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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

GSMSolar formerly Shanghai General Silicon Material Co Ltd | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GSMSolar formerly Shanghai General Silicon Material Co Ltd GSMSolar formerly Shanghai General Silicon Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name GSMSolar (formerly Shanghai General Silicon Material Co Ltd) Place Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, China Zip 215300 Sector Solar Product Chinese solar ingot and wafer manufacturer. Coordinates 31.375509°, 120.949219° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.375509,"lon":120.949219,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

2

Silicon Materials and Devices (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its silicon materials and devices research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

Not Available

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Silicon Materials and Devices (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Silicon Materials and Devices that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Supporting Information: Holey Silicon as efficient thermoelectric material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supporting Information: Holey Silicon as efficient thermoelectric material Jinyao Tang1, 3, 3 1 Department of Chemistry, 2 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. 3 Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National

Yang, Peidong

5

Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

Pankove, Jacques I. (Princeton, NJ); Wu, Chung P. (Trenton, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Holey Silicon as an Efficient Thermoelectric Material  

SciTech Connect

This work investigated the thermoelectric properties of thin silicon membranes that have been decorated with high density of nanoscopic holes. These ?holey silicon? (HS) structures were fabricated by either nanosphere or block-copolymer lithography, both of which are scalable for practical device application. By reducing the pitch of the hexagonal holey pattern down to 55 nm with 35percent porosity, the thermal conductivity of HS is consistently reduced by 2 orders of magnitude and approaches the amorphous limit. With a ZT value of 0.4 at room temperature, the thermoelectric performance of HS is comparable with the best value recorded in silicon nanowire system.

Tang, Jinyao; Wang, Hung-Ta; Hyun Lee, Dong; Fardy, Melissa; Huo, Ziyang; Russell, Thomas P.; Yang, Peidong

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

Wei, George C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

Wei, G.C.

1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

9

High-Temperature Oxidation Resistance of Refractory Silicon NitrideSilicon Carbide Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon nitride and carbide are promising materials for use as refractories; they are highly resistant to mineral acids and alkalis, have a high melting point, and are thermally very stable [1].

I. N. Godovannaya; O. I. Popova

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Interaction between process technology and material quality during the processing of multicrystalline silicon solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multicrystalline silicon is the most used material for the production of silicon solar cells. The quality of the as grown material depends on the quality of the feedstock and the crystallization process. Bulk ...

Dietmar Borchert; Markus Rinio

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Ternary silicon germanium nitrides: A class of tunable band gap materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ternary silicon germanium nitrides with compositions of both Si1?xGexN and (Si1?xGex)3N4 are predicted to have a band gap that decreases as the germanium:silicon ratio increases. The band gap is indirect for the silicon-rich compounds but becomes direct as the germanium content increases, due to greater mixing of s and p states in the conduction band. This effect of band gap tunability has recently been reported for (Si1?xGex)3N4 in the spinel structure [Boyko et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 155207 (2010)]. Our results suggest that this is a more general effect and that ternary group-14 nitrides should form a class of semiconducting materials for which the band gap can be tuned by controlling the composition.

Judy N. Hart; Neil L. Allan; Frederik Claeyssens

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

12

Amorphous and microcrystalline silicon technology--1997. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings, Volume 467  

SciTech Connect

This book was divided into the following parts: Staebler-Wronski and Fundamental Defect Studies in Amorphous Silicon; The Story of Hydrogen in Amorphous Silicon; Photoelectric Properties of Amorphous Silicon; Deposition and Properties of Microcrystalline Silicon; Deposition Studies for Amorphous Silicon and Related Materials; Solar Cells; Thin-Film Transistors; and Sensors and Novel Device Concepts. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the papers in the volume.

Wagner, S.; Hack, M.; Schiff, E.A.; Schropp, R.; Shimizu, I. [eds.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Materials Chemistry and Performance of Silicone-Based Replicating Compounds.  

SciTech Connect

Replicating compounds are used to cast reproductions of surface features on a variety of materials. Replicas allow for quantitative measurements and recordkeeping on parts that may otherwise be difficult to measure or maintain. In this study, the chemistry and replicating capability of several replicating compounds was investigated. Additionally, the residue remaining on material surfaces upon removal of replicas was quantified. Cleaning practices were tested for several different replicating compounds. For all replicating compounds investigated, a thin silicone residue was left by the replica. For some compounds, additional inorganic species could be identified in the residue. Simple solvent cleaning could remove some residue.

Brumbach, Michael T.; Mirabal, Alex James; Kalan, Michael; Trujillo, Ana B; Hale, Kevin

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Bagdad Plant Raymond J. Polinski 585 Silicon Drive General Manager  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bagdad Plant Raymond J. Polinski Bagdad Plant Raymond J. Polinski 585 Silicon Drive General Manager Leechburg, PA 15656 Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel e-mail: Raymond.Polinski@ATImetals.com E. Below are Allegheny Technologies Incorporated's comments on certain issues in which the DOE sought comment. 17. DOE seeks comment on nanotechnology composites and their potential for use in distribution transformers. Soft magnetic and amorphous particles with excellent magnetic properties can be and are currently produced, but the insulating matrix required to eliminate short-circuit paths dissipate power at the operating frequencies for power distribution transformers (50/60 Hz). Such transformer cores are currently only used for high-frequency applications where significant

15

Asia Silicon Qinghai Co Ltd aka Asia Si Material | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Qinghai Co Ltd aka Asia Si Material Qinghai Co Ltd aka Asia Si Material Jump to: navigation, search Name Asia Silicon (Qinghai) Co Ltd (aka Asia Si Material) Place Xining, Qinghai Province, China Zip 810007 Product Developing a 6,000-tonne polysilicon factory in Xining, Qinghai Province, supplier to Suntech. References Asia Silicon (Qinghai) Co Ltd (aka Asia Si Material)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Asia Silicon (Qinghai) Co Ltd (aka Asia Si Material) is a company located in Xining, Qinghai Province, China . References ↑ "Asia Silicon (Qinghai) Co Ltd (aka Asia Si Material)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Asia_Silicon_Qinghai_Co_Ltd_aka_Asia_Si_Material&oldid=342359"

16

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Silicon Materials and Devices R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silicon Materials and Devices R&D Silicon Materials and Devices R&D R&D 100 Awards Since 2010, we have won three R&D 100 Awards. Flash Quantum Efficiency (Flash QE) System for Solar Cells Innovalight Silicon Ink Process Low-Cost Black Silicon Etching Process Graphic of three layers. The bottom layer, called inexpensive substrate, is white. Middle dark blue layer is called the seed. Top light blue layer has the text epi c-Si absorber. Schematic diagram of the film crystal silicon solar cell. A high-quality crystal silicon absorber is grown epitaxially on a seed layer applied to an inexpensive foreign substrate (e.g., display glass or rolled metal foil). At NREL, we are developing various emitter, back-surface field, and light-trapping strategies. NREL has world-leading research capabilities and expertise in silicon

17

Microcrystalline silicon germanium: An attractive bottom-cell material for thin-film silicon-based tandem-solar-cells  

SciTech Connect

The authors have prepared hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon germanium by plasma enhanced CVD of a mixture of silane and germane gas diluted with hydrogen. The growth conditions have been systematically controlled to obtain large ({approximately}400{angstrom}) crystallites of silicon-germanium as observed using Raman scattering and x-ray diffraction. The dangling bond (germanium) density has been reduced to <5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3} at low substrate temperatures ({approximately}150 C). The optical absorption spectra of the 50% Ge containing material is red-shifted compared to microcrystalline silicon, consistent with a reduction of the indirect optical gap to 0.9 eV. Schottky type cells fabricated using Au on an n{sup +} crystalline silicon substrate confirm that the long wavelength response is remarkably enhanced in this material.

Ganguly, Gautam; Ikeda, Toru; Kajiwara, Kei; Matduda, Akihisa

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Synthesis of shape-stabilized paraffin/silicon dioxide composites as phase change material for thermal energy storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The shape-stabilized paraffin/silicon dioxide (SiO2) composite phase change materials (PCM) were prepared by using sol ... and silicon dioxide was acted as the supporting material. Fourier transformation infrare...

Hui Li; Guiyin Fang; Xu Liu

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Published in 'Silicon Carbide and Related Materials -1999', Year: 2000, pp: 273-276 Periodical: Materials Science Forum Vols. 338-342  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Published in 'Silicon Carbide and Related Materials - 1999', Year: 2000, pp: 273-276 Periodical@scientific.net © 2000 by Trans Tech Publications Ltd., Switzerland, http://www.ttp.net #12;Published in 'Silicon Carbide., Switzerland, http://www.ttp.net #12;Published in 'Silicon Carbide and Related Materials - 1999', Year: 2000

Steckl, Andrew J.

20

Germanium-rich silicon-germanium materials for field-effect modular application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of electric-field-induced optical modulation in the materials capable of monolithically integrated on silicon (Si) substrates offer the possibility of high-speed modulation in a pico second timeframe as ...

Jongthammanurak, Samerkhae

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Three MEMS Materials -Silicon Carbide, Ultrananocrystalline Diamond, and Hydrogen-Free Tetrahedral  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Three MEMS Materials - Silicon Carbide investigated the mechanical properties of three new materials for MEMS/NEMS devices: silicon carbide (SiC) from mechanical, electrical, and tribological properties such as silicon carbide (SiC), ultrananocrystalline

Espinosa, Horacio D.

22

Hydrogen, Oxygen and Silicon Isotope Systematics in Lunar Material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

31 March 1977 research-article Hydrogen, Oxygen and Silicon Isotope Systematics...are supported: (1) The bulk of the hydrogen in the lunar soils represents protons...samples of relatively detuerium rich hydrogen are found, probably resulting from in...

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Time and Materials Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 20 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

24

Amorphous Silicon as Semiconductor Material for High Resolution LAPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-08 3.E -08 0 200 400 600 800 displacem ent/µµµµm current/A 1000 2000 3000 4000 1000 2000 3000 4000-substrate Amorphous silicon -4 -2 0 2 4 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 photocurrenta.u. gate voltage/V 600µm x 600µm area scan

Moritz, Werner

25

Electronic Supplementary Material Scalable preparation of porous silicon nanoparticles and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and their application for lithium-ion battery anodes Mingyuan Ge1 , Jiepeng Rong1 , Xin Fang1 , Anyi Zhang1 , Yunhao Lu2 with reduced graphene oxide Figure S2 TEM image of porous silicon nanoparticles after carbon coating and graphene wrapping. #12;www.theNanoResearch.comwww.Springer.com/journal/12274 | Nano R

Zhou, Chongwu

26

Published in 'Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials', Year: 1998, pp: 829-832 Periodical: Materials Science Forum Vols. 264-268  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Published in 'Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials', Year: 1998, pp: 829@scientific.net © 1998 by Trans Tech Publications Ltd., Switzerland, http://www.ttp.net #12;Published in 'Silicon Carbide Publications Ltd., Switzerland, http://www.ttp.net #12;Published in 'Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related

Steckl, Andrew J.

27

Published in 'Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials', Year: 1998, pp: 1149-1152 Periodical: Materials Science Forum Vols. 264-268  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Published in 'Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials', Year: 1998, pp: 1149@scientific.net © 1998 by Trans Tech Publications Ltd., Switzerland, http://www.ttp.net #12;Published in 'Silicon Carbide Publications Ltd., Switzerland, http://www.ttp.net #12;Published in 'Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related

Steckl, Andrew J.

28

Accepted to Diamond and Related Materials A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide interlayer formation during  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accepted to Diamond and Related Materials A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA Abstract The presence of thin silicon carbide diffusion of carbon atoms into the silicon carbide layer, and the morphology and orientation of the diamond

Dandy, David

29

Materials Science and Engineering A245 (1998) 293299 The wettability of silicon carbide by AuSi alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Materials Science and Engineering A245 (1998) 293­299 The wettability of silicon carbide by Au. Keywords: Wettability; Contact angle; Liquid metals; Silicon carbide 1. Introduction The interface properties of silicon carbide­liquid metals (wetting, adhesion, contact interaction) are im- portant

Grigoriev, Alexei

30

ANALYTICAL NEUTRONIC STUDIES CORRELATING FAST NEUTRON FLUENCE TO MATERIAL DAMAGE IN CARBON, SILICON, AND SILICON CARBIDE  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates how fast neutron fluence >0.1 MeV correlates to material damage (i.e., the total fluence spectrum folded with the respective materials displacements-per- atom [dpa] damage response function) for the specific material fluence spectra encountered in Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) service and the irradiation tests conducted in material test reactors (MTRs) for the fuel materials addressed in the white paper. It also reports how the evaluated correlations of >0.1 MeV fluence to material damage vary between the different spectral conditions encountered in material service versus testing.

Jim Sterbentz

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Structure and photoluminescence of annealed semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon material obtained by disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon samples from a mixture of disilane and nitrous oxide were deposited with different oxygen content and annealed by RTA under different time and temperature conditions. Structural characterization by TEM showed that after annealing and in samples with high silicon content, the excess of silicon crystallizes in small clusters with diameters between 4080 . As shown by FTIR and XPS, the matrix surrounding the nanocrystals is composed of SiOx and SiO2 regions. A thermodynamic free energy model for the different silicon tetrahedral configurations was applied to the structure of this material. The model predicted that phase separation is favoured after annealing at high temperature, but some remaining concentrations of suboxide species are present in the whole range of oxygen content, all these results being in agreement with the shell model. Furthermore, photoluminescence experiments only showed bands owing to defects, in contrast with visible emission reported for nanocrystals of the same size.

B. Garrido; J.A. Moreno; M. Lpez; A. Vil; J. Samitier; J.R. Morante; E. Scheid

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Method of making silicon on insalator material using oxygen implantation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The described embodiments of the present invention provide a semiconductor on insulator structure providing a semiconductor layer less susceptible to single event upset errors (SEU) due to radiation. The semiconductor layer is formed by implanting ions which form an insulating layer beneath the surface of a crystalline semiconductor substrate. The remaining crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer provides nucleation sites for forming a crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer. The damage caused by implantation of the ions for forming an insulating layer is left unannealed before formation of the semiconductor layer by epitaxial growth. The epitaxial layer, thus formed, provides superior characteristics for prevention of SEU errors, in that the carrier lifetime within the epitaxial layer, thus formed, is less than the carrier lifetime in epitaxial layers formed on annealed material while providing adequate semiconductor characteristics.

Hite, Larry R. (Dallas, TX); Houston, Ted (Richardson, TX); Matloubian, Mishel (Dallas, TX)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Surface Reactivity and Plasma Energetics of SiH Radicals during Plasma Deposition of Silicon-Based Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface reactivity of the SiH radical was measured during plasma deposition of various silicon-based materials using the imaging of radicals interacting with surfaces (IRIS) method. In this technique, spatially resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF)...

W. M. M. Kessels; Patrick R. McCurdy; Keri L. Williams; G. R. Barker; Vincent A. Venturo; Ellen R. Fisher

2002-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

34

Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

35

Eighth Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes; Summary Discussion Sessions  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the panel discussions included with the Eighth Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes. The theme of the workshop was ''Supporting the Transition to World Class Manufacturing.'' This workshop provided a forum for an informal exchange of information between researchers in the photovoltaic and nonphotovoltaic fields on various aspects of impurities and defects in silicon, their dynamics during device processing, and their application in defect engineering. This interaction helped establish a knowledge base that can be used for improving device-fabrication processes to enhance solar-cell performance and reduce cell costs. It also provided an excellent opportunity for researchers from industry and universities to recognize mutual needs for future joint research.

Sopori, B.; Swanson, D.; Sinton, R.; Stavola, M.; Tan, T.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

36

Skutterudite Thermoelectric Materials Jihui Yang, Xun Shi, General Motors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Microstructure of Doped Clathrate and the Microstructure of Doped Clathrate and Skutterudite Thermoelectric Materials Jihui Yang, Xun Shi, General Motors Hsin Wang and Miaofang Chi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Scientific challenge/problem: Clathrate and Skutterudite are known to be promising thermoelectric materials. The R&D groups at GM and ORNL have found that doping Clathrate (Ba 0.25 Co 4 Sb 12 ) with Yb and La and doping Skutterudite (Ba 8 Ga 16 Ge 30 ) with Ni improve the thermoelectrical properties significantly. The goal of the microscopy characterization is to fundamentally understand how the dopants control the materials properties. Two questions need to be answered at the current stage of our experimental work: how the microstructures are tailored by the dopants and how the dopants distribute

37

Use of Silicon Carbide as Beam Intercepting Device Material: Tests, Issues and Numerical Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silicon Carbide (SiC) stands as one of the most promising ceramic material with respect to its thermal shock resistance and mechanical strengths. It has hence been considered as candidate material for the development of higher performance beam intercepting devices at CERN. Its brazing with a metal counterpart has been tested and characterized by means of microstructural and ultrasound techniques. Despite the positive results, its use has to be evaluated with care, due to the strong evidence in literature of large and permanent volumetric expansion, called swelling, under the effect of neutron and ion irradiation. This may cause premature and sudden failure, and can be mitigated to some extent by operating at high temperature. For this reason limited information is available for irradiation below 100C, which is the typical temperature of interest for beam intercepting devices like dumps or collimators. This paper describes the brazing campaign carried out at CERN, the results, and the theoretical and numeric...

Delonca, M; Gil Costa, M; Vacca, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

General trend for pressurized superconducting hydrogen-dense materials  

SciTech Connect

The long-standing prediction that hydrogen can assume a metallic state under high pressure, combined with arguments put forward more recently that this state might even be superconducting up to high temperatures, continues to spur tremendous research activities toward the experimental realization of metallic hydrogen. These efforts have however so far been impeded by the enormous challenges associated with the exceedingly large required pressure. Hydrogen-dense materials, of the MH{sub 4} form (where M can be, e.g., Si, Ge, or Sn) or of the MH{sub 3} form (with M being, e.g., Al, Sc, Y, or La), allow for the rather exciting opportunity to carry out a proxy study of metallic hydrogen and associated high-temperature superconductivity at pressures within the reach of current techniques. At least one experimental report indicates that a superconducting state might have been observed already in SiH{sub 4}, and several theoretical studies have predicted superconductivity in pressurized hydrogen-rich materials; however, no systematic dependence on the applied pressure has yet been identified so far. In the present work, we have used first-principles methods in an attempt to predict the superconducting critical temperature (T{sub c}) as a function of pressure (P) for three metal-hydride systems of the MH{sub 3} form, namely ScH{sub 3}, YH{sub 3}, and LaH{sub 3}. By comparing the obtained results, we are able to point out a general trend in the T{sub c}-dependence on P. These gained insights presented here are likely to stimulate further theoretical studies of metallic phases of hydrogen-dense materials and should lead to new experimental investigations of their superconducting properties.

Kim, D. Y.; Scheicher, R. H.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Kang, T. W.; Ahuja, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

General Multiobjective Force Field Optimization Framework, with Application to Reactive Force Fields for Silicon Carbide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fields for Silicon Carbide Andres Jaramillo-Botero,* Saber Naserifar, and William A. Goddard, III: (1) the ReaxFF reactive force field for modeling the adiabatic reactive dynamics of silicon carbide specific force field parameters for tripod metal templates, tripodMO(CO)3, using the root mean square

Goddard III, William A.

40

Calorimetry of dehydrogenation and dangling-bond recombination in several hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the dehydrogenation processes that take place in three hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials: nanoparticles, polymorphous silicon, and conventional device-quality amorphous silicon. Comparison of DSC thermograms with evolved gas analysis (EGA) has led to the identification of four dehydrogenation processes arising from polymeric chains (A), SiH groups at the surfaces of internal voids (A?), SiH groups at interfaces (B), and in the bulk (C). All of them are slightly exothermic with enthalpies below 50meV?(H atoms), indicating that, after dissociation of any SiH group, most dangling bonds recombine. The kinetics of the three low-temperature processes [with DSC peak temperatures at around 320 (A), 360 (A?), and 430C (B)] exhibit a kinetic-compensation effect characterized by a linear relationship between the activation entropy and enthalpy, which constitutes their signature. Their Si?H bond-dissociation energies have been determined to be E(Si?H)0=3.14 (A), 3.19 (A?), and 3.28eV (B). In these cases it was possible to extract the formation energy E(DB) of the dangling bonds that recombine after Si?H bond breaking [0.97 (A), 1.05 (A?), and 1.12 (B)]. It is concluded that E(DB) increases with the degree of confinement and that E(DB)>1.10eV for the isolated dangling bond in the bulk. After Si?H dissociation and for the low-temperature processes, hydrogen is transported in molecular form and a low relaxation of the silicon network is promoted. This is in contrast to the high-temperature process for which the diffusion of H in atomic form induces a substantial lattice relaxation that, for the conventional amorphous sample, releases energy of around 600meV per H atom. It is argued that the density of sites in the Si network for H trapping diminishes during atomic diffusion.

P. Roura, J. Farjas, Chandana Rath, J. Serra-Miralles, E. Bertran, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas

2006-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Ninth workshop on crystalline silicon solar cell materials and processes: Summary discussion sessions  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the panel discussions included with the Ninth Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes. The theme for the workshop was ``R and D Challenges and Opportunities in Si Photovoltaics.'' This theme was chosen because it appropriately reflects a host of challenges that the growing production of Si photovoltaics will be facing in the new millennium. The anticipated challenges will arise in developing strategies for cost reduction, increased production, higher throughput per manufacturing line, new sources of low-cost Si, and the introduction of new manufacturing processes for cell production. At the same time, technologies based on CdTe and CIS will come on line posing new competition. With these challenges come new opportunities for Si PV to wean itself from the microelectronics industry, to embark on a more aggressive program in thin-film Si solar cells, and to try new approaches to process monitoring.

Sopori, B.; Tan, T.; Swanson, D.; Rosenblum, M.; Sinton, R.

1999-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

42

Tenth Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes: A Summary of Discussion Sessions  

SciTech Connect

The 10th Workshop on Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes was held in Copper Mountain, Colorado, on August 13-16, 2000. The workshop was attended by 85 scientists and engineers from 15 international photovoltaic (PV) companies and 24 research institutions. Review and poster presentations were augmented by discussion sessions to address the recent progress and critical issues in meeting the goals for Si in the PV Industry Roadmap. The theme of the workshop was Si Photovoltaics: 10 Years of Progress and Opportunities for the Future. Two special sessions were held: Advanced Metallization and Interconnections - covering recent advances in solar cell metallization, printed contacts and interconnections, and addressing new metallization schemes for low-cost cell interconnections; and Characterization Methods - addressing the growing need for process monitoring techniques in the PV industry. The following major issues emerged from the discussion sessions: (1) Mechanical breakage in the P V industry involves a large fraction, about 5%-10%, of the wafers. (2) The current use of Al screen-printed back-contacts appears to be incompatible with the PV Industry Roadmap requirements. (3) The PV manufacturers who use hydrogen passivation should incorporate the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) nitride for antireflection coating and hydrogenation. (4) There is an imminent need to dissolve metallic precipitates to minimize the electrical shunt problem caused by the ''bad'' regions in wafers. (5) Industry needs equipment for automated, in-line monitoring and testing. There are simply not many tools available to industry. (6) In the Wrap-Up Session of the workshop, there was consensus to create four industry/university teams that would address critical research topics in crystalline silicon. (7) The workshop attendees unanimously agreed that the workshop has served well the PV community by promoting the fundamental understanding of industrial processes, forecasting critical issues and research areas, and promoting a climate of openness to facilitate growth of the industry.

Tan, T.; Swanson, D.; Sinton, R.; Sopori, B.

2001-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

43

Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - General Characterizat...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GENERAL CHARACTERIZATION FACILITIES Neutron Scattering CNMS users are encouraged to take advantage of the world-class neutron scattering facilities that are available at ORNL's...

44

Ge-on-Si light-emitting materials and devices for silicon photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rapid growing needs for high data transmission bandwidth challenge the metal interconnection technology in every area from chip-level interconnects to long distance communication. Silicon photonics is an ideal platform ...

Sun, Xiaochen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

14th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells& Modules: Materials and Processes; Summary of Discussion Sessions  

SciTech Connect

The 14th Workshop discussion sessions addressed funding needs for Si research and for R&D to enhance U.S. PV manufacturing. The wrap-up session specifically addressed topics for the new university silicon program. The theme of the workshop, Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Leapfrogging the Barriers, was selected to reflect the astounding progress in Si PV technology during last three decades, despite a host of barriers and bottlenecks. A combination of oral, poster, and discussion sessions addressed recent advances in crystal growth technology, new cell structures and doping methods, silicon feedstock issues, hydrogen passivation and fire through metallization, and module issues/reliability. The following oral/discussion sessions were conducted: (1) Technology Update; (2) Defects and Impurities in Si/Discussion; (3) Rump Session; (4) Module Issues and Reliability/Discussion; (5) Silicon Feedstock/Discussion; (6) Novel Doping, Cells, and Hetero-Structure Designs/Discussion; (7) Metallization/Silicon Nitride Processing/Discussion; (8) Hydrogen Passivation/Discussion; (9) Characterization/Discussion; and (10) Wrap-Up. This year's workshop lasted three and a half days and, for the first time, included a session on Si modules. A rump session was held on the evening of August 8, which addressed efficiency expectations and challenges of c Si solar cells/modules. Richard King of DOE and Daren Dance of Wright Williams& Kelly (formerly of Sematech) spoke at two of the luncheon sessions. Eleven students received Graduate Student Awards from funds contributed by the PV industry.

Sopori, B.; Tan, T.; Sinton, R.; Swanson, D.

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Chemical Vapor Deposition Epitaxy of Silicon-based Materials using Neopentasilane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of dichlorosilane, silane, disilane, and neopentasilane vs. inverse temperature observed in our lab on Si(100 dichlorosilane is not observable, and that for silane and disilane were 0.6 and 8 ECS Transactions, 16 (10) 799 sources of dichlorosilane (DCS), silane, disilane and neopentasilane (NPS) precursor on (100) silicon

47

On the development of ice-templated silicon carbide scaffolds for nature-inspired structural materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

received most interest as a means to produce porous scaffolds by using ice as a template for complexOn the development of ice-templated silicon carbide scaffolds for nature-inspired structural of ceramic scaffolds using the ice-templating, or freeze casting, technique provides a relatively simple

Ritchie, Robert

48

13th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes: Extended Abstracts and Papers  

SciTech Connect

The 13th Workshop will provide a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. It will offer an excellent opportunity for researchers in private industry and at universities to prioritize mutual needs for future collaborative research. The workshop is intended to address the fundamental aspects of impurities and defects in silicon: their properties, the dynamics during device processing, and their application for developing low-cost processes for manufacturing high-efficiency silicon solar cells. A combination of oral, poster, and discussion sessions will review recent advances in crystal growth, new cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands.

Sopori, B. L.; Rand, J.; Saitoh, T.; Sinton, R.; Stavola, M.; Swanson, D.; Tan, T.; Weber, E.; Werner, J.; Al-Jassim, M.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Extended Abstracts and Papers  

SciTech Connect

The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 7-10, 2005. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV silicon, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell designs, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Providing the Scientific Basis for Industrial Success.' Specific sessions during the workshop included: Advances in crystal growth and material issues; Impurities and defects in Si; Advanced processing; High-efficiency Si solar cells; Thin Si solar cells; and Cell design for efficiency and reliability module operation. The topic for the Rump Session was ''Si Feedstock: The Show Stopper'' and featured a panel discussion by representatives from various PV companies.

Sopori, B. L.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

The Value Proposition for High Lifetime (p-type) and Thin Silicon Materials in Solar PV Applications: Preprint  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proposition for High Proposition for High Lifetime (p-type) and Thin Silicon Materials in Solar PV Applications Preprint Alan Goodrich, Michael Woodhouse, and Peter Hacke Presented at the 2012 IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Austin, Texas June 3-8, 2012 Conference Paper NREL/CP-6A20-55477 June 2012 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and Alliance retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

51

16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Program, Extended Abstracts, and Papers  

SciTech Connect

The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes held August 6-9, 2006 in Denver, Colorado. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV-Si, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. It provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The Workshop Theme was: "Getting more (Watts) for Less ($i)". A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The special sessions included: Feedstock Issues: Si Refining and Purification; Metal-impurity Engineering; Thin Film Si; and Diagnostic Techniques.

Sopori, B. L.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Eighth workshop on crystalline silicon solar cell materials and processes: Extended abstracts and papers  

SciTech Connect

The theme of this workshop is Supporting the Transition to World Class Manufacturing. This workshop provides a forum for an informal exchange of information between researchers in the photovoltaic and non-photovoltaic fields on various aspects of impurities and defects in silicon, their dynamics during device processing, and their application in defect engineering. This interaction helps establish a knowledge base that can be used for improving device fabrication processes to enhance solar-cell performance and reduce cell costs. It also provides an excellent opportunity for researchers from industry and universities to recognize mutual needs for future joint research. The workshop format features invited review presentations, panel discussions, and two poster sessions. The poster sessions create an opportunity for both university and industrial researchers to present their latest results and provide a natural forum for extended discussions and technical exchanges.

NONE

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science Seminar Series Silicone Materials for Sustainable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Photovoltaic (PV) industry has aggressive goals to decrease $/kWh and lower the overall cost of ownership for Sustainable Energy: Emphasis on Photovoltaic Materials for Module Assembly and Installation with Ann Norris properties that make them excellent candidates for photovoltaic module encapsulants and other materials

Crawford, T. Daniel

54

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous silicon carbon Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is changing from a cross-linked diamond-like carbon material to an amorphous silicon carbide material... with silicon. 1. Introduction Amorphous hydrogenated silicon carbide...

55

Subeutectic Growth of Single-Crystal Silicon Nanowires Grown on and Wrapped with Graphene Nanosheets: High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Subeutectic Growth of Single-Crystal Silicon Nanowires Grown on and Wrapped with Graphene Nanosheets: High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery ... Yu, A.; Park, H. W.; Davies, A.; Higgins, D.; Chen, Z.; Xaio, X.Free-Standing Layer-by-Layer Hybrid Thin Film of Graphene-MnO2 Nanotube as Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries J. Phys. ...

Fathy M Hassan; Abdel Rahman Elsayed; Victor Chabot; Rasim Batmaz; Xingcheng Xiao; Zhongwei Chen

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

A general few-projection method for tomographic reconstruction of samples consisting of several distinct materials  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for tomographic reconstruction of objects containing several distinct materials, which is capable of accurately reconstructing a sample from vastly fewer angular projections than required by conventional algorithms. The algorithm is more general than many previous discrete tomography methods, as: (i) a priori knowledge of the exact number of materials is not required; (ii) the linear attenuation coefficient of each constituent material may assume a small range of a priori unknown values. We present reconstructions from an experimental x-ray computed tomography scan of cortical bone acquired at the SPring-8 synchrotron.

Myers, Glenn R. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Thomas, C. David L.; Clement, John G. [Melbourne Dental School, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010 (Australia); Paganin, David M. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PB 33, Clayton South, 3169 (Australia); Gureyev, Timur E. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PB 33, Clayton South, 3169 (Australia)

2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

57

Point force and generalized point sources on the surface of semi-infinite transversely isotropic material.  

SciTech Connect

the full set of coupled fields due to the arbitrarily oriented point force and concentrated generalized point source, that represents either the diffusive chemical substance concentration or heat applied at the boundary of the half-space) are derived in elementary functions in a simple way, using methods of the potential theory. In the course of the analysis we derived the general solution of the field equations, represented in terms of four harmonic potential functions, which may also be relevant to other problems of chemical concentration or heat diffusion. These solutions constitute generalization of Boussinesq s and Cerruti s problems of elasticity for the chemically diffusive and/or thermoelastic materials.

Karapetian, E. [Suffolk University, Boston; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Modeling the Process of Mining Silicon Through a Single Displacement/Redox Reaction  

K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

As the popularity of photovoltaic (PV) cells and integrated circuits (IC) increases, the need for silicon also increases. Silicon is one of the most used materials in these two industries. It is an inexpensive and abundant semiconductor. However, the process of producing pure silicon adds cost, and it is generally unknown to the public. One of the first steps in producing silicon is a process called carbon-thermic reduction. Silicon dioxide (SiO2) that is found in beach sand and quartz is melted down in a caldron at a temperature of 1450 degrees Celsius.

59

12th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes: Summary Discussion Sessions  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the discussion sessions of the 12th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Processes. The theme of the workshop was"Fundamental R&D in c-Si: Enabling Progress in Solar-Electric Technology." This theme was chosen to reflect a concern that the current expansion in the PV energy production may redirect basic research efforts to production-oriented issues. The PV industry is installing added production capacity and new production lines that include the latest technologies. Once the technologies are selected, it is difficult to make changes. Consequently, a large expansion can stagnate the technologies and diminish interest in fundamental research. To prevent the fundamental R&D program from being overwhelmed by the desire to address immediate engineering issues, there is a need to establish topics of fundamental nature that can be pursued by the universities and the research institutions. Hence, one of the objectives of the workshop was to identify such areas for fundamental research.

Sopori, B.; Swanson, D.; Sinton, R.; Tan, T.

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Silicon materials task of the low cost solar array project (Phase III). Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Phase III summary and seventeenth quarterly report, Volume 1: characterization methods for impurities in silicon and impurity effects data base  

SciTech Connect

The object of Phase III of the program has been to investigate the effects of various processes, metal contaminants and contaminant-process interactions on the performance of terrestrial silicon solar cells. The study encompassed a variety of tasks including: (1) a detailed examination of thermal processing effects, such as HCl and POCl/sub 3/ gettering on impurity behavior, (2) completion of the data base and modeling for impurities in n-base silicon, (3) extension of the data base on p-type material to include elements likely to be introduced during the production, refining, or crystal growth of silicon, (4) effects on cell performance on anisotropic impurity distributions in large CZ crystals and silicon webs, and (5) a preliminary assessment of the permanence of the impurity effects. Two major topics are treated: methods to measure and evaluate impurity effects in silicon and comprehensive tabulations of data derived during the study. For example, discussions of deep level spectroscopy, detailed dark I-V measurements, recombination lifetime determination, scanned laser photo-response, and conventional solar cell I-V techniques, as well as descriptions of silicon chemical analysis are included. Considerable data are tabulated on the composition, electrical, and solar cell characteristics of impurity-doped silicon.

Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R.B.; Blais, P.D.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Stapleton, R.E.; Mollenkopf, H.C.; McCormick, J.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

A general model for chemical erosion of carbon materials due to low-energy H + impact  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling the chemical erosion of carbon materials due to low-energy H + impact is of paramount importance for the prediction of the behavior of carbon-based plasma-facing components in nuclear fusion devices. In this paper a simple general model describing both energy and temperature dependence of carbon-based chemical erosion is presented. Enlightened by Hopfs model {Hopf et al. [J. Appl. Phys.94 2373 (Year: 2003)} the chemical erosion is separated into the contributions from three mechanisms: thermal chemical erosion energetic chemical sputtering and ion-enhanced chemical erosion. Using input from the Monte Carlo code TRIDYN this model is able to reproduce experimental data well.

Shengguang Liu; Jizhong Sun; Shuyu Dai; Thomas Stirner; Dezhen Wang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Materials Science and Engineering A244 (1998) 138144 The vacuum hot pressing behavior of silicon carbide fibers coated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbide fibers coated with nanocrystalline Ti­6Al­4V Joseph M. Kunze *, Haydn N.G. Wadley Intelligent (VHP) of silicon carbide monofilaments coated with nanocrystalline Ti­6Al­4V has been studied. During micromechanical contact analysis for a metal coated fiber. Final stage densification was analyzed by modifying

Wadley, Haydn

63

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 40 (2005) 2101 2103 LETTERS Pressureless sintering of silicon nitride/boron nitride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2044, USA Silicon nitride (Si3N4) and boron nitride (BN) are ma- terials2O3 (Alcoa A- 16SG, 0.4 µm in diameter) and 4 wt% Y2O3 (Alfa Aesar REacton, 10 µm in diameter

Trice, Rodney W.

64

Silicone metalization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

65

INVESTIGATION OF WEAR RESISTANT MATERIAL USING DISPERSED PHASE INTERMETALLIC COMPOUND OF NICKEL-TITANIUM-SILICON IN AN IRON MATRIX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

abrasive wear resistance and material hardness. Figure 3.materiaL B. Recommendations L Further investigatons into the improvement of the wear resistance

Steinmetz, C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 90, 115209 (2014) Computational search for direct band gap silicon crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

abundance, silicon is the preferred solar-cell material despite the fact that current silicon materials have semiconductor. For this reason, the most widely used solar-cell materials are all silicon based [1]. Current

Lee, Jooyoung

67

General Heat Transfer Characterization and Empirical Models of Material Storage Temperatures for the Los Alamos Nuclear Materials Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory's Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) is being renovated for long-term storage of canisters designed to hold heat-generating nuclear materials. A fully passive cooling scheme, relying on the transfer of heat by conduction, free convection, and radiation has been proposed as a reliable means of maintaining material at acceptable storage temperatures. The storage concept involves placing radioactive materials, with a net heat-generation rate of 10 W to 20 W, inside a set of nested steel canisters. The canisters are, in placed in holding fixtures and positioned vertically within a steel storage pipe. Several hundred drywells are arranged in a linear array within a large bay and dissipate the waste heat to the surrounding air, thus creating a buoyancy driven airflow pattern that draws cool air into the storage facility and exhausts heated air through an outlet stack. In this study, an experimental apparatus was designed to investigate the thermal characteristics of simulated nuclear materials placed inside two nested steel canisters positioned vertically on an aluminum fixture plate and placed inside a section of steel pipe. The heat-generating nuclear materials were simulated with a solid aluminum cylinder containing .an embedded electrical resistance heater. Calibrated type T thermocouples (accurate to ~ O.1 C) were used to monitor temperatures at 20 different locations within the apparatus. The purposes of this study were to observe the heat dissipation characteristics of the proposed `canister/fixture plate storage configuration, to investigate how the storage system responds to changes in various parameters, and to develop and validate empirical correlations to predict material temperatures under various operating conditions

J. D. Bernardin; W. S. Gregory

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Light-emitting nanocrystalline silicon by low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition of disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Porous silicon is an attractive material for silicon optoelectronics. The great advantage of porous silicon lies on the simple way of production which makes silicon nanostructures easily available. After sever...

C. Manfredotti; F. Fizzotti; G. Amato

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Three-Dimensional Metal Scaffold Supported Bicontinuous Silicon Battery Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three-Dimensional Metal Scaffold Supported Bicontinuous Silicon Battery Anodes Huigang Zhang Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes are attracting significant during cycling generally leads to anode pulverization unless the silicon is dispersed throughout a matrix

Braun, Paul

70

From: Amorphous & Microcrystalline Silicon Technology, edited by S. Wagner, M. Hack, E. A. Schiff, R. Schropp, and I. Shimizu (Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From: Amorphous & Microcrystalline Silicon Technology, edited by S. Wagner, M. Hack, E. A. Schiff & Microcrystalline Silicon Technology, edited by S. Wagner, M. Hack, E. A. Schiff, R. Schropp, and I. Shimizu

Schiff, Eric A.

71

Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Silicon Cell Basics Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:19pm Addthis Silicon-used to make some the earliest photovoltaic (PV) devices-is still the most popular material for solar cells. Silicon is also the second-most abundant element in the Earth's crust (after oxygen). However, to be useful as a semiconductor material in solar cells, silicon must be refined to a purity of 99.9999%. In single-crystal silicon, the molecular structure-which is the arrangement of atoms in the material-is uniform because the entire structure is grown from the same crystal. This uniformity is ideal for transferring electrons efficiently through the material. To make an effective PV cell, however, silicon has to be "doped" with other elements to make n-type and p-type layers.

72

Embedding nano-silicon in graphene nanosheets by plasma assisted milling for high capacity anode materials in lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The lithium storage performance of silicon (Si) is improved substantially by forming composite of nano-Si particles embedded homogeneously in graphene nanosheets (GNs) using a simple discharge plasma assisted milling (P-milling) method. The synergistic effect of the rapid heating of the plasma and the mechanical ball mill grinding with nano-Si as nanomiller converted the graphite powder to \\{GNs\\} with the integration of nano-Si particles in the in-situ formed GNs. This composite structure inhibits the agglomeration of nano-Si and improves electronic conductivity. The cycling stability and rate capability are enhanced, with a stable reversible capacity of 976mAhg?1 at 50mAg?1 for the P-milled 20h nano-Si/GNs composite. A full cell containing a commercial LiMn2O4 cathode is assembled and demonstrated a satisfying utilization of the P-milled nano-Si/GNs composite anode with stable working potential. This composite shows promise for application in lithium ion batteries.

Wei Sun; Renzong Hu; Hui Liu; Meiqin Zeng; Lichun Yang; Haihui Wang; Min Zhu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Electrochemical thinning of silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR).

Medernach, John W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Electrochemical thinning of silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). 14 figures.

Medernach, J.W.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

75

APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR GENERAL PURPOSE RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS  

SciTech Connect

Polyurethane foam has been employed in impact limiters for large radioactive materials packagings since the early 1980's. Its consistent crush response, controllable structural properties and excellent thermal insulating characteristics have made it attractive as replacement for the widely used cane fiberboard for smaller, drum size packagings. Accordingly, polyurethane foam was chosen for the overpack material for the 9977 and 9978 packagings. The study reported here was undertaken to provide data to support the analyses performed as part of the development of the 9977 and 9978, and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

2009-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

76

4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING In general, building materials contain low levels of radioactivity. For example, the range of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING MATERIALS In general, building materials contain low, especially in buildings constructed with materials containing uranium TENORM mine wastes. In the Grand the wastes from uranium mines have been removed from mining sites and used in local and nearby communities

77

Silicon-germanium/gallium phosphide material in high power density thermoelectric modules. Final report, February 1980--September 1981  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of work on the characterization of an improved Si-Ge alloy and the fabrication of thermoelectric devices. The improved Si-Ge alloy uses a small addition of GaP in n- and p- type 80 at.% Si-20 at.% Ge; this addition reduces the thermal conductivity, thereby increasing its figure of merit and conversion efficiency. The thermoelectric devices fabricated include multicouples intended for use in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and ring-type modules intended for use with nuclear reactor heat sources. This report summarizes the effort in the material as well as the device areas and discusses individual phases of each area. Results should form basis for further effort.

Not Available

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

Response of Nanocrystalline 3C Silicon Carbide to Heavy-Ion Irradiatio...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanocrystalline 3C Silicon Carbide to Heavy-Ion Irradiation. Response of Nanocrystalline 3C Silicon Carbide to Heavy-Ion Irradiation. Abstract: Nanostructured materials are...

79

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous-silicon-based solar cell Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vol. 609 2000 Materials Research Society Preparation of Microcrystalline Silicon Based Solar Cells at High i-layer Summary: light exposure as do the amorphous silicon-based...

80

Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 MAG LAB REPORTS Volume 18 No. 1 CONDENSED MATTER SCIENCE Technique development, graphene, magnetism & magnetic materials, topological insulators, quantum fl uids & solids,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Floating Silicon Method  

SciTech Connect

The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

Kellerman, Peter

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

82

Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Materials and methods are available as supplementary materials on Science Online. 16. W. Benz, A. G. W. Cameron, H. J. Melosh, Icarus 81, 113 (1989). 17. S. L. Thompson, H. S. Lauson, Technical Rep. SC-RR-710714, Sandia Nat. Labs (1972). 18. H. J. Melosh, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 42, 2079 (2007). 19. S. Ida, R. M. Canup, G. R. Stewart, Nature 389, 353 (1997). 20. E. Kokubo, J. Makino, S. Ida, Icarus 148, 419 (2000). 21. M. M. M. Meier, A. Reufer, W. Benz, R. Wieler, Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society LXXIV, abstr. 5039 (2011). 22. C. B. Agnor, R. M. Canup, H. F. Levison, Icarus 142, 219 (1999). 23. D. P. O'Brien, A. Morbidelli, H. F. Levison, Icarus 184, 39 (2006). 24. R. M. Canup, Science 307, 546 (2005). 25. J. J. Salmon, R. M. Canup, Lunar Planet. Sci. XLIII, 2540 (2012). Acknowledgments: SPH simulation data are contained in tables S2 to S5 of the supplementary materials. Financial support

83

Radioactive material package seal tests  

SciTech Connect

General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

D0 silicon trackers  

SciTech Connect

The present Fermilab D0 silicon microstrip tracker, the silicon microstrip tracker which was designed to replace it, and plans for upgrading the present silicon tracker are described.

W. E. Cooper

2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

85

Amorphous Silicon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE has a proven track record of funding successes in amorphous silicon (a-Si)research. A list of current projects, summary of the benefits, and discussion on the production and manufacturing of...

86

Mechanical Dissipation in Silicon Flexures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermo-mechanical properties of silicon make it of significant interest as a possible material for mirror substrates and suspension elements for future long-baseline gravitational wave detectors. The mechanical dissipation in 92um thick single-crystal silicon cantilevers has been observed over the temperature range 85 K to 300 K, with dissipation approaching levels down to phi = 4.4E-7.

S. Reid; G. Cagnoli; D. R. M. Crooks; J. Hough; P. Murray; S. Rowan; M. M. Fejer; R. Route; S. Zappe

2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali-resistant silicon nitride Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computer Science Collection: Engineering ; Materials Science 4 Published in 'Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials', Year: 1998, pp: 1149-1152 Periodical: Materials...

88

Purification and deposition of silicon by an iodide disproportionation reaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

Wang, Tihu (Littleton, CO); Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Modified silicon carbide whiskers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

Tiegs, T.N.; Lindemer, T.B.

1991-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

90

Modified silicon carbide whiskers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparaging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Lindemer, Terrence B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.

Kaschmitter, J.L.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

92

Temperature dependency of MOSFET device characteristics in 4H-and 6H-silicon carbide (SiC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature dependency of MOSFET device characteristics in 4H- and 6H-silicon carbide (SiC) Md was arranged by Prof. A. Iliadis Abstract The advantages of silicon carbide (SiC) over silicon are significant; Silicon carbide; Temperature variation effect 1. Introduction Silicon carbide, a wide bandgap material

Tolbert, Leon M.

93

Viet Nam: Wood Industry Short of Raw Material, Sound Policies The Secretary General of the Viet Nam Timber and Forestry Products Association, Nguyen Ton Quyen, talked with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Viet Nam: Wood Industry Short of Raw Material, Sound Policies The Secretary General of the Viet Nam (Vietnam Economic Times) about Viet Nam's export of wood products. The year 2005 marks an in-crease in wood explain this increase? The State allows 150,000 cu.m of wood from natural forests and 1.2 million cu

94

Coupled problem of point force and generalized point source of diffusive substance or heat at the surface of semi-infinite transversely isotropic material  

SciTech Connect

For a three-dimensional semi-infinite transversely isotropic material, Green's functions (that give the full set of coupled fields due to the arbitrarily oriented point force and concentrated generalized point source, that represents either the diffusive chemical substance concentration or heat applied at the boundary of the half-space) are derived in elementary functions in a simple way, using methods of the potential theory. In the course of the analysis we derived the general solution of the field equations, represented in terms of four harmonic potential functions, which may also be relevant to other problems of chemical concentration or heat diffusion. These solutions constitute generalization of Boussinesq's and Cerruti s problems of elasticity for the chemically diffusive and/or thermoelastic materials.

Karapetian, E. [Suffolk University, Boston; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Mesoporous silicon photonic crystal microparticles: towards single-cell optical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in theranostics. Mesoporous silicon, where pores are in the size range of 2�50 nm, is the most relevant material

Kilian, Kristopher A.

96

The Silicon Mine | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mine Mine Jump to: navigation, search Name The Silicon Mine Place Netherlands Sector Solar Product The Silicon Mine (TSM) will produce solar grade polysilicon suitable for the production of wafers or as the base material for the manufacture of solar cells. References The Silicon Mine[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. The Silicon Mine is a company located in Netherlands . References ↑ "The Silicon Mine" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=The_Silicon_Mine&oldid=352196" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties

97

Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

A study of the influence of boron diffusion sources on the material and electrical characteristics of silicon p-n junctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

planar technology depends on many actors. This thesis investigates the influ- enc of one o these factors, the diffusion source. In ti is case, +he source is boron (p-zype) impurity. Three dif'fusion sou. ces, i)boron nitride BN ', solid), ii) diborane... Characteristics Measurement. V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION. BIBLIOGRAPHY Page 1O BZST QF TABLES Table Page Boron deposition da. a 11 Quantitative measurement results. 35 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2. 1 Page Silicon and BN wafers on cuartz 'coat...

Huang, Kuan-Chun Andrew

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

99

3-D seismic modelling of general material anisotropy in the presence of the free surface by a Chebyshev spectral method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......modelling in general anisotropic media is presented...the qSV and SH waves. Anisotropic free-surface modelling...wavefronts of Green River shale after 375 ms propagation...in the Green River shale model with 45" inclined...qSH-guided SH wave. Anisotropic free-surface modelling......

Ekkehart Tessmer

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Buckeye Silicon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Silicon Silicon Jump to: navigation, search Name Buckeye Silicon Address 2600 Dorr Street - Suite 1070 Place Toledo, Ohio Zip 43606 Sector Renewable Energy, Services, Solar Product Consulting; Manufacturing;Raw materials/extraction;Refining;Research and development Website http://www.sphereenergy.net Coordinates 41.6529122°, -83.6066466° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.6529122,"lon":-83.6066466,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

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101

Silicon Carbide Power Device Characterization for HEVs Burak Ozpineci1,3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silicon Carbide Power Device Characterization for HEVs Burak Ozpineci1,3 burak@ieee.org Leon M: The emergence of silicon carbide- (SiC-) based power semiconductor switches, with their superior features material. Another material, silicon carbide (SiC), with superior properties compared with Si, is a good

Tolbert, Leon M.

102

Low Cost Solar Array Project cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material. Final report, November 26, 1980-September 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the work reported was to investigate high-risk, high-payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-Czochralski sheet material. These tasks were addressed: technical feasibility study of forming front and back junctions using liquid dopant techniques, liquid diffusion mask feasibility study, application studies of antireflective material using a meniscus coater, ion implantation compatibility/feasibility study, and cost analysis. (LEW)

Campbell, R.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Cordierite silicon nitride filters  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. (Acurex Environmental Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States)); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. (Aerotherm Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States)); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. (GTE Products Corp., Towanda, PA (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Materials characterization of silicon carbide reinforced titanium (Ti/SCS-6) metal matrix composites. Part 2: Theoretical modeling of fatigue behavior  

SciTech Connect

Flexural fatigue behavior was investigated on titanium (Ti-15V-3Cr) metal matrix composites reinforced with cross-ply, continuous silicon carbide (SiC) fibers. The titanium composites had an eight-ply (0, 90, +45, {minus}45 deg) symmetric layup. Mechanistic investigation of the fatigue behavior is presented in Part 1 of this series. In Part 2, theoretical modeling of the fatigue behavior was performed using finite element techniques to predict the four stages of fatigue deflection behavior. On the basis of the mechanistic understanding, the fiber and matrix fracture sequence was simulated from ply to ply in finite element modeling. The predicted fatigue deflection behavior was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, it has been shown that the matrix crack initiation starts in the 90 deg ply first, which is in agreement with the experimental observation. Under the same loading condition, the stress in the 90 deg ply of the transverse specimen is greater than that of the longitudinal specimen. This trend explains whey the longitudinal specimen has a longer fatigue life than the transverse specimen, as observed in Part 1.

Chiang, K.T.; Loh, D.H. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Diaz, E.S. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Thin silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The silicon-film design achieves high performance by using a dun silicon layer and incorporating light trapping. Optimally designed thin crystalline solar cells (<50 microns thick) have performance advantages over conventional thick devices. The high-performance silicon-film design employs a metallurgical barrier between the low-cost substrate and the thin silicon layer. Light trapping properties of silicon-film on ceramic solar cells are presented and analyzed. Recent advances in process development are described here.

Hall, R.B.; Bacon, C.; DiReda, V.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E.; Cotter, J.; Hughes-Lampros, T.; Rand, J.A.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M. [Astro Power Inc., Solar Park, Newark, DE (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Cheaper Silicon Found Effective for Solar Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cheaper Silicon Found Effective for Solar Cells Cheaper Silicon Found Effective for Solar Cells A research team from the University of California at Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, using U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) synchrotron light sources, has successfully shown that inexpensive silicon has the potential to be used for photovoltaic (PV) devices, commonly known as solar cells. In a new approach-whose findings were published online in Nature Materials (August 14, 2005)-the researchers used nanodefect engineering to control transition metal contamination in order to produce impurity-rich, performance-enhanced multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) material. "Solar energy is often touted as the most promising and secure energy

107

Amorphous and microcrystalline silicon technology -- 1998  

SciTech Connect

Although this new volume from MRS is the 16th in a long-standing and successful series, the focus is no longer limited to hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The distinction between short- and medium-range order, and between homogeneous and heterogeneous semiconductor materials, is indeed too difficult to maintain. Instead, the volume covers amorphous and microcrystalline silicon from materials physics to new applications. Papers from a joint session with a symposium on ``Flat-Panel Display Materials and Large-Area Processes`` are included. The volume also features special focused sessions on heterogeneous materials, color sensors and radiation imaging, and parameter extraction and device modeling. Topics include: amorphous and polycrystalline thin-film transistors; solar cells; color and X-ray sensors, novel devices, luminescence and sensitization; device modeling and parameter extraction; growth, alloys and clathrates; metastability, hydrogen, atomic and electronic structure; defects and charge transport; and heterogeneous silicon--formation, properties and devices. It includes 152 papers.

Schropp, R. [ed.] [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Branz, H.M. [ed.] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Shimizu, Isamu [ed.] [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Wagner, S. [ed.] [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Hack, M. [ed.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Evaluation of silicon-nitride ceramic valves.  

SciTech Connect

Silicon-nitride ceramic valves can improve the performance of both light- and heavy-duty automotive engines because of the superior material properties of silicon nitrides over current metal alloys. However, ceramics are brittle materials that may introduce uncertainties in the reliability and durability of ceramic valves. As a result, the lifetime of ceramic valves are difficult to predict theoretically due to wide variations in the type and distribution of microstructural flaws in the material. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are therefore required to assess the quality and reliability of these valves. Because ceramic materials are optically translucent and the strength-limiting flaws are normally located near the valve surface, a laser-scatter method can be used for NDE evaluation of ceramic valves. This paper reviews the progress in the development of this NDE method and its application to inspect silicon-nitride ceramic valves at various stages of manufacturing and bench and engine tests.

Sun, J. G.; Zhang, J. M.; Andrews, M. J.; Tretheway, J. S.; Phillips, N. S .L.; Jensen, J. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Univ. of Texas; Caterpillar, Inc.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture. Manufacturing Plan for Aminosilicone-based CO{sub 2} Absorption Material  

SciTech Connect

A commercially cost effective manufacturing plan was developed for GAP-1m, the aminosilicone-based part of the CO{sub 2} capture solvent described in DE-FE0007502, and the small-scale synthesis of GAP-1m was confirmed. The plan utilizes a current intermediate at SiVance LLC to supply the 2013-2015 needs for GE Global Research. Material from this process was supplied to GE Global Research for evaluation and creation of specifications. GE Global Research has since ordered larger quantities (60 liters) for the larger scale evaluations that start in first quarter, 2013. For GEs much larger future commercial needs, an improved, more economical pathway to make the product was developed after significant laboratory and literature research. Suppliers were identified for all raw materials.

Vogt, Kirkland

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics Crystalline Silicon Photovolatic Cell Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:58pm Addthis Crystalline silicon cells are made of silicon atoms connected to one another to form a crystal lattice. This lattice comprises the solid material that forms the photovoltaic (PV) cell's semiconductors. This section describes the atomic structure and bandgap energy of these cells. Atomic Structure Illustration of a silicon crystal with its 14 electrons orbiting a nucleus of protons and neutrons. As depicted in this simplified diagram, silicon has 14 electrons. The four electrons that orbit the nucleus in the outermost "valence" energy level are given to, accepted from, or shared with other atoms. All matter is composed of atoms, which are made up of positively charged

111

Laser wafering for silicon solar.  

SciTech Connect

Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W{sub p} (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs ({approx}20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions ({approx}50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 {micro}m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

By losing their shape, material fails batteries | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

By losing their shape, material fails batteries By losing their shape, material fails batteries Too many electrons at the lithiation front in silicon are a problem Molecular...

113

Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

Branagan, Daniel J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hyde, Timothy A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

114

Advanced silicon photonic modulators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various electrical and optical schemes used in Mach-Zehnder (MZ) silicon plasma dispersion effect modulators are explored. A rib waveguide reverse biased silicon diode modulator is designed, tested and found to operate at ...

Sorace, Cheryl M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Silicon (100)/SiO2 by XPS  

SciTech Connect

Silicon (100) wafers are ubiquitous in microfabrication and, accordingly, their surface characteristics are important. Herein, we report the analysis of Si (100) via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using monochromatic Al K radiation. Survey scans show that the material is primarily silicon and oxygen, and the Si 2p region shows two peaks that correspond to elemental silicon and silicon dioxide. Using these peaks the thickness of the native oxide (SiO2) was estimated using the equation of Strohmeier.1 The oxygen peak is symmetric. The material shows small amounts of carbon, fluorine, and nitrogen contamination. These silicon wafers are used as the base material for subsequent growth of templated carbon nanotubes.

Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Madaan, Nitesh; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

116

Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide: Introduction to structured graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide: Introduction to structured graphene Ming Ruan 1 , Yike Hu 1, France Abstract We present an introduction to the rapidly growing field of epitaxial graphene on silicon present, highly evolved state. The potential of epitaxial graphene as a new electronic material is now

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

DESIGN, MODELING, TESTING, AND SPICE PARAMETER EXTRACTION OF DIMOS TRANSISTOR IN 4H-SILICON CARBIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DESIGN, MODELING, TESTING, AND SPICE PARAMETER EXTRACTION OF DIMOS TRANSISTOR IN 4H-SILICON CARBIDE (DIMOS) transistor structure in 4H-Silicon Carbide (SiC) is presented. Simulation for transport Silicon carbide (SiC), a wide bandgap material, shows a tremendous potential for high temperature

Tolbert, Leon M.

118

Photovoltaic Materials  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNLs unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporations Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (ECGM) business unit is currently the worlds largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferros ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

LASER METALLIZATION AND DOPING FOR SILICON CARBIDE DIODE FABRICATION AND ENDOTAXY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Silicon carbide is a promising semiconductor material for high voltage, high frequency and high temperature devices due to its wide bandgap, high breakdown electric field (more)

Tian, Zhaoxu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous silicon nitride Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nitride, aluminium oxide, titanium nitride are promising materials for the high... of powder analysis made by the following processes: - Preparation of silicon nitride by...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C. where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

Glatzmaier, Gregory C. (Boulder, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Method of making selective crystalline silicon regions containing entrapped hydrogen by laser treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel hydrogen rich single crystalline silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystalline silicon without out-gasing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semi-conductor devices such as single crystalline silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystalline silicon without hydrogen.

Pankove, Jacques I. (Princeton, NJ); Wu, Chung P. (Trenton, NJ)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Fabrication and characterization of germanium-on-silicon photodiodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Germanium is becoming an increasingly popular material to use in photonic systems. Due to its strong absorption in the near infrared and its relative ease of integration on silicon, it is a promising candidate for the ...

DiLello, Nicole Ann

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Potential applications of a toughened silicon-based alloy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silicon has long been used as an alloying element in various metal alloys, in engineered ceramics, and in the semiconductor industry. However, due to its intrinsic low fracture toughness, it is generally perceived as a ...

Lei, Wang S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-14-088 General Atomics EC B3-6.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A. Project Title: Modularization Fabrication and Characterization of Complex Silicon Carbide Composite Structures - General Atomics SECTION B. Project Description General Atomics...

126

Advanced polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells using high rate plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited amorphous silicon on textured glass.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid phase crystallized polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film solar cell on glass is an emerging Photovoltaics (PV) technology combining the robustness of crystalline Si material with (more)

Jin, Guangyao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Tritium in amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results on infrared and luminescence measurements of tritium incorporated amorphous silicon are reported. Tritium is an unstable isotope that readily substitutes hydrogen in the amorphous silicon network. Due to its greater mass, bonded tritium is found to introduce new stretching modes in the infrared spectrum. Inelastic collisions between the beta particles, produced as a result of tritium decay, and the amorphous silicon network, results in the generation of excess electron-hole pairs. Radiative recombination of these carriers is observed.

Sidhu, L.S.; Kosteski, T.; O`Leary, S.K.; Gaspari, F.; Zukotynski, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Kherani, N.P.; Shmadya, W. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal Immobilization, and Catalytic Applications. Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal...

129

Highly Efficient Silicon Light Emitting Diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap

Leminh Holleman Wallinga; P. Leminh; J. Holleman; H. Wallinga

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

SOLAR MARKET POWERS SILICON  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SOLAR MARKET POWERS SILICON ... Polysilicon shortages are boon to manufacturers, bane of solar energy industry ... Solar energy is a relatively new market for polysilicon manufacturers. ...

JEAN-FRA&CCEDIL;NOIS TREMBLAY

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

131

Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate, created by micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face (patterned silicon plate`s surface) and the silicon wafer it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face. The islands may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face and wafer contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands, together with at least one hole bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas. 6 figs.

Anderson, R.A.; Seager, C.H.

1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

132

Materials compatibility issues for fabric composite radiators  

SciTech Connect

Short term materials compatibility tests have been completed on potential materials to be used in fabric composite radiators for space applications. Specific materials tested include copper, aluminum, titanium, FEP Teflon tubing, and three high strength fabric fibers: alumina-boria-silica, silicon carbide, and silicon dioxide. These materials have been exposed to pure water, methanol, and acetone for periods of time up to 5000 hours at variety of appropriate temperatures.

Marks, T.S.; Klein, A.C. (Department of Nuclear Engineering, Radiation Center, C116, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-5902 (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Substrate for thin silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic device for converting solar energy into electrical signals comprises a substrate, a layer of photoconductive semiconductor material grown on said substrate, wherein the substrate comprises an alloy of boron and silicon, the boron being present in a range of from 0.1 to 1.3 atomic percent, the alloy having a lattice constant substantially matched to that of the photoconductive semiconductor material and a resistivity of less than 1.times.10.sup.-3 ohm-cm.

Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Improved method of preparing p-i-n junctions in amorphous silicon semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junctions for amorphous silicon semiconductors includes depositing amorphous silicon on a thin layer of trivalent material, such as aluminum, indium, or gallium at a temperature in the range of 200/sup 0/C to 250/sup 0/C. At this temperature, the layer of trivalent material diffuses into the amorphous silicon to form a graded p/sup +/-i junction. A layer of n-type doped material is then deposited onto the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer in a conventional manner to finish forming the p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junction.

Madan, A.

1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

135

Washington Silicon Plant Makes Way for Cheaper Solar-and Jobs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Washington Silicon Plant Makes Way for Cheaper Solar-and Jobs Washington Silicon Plant Makes Way for Cheaper Solar-and Jobs Washington Silicon Plant Makes Way for Cheaper Solar-and Jobs November 2, 2010 - 2:00pm Addthis REC Silicon received a $154 million 48C tax credit for a $1.7 billion expansion of its Moses Lake, WA, plant. | Photo courtesy of REC Silicon | REC Silicon received a $154 million 48C tax credit for a $1.7 billion expansion of its Moses Lake, WA, plant. | Photo courtesy of REC Silicon | Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE In most industries, if it's expensive to make, it's probably expensive to buy. This is particularly evident in the solar world. Refining the raw material used in photovoltaic panels, silicon, is not a cheap endeavor, and has kept the price of panels more expensive than other energy sources.

136

Thermally Oxidized Silicon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Illustration of the silicon positions near the Si-SiO2 interface for a 4° miscut projected onto the ( ) plane. The silicon atoms in the substrate are blue and those in the oxide are red. The small black spots represent the translated silicon positions in the absence of static disorder. The silicon atoms in the oxide have been randomly assigned a magnitude and direction based on the static disorder value at that position in the lattice. The outline of four silicon unit cells is shown in black, whereas the outline of four expanded lattice cells in the oxide is shown in blue One of the most studied devices of modern technology is the field-effect transistor, which is the basis for most integrated circuits. At its heart

137

Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing chromium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing about 10.sup.15 atoms/cm.sup.3 of chromium is improved about 26% by thermal annealing of the silicon wafer at a temperature of 200.degree. C. to form chromium precipitates having a diameter of less than 1 Angstrom. Further improvement in efficiency is achieved by scribing laser lines onto the back surface of the wafer at a spacing of at least 0.5 mm and at a depth of less than 13 micrometers to preferentially precipitate chromium near the back surface and away from the junction region of the device. This provides an economical way to improve the deleterious effects of chromium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon material.

Frosch, Robert A. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space (New Port Beach, CA); Salama, Amal M. (New Port Beach, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Phonon Heat Conduction in Corrugated Silicon Nanowires Below the Casimir Limit Christophe Blanc,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

very low thermal conductances of highly rough silicon nanowires [7, 18], far below the amorphous limit, 2013) The thermal conductance of straight and corrugated monocrystalline silicon nanowires has been of nanostructured materials or low dimen- sional materials has attracted growing interest [1­4], es- pecially

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

Graphene-Silicon Schottky Diodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene-Silicon Schottky Diodes ... We have fabricated graphene-silicon Schottky diodes by depositing mechanically exfoliated graphene on top of silicon substrates. ... The IV characteristics measured at 100, 300, and 400 K indicate that temperature strongly influences the ideality factor of graphenesilicon Schottky diodes. ...

Chun-Chung Chen; Mehmet Aykol; Chia-Chi Chang; A. F. J. Levi; Stephen B. Cronin

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

140

NREL Core Program (NCPV), Session: Film Silicon (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This project supports the Solar America Initiative by: R and D that contributes to goal of grid parity by 2015; research to fill the industry R and D pipeline for next-generation low-cost scalable products; development of industry collaborative research; and improvement of NREL tools and capabilities for film silicon research. The project addresses both parts of film silicon roadmap: (1) amorphous-silicon-based thin film PV--amorphous and nanocrystalline materials, present '2nd generation' technology, 4% of world PV sales in 2007; (2) advanced R and D toward film crystal silicon--definition, large-grained or single-crystal silicon < 100 {micro}m thick; 3-8 year horizon; and goal of reaching 15% cells at area costs approaching thin films.

Branz, H. M.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Growth-front roughening in amorphous silicon films by sputtering T. Karabacak,* Y.-P. Zhao, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Growth-front roughening in amorphous silicon films by sputtering T. Karabacak,* Y.-P. Zhao, G industry and is a material of special interest. The dy- namic roughening of silicon thin films grown

Wang, Gwo-Ching

142

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films prepared by glow discharge of disilane  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of an investigation of the properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and the efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells deposited from disilane at rates of 1.5 nanometers/second or greater. The study was divided into two parts, investigation of basic materials properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the fabrication of glass-P-I-N-metal solar cells. The thin film materials properties investigated included the dark conductivity, photoconductivity, dihydride/monohydride concentration ratio, activation energy, and mobility-lifetime product. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells were fabricated with an intrinsic layer which was deposited at 1.5 nanometers/second. The absolute and reverse bias quantum yields were measured and solar cell efficiencies of 5% were achieved. Attempts to increase the efficiency by reverse bias annealing are also reported. 7 refs., 27 figs.

Wiesmann, H.J. (UHT Corp., Dobbs Ferry, NY (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Silicon-based sleeve devices for chemical reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (e.g., a liquid) in order to provide uniform heating, yet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow the introduction of a secondary tube (e.g., plastic) into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture thereby alleviating any potential materials incompatibility issues. The reaction chamber may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Mariella, Jr., Raymond P. (Danville, CA); Carrano, Anthony V. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Separation of Nuclear Fuel Surrogates from Silicon Carbide Inert Matrix  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project has been to identify a process for separating transuranic species from silicon carbide (SiC). Silicon carbide has become one of the prime candidates for the matrix in inert matrix fuels, (IMF) being designed to reduce plutonium inventories and the long half-lives actinides through transmutation since complete reaction is not practical it become necessary to separate the non-transmuted materials from the silicon carbide matrix for ultimate reprocessing. This work reports a method for that required process.l

Dr. Ronald Baney

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Effects of dietary silicon on bone characteristics of poultry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the metal which they contain. Evidence indicates that silicon in the form of sodium meta-silicate (Na Si0 . 9H20) may be tied in with early bone calcification of weanling rats (Carlisle, 1970). The present study was designed to determine if additional..., demonstrated that many of the early workers on the distribution of silicon in the animal body reported values much too high. The amount of silicon reported in biological materials varies greatly; rats have approximately two percent silica in whole blood...

Plyler, James Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

146

Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1,600 C which transforms the coating to silicon carbide. 3 figs.

Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Burchell, T.D.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

147

Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1600.degree.C. which transforms the coating to silicon carbide.

Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herman, Herbert (Port Jefferson, NY); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Thermal Transport Measurement of Silicon-Germanium Nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the enhanced boundary scattering. Among the nanoscale semiconductor materials, Silicon-Germanium(SiGe) alloy nanowire is a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials The thermal conductivities of SiGe core-shell nanowires with core diameters of 96nm, 129...

Gwak, Yunki

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

149

Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Material Basics Material Basics Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis Although crystalline silicon cells are the most common type, photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells, can be made of many semiconductor materials. Each material has unique strengths and characteristics that influence its suitability for specific applications. For example, PV cell materials may differ based on their crystallinity, bandgap, absorbtion, and manufacturing complexity. Learn more about each of these characteristics below or learn about these solar cell materials: Silicon (Si)-including single-crystalline Si, multicrystalline Si, and amorphous Si Polycrystalline Thin Films-including copper indium diselenide (CIS), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and thin-film silicon Single-Crystalline Thin Films-including high-efficiency material

150

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide...

151

Optical properties of nanostructured silicon-rich silicon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have conducted a study of the optical properties of sputtered silicon-rich silicon dioxide (SRO) thin films with specific application for the fabrication of erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and lasers, polarization ...

Stolfi, Michael Anthony

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

NEWTON's Material Science References  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Material Science References Material Science References Do you have a great material science reference link? Please click our Ideas page. Featured Reference Links: Materials Research Society Materials Research Society The Materials Research Society has assembled many resources in its Materials Science Enthusiasts site. This site has information for the K-12 audience, general public, and materials science professionals. Material Science nanoHUB nanHUB.org is the place for nanotechnology research, education, and collaboration. There are Simulation Programs, Online Presentations, Courses, Learning Modules, Podcasts, Animations, Teaching Materials, and more. (Intened for high school and up) Materials Science Resources on the Web Materials Science Resources on the Web This site gives a good general introduction into material science. Sponsered by Iowa State, it talks about what material science is, ceramics and composites, and other topics.

153

General Education GENERAL EDUCATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the pursuit of truth, the intellectual and ethical development of students, and the general well the consequences of human actions. E. Cross-Cultural Awareness Demonstrate the ability to critically compare

Stuart, Steven J.

154

Akros Silicon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Akros Silicon Akros Silicon Jump to: navigation, search Name Akros Silicon Place Folsom, California Zip 95630 Product Akros Silicon specilizes in fabless semicondutors used for Power Over Ethernet, networks, and broadband. References Akros Silicon[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Akros Silicon is a company located in Folsom, California . References ↑ "Akros Silicon" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Akros_Silicon&oldid=341960" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

155

Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

Weil, R.B.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Annealing effects on magnetic properties of silicone-coated iron-based soft magnetic composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Annealing effects on magnetic properties of silicone-coated iron-based soft magnetic composites , Alex A. Volinsky b a School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Available online 1 October 2011 Keywords: Silicone resin Soft magnetic composites Annealing treatment

Volinsky, Alex A.

158

Light-Weight Free-Standing Carbon Nanotube-Silicon Films for Anodes of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- prove energy densities for both anode and cathode. Silicon as an anode material has at- tracted to over- come this issue, including the use of nano- sized active materials,1 6 active/inactive composite in weight than Si active material. In a commercial lithium ion cell, the anode material is usually coated

Cui, Yi

159

ADVANCED MATERIALS Curriculum Biomaterials Materials Science I 5 CP Materials Science II 5 CP Lab Materials Science II 5 CP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADVANCED MATERIALS Curriculum Biomaterials Materials Science I 5 CP Materials Science II 5 CP Lab Materials Science II 5 CP Computational Methods in Materials Science 4 CP Lab Materials Science I 5 CP Physical Chemistry 4 CP General Chemistry 2 CP Synthesis of Org. & Inorg. Materials 4 CP Introductory Solid

Pfeifer, Holger

160

ADVANCED MATERIALS Curriculum Nanomaterials Materials Science I 5 CP Materials Science II 5 CP Lab Materials Science II 5 CP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADVANCED MATERIALS Curriculum Nanomaterials Materials Science I 5 CP Materials Science II 5 CP Lab Materials Science II 5 CP Computational Methods in Materials Science 4 CP Lab Materials Science I 5 CP Physical Chemistry 4 CP General Chemistry 2 CP Synthesis of Org. & Inorg. Materials 4 CP Introductory Solid

Pfeifer, Holger

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Philips Lumileds Is Exploring the Use of Silicon Substrates to Lower the Cost of LEDs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

With the help of DOE funding, Philips Lumileds is exploring the use of nitride epitaxy on 150mm silicon substrates to produce low-cost, warm-white, high-performance general-illumination LEDs. Most LEDs are made with C-plane sapphire substrates, but siliconat roughly half a penny per square millimeteris much cheaper, and it's also easier to obtain. Philips Lumileds is attempting to adapt the use of silicon to the manufacture of LEDs, drawing upon the knowledge base and depreciated equipment of the computer industry, which has been using silicon substrates for decades.

162

The CDF Run IIb Silicon Detector  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab plans to deliver 5-15 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity to the CDF and D0 experiments. The current inner silicon detectors at CDF (SVXIIa and L00) will not tolerate the radiation dose associated with high luminosity running and will need to be replaced. A new readout chip (SVX4) has been designed in radiation-hard 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology. Single sided sensors are arranged in a compact structure, called a stave, with integrated readout and cooling systems. This paper describes the general design of the Run IIb system, testing results of prototype electrical components (staves), and prototype silicon sensor performance before and after irradiation.

M. Aoki; N. Bacchetta; S. Behari et al.

2004-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

163

Timelines | Critical Materials Institute  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of interest to rare earths and critical materials, organized by those specific to rare earth elements, general chemistry and uses. Timelines of rare earth discovery: Discovery and...

164

High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

166

Carbon nanotubes in new materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies of materials consisting of carbon nanotubes or containing them have been analyzed and generalized. Classification of these materials is proposed, their general features and main types are considered, and individual examples are presented. The bibliography includes 372 references.

Eduard G Rakov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Analysis of silicon carbide based semiconductor power devices and their application in power factor correction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cannot handle. The requirements include higher blocking voltages, switching frequencies, efficiency, and reliability. Material technologies superior to Si are needed for future power device developments. Silicon Carbide (SiC) based semiconductor devices...

Durrani, Yamin Qaisar

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode material By Angela Hardin * February 25, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint LEMONT, Ill. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National...

169

Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Storage Return to Search Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode material Argonne National Laboratory CalBattery has worked with Argonne for...

170

Anisotropic dewetting in ultra-thin single-crystal silicon-on-insulator films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The single crystal silicon-on-insulator thin film materials system represents both an ideal model system for the study of anisotropic thin film dewetting as well as a technologically important system for the development ...

Danielson, David T. (David Thomas)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Efficient Light Trapping in Inverted Nanopyramid Thin Crystalline Silicon Membranes for Solar Cell Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin-film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells with light-trapping structures can enhance light absorption within the semiconductor absorber layer and reduce material usage. Here we demonstrate that an inverted nanopyramid ...

Mavrokefalos, Anastassios

172

Sacrificial high-temperature phosphorus diffusion gettering for lifetime improvement of multicrystalline silicon wafers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iron is among the most deleterious lifetime-limiting impurities in crystalline silicon solar cells. In as-grown material, iron is present in precipitates and in point defects. To achieve conversion efficiencies in excess ...

Scott, Stephanie Morgan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Hierarchical 3D mesoporous silicon@graphene nanoarchitectures for lithium ion batteries with superior performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon has been recognized as the most promising anode material for high capacity lithium ion batteries. However, large volume variations during charge ... can be overcome by combination with well-organized graphene

Shuangqiang Chen; Peite Bao; Xiaodan Huang; Bing Sun; Guoxiu Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Identification and mitigation of performance-limiting defects in epitaxially grown kerfless silicon for solar cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reducing material use is a major driver for cost reduction of crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. The dominant wafer fabrication process employed in the industry today, ingot casting & sawing, wastes approximately ...

Powell, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass by ion-assisted deposition.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si, grain size > 1??m, no amorphous tissue) on glass is an interesting material for thin-film solar cells due to the low costs, (more)

Straub, Axel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Phosphor suspended in silicone, molded/formed and used in a remote phosphor configuration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A light emitting package comprising a support hosting at least one light emitting diode. A light transmissive dome comprised of a silicone including a phosphor material positioned to receive light emitted by the diode. A glass cap overlies said dome.

Kolodin, Boris; Deshpande, Anirudha R

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

177

Method of making selective crystalline silicon regions containing entrapped hydrogen by laser treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel hydrogen rich single crystalline silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystalline silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semi-conductor devices such as single crystalline silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystalline silicon without hydrogen. 2 figs.

Pankove, J.I.; Wu, C.P.

1982-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

178

Silicon Cells | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cells Cells Jump to: navigation, search Name Silicon Cells Place United Kingdom Product Technology developer based upon a low cost method of processing silicon to produce a new generation of high energy density batteries. References Silicon Cells[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Silicon Cells is a company located in United Kingdom . References ↑ "Silicon Cells" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Silicon_Cells&oldid=351081" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties About us Disclaimers Energy blogs

179

Ultralow Thermal Conductivity of Isotope-Doped Silicon Nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conductivity of SiNWs is about 2 orders of magnitude smaller than that of bulk crystals.18,19 The low thermal conductivity (0.05 W/m K) found in layered materials.22 So it is indispensable to reduce the thermal conUltralow Thermal Conductivity of Isotope-Doped Silicon Nanowires Nuo Yang, Gang Zhang,*, and Baowen

Li, Baowen

180

Surface wettability of oxygen plasma treated porous silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxygen plasma treatment on porous silicon (p-Si) surfaces was studied as a practical and effective means to modify wetting properties of as-fabricated p-Si surfaces, that is, contact angles of the p-Si materials. P-Si samples spanning a wide range of ...

Lei Jiang, Songyan Li, Jiqian Wang, Limin Yang, Qian Sun, Zhaomin Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Nuclear breeder reactor fuel element with silicon carbide getter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved cesium getter 28 is provided in a breeder reactor fuel element or pin in the form of an extended surface area, low density element formed in one embodiment as a helically wound foil 30 located with silicon carbide, and located at the upper end of the fertile material upper blanket 20.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Ultrasmall silicon quantum dots F. A. Zwanenburg,1,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by a model based on the Poisson equation. The smallest dots 12 nm allow identification of the last charge-down planar silicon devices,1­3 produced by etching bulk materials down to nanometer dimensions, often show understanding of the specific system. This has allowed us to realize the first experimental identification

183

Silicon Microwire Arrays for Solar Energy-Conversion Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon Microwire Arrays for Solar Energy-Conversion Applications ... The Si MW array geometry allows for efficient collection of photogenerated carriers from impure materials that have short minority-carrier diffusion lengths while simultaneously allowing for high optical absorption and high external quantum yields for charge-carrier collection. ...

Emily L. Warren; Harry A. Atwater; Nathan S. Lewis

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

184

Fabrication and properties of microporous silicon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microporous silicon layers were fabricated by electrochemical etching of single crystalline silicon wafers in HF-ethanol solutions. The pore properties of porous silicon were examined by physical adsorption of nitrogen and the relationship between...

Shao, Jianzhong

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Silicon Photonic Components and Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Significant progress in silicon photonics has led to flattop filters, polarization independence, low power modulators and switches, and low dark current germanium detectors. Future...

Watts, Michael

186

Heterojunction Silicon Microwire Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heterojunction Silicon Microwire Solar Cells ... Center for Advanced Photovoltaic Devices and Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada ...

Majid Gharghi; Ehsanollah Fathi; Boubacar Kante; Siva Sivoththaman; Xiang Zhang

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

187

Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

188

IR permittivities for silicides and doped silicon  

SciTech Connect

The complex permittivity for Pt, Pd, Ni, and Ti-silicide films as well as heavily doped p- and n-type silicon were determined by ellipsometry over the energy range 0.031 eV to 4.0 eV. Fits to the Drude model gave bulk plasma and relaxation frequencies. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and four-point probe measurements complemented the optical characterization. Calculations from measured permittivities of waveguide loss and mode confinement suggest that the considered materials are better suited for long-wavelength surface-plasmon-polariton waveguide applications than metal films.

Cleary, J. W.; Peale, R. E.; Smith, C. W.; Ishigami, M. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Shelton, D. J.; Boreman, G. D. [College of Optics (CREOL), University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Soref, R.; Drehman, A.; Buchwald, W. R. [Sensors Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts 01731 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

190

AMORPHOUS SILICON-BASED MINIMODULES WITH SILICONE ELASTOMER ENCAPSULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fabricated one and two cell, amorphous silicon based mini-modules encapsulated with a modern silicone. The first module consisted of a single cell with a current collecting grid and bus bars on two sides of the cell. The current collecting grid used a spacing of 1 cm. 250 µm diameter tinned copper wire was used

Deng, Xunming

191

general_atomics.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

former General former General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was constructed in 1959 and operated until 1991. The site encompassed approximately 7,400 square feet of laboratory and remote operations cells. Licensed operations at the facility included receipt, handling, and shipment of radioactive materials; remote handling, examination, and storage of previously irradiated nuclear fuel materials; pilot-scale tritium extraction operations; and development, fabrication, and inspection of uranium oxide-beryllium oxide fuel materials. General Atomics performed most of the work for the federal government. The General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was located in a 60-acre complex 13 miles northwest of downtown San Diego, 1 mile inland from the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 300 feet above sea level.

192

general_atomics.cdr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

former former General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was constructed in 1959 and operated until 1991. The site encompassed approximately 7,400 square feet of laboratory and remote operations cells. Licensed operations at the facility included receipt, handling, and shipment of radioactive materials; remote handling, examination, and storage of previously irradiated nuclear fuel materials; pilot-scale tritium extraction operations; and development, fabrication, and inspection of uranium oxide-beryllium oxide fuel materials. General Atomics performed most of the work for the federal government. The General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was located in a 60-acre complex 13 miles northwest of downtown San Diego, 1 mile inland from the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 300 feet above sea level. The General Atomics site is in the center of Torrey Mesa Science Center, a 304-acre industrial

193

New Nanostructured Li2S/Silicon Rechargeable Battery with High Specific Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the active electrode materials. KEYWORDS Energy storage, lithium-sulfur battery, mesoporous carbon, silicon. Current cathode materials, such as those based on transition metal oxides and phosphates, have an inherent T. McDowell,,§ Ariel Jackson,,§ Judy J. Cha, Seung Sae Hong, and Yi Cui*, Department of Materials

Cui, Yi

194

Optical Damage Threshold of Silicon for Ultrafast Infrared Pulses  

SciTech Connect

While silicon has several properties making it an attractive material for structure-based laser-driven acceleration, its optical damage threshold, a key parameter for high-gradient acceleration, has been unknown. Here we present measurements of the optical damage threshold of crystalline silicon for ultrafast pulses in the mid-infrared. The wavelengths tested span a range from the telecommunications band at 1550 nm extending longer toward the two-photon absorption threshold at around 2200 nm. We discuss the prevailing theories of ultrafast optical breakdown, describe the experimental setup and preliminary results, and propose a relevant performance parameter for candidate accelerator structures.

Cowan, B.; /SLAC

2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

195

A millimeter-wave antireflection coating for cryogenic silicon lenses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed and tested an antireflection (AR) coating method for silicon lenses at cryogenic temperatures and millimeter wavelengths. Our particular application is a measurement of the cosmic microwave background. The coating consists of machined pieces of Cirlex glued to the silicon. The measured reflection from an AR coated flat piece is less than 1.5% at the design wavelength. The coating has been applied to flats and lenses and has survived multiple thermal cycles from 300 to 4 K. We present the manufacturing method, the material properties, the tests performed, and estimates of the loss that can be achieved in practical lenses.

J. M. Lau; J. W. Fowler; T. A. Marriage; L. Page; J. Leong; E. Wishnow; R. Henry; E. Wollck; M. Halpern; D. Marsden; G. Marsden

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

196

Transmissive metallic contact for amorphous silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A transmissive metallic contact for amorphous silicon semiconductors includes a thin layer of metal, such as aluminum or other low work function metal, coated on the amorphous silicon with an antireflective layer coated on the metal. A transparent substrate, such as glass, is positioned on the light reflective layer. The metallic layer is preferably thin enough to transmit at least 50% of light incident thereon, yet thick enough to conduct electricity. The antireflection layer is preferably a transparent material that has a refractive index in the range of 1.8 to 2.2 and is approximately 550A to 600A thick.

Madan, A.

1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

197

Recent developments in silicon calorimetry  

SciTech Connect

We present a survey of some of the recent calorimeter applications of silicon detectors. The numerous attractive features of silicon detectors are summarized, with an emphasis on those aspects important to calorimetry. Several of the uses of this technology are summarized and referenced. We consider applications for electromagnetic calorimetry, hadronic calorimetry, and proposals for the SSC.

Brau, J.E.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Metal-like self-organization of periodic nanostructures on silicon and silicon carbide under femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

Periodic structures were generated on Si and SiC surfaces by irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses. Self-organized structures with spatial periodicity of approximately 600?nm appear on silicon and silicon carbide in the laser fluence range just above the ablation threshold and upon irradiation with a large number of pulses. As in the case of metals, the dependence of the spatial periodicity on laser fluence can be explained by the parametric decay of laser light into surface plasma waves. The results show that the proposed model might be universally applicable to any solid state material.

Gemini, Laura [Advanced Research Center for beam Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, 611-0011 Kyoto (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, 606-85802 Kyoto (Japan); FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic); HiLASE Project, Institute of Physics, ASCR, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Hashida, Masaki; Shimizu, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Shunsuke; Tokita, Shigeki; Sakabe, Shuji [Advanced Research Center for beam Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, 611-0011 Kyoto (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, 606-85802 Kyoto (Japan); Limpouch, Jiri [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic); Mocek, Tomas [HiLASE Project, Institute of Physics, ASCR, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

199

Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Print Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Print Nanostructured materials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoclusters, graphene) are attractive possible alternatives to traditionally microfabricated silicon in continuing the miniaturization trend in the electronics industry. To go from nanomaterials to electronics, however, the precise one-by-one assembly of billions of nanoelements into a functioning circuit is required-clearly not a simple task. An interdisciplinary team from the University of Washington, in collaboration with the ALS and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, has devised a strategy that could make this task a little easier. They have demonstrated the ability to directly "write" nanostructures of Si, Ge, and SiGe with deterministic size, geometry, and placement control. As purity is essential for electronic-grade semiconductors, the resulting patterns were carefully evaluated for carbon contamination using photoemission electron microscopes at ALS Beamlines 7.3.1 and 11.0.1.

200

(Research at and operation of the material science x-ray absorption beamline (X-11) at the National Synchrotron Light Source)  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses three projects at the Material Science X-Ray Absorption Beamline. Topics discussed include: XAFS study of some titanium silicon and germanium compounds; initial XAS results of zirconium/silicon reactions; and low angle electron yield detector.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

[Research at and operation of the material science x-ray absorption beamline (X-11) at the National Synchrotron Light Source]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses three projects at the Material Science X-Ray Absorption Beamline. Topics discussed include: XAFS study of some titanium silicon and germanium compounds; initial XAS results of zirconium/silicon reactions; and low angle electron yield detector.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fiber-reinforced silicon--silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon--silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Schenectady, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fiber-reinforced silicon-silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon-silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Crystalline silicon growth in nickel/a-silicon bilayer  

SciTech Connect

The effect of substrate temperature on amorphous Silicon crystallization, mediated by metal impurity is reported. Bilayers of Ni(200nm)/Si(400nm) are deposited on fused silica substrate by electron beam evaporator at 200 and 500 Degree-Sign C. Raman mapping shows that, 2 to 5 micron size crystalline silicon clusters are distributed over the entire surface of the sample. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies demonstrate silicon crystallizes over the metal silicide seeds and grow with the annealing temperature.

Mohiddon, Md Ahamad; Naidu, K. Lakshun [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India) and Department of Physics, University of Trento, 38123 POVO (Trento) (Italy); Dalba, G. [Department of Physics, University of Trento, 38123 POVO (Trento) (Italy); Rocca, F. [IFN-CNR, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Unit FBK-Photonics of Trento, 38123, Trento (Italy); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India)

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

205

Cordierite silicon nitride filters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. [Aerotherm Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. [GTE Products Corp., Towanda, PA (United States)

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Friction and wear behavior of in-situ reinforced silicon nitride. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Specimens of in-situ-reinforced silicon nitride (ISRSH) have been wear tested in lubricated, reciprocating, sliding motion against a silicon nitride counterface. Only mild wear of the ISRSN was observed at contact pressures up to 4.8 GPa at an average sliding velocity of 0.3 m/s. At 0.6 m/s, a wear mode transition was observed in ISRSN at 4.2 - 4.4 GPa. In comparison, the wear mode transition in silicon carbide whisker reinforced silicon nitride at both velocities was evident at about 2.2 - 2.4 GPa. Scanning electron microscopy of the ISRSN wear surfaces revealed the presence of a 40 pm thick debris layer on the mild wear tracks. The ISRSN wear mode transition response indicated a potential for an improved wear resistance in this material as compared to whisker reinforced silicon nitride.

Yust, C.S.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

Weiner, K.H.; Sigmon, T.W.

1996-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary from 1-1e4 are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

Weiner, Kurt H. (San Jose, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Phoenix, AZ)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Accurate calculations of neutron kerma (Kinetic Energy Released in MAterials) and damage from ENDF/B-VI evaluations for silicon, chromium, iron and nickel, and comparison with ENDF/B-V results  

SciTech Connect

Accurate calculations of kerma (Kinetic Energy Released in MAterials) factors and displacement cross sections are fundamental to studies of neutron heating and neutron radiation damage. Damage and heating studies are important elements in both fission and fusion reactor design. For fusion reactor studies, heating in the blanket helps determine the efficiency, and heating studies in the superconducting magnet regions determine properties of the blanket and shield, thereby affecting the economics of the reactor. Radiation damage is important for reactor core lifetime studies and is related directly to the economy and safety of both fusion and fission reactors. Calculation of kerma factors and displacement cross sections require nuclear data for neutron-induced reactions. These data are normally obtained from evaluated nuclear data libraries, such as ENDF/B (US), JENDL (Japan), JEF/EFF (Europe) and BROND (USSR). Unfortunately, most of these evaluated libraries do not contain sufficient information for a direct calculation of these quantities, and various approximations must be employed. The accuracy of the kerma factors and displacement cross sections, and thus the heating and damage functions, are directly related to the available information from the data libraries. In this paper we describe improvements incorporated in the latest version of the US library, ENDF/B-VI, which allow exact calculations of these quantities for many of the structural materials included in the library. 11 refs., 6 figs.

Larson, D.C.; Hetrick, D.M.; Fu, C.Y.; Epperson, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); MacFarlane, R.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Corrosion, Design and Materials: General and Pitting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...effect would be negligible. The rate of penetration is governed by pit geometry...larger than its diameter and the rate of penetration may be directly proportional...uniform attack occurs with a penetration rate of up to 0.08 mm per year...

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Corrosion, Design and Materials: General and Pitting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Hastelloys. In the gas turbine field the Nimonic...decisions is the planned life an(d the relation...noble component remaining behind, graphite...corrosion product by gas bubbles or suspended...I966) used for gas-turbine alloys. It is most...

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Time and Materials Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Contract No. DE-AC52- 06NA25396 between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and LANS. CONTRACTOR also means Subcontract...

213

Fabrication of porous silicon membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In step 1, the surface of silicon is covered with fluorine ions. In step 2, when an electric field is applied across the interface, holes move towards the surface. In step 3, some of the holes are trapped at the surface, and they weaken the silicon...-silicon bonds. In step 4, thermal energy swings away the Si-F groups exposing the holes. In step 5, fluorine ions occupy the holes and release their charges. In the dissolution, Step 3 through Step 5 is repeated, and SiFz is removed from the reacting site...

Yue, Wing Kong

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

214

Concentrator silicon cell research  

SciTech Connect

This project continued the developments of high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cells with the goal of achieving a cell efficiency in the 26 to 27 percent range at a concentration level of 150 suns of greater. The target efficiency was achieved with the new PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally diffused) cell structure, but only at low concentration levels around 20 suns. The PERL structure combines oxide passivation of both top and rear surfaces of the cells with small area contact to heavily doped regions on the top and rear surfaces. Efficiency in the 22 to 23 percent range was also demonstrated for large-area concentrator cells fabricated with the buried contact solar cell processing sequence, either when combined with prismatic covers or with other innovative approaches to reduce top contact shadowing. 19 refs.

Green, M.A.; Wenham, S.R.; Zhang, F.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Solar Photovoltaic Lab.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Silicone plesiotherapy molds  

SciTech Connect

Plesiotherapy, the treatment of superficial lesions by radioactive molds has largely been replaced by teletherapy techniques involving high energy photon and electron beams. There are, however, situations for which a short distance type treatment, in one form or another, is superior to any other presently available. Traditionally, molds have taken the form of rigid devices incorporating clamps to attach them to the patient. This ensures a reproducible geometry about a localized region since the molds are applied on a daily basis. To make such devices requires considerable skill and patience. This article describes an alternative method that eliminates the use of cumbersome devices in many situations. Silicone molds made from a plaster cast model have been found suitable for the treatment of surface lesions and especially for lesions in the oral and nasal cavities. With the use of radioactive gold seeds the molds may be left in place for a few days without fear of them moving.

Karolis, C.; Reay-Young, P.S.; Walsh, W.; Velautham, G.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Rheology of silicon carbide/vinyl ester nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New York, 1999. SILICON CARBIDE/VINYL ESTER NANOCOMPOSITESRheology of Silicon Carbide/Vinyl Ester NanocompositesABSTRACT: Silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles with no

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

3.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science, Fall 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This subject describes the fundamentals of bonding, energetics, and structure that underpin materials science. From electrons to silicon to DNA: the role of electronic bonding in determining the energy, structure, and ...

Marzari, Nicola

218

Fact Sheet: Award-Winning Silicon Carbide Power Electronics (October 2012)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Silicon Carbide Technology Breakthrough Silicon Carbide Technology Breakthrough Silicon carbide (SiC) is a semiconductor material under rapid development for use in power electronic (PE) systems due to its unique material and electronic properties. SiC potentially offers several advantages over conventional silicon (Si) for use in PE devices. Comparatively, individual SiC devices (in theory) can endure temperatures up to 600°C (standard Si PE devices are typically limited to 150°C), withstand more voltage, tolerate a larger current density, and operate at a higher frequency. This augmented performance of SiC devices in turn leads to PE devices that are significantly more energy efficient in their operation. Research and development is ongoing to produce SiC PE products with higher currents

219

Thin Single Crystal Silicon Solar Cells on Ceramic Substrates: November 2009 - November 2010  

SciTech Connect

In this program we have been developing a technology for fabricating thin (< 50 micrometres) single crystal silicon wafers on foreign substrates. We reverse the conventional approach of depositing or forming silicon on foreign substrates by depositing or forming thick (200 to 400 micrometres) ceramic materials on high quality single crystal silicon films ~ 50 micrometres thick. Our key innovation is the fabrication of thin, refractory, and self-adhering 'handling layers or substrates' on thin epitaxial silicon films in-situ, from powder precursors obtained from low cost raw materials. This 'handling layer' has sufficient strength for device and module processing and fabrication. Successful production of full sized (125 mm X 125 mm) silicon on ceramic wafers with 50 micrometre thick single crystal silicon has been achieved and device process flow developed for solar cell fabrication. Impurity transfer from the ceramic to the silicon during the elevated temperature consolidation process has resulted in very low minority carrier lifetimes and resulting low cell efficiencies. Detailed analysis of minority carrier lifetime, metals analysis and device characterization have been done. A full sized solar cell efficiency of 8% has been demonstrated.

Kumar, A.; Ravi, K. V.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Antifuse with a single silicon-rich silicon nitride insulating layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An antifuse is disclosed which has an electrically-insulating region sandwiched between two electrodes. The electrically-insulating region has a single layer of a non-hydrogenated silicon-rich (i.e. non-stoichiometric) silicon nitride SiN.sub.X with a nitrogen content X which is generally in the range of 0silicon. Arrays of antifuses can also be formed.

Habermehl, Scott D.; Apodaca, Roger T.

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Silicon Carbide, SiC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon carbide occurring naturally as hexagonal crystals and associated with diamond, graphite, and amorphous carbon was first reported in 1904/05 by Moissan as a component of the hydrochloric acid insoluble ...

Vera Haase; Gerhard Kirschstein; Hildegard List; Sigrid Ruprecht

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Materialism and materiality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accountants and auditors in recent financial scandals have been pictured as materialistic, simply calculating consequences and ignoring duties. This paper potentially explains this apparently materialistic behaviour in what has historically been a truthtelling profession. Materiality, which drives audit priorities, has been institutionalised in accounting and auditing standards. But a materiality focus inherently implies that all amounts that are not 'materially' misstated are equally true. This leads to habitual immaterial misstatements and promotes the view that auditors do not care about truth at all. Auditors' lack of commitment to truth undermines their claim to be professionals in the classic sense.

Michael K. Shaub

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Direct Production of Silicones From Sand  

SciTech Connect

Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

224

Directionally solidified materials | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Research Areas Research Highlights Facilities and Capabilities Science to Energy Solutions News & Awards Events and Conferences Supporting Organizations Clean Energy National Security Neutron Science Nuclear Science Supercomputing and Computation More Science Hubs, Centers and Institutes US ITER Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials SHARE Directionally solidified materials May 15, 2013 A false-color image of molybdenum pillars, formed as a grid of nearly defect-free single crystal rods, sticking out of a silicon carbide matrix. Through a process known as directional solidification, ORNL researchers have grown materials with micrometer-sized nearly-perfect "pillars." When they tested these materials, they found that the pillars had strength

225

Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

226

Large scale molecular dynamics modeling of materials fabrication processes  

SciTech Connect

An atomistic molecular dynamics model of materials fabrication processes is presented. Several material removal processes are shown to be within the domain of this simulation method. Results are presented for orthogonal cutting of copper and silicon and for crack propagation in silica glass. Both copper and silicon show ductile behavior, but the atomistic mechanisms that allow this behavior are significantly different in the two cases. The copper chip remains crystalline while the silicon chip transforms into an amorphous state. The critical stress for crack propagation in silica glass was found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment and a novel stick-slip phenomenon was observed.

Belak, J.; Glosli, J.N.; Boercker, D.B.; Stowers, I.F.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

General Engineers  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

General Engineers General Engineers The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the General Engineer, whose work is associated with analytical studies and evaluation projects pertaining to the operations of the energy industry. Responsibilities: General Engineers perform or participate in one or more of the following important functions: * Design modeling systems to represent energy markets and the physical properties of energy industries * Conceive, initiate, monitor and/or conduct planning and evaluation projects and studies of continuing and future

228

Hole Selective MoOx Contact for Silicon Solar Cells Corsin Battaglia,,,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hole Selective MoOx Contact for Silicon Solar Cells Corsin Battaglia,,, Xingtian Yin,,,§, Maxwell, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, United States § Electronic Materials Research

Javey, Ali

229

Spatially selective single-grain silicon films induced by hydrogen plasma seeding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spatially selective single-grain silicon films induced by hydrogen plasma seeding Xiang-Zheng Boa) Department of Electrical Engineering, Center for Photonics and Optoelectronic Materials, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Nan Yao Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New

230

Relaxation nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (R-NMRI) of desiccation in M9787 silicone pads.  

SciTech Connect

The production and aging of silicone materials remains an important issue in the weapons stockpile due to their utilization in a wide variety of components and systems within the stockpile. Changes in the physical characteristics of silicone materials due to long term desiccation has been identified as one of the major aging effects observed in silicone pad components. Here we report relaxation nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (R-NMRI) spectroscopy characterization of the silica-filled and unfilled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polydiphenylsiloxane (PDPS) copolymer (M9787) silicone pads within desiccating environments. These studies were directed at providing additional details about the heterogeneity of the desiccation process. Uniform NMR spin-spin relaxation time (T2) images were observed across the pad thickness indicating that the drying process is approximately uniform, and that the desiccation of the M9787 silicone pad is not a H2O diffusion limited process. In a P2O5 desiccation environment, significant reduction of T2 was observed for the silica-filled and unfilled M9787 silicone pad for desiccation up to 225 days. A very small reduction in T2 was observed for the unfilled copolymer between 225 and 487 days. The increase in relative stiffness with desiccation was found to be higher for the unfilled copolymer. These R-NMRI results are correlated to local changes in the modulus of the material

Alam, Todd M; Cherry, Brian Ray; Alam, Mary Kathleen

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Amorphous Silicon Based Neutron Detector  

SciTech Connect

Various large-scale neutron sources already build or to be constructed, are important for materials research and life science research. For all these neutron sources, neutron detectors are very important aspect. However, there is a lack of a high-performance and low-cost neutron beam monitor that provides time and temporal resolution. The objective of this SBIR Phase I research, collaboratively performed by Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE), the University of Toledo (UT) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is to demonstrate the feasibility for amorphous silicon based neutron beam monitors that are pixilated, reliable, durable, fully packaged, and fabricated with high yield using low-cost method. During the Phase I effort, work as been focused in the following areas: 1) Deposition of high quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films using very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) at high deposition rate and with low device shunting; 2) Fabrication of Si/SiO2/metal/p/i/n/metal/n/i/p/metal/SiO2/ device for the detection of alpha particles which are daughter particles of neutrons through appropriate nuclear reactions; and 3) Testing of various devices fabricated for alpha and neutron detection; As the main results: High quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films have been successfully deposited using VHF PECVD on various low-cost substrates; Various single-junction and double junction detector devices have been fabricated; The detector devices fabricated have been systematically tested and analyzed. Some of the fabricated devices are found to successfully detect alpha particles. Further research is required to bring this Phase I work beyond the feasibility demonstration toward the final prototype devices. The success of this project will lead to a high-performance, low-cost, X-Y pixilated neutron beam monitor that could be used in all of the neutron facilities worldwide. In addition, the technologies developed here could be used to develop X-ray and neutron monitors that could be used in the future for security checks at the airports and other critical facilities. The project would lead to devices that could significantly enhance the performance of multi-billion dollar neutron source facilities in the US and bring our nation to the forefront of neutron beam sciences and technologies which have enormous impact to materials, life science and military research and applications.

Xu, Liwei

2004-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

232

Materials and Transportation Services | The Ames Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials and Transportation Services General Information: Materials and Transportation Services provides Ames Laboratory employees with a wide array of services and support...

233

Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators  

SciTech Connect

Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

234

General Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... principally in the Journal of the Franklin Institute. These ideas relate to a study of thermodynamics from what the author calls a generalized point of view, which concerns itself with ... from what the author calls a generalized point of view, which concerns itself with the thermodynamics of metastable states and irreversible processes as wall as with the stable states and reversible ...

R. W. HAYWOOD

1956-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

235

BY SILICON CRYSTALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

c October 29, 1942 a 1 1 _MIGH aECTgFXCATIOH - BY SILICON CRYSTALS . . c .. I n. The excellent pesformmce of Brftieh "red dot" c r y s t a l s f e explained R R due t o the kgife edge contact i n a t A polfehod ~ X ' f l i C B o H i g h frequency m c t l f f c n t f o n 8ependre c r i t i c a l l y on the ape%e;y of the rectifytnc boundary layer o f the crystal, C, For hl#$ comvere~on e f f i c i e n c y , the product c d t h i ~ capacity m a o f ' t h e @forward" (bulk) re-. sistance Rb o f the crystnl must b@ sm%P, depende primarily on the breadth of tha b f f e edge i t s lbngth. The contact am &harefore ~ E L V Q a rather large area wMQh prevents burn-out, thh3 t h e breadth of &h@ knife edge should be bdt8~1 than E~$O$B% % f I - ' amo For a knife edge, this produet very 14ttle upom For a wavsIL~n+3tih of PO emo the eowp,o%a%8sne 4

236

Technological development for commercialization of amorphous silicon based multijunction modules  

SciTech Connect

Some of the significant steps in technological development for large-scale commercialization of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based multijunction photovoltaic modules are presented. These developments are establishing a high quality baseline process for manufacturing large-area ({approximately}8 ft{sup 2}) a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem junction modules with improved stabilized conversion efficiency, throughput, yield, and reduced materials usage.

Yang, L.; Bennett, M.; Chen, L. [Solarex, Newtown, PA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Formation of thin-film resistors on silicon substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The formation of thin-film resistors by the ion implantation of a metallic conductive layer in the surface of a layer of phosphosilicate glass or borophosphosilicate glass which is deposited on a silicon substrate. The metallic conductive layer materials comprise one of the group consisting of tantalum, ruthenium, rhodium, platinum and chromium silicide. The resistor is formed and annealed prior to deposition of metal, e.g. aluminum, on the substrate.

Schnable, George L. (Montgomery County, PA); Wu, Chung P. (Hamilton Township, Mercer County, NJ)

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Scientists seek nonlinear optical materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonlinear optical materials seem about to do for light what semiconductors already have done for electricity. ... Successful development of these materials could mean big payoffs in telecommunications, data processing, nuclear fusion, and applications of lasers in commerce and industry generally. ...

1982-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

239

Ceramic composites reinforced with modified silicon carbide whiskers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparaging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Lindemer, Terrence B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Composite materials comprising two jonal functions and methods for making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention generally relates to mechanisms for preventing undesirable oxidation (i.e., oxidation protection mechanisms) in composite bodies. The oxidation protection mechanisms include getterer materials which are added to the composite body which gather or scavenge undesirable oxidants which may enter the composite body. The getterer materials may be placed into at least a portion of the composite body such that any undesirable oxidant approaching, for example, a fiber reinforcement, would be scavenged by (e.g., reacted with) the getterer. The getterer materials) may form at least one compound which acts as a passivation layer, and/or is able to move by bulk transport (e.g., by viscous flow as a glassy material) to a crack, and sealing the crack, thereby further enhancing the oxidation protection of the composite body. One or more ceramic filler materials which serve as reinforcements may have a plurality of super-imposed coatings thereon, at least one of which coatings may function as or contain an oxidation protection mechanism. Specifically, a coating comprising boron nitride which has been engineered or modified to contain some silicon exhibits improved corrosion resistance, specifically to oxygen and moisture. The coated materials may be useful as reinforcing materials in high performance composites to provide improved mechanical properties such as fracture toughness. The present invention also relates to improved composites which incorporate these materials, and to their methods of manufacture.

Fareed, Ali Syed (Newark, DE); Garnier, John Edward (Newark, DE); Schiroky, Gerhard Hans (Newark, DE); Kennedy, Christopher Robin (Newark, DE); Sonuparlak, Birol (Longmont, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:49 Generic silicon solar cells showing +45°, -45°, and dendritic crack patterns. The effort to shift U.S. energy reliance from fossil fuels to renewable sources has spurred companies to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of their solar photovoltaics (SPVs). The use of thinner silicon in SPV technologies is being widely adopted because it significantly reduces costs; however, silicon is brittle, and thinner silicon, coupled with other recent trends in SPV technologies (thinner glass, lighter or no metal frames, increased use of certain polymers for encapsulation of the silicon cells), is more susceptible to stress and cracking. When the thin

242

Nucleation and solidification of silicon for photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The majority of solar cells produced today are made with crystalline silicon wafers, which are typically manufactured by growing a large piece of silicon and then sawing it into ~200 pm wafers, a process which converts ...

Appapillai, Anjuli T. (Anjuli Tara)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Becancour Silicon Inc BSI | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Name: Becancour Silicon Inc (BSI) Place: St. Laurent, Quebec, Canada Zip: H4M2M4 Sector: Solar Product: Canadian supplier of silicon metal for the...

244

ARM - Public Information Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govPublicationsPublic Information Materials govPublicationsPublic Information Materials Publications Journal Articles Conference Documents Program Documents Technical Reports Publications Database Public Information Materials Image Library Videos Publication Resources Submit a Publication Publishing Procedures ARM Style Guide (PDF, 448KB) Acronyms Glossary Logos Contacts RSS for Publications Public Information Materials The ARM Climate Research Facility develops public information materials to communicate the purpose and objectives of the program to general audiences. These materials are designed to increase awareness of ARM Climate Research Facility goals and to document its scientific results to a lay audience. Public information materials include fact sheets, brochures, CDs, videos, press releases, and information packets. Approved materials are made

245

Silicon crystal growing by oscillating crucible technique  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing silicon crystals from a molten melt comprising oscillating the container during crystal growth is disclosed.

Schwuttke, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Smetana, P.

1983-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

246

System and method for liquid silicon containment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding member adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

247

System and method for liquid silicon containment  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding ember adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

248

Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space (La Canada, CA); Koliwad, Krishna M. (La Canada, CA); Daud, Taher (La Crescenta, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Prealloyed catalyst for growing silicon carbide whiskers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A prealloyed metal catalyst is used to grow silicon carbide whiskers, especially in the .beta. form. Pretreating the metal particles to increase the weight percentages of carbon or silicon or both carbon and silicon allows whisker growth to begin immediately upon reaching growth temperature.

Shalek, Peter D. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Niagara Falls, NY); Hurley, George F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Silicon solar cells: state of the art  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Roberto Amendolia and Can Li Silicon solar cells: state of the art Martin A. Green...majority of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells produced to date have been based...this point are also explored. solar cells|silicon solar cells|silicon...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Crystalline-Silicon/Organic Heterojunctions for Solar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-semiconductors is potentially cheaper, but the organic solar cells are not very efficient. In this thesis we explore if organic semiconductors can be integrated with silicon to form hybrid organic/silicon solar cells that are both efficient, a silicon/organic heterojunction solar cell with an open-circuit voltage of 0.59 V and power conversion

252

Electronic properties of microcrystalline silicon  

SciTech Connect

The electronic and optical properties of microcrystalline silicon films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition are investigated with Hall-effect, electrical conductivity, photothermal deflection spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. In particular, the influence of the grain size and the crystalline volume fraction on the conductivity, the carrier density and the Hall mobility is investigated in highly doped films. A percolation model is proposed to describe the observed transport data. Photoluminescence properties were studied in undoped films. It is proposed that the photoluminescence is due to recombination at structural defects similar to those observed in crystalline silicon.

Carius, R.; Finger, F.; Backhausen, U.; Luysberg, M.; Hapke, P.; Houben, L.; Otte, M.; Overhof, H.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Flight capabilities of high-speed-missile radome materials  

SciTech Connect

Flight-performance modeling is conducted to compare the qualities of four radome materials in the light of three radome materials currently in use. The current radome materials are slip-cast fused silica, Rayceram 8, and Pyroceram 9606, and the ceramics tested for possible application are celsian, nitroxyceram, hot-pressed silicon nitride, and reaction-bonded silicon nitride. A computer model called URLIM for performing time-dependent heating analyses for radome geometries is described, and a radome model is defined for each material and flown on a thermally stressful trajectory. The materials are evaluated in terms of thermal stress, boresight error slope change, erosion resistance, and nuclear blast. The mixed results show that: (1) slip-cast fused silica shows good electrical and mechanical performance; (2) hot-pressed silicon nitride offers good erosion resistance; and (3) cordierites provide poor electrical performance. 10 refs.

Kouroupis, J.B. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Silicon-based silicongermaniumtin heterostructure photonics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Bordas, GC Roelkens, HPMM Ambrosius, P Thijs, F Karouta, and MK Smit. 2011 Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes...Sorger, VJ , ND Lanzilloti-Kimura, RM Ma, and X Zhang. 2012 Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Beyond Silicon: Cutting the Costs of Solar Power | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond Silicon: Cutting the Costs of Solar Power Beyond Silicon: Cutting the Costs of Solar Power Stories of Discovery & Innovation Beyond Silicon: Cutting the Costs of Solar Power Enlarge Photo Courtesy of University of Illinois Mechanically flexible, high efficiency solar module that uses an interconnected array of microscale GaAs photovoltaic cells, grown in a multilayer stack on a wafer and then printed onto a sheet of plastic. Enlarge Photo 04.15.11 Beyond Silicon: Cutting the Costs of Solar Power New method of fabricating semiconductors from gallium arsenide promises more affordable solar power, improved semiconductor devices. The biggest single barrier to widespread adoption of solar power continues to be the cost of solar cells. University of Illinois materials scientists supported by the DOE Office of Science have scored a

256

Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

Iverson, Daniel C. (Aiken, SC)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

Iverson, D.C.

1987-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

258

Nanomaterials for Energy and Electronics Materials Science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

crystalline silicon solar cells suffer from both high materials costs and energy-intensive production-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on oxide semiconductors and organic dyes have recently emerged as a promising Synthesis of ZnO Aggregates and Their Application in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Nanomaterials for Energy

Cao, Guozhong

259

Silicon-Based Thermoelectrics: Harvesting Low Quality Heat Using Economically Printed Flexible Nanostructured Stacked Thermoelectric Junctions  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UIUC is experimenting with silicon-based materials to develop flexible thermoelectric deviceswhich convert heat into energythat can be mass-produced at low cost. A thermoelectric device, which resembles a computer chip, creates electricity when a different temperature is applied to each of its sides. Existing commercial thermoelectric devices contain the element tellurium, which limits production levels because tellurium has become increasingly rare. UIUC is replacing this material with microscopic silicon wires that are considerably cheaper and could be equally effective. Improvements in thermoelectric device production could return enough wasted heat to add up to 23% to our current annual electricity production.

None

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Silicon nanoparticle and carbon nanotube loaded carbon nanofibers for use in lithium-ion battery anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this report, we introduce electrospun silicon nanoparticle and carbon nanotube loaded carbon nanofibers (SCNFs) as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The one-dimensional structure of electrospun nanofibers provides porosity for the anode material. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the electrospun fibers reduce the volume expansion of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) and improve mechanical stability of the electrode. Both \\{CNTs\\} and carbon nanofibers enhance electronic conduction by connecting SiNPs in \\{SCNFs\\} for electrode reactions. These contribute to improved electrochemical performance of SCNF anode-based \\{LIBs\\} resulting in the enhancement of capacity and cycling ability.

Nguyen Trung Hieu; Jungdon Suk; Dong Wook Kim; Ok Hee Chung; Jun Seo Park; Yongku Kang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Method for processing silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

262

General Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ASD General Information ASD General Information APS Resources & Information A list of useful links for APS staff and users. APS Technical Publications Links to APS technical publications. APS Publications Database The official and comprehensive source of references for APS-related journal articles, conference papers, book chapters, dissertations, abstracts, awards, invited talks, etc. Image Library A collection of APS images. Responsibilities & Interfaces for APS Technical Systems Descriptions of the responsibilities of APS technical groups and how they interface with one another. APS Procedures Operational procedures for the APS. APS Specifications Specifications and approvals for upgrades or changes to existing APS hardware and software. APS Radiation Safety Policy & Procedures Committee Minutes

263

Amorphous silicon technology  

SciTech Connect

The growth methods discussed in this volume include both regular and remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), catalytic CVD (CTLCVD), atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD), very high frequency plasma CVD (VHCVD) and magnetron sputtering. Some of the papers discuss the use of disilane to increase growth rates. The general questions of the kinetics of film growth is an important topic of discussion in this volume. Several mechanisms for monitoring film growth and lasma diagnostics are also topics of discussion.

Madan, A. (Glasstech Solar, Inc., Wheatridge, CO (USA)); Thompson, M.J. (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, CA (USA)); Taylor, P.C. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US)); LeComber, P.G. (Univ. of Dundee, Dundee (GB)); Hamakawa, Y. (Osaka Univ., Osaka (JP))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Infrared birefringence imaging of residual stress and bulk defects in multicrystalline silicon  

SciTech Connect

This manuscript concerns the application of infrared birefringence imaging (IBI) to quantify macroscopic and microscopic internal stresses in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cell materials. We review progress to date, and advance four closely related topics. (1) We present a method to decouple macroscopic thermally-induced residual stresses and microscopic bulk defect related stresses. In contrast to previous reports, thermally-induced residual stresses in wafer-sized samples are generally found to be less than 5 MPa, while defect-related stresses can be several times larger. (2) We describe the unique IR birefringence signatures, including stress magnitudes and directions, of common microdefects in mc-Si solar cell materials including: {beta}-SiC and {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} microdefects, twin bands, nontwin grain boundaries, and dislocation bands. In certain defects, local stresses up to 40 MPa can be present. (3) We relate observed stresses to other topics of interest in solar cell manufacturing, including transition metal precipitation, wafer mechanical strength, and minority carrier lifetime. (4) We discuss the potential of IBI as a quality-control technique in industrial solar cell manufacturing.

Ganapati, Vidya; Schoenfelder, Stephan; Castellanos, Sergio; Oener, Sebastian; Koepge, Ringo; Sampson, Aaron; Marcus, Matthew A.; Lai, Barry; Morhenn, Humphrey; Hahn, Giso; Bagdahn, Joerg; Buonassisi1, Tonio

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

265

Method for fabricating silicon cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon. 9 figs.

Ruby, D.S.; Basore, P.A.; Schubert, W.K.

1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

266

Optical absorption in amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

The role that disorder plays in shaping the form of the optical absorption spectrum of hydrogenated amorphous silicon is investigated. Disorder leads to a redistribution of states, which both reduces the Tauc gap and broadens the absorption tail. The observed relationship between the Tauc gap and the breadth of the absorption tail is thus explained.

O`Leary, S.K.; Zukotynski, S.; Perz, J.M.; Sidhu, L.S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

Lantz, Jeffrey W. (Albuquerque, NM); Stalford, Harold L. (Norman, OK)

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

268

Dispersion toughened silicon carbon ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fracture resistant silicon carbide ceramics are provided by incorporating therein a particulate dispersoid selected from the group consisting of (a) a mixture of boron, carbon and tungsten, (b) a mixture of boron, carbon and molybdenum, (c) a mixture of boron, carbon and titanium carbide, (d) a mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and (e) boron nitride. 4 figures.

Wei, G.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Silicon Sensors for Trackers at High-Luminosity Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The planned upgrade of the LHC accelerator at CERN, namely the high luminosity (HL) phase of the LHC (HL-LHC foreseen for 2023), will result in a more intense radiation environment than the present tracking system was designed for. The required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers at the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments will include higher granularity and radiation hard sensors. The radiation hardness of the new sensors must be roughly an order of magnitude higher than the one of LHC detectors. To address this, a massive R&D program is underway within the CERN RD50 collaboration "Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders" to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. Research topics include the improvement of the intrinsic radiation tolerance of the sensor material and novel detector designs with benefits like reduced trapping probability (thinned and 3D sensors), maximized sensitive area (active edge sensors) and enhanced charge carrier generation (sensors with intrinsic gain). A review of the recent results from both measurements and TCAD simulations of several detector technologies and silicon materials at radiation levels expected for HL-LHC will be presented.

Timo Peltola

2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

270

Materials Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science Materials Science Materials Science1354608000000Materials ScienceSome of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access./No/Questions? 667-5809library@lanl.gov Materials Science Some of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access. Key Resources Data Sources Reference Organizations Journals Key Resources CINDAS Materials Property Databases video icon Thermophysical Properties of Matter Database (TPMD) Aerospace Structural Metals Database (ASMD) Damage Tolerant Design Handbook (DTDH) Microelectronics Packaging Materials Database (MPMD) Structural Alloys Handbook (SAH) Proquest Technology Collection Includes the Materials Science collection MRS Online Proceedings Library Papers presented at meetings of the Materials Research Society Data Sources

271

Narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprising an alloy of amorphous silicon and a band gap narrowing element selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ge, and Pb, with an electron donor dopant selected from the group consisting of P, As, Sb, Bi and N. The process for producing the narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprises the steps of forming an alloy comprising amorphous silicon and at least one of the aforesaid band gap narrowing elements in amount sufficient to narrow the band gap of the silicon semiconductor alloy below that of amorphous silicon, and also utilizing sufficient amounts of the aforesaid electron donor dopant to maintain the amorphous silicon alloy as an n-type semiconductor.

Madan, A.; Mahan, A.H.

1985-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

272

Influence Of Ultrasonic Waves On The Formation Of High Pores Silicon Carbide  

SciTech Connect

The Challenge to produce a quality Silicon Carbide that combination high surface area is promising and this material can be used in many application such as Hydrogen storage materials. Synthesis of high surface area carbon materials by selective etching of Silicon Carbide with choric acid while exposing ultrasonic wave have been made.Powder Of Sic (surface area 17.8 m{sup 2}/g) was treated in the chloric acetic as well as their mixture of various compositions and various time exposure of ultrasonic waves. Surface area and pore size can be controlled by temperature and concentration composition of Chloric and time exposure of ultrasonic wave.The resultant carbon and carbon-silicon carbide composite powders were characterized X-ray diffraction and Electron microscope. To determine a conversion degree of silicon carbide due to influence of the ultrasonic wave, the samples were annealed in open air at 1000 deg. C. There by carbon component of the carbon/silicon carbide composite was completely oxidized. The analysis of the samples shows the strong influence of time exposure of ultrasonic waves on the formation of pores.

Toana, Musfirah C. F. [Physics Dept. University of Tadulako (Indonesia); Soegijono, B.; Hikam, M. [Physics Dept. University of Indonesia (Indonesia)

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

273

Effects of surface grinding conditions on the reciprocating friction and wear behavior of silicon nitride  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between two significantly different surface grinding conditions and the reciprocating ball-on-flat friction and wear behavior of a high-quality, structural silicon nitride material (GS-44) was investigated. The slider materials were silicon nitride NBD 200 and 440C stainless steel. Two machining conditions were selected based on extensive machining and flexural strength test data obtained under the auspices of an international, interlaboratory grinding study. The condition categorized as {open_quotes}low strength{close_quote} grinding used a coarse 80 grit wheel and produced low flexure strength due to machining-induced flaws in the surface. The other condition, regarded as {open_quotes}high strength grinding,{close_quotes} utilized a 320 grit wheel and produced a flexural strength nearly 70% greater. Grinding wheel surface speeds were 35 and 47 m/s. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted following the procedure described in a newly-published ASTM standard (G- 133) for linearly-reciprocating wear. Tests were performed in directions both parallel and perpendicular to the grinding marks (lay) using a 25 N load, 5 Hz reciprocating frequency, 10 mm stroke length, and 100 m of sliding at room temperature. The effects of sliding direction relative to the lay were more pronounced for stainless steel than for silicon nitride sliders. The wear of stainless steel was less than the wear of the silicon nitride slider materials because of the formation of transfer particles which covered the sharp edges of the silicon nitride grinding grooves and reduced abrasive contact. The wear of the GS-44 material was much greater for the silicon nitride sliders than for the stainless steel sliders. The causes for the effects of surface-grinding severity and sliding direction on friction and wear of GS-44 and its counterface materials are explained.

Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Zanoria, E.S.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

First-principles Approaches to Simulate Lithiation in Silicon Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silicon is viewed as an excellent electrode material for lithium batteries due to its high lithium storage capacity. Various Si nano-structures, such as Si nanowires, have performed well as lithium battery anodes and have opened up exciting opportunities for the use of Si in energy storage devices. The mechanism of lithium insertion and the interaction between Li and the Si electrode must be understood at the atomic level; this understanding can be achieved by first-principles simulation. Here, first-principles computations of lithiation in silicon electrodes are reviewed. The review focuses on three aspects: the various properties of bulk Li-Si compounds with different Li concentrations, the electronic structure of Si nanowires and Li insertion behavior in Si nanowires, and the dynamic lithiation process at the Li/Si interface. Potential study directions in this research field and difficulties that the field still faces are discussed at the end.

Zhang, Qianfan; Wang, Enge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Silicon buried gratings for dielectric laser electron accelerators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes design and simulations of dielectric laser electron accelerators that achieve Gigavolt-per-meter (GV/m) accelerating gradients and wide electron channels (>1??m). The accelerator design is based on a silicon buried grating structure that enables flexible phase synchronization, large electron channel fields, and low standing-wave ratio in the material. This design increases the accelerating gradients to more than double those of reported quartz grating accelerators, thereby reducing the input laser fluence by 60% for the same accelerating gradient. With a 100 fs pulsed laser, our silicon buried gratings can achieve a maximum gradient of 1.1 GV/m, indicating that these accelerators have potential for numerous electron-accelerator applications.

Chang, Chia-Ming, E-mail: cachang@alumni.stanford.edu [Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, 791 Holmdel Road, Holmdel, New Jersey 07733 (United States); Solgaard, Olav [E. L. Ginzton Lab., Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

276

General Engineer / Physical Scientist (Classification Analyst)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A successful candidate in this position will serve as a General Engineer or Physical Scientist in the Materials Control & Accountability and Information Security Branch, Office of Assistant...

277

Interdisciplinary General Engineer/Physical Scientist  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A successful candidate in this position will serve as an Interdisciplinary General Engineer/Physical Scientist supporting advanced lightweight materials technology development and manufacturing...

278

Montana Produced Water General Permit - Example Authorization...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water General Permit - Example Authorization Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Supplemental Material: Montana...

279

Photoluminescence properties and crystallization of silicon quantum dots in hydrogenated amorphous Si-rich silicon carbide films  

SciTech Connect

Silicon quantum dots (QDs) embedded in hydrogenated amorphous Si-rich silicon carbide (?-SiC:H) thin films were realized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process and post-annealing. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the room-temperature photoluminescence properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the element compositions and bonding configurations. Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, Raman scattering, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to display the microstructural properties. Photoluminescence measurements reveal that there are six emission sub-bands, which behave in different ways. The peak wavelengths of sub-bands P1, P2, P3, and P6 are pinned at about 425.0, 437.3, 465.0, and 591.0?nm, respectively. Other two sub-bands, P4 is red-shifted from 494.6 to 512.4?nm and P5 from 570.2 to 587.8?nm with temperature increasing from 600 to 900?C. But then are both blue-shifted, P4 to 500.2?nm and P5 to 573.8?nm from 900 to 1200?C. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that the samples are in Si-rich nature, Si-O and Si-N bonds consumed some silicon atoms. The structure characterization displays that a separation between silicon phase and SiC phase happened; amorphous and crystalline silicon QDs synthesized with increasing the annealing temperature. P1, P2, P3, and P6 sub-bands are explained in terms of defect-related emission, while P4 and P5 sub-bands are explained in terms of quantum confinement effect. A correlation between the peak wavelength shift, as well as the integral intensity of the spectrum and crystallization of silicon QDs is supposed. These results help clarify the probable luminescence mechanisms and provide the possibility to optimize the optical properties of silicon QDs in Si-rich ?-SiC: H materials.

Wen, Guozhi [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, Hubei 430023 (China); Zeng, Xiangbin, E-mail: eexbzeng@mail.hust.edu.cn; Wen, Xixin; Liao, Wugang [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

280

Reference Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reference Materials There are a variety of reference materials the NSSAB utilizes and have been made available on its website. Documents Fact Sheets - links to Department of Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Materials Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Materials Science National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos...

282

Material efficiency in a multi-material world  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...complex policies and political forces. The overall goal here is...share many of the same driving forces-the materials we use and...materials. Recalling that the fundamental goal of material efficiency...cycle data system (ILCD) handbook-general guide for life cycle...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Amorphous silicon passivated contacts for diffused junction silicon solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carrier recombination at the metal contacts is a major obstacle in the development of high-performance crystalline silicon homojunction solar cells. To address this issue we insert thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H(i)] passivating films between the dopant-diffused silicon surface and aluminum contacts. We find that with increasing a-Si:H(i) interlayer thickness (from 0 to 16?nm) the recombination loss at metal-contacted phosphorus (n+) and boron (p+) diffused surfaces decreases by factors of ?25 and ?10 respectively. Conversely the contact resistivity increases in both cases before saturating to still acceptable values of ? 50 m? cm2 for n+ and ?100 m? cm2 for p+ surfaces. Carrier transport towards the contacts likely occurs by a combination of carrier tunneling and aluminum spiking through the a-Si:H(i) layer as supported by scanning transmission electron microscopyenergy dispersive x-ray maps. We explain the superior contact selectivity obtained on n+ surfaces by more favorable band offsets and capture cross section ratios of recombination centers at the c-Si/a-Si:H(i) interface.

J. Bullock; A. Cuevas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Amorphous silicon passivated contacts for diffused junction silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Carrier recombination at the metal contacts is a major obstacle in the development of high-performance crystalline silicon homojunction solar cells. To address this issue, we insert thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H(i)] passivating films between the dopant-diffused silicon surface and aluminum contacts. We find that with increasing a-Si:H(i) interlayer thickness (from 0 to 16?nm) the recombination loss at metal-contacted phosphorus (n{sup +}) and boron (p{sup +}) diffused surfaces decreases by factors of ?25 and ?10, respectively. Conversely, the contact resistivity increases in both cases before saturating to still acceptable values of ? 50 m? cm{sup 2} for n{sup +} and ?100 m? cm{sup 2} for p{sup +} surfaces. Carrier transport towards the contacts likely occurs by a combination of carrier tunneling and aluminum spiking through the a-Si:H(i) layer, as supported by scanning transmission electron microscopyenergy dispersive x-ray maps. We explain the superior contact selectivity obtained on n{sup +} surfaces by more favorable band offsets and capture cross section ratios of recombination centers at the c-Si/a-Si:H(i) interface.

Bullock, J., E-mail: james.bullock@anu.edu.au; Yan, D.; Wan, Y.; Cuevas, A. [Research School of Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Demaurex, B.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; De Wolf, S. [cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of micro engineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronic Laboratory, Maladire 71, CH-200 Neuchtel (Switzerland)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

285

Study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the application to p-channel thin film transistor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The material and process characteristics of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD) have been studied. The goal is to apply the high quality films...

Nominanda, Helinda

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

286

Inspector General  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of the Under Secretary for Nuclear Security Edward B. Held (Acting) Under Secretary for Nuclear Security DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of the Under Secretary for Management & Performance Vacant Under Secretary for Management and Performance Office of the Under Secretary for Science & Energy Vacant Under Secretary for Science and Energy Southwestern Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Southeastern Power Administration U.S. Energy Information Administration Loan Programs Office Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy General Counsel Assistant Secretary for Congressional & Intergovernmental Affairs Chief Human Capital Officer

287

Formation of multiple levels of porous silicon for buried insulators and conductors in silicon device technologies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of forming a multiple level porous silicon substrate for semiconductor integrated circuits including anodizing non-porous silicon layers of a multi-layer silicon substrate to form multiple levels of porous silicon. At least one porous silicon layer is then oxidized to form an insulating layer and at least one other layer of porous silicon beneath the insulating layer is metallized to form a buried conductive layer. Preferably the insulating layer and conductive layer are separated by an anodization barrier formed of non-porous silicon. By etching through the anodization barrier and subsequently forming a metallized conductive layer, a fully or partially insulated buried conductor may be fabricated under single crystal silicon.

Blewer, Robert S. (Albuquerque, NM); Gullinger, Terry R. (Albuquerque, NM); Kelly, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Sylvia S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Spectral Reflectance of Silicon Photodiodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction Silicon photodiodes are among the most popular photodetectors that combine high performance over a wide wavelength range with unparalleled ease of use. High-quality photodiodes, in the form of a trap detector, 1,2 have many significant applications in precision radiometry. Their predictable responsivity in visible and near-infrared ~NIR! wavelengths allows the realization of high-accuracy spectral responsivity scales. 3,4 The spectral responsivity scales can be utilized in, for example, realization of luminous intensity 5,6 and spectral irradiance scales. 7,8 The spectral responsivity of a silicon photodiode is determined by the reflectance of the diode surface r~l! and the internal quantum deficiency d~l!. The values of d~l! and r~l! can be extrapolated 4 by mathematical models. To extrapolate the val

Atte Haapalinna; Petri Krh; Erkki Ikonen

289

Silicon nanocrystals as light sources: stable, efficient and fast photoluminescence with suitable passivation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon optoelectronics is an emerging technological platform, which holds promise for providing better performance, mostly in terms of lower dissipation losses, than the traditional electronics. However, a monolithic integrated light source is still missing since bulk silicon is a very poor light emitter due to its indirect bandgap. The situation dramatically changes when the size of the crystal is reduced down into nanometric dimension (<5 nm), when efficient room-temperature luminescence of these tiny silicon nanocrystals sets in. In this contribution, we present a study of silicon nanocrystals as light sources. We compare the photoluminescence properties of silicon nanocrystals with three different types of surface passivation (hydrogen, silicon oxide and methyl-based capping), which has substantial impact. We show that with sufficiently small sizes and suitable surface passivation, the photoluminescence properties of silicon nanocrystals can reach a level comparable with direct-bandgap semiconductor nanocrystals (radiative lifetime of 10 ns, stable macroscopic quantum yield of 20%). Apart from studying photoluminescence properties on a macroscopic level, we also carried out microscopical room-temperature single-nanocrystal photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments. These spectra revealed the occurrence of a fine structure (peaks 150 meV apart), practically identical with a structure already observed in single-nanocrystal spectra of silicon by other groups and very similar to a structure observed in a fundamentally different type of semiconductor nanocrystals (IIVI material). We propose that all these observations are linked with the same process, most probably the emission of trions in nanocrystals, although further measurements are necessary to support this claim.

Kateř ina Ků sová

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Diamond-silicon carbide composite and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Uniformly dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites having high hardness, high fracture toughness, and high thermal stability are prepared by consolidating a powder mixture of diamond and amorphous silicon. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPam.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness.

Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

291

Silicon Nanowires for Non-Volatile Memory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silicon Nanowires for Non-Volatile Memory P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Curt A. Richter (NIST) C O L approaches for silicon nanowire non-volatile memory. K E Y A C C O M P L I S H M E N T S Fabricated novel non-volatile memory cells with silicon nanowire channels and Al2 O3 /HfO2 /SiO2 gate dielectric storage stacks

292

Elucidating the contact mechanics of aluminum silicon surfaces with Green's function molecular dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7, Canada Yue Qi and Thomas A. Perry Materials from lightweight Al-Si alloys with the required wear and scuff- ing properties continues to reduce wear damage to the aluminum matrix. [2, 3] Thus, these hard silicon particles (hardness 12 GPa

Mueser, Martin

293

Highly Ordered Vertical Silicon Nanowire Array Composite Thin Films for Thermoelectric Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highly Ordered Vertical Silicon Nanowire Array Composite Thin Films for Thermoelectric Devices for thermoelectric devices are presented. Inter- ference lithography was used to pattern square lattice photoresist. The Si NW arrays were embedded in SOG to form a dense and robust composite material for device

Bowers, John

294

Transition metal interaction and Ni-Fe-Cu-Si phases in silicon T. Buonassisi,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

precipitation may reduce the lattice mismatch compared to single-metal precipitates, rendering mixed-metal-silicide recombination activity of metal silicide clusters. Common solar cell materials are not contaminated with justTransition metal interaction and Ni-Fe-Cu-Si phases in silicon M. Heuer,a T. Buonassisi,b A. A

295

Impurity-defect interaction in polycrystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. The role of hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the cell ? ii) Will the defects of the polycrystalline material hinder the photovoltaic properties..., leading also to a degradation of the efficiency of the photovoltaic cells ? iii) What would655 Impurity-defect interaction in polycrystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. The role

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

296

Micro-Raman spectroscopy of refractive index microstructures in silicone-based hydrogel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Micro-Raman spectroscopy of refractive index microstructures in silicone-based hydrogel polymers 26, 2009 (Doc. ID 102944); published March 3, 2009 Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to study transparent hydro- gel polymer materials through a high (or medium) nu- merical aperture (NA) objective

Novotny, Lukas

297

Estimation of solidification interface shapes in a boronphosphorus compensated multicrystalline silicon ingot via photoluminescence imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0200, Australia b APOLLON SOLAR, 66 Cours Charlemagne, 69002 Lyon, France a r t i c l e i n f o Article solar cells from this kind of material lies in the ability of the silicon growth process to obtain presented to attach cameras on two sides of a transparent furnace, allowing interface shapes to be estimated

298

Microstructure and properties of IN SITU toughened silicon carbide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN SITU TOUGHENED SILICON CARBIDE LUTGARD C. DE JONGHE 1,2 ,In Situ Toughened Silicon Carbide Lutgard C. De Jonghe 1,2 ,USA ABSTRACT A silicon carbide with a fracture toughness as

De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Zhang, Xiao Feng

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Efficient light trapping structure in thin film silicon solar cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin film silicon solar cells are believed to be promising candidates for continuing cost reduction in photovoltaic panels because silicon usage could be greatly reduced. Since silicon is an indirect bandgap semiconductor, ...

Sheng, Xing

300

Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 X Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide Alexander S velocity and 17 #12;Properties and Applications of Silicon Carbide390 reaction rate throughout the mixture by graphite during SHS of carbides. Local reaction initiation is typically accomplished by hot tungsten wire

Mukasyan, Alexander

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An iron-based alloy is described containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100 C. 8 figures.

Natesan, K.

1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

302

Structural alloy with a protective coating containing silicon or silicon-oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an iron-based alloy containing chromium and optionally, nickel. The alloy has a surface barrier of silicon or silicon plus oxygen which converts at high temperature to a protective silicon compound. The alloy can be used in oxygen-sulfur mixed gases at temperatures up to about 1100{degrees}C.

Natesan, K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

General Category  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Density and Centripet Demonstration Density and Centripet Demonstration Name: Howard Status: teacher Grade: 4-5 Location: CT Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: I am trying to create a teaching tool that shows how blood separates in a centrifuge. I want to be able to shake up three liquids in a sealed jar and then have them separate into three component levels after a minute or so--like blood does in a centrifuge. I can do this with water and red food coloring (representing red blood cells) and vegetable oil (representing blood plasma), but I cannot figure out what a third white liquid (representing white blood cells) would be and that third liquid needs to float above the water. Any ideas? Replies: Use a solid material to represent blood cells and dye your water white. Maybe a fine red sand for blood cells?

304

Silicon Nanophotonics: The Optical Spice Rack  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon is evolving as a versatile photonic platform with multiple functionalities that can be seamlessly integrated. We have recently demonstrated the ability to guide and switch...

Lipson, Michal

305

Surface alloying of silicon into aluminum substrate.  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum alloys that are easily castable tend to have lower silicon content and hence lower wear resistance. The use of laser surface alloying to improve the surface wear resistance of 319 and 320 aluminum alloys was examined. A silicon layer was painted onto the surface to be treated. A high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiberoptic beam delivery was used to carry out the laser surface treatment to enhance the silicon content. Process parameters were varied to minimize the surface roughness from overlap of the laser beam treatment. The surface-alloyed layer was characterized and the silicon content was determined.

Xu, Z.

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

306

Synthesis and characterization of silicon phthalocyanines bearing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthesis and characterization of silicon phthalocyanines bearing axial phenoxyl groups for attachment to semiconducting metal oxides Authors: Bergkamp, J. J., Sherman, B. D.,...

307

Silicon-Graphene Anodes | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silicon-Graphene Anodes Technology available for licensing: Provides low-cost production process. Advanced gas phase deposition process yields anodes with five times the specific...

308

Silicon Photonics for Modulation, Switching, and Tuning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal and electro-refractive silicon photonic modulators, switches, and tunable filters have been demonstrated with ultralow switching energies and high-speed operation. These...

Watts, Michael

309

Innovation and Social Capital in Silicon Valley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Innovation and Social Capital in Silicon Valley * BRIEpath from social capital to innovation has been identified.social capital has for economic development and innovation.

Kenney, Martin; Patton, Donald

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Hybrid Silicon NanoconePolymer Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hybrid Silicon NanoconePolymer Solar Cells ... In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. ...

Sangmoo Jeong; Erik C. Garnett; Shuang Wang; Zongfu Yu; Shanhui Fan; Mark L. Brongersma; Michael D. McGehee; Yi Cui

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

311

Apparatus for obtaining silicon from fluosilicic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for producing low cost, high purity solar grade silicon ingots in single crystal or quasi single crystal ingot form in a substantially continuous operation in a two stage reactor starting with sodium fluosilicate and a metal more electropositive than silicon (preferably sodium) in separate compartments having easy vapor transport therebetween and thermally decomposing the sodium fluosilicate to cause formation of substantially pure silicon and a metal fluoride which may be continuously separated in the melt and silicon may be directly and continuously cast from the melt.

Sanjurjo, Angel (San Jose, CA)

1986-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

312

Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from inexpensive low-grade silicon. Artist's impression of an intense beam of synchrotron light striking a solar cell and the resulting fluorescence image of the distribution of...

313

Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cracking problem in silicon cell technology," says Budiman. "The ALS provides us with a light that allows us to measure and characterize molecular stress in a very quantitative...

314

General Category  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sunrise and Sunset Visual Differences Sunrise and Sunset Visual Differences Name: Joey Status: other Grade: other Country: Canada Date: Spring 2012 Question: It seems that sunrise and sunset don't look symmetric. I mean that sunsets tend to have much redder skies and sunrise is usually a bit gloomier. If you see a picture, many times you can tell if its sunrise or sunset, even though I would think they should like identical, except that the sun is either going up or going down. Why do they not appear the same but in reverse? Replies: Funny you should ask as a paper just arrived which is sure to have the answer and I will read it now....... OK, the morning sky, and the sky in general, is blue due to Rayleigh scattering [which affects short wavelengths the most] of the sun light by air molecules and other microscopic particles.

315

Experimental studies of radiation damage of silicon detectors. Internal report  

SciTech Connect

New particle physics experiments are correlated with high luminosity and/or high energy. The new generation of colliding beam machines which will be constructed will make an extrapolation of a factor of 100 in the center of mass energy and of 1000 in luminosity beyond present accelerators. The scientific community hopes that very exciting physics results could be achieved this way, from the solution to the problem of electroweak symmetry breaking to the possible discovery of new, unpredicted phenomena. The particles which compose the radiation field are: electrons, pions, neutrons, protons and photons. It has become evident that the problem of the radiation resistance of detectors in this severe environment is a crucial one. This situation is complicated more by the fact that detectors must work all the run time of the machine, and better all the time of the experiment, without replacement (part or whole). So, studies related to the investigation of the radiation hardness of all detector parts, are developing. The studies are in part material and device characterization after irradiation, and in part technological developments, made in order to find harder, cheaper technologies, for larger surfaces. Semiconductor detectors have proven to be a good choice for vertex and calorimeter. Both fixed target machines and colliders had utilized in the past silicon junction detectors as the whole or part of the detection system. Precision beam hodoscopes and sophisticated trigger devices with silicon are equally used. The associated electronics in located near the detectors, and is subjected to the same radiation fields. Studies of material and device radiation hardness are developing in parallel. Here the authors present results on the radiation hardness of silicon, both as a bulk material and as detectors, to neutron irradiation at high fluences.

Angelescu, T.; Ghete, V.M.; Ghiordanescu, N.; Lazanu, I.; Mihul, A. [Univ. of Bucharest (Romania); Golutvin, I.; Lazanu, S.; Savin, I.; Vasilescu, A. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Biggeri, U.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M. [Univ. of Florence (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Li, Z.; Kraner, H.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Advanced Measurements of Silicon Carbide Ceramic Matrix Composites  

SciTech Connect

Silicon carbide (SiC) is being considered as a fuel cladding material for accident tolerant fuel under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program sponsored by the Nuclear Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Silicon carbide has many potential advantages over traditional zirconium based cladding systems. These include high melting point, low susceptibility to corrosion, and low degradation of mechanical properties under neutron irradiation. In addition, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) made from SiC have high mechanical toughness enabling these materials to withstand thermal and mechanical shock loading. However, many of the fundamental mechanical and thermal properties of SiC CMCs depend strongly on the fabrication process. As a result, extrapolating current materials science databases for these materials to nuclear applications is not possible. The Advanced Measurements work package under the LWRS fuels pathway is tasked with the development of measurement techniques that can characterize fundamental thermal and mechanical properties of SiC CMCs. An emphasis is being placed on development of characterization tools that can used for examination of fresh as well as irradiated samples. The work discuss in this report can be divided into two broad categories. The first involves the development of laser ultrasonic techniques to measure the elastic and yield properties and the second involves the development of laser-based techniques to measurement thermal transport properties. Emphasis has been placed on understanding the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of SiC CMCs in regards to thermal and mechanical properties. The material properties characterized within this work package will be used as validation of advanced materials physics models of SiC CMCs developed under the LWRS fuels pathway. In addition, it is envisioned that similar measurement techniques can be used to provide process control and quality assurance as well as measurement of in-service degradation. Examples include composite density, distribution of porosity, fiber-matrix bond character, uniformity of weave, physical damage, and joint quality at interface bonds.

Farhad Farzbod; Stephen J. Reese; Zilong Hua; Marat Khafizov; David H. Hurley

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

318

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon Nanowire...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Energy Storage Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Silicon Nanowire Anodes for...

319

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2012: Silicon Nanostructure...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Office Merit Review 2012: Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2012: Silicon Nanostructure-based...

320

Atomistic modeling of amorphous silicon carbide using a bond...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

modeling of amorphous silicon carbide using a bond-order potential. Atomistic modeling of amorphous silicon carbide using a bond-order potential. Abstract: Molecular dynamics...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Fact Sheet: Award-Winning Silicon Carbide Power Electronics ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Award-Winning Silicon Carbide Power Electronics (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Award-Winning Silicon Carbide Power Electronics (October 2012) Operating at high temperatures and with...

322

Amorphization of Silicon Carbide by Carbon Displacement. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Silicon Carbide by Carbon Displacement. Amorphization of Silicon Carbide by Carbon Displacement. Abstract: We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine the possibility...

323

Irradiation-induced defect clustering and amorphization in silicon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation-induced defect clustering and amorphization in silicon carbide. Irradiation-induced defect clustering and amorphization in silicon carbide. Abstract: Previous computer...

324

Silicon Nanoparticle Synthesis and Modeling for Thin Film Solar Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Nanometer-scale silicon shows extraordinary electronic and optical properties that are not available for bulk silicon, and many investigations toward applications in optoelectronic devices are being (more)

Albu, Zahra

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Studying The Kinetics Of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Studying The Kinetics Of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation With In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy. Studying The Kinetics Of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle...

326

athermal silicon microring: Topics by E-print Network  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Websites Summary: . If it is applied in direct contact to silicon, this intrinsic tensile stress can result in a high mechanical stress in the underlying silicon...

327

Hydrogen Bubbles and Formation of Nanoporous Silicon during Electroche...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bubbles and Formation of Nanoporous Silicon during Electrochemical Etching. Hydrogen Bubbles and Formation of Nanoporous Silicon during Electrochemical Etching. Abstract: Many...

328

Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes. Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes....

329

Assembly and magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles on silicon nanowires  

SciTech Connect

The directed assembly of magnetic Ni nanoparticles at the tips of silicon nanowires is reported. Using electrodeposition Ni shells of thickness from 10 to 100 nm were selectively deposited on Au catalytic seeds at the ends of nanowires. Magnetic characterization confirms a low coercivity ({approx}115 Oe) ferromagnetic behavior at 300 K. This approach to multifunctional magnetic-semiconducting nanostructure assembly could be extended to electrodeposition of other materials on the nanowire ends, opening up novel ways of device integration. Such magnetically functionalized nanowires offer a new approach to developing novel highly localized magnetic probes for high resolution magnetic resonance force microscopy.

Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manandhar, Pradeep [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nazaretski, E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Diffusion and effusion of hydrogen in microcrystalline silicon  

SciTech Connect

The diffusion and effusion of hydrogen in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon films deposited in an electron cyclotron resonance reactor were studied for various deposition temperatures T{sub s}. For deposition temperatures below 250 C, hydrogen effusion is found to be dominated by desorption of hydrogen from internal surfaces followed by rapid out-diffusion of H{sub 2}. Higher substrate temperatures result in an increased hydrogen stability suggesting the growth of a more compact material. For this latter type of samples, a hydrogen diffusion coefficient similar as in compact plasma-grown a-Si:H films is found despite a different predominant bonding of hydrogen according to infrared absorption.

Beyer, W.; Hapke, P.; Zastrow, U.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

PROPERTIES OF DEFECTS AND IMPLANTS IN Mg+ IMPLANTED SILICON CARBIDE  

SciTech Connect

As a candidate material for fusion reactor designs, silicon carbide (SiC) under high-energy neutron irradiation undergoes atomic displacement damage and transmutation reactions that create magnesium as one of the major metallic products. The presence of Mg and lattice disorder in SiC is expected to affect structural stability and degrade thermo-mechanical properties that could limit SiC lifetime for service. We have initiated a combined experimental and computational study that uses Mg+ ion implantation and multiscale modeling to investigate the structural and chemical effects in Mg implanted SiC and explore possible property degradation mechanisms.

Jiang, Weilin; Zhu, Zihua; Varga, Tamas; Bowden, Mark E.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

332

III-V Growth on Silicon Toward a Multijunction Cell  

SciTech Connect

A III-V on Si multijunction solar cell promises high efficiency at relatively low cost. The challenges to epitaxial growth of high-quality III-Vs on Si, though, are extensive. Lattice-matched (LM) dilute-nitride GaNPAs solar cells have been grown on Si, but their performance is limited by defects related to the nitrogen. Advances in the growth of lattice-mismatched (LMM) materials make more traditional III-Vs, such as GaInP and GaAsP, very attractive for use in multijunction solar cells on silicon.

Geisz, J.; Olson, J.; McMahon, W.; Friedman, D.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Young, M.; Duda, A.; Ward, S.; Ptak, A.; Kurtz, S.; Wanlass, M.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H.; Norman, A.; Jones, K.; Romero, M.; Reedy, B.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Physical understanding and modeling of chemical mechanical planarization in dielectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has become the enabling planarization technique of choice for current and emerging silicon integrated circuit (IC) fabrication processes. This work studies CMP in dielectric materials ...

Xie, Xiaolin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Nanostructured silicon thin films deposited by PECVD in the presence of silicon nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured silicon thin films have been deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at low substrate temperature (100 C) in the presence of silicon nanoparticles. The nanostructure of the films was revealed by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, which showed ordered silicon domains (1--2 nm) embedded in an amorphous silicon matrix. These ordered domains are due to the particles created in the discharge that contribute to the film growth. One consequence of the incorporation of nanoparticles is the accelerated crystallization of the nanostructured silicon thin films when compared to standard a-Si:H, as shown by the electrical characterization during the annealing.

Viera, G.; Cabarrocas, P.R.; Hamma, S.; Sharma, S.N.; Costa, J.; Bertran, E.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Development of Spintronic Bandgap Materials  

SciTech Connect

The development of Ge/Si quantum dots with high spatial precision has been pursued, with the goal of developing a platform for spintronics bandgap materials. Quantum dots assemblies were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on carbon-templated silicon substrates. These structures were characterized by atomic force microscopy. Vertically gated structures were created on systems with up to six well-defined quantum dots with a controlled geometric arrangement, and low-temperature (mK) transport experiments were performed. These experiments showed evidence for a crossover from diamagnetic to Zeeman energy shifts in resonant tunneling of electrons through electronic states in the quantum dots.

Levy, Jeremy; Awschalom, David; Floro, Jerrold

2014-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

336

Materializing energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motivated and informed by perspectives on sustainability and design, this paper draws on a diverse body of scholarly works related to energy and materiality to articulate a perspective on energy-as-materiality and propose a design approach of ... Keywords: design, design theory, energy, materiality, sustainability

James Pierce; Eric Paulos

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Thermoelectric materials having porosity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

338

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, J.M.

1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

339

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Hybrid sol-gel optical materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Ultralow-Power Silicon Microphotonic Communications Platform  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultralow-Power Silicon Ultralow-Power Silicon Microphotonic Communications Platform 1 R&D 100 Entry Ultralow-Power Silicon Microphotonic Communications Platform 2 R&D 100 Entry Submitting Organization Sandia National Laboratories P. O. Box 5800 Albuquerque New Mexico 87185-1082 USA Michael R. Watts Phone: (505) 284-9616 Fax: (505) 284-7690 mwatts@sandia.gov AFFIRMATION: I affirm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is a fair and accurate representation of this product. _____________________________ Michael R. Watts Joint Entry Not applicable Product Name Ultralow-Power Silicon Microphotonic Communications Platform Brief Description We have developed an ultralow-power, high-bandwidth silicon microphotonic communications platform that addresses the bandwidth and power consumption

343

Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

344

Magnetoplasticity and diffusion in silicon single crystals  

SciTech Connect

The effect of static magnetic fields on the dynamics of surface dislocation segments, as well as the diffusion mobility of a dopant in silicon single crystals, has been analyzed. It has been experimentally found that the preliminary treatment of p-type silicon plates (the dopant is boron with a concentration of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) in the static magnetic field (B = 1 T, a treatment time of 30 min) leads to an increase in the mobility of surface dislocation segments. The characteristic times of observed changes (about 80 h) and the threshold dopant concentration (10{sub 15} cm{sup -3}) below which the magneto-optical effect in silicon is not fixed have been determined. It has been found that diffusion processes in dislocation-free silicon are magnetically sensitive: the phosphorus diffusion depth in p-type silicon that is preliminarily aged in the static magnetic field increases (by approximately 20%) compared to the reference samples.

Skvortsov, A. A., E-mail: SkvortsovAA2009@yandex.ru; Karizin, A. V. [Moscow State Technical University 'MAMI' (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Performance of MHD insulating materials in a potassium environment  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to evaluate the compatibility of the MHD insulating materials boron nitride and silicon nitride in a potassium environment at temperatures of 1000 and 1400{degrees}F (538 and 760{degrees}C, respectively) and to measure the electrical conductivities of the specimens before and after exposure to potassium. Based on the test results, an assessment is to be made of the suitability of these materials for application as insulator materials in an MHD channel.

Natesan, K.; Park, J.H.; Rink, D.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Thomas, C.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Sampling artifacts from conductive silicone tubing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sampling artifacts from conductive silicone tubing Sampling artifacts from conductive silicone tubing Title Sampling artifacts from conductive silicone tubing Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Timko, Michael T., Zhenhong Yu, Jesse Kroll, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Richard C. Miake-Lye, Timothy B. Onasch, David Liscinsky, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Hugo Destaillats, Amara L. Holder, Jared D. Smith, and Kevin R. Wilson Journal Aerosol Science and Technology Volume 43 Issue 9 Pagination 855-865 Date Published 06/03/2009 Abstract We report evidence that carbon impregnated conductive silicone tubing used in aerosol sampling systems can introduce two types of experimental artifacts: (1) silicon tubing dynamically absorbs carbon dioxide gas, requiring greater than 5 minutes to reach equilibrium and (2) silicone tubing emits organic contaminants containing siloxane that are adsorbed onto particles traveling through it and onto downstream quartz fiber filters. The consequence can be substantial for engine exhaust measurements as both artifacts directly impact calculations of particulate mass-based emission indices. The emission of contaminants from the silicone tubing can result in overestimation of organic particle mass concentrations based on real-time aerosol mass spectrometry and the off-line thermal analysis of quartz filters. The adsorption of siloxane contaminants can affect the surface properties of aerosol particles; we observed a marked reduction in the water-affinity of soot particles passed through conductive silicone tubing. These combined observations suggest that the silicone tubing artifacts may have wide consequence for the aerosol community and the tubing should, therefore, be used with caution. Contamination associated with the use of silicone tubing was observed at ambient temperature and, in some cases, was enhanced by mild heating (<70°C) or pre-exposure to a solvent (methanol). Further evaluation is warranted to quantify systematically how the contamination responds to variations in system temperature, physicochemical particle properties, exposure to solvent, sample contact time, tubing age, and sample flow rates.

347

Correlation between radiation processes in silicon and long-time degradation of detectors for high energy physics experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this contribution, the correlation between fundamental interaction processes induced by radiation in silicon and observable effects which limit the use of silicon detectors in high energy physics experiments is investigated in the frame of a phenomenological model which includes: generation of primary defects at irradiation starting from elementary interactions in silicon; kinetics of defects, effects at the p-n junction detector level. The effects due to irradiating particles (pions, protons, neutrons), to their flux, to the anisotropy of the threshold energy in silicon, to the impurity concentrations and resistivity of the starting material are investigated as time, fluence and temperature dependences of detector characteristics. The expected degradation of the electrical parameters of detectors in the complex hadron background fields at LHC & SLHC are predicted.

Lazanu, S; Lazanu, Sorina; Lazanu, Ionel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Correlation between radiation processes in silicon and long-time degradation of detectors for high energy physics experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this contribution, the correlation between fundamental interaction processes induced by radiation in silicon and observable effects which limit the use of silicon detectors in high energy physics experiments is investigated in the frame of a phenomenological model which includes: generation of primary defects at irradiation starting from elementary interactions in silicon; kinetics of defects, effects at the p-n junction detector level. The effects due to irradiating particles (pions, protons, neutrons), to their flux, to the anisotropy of the threshold energy in silicon, to the impurity concentrations and resistivity of the starting material are investigated as time, fluence and temperature dependences of detector characteristics. The expected degradation of the electrical parameters of detectors in the complex hadron background fields at LHC & SLHC are predicted.

Sorina Lazanu; Ionel Lazanu

2006-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

349

ALS Ceramics Materials Research Advances Engine Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ALS Ceramics Materials Research ALS Ceramics Materials Research Advances Engine Performance ALS Ceramics Materials Research Advances Engine Performance Print Thursday, 27 September 2012 00:00 ritchie ceramics This 3D image of a ceramic composite specimen imaged under load at 1750C shows the detailed fracture patterns that researchers are able to view using ALS Beamline 8.3.2. The vertical white lines are the individual silicon carbide fibers in this sample about 500 microns in diameter. LBNL senior materials scientist and U.C. Berkeley professor Rob Ritchie has been researching the fracture behavior of a wide array of materials for the past 40 years, the last ten of them using the facilities at the ALS. From human bone to synthetic engineering materials such as shape-memory metals

350

ALS Ceramics Materials Research Advances Engine Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ALS Ceramics Materials Research ALS Ceramics Materials Research Advances Engine Performance ALS Ceramics Materials Research Advances Engine Performance Print Thursday, 27 September 2012 00:00 LBNL senior materials scientist and UC Berkeley professor Rob Ritchie has been researching the fracture behavior of a wide array of materials for the past 40 years, the last ten of them using the facilities at the ALS. From human bone to synthetic engineering materials such as shape-memory metals and composites, Ritchie has illuminated groundbreaking cracking patterns and the underlying mechanistic processes using the x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography at ALS Beamline 8.3.2. Summary Slide ritchie ceramics This 3D image of a ceramic composite specimen imaged under load at 1750C shows the detailed fracture patterns that researchers are able to view using ALS Beamline 8.3.2. The vertical white lines are the individual silicon carbide fibers in this sample about 500 microns in diameter.

351

EMSL: Science: Energy Materials and Processes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Materials & Processes Energy Materials & Processes Energy Materials logo TEM image In situ transmission electron microscopy at EMSL was used to study structural changes in the team’s new anode system. Real-time measurements show silicon nanoparticles inside carbon shells before (left) and after (right) lithiation. Energy Materials and Processes focuses on the dynamic transformation mechanisms and physical and chemical properties at critical interfaces in catalysts and energy materials needed to design new materials and systems for sustainable energy applications. By facilitating the development and rapid dissemination of critical molecular-level information along with predictive modeling of interfaces and their unique properties EMSL helps enable the design and development of practical, efficient, environmentally

352

ALS Ceramics Materials Research Advances Engine Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ALS Ceramics Materials Research ALS Ceramics Materials Research Advances Engine Performance ALS Ceramics Materials Research Advances Engine Performance Print Thursday, 27 September 2012 00:00 ritchie ceramics This 3D image of a ceramic composite specimen imaged under load at 1750C shows the detailed fracture patterns that researchers are able to view using ALS Beamline 8.3.2. The vertical white lines are the individual silicon carbide fibers in this sample about 500 microns in diameter. LBNL senior materials scientist and U.C. Berkeley professor Rob Ritchie has been researching the fracture behavior of a wide array of materials for the past 40 years, the last ten of them using the facilities at the ALS. From human bone to synthetic engineering materials such as shape-memory metals

353

Growth of silicon quantum dots by oxidation of the silicon nanocrystals embedded within silicon carbide matrix  

SciTech Connect

A moderately low temperature (?800 C) thermal processing technique has been described for the growth of the silicon quantum dots (Si-QD) within microcrystalline silicon carbide (?c-SiC:H) dielectric thin films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process. The nanocrystalline silicon grains (nc-Si) present in the as deposited films were initially enhanced by aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) method in vacuum at a temperature of T{sub v} = 525 C. The samples were then stepwise annealed at different temperatures T{sub a} in air ambient. Analysis of the films by FTIR and XPS reveal a rearrangement of the ?c-SiC:H network has taken place with a significant surface oxidation of the nc-Si domains upon annealing in air. The nc-Si grain size (D{sub XRD}) as calculated from the XRD peak widths using Scherrer formula was found to decrease from 7 nm to 4 nm with increase in T{sub a} from 250 C to 800 C. A core shell like structure with the nc-Si as the core and the surface oxide layer as the shell can clearly describe the situation. The results indicate that with the increase of the annealing temperature in air the oxide shell layer becomes thicker and the nc-Si cores become smaller until their size reduced to the order of the Si-QDs. Quantum confinement effect due to the SiO covered nc-Si grains of size about 4 nm resulted in a photoluminescence peak due to the Si QDs with peak energy at 1.8 eV.

Kole, Arindam; Chaudhuri, Partha, E-mail: erpc@iacs.res.in [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Fundamnetal chemistry of silicon CVD  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Model CVD reactor studies and UHV surface adsorption kinetic measurements are a powerful combination for investigation of the chemical mechanisms active in thermal silicon CVD from silane. We use the model reactor to separate two regimes of pressure and temperature in which SiH4 heterogeneous decomposition or homogeneous pyrolysis chemistry dominate the observed silicon film growth kinetics. Residence time of SiH4 in the reactor hot zone and total pressure are essential quantities distinguishing the two regimes. Growth rates are controlled by surface SiH4 adsorption kinetics in the heterogeneous regime. The regime we call the homogeneous regime is dominated by adsorption kinetics of higher silanes SinH2n+2. UHV adsorption kinetic measurements comparing SiH4 Si2H6 and Si3H8 chemisorption on clean well defined single crystal surfaces are useful in understanding the two regimes. The UHV studies also demonstrate the necessity of considering the competitive adsorption of SiH4 with the higher silanes in film growth rate measurements because of homogenous reactions forming higher silanes from SiH4 under certain reactor conditions and because of trace disilane impurities commonly present in commercially available SiH4.

S. M. Gates; B. A. Scott; R. D. Estes

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Mechanical Research and Development of monocrystalline silicon neutron beam window for CSNS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The monocrystalline silicon neutron beam window is one of the key components of neutron spectrometers and thin circular plate.Monocrystalline silicon is a brittle material and its strength is not constant but is consistent with the Weibull distribution. The window is designed not simply through the average strength, but according to the survival rate. Bending deformation is the main form of the window, so dangerous parts of the neutron beam window is stress-linearized to the combination of membrane stress and bending stress. According to the Weibull distribution of bending strength of monocrystalline silicon based on a large number of experimental data, finally the optimized neutron beam window is 1.5mm thick. Its survival rate is 0.9994 and its transmittance is 0.98447; it meets both physical requirements and the mechanical strength.

Liang, Zhou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Anisotropy and crystal orientation of silicon--application to the modeling of a bent mirror  

SciTech Connect

Matrix formula and MATLAB algorithm are proposed to calculate the stiffness coefficient matrix C, the Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson ratio for the silicon crystal in any orientation. Results for Si(110) and Si(311) are given as an example. The anisotropic material properties of the silicon have been used in the mirror width profile optimization for the nano-imaging end-station ID22NI at the ESRF. As the Si(110) is used as the substrate of this multilayer coated KB mirror, the silicon crystal axis [0 0 1] is proposed to orient to the mirror axis. This is the case to have low stress in the mirror and low bending forces from actuators.

Zhang Lin [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

357

Mechanical Research and Development of monocrystalline silicon neutron beam window for CSNS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The monocrystalline silicon neutron beam window is one of the key components of neutron spectrometers and thin circular plate.Monocrystalline silicon is a brittle material and its strength is not constant but is consistent with the Weibull distribution. The window is designed not simply through the average strength, but according to the survival rate. Bending deformation is the main form of the window, so dangerous parts of the neutron beam window is stress-linearized to the combination of membrane stress and bending stress. According to the Weibull distribution of bending strength of monocrystalline silicon based on a large number of experimental data, finally the optimized neutron beam window is 1.5mm thick. Its survival rate is 0.9994 and its transmittance is 0.98447; it meets both physical requirements and the mechanical strength.

Zhou Liang; Qu Hua-Min

2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

358

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

360

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

Wei, Ying [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Cooling Enhancement Using Inhomogeneous Thermoelectric Materials Zhixi Bian and Ali Shakouri  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling Enhancement Using Inhomogeneous Thermoelectric Materials Zhixi Bian and Ali Shakouri Baskin The maximum cooling temperature of a thermoelectric refrigerator made of uniform bulk material is limited for a thermoelectric cooler based on single crystal silicon. Maximum Cooling of Thermoelectric Materials It is well

364

Advanced Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Express Licensing Active Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Express Licensing Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, And Membrane Express Licensing Analysis Of Macromolecule, Liggands And Macromolecule-Lingand Complexes Express Licensing Carbon Microtubes Express Licensing Chemical Synthesis Of Chiral Conducting Polymers Express Licensing Forming Adherent Coatings Using Plasma Processing Express Licensing Hydrogen Scavengers Express Licensing Laser Welding Of Fused Quartz Express Licensing Multiple Feed Powder Splitter Negotiable Licensing Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement Negotiable Licensing Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Negotiable Licensing Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Express Licensing Method of Synthesis of Proton Conducting Materials

365

Critical Materials:  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

lighting. 14 (bottom) Criticality ratings of shortlisted raw 76 materials. 15 77 2. Technology Assessment and Potential 78 This section reviews the major trends within...

366

Gelcasting of CRYSTAR{reg_sign} silicon carbide ceramics. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to assess the applicability the gelcasting process for forming ceramic green bodies using Saint-Gobain/Norton Industrial Ceramics Corporation`s proprietary CRYSTAR{reg_sign} silicon carbide powder. A gelcasting process, specifically tailored to Saint-Gobain/Norton`s powder composition, was developed and used successfully to form green bodies for property evaluation. This preliminary evaluation showed that the gelcast material had characteristics and properties comparable to Norton`s baseline material. Wafer carrier molds were received from Norton for gelcasting a complex-shaped configuration with CRYSTAR{reg_sign} silicon carbide. Gelcasting experiments showed that Norton`s standard plaster of paris molds were incompatible with the gelcasting process. Mold surface treatments and the use of alternative castable mold materials were investigated, however, a successful process was not identified. The highest quality parts were cast in either glass or aluminum molds.

Nunn, S.D.; Willkens, C.A.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Surface Modification of Silicone Elastomer Using Perfluorinated Ether  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a silicone-coated substrate.29 In addition, higher molecular weight perfluoropolyethers have been included

Chaudhury, Manoj K.

368

Femtosecond-laser Microstructuring of Silicon for Novel Optoelectronic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Femtosecond-laser Microstructuring of Silicon for Novel Optoelectronic Devices A thesis presented Femtosecond-laser Microstructuring of Silicon for Novel Optoelectronic Devices Eric Mazur James E. Carey III silicon and reports on its first application in optoelectronic devices. Irradia- tion of a silicon surface

Mazur, Eric

369

Kerfless Silicon Precursor Wafer Formed by Rapid Solidification: October 2009 - March 2010  

SciTech Connect

1366 Direct Wafer technology is an ultra-low-cost, kerfless method of producing crystalline silicon wafers compatible with the existing dominant silicon PV supply chain. By doubling utilization of silicon and simplifying the wafering process and equipment, Direct Wafers will support drastic reductions in wafer cost and enable module manufacturing costs < $1/W. This Pre-Incubator subcontract enabled us to accelerate the critical advances necessary to commercialize the technology by 2012. Starting from a promising concept that was initially demonstrated using a model material, we built custom equipment necessary to validate the process in silicon, then developed sufficient understanding of the underlying physics to successfully fabricate wafers meeting target specifications. These wafers, 50 mm x 50 mm x 200 ..mu..m thick, were used to make prototype solar cells via standard industrial processes as the project final deliverable. The demonstrated 10% efficiency is already impressive when compared to most thin films, but still offers considerable room for improvement when compared to typical crystalline silicon solar cells.

Lorenz, A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

A review on plasma-assisted VLS synthesis of silicon nanowires and radial junction solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Incorporation of nanostructures is a recent trend in the photovoltaic community, aimed at improving light absorption and consequently cell efficiency. In this regard, semiconductor nanowires provide an attractive research platform for a new generation of cost-effective and efficient solar cells. Thanks to their unique geometry, silicon nanowires enhance light trapping and anti-reflection effects by means of multiple scattering between individual nanowires, and by coupling the light into confined eigenmodes over a broad range of the solar spectrum. Moreover, radial junction solar cells built around nanowires decouple the light absorption and carrier collection directions, which allows for a higher internal field and better carrier collection. Thus, arrays of radial junction solar cells bring advantages of high efficiency with reduced material amount. This is particularly attractive for devices based on hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon thin films. In this paper, after reviewing different approaches to fabricate silicon nanowires, we focus on nanowires grown using the plasma-assisted vapourliquidsolid method because of the simplicity and compatibility with current silicon thin-film technology. Their application to a-Si?:?H based radial junction solar cells has already resulted in ~8% of stable devices with an absorber layer thickness of only 100nm. Moreover, current challenges and perspectives such as the use of a microcrystalline silicon absorber are also reviewed.

Soumyadeep Misra; Linwei Yu; Wanghua Chen; Martin Foldyna; Pere Roca i Cabarrocas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Material and processes selection in conceptual design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Materials and manufacturing processes are an integral part of the design of a product. The need to combine materials and manufacturing processes selection during the early stages of the design has previously been realized. The work that generally...

Krishnakumar, Karthikeyan

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

372

Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials by Design  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

According to the Materials Genome Initiative, it generally requires more than 20 years to develop and implement a new or improved material for automotive applications. To accelerate this process,...

373

Mechanisms for Fatigue of Micron-Scale Silicon StructuralFilms  

SciTech Connect

Although bulk silicon is not susceptible to fatigue,micron-scale silicon is. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explainthis surprising behavior although the issue remains contentious. Here wedescribe published fatigue results for micron-scale thin siliconfilms andfind that in general they display similar trends, in that lower cyclicstresses result in larger number of cycles to failure in stress-lifetimedata. We further show that one of two classes of mechanisms is invariablyproposed to explain the phenomenon. The first class attributes fatigue toa surface effect caused by subcritical (stable) cracking in thesilicon-oxide layer, e.g., reaction-layer fatigue; the second classproposes that subcritical cracking in the silicon itself is the cause offatigue in Si films. It is our contention that results to date fromsingle and poly crystalline silicon fatigue studies provide no convincingexperimentalevidence to support subcritical cracking in the silicon.Conversely, the reaction-layer mechanism is consistent with existingexperimental results, and moreover provides a rational explanation forthe marked difference in fatigue behavior of bulk and micron-scalesilicon.

Alsem, Daan Hein; Pierron, Olivier N.; Stach, Eric A.; Muhlstein,Christopher L.; Ritchie, Robert O.

2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

374

Process for forming silicon carbide films and microcomponents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon carbide films and microcomponents are grown on silicon substrates at surface temperatures between 900 K and 1700 K via C.sub.60 precursors in a hydrogen-free environment. Selective crystalline silicon carbide growth can be achieved on patterned silicon-silicon oxide samples. Patterned SiC films are produced by making use of the high reaction probability of C.sub.60 with silicon at surface temperatures greater than 900 K and the negligible reaction probability for C.sub.60 on silicon dioxide at surface temperatures less than 1250 K.

Hamza, Alex V. (Livermore, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Moalem, Mehran (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Process for forming silicon carbide films and microcomponents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon carbide films and microcomponents are grown on silicon substrates at surface temperatures between 900 K and 1700 K via C{sub 60} precursors in a hydrogen-free environment. Selective crystalline silicon carbide growth can be achieved on patterned silicon-silicon oxide samples. Patterned SiC films are produced by making use of the high reaction probability of C{sub 60} with silicon at surface temperatures greater than 900 K and the negligible reaction probability for C{sub 60} on silicon dioxide at surface temperatures less than 1250 K. 5 figs.

Hamza, A.V.; Balooch, M.; Moalem, M.

1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

376

Process for producing amorphous and crystalline silicon nitride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing amorphous or crystalline silicon nitride is disclosed which comprises reacting silicon disulfide ammonia gas at elevated temperature. In a preferred embodiment silicon disulfide in the form of "whiskers" or needles is heated at temperature ranging from about 900.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to produce silicon nitride which retains the whisker or needle morphological characteristics of the silicon disulfide. Silicon carbide, e.g. in the form of whiskers, also can be prepared by reacting substituted ammonia, e.g. methylamine, or a hydrocarbon containing active hydrogen-containing groups, such as ethylene, with silicon disulfide, at elevated temperature, e.g. 900.degree. C.

Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Pugar, Eloise A. (Newbury Park, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Monolithic amorphous silicon modules on continuous polymer substrate  

SciTech Connect

This report examines manufacturing monolithic amorphous silicon modules on a continuous polymer substrate. Module production costs can be reduced by increasing module performance, expanding production, and improving and modifying production processes. Material costs can be reduced by developing processes that use a 1-mil polyimide substrate and multilayers of low-cost material for the front encapsulant. Research to speed up a-Si and ZnO deposition rates is needed to improve throughputs. To keep throughput rates compatible with depositions, multibeam fiber optic delivery systems for laser scribing can be used. However, mechanical scribing systems promise even higher throughputs. Tandem cells and production experience can increase device efficiency and stability. Two alternative manufacturing processes are described: (1) wet etching and sheet handling and (2) wet etching and roll-to-roll fabrication.

Grimmer, D.P. (Iowa Thin Film Technologies, Inc., Ames, IA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Radiation Machines and Radioactive Materials (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These chapters describe general provisions and regulatory requirements; registration, licensure, and transportation of radioactive materials; and exposure standards for radiation protection.

379

Improvement of pin-type amorphous silicon solar cell performance by employing double silicon-carbide p-layer structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improvement of pin-type amorphous silicon solar cell performance by employing double silicon-carbide Received 30 October 2003; accepted 18 November 2003 We investigated a double silicon-carbide p-layer structure consisting of a undiluted p-type amorphous silicon-carbide (p-a-SiC:H) window layer and a hydrogen

Kim, Yong Jung

380

Manufacture of silicon carbide using solar energy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using solar energy. The method is efficient and avoids the need for use of electrical energy to heat the reactants. Finely divided silica and carbon are admixed and placed in a solar-heated reaction chamber for a time sufficient to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

Glatzmaier, Gregory C. (Boulder, CO)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Cooling of hot electrons in amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the cooling rate of hot carriers in amorphous silicon are made with a two-pump, one-probe technique. The experiment is simulated with a rate-equation model describing the energy transfer between a population of hot carriers and the lattice. An energy transfer rate proportional to the temperature difference is found to be consistent with the experimental data while an energy transfer independent of the temperature difference is not. This contrasts with the situation in crystalline silicon. The measured cooling rates are sufficient to explain the difficulty in observing avalanche effects in amorphous silicon.

Vanderhaghen, R.; Hulin, D.; Cuzeau, S.; White, J.O.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Field emission study of cobalt ion implanted porous silicon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis . Field Emission Measurements of Cobalt Implanted Porous Silicon Differences between the 1mplanted Porous Silicon Field Emission Devioe and the Al-anode Oxidized Porous Silicon Field Emission Diode VII CONCLUSION 70 94 99 REFERENCES... Emission Diode (OPSFED) was developed and studied [8] . The OPSFED was using the irregularity on the interface between the oxidized porous silicon film and silicon substrate as field emission cathodes, and a thin aluminum layer deposited...

Liu, Hongbiao

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

383

GENERAL@ELECTtiIC COMPINY  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

GENERAL@ELECTtiIC GENERAL@ELECTtiIC COMPINY ~9013 ~APPROVAL NO. 143 Article II, Section 8(b) PICHLAND, WASHINGTON .~. "ANFORD ATOMlC PlOD"CTS O*Ert*,ION ,. u/S; Atomic Energy Comisaion Hailfbrd operations Office Richland, Washington Attention: Mr. J. E. Travis, Manager Gentlemen: EXTRUSION OF URANIUM DIOXIDE FOR GENERAL ~ED&'RIC - APED The Atoinic Power Equipment Depart!++ of ~the The uranium dioxide necess :Material License No. C-3351. for establishing the value'of the.material will be developed with appropriate representatives of your office in accordance with established procedures. A small amount of scrap will be generated in the process but, since this will be usable and is needed in waging studies at Hanford, we do not propose to charge for reprocessing.

384

SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS FOR COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS  

SciTech Connect

Silicon carbide (SiC) materials are prime candidates for high temperature heat exchangers for next generation nuclear reactors due to their refractory nature and high thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. This research has focused on demonstrating the potential of liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) for making SiC to achieve this goal. The major advantage of this method over other ceramic processing techniques is the enhanced capability of making high dense, high purity SiC materials in complex net shapes. For successful formation of net shape SiC using LSI techniques, the carbon preform reactivity and pore structure must be controlled to allow the complete infiltration of the porous carbon structure which allows complete conversion of the carbon to SiC. We have established a procedure for achieving desirable carbon properties by using carbon precursors consisting of two readily available high purity organic materials, crystalline cellulose and phenolic resin. Phenolic resin yields a glassy carbon with low chemical reactivity and porosity while the cellulose carbon is highly reactive and porous. By adjusting the ratio of these two materials in the precursor mixtures, the properties of the carbons produced can be controlled. We have identified the most favorable carbon precursor composition to be a cellulose resin mass ratio of 6:4 for LSI formation of SiC. The optimum reaction conditions are a temperature of 1800 C, a pressure of 0.5 Torr of argon, and a time of 120 minutes. The fully dense net shape SiC material produced has a density of 2.96 g cm{sup -3} (about 92% of pure SiC) and a SiC volume fraction of over 0.82. Kinetics of the LSI SiC formation process was studied by optical microscopy and quantitative digital image analysis. This study identified six reaction stages and provided important understanding of the process. Although the thermal conductivity of pure SiC at elevated temperatures is very high, thermal conductivities of most commercial SiC materials are much lower due to phonon scattering by impurities (e.g., sintering aids located at the grain boundaries of these materials). The thermal conductivity of our SiC was determined using the laser flash method and it is 214 W/mK at 373 K and 64 W/mK at 1273 K. These values are very close to those of pure SiC and are much higher than those of SiC materials made by industrial processes. This SiC made by our LSI process meets the thermal properties required for use in high temperature heat exchanger. Cellulose and phenolic resin carbons lack the well-defined atomic structures associated with common carbon allotropes. Atomic-scale structure was studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen gas adsorption and helium gas pycnometry. These studies revealed that cellulose carbon exhibits a very high degree of atomic disorder and angstrom-scale porosity. It has a density of only 93% of that of pure graphite, with primarily sp2 bonding character and a low concentration of graphene clusters. Phenolic resin carbon shows more structural order and substantially less angstrom-scale porosity. Its density is 98% of that of pure graphite, and Fourier transform analysis of its TEM micrographs has revealed high concentrations of sp3 diamond and sp2 graphene nano-clusters. This is the first time that diamond nano-clusters have been observed in carbons produced from phenolic resin. AC and DC electrical measurements were made to follow the thermal conversion of microcrystalline cellulose to carbon. This study identifies five regions of electrical conductivity that can be directly correlated to the chemical decomposition and microstructural evolution during carbonization. In Region I, a decrease in overall AC conductivity occurs due to the initial loss of the polar groups from cellulose molecules. In Region II, the AC conductivity starts to increase with heat treatment temperature due to the formation and growth of conducting carbon clusters. In Region III, a further increase of AC conductivity with increasing heat treatment temperature is obs

DR. DENNIS NAGLE; DR. DAJIE ZHANG

2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

385

High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers  

SciTech Connect

Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

Antoniadis, H.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

20% efficiency silicon solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Further improvements in crystalline silicon solar cell performance have been obtained by combining the high levels of surface recombination control demonstrated in earlier passivated emitter solar cells with an improved optical approach. This approach involves the use of microgrooved surfaces which retain the advantages of pyramidally textured surfaces while avoiding some disadvantages of the latter. The approach results in a 56% improvement in cell short?circuit current density for cells fabricated on 0.1 and 0.2 ??cm (?p type) substrates. This results in an energy conversion efficiency for these devices above 20% under standard terrestrial test conditions (AM1.5 100 mW/cm2) for the first time.

A. W. Blakers; M. A. Green

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous silicon research Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silicon Silicon is the second most... distinct forms. The possibility of a phase transition between two liquid forms in silicon, ... Source: Goldberg, Bennett - Department of...

388

E-Print Network 3.0 - aastaks silicon valleysse Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Finding the Fundamentals of Silicon for Advanced... . Microelectronic chips use bulk-silicon wafers to power computers, and silicon is used for increasingly important......

389

A NEW A15 MULTIFILAMENTARY SUPERCONDUCTOR BASED ON THE NIOBIUM-ALUMINUM-SILICON SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BASED ON THE NIOBIUM-ALUMINUM-SILICON SYSTEM Gary C. Quinnpsi. Photomicrograph of an Aluminum-Silicon eutectic filledmultifilimentary niobium-aluminum-silicon wire, a) sample #

Quinn, G.C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

No material is "fire proof;" however, proper use and assembly of fire-rated building materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

C has the least resistance. However, Class A materials generally need an underlayment of additional-Defensible Zones 6.303, Fire-Resistant Landscaping 6.304, Forest Home Fire Safety 6.305, FireWise Plant Materials 6General No material is "fire proof;" however, proper use and assembly of fire-rated building

391

Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Menlo Park, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Alameda, CA)

2002-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

393

Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Menlo Park, CA)

1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

394

Combinatorial sythesis of organometallic materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Alameda, CA)

2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

395

Electronic properties and reliability of the silicon dioxide / silicon carbide interface.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Silicon carbide has been preferred over other wide band-gap semiconductors for high power applications because of its unique ability to grow a thermal oxide, challenges (more)

Rozen, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Silicon nano grid waveguide for coupling between multimode fiber (MMF) and silicon nano waveguide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a new silicon waveguide configuration which enables a mode field expansion more than several tens of micrometers. It maintains singlemode operation condition and gradient...

An, Shinmo; Lee, El-Hang

397

Structure and transformation of the metastable boron- and oxygen-related defect center in crystalline silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We analyze the core structure of the carrier-lifetime-reducing boron- and oxygen-related metastable defect center in crystalline silicon by measuring the correlation of the defect concentration with the boron and the oxygen contents on a large number of different silicon materials. The experimental results indicate that the defect is composed of one substitutional boron and two interstitial oxygen atoms. Formation and annihilation of the metastable boron-oxygen complex are found to be thermally activated processes, characterized by two strongly differing activation energies. Measurements of the defect generation rate as a function of light intensity show that the defect generation rate increases proportionally with light intensity below 1 mW/cm2 and saturates at higher intensities. All experimental results can be consistently explained using a defect reaction model based on fast-diffusing oxygen dimers (O2i), which are captured by substitutional boron (Bs) to form a metastable Bs-O2i complex. Based on this model, new strategies for an effective reduction of the light degradation of solar cells made on oxygen-rich silicon materials are derived. The model also explains why no lifetime degradation is observed in aluminum-, gallium-, and indium-doped oxygen-rich silicon.

Jan Schmidt and Karsten Bothe

2004-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

398

Graphene/silicon nanocomposite anode with enhanced electrochemical stability for lithium-ion battery applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A graphene/silicon nanocomposite has been synthesized, characterized and tested as anode active material for lithium-ion batteries. A morphologically stable composite has been obtained by dispersing silicon nanoparticles in graphene oxide, previously functionalized with low-molecular weight polyacrylic acid, in eco-friendly, low-cost solvent such as ethylene glycol. The use of functionalized graphene oxide as substrate for the dispersion avoids the aggregation of silicon particles during the synthesis and decreases the detrimental effect of graphene layers re-stacking. Microwave irradiation of the suspension, inducing reduction of graphene oxide, and the following thermal annealing of the solid powder obtained by filtration, yield a graphene/silicon composite material with optimized morphology and properties. Composite anodes, prepared with high-molecular weight polyacrylic acid as green binder, exhibited high and stable reversible capacity values, of the order of 1000mAhg?1, when cycled using vinylene carbonate as electrolyte additive. After 100 cycles at a current of 500mAg?1, the anode showed a discharge capacity retention of about 80%. The mechanism of reversible lithium uptake is described in terms of LiSi alloying/dealloying reaction. Comparison of the impedance responses of cells tested in electrolytes with or without vinylene carbonate confirms the beneficial effects of the additive in stabilizing the composite anode.

F. Maroni; R. Raccichini; A. Birrozzi; G. Carbonari; R. Tossici; F. Croce; R. Marassi; F. Nobili

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--28 February 2006  

SciTech Connect

The major objectives of this program were to continue advances of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The Program included work in the following areas. (1) Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations. (2) Developing wire saws to slice 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers on 290-..mu..m-centers. (3) Developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers. (4) Developing cell processes using 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%. (5) Expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control. (6) Establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology. (7) Facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock..

Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Materials - Home  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Coatings & Lubricants * Coatings & Lubricants * Nanofluids * Deformation Joining * Recycling * Catalysts * Assessment * Illinois Center for Advanced Tribology Modeling, Simulation & Software Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles PSAT Smart Grid Student Competitions Technology Analysis Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Materials ring on liner reciprocating tester Tribology Lab: Ring-on-liner reciprocating tester. Argonne National Laboratory plays an important role in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to develop advanced materials for transportation. The materials are developed with DOE support from the EERE Office of Vehicle Technology and Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies in collaboration with worldwide industrial partners. Examples

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Applied Materials Inc AMAT | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inc AMAT Inc AMAT Jump to: navigation, search Name Applied Materials Inc (AMAT) Place Santa Clara, California Zip 95052-8039 Sector Solar Product US-based manufacturer of equipment used in solar (silicon, thin-film, BIPV), semiconductor, and LCD markets. References Applied Materials Inc (AMAT)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Applied Materials Inc (AMAT) is a company located in Santa Clara, California . References ↑ "Applied Materials Inc (AMAT)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Applied_Materials_Inc_AMAT&oldid=342244" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes

402

Simulation and design of various configurations of silicon detectors for high irradiation tolerance up to 6x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} in LHC application  

SciTech Connect

Various new configurations (n{sup +}/p/p{sup +}, n{sup +}/n/p{sup +}, and p{sup +}/n/n{sup +}) of silicon detector designs have been simulated using processing and device simulation tools, before and after irradiation to various fluences. The aim of material selection and detector design is to ensure adequate charge collection after being irradiated up to 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} (or 6x10{sup 14}{pi}/cm{sup 2}) in LHC environment, which corresponds to a net increase (with long term anneal) of space charge of 7x10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Starting materials selected for simulations include high resistivity p-type silicon, medium and low resistivity n-type silicon. Design of multi-guard-rings structure for high voltage operation is also considered. First irradiation data of low resistivity silicon detector is presented.

Li, Z.; Chen, W.; Beuttenmuller, R. [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Corrosion and its effect on mechanical properties of materials for advanced combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high-temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces that can operate at temperatures much higher than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitates development and application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. The objectives of the present program are to evaluate (a) the chemistry of gaseous and condensed products that arise during combustion of coal; (b) the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in air, slag and salt environments for application in the combustion environments; and (c) the residual mechanical properties of the materials after corrosion. The program emphasizes temperatures in the range of 1000-1400{degrees}C for ceramic materials and 600-1000{degrees}C for metallic alloys. Coal/ash chemistries developed on the basis of thermodynamic/kinetic calculations, together with slags from actual combustors, are used in the program. The materials being evaluated include monolithic silicon carbide from several sources: silicon, nitride, silicon carbide in alumina composites, silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide- matrix composite, and some advanced nickel-base alloys. The paper presents results from an ongoing program on corrosion performance of candidate ceramic materials exposed to air, salt and slag environments and their affect on flexural strength and energy absorbed during fracture of these materials.

Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Freeman, M.; Mathur, M. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Longwei Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Longwei Silicon Co Ltd Longwei Silicon Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Longwei Silicon Co Ltd Place Liancheng, Fujian Province, China Sector Solar Product A Chinese sillicon metal producer who also produce 4N-6N silicon for solar use. Coordinates 21.61801°, 110.282799° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":21.61801,"lon":110.282799,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

405

RSI Silicon Products LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RSI Silicon Products LLC RSI Silicon Products LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name RSI Silicon Products LLC Place Easton, Massachusetts Zip 18040 Sector Solar Product Early-stage startup which is developing a process for solar-grade silicon manufacture at low energy intensity, spinoff from MIT. Coordinates 47.237806°, -121.179542° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.237806,"lon":-121.179542,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

406

SUPPORTING INFORMATION Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The nanowires have radii of about 50 nm and are 1 µm long. Light from a Xe arc lamp was focused into an optical on the single crystalline silicon wafer. Inductively coupled plasma- reactive ion etch (STS) was used

407

Transient analysis of silicon carbide power MOSFET.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis illustrates the transient performance of Silicon carbide (4H-SiC) Power MOSFET. Transient analysis enables the designer to understand the thermal stress the semiconductor device (more)

Pushpakaran, Bejoy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

film is deposited over the window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A carbon film is deposited over the window. Figure 4.11:films and the silicon is unknown. However, changes in geometry such as varying the window

Schriver, Maria Christine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Silver transport in CVD silicon carbide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion implantation and diffusion couple experiments were used to study silver transport through and release from CVD silicon carbide. Results of these experiments show that silver does not migrate via classical diffusion in ...

MacLean, Heather J. (Heather Jean), 1974-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

SAVE THE DATE!!! The Silicon Valley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SAVE THE DATE!!! The Silicon Valley 3rd Annual Social Innovation Leadership Forum 2014 (SILF 2014 towards a better tomorrow... Register for the event today! The Social Innovation Leadership Forum (SILF

Su, Xiao

411

Sandia Silicon Fabrication Recapitalization project underway...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

research and development at the Silicon Fab (SiFab), specifically for the W88 ALT 380 and B61-12 LEP. The ASML Scanner is a piece of photolithography equipment which is the main...

412

Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ceramic body is disclosed comprising at least about 80 w/o silicon nitride and having a mean tensile strength of at least about 800 MPa. 4 figs.

Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Willkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

413

Fiber to waveguide couplers for silicon photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As silicon photonics enters mainstream technology, we find ourselves in need of methods to seamlessly transfer light between the optical fibers of global scale telecommunications networks and the on-chip waveguides used ...

Montalbo, Trisha M., 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

87% of world PV cell market sales in 2011. Crystalline silicon PV cells have laboratory energy conversion efficiencies as high as 25% for single-crystal cells and 20.4% for...

415

Device integration for silicon microphotonic platforms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silicon ULSI compatible, high index contrast waveguides and devices provide high density integration for optical networking and on-chip optical interconnects. Four such waveguide systems were fabricated and analyzed: ...

Lim, Desmond Rodney

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Nano-Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crystal Si Nanopillars, Nano Lett. , vol. 10, no. 11, pp.?V Nanowires on Silicon, Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 10, pp.and nanoribbon lasers, Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 2, pp.

Chen, Roger

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

High index contrast platform for silicon photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on silicon-based high index contrast (HIC) photonics. In addition to mature fiber optics or low index contrast (LIC) platform, which is often referred to as Planar Lightwave Cirrcuit (PLC) or Silica ...

Akiyama, Shoji, 1972-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Silicon Photonic Wire Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter reviews the fundamental characteristics and basic applications of the silicon ... provides us with a highly integrated platform for electronicphotonic convergence. For the practical achievement of ....

Koji Yamada

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

6N Silicon Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Silicon Inc Silicon Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name 6N Silicon Inc Place Mississauga, Ontario, Canada Zip L5T 1E6 Sector Solar Product Canadian manufactuer of upgraded metallurgical silicon for solar industry. Coordinates 43.588285°, -79.643724° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.588285,"lon":-79.643724,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

420

Complex Materials  

SciTech Connect

Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

Cooper, Valentino

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Complex Materials  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

Cooper, Valentino

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

422

Silicon Micromachines for Science and Technology  

SciTech Connect

The era of silicon micromechanics is upon us. In areas as diverse as telecommunications, automotive, aerospace, chemistry, entertainment and basic science, the ability to build microscopic machines from silicon is having a revolutionary impact. In my talk, I will discuss what micromachines are, how they are built and show examples of how they will have a revolutionary impact in many areas of science as well as technology.

David Bishop

2009-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

423

Scattering Anisotropies in n-Type Silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements have been made of magnetoresistance effects in several relatively pure samples of n-type silicon for the purpose of obtaining information on scattering anisotropies. The results indicate that the ratios of relaxation times parallel and perpendicular to a constant-energy-spheroid axis in the six-valley conduction band of silicon are ?II???23 for acoustic-mode intravalley lattice scattering and ?II??>1 for ionized-impurity scattering. Intervalley lattice scattering, important at higher temperatures, is isotropic.

Donald Long and John Myers

1960-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Silicon Absolute X-Ray Detectors  

SciTech Connect

The responsivity of silicon photodiodes having no loss in the entrance window, measured using synchrotron radiation in the 1.75 to 60 keV range, was compared to the responsivity calculated using the silicon thickness measured using near-infrared light. The measured and calculated responsivities agree with an average difference of 1.3%. This enables their use as absolute x-ray detectors.

Seely, John F. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Korde, Raj; Sprunck, Jacob [International Radiation Detectors, Inc., Torrance, CA 90505-5243 (United States); Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

425

Stochastic modelling of silicon nanoparticle synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distributionPart 1: Experimental investigations, pp. 998 1007, Copyright (2010), with permission from Elsevier. by thermal, laser or microwave radiation sources [22, 72, 103]. The decom- position of silane forms reactive silicon hydrides, which combine... into applications of silicon nanoparticles in photovoltaics has been conducted. As the quantum confinement effects of a particle are strongly dependent on its size and structure, it may be possible to tune a photovoltaic cell to better match solar emission than...

Menz, William Jefferson

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

426

Materials Potential  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ferritic and austenitic steels have been used for many different high temperature applications in oil and chemical plants and in power generation equipment. Such applications have been generally successful, an...

R. D. Townsend; J. J. Jones; S. R. Keown

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Materializing Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated and informed by perspectives on sustainability and design, this paper draws on a diverse body of scholarly works related to energy and materiality to articulate a perspective on energy-as-materiality and propose a design approach of materializing energy. Three critical themes are presented: the intangibility of energy, the undifferentiatedness of energy, and the availability of energy. Each theme is developed through combination of critical investigation and design exploration, including the development and deployment of several novel design artifacts: Energy Mementos and The Local Energy Lamp. A framework for interacting with energy-as-materiality is proposed involving collecting, keeping, sharing, and activating energy. A number of additional concepts are also introduced, such as energy attachment, energy engagement, energy attunement, local energy and energy meta-data. Our work contributes both a broader, more integrative design perspective on energy and materiality as well as a diversity of more specific concepts and artifacts that may be of service to designers and researchers of interactive systems concerned with sustainability and energy. Author Keywords Sustainability, energy, materiality, design, design theory

James Pierce; Eric Paulos

428

Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.  

SciTech Connect

A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Sampling Artifacts from Conductive Silicone Tubing  

SciTech Connect

We report evidence that carbon impregnated conductive silicone tubing used in aerosol sampling systems can introduce two types of experimental artifacts: 1) silicon tubing dynamically absorbs carbon dioxide gas, requiring greater than 5 minutes to reach equilibrium and 2) silicone tubing emits organic contaminants containing siloxane that adsorb onto particles traveling through it and onto downstream quartz fiber filters. The consequence can be substantial for engine exhaust measurements as both artifacts directly impact calculations of particulate mass-based emission indices. The emission of contaminants from the silicone tubing can result in overestimation of organic particle mass concentrations based on real-time aerosol mass spectrometry and the off-line thermal analysis of quartz filters. The adsorption of siloxane contaminants can affect the surface properties of aerosol particles; we observed a marked reduction in the water-affinity of soot particles passed through conductive silicone tubing. These combined observations suggest that the silicone tubing artifacts may have wide consequence for the aerosol community and should, therefore, be used with caution. Gentle heating, physical and chemical properties of the particle carriers, exposure to solvents, and tubing age may influence siloxane uptake. The amount of contamination is expected to increase as the tubing surface area increases and as the particle surface area increases. The effect is observed at ambient temperature and enhanced by mild heating (<100 oC). Further evaluation is warranted.

Timko, Michael T.; Yu, Zhenhong; Kroll, Jesse; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Miake-Lye, Richard C.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Liscinsky, David; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Destaillats, Hugo; Holder, Amara L.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Irradiation and annealing of p-type silicon carbide  

SciTech Connect

The development of the technology of semiconductor devices based on silicon carbide and the beginning of their industrial manufacture have made increasingly topical studies of the radiation hardness of this material on the one hand and of the proton irradiation to form high-receptivity regions on the other hand. This paper reports on a study of the carrier removal rate (V{sub d}) in p-6H-SiC under irradiation with 8 MeV protons and of the conductivity restoration in radiation- compensated epitaxial layers of various p-type silicon carbide polytypes. V{sub d} was determined by analysis of capacitance-voltage characteristics and from results of Hall effect measurements. It was found that the complete compensation of samples with the initial value of Na - Nd ? 1.5 10{sup 18} cm{sup ?3} occurs at an irradiation dose of ?1.1 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?2}. It is shown that specific features of the sublimation layer SiC (compared to CVD layers) are clearly manifested upon the gamma and electron irradiation and are hardly noticeable under the proton and neutron irradiation. It was also found that the radiation-induced compensation of SiC is retained after its annealing at ?1000C. The conductivity is almost completely restored at T ? 1200C. This character of annealing of the radiation compensation is independent of a silicon carbide polytype and the starting doping level of the epitaxial layer. The complete annealing temperatures considerably exceed the working temperatures of SiC-based devices. It is shown that the radiation compensation is a promising method in the technology of high-temperature devices based on SiC.

Lebedev, Alexander A.; Bogdanova, Elena V.; Grigor'eva, Maria V.; Lebedev, Sergey P. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Kozlovski, Vitaly V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

431

Organization of the Catalog General Campus Colleges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(see School of Public Health) Materials Science and Engineering Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Theater Arts General Campus Professional Schools School of Engineering and Applied Science Chemical Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Science Electrical Engineering Environmental Science and Engineering

Grether, Gregory

432

Methods and apparatus for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

Stoddard, Nathan G

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

433

STATUS OF HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR IRRADIATION OF SILICON CARBIDE/SILICON CARBIDE JOINTS  

SciTech Connect

Development of silicon carbide (SiC) joints that retain adequate structural and functional properties in the anticipated service conditions is a critical milestone toward establishment of advanced SiC composite technology for the accident-tolerant light water reactor (LWR) fuels and core structures. Neutron irradiation is among the most critical factors that define the harsh service condition of LWR fuel during the normal operation. The overarching goal of the present joining and irradiation studies is to establish technologies for joining SiC-based materials for use as the LWR fuel cladding. The purpose of this work is to fabricate SiC joint specimens, characterize those joints in an unirradiated condition, and prepare rabbit capsules for neutron irradiation study on the fabricated specimens in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Torsional shear test specimens of chemically vapor-deposited SiC were prepared by seven different joining methods either at Oak Ridge National Laboratory or by industrial partners. The joint test specimens were characterized for shear strength and microstructures in an unirradiated condition. Rabbit irradiation capsules were designed and fabricated for neutron irradiation of these joint specimens at an LWR-relevant temperature. These rabbit capsules, already started irradiation in HFIR, are scheduled to complete irradiation to an LWR-relevant dose level in early 2015.

Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Koyanagi, Takaaki [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Cetiner, Nesrin [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel [ORNL

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Simultaneous STM and UHV electron microscope observation of silicon nanowires extracted from Si(111) surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Articles Simultaneous STM and UHV electron microscope observation of silicon...silicon|tungsten| Simultaneous STM and UHV electron microscope observation of silicon...Semiconductor Special Issue Simultaneous STM and UHV electron microscope observation of silicon......

Y. Naitoh; K. Takayanagi; Y. Oshima; H. Hirayama

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Experimental Investigation of Silicon Carbide Power Device Reliability - Robert Kaplar, SNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Experimental Investigation Experimental Investigation of Silicon Carbide Power Device Reliability September 27, 2012 Robert Kaplar, David Hughart, Sandeepan DasGupta, Matthew Marinella, Mark Smith, and Stanley Atcitty The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of Dr. Imre Gyuk of the United States Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Energy Storage Program * Wide-bandgap semiconductors have material properties that make them theoretically superior to Silicon for power device applications * Lower power loss and reduced cooling requirements would increase the efficiency and reduce the size and complexity of power conversion systems linking energy storage to the grid, thus reducing overall system cost * However, wide-bandgap materials and devices are far less mature

436

Novel Pyrolyzed Polyaniline-Grafted Silicon Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Graphene Sheets As Li-Ion Battery Anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Novel Pyrolyzed Polyaniline-Grafted Silicon Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Graphene Sheets As Li-Ion Battery Anodes ... The composite materials exhibit better cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency as anodes in lithium ion batteries, as compared to pure Si nanoparticles and physically mixed graphene/Si composites. ...

Zhe-Fei Li; Hangyu Zhang; Qi Liu; Yadong Liu; Lia Stanciu; Jian Xie

2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

437

Versatile Silicon Photodiode Detector Technology for Scanning Electron Microscopy with High-Efficiency Sub-5 keV Electron Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Versatile Silicon Photodiode Detector Technology for Scanning Electron Microscopy with High for Scanning Electron Microscopy, based on ultrashallow p+ n boron-layer photodiodes, features nm-thin anodes, closely-packed photodiodes and through-wafer apertures allow flexible configurations for optimal material

Technische Universiteit Delft

438

Stretchable silicon could be next wave in electronics http://www.physorg.com/news9110.html 1 of 3 12/21/2005 6:04 PM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stretchable silicon could be next wave in electronics http://www.physorg.com/news9110.html 1 of 3 Physics New thin film lithium technology may power Christmas of the future 2 hours ago Space and Earth ago General Science Sweden to scrutinize eugenics past 2 hours ago General Science Fear of death

Rogers, John A.

439

Crystallization and doping of amorphous silicon on low temperature plastic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method or process of crystallizing and doping amorphous silicon (a-Si) on a low-temperature plastic substrate using a short pulsed high energy source in a selected environment, without heat propagation and build-up in the substrate. The pulsed energy processing of the a-Si in a selected environment, such as BF3 and PF5, will form a doped micro-crystalline or poly-crystalline silicon (pc-Si) region or junction point with improved mobilities, lifetimes and drift and diffusion lengths and with reduced resistivity. The advantage of this method or process is that it provides for high energy materials processing on low cost, low temperature, transparent plastic substrates. Using pulsed laser processing a high (>900.degree. C.), localized processing temperature can be achieved in thin films, with little accompanying temperature rise in the substrate, since substrate temperatures do not exceed 180.degree. C. for more than a few microseconds. This method enables use of plastics incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures (higher than 180.degree. C.) but which are much lower cost, have high tolerance to ultraviolet light, have high strength and good transparency, compared to higher temperature plastics such as polyimide.

Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Truher, Joel B. (Palo Alto, CA); Weiner, Kurt H. (Campbell, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Beaverton, OR)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colour centres in diamond have emerged as versatile tools for solid-state quantum technologies ranging from quantum information to metrology, where the nitrogen-vacancy centre is the most studied to-date. Recently, this toolbox has expanded to include different materials for their nanofabrication opportunities, and novel colour centres to realize more efficient spin-photon quantum interfaces. Of these, the silicon-vacancy centre stands out with ultrabright single photon emission predominantly into the desirable zero-phonon line. The challenge for utilizing this centre is to realise the hitherto elusive optical access to its electronic spin. Here, we report spin-tagged resonance fluorescence from the negatively charged silicon-vacancy centre. In low-strain bulk diamond spin-selective excitation under finite magnetic field reveals a spin-state purity approaching unity in the excited state. We also investigate the effect of strain on the centres in nanodiamonds and discuss how spin selectivity in the excited state remains accessible in this regime.

Tina Muller; Christian Hepp; Benjamin Pingault; Elke Neu; Stefan Gsell; Matthias Schreck; Hadwig Sternschulte; Doris Steinmueller-Nethl; Christoph Becher; Mete Atature

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Recombination-enhanced migration of interstitial aluminum in silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the first observation of recombination-enhanced recovery of a defect in silicon which is otherwise normally stable at room temperature. This defect, produced by 1.5-MeV electron irradiation of aluminum-doped material at room temperature, is identified as isolated interstitial aluminum through correlated deep-level transient-capacitance spectroscopy and EPR studies. The recovery rate constant in the absence of minority-carrier injection is 3(109) exp(- 1.20.1 eV/kT) sec-1. Under saturated injection conditions, it is 70 exp(- 0.270.03 eV/kT) sec-1. This represents an enhancement of the recovery rate by a factor of ? 108 at room temperature. We conclude that this enhancement results from an efficient conversion of the electronic energy available upon carrier capture to local vibrational energy of the defect which assists it over the migration barrier. The second donor level of the defect (Ali+Ali++) is determined to be at EV+0.17 eV. We conclude, however, that the enhancement results from carrier capture and recombination at the first donor level (Ali0Ali+) the position of which has not yet been determined. The implications of these results to the properties of the self-interstitial in silicon are discussed.

J. R. Troxell; A. P. Chatterjee; G. D. Watkins; L. C. Kimerling

1979-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Damages induced by heavy ions in titanium silicon carbide: effects of nuclear and electronic interactions at room temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, of general formula Mn+1AXn where n = {1,2,3}, M is an early transition metal, A is an A-group (mostly IIIADamages induced by heavy ions in titanium silicon carbide: effects of nuclear and electronic Thanks to their refractoriness, carbides are sensed as fuel coating for the IVth generation of reactors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

Far?Infrared Interference Technique for Determining Epitaxial Silicon Thickness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interference technique in the frequency range 30200 cm?1 has been used for the first time to determine the thickness of low?conductivity epitaxialfilms deposited on a highly conducting silicon substrate. It is shown that for thick epitaxialfilms (d?4 ?m) the frequency at which half?order minimum occurs is highly sensitive to the epilayer?substrate interface carrier concentration profile. In general the far ir thickness is close to that obtained by angle?stain technique. A combination of ir and far?ir measurements therefore yields valuable information regarding the interface carrier concentration profile. The far?ir technique can replace the costly and destructive methods presently used such as angle stain and capacitance?voltage measurements made on specially fabricated diodes. The paper also discusses the optical constants of silicon in the far ir. The calculations show that it is necessary to use the energy?dependent anisotropicscattering time to correctly evaluate the optical constant in the far ir.

M. A. Saifi; R. H. Stolen

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the Westinghouse 15 ton/day Coal Gasification Process Development Unit  

SciTech Connect

Two periods of in-plant exposures of candidate materials in the Westinghouse PDU have been completed. Coupons were exposed in the gasifier, hot-gas cyclone, quench scrubber, and gas cooler vessels. Corrosion monitoring of test materials is currently being conducted in the Westinghouse Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) coal gasification pilot plant. The corrosion data presented are from work during 1981 through 1984. During these two exposure periods, several coals ranging from lignites to bituminous coals and two petroleum cokes were gasified in the steam-oxygen mode. Fouling was observed on most corrosion racks. The effect of this process-related material was to promote corrosion. In the gasifier environment, alloys 6B, IN 671, and 18SR were the best performing alloys. Nickel-base alloys with Ni/Cr ratios >1.5, namely IN-617, IN-825, and alloy X, incurred severe corrosion attack in both exposures. Other alloys, although generally acceptable in corrosion performance, were not immune to solids-induced corrosion around coupon mounting holes. Several refractories such as Brickram 90, Harbison-Walker Ruby, and Chemal 85B showed little degradation in both gasifier exposures. Nitride bonded silicon carbon Refrax 20 had the greatest reduction in abrasion resistance as well as other properties. Single-phase structural ceramics including siliconized SiC, sintered ..cap alpha..-SiC, and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ did not suffer any noticeable damage. Materials evaluation in the hot-gas cyclone showed IN-671 and 26-1 to be more resistant than Type 310 and Type 310 aluminized. 18 refs., 23 figs., 24 tabs.

Yurkewycz, R.

1985-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

445

Shock compression and dynamic fragmentation of geological materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The theory of fracture and fragmentation and previous fracture studies on geological materials are reviewed in Chap- ter 6. The dynamic fragmentation experiments on the geological materials and how their response compares with predictions from metal... of the cube exposed. The exposed surface was polished using Silicon Carbide paste on a polish- ing machine to create a flat specimen. Each specimen was viewed under 13 14 CHAPTER 2. COMPOSITION & MICROSTRUCTURE an optical microscope to preliminarily...

Kirk, Simon

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

446

Microfluidic systems with embedded materials and structures and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described herein is a process for fabricating microfluidic systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are molded into the polymeric material polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Micromachining is used to create a mold master and the liquid precursors for PDMS are poured over the mold and allowed to cure. The PDMS is then removed form the mold and bonded to another material such as PDMS, glass, or silicon after a simple surface preparation step to form sealed microchannels.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Rose, Klint A (Boston, MA); Maghribi, Mariam (Livermore, CA); Benett, William (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA); Jankowski, Alan (Livermore, CA)

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

447

Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

Michael Niedermayr; Kirill Lakhmanskiy; Muir Kumph; Stefan Partel; Johannes Edlinger; Michael Brownnutt; Rainer Blatt

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

448

Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials  

SciTech Connect

Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

449

A Generalized Vlasov Theory for Composite Beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Generalized Vlasov Theory for Composite Beams Wenbin Yu, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace-0150 Abstract A generalized Vlasov theory for composite beams with arbitrary geometric and material sectional properties is developed based on the variational asymptotic beam sectional analysis. Instead of invoking ad

Yu, Wenbin

450

Materials Handbook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE sub title of this handbook gives the clue to the mode of treatment of the subject matter, and so ... seventeen to 'alkalis'; in fact, a better title for the book would be "Handbook of Engineering Materials". British trade names are conspicuously few, but no doubt a ...

E. H. TRIPP

1942-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

Ceramic composites reinforced with modified silicon carbide whiskers and method for modifying the whiskers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

Tiegs, T.N.; Lindemer, T.B.

1991-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

452

Ceramic composites reinforced with modified silicon carbide whiskers and method for modifying the whiskers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparaging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Lindemer, Terrence B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Nice, Cte d'Azur, France, 27-29 September 2006 CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS TO SUPPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is presented, which evaluates thermal conductivity and interface resistance of thermal inter- face materials (e- face resistance (between the silicon and the thermal inter- face material (Rth0,Si-TIM) as well resistance is characterized. It is shown that the interface material can become a key issue for the thermal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

454

Amorphous silicon detectors in positron emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

The physics of the detection process is studied and the performances of different Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system are evaluated by theoretical calculation and/or Monte Carlo Simulation (using the EGS code) in this paper, whose table of contents can be summarized as follows: a brief introduction to amorphous silicon detectors and some useful equation is presented; a Tantalum/Amorphous Silicon PET project is studied and the efficiency of the systems is studied by Monte Carlo Simulation; two similar CsI/Amorphous Silicon PET projects are presented and their efficiency and spatial resolution are studied by Monte Carlo Simulation, light yield and time characteristics of the scintillation light are discussed for different scintillators; some experimental result on light yield measurements are presented; a Xenon/Amorphous Silicon PET is presented, the physical mechanism of scintillation in Xenon is explained, a theoretical estimation of total light yield in Xenon and the resulting efficiency is discussed altogether with some consideration of the time resolution of the system; the amorphous silicon integrated electronics is presented, total noise and time resolution are evaluated in each of our applications; the merit parameters {epsilon}{sup 2}{tau}'s are evaluated and compared with other PET systems and conclusions are drawn; and a complete reference list for Xenon scintillation light physics and its applications is presented altogether with the listing of the developed simulation programs.

Conti, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Perez-Mendez, V. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Crystalline Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:00pm Addthis To separate electrical charges, crystalline silicon cells must have a built-in electric field. Light shining on crystalline silicon may free electrons within the crystal lattice, but for these electrons to do useful work-such as provide electricity to a light bulb-they must be separated and directed into an electrical circuit. PV Semiconductors To create an electric field within a crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell, two silicon semiconductor layers are sandwiched together. P-type (or positive) semiconductors have an abundance of positively charged holes, and n-type (or negative) semiconductors have an abundance of negatively charged electrons. When n- and p-type silicon layers contact, excess electrons move

456

MICROMACHINED FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETER ON SILICON OPTICAL BENCH PLATFORM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MICROMACHINED FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETER ON SILICON OPTICAL BENCH PLATFORM Kyoungsik Yu1 a miniaturized Fourier transform spectrometer implemented on a silicon optical bench platform. The optical is becoming increasingly important in a number of applications such as environmental monitoring, chemical

Park, Namkyoo

457

Surface roughening in ion implanted 4H-silicon carbide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon carbide (SiC) devices have the potential to yield new components with functional capabilities that far exceed components based on silicon devices. Selective doping of SiC by ion implantation is an importa...

M. A. Capano; S. Ryu; J. A. Cooper Jr.; M. R. Melloch

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Silicon Carbide Power Semiconductor Devices in the Cleanroom...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silicon Carbide Power Semiconductor Devices in the Cleanroom Silicon Carbide Power Semiconductor Devices in the Cleanroom Ron Olson 2012.10.04 I would like to introduce Zach Stum,...

459

Making Silicon Carbide Devices in the Cleanroom | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silicon Carbide Devices in the Cleanroom Making Silicon Carbide Devices in the Cleanroom Ron Olson 2012.08.23 As the Wide Bandgap Process and Fab manager for the GE Global Research...

460

Silicon Carbides in the Cleanroom | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Room: Silicon Carbides GE Global Research is working on nanoscale silicon carbide devices. Find out what we're doing. You Might Also Like 2-1-10-v-working-at-ge-resear...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Temperature Dependent Pspice Model of Silicon Carbide Power MOSFET  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature Dependent Pspice Model of Silicon Carbide Power MOSFET Yutian Cui1 Madhu Chinthavali2-- This paper provides a behavioral model in Pspice for a silicon carbide (SiC) power MOSFET rated at 1200 V

Tolbert, Leon M.

462

The Sustainable Global Energy Economy: Hydrogen or Silicon?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A sustainable global silicon energy economy is proposed as a potential alternative to the hydrogen economy. This first visualization of a silicon energy economy is based on large-scale and carbon- ... uncertainti...

W. Earl Bardsley

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

California: TetraCell Silicon Solar Cell Improves Efficiency...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

California: TetraCell Silicon Solar Cell Improves Efficiency, Wins R&D 100 Award California: TetraCell Silicon Solar Cell Improves Efficiency, Wins R&D 100 Award August 16, 2013 -...

464

Flaw-limited transport in germanium-on-silicon photodiodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Epitaxial germanium growth on silicon substrates has enabled a new class of photodiodes that can be integrated with traditional silicon electronics. Previous workers using lowthroughput growth techniques have demonstrated ...

Orcutt, Jason S. (Jason Scott)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Muon States in Polycrystalline and Amorphous Silicon [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

15 February 1995 research-article Muon States in Polycrystalline and Amorphous Silicon [and Discussion] E. A. Davis A. Singh S. F. J. Cox A. M. Stoneham M. Symons Muons implanted into polycrystalline and amorphous silicon have been...

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Parylene Coated Silicon Probes for Neural Prosthesis Ray Huang1*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

breakage. However, manufacturing limitations have prevented a strong and biocompatible silicon electrode as well as the in vitro electrical characterization of the gold and platinum micro electrodes. Keywords - parylene cable; neural prosthesis; silicon probe I. INTRODUCTION An important

Andersen, Richard

467

A Transporter Regulating Silicon Distribution in Rice Shoots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and thus increases the resistance of plants to various...electron microscopy and Si elementary analysis of the leaf...Silicon and plant disease resistance against pathogenic fungi...silicon in enhancing the resistance of plants to biotic...

Naoki Yamaji; Namiki Mitatni; Jian Feng Ma

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

468

Optical doping of vwaveguide materials by MeV Er implantation A. Polman,a) D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, Ft. C. Kistler, and J. M. Poate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ions into micron-thick silica and phosphosilicate glass films and 1200-A-thick S&N4 films is studied materials in this planar technology are silica, phosphosilicate glass, and silicon nitride. The silica- based glasses, depending on annealing treatment and Er concentration. Silicon nitride films show lower

Polman, Albert

469

Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research on semiconductor and non-semiconductor materials to enhance the performance of multi-band-gap, multijunction panel with an area greater than 900 cm[sup 2] by 1992. Double-junction and triple-junction cells are mode on a Ag/ZnO back reflector deposited on stainless steel substrates. An a-SiGe alloy is used for the i-layer in the bottom and the middle cells; the top cell uses an amorphous silicon alloy. After the evaporation of an antireflection coating, silver grids and bus bars are put on the top surface and the panel is encapsulated in an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/Tefzel structure to make a 1-ft[sup 2] monolithic module.

Guha, S. (United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, MI (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Dynamic frequency/temperature sweep tests were conducted over the ranges 0.1-100 rad/s and 30-100 C using a parallel plate test geometry. A strain of 0.2% was used, which was near the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region of the material based on initial dynamic strain sweep tests. Master curves of G{prime} and G{double_prime} as a function of frequency were generated using time-temperature superposition (horizontal shift with initial vertical correction). The activation energy calculated from an Arrhenius fit to the horizontal shift factors was 178-355 kJ/mol. The calculated percent load retention at {approx}50 years was 61-68%.

Small IV, W; Wilson, T S

2009-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

471

Improved value for the silicon free exciton binding energy  

SciTech Connect

The free exciton binding energy is a key parameter in silicon material and device physics. In particular, it provides the necessary link between the energy threshold for valence to conduction band optical absorption and the bandgap determining electronic properties. The long accepted low temperature binding energy value of 14.7 0.4 meV is reassessed taking advantage of developments subsequent to its original determination, leading to the conclusion that this value is definitely an underestimate. Using three largely independent experimental data sets, an improved low temperature value of 15.01 0.06 meV is deduced, in good agreement with the most comprehensive theoretical calculations to date.

Green, Martin A., E-mail: m.green@unsw.edu.au [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia 2052 (Australia)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

Metal catalyst technique for texturing silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Textured silicon solar cells and techniques for their manufacture utilizing metal sources to catalyze formation of randomly distributed surface features such as nanoscale pyramidal and columnar structures. These structures include dimensions smaller than the wavelength of incident light, thereby resulting in a highly effective anti-reflective surface. According to the invention, metal sources present in a reactive ion etching chamber permit impurities (e.g. metal particles) to be introduced into a reactive ion etch plasma resulting in deposition of micro-masks on the surface of a substrate to be etched. Separate embodiments are disclosed including one in which the metal source includes one or more metal-coated substrates strategically positioned relative to the surface to be textured, and another in which the walls of the reaction chamber are pre-conditioned with a thin coating of metal catalyst material.

Ruby, Douglas S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zaidi, Saleem H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Colorado - Rights of Way on State Trust Lands - General Information...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Supplemental Material: Colorado - Rights of Way on State Trust Lands - General InformationPermittingRegulatory...

474

Statement by Secretary Bodman in Response to the Inspector General...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

the Department's Inspector General (IG) to investigate a number of matters which led to the unauthorized removal of classified materials from the Los Alamos National...

475

Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Civilian Nuclear Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Civilian Nuclear Programs (GC-72) provides legal advice and support to the Department on issues involving nuclear materials, including:

476

Electromigration process for the purification of molten silicon during crystal growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the purification of molten materials during crystal growth by electromigration of impurities to localized dirty zones. The process has particular applications for silicon crystal growth according to Czochralski techniques and edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) conditions. In the Czochralski crystal growing process, the impurities are electromigrated away from the crystallization interface by applying a direct electrical current to the molten silicon for electromigrating the charged impurities away from the crystal growth interface. In the EFG crystal growth process, a direct electrical current is applied between the two faces which are used in forming the molten silicon into a ribbon. The impurities are thereby migrated to one side only of the crystal ribbon. The impurities may be removed or left in place. If left in place, they will not adversely affect the ribbon when used in solar collectors. The migration of the impurity to one side only of the silicon ribbon is especially suitable for use with asymmetric dies which preferentially crystallize uncharged impurities along one side or face of the ribbon.

Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space (San Pedro, CA); Shlichta, Paul J. (San Pedro, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Impact of the hydrogen content on the photoluminescence efficiency of amorphous silicon alloys  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the impact of hydrogen on the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of the three wide gap silicon alloys: silicon carbide (a-SiC{sub x}), silicon nitride (a-SiN{sub x}): silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}). All three materials behave similarly. The progression of the PL efficiency over the Si content splits into two regions. With decreasing Si content, the PL efficiency increases until a maximum is reached. With a further decrease of the Si content, the PL efficiency declines again. A comprehensive analysis of the sample structure reveals that the PL efficiency depends on the degree of passivation of Si and Y atoms (Y?=?C, N, O) with hydrogen. For samples with a high Si content, an effective passivation of incorporated Y atoms gives rise to an increasing PL efficiency. The PL efficiency of samples with a low Si content is limited due to a rising amount of unpassivated Si defect states. We find that a minimum amount of 0.2?H atoms per Si atom is required to maintain effective luminescence.

Kistner, J.; Schubert, M. B. [Institute for Photovoltaics and Research Center SCoPE, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

478

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA A SPICE STUDY OF SILICON SENSOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1 Motivation 1.2 Background 1.2.1 Silicon Sensor Strips 1.2.2 An Explanation of the Long-Ladder Detector 1, and the results of that study are the primary focus of this paper. 1.2 Background 1.2.1 Silicon Sensors SiliconTaylor 1 UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ A SPICE STUDY OF SILICON SENSOR STRIP NOISE ON LONG

Belanger, David P.

479

Functional Materials for Energy | Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermoelectrics Separations Materials Catalysis Sensor Materials Polymers and Composites Carbon Fiber Related Research Chemistry and Physics at Interfaces Materials Synthesis from...

480

On Silicon Carbide Grains as the Carrier of the 21 Micron Emission Feature in Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mysterious 21mu emission feature seen in 12 proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) remains unidentified since its first detection in 1989. Over a dozen of candidate materials have been proposed within the past decade, but none of them has received general acceptance. Very recently, silicon carbide (SiC) grains with impurities were suggested to be the carrier of this enigmatic feature, based on recent laboratory data that doped SiC grains exhibit a resonance at \\~21mu. This proposal gains strength from the fact that SiC is a common dust species in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes. However, SiC dust has a strong vibrational band at ~11.3mu. We show in this Letter that in order to be consistent with the observed flux ratios of the 11.3mu feature to the 21mu feature, the band strength of the 21mu resonance has to be very strong, too strong to be consistent with current laboratory measurements. But this does not yet readily rule out the SiC hypothesis since recent experimental results have demonstrated that the 21mu resonance of doped SiC becomes stronger as the C impurity increases. Further laboratory measurements of SiC dust with high fractions of C impurity are urgently needed to test the hypothesis of SiC as the carrier of the 21mu feature.

B. W. Jiang; Ke Zhang; Aigen Li

2005-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general silicon material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Silicon Border Development LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Silicon Border Development LLC Silicon Border Development LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Silicon Border Development LLC Place Poway, California Zip 92064 Sector Solar Product US-based developer of industrial parks with a focus on high-technology industry such as semiconductors and solar. Coordinates 32.95459°, -117.041984° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.95459,"lon":-117.041984,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

482

Korea Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Silicon Co Ltd Silicon Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea Silicon Co Ltd Place Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, Korea (Republic) Sector Solar Product Korean manufacturer planning to output polysilicon, ingots and wafers for the solar industry. Coordinates 37.397652°, 127.115189° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.397652,"lon":127.115189,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

483

Joining of porous silicon carbide bodies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of joining two porous bodies of silicon carbide is disclosed. It entails utilizing an aqueous slip of a similar silicon carbide as was used to form the porous bodies, including the sintering aids, and a binder to initially join the porous bodies together. Then the composite structure is subjected to cold isostatic pressing to form a joint having good handling strength. Then the composite structure is subjected to pressureless sintering to form the final strong bond. Optionally, after the sintering the structure is subjected to hot isostatic pressing to further improve the joint and densify the structure. The result is a composite structure in which the joint is almost indistinguishable from the silicon carbide pieces which it joins.

Bates, Carl H. (Worcester, MA); Couhig, John T. (Worcester, MA); Pelletier, Paul J. (Thompson, CT)

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Fuyuan Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuyuan Silicon Co Ltd Fuyuan Silicon Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Fuyuan Silicon Co Ltd Place Baishan, Jilin Province, China Sector Solar Product A Chinese solar-grade polysilicon producer using metallurgical method. Coordinates 42.088902°, 127.218193° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.088902,"lon":127.218193,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

485

Draft General Conformity Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

I I Draft General Conformity Determination U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service MMS Cape Wind Energy Project January 2009 Final EIS Appendix I Draft General Conformity Determination Draft General Conformity Determination Cape Wind Energy Project Prepared by Minerals Management Service Herndon, VA November 2008 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROPOSED ACTION............................................................... 1 2.0 GENERAL CONFORMITY REGULATORY BACKGROUND .......................................... 2 2.1 GENERAL CONFORMITY REQUIREMENTS.................................................................... 2 2.2 GENERAL CONFORMITY APPLICABILITY.....................................................................

486

Laser Ablation Synthesis and Optical Characterization of Silicon Carbide Nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser Ablation Synthesis and Optical Characterization of Silicon Carbide Nanowires Wensheng Shi Kong, SAR, China Silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires were synthesized at 900°C by the laser ablation and composite nanostructures,4 have been fabricated by this technique. Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide

Zheng, Yufeng

487

Raman approach in silicon nanostructure at 1.5 micron  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last three years, the possibility of light generation and/or amplification in silicon, based on Raman emission, has achieved significant results. However, limitations inherent to the physics of silicon have been pointed out, too. In order to overcome ... Keywords: Raman amplifiers, Raman effect, nonlinear optics, porous silicon

L. Sirleto; M. A. Ferrara; B. Jalali; I. Rendina

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Measurement of MTF Target Plasma Temperature Using Filtered Silicon Photodiodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement of MTF Target Plasma Temperature Using Filtered Silicon Photodiodes Presented at the 40 Plasma Temperature Using Filtered Silicon Photodiodes Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is an approach photodiodes, and a plasma-density interferometer. The data obtained from the array of seven filtered silicon

489

Silicon/Organic Heterojunction to Block Minority Carriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

silicon solar cells are typically fabricated on thin high-quality silicon wafers ( (Fig. 4.1(a)). Conventional silicon solar cells use diffused p/p+ back-surface fields to reduce (c) Figure 4.1: (a) Band Diagram of solar cell in which recombination at the metal contact dominates

490

Material selection for electrooptic deflectors  

SciTech Connect

The selection of a material for a practical device is generally guided by a number of criteria, including cost, size, difficulty of fabrication, durability, driver requirements, and system constraints. A quantitative analysis can usually be made for comparison, or a figure of merit can be computed. In the case of materials for electrooptical (EO) devices the choice is often made based on the availability of materials meeting some minimum system requirement. For fast EO deflectors, where a large number of resolvable spots is required, the choice of materials is quite limited. A model of just such a device is proposed; it is based on the resolution of 400 spots and reasonable boundary conditions. The model predicts that to be successful, an EO material must be chosen that has a linear EO coefficient (r/sub 33/) of at least 336 pm/V. A survey was conducted of the EO materials which are generally available. Based on the model and the survey, Czochralski crystal growth of strontium barium niobate (SBN:60) is recommended. Although SBN:60 does not have the largest EO coefficient, it may be the easiest to grow in the required size and optical quality, thus satisfying the availability criterion. It should be borne in mind that many materials may be grown by this technique and there are many new and potential applications for EO materials. 92 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

Not Available

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

General | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Volver Pgina principal General banner.jpg Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGeneral&oldid519011" What links here Related changes Special pages Printable...

492

General User Proposals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General User Proposals Print General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS or the...

493

General User Proposals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office General User Proposals Print General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS...

494

Novel Semiconducting Silicon and Germanium Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we report new silicon and germanium nanotube structures, with no corresponding stable carbon analogues and which cannot be described by integer chiral indices. The electronic and mechanical properties of these new tubes were investigated through ab initio methods. Our results show that the structures are stable up to high temperatures (500 and 1000 K, for silicon and germanium tubes, respectively). Both tubes are semiconducting with small indirect band gaps, which can be significantly altered by both compressive and tensile strains. They also present high Young modulus values (0.25 and 0.15 TPa, respectively).

Perim, Eric; Botari, Tiago; Galvao, Douglas S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Deuterium in crystalline and amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

The authors report deuteron magnetic resonance (DMR) measurements on aged deuterium-implanted single crystal n-type silicon and comparisons with amorphous silicon spectra. The sample film was prepared six years ago by deuteration from a-D{sub 2} plasma and evaluated by a variety of experimental methods. Deuterium has been evolving with time and the present DMR signal shows a smaller deuteron population. A doublet from Si-D configurations along (111) has decreased more than have central molecular DMR components, which include 47 and 12 kHz FWHM gaussians. Transient DMR magnetization recoveries indicate spin lattice relaxation to para-D{sub 2} relaxation centers.

Borzi, R.; Ma, H.; Fedders, P.A.; Leopold, D.J.; Norberg, R.E.; Boyce, J.B.; Johnson, N.M.; Ready, S.E.; Walker, J.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Dislocations in Webs of Germanium and Silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The generation of dislocations in webs of germanium or silicon is discussed. In silicon many of these dislocations intersect the web solid?liquid interface and are propagated during growth; they frequently align themselves into low?angle grain boundaries which tend to lie in the (01?1) plane and propagate in the [21?1?] crystal?growth direction. The dislocations also interact strongly with the twin planes in the web and with each other. The effects of these interactions are made visible by the peculiar etching characteristics of the dislocations involved.

S. O'Hara

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sharma, Ashwani K. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sharma, Ashwani K. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Functional Materials for Energy | Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Storage Fuel Cells Thermoelectrics Separations Materials Catalysis Sensor Materials Polymers and Composites Carbon Fiber Related Research Chemistry and Physics at Interfaces Materials Synthesis from Atoms to Systems Materials Characterization Materials Theory and Simulation Energy Frontier Research Centers Advanced Materials Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials | Research Areas | Functional Materials for Energy SHARE Functional Materials for Energy The concept of functional materials for energy occupies a very prominent position in ORNL's research and more broadly the scientific research sponsored by DOE's Basic Energy Sciences. These materials facilitate the capture and transformation of energy, the storage of energy or the efficient release and utilization of stored energy. A different kind of

500

Research on high-efficiency, single-junction, monolithic, thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells: Annual subcontract report, May 1985 - Jul 1986  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken of the optoelectronic properties of amorphous silicon-hydrogen thin films deposited from disilane at high deposition rates. The information derived from this study was used to fabricate amorphous silicon solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 7%. The intrinsic layer of these solar cells was deposited at 15 angstroms/second. Material properties investigated included dark conductivity, photoconductivity, minority carrier diffusion length, and density of states. The solar cells properties characterized were absolute quantum yield and simulated global AM 1.5 efficiencies. Investigations were undertaken utilizing optical and infrared spectroscopy to optimize the microstructures of the intrinsic amorphous silicon. That work was sponsored by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. The information was used to optimize the intrinsic layer of amorphous silicon solar cells, resulting in AM 1.5 efficiencies exceeding 7%.

Wiesmann, H.; Dolan, J.; Fricano, G.; Danginis, V.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z