries can be exploited with underwater turbines. Ocean waves are also a source of energy that can be tapped using a variety of different devices that convert the oscillating motion of waves into a motion that can be used to provide electricity generation. The world’s oceans, particularly in the tropical regions, are massive solar collectors, absorbing heat that creates a hot layer on the surface of the sea. This hot water can be used to drive a heat engine, with cooling taken from the ocean depths where the temperature remains low. The mixing of fresh and salt water also releases energy, and this too can be tapped in a number of ways to generate electricity. All of these are being developed as means of power generation.

Paul Breeze

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Evaluation of cracking in steam generator feedwater piping in pressurized water reactor plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cracking in feedwater piping was detected near the inlet to steam generators in 15 pressurized water reactor plants. Sections with cracks from nine plants are examined with the objective of identifying the cracking mechanism and assessing various factors that might contribute to this cracking. Using transmission electron microscopy, fatigue striations are observed on replicas of cleaned crack surfaces. Calculations based on the observed striation spacings gave a cyclic stress value of 150 MPa (22 ksi) for one of the major cracks. The direction of crack propagation was invariably related to the piping surface and not to the piping axis. These two factors are consistent with the proposed concept of thermally induced, cyclic, tensile surface stresses and it is concluded that the overriding factor in the cracking problem was the presence of such undocumented cyclic loads.

Goldberg, A.; Streit, R.D.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Group Susan Coghlan, Argonne National Laboratory David E.Center (SLAC), Menlo Park California Argonne NationalLaboratory (Argonne), Argonne Illinois Idaho National

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Laser-driven shock experiments in pre-compressed water: Implications for magnetic field generation in Icy Giant planets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser-driven shock compression of pre-compressed water (up to 1 GPa precompression) produces high-pressure, -temperature conditions in the water inducing two optical phenomena: opacity and reflectivity in the initially transparent water. The onset of reflectivity at infrared wavelengths can be interpreted as a semi-conductor to electronic conductor transition in water and is found at pressures above {approx}130 GPa for single-shocked samples pre-compressed to 1 GPa. This electronic conduction provides an additional contribution to the conductivity required for magnetic field generation in Icy Giant planets like Uranus and Neptune.

Lee, K; Benedetti, L R; Jeanloz, R; Celliers, P M; Eggert, J H; Hicks, D G; Moon, S J; Mackinnon, A; Henry, E; Koenig, M; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Collins, G W

2005-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

274

Selecting a New Water Heater You have a lot to consider when selecting a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the water heater's annual operation costs but also its size and energy efficiency. Natural gas, oil or tank water heater operates by releasing hot water from the top of the tank when the hot water tap is turned on. The hot water is released into the hot water line. As the hot water leaves the tank, cold

275

Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

276

Hot Springs, Virginia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three major springs are located in the Warm Springs Valley of the Allegheny Mountains in western Virginia along US route 220--the Warm, Hot and Healing--all now owned by Virginia Hot Springs, Inc. The Homestead, a large and historic luxurious resort, is located at Hot Springs. The odorless mineral water used at The Homestead spa flows from several springs at temperatures ranging from 39{degrees}C to 41{degrees}C (102{degrees} to 106{degrees}F) (Loam and Gersh, 1992). It is piped to individual, one-person bathtubs in separate men`s and women`s bathhouses, where is is mixed to provide an ideal temperature of 40{degrees}C (104{degrees}F). Tubs are drained and refilled after each use so that no chemical treatment is necessary. Mineral water from the same springs is used in an indoor swimming pool maintained at 29{degrees}C (84{degrees}F), and an outdoor swimming pool maintained at 22{degrees}C (72{degrees}F). Eight kilometers (5 miles) away to the northeast, but still within the 6,000-ha (15,000-acre) Homestead property, are the Warm Springs, which flow at 36{degrees}C (96{degrees}F). The rate of discharge is so great, 63 L/s (1000 gpm) (Muffler, 1979) that the two large Warm Springs pools, in separate men`s and women`s buildings, maintain the temperature on a flow-through basis requiring no chemical treatment. The men`s pool was designed by Thomas Jefferson and opened in 1761; the ladies` pool was opened in 1836. The adjacent {open_quotes}drinking spring{close_quotes} and the two covered pools have been preserved in their original condition.

Lund, J.W.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from controlling heat loss through the distribution pipes.distribution system configurations; a collection of analytical heat lossdistribution system configurations; a collection of analytical heat loss

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Building Energy Efficiency Standards .. 4 Multi-FamilyBuilding Energy Efficiency Standards 11 Multi-FamilyBuilding Energy Efficiency Standards 48 Multi-Family

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen generation by no more than a factor of three while disodium phosphate increased the corrosion and hydrogen generation rates slightly. U(VI) showed some promise in attenuating hydrogen but only initial testing was completed. Uranium metal corrosion rates also were measured. Under many conditions showing high hydrogen gas attenuation, uranium metal continued to corrode at rates approaching those observed without additives. This combination of high hydrogen attenuation with relatively unabated uranium metal corrosion is significant as it provides a means to eliminate uranium metal by its corrosion in water without the accompanying hazards otherwise presented by hydrogen generation.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

280

Asymptotic models for the generation of internal waves by a moving ship, and the dead-water phenomenon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Asymptotic models for the generation of internal waves by a moving ship, and the dead occurs when a ship sails in a stratified fluid, and experiences an important drag due to waves below is then provided, in order to predict the behavior of the flow and in which situations the dead-water effect

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Thermoelectric Generators 1. Thermoelectric generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Cold Hot I - -- - - - - -- Figure 1 Electron concentration in a thermoelectric material. #12;2 A large1 Thermoelectric Generators HoSung Lee 1. Thermoelectric generator 1.1 Basic Equations In 1821 on the direction of current and material [3]. This is called the Thomson effect (or Thomson heat). These three

Lee, Ho Sung

282

Thermo-acoustic Sound Generation in the Interaction of Pulsed Proton and Laser Beams with a Water Target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The generation of hydrodynamic radiation in interactions of pulsed proton and laser beams with matter is explored. The beams were directed into a water target and the resulting acoustic signals were recorded with pressure sensitive sensors. Measurements were performed with varying pulse energies, sensor positions, beam diameters and temperatures. The obtained data are matched by simulation results based on the thermo-acoustic model with uncertainties at a level of 10%. The results imply that the primary mechanism for sound generation by the energy deposition of particles propagating in water is the local heating of the medium. The heating results in a fast expansion or contraction and a pressure pulse of bipolar shape is emitted into the surrounding medium. An interesting, widely discussed application of this effect could be the detection of ultra-high energetic cosmic neutrinos in future large-scale acoustic neutrino detectors. For this application a validation of the sound generation mechanism to high accur...

Lahmann, R; Graf, K; Hößl, J; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Mecke, K; Schwemmer, S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Solar Generator Performance with Load Matching to Water Electrolysis Longterm Averages and Range of Instantaneous Efficiencies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficiency of producing hydrogen by solar energy conversion via solar cells and water electrolysis is determined by the performance of the ... wired to an electronic simulation of an advanced water electrolys...

K. Freudenberg

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

The role of water in generation of group II kimberlite magmas: Constraints from multiple saturation experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...segregation occurred within the studied range of water concentrations, the water solubility in the kimberlite melt exceeded 9 wt%, and...Surovtsev, N.V. (2007) Incongruent melting of gallium nitride at 7.5 GPa. Diamond and Related Materials...

Alexander G. Sokol; Alexey N. Kruk; Yury N. Palyanov

285

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Wastewater Generation Impacts of a Marcellus Shale Gas Well  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relative importance of water consumption was analyzed by integrating the method into the Eco-indicator-99 LCIA method. ...

Mohan Jiang; Chris T. Hendrickson; Jeanne M. VanBriesen

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

Changing the spatial location of electricity generation to increase water availability in areas with drought: a feasibility study and quantification of air quality impacts in Texas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The feasibility, cost, and air quality impacts of using electrical grids to shift water use from drought-stricken regions to areas with more water availability were examined. Power plant cooling represents a large portion of freshwater withdrawals in the United States, and shifting where electricity generation occurs can allow the grid to act as a virtual water pipeline, increasing water availability in regions with drought by reducing water consumption and withdrawals for power generation. During a 2006 drought, shifting electricity generation out of the most impacted areas of South Texas (~10% of base case generation) to other parts of the grid would have been feasible using transmission and power generation available at the time, and some areas would experience changes in air quality. Although expensive, drought-based electricity dispatch is a potential parallel strategy that can be faster to implement than other infrastructure changes, such as air cooling or water pipelines.

Adam P Pacsi; Nawaf S Alhajeri; Mort D Webster; Michael E Webber; David T Allen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Distributed Generation versus Centralised Supply: a Social Cost-Benefit Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, regulators and legislators in distributed generation (DG), namely, the integrated or stand-alone use of small, modular power generation close to the point of consumption as an alternative to large power generation and electricity transport over long distances... condensing boiler providing heat for space heating and sanitary uses (hot water). A conventional compressing refrigerator supplies cold for air conditioning. Imported electricity is assumed to be generated by a combined cycle-gas turbine plant (CCGT), with 51...

Gulli, Francesco

2004-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

288

Hot Showers, Fresh Laundry, Clean Dishes | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hot Showers, Fresh Laundry, Clean Dishes Hot Showers, Fresh Laundry, Clean Dishes Hot Showers, Fresh Laundry, Clean Dishes March 5, 2013 - 11:17am Addthis The GE GeoSpring™ Electric Heat Pump Water Heater is readily integrated into new and existing home designs. Taking up the same footprint as a traditional 50-gallon tank water heater, the Electric Heat Pump Water Heater uses the existing water heater's plumbing and electrical connections. Credit: GE The GE GeoSpring(tm) Electric Heat Pump Water Heater is readily integrated into new and existing home designs. Taking up the same footprint as a traditional 50-gallon tank water heater, the Electric Heat Pump Water Heater uses the existing water heater's plumbing and electrical connections. Credit: GE To introduce this new electric heat pump water heater, GE ran a memorable ad during the 2010 Winter Olympics featuring snow monkeys enjoying a hot soak. Credit: GE

289

HOT TOPIC: Nanotechnology lecture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Check-Bits HOT TOPIC: Nanotechnology lecture TOP SITE www.ukonlineforbusiness...proper handling. HOT TOPIC Nanotechnology lecture FUTURESHOCK Cyborgs...Cheltenham and Gloucester Branch. Nanotechnology Devices Defying Nature is taking......

HOT TOPIC: Nanotechnology lecture

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

Robertson, Eric P

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

291

Trade-offs of Water Use for Hydropower Generation and Biofuel Production in the Zambezi Basin in Mozambique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the Zambezi basin in Mozambique, hydropower production is an important economic resource, with substantial development envisaged for the next decades. Irrigated agriculture currently plays a minor role, but irrigation development has a large potential and is an important government policy goal, especially aiming at the cultivation of biofuel crops. This contribution assesses interrelations and trade-offs between these two water-dependent development options. Scenario simulations under different climate and development assumptions show that adverse impacts of irrigation withdrawal on hydropower are low. Consequently, the use of water for irrigated agriculture can generate higher economic benefits than the use for hydropower production.

Philipp Stanzel; Harald Kling; Kit Nicholson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a New Technology for Extraction of Insoluble Impurities from Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators with Purge Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental technology for the removal of insoluble impurities from a horizontal steam generator with purge water during planned shutdowns of the power generating unit is improved through a more representative determination of the concentration of impurities in the purge water ahead of the water cleanup facility and a more precise effective time for the duration of the purge process. Tests with the improved technique at power generating unit No. 1 of the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant show that the efficiency with which insoluble impurities are removed from the steam generator volume was more than two orders of magnitude greater than under the standard regulations.

Bud'ko, I. O. [JSC NIITsE 'Tsentrenergo' (Russian Federation)] [JSC NIITsE 'Tsentrenergo' (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. G. [Rostov Nuclear Power Plant (Russian Federation)] [Rostov Nuclear Power Plant (Russian Federation)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Phylogenetic Diversity Analysis of Subterranean Hot Springs in Iceland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The hot tap water was a mixture of geothermal fluid transported from 50 operating geothermal wells into geothermal water tanks and then delivered into the laboratory through the one-way district heating system. The fluid from each well...

Viggó Thór Marteinsson; Sigurbjörg Hauksdóttir; Cédric F. V. Hobel; Hrefna Kristmannsdóttir; Gudmundur Oli Hreggvidsson; Jakob K. Kristjánsson

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Volume reduction of hot cell plastic wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disposal of radioactively-contaminated solid wastes has become a national crisis. In such circumstances, it is imperative that this waste be reduced to minimum volume and be packaged to prevent pollution of the environment. The majority of the solid waste generated at the hot cell under consideration is plastic lab ware. Cutting this waste into small pieces with a hot wire technique reduced the volume 66%. Melting the waste, although more time consuming, reduced the volume 90%. The hot wire technique can also be used to cut up damaged master slave manipulator boots, greatly reducing their disposal volume.

Dykes, F W; Henscheid, J P; Lewis, L C; Lundholm, C W; Nicklas, J H

1989-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

295

Potential of thermal insulation and solar thermal energy in domestic hot water and space heating and cooling sectors in Lebanon in the period 2010 - 2030.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The potential of thermal insulation and solar thermal energy in domestic water heating, space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings Lebanon is studied… (more)

Zaatari, Z.A.R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

An integrated model to compare net electricity generation for CO?- and water-based geothermal systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Utilization of supercritical CO2 as a geothermal fluid instead of water has been proposed byBrown in 2000 and its advantages have been discussed by him… (more)

Agarwal, Vikas, 1986-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Bio-Inspired Polymer Composite Actuator and Generator Driven by Water Gradients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we describe the development of a water-responsive polymer film. Combining both a rigid matrix (polypyrrole) and a dynamic network (polyol-borate), strong and flexible polymer films were developed that can exchange ...

Ma, Mingming

298

Decomposition Mechanism of Fluorinated Compounds in Water Plasmas Generated Under Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We developed a DC water plasma torch which with a cathode of...16...]. The hafnium used as cathode material can overcome the erosion problems and achieve a long operating time in oxidation atmospheric. The torch ...

Narengerile; Hironori Saito; Takayuki Watanabe

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Boiler and steam generator corrosion. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers and nuclear powered steam generators. Corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures are presented. Water treatment, chemical cleaning, and descaling methods are considered. Although emphasis is placed on large-scale power generation systems, residential and commercial heating systems are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Boiler and steam generator corrosion. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers and nuclear powered steam generators. Corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures are presented. Water treatment, chemical cleaning, and descaling methods are considered. Although emphasis is placed on large-scale power generation systems, residential and commercial heating systems are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Hydrogeologic investigation of Coso Hot Springs, Inyo County, California.  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrogeologic investigation of Coso Hot Springs, Inyo County, California. Hydrogeologic investigation of Coso Hot Springs, Inyo County, California. Final report October 1977--January 1978 Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Hydrogeologic investigation of Coso Hot Springs, Inyo County, California. Final report October 1977--January 1978 Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: This investigation included: review of existing geologic, geophysical, and hydrologic information; field examination of geologic rock units and springs and other features of hydrologic significance and sampling of waters for chemical analysis; determination of the local Coso Hot Springs and regional groundwater hydrology, including consideration of recharge, discharge, movement, and water quality; and determination of the

302

Innovative Self- Generating Projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam Driven Cooling Water Pump Blast Furnace Coke Plant Flares Boilers Steam Header Electric Cooling Water Pump (Back-up) Process Steam (Main Plant) Coal Hot Mill Reheat Furnace COG Bunker Oil ESL-IE-13-05-06 Proceedings... Driven Cooling Pump (New Back-up) Blast Furnace Coke Plant Flares Boilers Parastic Loads Natural Gas Turbine Steam Header Electric Cooling Water Pump (with Power Meter) Net ElectricityG Process Steam (Main Plant) Coal Hot Mill Reheat...

Kelly, L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Hot Plate Station  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

temperature is limited to 200C in order to maintain temperature inside the cleanroom. A hood located over the hot plate station ensures evaporated fumes are not released...

304

Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

data processing and use of FLIR - fast, cost effective method to measure natural heat loss * Pilgrim Hot Springs Resource Development - baseload power for the Nome area....

305

Removal of Filter Cake Generated by Manganese Tetraoxide Water-based Drilling Fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three effective solutions to dissolve the filter cake created by water-based drilling fluids weighted with Mn3O4 particles were developed. Hydrochloric acid at concentration lower than 5 wt% can dissolve most of Mn3O4-based filter cake. Dissolving...

Al Mojil, Abdullah Mohammed A.

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

306

Vorticity Generation in the Shallow-Water Equations as Applied to Hydraulic Jumps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors attempt to find a bridge between the vorticity dynamics of a finite cross-stream length hydraulic jump implied by the Navier-Stokes equations and that given by the shallow-water approximation (SWA) with the turbulence of the hydraulic ...

Richard Rotunno; Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Hafnium nitride for hot carrier solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hot carrier solar cells is an attractive technology with the potential of reaching high energy conversion efficiencies approaching the thermodynamic limit of infinitely stacked multi-junction solar cells: 65% under one sun and 86% under maximally concentrated. The hot carrier solar cell is conceptually simple consisting of two key components: absorber and energy selective contacts. High efficiencies are achieved by minimising the energy lost to thermalisaton of hot photo-generated carriers while absorbing majority of the solar spectrum. For this to be achieved, energy selective contacts are required to allow the extraction of carriers fast enough at an energy level above the electronic band edge. It is critical for the absorber to be able to maintain a hot carrier population for a sufficiently long time period for the extraction of carriers while they are ‘hot’. Bulk materials with a large gap between acoustic and optical branches in the phonon dispersion are predicted to exhibit slow hot carrier thermalisation rates. Hafnium nitride is such a material with a large gap in its phonon dispersion and is identified as a potential material to be used as a hot carrier absorber. Hafnium nitride has been deposited using reactive sputtering and characterised to investigate material properties and carrier cooling rates.

Simon Chung; Santosh Shrestha; Xiaoming Wen; Yu Feng; Neeti Gupta; Hongze Xia; Pyng Yu; Jau Tang; Gavin Conibeer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Integrated Geophysical Exploration of a Known Geothermal Resource: Neal Hot  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geophysical Exploration of a Known Geothermal Resource: Neal Hot Geophysical Exploration of a Known Geothermal Resource: Neal Hot Springs Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book Section: Integrated Geophysical Exploration of a Known Geothermal Resource: Neal Hot Springs Abstract We present integrated geophysical data to characterize a geothermal system at Neal Hot Springs in eastern Oregon. This system is currently being developed for geothermal energy production. The hot springs are in a region of complex and intersecting fault trends associated with two major extensional events, the Oregon-Idaho Graben and the Western Snake River Plain. The intersection of these two fault systems, coupled with high geothermal gradients from thin continental crust produces pathways for surface water and deep geothermal water interactions at Neal Hot Springs.

309

Generating Singlet Oxygen Bubbles: A New Mechanism for Gas–Liquid Oxidations in Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our interest in developing a singlet oxygen [1O2 (1?g)]-sparging reactor came from small-scale devices for disinfection of, for example, municipal and well water, but which used filtration, ozone, and/or UV light. ... In front of the A10449 mechanical shutter of the detector was placed either a 25-mm-diameter, 1150 nm long pass filter (FEL1150, Thorlabs Inc.) or one of three 25-mm-diameter NIR bandpass filters centered at 1220, 1270, and 1315 nm (OD4 blocking, fwhm = 15 nm, Omega, Brattleboro, VT). ... (19) Drying of the composite was done at 50 °C for 10 h to avoid destruction of the confined phthalocyanine molecules, producing an aerogel that shrunk ?10% where some, but not all adsorbed water was removed. ...

Dorota Bartusik; David Aebisher; BiBi Ghafari; Alan M. Lyons; Alexander Greer

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

310

AIR-FLOW STRUCTURE IN THE VERY CLOSE VICINITY OF WIND GENERATED WATER-WAVES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to : , with the air-density, u and w the horizontal and vertical components of the wind speed, u* the friction and the viscous drag at the sea sur- face, we build two new microphysical devices: 1) the wind-speed vertical of the vertical profile of the normalized phase-averaged wind-speed in the air-viscous layer (1mm above water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

The Trans-Africa Pipeline: Building a Sustainable Water Generation and Distribution Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Trans-Africa Pipeline (TAP), the vision of University of Toronto professor emeritus Rod Tennyson, aims to mitigate poverty, disease, desertification, and conflict in Africa’s Sahel1 region through the daily provision of roughly one billion litres of fresh water to 20 million people for domestic and agricultural use (Tennyson, n.d; Tennyson et al, n.d). As the effects of climate change become more pronounced,

unknown authors

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and closer temperature control. The heat storage capacity of water per cubic foot is considerably greater than steam at equivalent saturation pressures, as shown in Table No. II (below). This inherent reserve or "fly wheel" effect permits closer... furnace and convection section. Coal ash fouling characteristics will have a bearing on the convection section tube spacing. Low grade coals should be reviewed for their slagging and fouling characteristics. For example, lignite and low grade coals...

Boushell, C. C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Seventh Quarter of the First Budget Period, April 1 through June 30, 1992, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion will include the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams. Combustion Gas Turbine; Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment; and Externally Fired Gas Turbine/Water Augmented Gas Turbine. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

Not Available

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Internal wave generation by convection in water. Part 2. Numerical simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water's density maximum at 4C makes it well suited to study internal gravity wave excitation by convection: an increasing temperature profile is unstable to convection below 4C, but stably stratified above 4C. We present numerical simulations of water near its density maximum in a two dimensional tank, similar to the experiment described in a companion paper (Le Bars et al. 2015). The simulations agree very well with the experiments, despite differences in lateral boundary conditions in the two systems. We successfully model the damping of waves in the simulations using linear theory, provided we do not take the weak damping limit typically used in the literature. In order to isolate the physical mechanism exciting internal waves, we use the novel spectral code Dedalus to run several simulations of the simulation. We use data from the full simulation as source terms in two simplified models of internal wave excitation by convection: bulk excitation by convective Reynolds stresses, and interface forcing via th...

Lecoanet, Daniel; Burns, Keaton J; Vasil, Geoffrey M; Brown, Benjamin P; Quataert, Eliot; Oishi, Jeffrey S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

1-Methyl Naphthalene Reorientation at the Air-Liquid Interface upon Water Saturation Studied by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will encounter gas-phase water molecules or may react with atmospheric oxidants. The uptake and reaction1-Methyl Naphthalene Reorientation at the Air-Liquid Interface upon Water Saturation Studied by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy Elizabeth L. Hommel and Heather C. Allen

316

Estimating Water Needs to Meet 2025 Electricity Generating Capacity Forecasts by NERC Region  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NETL-2006/1235 NETL-2006/1235 August 2006 Revised April 8, 2008 Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

317

Record geothermal well drilled in hot granite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Record geothermal well drilled in hot granite ... Researchers there have completed the second of two of the deepest and hottest geothermal wells ever drilled. ... It may become the energy source for a small electrical generating power station serving nearby communities in New Mexico. ...

1981-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

318

Belgian approach to steam generator tube plugging for primary water stress corrosion cracking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For a number of years, three Belgian nuclear power plants have experienced primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in the expansion transition area on a very large number of tubes. One of the plants has part depth rolled tubes and the others have full depth expansion. The report presents a review of the leakage experience associated with (PWSCC) in the Doel 2, Doel 3 and Tihange 2 Nuclear Power Plants and illustrates the type of cracking observed on pulled tubes from Doel 2 and Doel 3. The Belgian units operate with numerous through wall cracks without impairing the safety and the reliability of the plants. This is achieved by a safety approach based on the extensive use of advanced non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques and the development of new plugging limits. These limits are derived from a realistic interpretation of NRC Regulatory Guide 1.121 and are backed up by a substantial experimental program. The report summarizes the establishment of plugging limits for both axial and circumferential cracks in the roll transition area of full depth rolled tubes. The LABORELEC eddy current rotating probe (RPC) technology and associated crack sizing methodology are also described. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Frederick, G. (TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium)); Hernalsteen, P.; Dobbeni, D. (Laboratoire Belge de l'Industrie Electrique (LABORELEC), Linkebeek (Belgium))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Hot and dark matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, we build new Effective Field Theory tools to describe the propagation of energetic partons in hot and dense media, and we propose two new reactions for dark matter in the early universe. In the first part, ...

D'Eramo, Francesco

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Reactor hot spot analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Vilim, R.B.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The DLM accounts for the distribution heat loss within eachHot-Water Distribution System Piping Heat Loss Factors—PhaseHot Water Distribution System Piping Heat Loss Factors-

Lutz, Jim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

RPSEA 08123-10 Final Report Signature RPSEA Final Report Electrical Power Generation from Produced Water: Field  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RPSEA 08123-10 Final Report Signature RPSEA 08123-10 Final Report Signature RPSEA Final Report Electrical Power Generation from Produced Water: Field Demonstration for Ways to Reduce Operating Costs for Small Producers Project: 08123-10 April 30, 2012 Loy Sneary, President Robin Dahlheim, Sales Gulf Coast Green Energy 1801 7th St, Ste 230 Bay City, TX 77414 RPSEA 08123-10 Final Report Signature LEGAL NOTICE This report was prepared by Gulf Coast Green Energy as an account of work sponsored by the Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America, RPSEA. Neither RPSEA members of RPSEA, the National Energy Technology Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy, nor any person acting on behalf of any of the entities: MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WITH RESPECT TO

323

Hot Dry Rock Reservoir Engineering | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

hydraulically connect the wells. Water pumped down the injection well and through the fracture system is heated by contact with the hot rock and rises to the production well. This...

324

Use of active solar heating and domestic hot water (DHW) systems in single family homes: technical findings and lessons learned from the HUD solar demonstration program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the technical experiences with active solar space and domestic water heating systems installed in single family homes. It is intended to assist members of the home building and solar industries to provide their customers with satisfactory products and installations and to avoid some of the problems caused by improper equipment, system design, and installation. Two chapters focus on liquid and air systems. Problems are discussed by subsystem: collectors, transport, storage, distribution, and control. Industry responsibility, including cooperation during the construction phase and responsiveness during the occupancy phase, are considered. The conclusion notes that system efficiency, which now runs in the 10 to 30 - percent range, can be greatly improved if the solar and home building industries make greater efforts to properly insulate pipes, ducts, and storage; assure system operation at the proper time; and minimize leaks through valves or dampers. Additional suggestions are given. Graphs, photographs, footnotes, a glossary, and selected bibliographies are provided.

Freeborne, W.; Mara, G.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Hot rocks could help meet US energy needs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... -4 Hot rocks could help meet US energy needs LucyOdling-Smee Get more out of geothermal, experts advise. ... , experts advise.Geothermal energy takes advantage of heat naturally generated within the earth. Punchstock Nature energy focus ...

Lucy Odling-Smee

2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

326

Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

Oyama, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Wadasaki-cho 1-Chome, Hyogo-ku, Kobe (Japan); Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 16-5, Konan 2-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Geothermometry At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Springs Ranch Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The brine from the drill holes, hot springs, seepages, and irrigation wells was sampled, as well as water from two nearby creeks, (total of 13 samples) and sent for analysis to Thermochem Inc. For sample locations refer to Figure 35; the geochemical data are presented in Appendix C. Geochemical results indicate the presence of two distinct waters in this group of samples (Tom Powell of Thermochem Inc., personal communication, 2005).

328

Recommended requirements to code officials for solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. Model document for code officials on solar heating and cooling of buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These recommended requirements include provisions for electrical, building, mechanical, and plumbing installations for active and passive solar energy systems used for space or process heating and cooling, and domestic water heating. The provisions in these recommended requirements are intended to be used in conjunction with the existing building codes in each jurisdiction. Where a solar relevant provision is adequately covered in an existing model code, the section is referenced in the Appendix. Where a provision has been drafted because there is no counterpart in the existing model code, it is found in the body of these recommended requirements. Commentaries are included in the text explaining the coverage and intent of present model code requirements and suggesting alternatives that may, at the discretion of the building official, be considered as providing reasonable protection to the public health and safety. Also included is an Appendix which is divided into a model code cross reference section and a reference standards section. The model code cross references are a compilation of the sections in the text and their equivalent requirements in the applicable model codes. (MHR)

None

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Thermoelectric generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator unit is described comprising: a hot side heat exchanger including a plate having extruded retention posts projecting from one surface of the plate, and fins adapted for contact with a heating source. The fins are positioned between two of the retention posts. Retention rods are inserted between the retention posts and the base of the fins to retain the fin in thermal contact with the plate surface upon insertion of the retention rod between the engaging surface of the post and the corresponding fin. Thermoelectric semi-conductor modules are in thermal contact with the opposite side of the hot side heat exchanger plate from the contact with the fins. The modules are arranged in a grid pattern so that heat flow is directed into each of the modules from the hot side heat exchanger. The modules are connected electrically so as to combine their electrical output; and a cold side heat exchanger is in thermal contact with the modules acting as a heat sink on the opposite side of the module from the hot side heat exchanger plate so as to produce a thermal gradient across the modules.

Shakun, W.; Bearden, J.H.; Henderson, D.R.

1988-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

330

Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Learn about the Energy Department's commitment to develop and deploy clean, domestic power generation from hydropower, waves, and tides.

331

Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tips: Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Tips: Water Heating May 2, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill. There are four ways to cut your water heating bills: use less hot water, turn down the thermostat on your water heater, insulate your water heater, or buy a new, more efficient model. Water Heating Tips Install aerating, low-flow faucets and showerheads. Repair leaky faucets promptly; a leaky faucet wastes gallons of

332

Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heating Water Heating Tips: Water Heating May 2, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill. There are four ways to cut your water heating bills: use less hot water, turn down the thermostat on your water heater, insulate your water heater, or buy a new, more efficient model. Water Heating Tips Install aerating, low-flow faucets and showerheads. Repair leaky faucets promptly; a leaky faucet wastes gallons of

333

Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generateshot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

Zhu, Xiaoyang

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

334

Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day, HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last three years, from June 1991 to June 1993, we completed a series of runs (H10--H27) using the 4-TPD pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the HRS process and answer key scale-up questions. With our CRADA partners, we seek to further develop the HRS technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development by Government and industry and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Evaluation of anticipatory signal to steam generator pressure control program for 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is horizontal channel type reactor with partial boiling at channel outlet. Due to boiling, it has a large volume of vapor present in the primary loops. It has two primary loops connected with the help of pressurizer surge line. The pressurizer has a large capacity and is partly filled by liquid and partly by vapor. Large vapor volume improves compressibility of the system. During turbine trip or load rejection, pressure builds up in Steam Generator (SG). This leads to pressurization of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). To control pressurization of SG and PHTS, around 70% of the steam generated in SG is dumped into the condenser by opening Condenser Steam Dump Valves (CSDVs) and rest of the steam is released to the atmosphere by opening Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs) immediately after sensing the event. This is accomplished by adding anticipatory signal to the output of SG pressure controller. Anticipatory signal is proportional to the thermal power of reactor and the proportionality constant is set so that SG pressure controller's output jacks up to ASDV opening range when operating at 100% FP. To simulate this behavior for 700 MWe IPHWR, Primary and secondary heat transport system is modeled. SG pressure control and other process control program have also been modeled to capture overall plant dynamics. Analysis has been carried out with 3-D neutron kinetics coupled thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA.T to evaluate the effect of the anticipatory signal on PHT pressure and over all plant dynamics during turbine trip in 700 MWe IPHWR. This paper brings out the results of the analysis with and without considering anticipatory signal in SG pressure control program during turbine trip. (authors)

Pahari, S.; Hajela, S.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Nabhikiya Urja Bhavan, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai, PIN-400094 (India)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater...

337

Heat Transfer Enhancement in Thermoelectric Power Generation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Heat transfer plays an important role in thermoelectric (TE) power generation because the higher the heat-transfer rate from the hot to the cold side of… (more)

Hu, Shih-yung

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template A remotely-operated lidar for aerosol, temperature, and water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template A remotely-operated lidar for aerosol, temperature, and water vapor profiling in the High Arctic. G. J. Nott, T. J. Duck, J. G. Doyle, M. E. W. Coffin, C. Perro, C. P. Thackray, and J. R. Drummond Department of Physics and Atmospheric

Duck, Thomas J.

339

The combined system for fuel supply of fuel cells on the basis of the aluminum-water hydrogen generator and the metal hybride hydrogen storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The system for fuel supply of a hydrogen-air fuel cell on the basis of the aluminum-water hydrogen generator and hydride-forming alloy as an intermediate gas storage has been developed. For a series of...4.5 ? x ...

I. V. Yanilkin; Ye. I. Shkol’nikov; S. N. Klyamkin; M. S. Vlaskin…

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Experience in the repair of steam generator auxiliary feedwater nozzle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The auxiliary feedwater nozzle is quite often subjected to more thermal stress cycles and other loading mechanisms during their service life than the material was designed and fabricated for at the nozzle of the earlier steam generators in many nuclear plants. During plant operation, the auxiliary feedwater nozzle outlet is exposed to the hot steam from the generator side, while the auxiliary feedwater piping which contains subcooled water from the inlet often induces water hammer as a result of the steam-water mixing phenomena. The thermal cycles and the steam bubble collapse at the nozzle may cause cracking in the nozzle liner and interior surface of the nozzle, and subsequently results in structural damage to the steam generator. This presentation is intended to share the lessons learned from the evaluation of the nozzle condition and the subsequent modification and repair made to the auxiliary feedwater nozzle at the Palisades Nuclear Plant. Other nuclear plant owners may benefit from this experience.

Chao, K.K.N. [Consumers Power Co., Jackson, MI (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Algae Under Pressure and in Hot Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of liquid fuels from algae involve extracting the...converting the oil to either biodiesel by catalyzed transesterification...hydrotreating. Drying the algae before extracting the oil...converted to biocrude or biodiesel. Likewise, polysaccharides...extracted hydrothermally from algae and the extracted biomass...

Phillip E. Savage

2012-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

342

Algae Under Pressure and in Hot Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...liquid fuels from algae involve extracting...hydrotreating. Drying the algae before extracting...time, consumes energy, and adds expense...sustainability of algal biofuels. Processing strategies...research into alternative approaches, including...processing is energy efficient and favors...content of the algae and a greater partitioning...

Phillip E. Savage

2012-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

343

First Hot Electron Measurements in Near-ignition Scale Hohlraums on the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the hot electrons generated in laser heated hohlraums are inferred from the >20 keV bremsstrahlung emission measured with the FFLEX broadband spectrometer. New high energy (>200 keV) time resolved channels were added to meet requirements for ignition and to infer the generated >170 keV hot electrons that can cause ignition capsule preheat. First hot electron measurements in near ignition scaled hohlraums heated by 96-192 NIF laser beams are presented.

Dewald, E L; Suter, L J; Thomas, C; Hunter, S; Meeker, D; Meezan, N; Glenzer, S H; Bond, E; Kauffman, R L; Kilkenny, J; Landen, O

2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

344

Hot electron measurements in ignition relevant Hohlraums on the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the National Ignition Facility (NIF), hot electrons generated in laser heated Hohlraums are inferred from the >20 keV bremsstrahlung emission measured with the time integrated FFLEX broadband spectrometer. New high energy (>200 keV) time resolved channels were added to infer the generated >170 keV hot electrons that can cause ignition capsule preheat. First hot electron measurements in near ignition scaled Hohlraums heated by 96-192 NIF laser beams are presented.

Dewald, E. L.; Thomas, C.; Hunter, S.; Divol, L.; Meezan, N.; Glenzer, S. H.; Suter, L. J.; Bond, E.; Celeste, J.; Bradley, D.; Bell, P.; Kauffman, R. L.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kline, J. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Evaluation of cracking in feedwater piping adjacent to the steam generators in Nine Pressurized Water Reactor Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cracking in ASTM A106-B and A106-C feedwater piping was detected near the inlet to the steam generators in a number of pressurized water reactor plants. We received sections with cracks from nine of the plants with the objective of identifying the cracking mechanism and assessing various factors that might contribute to this cracking. Variations were observed in piping surface irregularities, corrosion-product, pit, and crack morphology, surface elmental and crystal structure analyses, and steel microstructures and mechanical properties. However, with but two exceptions, namely, arrest bands and major surface irregularities, we were unable to relate the extent of cracking to any of these factors. Tensile and fracture toughness (J/sub Ic/ and tearing modulus) properties were measured over a range of temperatures and strain rates. No unusual properties or microstructures were observed that could be related to the cracking problem. All crack surfaces contained thick oxide deposits and showed evidence of cyclic events in the form of arrest bands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed fatigue striations on replicas of cleaned crack surfaces from one plant and possibly from three others. Calculations based on the observed striation spacings gave a value of ..delta..sigma = 150 MPa (22 ksi) for one of the major cracks. The direction of crack propagation was invariably related to the piping surface and not to the piping axis. These two factors are consistent with the proposed concept of thermally induced, cyclic, tensile surface stresses. Although surface irregularities and corrosion pits were sources for crack initiation and corrosion may have contributed to crack propagation, it is proposed that the overriding factor in the cracking problem is the presence of unforeseen cyclic loads.

Goldberg, A.; Streit, R.D.; Scott, R.G.

1980-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

346

Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Indian Valley Hot Springs Geothermal Area  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Indian Valley Hot Springs Geothermal Area Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Indian Valley Hot Springs Geothermal Area (1990) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Indian Valley Hot Springs Geothermal Area (1990) Exploration Activity Details Location Indian Valley Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1990 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine the recharge of the area Notes Hydrogen and oxygen isotope data on waters of Coso thermal and nonthermal waters were studied. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes do not uniquely define the recharge area for the Coso geothermal system but strongly suggest Sierran recharge with perhaps some local recharge. References

347

Phylogenetic Diversity Analysis of Subterranean Hot Springs in Iceland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...clones in indicated borehole or HTW Closest division...in media with source borehole water. The cultures...groundwater from a borehole in granite rock...geothermal water during drilling, we would have expected...is one of the worlds largest subsurface hot spots...

Viggó Thór Marteinsson; Sigurbjörg Hauksdóttir; Cédric F. V. Hobel; Hrefna Kristmannsdóttir; Gudmundur Oli Hreggvidsson; Jakob K. Kristjánsson

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Effect of Water on Hydrolytic Cleavage of Non-Terminal ?-Glycosidic Bonds in Cyclodextrins To Generate Monosaccharides and Their Derivatives in a Dimethyl Sulfoxide–Water Mixture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(4) Moreover, for the purpose of the high-yield production of such target chemicals as 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) and anhydrous saccharides, the DMSO–water mixture, in which the water–water hydrogen bonds are dramatically broken by the dipolar aprotic solvent, was found to be a promising binary mixture solvent. ... (20-26) This is because 5-HMF is regarded as a potential platform chemical with a wide application profile. ... (18, 19) Once we succeed in obtaining the reactive monomer from such biomass as starch (edible) and cellulose (inedible), this can meet the increasing demand for green and sustainable chemistry. ...

Hiroshi Kimura; Masaki Hirayama; Ken Yoshida; Yasuhiro Uosaki; Masaru Nakahara

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

349

Experience of using the turbine-generator units of the Kolyma hydroelectric station for idle discharge of water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1. Before the start of reservoir drawdown it is necessary to clean the trash racks and water surface in front of...

B. N. Yurkevich; A. Ya. Afonin; S. G. Kukarskii; I. N. Lukin

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Nanomaterial Composites for Next Generation Water Filters: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-197  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under this CRADA, the Parties will produce and test a composite filter element that will remove particles, bacteria and viruses to produce safe drinking water.

Ginley, D.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Energy-efficient water heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Natural ventilation generates building form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural ventilation is an efficient design strategy for thermal comfort in hot and humid climates. The building forms can generate different pressures and temperatures to induce natural ventilation. This thesis develops a ...

Chen, Shaw-Bing

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Effects of draw solutions and membrane conditions on electricity generation and water flux in osmotic microbial fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

membrane processes such as microfil- tration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis con. Such a water movement does not require external energy input like that in reverse osmosis; thus, FO is a low Keywords: Forward osmosis Osmotic microbial fuel cell Wastewater treatment Water flux Draw solution a b

354

Microfluidic system with integrated electroosmotic pumps, concentration gradient generator and fish cell line (RTgill-W1)--towards water toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic system with integrated electroosmotic pumps, concentration gradient generator and fish that incorporates electroosmotic pumps, a concentration gradient generator and a fish cell line (rainbow trout gill concentration distribution of toxicant in a cell test chamber, (2) an electroosmotic (EO) pump chip

Le Roy, Robert J.

355

Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental Value  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 1 Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental Value Grid-interactive renewable water heaters have smart controls that quickly change their charge rate and charge level, factoring in renewable generation and other critical needs of the grid; thereby significantly reducing carbon emissions and bringing a new dimension of conservation and efficiency to the electric grid. The Steffes grid-interactive renewable water heater controller provides utilities with an affordable and effective way to integrate renewable generation into the grid while providing uninterrupted hot water to the consumer. In recent years, many states have set Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) to reduce the need for traditional fossil fuel-based power generation, thereby improving our environment and decreasing

356

Dealing in practice with hot-spots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hot-spot phenomenon is a relatively frequent problem occurring in current photovoltaic generators. It entails both a risk for the photovoltaic module's lifetime and a decrease in its operational efficiency. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of widely accepted procedures for dealing with them in practice. This paper presents the IES-UPM observations on 200 affected modules. Visual and infrared inspection, electroluminescence, peak power and operating voltage tests have been accomplished. Hot-spot observation procedures and well defined acceptance and rejection criteria are proposed, addressing both the lifetime and the operational efficiency of the modules. The operating voltage has come out as the best parameter to control effective efficiency losses for the affected modules. This procedure is oriented to its possible application in contractual frameworks.

Moretón, Rodrigo; Leloux, Jonathan; Carrillo, José Manuel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Coping with Hot Work Environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E-340 04/05 Many Texans work under hot, humid conditions. Summer heat is a particular hazard to agricultural pro- ducers who work long hours under the sun. However, other people working in hot yards, gardens, kitchens or industry jobs are also... evaporation. Wiping sweat from the skin with a cloth also prevents cooling from evaporation. In hot, humid conditions, hard work becomes harder. The sweat glands release moisture and essential David W. Smith, Extension Safety Program The Texas A&M...

Smith, David

2005-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

358

HOT TOPICS: Bridge suicides (http://www.marinij.com/goldengatebridge/ci_25220172/record-number-golden-gate-bridge-suicides-recorded-2013) #MarinDrought (http://www.marinij.com/marinnews/ci_24975029/readers-share-water-saving-ideas-marindroughtt)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HOT TOPICS: Bridge suicides (http://www.marinij.com/goldengatebridge/ci_25220172/record-number-golden-gate-bridge://www.marinij.com/goldengatebridge/ci_25217201/golden-gate-bridge-toll-could-increase-by-1) Data center (http://www.marinij.com/data) Traffic://www.marinij.com/marinnews/ci_25202779/marin-robbery-suspect-loses-bid-stop-ij-from) Bridge toll hike (http

California at Berkeley, University of

359

Energy savings through hot pressing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theoretical considerations indicate that the hot-pressing process can provide energy savings. Several selected results demonstrate that, under favorable conditions, practical results exceed theoretical predictions.

Cutshall, K.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Water chemistry of the system for cooling the electrical generator’ stator of the power unit at a thermal power station  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results from studies of the water chemistry used in the system for cooling the stator windings of alternators used in supercritical-pressure power units are presented, and a solution is ... suggested using which ...

B. M. Larin; A. B. Larin; A. N. Korotkov; M. Yu. Oparin

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential established based on dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A large number of oilfield water samples were analyzed in this work. Research ... relationship between the concentrations and distribution of dissolved hydrocarbons suggested that the contents and composition of ...

Hongjing Zhao; Weilin Sun; Baotian He; Bowen Mei…

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Generation of non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure in hetero-phase media of air with water aerosol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of experimental investigations on non-thermal plasma generation using of high-voltage discharge in hetero-phase media of airflow at atmospheric pressure with liquid aerosol are presented in...B. subti...

Yu. S. Akishev; G. I. Aponin; M. E. Grushin…

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Geothermometry At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney, 2005) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney, 2005) Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical Sampling of Thermal and Non-thermal Waters in Nevada, Shevenell and Garside. The objective of this project is to obtain geochemical data from springs (and some wells) for which data are not publicly available, or for which the analyses are incomplete, poor, or nonexistent. With these data, geothermometers are being calculated and a preliminary assessment of the geothermal potential and ranking of the sampled areas is being

364

Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

V. Munne

2006-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

365

Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion and protection features  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein feedback preheater means are provided for the fuel and water before entering the combustor assembly. First, combustion gases are conducted from the combustion chamber to locations in proximity to the water and fuel supplies. Secondly, both hot combustion gases and steam are conducted from the borehole back to the water and fuel supply. The water used for conversion to steam is passed in a countercurrent manner through a plurality of annular water flow channels surrounding the combustion chamber. In this manner, the water is preheated, and the combustion chamber is cooled simultaneously, thereby minimizing thermal stresses and deterioration of the walls of the combustion chamber. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet of the combustor assembly. The outlet doors and fluid flow functions may be controlled by a diagnostic/control module. The module is positioned in the water flow channel to maintain a relatively constant, controlled temperature.

Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Assessment of district heating and cooling supply from Goudey Generating Station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the feasibility analysis of retrofitting the New York State Electric and Gas (NYSEG) Goudey Generating Station for district heating and cooling supply to the SUNY-Binghamton Campus. The project involved detailed analysis of the power plant retrofit, dispatch analysis of the retrofitted Goudey Station in the New York Power Pool, environmental and permitting assessment, retrofit analysis of the SUNY campus to low temperature hot water and economic analysis.

McIntire, M.E.; Hall, D.; Beal, D.J. [New York State Electric & Gas Corporation, Binghamton, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Hot hollow cathode gun assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, J.D.

1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

368

High pressure water pyrolysis of coal to evaluate the role of pressure on hydrocarbon generation and source rock maturation at high maturities under geological conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigates the effect of water pressure on hydrocarbon generation and source rock maturation at high maturities for a perhydrous Tertiary Arctic coal, Svalbard. Using a 25 ml Hastalloy vessel, the coal was pyrolysed under low water pressure (230–300 bar) and high water pressure (500, 700 and 900 bar) conditions between 380 °C and 420 °C for 24 h. At 380 °C and 420 °C, gas yields were not affected by pressure up to 700 bar, but were reduced slightly at 900 bar. At 380 °C, the expelled oil yield was highest at 230 bar, but reduced significantly at 900 bar. At 420 °C cracking of expelled oil to gas was retarded at 700 and 900 bar. As well as direct cracking of the coal, the main source of gas generation at high pressure at both 380 °C and 420 °C is from bitumen trapped in the coal, indicating that this is a key mechanism in high pressure geological basins. Vitrinite reflectance (VR) was reduced by 0.16 %Ro at 380 °C and by 0.27 %Ro at 420 °C at 900 bar compared to the low pressure runs, indicating that source rock maturation will be more retarded at higher maturities in high pressure geological basins.

Clement N. Uguna; Andrew D. Carr; Colin E. Snape; Will Meredith

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Electric Storage Water Heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energy can be wasted even when a hot water tap isn't running. This is called standby heat loss. The American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy provides a helpful...

370

Report on Produced Water  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

of the pond, as well as the quality of the produced water. In semiarid regions, hot, dry air moving from a land surface will result in high evaporation rates for smaller ponds. As...

371

Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 119 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Automated inspection of hot steel slabs  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a real time digital image enhancement system for performing the image enhancement segmentation processing required for a real time automated system for detecting and classifying surface imperfections in hot steel slabs. The system provides for simultaneous execution of edge detection processing and intensity threshold processing in parallel on the same image data produced by a sensor device such as a scanning camera. The results of each process are utilized to validate the results of the other process and a resulting image is generated that contains only corresponding segmentation that is produced by both processes.

Martin, Ronald J. (Burnsville, MN)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

374

EIS-0092: Conversion to Coal, Holyoke Water Power Company, Mt. Tom Generating Station Unit 1 Holyoke, Hampden County, Massachusetts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of prohibiting Unit 1 of the Mt. Tom Generation Station Unit 1 from using either natural gas or petroleum products as a primary energy source, which would result in the utility burning low-sulfur coal.

375

Development of a 20x20cm2 'hot' indium-alloy hermetic seal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If long time in air before sealing ­ clean with Micro-90 and rinse with DI water 'Hot' Seal #12;8 Step 21 Development of a 20x20cm2 'hot' indium-alloy hermetic seal in an inert atmosphere for photo glass tile except for an aluminum photo-cathode top seal by compression on a viton o-ring active

376

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

377

District cooling gets hot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

Seeley, R.S.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

The deep, hot biosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of the water-based drilling fluid. Later a pump...in several other oil drilling operations, and micro...Later, when oil-based drilling fluid had been in use...phenomenon that occurred on a large scale and that was a...4000 m in the Gravberg borehole, Siljan Ring, Central...

T Gold

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Hot carrier diffusion in graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report an optical study of charge transport in graphene. Diffusion of hot carriers in epitaxial graphene and reduced graphene oxide samples are studied using an ultrafast pump-probe technique with a high spatial resolution. Spatiotemporal...

Ruzicka, Brian Andrew; Wang, Shuai; Werake, Lalani Kumari; Weintrub, Ben; Loh, Kian Ping; Zhao, Hui

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Hot Spot | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Spot Dictionary.png Hot Spot: Anomalous volcanic regions that can occur within a tectonic plate and are thought to be caused by mantle plumes Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle...

382

Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section components for gas turbine engines. Significant technical progress has been made towards maturation of the EBC and CMC technologies for incorporation into gas turbine engine hot-section. Promising EBC candidates for longer life and/or higher temperature applications relative to current state of the art BSAS-based EBCs have been identified. These next generation coating systems have been scaled-up from coupons to components and are currently being field tested in Solar Centaur 50S engine. CMC combustor liners were designed, fabricated and tested in a FT8 sector rig to demonstrate the benefits of a high temperature material system. Pretest predictions made through the use of perfectly stirred reactor models showed a 2-3x benefit in CO emissions for CMC versus metallic liners. The sector-rig test validated the pretest predictions with >2x benefit in CO at the same NOx levels at various load conditions. The CMC liners also survived several trip shut downs thereby validating the CMC design methodology. Significant technical progress has been made towards incorporation of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and environmental barrier coatings (EBC) technologies into gas turbine engine hot-section. The second phase of the program focused on the demonstration of a reverse flow annular CMC combustor. This has included overcoming the challenges of design and fabrication of CMCs into 'complex' shapes; developing processing to apply EBCs to 'engine hardware'; testing of an advanced combustor enabled by CMCs in a PW206 rig; and the validation of performance benefits against a metal baseline. The rig test validated many of the pretest predictions with a 40-50% reduction in pattern factor compared to the baseline and reductions in NOx levels at maximum power conditions. The next steps are to develop an understanding of the life limiting mechanisms in EBC and CMC materials, developing a design system for EBC coated CMCs and durability testing in an engine environment.

Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

Hot-Gas Filter Testing with a Transport Reactor Gasifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Today, coal supplies over 55% of the electricity consumed in the United States and will continue to do so well into the next century. One of the technologies being developed for advanced electric power generation is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system that converts coal to a combustible gas, cleans the gas of pollutants, and combusts the gas in a gas turbine to generate electricity. The hot exhaust from the gas turbine is used to produce steam to generate more electricity from a steam turbine cycle. The utilization of advanced hot-gas particulate and sulfur control technologies together with the combined power generation cycles make IGCC one of the cleanest and most efficient ways available to generate electric power from coal. One of the strategic objectives for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) IGCC research and development program is to develop and demonstrate advanced gasifiers and second-generation IGCC systems. Another objective is to develop advanced hot-gas cleanup and trace contaminant control technologies. One of the more recent gasification concepts to be investigated is that of the transport reactor gasifier, which functions as a circulating fluid-bed gasifier while operating in the pneumatic transport regime of solid particle flow. This gasifier concept provides excellent solid-gas contacting of relatively small particles to promote high gasification rates and also provides the highest coal throughput per unit cross-sectional area of any other gasifier, thereby reducing capital cost of the gasification island.

Swanson, M.L.; Hajicek, D.R.

2002-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

384

CREDIT:G.NOLET/PRINCETONUNIVERSITY he workings of the hot interiors of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the solar system are most dramatically expressed by the size and arrangement of their volcanoes. Most down in hydrous minerals. The water, when re- leased by metamorphism, causes already hot rock material

Manga, Michael

385

Exploration Of The Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Of The Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County, Of The Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Exploration Of The Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County, Nevada Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Upper Hot Creek Ranch (UHCR) geothermal system had seen no significant exploration activity prior to initiation of this GRED III project. Geochemical geothermometers calculated from previously available but questionable quality analyses of the UHCR hot spring waters indicated possible subsurface temperatures of +320 oF. A complex Quaternary and Holocene faulting pattern associated with a six mile step over of the Hot Creek Range near the UHCR also indicated that this area was worthy of some

386

Thermal Gradient Holes At Spencer Hot Springs Area (Shevenell, Et Al.,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hot Springs Area (Shevenell, Et Al., Hot Springs Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Spencer Hot Springs Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Spencer Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Collaboration with the gold mining industry has brought two new geothermal discoveries to the attention of the geothermal community. Exploration holes at Tungsten Mountain and McGuiness Hills (Spencer Hot Springs?) in 2004 and 2005 encountered hot water and steam at depths of meters with fluid geothermometry indicating reservoir temperatures of 170 to 200oC. More information can be obtained from the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology web

387

Self Potential At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Area (Richards, Et Al., 2010) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Self Potential At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Area (Richards, Et Al., 2010) Self Potential At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Area (Richards, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Self Potential At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Area (Richards, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Mt Princeton Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Self Potential Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Used to map fracture and fluid flow patterns. References K. Richards, A. Revil, A. Jardani, F. Henderson, M. Batzle, A. Haas (2010) Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Colorado, Using Geoelectrical Methods Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Self_Potential_At_Mt_Princeton_Hot_Springs_Area_(Richards,_Et_Al.,_2010)&oldid=388680"

388

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

traps. Learn more about heat traps. Insulate your hot-water storage tank. For electric tanks, be careful not to cover the thermostat, and for natural gas or oil hot water storage...

389

Hot Topics” in astrophysics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three current topics in astrophysics are described on the occasion of the joint meeting of the AAPT and the American Astronomical Society (Jan. 7-11 2001) in San Diego CA. They are the habitability of Mars (evidence for ancient and contemporary water and indications of current volcanism);black holes and their intimate relationship with galaxy bulges including their involvement in the x-ray background; and the nature and origin of gamma-ray bursts.

Stephen P. Maran

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a combined physicochemical/biological treatment system to remove the organic constituents present in saline produced water. In order to meet this objective, a physical/chemical adsorption process was developed and two separate biological treatment techniques were investigated. Two previous research projects focused on the development of the surfactant modified zeolite adsorption process (DE-AC26-99BC15221) and development of a vapor phase biofilter (VPB) to treat the regeneration off-gas from the surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption system (DE-FC26-02NT15461). In this research, the SMZ/VPB was modified to more effectively attenuate peak loads and to maintain stable biodegradation of the BTEX constituents from the produced water. Specifically, a load equalization system was incorporated into the regeneration flow stream. In addition, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was tested for its ability to simultaneously remove the aromatic hydrocarbon and carboxylate components from produced water. The specific objectives related to these efforts included the following: (1) Optimize the performance VPBs treating the transient loading expected during SMZ regeneration: (a) Evaluate the impact of biofilter operating parameters on process performance under stable operating conditions. (b) Investigate how transient loads affect biofilter performance, and identify an appropriate technology to improve biological treatment performance during the transient regeneration period of an SMZ adsorption system. (c) Examine the merits of a load equalization technology to attenuate peak VOC loads prior to a VPB system. (d) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/VPB to remove BTEX from produced water in a field trial. (2) Investigate the feasibility of MBR treatment of produced water: (a) Evaluate the biodegradation of carboxylates and BTEX constituents from synthetic produced water in a laboratory-scale MBR. (b) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/MBR system to remove carboxylates and BTEX from produced water in a field trial. Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide a better understanding of each component of the SMZ/VPB and SMZ/MBR process. Laboratory VPB studies were designed to address the issue of influent variability and periodic operation (see DE-FC26-02NT15461). These experiments examined multiple influent loading cycles and variable concentration loadings that simulate air sparging as the regeneration option for the SMZ system. Two pilot studies were conducted at a produced water processing facility near Farmington, New Mexico. The first field test evaluated SMZ adsorption, SMZ regeneration, VPB buffering, and VPB performance, and the second test focused on MBR and SMZ/MBR operation. The design of the field studies were based on the results from the previous field tests and laboratory studies. Both of the biological treatment systems were capable of removing the BTEX constituents in the laboratory and in the field over a range of operating conditions. For the VPB, separation of the BTEX constituents from the saline aqueous phase yielded high removal efficiencies. However, carboxylates remained in the aqueous phase and were not removed in the combined VPB/SMZ system. In contrast, the MBR was capable of directly treating the saline produced water and simultaneously removing the BTEX and carboxylate constituents. The major limitation of the MBR system is the potential for membrane fouling, particularly when the system is treating produced water under field conditions. The combined process was able to effectively pretreat water for reverse osmosis treatment and subsequent downstream reuse options including utilization in power generation facilities. The specific conclusions that can be drawn from this study are summarized.

Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Hot Pot Detail - Evidence of Quaternary Faulting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compilation of published data, field observations and photo interpretation relevant to Quaternary faulting at Hot Pot.

Lane, Michael

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

392

Hot Pot Detail - Evidence of Quaternary Faulting  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Compilation of published data, field observations and photo interpretation relevant to Quaternary faulting at Hot Pot.

Lane, Michael

393

Redox cycle stability of mixed oxides used for hydrogen generation in the cyclic water gas shift process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} modified with CaO, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied in cyclic water gas shift reactor. • For the first time stability of such oxides were tested for 100 redox cycles. • Optimally added oxides significantly improved the activity and the stability of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Increased stability was attributed to the impediment of neck formation. - Abstract: Repeated cycles of the reduction of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with reductive gas, e.g. hydrogen and subsequent oxidation of the reduced iron material with water vapor can be harnessed as a process for the production of pure hydrogen. The redox behavior of iron oxide modified with various amounts of SiO{sub 2}, CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was investigated in the present study. The total amount of the additional metal oxides was always below 15 wt%. The samples were prepared by co-precipitation using urea hydrolysis method. The influence of various metal oxides on the hydrogen production capacity and the material stability was studied in detail in terms of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET analysis. Furthermore, the activity and the stability of the samples were tested in repeated reduction with diluted H{sub 2} and re-oxidation cycles with H{sub 2}O. The results indicate that combination of several oxides as promoter increases the stability of the iron oxide material by mitigating the sintering process. The positive influence of the oxides in stabilizing the iron oxide material is attributed to the impediment of neck formation responsible for sintering.

Datta, Pradyot, E-mail: pradyot.datta@gmail.com

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Springs Ranch Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1, -2, -3, and -4, and all four encountered geothermal fluids. The holes provided valuable water geochemistry, supporting the geothermometry results obtained from the hot springs and Magma well. The temperature data gathered from all the wells clearly indicates the presence of a major plume of thermal water centered on the Pumpernickel Valley

395

Corrosion of silicon carbide hot gas filter candles in gasification environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Reliable cleaning of the fuel gas is required to meet the environmental regulations and to prevent corrosion and erosion of downstream components. The aggressive process environment in biomass-gasification power generation systems or in biofuels production systems can cause corrosion in ceramic hot gas filter candles used to clean the fuel gas. Therefore, to improve the reliability and durability of filters, the influence of steam, ash, and alkaline (earth) metals on the corrosion processes was studied for silicon carbide filter candles fabricated by Pall Schumacher. Exposures with biomass and lignite ashes caused a macroscopically expansion as well as microstructural effects that were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. All effects are discussed and it is shown that the employment of silicon carbide filter candles in water vapour containing, alkali-rich gasification environment at high temperature is problematic.

Sarah Schaafhausen; Elena Yazhenskikh; Steffen Heidenreich; Michael Müller

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Effects of water addition on OH radical generation and plasma properties in an atmospheric argon microwave plasma jet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water vapor was added to the feeding gas of a continuous atmospheric argon (Ar) microwave plasma jet to study its influence on plasma shape, plasma gas temperature, and OH radical concentrations. The plasma jet was created by a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma source operating at constant power of 104 W with H{sub 2}O-Ar mixture flow rate of 1.7 standard liter per minute (slm). With an increase in the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio from 0.0 to 1.9%, the plasma jet column length decreased from 11 mm to 4 mm, and the plasma jet became unstable when the ratio was higher than 1.9%; elevation of plasma gas temperature up to 330 K was observed in the plasma temperature range of 420-910 K. Optical emission spectroscopy showed that the dominant plasma emissions changed from N{sub 2} in the pure Ar plasma jet to OH with the addition of water vapor, and simulations of emission spectra suggested non-Boltzmann distribution of the rotational levels in the OH A-state (v'=0). Spatially resolved absolute OH number densities along the plasma jet axis were measured using UV cavity ringdown spectroscopy of the OH (A-X) (0-0) band in the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio range of 0.0-1.9%. The highest OH number density is consistently located in the vicinity of the plasma jet tip, regardless of the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio. OH number density in the post-tip region follows approximately an exponential decay along the jet axis with the fastest decay constant of 3.0 mm in the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio of 1.5%. Given the low gas temperature of 420-910 K and low electron temperature of 0.5-5 eV along the jet axis, formation of the OH radical is predominantly due to electron impact induced dissociation of H{sub 2}O and dissociative recombination of H{sub 2}O{sup +} resulting from the Penning ionization process.

Srivastava, Nimisha; Wang Chuji [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Energy Institute, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

A Reliable Steam Generator That Will Allow the Elimination of the Secondary Sodium Circuit in an LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A particular weakness of the commercial liquid-metal fast breeder reactor is the design of the steam generator (SG). Any small leak in the SG allows the hot sodium (Na) to come into contact with the water/steam, and this results in a violent reaction and SG damage. A secondary circuit is normally used to prevent such reactions causing damage to the reactor core and primary vessel.NNC Ltd. has developed a copper (Cu)-bonded SG system, the objective of which is to provide three separate solid boundaries (two steel and one Cu) between the primary sodium coolant and the water/steam and hence eliminate the possibility of contact between Na and water/steam. The design uses a hot isostatic pressure method of construction to bond all three barriers to aid heat transfer. This highly reliable system allows the elimination of the secondary circuit, greatly reducing the cost of the reactor system and increasing availability.

Sherwood, D.V.; Chikazawa, Y

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Solid-Water Interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the interfacial properties of several amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at the hydrophilic polystyrene solid-liquid and the hydrophobic silica solid-liquid interfaces. The influence of experimental geometry on the sensitivity and resolution of the SFG vibrational spectroscopy technique was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. SFG was implemented to investigate the adsorption and organization of eight individual amino acids at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces under physiological conditions. Biointerface studies were conducted using a combination of SFG and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) comparing the interfacial structure and concentration of two amino acids and their corresponding homopeptides at two model liquid-solid interfaces as a function of their concentration in aqueous solutions. The influence of temperature, concentration, equilibration time, and electrical bias on the extent of adsorption and interfacial structure of biomolecules were explored at the liquid-solid interface via QCM and SFG. QCM was utilized to quantify the biological activity of heparin functionalized surfaces. A novel optical parametric amplifier was developed and utilized in SFG experiments to investigate the secondary structure of an adsorbed model peptide at the solid-liquid interface.

Holinga IV, G.H.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil-fuel power plants. March 1977-December 1989 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for March 1977-December 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. Hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures are presented. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 88 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

EA-1053: Decontaminating and Decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3: Decontaminating and Decommissioning the General Atomics 3: Decontaminating and Decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility, San Diego, California EA-1053: Decontaminating and Decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility, San Diego, California SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal for low-level radioactive and mixed wastes generated by decontaminating and decommissioning activities at the U.S. Department of Energy's General Atomics' Hot Cell Facility would be transported to either a DOE owned facility, such as the Hanford site in Washington, or to a commercial facility, such as Envirocare in Utah, for treatment and/or storage and disposal. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD August 14, 1995 EA-1053: Finding of No Significant Impact

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401

Drain Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery June 15, 2012 - 6:20pm Addthis Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. How does it work? Use heat from water you've already used to preheat more hot water, reducing your water heating costs. Any hot water that goes down the drain carries away energy with it. That's typically 80%-90% of the energy used to heat water in a home. Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture this energy from water you've already used (for example, to shower, wash dishes, or wash clothing) to preheat cold water entering the water heater or going to other water fixtures. This reduces the amount of energy needed for water heating. How It Works Drain-water heat recovery technology works well with all types of water

402

Drain Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery June 15, 2012 - 6:20pm Addthis Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. How does it work? Use heat from water you've already used to preheat more hot water, reducing your water heating costs. Any hot water that goes down the drain carries away energy with it. That's typically 80%-90% of the energy used to heat water in a home. Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture this energy from water you've already used (for example, to shower, wash dishes, or wash clothing) to preheat cold water entering the water heater or going to other water fixtures. This reduces the amount of energy needed for water heating. How It Works Drain-water heat recovery technology works well with all types of water

403

Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

Gribik, Anastasia M. [Bechtel Bettis, Inc., Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States); DiLorenzo, Peter A. [KAPL, Inc., Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Schenectady, NY 12301 (United States)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

404

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Hot Springs Ranch Compound and Elemental Analysis At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Springs Ranch Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The brine from the drill holes, hot springs, seepages, and irrigation wells was sampled, as well as water from two nearby creeks, (total of 13 samples) and sent for analysis to Thermochem Inc. For sample locations refer to Figure 35; the geochemical data are presented in Appendix C. Geochemical results indicate the presence of two distinct waters in this group of samples (Tom Powell of Thermochem Inc., personal communication, 2005). Powell found that MDH, TRS-1 and TRS-6 are the most prospective waters and tend to be more bicarbonate rich with much higher proportions of B, Li and

405

Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort, January 1991--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our objective, together with our CRADA partners, is to demonstrate advanced technology that could lead to an economic and environmentally acceptable commercialization of oil shale. We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

Cena, R.J.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Hot carrier diffusion in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report an optical study of charge transport in graphene. Diffusion of hot carriers in epitaxial graphene and reduced graphene-oxide samples are studied using an ultrafast pump-probe technique with a high spatial resolution. Spatiotemporal dynamics of hot carriers after a pointlike excitation are monitored. Carrier-diffusion coefficients of 11?000 and 5500?cm2?s?1 are measured in epitaxial graphene and reduced graphene-oxide samples, respectively, with a carrier temperature on the order of 3600 K. The demonstrated optical techniques can be used for noncontact and noninvasive in situ detection of transport properties of graphene.

Brian A. Ruzicka; Shuai Wang; Lalani K. Werake; Ben Weintrub; Kian Ping Loh; Hui Zhao

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

407

Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

water heaters water heaters (Redirected from - Solar Hot Water) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)[1] Solar Water Heater One of the most cost-effective ways to include renewable technologies into a building is by incorporating solar hot water. A typical residential solar water-heating system reduces the need for conventional water heating by about two-thirds. It minimizes the expense of electricity or fossil fuel to heat the water and reduces the associated environmental impacts. Solar Water Heating for Buildings Most solar water-heating systems for buildings have two main parts: (1) a solar collector and (2) a storage tank. The most common collector used in solar hot water systems is the

408

Geothermal's hot prospects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magma Power and California Energy's ambitious plans to build geothermal capacity in the United States and abroad have captured Wall Street's attention. After acquiring three geothermal plants, a power contract and 11,000 acres of geothermal leaseholds, officials at Magma Power Co. can probably wipe their brows, take a deep breath and agree that is has been a big year. The San Diego-based company acquired the three projects in March. The leaseholds came from Unocal and are in the Imperial Valley of California, close to the four geothermal plants Magma operates near the Salton Sea. Overnight, Magma's generating capacity increased 50 percent, from 164 MW to 244 MW, and revenues, as measured on a pro forma basis, were boosted 60 percent to $174 million from $108 million in fiscal 1992. By most standards, that qualifies as a big year. No wonder, then, that Magma's stock (MGMA:NASDAQ) has been this year's best performing public, independent energy stock by far, soaring 17.8 percent to about $38 a share through August 31. That's way ahead of Standard Poor's 500 Index, which increased 5.7 percent during the same time. The industry's other major independent geothermal player, California Energy Co., based in Omaha, Neb., is a strong competitor with Magma for geothermal assets. Both companies are nearly even in terms of megawatt capacity, and both are pursuing an aggressive expansion strategy as they begin to reach global markets. California Energy has begun implementing its own plans for rapid growth. Its stock (CE:NYSE, PSE, LSE) has outperformed the S P 500, too, rising 6.7 percent through August 31 to trade at a little more than $18 a share. California Energy also acquired some Unocal assets, paying between $15 million and $19 million for 26,000 acres of reserves in the Glass Mountain area in Northern California. While Magma acquired three operating plants able to generate 80 MW and a power contract to supply 20 MW more, California Energy acquired leases and wells.

Mandelker, J.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

A simple test method for measuring water vapor resistance of porous polymeric materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A simple test method is proposed for measuring water vapor resistance of fabrics. A piece of cotton fabric connected to a container filled with distilled water through a plastic tube was used on a hot plate to generate a saturated water vapor condition on one side of the sample. The temperature of the cotton fabric (approximation of human skin covered with sweat) was measured by a thermocouple. The water vapor resistance of the sample was determined based on the water vapor pressure gradient across the sample and the heat flux. Five types of textile fabric laminated to PU/TPU membranes, plus one type of conventional fabric, were tested by using this simple apparatus as well as the sweating guarded hot plate instrument. The results showed that good agreement was observed between these two test methods. In addition, the surface temperature of the cotton ‘skin’ varied with different fabrics. This is in accordance with the actual intended situation, i.e., the skin temperature of the body is related to the ability of clothing materials to transfer water vapor. Therefore, this simple test apparatus better simulates real-life conditions than the sweating guarded hot plate instrument.

Jianhua Huang; Chang Zhang; Xiaoming Qian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La{sub 2?x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, ?V??I{sup 3}, with a coefficient ?(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity d?/dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area g{sub e?ph}?1 W/K cm{sup 2} at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A. [Department of Physics, City College of New York, New York 10031 (United States)] [Department of Physics, City College of New York, New York 10031 (United States); Sergeev, A. [SUNY Research Foundation, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14226 (United States)] [SUNY Research Foundation, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14226 (United States)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

411

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hot water distribution losses and waste heat recovery.Distribution losses are those heat losses that occur betweenDistribution losses Smart controls Wasted water Solar Heat

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

SciTech Connect: Hot electron dynamics in graphene  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ThesisDissertation: Hot electron dynamics in graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hot electron dynamics in graphene Hot electron dynamics in graphene Graphene, a...

413

Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question"Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

414

A solid polymer water electrolysis system utilizing natural circulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solid Polymer Water Electrolysis (SPWE) is a method to efficiently produce high-purity hydrogen gas using a polymer electrolyte membrane-based system. SPWE systems that utilize natural water circulation (resulting from a difference in buoyancy) are a promising technology, which need no additional circulation pump for water supply to the electrolysis cells, and generate no pressure difference between the hydrogen generation and oxygen generation chambers. However, despite not needing an accurate pressure control, gas bubbles formed and trapped within the cell stacks can inhibit heat convection, leading to hot-spot formation and consequent destructive degradation. Improving the reliability is therefore one of the most important technological issues in natural circulation SPWEs. In this study, hot-spot formation is studied both by numerical heat and flow analysis, and by experimental in-situ visualization. This leads to insights into the degradation mechanisms of SPWE stacks, and their possible solutions. An improved design for an SPWE cell stack is successfully fabricated, and reliable operation up to 5000 h is demonstrated.

Yoshinori Kobayashi; Kenichiro Kosaka; Takashi Yamamoto; Yuya Tachikawa; Kohei Ito; Kazunari Sasaki

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Demand Water Heater Basics Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is shown. Cold water flows in one end of a pipe, flows through and around several curved pipes over the heating elements, and out the other end as hot water. Beneath the heating unit, a typical sink setup is shown. The sink has two pipes coming out the bottom, one for the hot water line and one for the cold water line. Both pipes lead to the heating unit, which is installed in close proximity to the area of hot water use, and is connected to a power source (110 or 220 volts). Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as

416

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is shown. Cold water flows in one end of a pipe, flows through and around several curved pipes over the heating elements, and out the other end as hot water. Beneath the heating unit, a typical sink setup is shown. The sink has two pipes coming out the bottom, one for the hot water line and one for the cold water line. Both pipes lead to the heating unit, which is installed in close proximity to the area of hot water use, and is connected to a power source (110 or 220 volts). Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as

417

Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

water; (2) there is a single deep hot water, and the range of chloride concentrations is produced by the water passing through a zone of highly soluble materials (most likely in...

418

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy consumption in hot water and steam distribution, hot water and steam generation, motors and motor systems, refrigeration

Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Chemical interaction of thermal fluids with reservoir rock in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah, has resulted in the development of characteristic trace-element dispersion patterns. Multielement analyses of surface rock samples, soil samples and drill cuttings from deep exploration wells provide a three-dimensional perspective of chemical redistribution within this structurally-controlled hot-water geothermal system. Five distinctive elemental suites of chemical enrichment are

420

Geothermometry At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, 2006) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermometry At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, 2006) Geothermometry At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Ten water samples were collected for chemical analysis and interpretation. Analyses of three samples of the UHCR thermal give predicted subsurface temperatures ranging from 317 to 334 oF from the Na-K-Ca, silica (quartz), and Na-Li geothermometers. The fact that all three thermometers closely agree gives the predictions added credibility. References Dick Benoit, David Blackwell (2006) Exploration Of The Upper Hot

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Dixie Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Dixie Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Dixie Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Time-Domain Electromagnetics Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes "MT, EM sounding, SP?; SP data and reservoir model may be proprietary" References Jim Combs (1 January 2006) Historical Exploration And Drilling Data From Geothermal Prospects And Power Generation Projects In The Western United States Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Time-Domain_Electromagnetics_At_Dixie_Hot_Springs_Area_(Combs_2006)&oldid=388997" Category: Exploration

422

Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Combs  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Combs Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Roosevelt Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Direct-Current Resistivity Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes "SP, MT, dipole-dipole resistivity, CSAMT; sufficient electrical data may be available" References Jim Combs (1 January 2006) Historical Exploration And Drilling Data From Geothermal Prospects And Power Generation Projects In The Western United States Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Direct-Current_Resistivity_Survey_At_Roosevelt_Hot_Springs_Area_(Combs_2006)&oldid=510548"

423

Direct-Current Resistivity At Brady Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Direct-Current Resistivity At Brady Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Direct-Current Resistivity At Brady Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity At Brady Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Brady Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Direct-Current Resistivity Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes "sufficient geophysical data are not available" References Jim Combs (1 January 2006) Historical Exploration And Drilling Data From Geothermal Prospects And Power Generation Projects In The Western United States Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Direct-Current_Resistivity_At_Brady_Hot_Springs_Area_(Combs_2006)&oldid=594379"

424

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heating Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn how to buy the right size of water heater. Read more You can reduce your monthly water heating bills by selecting the appropriate water heater for your home or pool and by using some energy-efficient water heating strategies. Some simple do-it-yourself projects, like insulating hot water pipes and lowering your water heating temperature, can also help you save money and energy on your water heating.

425

Hot and Dense QCD Matter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

QCD Matter QCD Matter A Community White Paper on the Future of Relativistic Heavy-Ion Physics in the US Unraveling the Mysteries of the Strongly Interacting Quark-Gluon-Plasma Executive Summary This document presents the response of the US relativistic heavy-ion community to the request for comments by the NSAC Subcommittee, chaired by Robert Tribble, that is tasked to recommend optimizations to the US Nuclear Science Program over the next five years. The study of the properties of hot and dense QCD matter is one of the four main areas of nuclear physics research described in the 2007 NSAC Long Range Plan. The US nuclear physics community plays a leading role in this research area and has been instrumental in its most important discovery made over the past decade, namely that hot and dense QCD matter acts as a strongly interacting system with unique and previously unexpected

426

Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

1.2 What pressure difference must be generated across the length of a 15 cm vertical drinking straw in order to drink a water-like liquid of density 1.0 g cm-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in order to drink a water-like liquid of density 1.0 g cm-3 ? 1.6 Charles' law is sometimes expressed1.2 What pressure difference must be generated across the length of a 15 cm vertical drinking straw

Findley, Gary L.

428

HotSpot | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HotSpot HotSpot HotSpot Current Central Registry Toolbox Version(s): 2.07.1 Code Owner: Department of Energy, Office of Emergency Operations and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Description: The HotSpot Health Physics Code is used for safety-analysis of DOE facilities handling nuclear material. Additionally, HotSpot provides emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating incidents involving radioactive material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation of the radiation effects associated with atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The HotSpot atmospheric dispersion models are designed for near-surface releases, short-range (less than 10 km) dispersion, and short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations in

429

Hot Springs Metropolitan Planning Organization 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hot Springs Area Metropolitan Planning Organization 100 Broadway Terrace Hot Springs, Arkansas 71901 Adopted November 3, 2005 HSA-MPO 2030 LRTPii Participating Agencies Garland County Hot... Spring County City of Hot Springs City of Mountain Pine Hot Springs Village The Greater Hot Springs Chamber of Commerce The Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department In Cooperation With United States Department of Transportation...

Hot Springs Metropolitan Planning Organization

2005-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

430

Hot  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

LLC. UMI Number: 1494695 ii DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this thesis to my advisor Joerg Schmailian, a great physicist and mentor. I've learned a lot from him, no...

431

Fast Generators of Direct Photons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three fast generators of direct photons in the central rapidity region of high-energy heavy-ion collisions have been presented The generator of prompt photons is based on a tabulation of $p+p(\\bar p)$ data and binary scaling. Two generators of thermal direct photons, for hot hadron gas (HHG) and quark-gluon plasma (QGP) scenarios, assume the 1+1 Bjorken hydrodynamics. SPS and RHIC data can be fitted better by scenario with QGP. Predictions for the LHC energy have been made. The generators have been realized as macros for the ROOT analysis package.

S. M. Kiselev

2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

432

Hot Dry Rock energy annual report fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hot Dry Rock technology took a giant leap forward this year as the long-awaited long-term flow test (LTFT) of the Phase II HDR reservoir at Fenton Hill got underway. Energy was produced on a twenty-four hour a day basis for a continuous period of nearly four months of steady-state testing. Hot water was brought to the surface at 90-100 gallons per minute (gpm) with temperatures of 180[degrees]C (356[degrees]F) and higher. During that time, the HDR plant achieved an on-line record of 98.8%. Surface temperature measurements and temperature logging deep within the wellbore confirmed that no decline in the average temperature of fluid produced from the reservoir occurred. Tracer experiments indicated that flow paths within the reservoir were undergoing continuous change during the test. Remarkably, it appeared that longer flow paths carried a larger proportion of the flow as the test proceeded, while more direct fluid pathways disappeared or carried a significantly reduced flow. In sum, access to hot rock appeared to improve over the span of the test. Water losses during the test averaged 10-12% and showed a slow long-term decline. These results confirmed what had been previously discovered in static pressurization testing: Water consumption declines significantly during extended operation of an HDR reservoir. In combination with a recent demonstration by the Japanese that water losses can be greatly reduced by the proper placement of multiple production wells, the recent results at Fenton Hill have effectively demonstrated that excessive water consumption should not be an issue for a properly engineered HDR facility at a well chosen site.

Duchane, D.V.; Winchester, W.W.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Changing the spatial location of electricity generation to increase water availability in areas with drought: a feasibility study and quantification of air quality impacts in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The feasibility, cost, and air quality impacts of using electrical grids to shift water use from drought-stricken regions to areas with more water availability were examined. Power plant cooling represents a large portion ...

Pacsi, Adam P

434

Abstract 4475: New water-soluble and stable N-mustard-benzeneconjugates with potent antitumor activity, BO-2094, generated via leadoptimization by bioisostere approach.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2013; Washington, DC Abstract 4475: New water-soluble and stable N-mustard-benzeneconjugates...Biomedical Sci., Taipei, Taiwan. The water solubility of drug candidate plays an important...Previously, we have synthesized a series of water-soluble N-mustards, in which the phenyl...

Tsann-Long Su; Satishkumar Tala; Tai-Hsin Ou; Kiranben Tala; Rajesh Kakadiya; Yi-wen Lin; Chi-Wei Chen; Te-Chang Lee

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Biorefinery Grey Water Analysis | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

options for grey water generated from a biorefinery with fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating Wastewater treatment options for grey water generated from a biorefinery...

436

Chemical Potential of Water from Measurements of Optic Axial Angle of Zeolites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a purified sample collected at a new occurrence near Chena Hot Springs, Alaska. The chemical analysis of the sample from which...1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole-2-carboxalde-hyde thiosemicarbazone (2) in hot water. Recrystallized from dimethylformamide, the sample...

G. Donald Eberlein; C. L. Christ

1968-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

437

DOE signs Record of Decision selecting Hot Isostatic Pressing Technology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NEWS MEDIA CONTACT: Brad Bugger (208) 526-0833 Danielle Miller (208) 526-5709 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: December 28, 2009 DOE signs Record of Decision selecting Hot Isostatic Pressing Technology for Treatment of High Level Waste The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has signed the Record of Decision (ROD) for the treatment of high level waste calcine at the Department�s Idaho Site, meeting a legal commitment to the State of Idaho for a decision no later than the end of 2009. DOE today announced its decision to treat high-level waste (HLW) calcine using an industrially mature manufacturing process known as hot isostatic pressing (HIP). DOE selected this technology to treat roughly 5,750 cubic yards of highly radioactive waste generated from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel to recover uranium. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel was terminated by a DOE policy decision in 1992.

438

Multiband Tunable Large Area Hot Carrier Plasmonic-Crystal Photodetectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optoelectronic functionalities of photodection and light harnessing rely on the band-to-band excitation of semiconductors, thus the spectral response of the devices is dictated and limited by their bandgap. A novel approach, free from this restriction, is to harvest the energetic electrons generated by the relaxation of a plasmonic resonance in the vicinity of a metal-semiconductor junction. In this configuration, the optoelectronic and spectral response of the detectors can be designed ad hoc just by tailoring the topology of metal structures, which has tremendous applications in solar energy harvesting and photodetection. Fully exploiting hot electron based optoelectronics yet requires a platform that combines their exotic spectral capabilities with large scale manufacturing and high performance. Herein we report the first implementation of a large area, low cost quasi 3D plasmonic crystal (PC) for hot electron photodetection, showcasing multiband selectivity in the VIS-NIR and unprecedented responsivity of...

de Arquer, F Pelayo García; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

What's hot on woodburning cookstoves? Emerging opportunities from the new  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What's hot on woodburning cookstoves? Emerging opportunities from the new What's hot on woodburning cookstoves? Emerging opportunities from the new generation of dissemination programs and devices Speaker(s): Omar Masera Date: February 25, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Reducing traditional fuelwood and charcoal use with improved cookstoves is key for a whole range of critical issues including climate change mitigation (e.g., black carbon emissions and emissions of short-lived GHG such as methane and CO), indoor air pollution and health (as 1.6 million excess deaths per year are attributable to cooking with open fires), forest conservation (as woodfuels constitute 60% of total demand from wood products), energy use (with 9% of worldwide energy supply) and, more than anything, for improving the living conditions of poorest households on

440

DOPPLER SIGNATURES OF THE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION ON HOT JUPITERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The meteorology of hot Jupiters has been characterized primarily with thermal measurements, but recent observations suggest the possibility of directly detecting the winds by observing the Doppler shift of spectral lines seen during transit. Motivated by these observations, we show how Doppler measurements can place powerful constraints on the meteorology. We show that the atmospheric circulation-and Doppler signature-of hot Jupiters splits into two regimes. Under weak stellar insolation, the day-night thermal forcing generates fast zonal jet streams from the interaction of atmospheric waves with the mean flow. In this regime, air along the terminator (as seen during transit) flows toward Earth in some regions and away from Earth in others, leading to a Doppler signature exhibiting superposed blueshifted and redshifted components. Under intense stellar insolation, however, the strong thermal forcing damps these planetary-scale waves, inhibiting their ability to generate jets. Strong frictional drag likewise damps these waves and inhibits jet formation. As a result, this second regime exhibits a circulation dominated by high-altitude, day-to-night airflow, leading to a predominantly blueshifted Doppler signature during transit. We present state-of-the-art circulation models including non-gray radiative transfer to quantify this regime shift and the resulting Doppler signatures; these models suggest that cool planets like GJ 436b lie in the first regime, HD 189733b is transitional, while planets hotter than HD 209458b lie in the second regime. Moreover, we show how the amplitude of the Doppler shifts constrains the strength of frictional drag in the upper atmospheres of hot Jupiters. If due to winds, the {approx}2 km s{sup -1} blueshift inferred on HD 209458b may require drag time constants as short as 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} s, possibly the result of Lorentz-force braking on this planet's hot dayside.

Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Shabram, Megan, E-mail: showman@lpl.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

An environment friendly and efficient lignite-fired power generation process based on a boiler with an open pulverizing system and the recovery of water from mill-exhaust  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper advances a novel lignite-fired power generation process based on a OPSB (boiler with an open pulverizing system) and the recovery of water from mill-exhaust after the comprehensive analysis of the open pulverizing system used for high-moisture coals and heat/water recovery from boiler exhaust. Then, the thermal calculation method that applies to OPSB is presented based on heat and mass balance analyses of the boiler. Finally, an efficient unit applying the OPSB process is compared with a conventional 600 MW lignite-fired power unit, and the performance of the efficient unit is calculated and discussed in detail. The results show that the efficient unit not only yields a notable increase in the boiler's (2.6%) and the power plant's (1.3%) thermal efficiency but also provides a remarkable advantage in water recovery due to the mass of water vapor concentrated in mill-exhaust. In the efficient unit, the volume fraction of water vapor in mill-exhaust reaches 34%, the water reclaimed from mill-exhaust is so much that a lignite-fired power plant with zero water consumption can be expected, while the pollutant emissions can be reduced in proportion to the increase in boiler thermal efficiency.

Youfu Ma; Yichao Yuan; Jing Jin; Hua Zhang; Xiaohong Hu; Dengyu Shi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Colorado's Hot Springs | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

http:crossref.org Citation D. Frazier. 2000. Colorado's Hot Springs. Boulder, Colorado: Pruett Publishing Company. 165p. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

443

Covered Product Category: Hot Food Holding Cabinets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for hot food holding cabinets, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

444

Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Addthis Project Level medium Energy Savings $20-$45 annually Time to Complete 1.5 hours Overall Cost $30 Insulate your hot water tank to save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/glennebo Insulate your hot water tank to save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/glennebo Just like insulating your walls or roof, insulating your hot water tank is an easy and inexpensive way to improve energy efficiency and save you money each month. If your water tank is new, it is likely already insulated. If you have an older hot water tank, check to see if it has insulation with an R-value of at least 24. If not, consider insulating your water tank, which

445

Fuel processor and method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Naperville, IL); Lee, Sheldon H. D. (Willowbrook, IL); Carter, John David (Bolingbrook, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Myers, Deborah J. (Lisle, IL)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

446

Renewable Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in renewable electricity generation technologies including solar, water, wind, and geothermal.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Area  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Area (Richards, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Area (Richards, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Mt Princeton Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Direct-Current Resistivity Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Used to map fracture and fluid flow patterns. References K. Richards, A. Revil, A. Jardani, F. Henderson, M. Batzle, A. Haas (2010) Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs,

448

Long-Term Testing of Geothermal Wells in the Coso Hot Springs KGRA | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Long-Term Testing of Geothermal Wells in the Coso Hot Springs KGRA Long-Term Testing of Geothermal Wells in the Coso Hot Springs KGRA Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Long-Term Testing of Geothermal Wells in the Coso Hot Springs KGRA Details Activities (3) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Three wells have been drilled by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power at the Coso Hot Springs KGRA. A long-term flow test was conducted involving one producing well (well 43-7), one injector (well 88-1), and two observation wells (well 66-6 and California Energy Co's well 71A-7). This paper presents the equipment and techniques involved and the results from the long-term test conducted between December 1985 and February 1986. Author(s): Sanyal, S.; Menzies, A.; Granados, E.; Sugine, S.;

449

Energy and Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the form of hot stack gases (23). Cooling mode...atmo-sphere with flue gas (24), the LWR ac-tually...possibility is that the last remaining rich supplies of uranium...open-cycle Brayton generation (gas turbine) or Rankine-cycle conversion...

John Harte; Mohamed El-Gasseir

1978-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

450

Using Membrane Sets Incorporated into a Crossflow Electrofiltration/Electrodialysis Treatment Module to Treat CMP Wastewater and Simultaneously Generate Electrolytic Ionized Water.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this work, membrane set(s) had been incorporated into different crossflow electrofiltration (CEF) /electrodialysis (ED) treatment modules for treating various CMP wastewaters and simultaneously generating… (more)

Yang, Tsung-Yin

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Microbiology and geochemistry of Little Hot Creek, a hot spring environment in the Long Valley Caldera  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbiology and geochemistry of Little Hot Creek, a hot spring environment in the Long Valley springs located within the Long Valley Caldera, Little Hot Creek (LHC) 1, 3, and 4. All three springs were that springs associated with the Long Valley Caldera contain microbial populations that show some similarities

Ahmad, Sajjad

452

Combined heat recovery and make-up water heating system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cogeneration plant is described comprising in combination: a first stage source of hot gas; a duct having an inlet for receiving the hot gas and an outlet stack open to the atmosphere; a second stage recovery heat steam generator including an evaporator situated in the duct, and economizer in the duct downstream of the evaporator, and steam drum fluidly connected to the evaporator and the economizer; feedwater supply means including a deaerator heater and feedwater pump for supplying deaerated feedwater to the steam drum through the economizer; makeup water supply means including a makeup pump for delivering makeup water to the deaerator heater; means fluidly connected to the steam drum for supplying auxiliary steam to the deaerator heater; and heat exchanger means located between the deaerator and the economizer, for transferring heat from the feedwater to the makeup water, thereby increasing the temperature of the makeup water delivered to the deaerator and decreasing the temperature of the feedwater delivered to the economizer, without fluid exchange.

Kim, S.Y.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

453

PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

None

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

454

PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97{reg_sign}. Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

NONE

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

455

PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

NONE

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

456

Reorientation of the ‘free OH’ group in the top-most layer of air/water interface of sodium fluoride aqueous solution probed with sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many experimental and theoretical studies have established the specific anion, as well as cation effects on the hydrogen-bond structures at the air/water interface of electrolyte solutions. However, the ion effects on the top-most layer of the air/water interface, which is signified by the non-hydrogen-bonded so-called ‘free O-H’ group, has not been discussed or studied. In this report, we present the measurement of changes of the orientational angle of the ‘free O-H’ group at the air/water interface of the sodium fluoride (NaF) solutions at different concentrations using the interface selective sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in the ssp and ppp polarizations. The polarization dependent SFG-VS results show that the average tilt angle of the ‘free O-H’ changes from about 35.3 degrees ± 0.5 degrees to 43.4 degrees ± 2.1degrees as the NaF concentration increase from 0 to 0.94M (nearly saturated). Such tilt angle change is around the axis of the other O-H group of the same water molecule at the top-most layer at the air/water interface that is hydrogen-bonded to the water molecules below the top-most layer. These results provide quantitative molecular details of the ion effects of the NaF salt on the structure of the water molecules at the top-most layer of the air/water interfacial, even though both the Na+ cation and the F- anion are believed to be among the most excluded ions from the air/water interface.

Feng, Ran-Ran; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hongfei

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

457

The abundance and distribution of macro-invertebrates in the cooling-water canal system of the P. H. Robinson Generating Station located on Galveston Bay, Texas, with emphasis on the effect of supplemental cooling towers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Goodyear 1972; Raney et al. 1973; Belts et al. 1974). There is aslo increasing awareness and concern for other power plant related problems such as mechanical and pressure stress due to entrainment through the condenser tubes, impingement upon intake... to determine the abundance, distribution and survival rate of macro- invertebrates present in the cooling-water canal system of Houston Lighting 6 Power Company's P. H. Robinson Generating Station. Surface and bottom, day and night collections were taken...

Margraf, F. Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

458

Ceramic hot-gas filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski (Wilmington, DE); Forsythe, George Daniel (Landenberg, PA); Domanski, Daniel Matthew (New Castle, DE); Chambers, Jeffrey Allen (Hockessin, DE); Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam (Boothwyn, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Ceramic hot-gas filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic hot-gas candle filter is described having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during back pulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

Connolly, E.S.; Forsythe, G.D.; Domanski, D.M.; Chambers, J.A.; Rajendran, G.P.

1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

460

GCFR steam generator conceptual design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "generate hot water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Arsenic in your water?: Economists study perceptions of risks from drinking water high in arsenic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arsenic in water?your tx H2O | pg. 27 Story by Kathy Wythe Economists study perceptions of risks from drinking water high in arsenic In several ?hot spots? across the United States people may be drinking water with high levels of naturally... occurring arsenic without understanding the associated risks, according to agricultural economists. ?Many households in arsenic ?hot spots? are in fact being exposed to harmful doses of arsenic,? said Dr. Douglass Shaw, professor of agricultural...

Wythe, Kathy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Diophantine Generation,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diophantine Generation, Horizontal and Vertical Problems, and the Weak Vertical Method Alexandra Shlapentokh Diophantine Sets, Definitions and Generation Diophantine Sets Diophantine Generation Properties of Diophantine Generation Diophantine Family of Z Diophantine Family of a Polynomial Ring Going Down Horizontal

Shlapentokh, Alexandra

463

Quadrennial Technology Review's Alternative Generation Workshop...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Workshop Slides Preliminary Slides for Alternative Generation Workshop including Carbon Capture and Sequestration, Nuclear Power, Wind Power, Water Power, Geothermal...

464

The private city through the hot images  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hot Images is an artistic mixed reality application that deals with the relation between human beings and city environments, thus proposing a novel cartography and navigation tool for the city. Within the virtual recreated environment of the Hot Images, ... Keywords: color navigation, human space, location based services, mixed reality, urban environments

Cristina Portalés

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hosted by DOE's Building America program, this webinar will focus on the effective use of central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) and control systems to reduce the energy use in hot water distribution.

466

Save on Home Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Tips: Water Heating Solar energy systems are among the renewable and efficiency purchases that are...

467

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: HOT2000  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HOT2000 HOT2000 HOT2000 logo. Easy-to-use energy analysis and design software for low-rise residential buildings. Utilizing current heat loss/gain and system performance models, the program aids in the simulation and design of buildings for thermal effectiveness, passive solar heating and the operation and performance of heating and cooling systems. Keywords energy performance, design, residential buildings, energy simulation, passive solar Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required Basic understanding of the construction and operation of residential buildings. Users Over 1400 worldwide. HOT2000 is used mainly in Canada and the United States with a few users in Japan and Europe. Audience Builders, design evaluators, engineers, architects, building and energy code writers, Policy writers. HOT2000 is also used as the compliance

468

Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

heaters heaters Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)[1] Solar Water Heater One of the most cost-effective ways to include renewable technologies into a building is by incorporating solar hot water. A typical residential solar water-heating system reduces the need for conventional water heating by about two-thirds. It minimizes the expense of electricity or fossil fuel to heat the water and reduces the associated environmental impacts. Solar Water Heating for Buildings Most solar water-heating systems for buildings have two main parts: (1) a solar collector and (2) a storage tank. The most common collector used in solar hot water systems is the flat-plate collector. Solar water heaters use the sun to heat either water

469

Reusing Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reusing Water Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment cleaner than when it was pumped. How many times does LANL reuse water? Wastewater is generated from some of the facilities responsible for the Lab's biggest missions, such as the cooling towers of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, one of the Lab's premier science research

470

Emission of Visible Light by Hot Dense Metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIFAN 1761 EMISSION OF VISIBLE LIGHT BY HOT DENSE METALS ByDE-AC52-07NA27344. HI FAN Emission of Visible Light by HotABSTRACT We consider the emission of visible light by hot

More, R.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Combined fuel and air staged power generation system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second por