National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for general linear model

  1. Unified Einstein-Virasoro Master Equation in the General Non-Linear Sigma Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boer, J. de; Halpern, M.B.

    1996-06-05

    The Virasoro master equation (VME) describes the general affine-Virasoro construction $T=L^abJ_aJ_b+iD^a \\dif J_a$ in the operator algebra of the WZW model, where $L^ab$ is the inverse inertia tensor and $D^a $ is the improvement vector. In this paper, we generalize this construction to find the general (one-loop) Virasoro construction in the operator algebra of the general non-linear sigma model. The result is a unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation which couples the spacetime spin-two field $L^ab$ to the background fields of the sigma model. For a particular solution $L_G^ab$, the unified system reduces to the canonical stress tensors and conventional Einstein equations of the sigma model, and the system reduces to the general affine-Virasoro construction and the VME when the sigma model is taken to be the WZW action. More generally, the unified system describes a space of conformal field theories which is presumably much larger than the sum of the general affine-Virasoro construction and the sigma model with its canonical stress tensors. We also discuss a number of algebraic and geometrical properties of the system, including its relation to an unsolved problem in the theory of $G$-structures on manifolds with torsion.

  2. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yock, Adam D. Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Rao, Arvind; Dong, Lei; Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S.; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: −11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: −7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: −6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: −1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: −11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography

  3. Modeling patterns in data using linear and related models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    This report considers the use of linear models for analyzing data related to reliability and safety issues of the type usually associated with nuclear power plants. The report discusses some of the general results of linear regression analysis, such as the model assumptions and properties of the estimators of the parameters. The results are motivated with examples of operational data. Results about the important case of a linear regression model with one covariate are covered in detail. This case includes analysis of time trends. The analysis is applied with two different sets of time trend data. Diagnostic procedures and tests for the adequacy of the model are discussed. Some related methods such as weighted regression and nonlinear models are also considered. A discussion of the general linear model is also included. Appendix A gives some basic SAS programs and outputs for some of the analyses discussed in the body of the report. Appendix B is a review of some of the matrix theoretic results which are useful in the development of linear models.

  4. Generalized space and linear momentum operators in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, Bruno G. da

    2014-06-15

    We propose a modification of a recently introduced generalized translation operator, by including a q-exponential factor, which implies in the definition of a Hermitian deformed linear momentum operator p{sup ^}{sub q}, and its canonically conjugate deformed position operator x{sup ^}{sub q}. A canonical transformation leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of a deformed phase space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space may be expressed in terms of the generalized dual q-derivative. A position-dependent mass confined in an infinite square potential well is shown as an instance. Uncertainty and correspondence principles are analyzed.

  5. Scalar mesons in three-flavor linear sigma models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deirdre Black; Amir H. Fariborz; Sherif Moussa; Salah Nasri; Joseph Schrechter

    2001-09-01

    The three flavor linear sigma model is studied in order to understand the role of possible light scalar mesons in the pi-pi, pi-K and pi-eta elastic scattering channels. The K-matrix prescription is used to unitarize tree-level amplitudes and, with a sufficiently general model, we obtain reasonable ts to the experimental data. The effect of unitarization is very important and leads to the emergence of a nonet of light scalars, with masses below 1 GeV. We compare with a scattering treatment using a more general non-linear sigma model approach and also comment upon how our results t in with the scalar meson puzzle. The latter involves a preliminary investigation of possible mixing between scalar nonets.

  6. Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-02-07

    GEMS is an integrated environment that allows technical analysts, modelers, researchers, etc. to integrate and deploy models and/or decision tools with associated data to the internet for direct use by customers. GEMS does not require that the model developer know how to code or script and therefore delivers this capability to a large group of technical specialists. Customers gain the benefit of being able to execute their own scenarios directly without need for technical support.more » GEMS is a process that leverages commercial software products with specialized codes that add connectivity and unique functions to support the overall capability. Users integrate pre-existing models with a commercial product and store parameters and input trajectories in a companion commercial database. The model is then exposed into a commercial web environment and a graphical user interface (GUI) is applied by the model developer. Users execute the model through the web based GUI and GEMS manages supply of proper inputs, execution of models, routing of data to models and display of results back to users. GEMS works in layers, the following description is from the bottom up. Modelers create models in the modeling tool of their choice such as Excel, Matlab, or Fortran. They can also use models from a library of previously wrapped legacy codes (models). Modelers integrate the models (or a single model) by wrapping and connecting the models using the Phoenix Integration tool entitled ModelCenter. Using a ModelCenter/SAS plugin (DOE copyright CW-10-08) the modeler gets data from either an SAS or SQL database and sends results back to SAS or SQL. Once the model is working properly, the ModelCenter file is saved and stored in a folder location to which a SharePoint server tool created at INL is pointed. This enables the ModelCenter model to be run from SharePoint. The modeler then goes into Microsoft SharePoint and creates a graphical user interface (GUI) using the ModelCenter Web

  7. LLNL Ocean General Circulation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-12-29

    The LLNL OGCM is a numerical ocean modeling tool for use in studying ocean circulation over a wide range of space and time scales, with primary applications to climate change and carbon cycle science.

  8. Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Publications, Softwaremodeling tools User Interface: Other Website: iatools.jrc.ec.europa.eudocsecolecon2006.pdf Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability...

  9. Confirming the Lanchestrian linear-logarithmic model of attrition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, D.S. III.

    1990-12-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of reports on the breakthrough research in historical validation of attrition in conflict. Significant defense policy decisions, including weapons acquisition and arms reduction, are based in part on models of conflict. Most of these models are driven by their attrition algorithms, usually forms of the Lanchester square and linear laws. None of these algorithms have been validated. The results of this paper confirm the results of earlier papers, using a large database of historical results. The homogeneous linear-logarithmic Lanchestrian attrition model is validated to the extent possible with current initial and final force size data and is consistent with the Iwo Jima data. A particular differential linear-logarithmic model is described that fits the data very well. A version of Helmbold's victory predicting parameter is also confirmed, with an associated probability function. 37 refs., 73 figs., 68 tabs.

  10. Linear Fresnel Technology added to System Advisor Model's Capabilities -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Releases | NREL Linear Fresnel Technology added to System Advisor Model's Capabilities Now utilities can get detailed information on siting, performance and finances February 8, 2012 A promising Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology that uses a stationary receiver tube and an array of mirrors mounted near the ground can now be accessed within the System Advisor Model (SAM), which predicts annual energy production, hourly performance and return on investment. The U.S. Department of

  11. Compactlike kinks and vortices in generalized models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazeia, D.; Hora, E. da; Menezes, R.; Oliveira, H. P. de; Santos, C. dos

    2010-06-15

    This work deals with the presence of topological defects in k-field models, where the dynamics is generalized to include higher order power in the kinetic term. We investigate kinks in (1, 1) dimensions and vortices in (2, 1) dimensions, focusing on some specific features of the solutions. In particular, we show how the kinks and vortices change to compactlike solutions, controlled by the parameter used to introduce the generalized models.

  12. Simple implementation of general dark energy models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon K.; Pearson, Jonathan A. E-mail: jonathan.pearson@durham.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We present a formalism for the numerical implementation of general theories of dark energy, combining the computational simplicity of the equation of state for perturbations approach with the generality of the effective field theory approach. An effective fluid description is employed, based on a general action describing single-scalar field models. The formalism is developed from first principles, and constructed keeping the goal of a simple implementation into CAMB in mind. Benefits of this approach include its straightforward implementation, the generality of the underlying theory, the fact that the evolved variables are physical quantities, and that model-independent phenomenological descriptions may be straightforwardly investigated. We hope this formulation will provide a powerful tool for the comparison of theoretical models of dark energy with observational data.

  13. Generalized gas-solid adsorption modeling: Single-component equilibria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ladshaw, Austin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.

    2015-01-07

    Over the last several decades, modeling of gas–solid adsorption at equilibrium has generally been accomplished through the use of isotherms such as the Freundlich, Langmuir, Tóth, and other similar models. While these models are relatively easy to adapt for describing experimental data, their simplicity limits their generality to be used with many different sets of data. This limitation forces engineers and scientists to test each different model in order to evaluate which one can best describe their data. Additionally, the parameters of these models all have a different physical interpretation, which may have an effect on how they can bemore » further extended into kinetic, thermodynamic, and/or mass transfer models for engineering applications. Therefore, it is paramount to adopt not only a more general isotherm model, but also a concise methodology to reliably optimize for and obtain the parameters of that model. A model of particular interest is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm. The GSTA isotherm has enormous flexibility, which could potentially be used to describe a variety of different adsorption systems, but utilizing this model can be fairly difficult due to that flexibility. To circumvent this complication, a comprehensive methodology and computer code has been developed that can perform a full equilibrium analysis of adsorption data for any gas-solid system using the GSTA model. The code has been developed in C/C++ and utilizes a Levenberg–Marquardt’s algorithm to handle the non-linear optimization of the model parameters. Since the GSTA model has an adjustable number of parameters, the code iteratively goes through all number of plausible parameters for each data set and then returns the best solution based on a set of scrutiny criteria. Data sets at different temperatures are analyzed serially and then linear correlations with temperature are made for the parameters of the model. The end result is a full set

  14. Generalized Uncertainty Quantification for Linear Inverse Problems in X-ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Michael James

    2014-04-25

    In industrial and engineering applications, X-ray radiography has attained wide use as a data collection protocol for the assessment of material properties in cases where direct observation is not possible. The direct measurement of nuclear materials, particularly when they are under explosive or implosive loading, is not feasible, and radiography can serve as a useful tool for obtaining indirect measurements. In such experiments, high energy X-rays are pulsed through a scene containing material of interest, and a detector records a radiograph by measuring the radiation that is not attenuated in the scene. One approach to the analysis of these radiographs is to model the imaging system as an operator that acts upon the object being imaged to produce a radiograph. In this model, the goal is to solve an inverse problem to reconstruct the values of interest in the object, which are typically material properties such as density or areal density. The primary objective in this work is to provide quantitative solutions with uncertainty estimates for three separate applications in X-ray radiography: deconvolution, Abel inversion, and radiation spot shape reconstruction. For each problem, we introduce a new hierarchical Bayesian model for determining a posterior distribution on the unknowns and develop efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for sampling from the posterior. A Poisson likelihood, based on a noise model for photon counts at the detector, is combined with a prior tailored to each application: an edge-localizing prior for deconvolution; a smoothing prior with non-negativity constraints for spot reconstruction; and a full covariance sampling prior based on a Wishart hyperprior for Abel inversion. After developing our methods in a general setting, we demonstrate each model on both synthetically generated datasets, including those from a well known radiation transport code, and real high energy radiographs taken at two U. S. Department of Energy

  15. Performance Models for the Spike Banded Linear System Solver

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Manguoglu, Murat; Saied, Faisal; Sameh, Ahmed; Grama, Ananth

    2011-01-01

    With availability of large-scale parallel platforms comprised of tens-of-thousands of processors and beyond, there is significant impetus for the development of scalable parallel sparse linear system solvers and preconditioners. An integral part of this design process is the development of performance models capable of predicting performance and providing accurate cost models for the solvers and preconditioners. There has been some work in the past on characterizing performance of the iterative solvers themselves. In this paper, we investigate the problem of characterizing performance and scalability of banded preconditioners. Recent work has demonstrated the superior convergence properties and robustness of banded preconditioners,more » compared to state-of-the-art ILU family of preconditioners as well as algebraic multigrid preconditioners. Furthermore, when used in conjunction with efficient banded solvers, banded preconditioners are capable of significantly faster time-to-solution. Our banded solver, the Truncated Spike algorithm is specifically designed for parallel performance and tolerance to deep memory hierarchies. Its regular structure is also highly amenable to accurate performance characterization. Using these characteristics, we derive the following results in this paper: (i) we develop parallel formulations of the Truncated Spike solver, (ii) we develop a highly accurate pseudo-analytical parallel performance model for our solver, (iii) we show excellent predication capabilities of our model – based on which we argue the high scalability of our solver. Our pseudo-analytical performance model is based on analytical performance characterization of each phase of our solver. These analytical models are then parameterized using actual runtime information on target platforms. An important consequence of our performance models is that they reveal underlying performance bottlenecks in both serial and parallel formulations. All of our results are validated

  16. New model for nucleon generalized parton distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new type of models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E. They are heavily based on the fact nucleon GPDs require to use two forms of double distribution (DD) representations. The outcome of the new treatment is that the usual DD+D-term construction should be amended by an extra term, {xi} E{sub +}{sup 1} (x,{xi}) which has the DD structure {alpha}/{beta} e({beta},{alpha}, with e({beta},{alpha}) being the DD that generates GPD E(x,{xi}). We found that this function, unlike the D-term, has support in the whole -1 <= x <= 1 region. Furthermore, it does not vanish at the border points |x|={xi}.

  17. General single phase wellbore flow model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Liang-Biao; Arbabi, S.; Aziz, K.

    1997-02-05

    A general wellbore flow model, which incorporates not only frictional, accelerational and gravitational pressure drops, but also the pressure drop caused by inflow, is presented in this report. The new wellbore model is readily applicable to any wellbore perforation patterns and well completions, and can be easily incorporated in reservoir simulators or analytical reservoir inflow models. Three dimensionless numbers, the accelerational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub af}, the gravitational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub gf}, and the inflow-directional to accelerational pressure gradient ratio R{sub da}, have been introduced to quantitatively describe the relative importance of different pressure gradient components. For fluid flow in a production well, it is expected that there may exist up to three different regions of the wellbore: the laminar flow region, the partially-developed turbulent flow region, and the fully-developed turbulent flow region. The laminar flow region is located near the well toe, the partially-turbulent flow region lies in the middle of the wellbore, while the fully-developed turbulent flow region is at the downstream end or the heel of the wellbore. Length of each region depends on fluid properties, wellbore geometry and flow rate. As the distance from the well toe increases, flow rate in the wellbore increases and the ratios R{sub af} and R{sub da} decrease. Consequently accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops have the greatest impact in the toe region of the wellbore. Near the well heel the local wellbore flow rate becomes large and close to the total well production rate, here R{sub af} and R{sub da} are small, therefore, both the accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops can be neglected.

  18. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  19. Results and Comparison from the SAM Linear Fresnel Technology Performance Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the new Linear Fresnel technology performance model in NREL's System Advisor Model. The model predicts the financial and technical performance of direct-steam-generation Linear Fresnel power plants, and can be used to analyze a range of system configurations. This paper presents a brief discussion of the model formulation and motivation, and provides extensive discussion of the model performance and financial results. The Linear Fresnel technology is also compared to other concentrating solar power technologies in both qualitative and quantitative measures. The Linear Fresnel model - developed in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute - provides users with the ability to model a variety of solar field layouts, fossil backup configurations, thermal receiver designs, and steam generation conditions. This flexibility aims to encompass current market solutions for the DSG Linear Fresnel technology, which is seeing increasing exposure in fossil plant augmentation and stand-alone power generation applications.

  20. Predictions of flow through an isothermal serpentine passage with linear eddy-viscosity Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laskowski, Gregory Michael

    2005-12-01

    Flows with strong curvature present a challenge for turbulence models, specifically eddy viscosity type models which assume isotropy and a linear and instantaneous equilibrium relation between stress and strain. Results obtained from three different codes and two different linear eddy viscosity turbulence models are compared to a DNS simulation in order to gain some perspective on the turbulence modeling capability of SIERRA/Fuego. The Fuego v2f results are superior to the more common two-layer k-e model results obtained with both a commercial and research code in terms of the concave near wall behavior predictions. However, near the convex wall, including the separated region, little improvement is gained using the v2f model and in general the turbulent kinetic energy prediction is fair at best.

  1. Microgrid Reliability Modeling and Battery Scheduling Using Stochastic Linear Programming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana; Ferrao, Paulo

    2013-05-23

    This paper describes the introduction of stochastic linear programming into Operations DER-CAM, a tool used to obtain optimal operating schedules for a given microgrid under local economic and environmental conditions. This application follows previous work on optimal scheduling of a lithium-iron-phosphate battery given the output uncertainty of a 1 MW molten carbonate fuel cell. Both are in the Santa Rita Jail microgrid, located in Dublin, California. This fuel cell has proven unreliable, partially justifying the consideration of storage options. Several stochastic DER-CAM runs are executed to compare different scenarios to values obtained by a deterministic approach. Results indicate that using a stochastic approach provides a conservative yet more lucrative battery schedule. Lower expected energy bills result, given fuel cell outages, in potential savings exceeding 6percent.

  2. Direct-Steam Linear Fresnel Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M. J.; Zhu, G.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the technical formulation and demonstrated model performance results of a new direct-steam-generation (DSG) model in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). The model predicts the annual electricity production of a wide range of system configurations within the DSG Linear Fresnel technology by modeling hourly performance of the plant in detail. The quasi-steady-state formulation allows users to investigate energy and mass flows, operating temperatures, and pressure drops for geometries and solar field configurations of interest. The model includes tools for heat loss calculation using either empirical polynomial heat loss curves as a function of steam temperature, ambient temperature, and wind velocity, or a detailed evacuated tube receiver heat loss model. Thermal losses are evaluated using a computationally efficient nodal approach, where the solar field and headers are discretized into multiple nodes where heat losses, thermal inertia, steam conditions (including pressure, temperature, enthalpy, etc.) are individually evaluated during each time step of the simulation. This paper discusses the mathematical formulation for the solar field model and describes how the solar field is integrated with the other subsystem models, including the power cycle and optional auxiliary fossil system. Model results are also presented to demonstrate plant behavior in the various operating modes.

  3. Open Geospace General Circulation Model simulation of a substorm...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Open Geospace General Circulation Model simulation of a substorm: Axial tail instability ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  4. A general simulation model for Stirling cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, S.; Schwendig, F.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for the calculation of the Stirling cycle and of similar processes is presented. The model comprises a method to reproduce schematically any kind of process configuration, including free piston engines. The differential balance equations describing the process are solved by a stable integration algorithm. Heat transfer and pressure loss are calculated by using new correlations, which consider the special conditions of the periodic compression/expansion respectively of the oscillating flow. A comparison between experimental data achieved by means of a test apparatus and calculated data shows a good agreement.

  5. Vibration Model Validation for Linear Collider Detector Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertsche, Kirk; Amann, J.W.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Oriunno, M.; Weidemann, A.; White, G.; /SLAC

    2012-05-16

    The ILC and CLIC reference designs incorporate reinforced-concrete platforms underneath the detectors so that the two detectors can each be moved onto and off of the beamline in a Push-Pull configuration. These platforms could potentially amplify ground vibrations, which would reduce luminosity. In this paper we compare vibration models to experimental data on reinforced concrete structures, estimate the impact on luminosity, and summarize implications for the design of a reinforced concrete platform for the ILC or CLIC detectors.

  6. Battery Life Estimator Manual Linear Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2009-08-01

    The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.

  7. Evaluation of cirrus statistics produced by general circulation models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using ARM data cirrus statistics produced by general circulation models using ARM data Hartsock, Daniel University of Utah Mace, Gerald University of Utah Benson, Sally University of Utah Category: Modeling Our goal is to evaluate the skill of various general circulation models for producing climatological cloud statistics by comparing them to the cirrus climatology compiled over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site. This evaluation includes quantifying similar cloud properties and

  8. Posters Comparison Between General Circulation Model Simulation and Central Equatorial

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    61 Posters Comparison Between General Circulation Model Simulation and Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment Measurements G. J. Zhang, S. Sherwood, T. P. Barnett, and V. Ramanathan Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California Introduction A general circulation model (GCM) is a very powerful tool for understanding many climate issues. However, it must be validated using observational data in order for the model results to be credible in climate

  9. Inverse scattering method and soliton double solution family for the general symplectic gravity model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Yajun

    2008-08-15

    A previously established Hauser-Ernst-type extended double-complex linear system is slightly modified and used to develop an inverse scattering method for the stationary axisymmetric general symplectic gravity model. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton double solutions for the considered theory is obtained.

  10. Vibration Stabilization of a Mechanical Model of a X-Band Linear Collider Final Focus Magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frisch, Josef; Chang, Allison; Decker, Valentin; Doyle, Eric; Eriksson, Leif; Hendrickson, Linda; Himel, Thomas; Markiewicz, Thomas; Partridge, Richard; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2006-09-28

    The small beam sizes at the interaction point of a X-band linear collider require mechanical stabilization of the final focus magnets at the nanometer level. While passive systems provide adequate performance at many potential sites, active mechanical stabilization is useful if the natural or cultural ground vibration is higher than expected. A mechanical model of a room temperature linear collider final focus magnet has been constructed and actively stabilized with an accelerometer based system.

  11. Lattice and off-lattice side chain models of protein folding: Linear time structure prediction better than 86% of optimal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, W.E.; Istrail, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Algorithms and Discrete Mathematics Dept.

    1996-08-09

    This paper considers the protein structure prediction problem for lattice and off-lattice protein folding models that explicitly represent side chains. Lattice models of proteins have proven extremely useful tools for reasoning about protein folding in unrestricted continuous space through analogy. This paper provides the first illustration of how rigorous algorithmic analyses of lattice models can lead to rigorous algorithmic analyses of off-lattice models. The authors consider two side chain models: a lattice model that generalizes the HP model (Dill 85) to explicitly represent side chains on the cubic lattice, and a new off-lattice model, the HP Tangent Spheres Side Chain model (HP-TSSC), that generalizes this model further by representing the backbone and side chains of proteins with tangent spheres. They describe algorithms for both of these models with mathematically guaranteed error bounds. In particular, the authors describe a linear time performance guaranteed approximation algorithm for the HP side chain model that constructs conformations whose energy is better than 865 of optimal in a face centered cubic lattice, and they demonstrate how this provides a 70% performance guarantee for the HP-TSSC model. This is the first algorithm in the literature for off-lattice protein structure prediction that has a rigorous performance guarantee. The analysis of the HP-TSSC model builds off of the work of Dancik and Hannenhalli who have developed a 16/30 approximation algorithm for the HP model on the hexagonal close packed lattice. Further, the analysis provides a mathematical methodology for transferring performance guarantees on lattices to off-lattice models. These results partially answer the open question of Karplus et al. concerning the complexity of protein folding models that include side chains.

  12. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: General implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-11-14

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute.

  13. Generalized charge-screening in relativistic ThomasFermi model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar

  14. System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description Paul Gilman and Aron Dobos Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-53437 February 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description

  15. A generating set direct search augmented Lagrangian algorithm for optimization with a combination of general and linear constraints.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Robert Michael (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Torczon, Virginia Joanne (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2006-08-01

    We consider the solution of nonlinear programs in the case where derivatives of the objective function and nonlinear constraints are unavailable. To solve such problems, we propose an adaptation of a method due to Conn, Gould, Sartenaer, and Toint that proceeds by approximately minimizing a succession of linearly constrained augmented Lagrangians. Our modification is to use a derivative-free generating set direct search algorithm to solve the linearly constrained subproblems. The stopping criterion proposed by Conn, Gould, Sartenaer and Toint for the approximate solution of the subproblems requires explicit knowledge of derivatives. Such information is presumed absent in the generating set search method we employ. Instead, we show that stationarity results for linearly constrained generating set search methods provide a derivative-free stopping criterion, based on a step-length control parameter, that is sufficient to preserve the convergence properties of the original augmented Lagrangian algorithm.

  16. A general circulation model (GCM) parameterization of Pinatubo aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacis, A.A.; Carlson, B.E.; Mishchenko, M.I.

    1996-04-01

    The June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo is the largest and best documented global climate forcing experiment in recorded history. The time development and geographical dispersion of the aerosol has been closely monitored and sampled. Based on preliminary estimates of the Pinatubo aerosol loading, general circulation model predictions of the impact on global climate have been made.

  17. Lattice model of linear telechelic polymer melts. II. Influence of chain stiffness on basic thermodynamic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wen-Sheng; Freed, Karl F.

    2015-07-14

    The lattice cluster theory (LCT) for semiflexible linear telechelic melts, developed in Paper I, is applied to examine the influence of chain stiffness on the average degree of self-assembly and the basic thermodynamic properties of linear telechelic polymer melts. Our calculations imply that chain stiffness promotes self-assembly of linear telechelic polymer melts that assemble on cooling when either polymer volume fraction ϕ or temperature T is high, but opposes self-assembly when both ϕ and T are sufficiently low. This allows us to identify a boundary line in the ϕ-T plane that separates two regions of qualitatively different influence of chain stiffness on self-assembly. The enthalpy and entropy of self-assembly are usually treated as adjustable parameters in classical Flory-Huggins type theories for the equilibrium self-assembly of polymers, but they are demonstrated here to strongly depend on chain stiffness. Moreover, illustrative calculations for the dependence of the entropy density of linear telechelic polymer melts on chain stiffness demonstrate the importance of including semiflexibility within the LCT when exploring the nature of glass formation in models of linear telechelic polymer melts.

  18. Comparison of the extended linear {sigma} model and chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, W.P.; Kubodera, K.; Myhrer, F.

    2005-09-01

    The pion-nucleon-scattering amplitudes are calculated in tree approximation with the use of the extended linear sigma model (ELSM) as well as heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory (HB{chi}PT), and the nonrelativistic forms of the ELSM results are compared with those of HB{chi}PT. We find that the amplitudes obtained in ELSM do not agree with those derived from the more fundamental effective approach, HB{chi}PT.

  19. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M.

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  20. Generalized Optoelectronic Model of Series-Connected Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, John F.; Steiner, Myles A.; Garcia, Ivan; France, Ryan M.; McMahon, William E.; Osterwald, Carl R.; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-10-02

    The emission of light from each junction in a series-connected multijunction solar cell, we found, both complicates and elucidates the understanding of its performance under arbitrary conditions. Bringing together many recent advances in this understanding, we present a general 1-D model to describe luminescent coupling that arises from both voltage-driven electroluminescence and voltage-independent photoluminescence in nonideal junctions that include effects such as Sah-Noyce-Shockley (SNS) recombination with n ≠ 2, Auger recombination, shunt resistance, reverse-bias breakdown, series resistance, and significant dark area losses. The individual junction voltages and currents are experimentally determined from measured optical and electrical inputs and outputs of the device within the context of the model to fit parameters that describe the devices performance under arbitrary input conditions. Furthermore, our techniques to experimentally fit the model are demonstrated for a four-junction inverted metamorphic solar cell, and the predictions of the model are compared with concentrator flash measurements.

  1. Generalized Optoelectronic Model of Series-Connected Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, John F.; Steiner, Myles A.; Garcia, Ivan; France, Ryan M.; McMahon, William E.; Osterwald, Carl R.; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The emission of light from each junction in a series-connected multijunction solar cell, we found, both complicates and elucidates the understanding of its performance under arbitrary conditions. Bringing together many recent advances in this understanding, we present a general 1-D model to describe luminescent coupling that arises from both voltage-driven electroluminescence and voltage-independent photoluminescence in nonideal junctions that include effects such as Sah-Noyce-Shockley (SNS) recombination with n ≠ 2, Auger recombination, shunt resistance, reverse-bias breakdown, series resistance, and significant dark area losses. The individual junction voltages and currents are experimentally determined from measured optical and electrical inputs and outputs of the device within the context of the model to fit parameters that describe the devices performance under arbitrary input conditions. Furthermore, our techniques to experimentally fit the model are demonstrated for a four-junction inverted metamorphic solar cell, and the predictions of the model are compared with concentrator flash measurements.

  2. Single-Column Modeling A Stratiform Cloud Parameterization for General Circulation Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Stratiform Cloud Parameterization for General Circulation Models S. J. Ghan and L. R. Leung Pacific Northwest Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 C. C. Chuang and J. E. Penner Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory : Livermore. CA 94550 J. McCaa University of Washington Seattle, Washington The crude treatment of clouds in general circulation models (GCMs) is widely recognized as a major limitation in applying these models to predictions of global climate change. The purpose of this project is to

  3. System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description Nate Blair, Aron P. Dobos, Janine Freeman, Ty Neises, and Michael Wagner National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Ferguson, Paul Gilman, and Steven Janzou Independent Consultants Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-61019 February 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the

  4. Generalized Optoelectronic Model of Series-Connected Multijunction Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geisz, John F.; Steiner, Myles A.; Garcia, Ivan; France, Ryan M.; McMahon, William E.; Osterwald, Carl R.; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-10-02

    The emission of light from each junction in a series-connected multijunction solar cell, we found, both complicates and elucidates the understanding of its performance under arbitrary conditions. Bringing together many recent advances in this understanding, we present a general 1-D model to describe luminescent coupling that arises from both voltage-driven electroluminescence and voltage-independent photoluminescence in nonideal junctions that include effects such as Sah-Noyce-Shockley (SNS) recombination with n ≠ 2, Auger recombination, shunt resistance, reverse-bias breakdown, series resistance, and significant dark area losses. The individual junction voltages and currents are experimentally determined from measured optical and electrical inputs and outputs ofmore » the device within the context of the model to fit parameters that describe the devices performance under arbitrary input conditions. Furthermore, our techniques to experimentally fit the model are demonstrated for a four-junction inverted metamorphic solar cell, and the predictions of the model are compared with concentrator flash measurements.« less

  5. Kinetic simulations and reduced modeling of longitudinal sideband instabilities in non-linear electron plasma waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunner, S.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Hausammann, L.; Valeo, E. J.

    2014-10-01

    Kinetic Vlasov simulations of one-dimensional finite amplitude Electron Plasma Waves are performed in a multi-wavelength long system. A systematic study of the most unstable linear sideband mode, in particular its growth rate γ and quasi- wavenumber δk, is carried out by scanning the amplitude and wavenumber of the initial wave. Simulation results are successfully compared against numerical and analytical solutions to the reduced model by Kruer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 838 (1969)] for the Trapped Particle Instability (TPI). A model recently suggested by Dodin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 215006 (2013)], which in addition to the TPI accounts for the so-called Negative Mass Instability because of a more detailed representation of the trapped particle dynamics, is also studied and compared with simulations.

  6. Kinetic simulations and reduced modeling of longitudinal sideband instabilities in non-linear electron plasma waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunner, S. Hausammann, L.; Berger, R. L. Cohen, B. I.; Valeo, E. J.

    2014-10-15

    Kinetic Vlasov simulations of one-dimensional finite amplitude Electron Plasma Waves are performed in a multi-wavelength long system. A systematic study of the most unstable linear sideband mode, in particular its growth rate ? and quasi- wavenumber ?k, is carried out by scanning the amplitude and wavenumber of the initial wave. Simulation results are successfully compared against numerical and analytical solutions to the reduced model by Kruer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 838 (1969)] for the Trapped Particle Instability (TPI). A model recently suggested by Dodin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 215006 (2013)], which in addition to the TPI accounts for the so-called Negative Mass Instability because of a more detailed representation of the trapped particle dynamics, is also studied and compared with simulations.

  7. On the Bayesian Treed Multivariate Gaussian Process with Linear Model of Coregionalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konomi, Bledar A.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Lin, Guang

    2015-02-01

    The Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP) has gained popularity in recent years because it provides a straightforward mechanism for modeling non-stationary data and can alleviate computational demands by fitting models to less data. The extension of BTGP to the multivariate setting requires us to model the cross-covariance and to propose efficient algorithms that can deal with trans-dimensional MCMC moves. In this paper we extend the cross-covariance of the Bayesian treed multivariate Gaussian process (BTMGP) to that of linear model of Coregionalization (LMC) cross-covariances. Different strategies have been developed to improve the MCMC mixing and invert smaller matrices in the Bayesian inference. Moreover, we compare the proposed BTMGP with existing multiple BTGP and BTMGP in test cases and multiphase flow computer experiment in a full scale regenerator of a carbon capture unit. The use of the BTMGP with LMC cross-covariance helped to predict the computer experiments relatively better than existing competitors. The proposed model has a wide variety of applications, such as computer experiments and environmental data. In the case of computer experiments we also develop an adaptive sampling strategy for the BTMGP with LMC cross-covariance function.

  8. A generalized Fokker-Planck model applied to beam transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prinja, A.K.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the authors consider a generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) model for the transport of charged-particle beams, when scattering is not sufficiently forward peaked for the well-known Fokker-Planck (FP) approximation to hold. This approximation is strictly valid in the limit that the total scattering cross section {sigma}{sub s} {r_arrow} {infinity} and the mean cosine of scattering {bar {mu}} {r_arrow} 1. When scattering is not sufficiently forward peaked, higher order Fokker-Planck expansions, restricted to differential cross sections that fall off sufficiently rapidly, can be developed. For instance, the Henyey-Greenstein differential cross section does not possess an FP limit at all, while the screened Rutherford cross section satisfies the FP limit only marginally, and its higher order FP limits do not exist. For cross sections that fall off faster than screened Rutherford, including the exponential phase function, higher order truncations exist.

  9. Generalized Modeling of Enrichment Cascades That Include Minor Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Charles F

    2012-01-01

    The monitoring of enrichment operations may require innovative analysis to allow for imperfect or missing data. The presence of minor isotopes may help or hurt - they can complicate a calculation or provide additional data to corroborate a calculation. However, they must be considered in a rigorous analysis, especially in cases involving reuse. This study considers matched-abundanceratio cascades that involve at least three isotopes and allows generalized input that does not require all feed assays or the enrichment factor to be specified. Calculations are based on the equations developed for the MSTAR code but are generalized to allow input of various combinations of assays, flows, and other cascade properties. Traditional cascade models have required specification of the enrichment factor, all feed assays, and the product and waste assays of the primary enriched component. The calculation would then produce the numbers of stages in the enriching and stripping sections and the remaining assays in waste and product streams. In cases where the enrichment factor or feed assays were not known, analysis was difficult or impossible. However, if other quantities are known (e.g., additional assays in waste or product streams), a reliable calculation is still possible with the new code, but such nonstandard input may introduce additional numerical difficulties into the calculation. Thus, the minimum input requirements for a stable solution are discussed, and a sample problem with a non-unique solution is described. Both heuristic and mathematically required guidelines are given to assist the application of cascade modeling to situations involving such non-standard input. As a result, this work provides both a calculational tool and specific guidance for evaluation of enrichment cascades in which traditional input data are either flawed or unknown. It is useful for cases involving minor isotopes, especially if the minor isotope assays are desired (or required) to be

  10. The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-11

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4}H{sub 2}O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H{sub 2}O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH){sub 4} are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results detennined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components.

  11. How to calculate linear absorption spectra with lifetime broadening using fewest switches surface hopping trajectories: A simple generalization of ground-state Kubo theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petit, Andrew S.; Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2014-07-07

    In this paper, we develop a surface hopping approach for calculating linear absorption spectra using ensembles of classical trajectories propagated on both the ground and excited potential energy surfaces. We demonstrate that our method allows the dipole-dipole correlation function to be determined exactly for the model problem of two shifted, uncoupled harmonic potentials with the same harmonic frequency. For systems where nonadiabatic dynamics and electronic relaxation are present, preliminary results show that our method produces spectra in better agreement with the results of exact quantum dynamics calculations than spectra obtained using the standard ground-state Kubo formalism. As such, our proposed surface hopping approach should find immediate use for modeling condensed phase spectra, especially for expensive calculations using ab initio potential energy surfaces.

  12. A non-linear dimension reduction methodology for generating data-driven stochastic input models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Zabaras, Nicholas

    2008-06-20

    Stochastic analysis of random heterogeneous media (polycrystalline materials, porous media, functionally graded materials) provides information of significance only if realistic input models of the topology and property variations are used. This paper proposes a framework to construct such input stochastic models for the topology and thermal diffusivity variations in heterogeneous media using a data-driven strategy. Given a set of microstructure realizations (input samples) generated from given statistical information about the medium topology, the framework constructs a reduced-order stochastic representation of the thermal diffusivity. This problem of constructing a low-dimensional stochastic representation of property variations is analogous to the problem of manifold learning and parametric fitting of hyper-surfaces encountered in image processing and psychology. Denote by M the set of microstructures that satisfy the given experimental statistics. A non-linear dimension reduction strategy is utilized to map M to a low-dimensional region, A. We first show that M is a compact manifold embedded in a high-dimensional input space R{sup n}. An isometric mapping F from M to a low-dimensional, compact, connected set A is contained in R{sup d}(d<model of the material topology and thermal diffusivity variations is subsequently used as an input in the solution of stochastic partial differential equations that describe the evolution of dependant variables. A sparse grid collocation strategy (Smolyak algorithm) is utilized to solve these stochastic equations efficiently. We showcase the

  13. Nuclear matter properties in the non-linear Walecka model at finite temperature with interaction between the ? - ? mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, R. S.; Cortes, M. R.; Nunes, D. R.; Batista, A. S. A.

    2014-11-11

    In this work in contrast to the usual Walecka model [1] we include the interaction between the ? ? mesons [2,3] with the aim of studying the nuclear matter properties in the relativistic mean-field theory in the regime of high temperatures. Therefore in our work we use the non-linear Walecka model. We investigate whether the phase transition characteristic of other models without these interactions vanishes for a given value of chemical potential ? and baryon density ?{sub N}.

  14. Performance of Linear and Nonlinear Two-Leaf Light Use Efficiency Models at Different Temporal Scales

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Xiaocui; Ju, Weimin; Zhou, Yanlian; He, Mingzhu; Law, Beverly E.; Black, T. Andrew; Margolis, Hank A.; Cescatti, Alessandro; Gu, Lianhong; Montagni, Leonardo; et al

    2015-02-25

    The reliable simulation of gross primary productivity (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales is of significance to quantifying the net exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. This study aimed to verify the ability of a nonlinear two-leaf model (TL-LUEn), a linear two-leaf model (TL-LUE), and a big-leaf light use efficiency model (MOD17) to simulate GPP at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales using GPP derived from 58 eddy-covariance flux sites in Asia, Europe and North America as benchmarks. Model evaluation showed that the overall performance of TL-LUEn was slightly but not significantly better than TL-LUE at half-hourlymore » and daily scale, while the overall performance of both TL-LUEn and TL-LUE were significantly better (p < 0.0001) than MOD17 at the two temporal scales. The improvement of TL-LUEn over TL-LUE was relatively small in comparison with the improvement of TL-LUE over MOD17. However, the differences between TL-LUEn and MOD17, and TL-LUE and MOD17 became less distinct at the 8-day scale. As for different vegetation types, TL-LUEn and TL-LUE performed better than MOD17 for all vegetation types except crops at the half-hourly scale. At the daily and 8-day scales, both TL-LUEn and TL-LUE outperformed MOD17 for forests. However, TL-LUEn had a mixed performance for the three non-forest types while TL-LUE outperformed MOD17 slightly for all these non-forest types at daily and 8-day scales. The better performance of TL-LUEn and TL-LUE for forests was mainly achieved by the correction of the underestimation/overestimation of GPP simulated by MOD17 under low/high solar radiation and sky clearness conditions. TL-LUEn is more applicable at individual sites at the half-hourly scale while TL-LUE could be regionally used at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales. MOD17 is also an applicable option regionally at the 8-day scale.« less

  15. Performance of Linear and Nonlinear Two-Leaf Light Use Efficiency Models at Different Temporal Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaocui; Ju, Weimin; Zhou, Yanlian; He, Mingzhu; Law, Beverly E.; Black, T. Andrew; Margolis, Hank A.; Cescatti, Alessandro; Gu, Lianhong; Montagni, Leonardo; Noormets, Asko; Griffis, Timothy J.; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Valentini, Riccardo; Blanken, Peter D.; Wang, Shaoquiang; Wang, Huimin; Han, Shijie; Yan, Junhau; Li, Yingnian; Zhou, Bingbing; Liu, Yibo

    2015-02-25

    The reliable simulation of gross primary productivity (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales is of significance to quantifying the net exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. This study aimed to verify the ability of a nonlinear two-leaf model (TL-LUEn), a linear two-leaf model (TL-LUE), and a big-leaf light use efficiency model (MOD17) to simulate GPP at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales using GPP derived from 58 eddy-covariance flux sites in Asia, Europe and North America as benchmarks. Model evaluation showed that the overall performance of TL-LUEn was slightly but not significantly better than TL-LUE at half-hourly and daily scale, while the overall performance of both TL-LUEn and TL-LUE were significantly better (p < 0.0001) than MOD17 at the two temporal scales. The improvement of TL-LUEn over TL-LUE was relatively small in comparison with the improvement of TL-LUE over MOD17. However, the differences between TL-LUEn and MOD17, and TL-LUE and MOD17 became less distinct at the 8-day scale. As for different vegetation types, TL-LUEn and TL-LUE performed better than MOD17 for all vegetation types except crops at the half-hourly scale. At the daily and 8-day scales, both TL-LUEn and TL-LUE outperformed MOD17 for forests. However, TL-LUEn had a mixed performance for the three non-forest types while TL-LUE outperformed MOD17 slightly for all these non-forest types at daily and 8-day scales. The better performance of TL-LUEn and TL-LUE for forests was mainly achieved by the correction of the underestimation/overestimation of GPP simulated by MOD17 under low/high solar radiation and sky clearness conditions. TL-LUEn is more applicable at individual sites at the half-hourly scale while TL-LUE could be regionally used at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales. MOD17 is also an applicable option regionally at the 8-day scale.

  16. Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Type: Softwaremodeling tools Website: www-tc.iaea.orgtcwebabouttcstrategyThematicpdfpresentationsener References: Overview of IAEA PESS Models 1 "MESSAGE...

  17. Quasi-linear modeling of lower hybrid current drive in ITER and DEMO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardinali, A. Cesario, R.; Panaccione, L.; Santini, F.; Amicucci, L.; Castaldo, C.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Mirizzi, F.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2015-12-10

    First pass absorption of the Lower Hybrid waves in thermonuclear devices like ITER and DEMO is modeled by coupling the ray tracing equations with the quasi-linear evolution of the electron distribution function in 2D velocity space. As usually assumed, the Lower Hybrid Current Drive is not effective in a plasma of a tokamak fusion reactor, owing to the accessibility condition which, depending on the density, restricts the parallel wavenumber to values greater than n{sub ∥crit} and, at the same time, to the high electron temperature that would enhance the wave absorption and then restricts the RF power deposition to the very periphery of the plasma column (near the separatrix). In this work, by extensively using the “ray{sup star}” code, a parametric study of the propagation and absorption of the LH wave as function of the coupled wave spectrum (as its width, and peak value), has been performed very accurately. Such a careful investigation aims at controlling the power deposition layer possibly in the external half radius of the plasma, thus providing a valuable aid to the solution of how to control the plasma current profile in a toroidal magnetic configuration, and how to help the suppression of MHD mode that can develop in the outer part of the plasma. This analysis is useful not only for exploring the possibility of profile control of a pulsed operation reactor as well as the tearing mode stabilization, but also in order to reconsider the feasibility of steady state regime for DEMO.

  18. Prediction of cloud droplet number in a general circulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.

    1996-04-01

    We have applied the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) bulk cloud microphysics parameterization to the treatment of stratiform clouds in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). The RAMS predicts mass concentrations of cloud water, cloud ice, rain and snow, and number concnetration of ice. We have introduced the droplet number conservation equation to predict droplet number and it`s dependence on aerosols.

  19. Lattice model of linear telechelic polymer melts. I. Inclusion of chain semiflexibility in the lattice cluster theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wen-Sheng; Freed, Karl F.

    2015-07-14

    The lattice cluster theory (LCT) for the thermodynamics of polymer systems has recently been reformulated to treat strongly interacting self-assembling polymers composed of fully flexible linear telechelic chains [J. Dudowicz and K. F. Freed, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064902 (2012)]. Here, we further extend the LCT for linear telechelic polymer melts to include a description of chain semiflexibility, which is treated by introducing a bending energy penalty whenever a pair of consecutive bonds from a single chain lies along orthogonal directions. An analytical expression for the Helmholtz free energy is derived for the model of semiflexible linear telechelic polymer melts. The extension provides a theoretical tool for investigating the influence of chain stiffness on the thermodynamics of self-assembling telechelic polymers, and for further exploring the influence of self-assembly on glass formation in such systems.

  20. Extraction of diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow index by integration of Nth-order linear model with Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, Yu; Lin, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang; Li, Ting; Chen, Lei; Toborek, Michal

    2014-05-12

    Conventional semi-infinite solution for extracting blood flow index (BFI) from diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements may cause errors in estimation of BFI (αD{sub B}) in tissues with small volume and large curvature. We proposed an algorithm integrating Nth-order linear model of autocorrelation function with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon migrations in tissue for the extraction of αD{sub B}. The volume and geometry of the measured tissue were incorporated in the Monte Carlo simulation, which overcome the semi-infinite restrictions. The algorithm was tested using computer simulations on four tissue models with varied volumes/geometries and applied on an in vivo stroke model of mouse. Computer simulations shows that the high-order (N ≥ 5) linear algorithm was more accurate in extracting αD{sub B} (errors < ±2%) from the noise-free DCS data than the semi-infinite solution (errors: −5.3% to −18.0%) for different tissue models. Although adding random noises to DCS data resulted in αD{sub B} variations, the mean values of errors in extracting αD{sub B} were similar to those reconstructed from the noise-free DCS data. In addition, the errors in extracting the relative changes of αD{sub B} using both linear algorithm and semi-infinite solution were fairly small (errors < ±2.0%) and did not rely on the tissue volume/geometry. The experimental results from the in vivo stroke mice agreed with those in simulations, demonstrating the robustness of the linear algorithm. DCS with the high-order linear algorithm shows the potential for the inter-subject comparison and longitudinal monitoring of absolute BFI in a variety of tissues/organs with different volumes/geometries.

  1. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  2. Evaluation of a stratiform cloud parameterization for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.; McCaa, J.

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the relative importance of horizontal advection of cloud versus cloud formation within the grid cell of a single column model (SCM), we have performed a series of simulations with our SCM driven by a fixed vertical velocity and various rates of horizontal advection.

  3. System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2011.12.2, released on December 2, 2011. SAM is software that models the cost and performance of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financing structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). Advanced analysis options facilitate parametric, sensitivity, and statistical analyses, and allow for interfacing SAM with Microsoft Excel or with other computer programs. SAM is available as a free download at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  4. System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.; Freeman, J.; Neises, T.; Wagner, M.; Ferguson, T.; Gilman, P.; Janzou, S.

    2014-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2013.9.20, released on September 9, 2013. SAM is a computer model that calculates performance and financial metrics of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar water heating, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financial structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). SAM's advanced simulation options facilitate parametric and sensitivity analyses, and statistical analysis capabilities are available for Monte Carlo simulation and weather variability (P50/P90) studies. SAM can also read input variables from Microsoft Excel worksheets. For software developers, the SAM software development kit (SDK) makes it possible to use SAM simulation modules in their applications written in C/C++, C#, Java, Python, and MATLAB. NREL provides both SAM and the SDK as free downloads at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  5. Translational-symmetry alternating phase shifting mask grating mark used in a linear measurement model of lithographic projection lens aberrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu Zicheng; Wang Xiangzhao; Bi Qunyu; Yuan Qiongyan; Peng Bo; Duan Lifeng

    2009-07-01

    A linear measurement model of lithographic projection lens aberrations is studied numerically based on the Hopkins theory of partially-coherent imaging and positive resist optical lithography (PROLITH) simulation. In this linearity model, the correlation between the mark's structure and its sensitivities to aberrations is analyzed. A method to design a mark with high sensitivity is proved and declared. By use of this method, a translational-symmetry alternating phase shifting mask (Alt-PSM) grating mark is redesigned with all of the even orders, {+-}3rd and {+-}5th order diffraction light missing. In the evaluation simulation, the measurement accuracies of aberrations prove to be enhanced apparently by use of the redesigned mark instead of the old ones.

  6. Specific absorption rate calculations of magnetite, using a modified linear response model for applications in magnetic hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernández S, A. E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Cano, M. E. E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Torres-Arenas, J.

    2014-11-07

    Currently the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by magnetic nanoparticles is studied for biomedical applications of cancer thermotherapy. Several experiments are conduced following the framework of the Rosensweig model, in order to estimate their specific absorption rate. Nevertheless, this linear approximation involves strong simplifications which constrain their accuracy and validity range. The main aim of this work is to incorporate the deviation of the sphericity assumption in particles shapes, to improve the determination of their specific absorption rate. The correction to the effective particles volume is computed as a measure of the apparent amount of magnetic material, interacting with the external AC magnetic field. Preliminary results using the physical properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, exhibit an important correction in their estimated specific absorption rate, as a function of the apparent mean particles radius. Indeed, we have observed using a small deviation (6% of the apparent radius), up to 40% of the predicted specific absorption rate by the Rosensweig linear approximation.

  7. State of the art in electromagnetic modeling for the Compact Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candel, Arno; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zenghai; Ng, Cho; Schussman, Greg; Ko, Kwok; /SLAC

    2009-07-10

    SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the parallel 3D electromagnetic time-domain code T3P for simulations of wakefields and transients in complex accelerator structures. T3P is based on state-of-the-art Finite Element methods on unstructured grids and features unconditional stability, quadratic surface approximation and up to 6th-order vector basis functions for unprecedented simulation accuracy. Optimized for large-scale parallel processing on leadership supercomputing facilities, T3P allows simulations of realistic 3D structures with fast turn-around times, aiding the design of the next generation of accelerator facilities. Applications include simulations of the proposed two-beam accelerator structures for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) - wakefield damping in the Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) and power transfer to the main beam accelerating structures are investigated.

  8. Fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, R.C.H.

    1982-01-01

    The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its simplicity and low volume data storage requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  9. Geometric phase effects in low-energy dynamics near conical intersections: A study of the multidimensional linear vibronic coupling model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joubert-Doriol, Loc; Ryabinkin, Ilya G.; Izmaylov, Artur F.; Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6

    2013-12-21

    In molecular systems containing conical intersections (CIs), a nontrivial geometric phase (GP) appears in the nuclear and electronic wave functions in the adiabatic representation. We study GP effects in nuclear dynamics of an N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling (LVC) model. The main impact of GP on low-energy nuclear dynamics is reduction of population transfer between the local minima of the LVC lower energy surface. For the LVC model, we proposed an isometric coordinate transformation that confines non-adiabatic effects within a two-dimensional subsystem interacting with an N ? 2 dimensional environment. Since environmental modes do not couple electronic states, all GP effects originate from nuclear dynamics within the subsystem. We explored when the GP affects nuclear dynamics of the isolated subsystem, and how the subsystem-environment interaction can interfere with GP effects. Comparing quantum dynamics with and without GP allowed us to devise simple rules to determine significance of the GP for nuclear dynamics in this model.

  10. Effect of Fractionation in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using the Linear Quadratic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jun; Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania ; Lamond, John; Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania ; Fowler, Jack; Lanciano, Rachelle; Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania ; Feng, Jing; Brady, Luther; Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To examine the fractionation effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy with a heterogeneous dose distribution. Methods: Derived from the linear quadratic formula with measurements from a hypothetical 2-cm radiosurgical tumor, the threshold percentage was defined as (?/?{sub tissue}/?/?{sub tumor}), the balance ?/? ratio was defined as (prescription dose/tissue tolerance*?/?{sub tumor}), and the balance dose was defined as (tissue tolerance/threshold percentage). Results: With increasing fractions and equivalent peripheral dose to the target, the biological equivalent dose of hot spots in a target decreases. The relative biological equivalent doses of serial organs decrease only when the relative percentage of its dose to the prescription dose is above the threshold percentage. The volume of parallel organs at risk decreases only when the tumor's ?/? ratio is above the balance ?/? ratio and the prescription dose is lower than balance dose. Conclusions: The potential benefits of fractionation in stereotactic body radiation therapy depend on the complex interplay between the total dose, ?/? ratios, and dose differences between the target and the surrounding normal tissues.

  11. Non Linear Conjugate Gradient

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-11-17

    Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria.more » The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing routines to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.« less

  12. Refining and end use study of coal liquids. Topical report: Petroleum Refinery; Linear Programming Model; and Design Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    A model was developed for use in the Bechtel PIMS (Process Industry Modeling System) linear programming software to simulate a generic Midwest (PADD II) petroleum refinery of the future. This ``petroleum-only`` version of the model establishes the size and complexity of the refinery after the year 2000 and prior to the introduction of coal liquids. It should be noted that no assumption has been made on when a plant can be built to produce coal liquids except that it will be after the year 2000. The year 2000 was chosen because it is the latest year where fuel property and emission standards have been set by the Environmental Protection Agency. It assumes the refinery has been modified to accept crudes that are heavier in gravity and higher in sulfur than today`s average crude mix. In addition, the refinery has also been modified to produce a product slate of transportation fuels of the future (i.e. 40% reformulated gasolines). This model will be used as a basis for determining the optimum scheme for processing coal liquids in a petroleum refinery. This report summarizes the design basis for this ``petroleum only`` LP refinery model. A report detailing the refinery configuration when coal liquids are processed will be provided at a later date.

  13. The component slope linear model for calculating intensive partial molar properties /application to waste glasses and aluminate solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-11

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH){sub 4}-H{sub 2}O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H{sub 2}O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH){sub 4} are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results determined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components.

  14. A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, E T; Shumlak, U

    2012-04-06

    A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.

  15. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  16. General N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model: Supervariable approach to its off-shell nilpotent symmetries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R.P.

    2014-12-15

    Using the supersymmetric (SUSY) invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral supervariables, we derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetries of the general one (0+1)-dimensional N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model which is considered on a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold (parametrized by a bosonic variable t and a pair of Grassmannian variables θ and θ-bar with θ{sup 2}=(θ-bar){sup 2}=0,θ(θ-bar)+(θ-bar)θ=0). We provide the geometrical meanings to the two SUSY transformations of our present theory which are valid for any arbitrary type of superpotential. We express the conserved charges and Lagrangian of the theory in terms of the supervariables (that are obtained after the application of SUSY invariant restrictions) and provide the geometrical interpretation for the nilpotency property and SUSY invariance of the Lagrangian for the general N=2 SUSY quantum theory. We also comment on the mathematical interpretation of the above symmetry transformations. - Highlights: • A novel method has been proposed for the derivation of N=2 SUSY transformations. • General N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model with a general superpotential, is considered. • The above SUSY QM model is generalized onto a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. • SUSY invariant restrictions are imposed on the (anti-)chiral supervariables. • Geometrical meaning of the nilpotency property is provided.

  17. Simulation of the Low-Level-Jet by general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    To what degree is the low-level jet climatology and it`s impact on clouds and precipitation being captured by current general circulation models? It is hypothesised that a need for a pramaterization exists. This paper describes this parameterization need.

  18. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D.; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  19. Change of variables as a method to study general ?-models: Bulk universality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shcherbina, M.

    2014-04-15

    We consider ? matrix models with real analytic potentials. Assuming that the corresponding equilibrium density ? has a one-interval support (without loss of generality ? = [?2, 2]), we study the transformation of the correlation functions after the change of variables ?{sub i} ? ?(?{sub i}) with ?(?) chosen from the equation ?{sup ?}(?)?(?(?)) = ?{sub sc}(?), where ?{sub sc}(?) is the standard semicircle density. This gives us the deformed ?-model which has an additional interaction term. Standard transformation with the Gaussian integral allows us to show that the deformed ?-model may be reduced to the standard Gaussian ?-model with a small perturbation n{sup ?1}h(?). This reduces most of the problems of local and global regimes for ?-models to the corresponding problems for the Gaussian ?-model with a small perturbation. In the present paper, we prove the bulk universality of local eigenvalue statistics for both one-cut and multi-cut cases.

  20. Modeling of Arctic Storms with a Variable High-Resolution General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Mark A.; Roesler, Erika Louise; Bosler, Peter Andrew

    2015-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Biological and Environmental Research project, “Water Cycle and Climate Extremes Modeling” is improving our understanding and modeling of regional details of the Earth’s water cycle. Sandia is using high resolution model behavior to investigate storms in the Arctic.

  1. WAXS fat subtraction model to estimate differential linear scattering coefficients of fatless breast tissue: Phantom materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Robert Y.; Laamanen, Curtis McDonald, Nancy; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to subtract fat tissue contributions to wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) signals of breast biopsies in order to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficients ?{sub s} of fatless tissue. Cancerous and fibroglandular tissue can then be compared independent of fat content. In this work phantom materials with known compositions were used to test the efficacy of the WAXS subtraction model. Methods: Each sample 5 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick was interrogated by a 50 kV 2.7 mm diameter beam for 3 min. A 25 mm{sup 2} by 1 mm thick CdTe detector allowed measurements of a portion of the ? = 6 scattered field. A scatter technique provided means to estimate the incident spectrum N{sub 0}(E) needed in the calculations of ?{sub s}[x(E, ?)] where x is the momentum transfer argument. Values of ?{sup }{sub s} for composite phantoms consisting of three plastic layers were estimated and compared to the values obtained via the sum ?{sup }{sub s}{sup ?}(x)=?{sub 1}?{sub s1}(x)+?{sub 2}?{sub s2}(x)+?{sub 3}?{sub s3}(x), where ?{sub i} is the fractional volume of the ith plastic component. Water, polystyrene, and a volume mixture of 0.6 water + 0.4 polystyrene labelled as fibphan were chosen to mimic cancer, fat, and fibroglandular tissue, respectively. A WAXS subtraction model was used to remove the polystyrene signal from tissue composite phantoms so that the ?{sub s} of water and fibphan could be estimated. Although the composite samples were layered, simulations were performed to test the models under nonlayered conditions. Results: The well known ?{sub s} signal of water was reproduced effectively between 0.5 < x < 1.6 nm{sup ?1}. The ?{sup }{sub s} obtained for the heterogeneous samples agreed with ?{sup }{sub s}{sup ?}. Polystyrene signals were subtracted successfully from composite phantoms. The simulations validated the usefulness of the WAXS models for nonlayered biopsies. Conclusions: The methodology to measure ?{sub s} of homogeneous

  2. PICKUP ION MEDIATED PLASMAS. I. BASIC MODEL AND LINEAR WAVES IN THE SOLAR WIND AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2014-12-20

    Pickup ions (PUIs) in the outer heliosphere and the local interstellar medium are created by charge exchange between protons and hydrogen (H) atoms, forming a thermodynamically dominant component. In the supersonic solar wind beyond >10 AU, in the inner heliosheath (IHS), and in the very local interstellar medium (VLISM), PUIs do not equilibrate collisionally with the background plasma. Using a collisionless form of Chapman-Enskog expansion, we derive a closed system of multi-fluid equations for a plasma comprised of thermal protons and electrons, and suprathermal PUIs. The PUIs contribute an isotropic scalar pressure to leading order, a collisionless heat flux at the next order, and a collisionless stress tensor at the second-order. The collisionless heat conduction and viscosity in the multi-fluid description results from a non-isotropic PUI distribution. A simpler one-fluid MHD-like system of equations with distinct equations of state for both the background plasma and the PUIs is derived. We investigate linear wave properties in a PUI-mediated three-fluid plasma model for parameters appropriate to the VLISM, the IHS, and the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. Five distinct wave modes are possible: Alfvn waves, thermal fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves, PUI fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves, and an entropy mode. The thermal and PUI acoustic modes propagate at approximately the combined thermal magnetoacoustic speed and the PUI sound speed respectively. All wave modes experience damping by the PUIs through the collisionless PUI heat flux. The PUI-mediated plasma model yields wave properties, including Alfvn waves, distinctly different from those of the standard two-fluid model.

  3. Linear Accelerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Linear Accelerator (LINAC) The core of the LANSCE facility is one of the nation's most powerful proton linear accelerators or LINAC. The LINAC at LANSCE has served the nation since 1972, providing the beam current required by all the experimental areas that support NNSA-DP and other DOE missions. The LINAC's capability to reliably deliver beam current is the key to the LANSCE's ability to do research-and thus the key to meeting NNSA and DOE mission deliverables. The LANSCE Accelerator The LANSCE

  4. Integrated hydrogeological model of the general separations area. Volume 2: groundwater flow model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.P.; Harris, M.K.

    1997-08-01

    This report models the Gordon aquifer, the Gordon confining unit, and the `lower` aquifer zone, `tan clay` confining zone, and `upper` aquifer zone of the Water Table aquifer. The report presents structure-contour and isopach maps of each unit.

  5. A kernel-oriented model for coalition-formation in general environments: Implementation and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shehory, O.; Kraus, S.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a model for coalition formation and payoff distribution in general environments. We focus on a reduced complexity kernel-oriented coalition formation model, and provide a detailed algorithm for the activity of the single rational agent. The model is partitioned into a social level and a strategic level, to distinguish between regulations that must be agreed upon and are forced by agent-designers, and strategies by which each agent acts at will. In addition, we present an implementation of the model and simulation results. From these we conclude that implementing the model for coalition formation among agents increases the benefits of the agents with reasonable time consumption. It also shows that more coalition formations yield more benefits to the agents.

  6. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    We consider the problem of determining the three-dimensional folding of a protein given its one-dimensional amino acid sequence. We use the HP model for protein folding proposed by Dill, which models protein as a chain of amino acid residues that are either hydrophobic or polar, and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant initial driving force for the protein folding. Hart and Istrail gave approximation algorithms for folding proteins on the cubic lattice under HP model. In this paper, we examine the choice of a lattice by considering its algorithmic and geometric implications and argue that triangular lattice is a more reasonable choice. We present a set of folding rules for a triangular lattice and analyze the approximation ratio which they achieve. In addition, we introduce a generalization of the HP model to account for residues having different levels of hydrophobicity. After describing the biological foundation for this generalization, we show that in the new model we are able to achieve similar constant factor approximation guarantees on the triangular lattice as were achieved in the standard HP model. While the structures derived from our folding rules are probably still far from biological reality, we hope that having a set of folding rules with different properties will yield more interesting folds when combined.

  7. A generalized multi-dimensional mathematical model for charging and discharging processes in a supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allu, Srikanth; Velamur Asokan, Badri; Shelton, William A; Philip, Bobby; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2014-01-01

    A generalized three dimensional computational model based on unied formulation of electrode- electrolyte-electrode system of a electric double layer supercapacitor has been developed. The model accounts for charge transport across the solid-liquid system. This formulation based on volume averaging process is a widely used concept for the multiphase ow equations ([28] [36]) and is analogous to porous media theory typically employed for electrochemical systems [22] [39] [12]. This formulation is extended to the electrochemical equations for a supercapacitor in a consistent fashion, which allows for a single-domain approach with no need for explicit interfacial boundary conditions as previously employed ([38]). In this model it is easy to introduce the spatio-temporal variations, anisotropies of physical properties and it is also conducive for introducing any upscaled parameters from lower length{scale simulations and experiments. Due to the irregular geometric congurations including porous electrode, the charge transport and subsequent performance characteristics of the super-capacitor can be easily captured in higher dimensions. A generalized model of this nature also provides insight into the applicability of 1D models ([38]) and where multidimensional eects need to be considered. In addition, simple sensitivity analysis on key input parameters is performed in order to ascertain the dependence of the charge and discharge processes on these parameters. Finally, we demonstarted how this new formulation can be applied to non-planar supercapacitors

  8. A semianalytic model to extract differential linear scattering coefficients of breast tissue from energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeClair, Robert J.; Boileau, Michel M.; Wang Yinkun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada) and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    The goal of this work is to develop a technique to measure the x-ray diffraction signals of breast biopsy specimens. A biomedical x-ray diffraction technology capable of measuring such signals may prove to be of diagnostic use to the medical field. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements coupled with a semianalytical model were used to extract the differential linear scattering coefficients [{mu}{sub s}(x)] of breast tissues on absolute scales. The coefficients describe the probabilities of scatter events occurring per unit length of tissue per unit solid angle of detection. They are a function of the momentum transfer argument, x=sin({theta}/2)/{lambda}, where {theta}=scatter angle and {lambda}=incident wavelength. The technique was validated by using a 3 mm diameter 50 kV polychromatic x-ray beam incident on a 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick sample of water. Water was used because good x-ray diffraction data are available in the literature. The scatter profiles from 6 deg. to 15 deg. in increments of 1 deg. were measured with a 3 mmx3 mmx2 mm thick cadmium zinc telluride detector. A 2 mm diameter Pb aperture was placed on top of the detector. The target to detector distance was 29 cm and the duration of each measurement was 10 min. Ensemble averages of the results compare well with the gold standard data of A. H. Narten [''X-ray diffraction data on liquid water in the temperature range 4 deg. C-200 deg. C, ORNL Report No. 4578 (1970)]. An average 7.68% difference for which most of the discrepancies can be attributed to the background noise at low angles was obtained. The preliminary measurements of breast tissue are also encouraging.

  9. Ecosystem carbon storage capacity as affected by disturbance regimes: A general theoretical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Ensheng; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Weile; Wang, Han; Hayes, Daniel J; McGuire, A. David; Hastings, Alan; Schimel, David

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances have been recognized as a key factor shaping terrestrial ecosystem states and dynamics. A general model that quantitatively describes the relationship between carbon storage and disturbance regime is critical for better understanding large scale terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics. We developed a model (REGIME) to quantify ecosystem carbon storage capacities (E[x]) under varying disturbance regimes with an analytical solution E[x] = U {center_dot} {tau}{sub E} {center_dot} {lambda}{lambda} + s {tau} 1, where U is ecosystem carbon influx, {tau}{sub E} is ecosystem carbon residence time, and {tau}{sub 1} is the residence time of the carbon pool affected by disturbances (biomass pool in this study). The disturbance regime is characterized by the mean disturbance interval ({lambda}) and the mean disturbance severity (s). It is a Michaelis-Menten-type equation illustrating the saturation of carbon content with mean disturbance interval. This model analytically integrates the deterministic ecosystem carbon processes with stochastic disturbance events to reveal a general pattern of terrestrial carbon dynamics at large scales. The model allows us to get a sense of the sensitivity of ecosystems to future environmental changes just by a few calculations. According to the REGIME model, for example, approximately 1.8 Pg C will be lost in the high-latitude regions of North America (>45{sup o} N) if fire disturbance intensity increases around 5.7 time the current intensity to the end of the twenty-first century, which will require around 12% increases in net primary productivity (NPP) to maintain stable carbon stocks. If the residence time decreased 10% at the same time additional 12.5% increases in NPP are required to keep current C stocks. The REGIME model also lays the foundation for analytically modeling the interactions between deterministic biogeochemical processes and stochastic disturbance events.

  10. Quantifying and Generalizing Hydrologic Responses to Dam Regulation using a Statistical Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamay, Ryan A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous existence of dams within riverscapes, much of our knowledge about dams and their environmental effects remains context-specific. Hydrology, more than any other environmental variable, has been studied in great detail with regard to dam regulation. While much progress has been made in generalizing the hydrologic effects of regulation by large dams, many aspects of hydrology show site-specific fidelity to dam operations, small dams (including diversions), and regional hydrologic regimes. A statistical modeling framework is presented to quantify and generalize hydrologic responses to varying degrees of dam regulation. Specifically, the objectives were to 1) compare the effects of local versus cumulative dam regulation, 2) determine the importance of different regional hydrologic regimes in influencing hydrologic responses to dams, and 3) evaluate how different regulation contexts lead to error in predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Overall, model performance was poor in quantifying the magnitude of hydrologic responses, but performance was sufficient in classifying hydrologic responses as negative or positive. Responses of some hydrologic indices to dam regulation were highly dependent upon hydrologic class membership and the purpose of the dam. The opposing coefficients between local and cumulative-dam predictors suggested that hydrologic responses to cumulative dam regulation are complex, and predicting the hydrology downstream of individual dams, as opposed to multiple dams, may be more easy accomplished using statistical approaches. Results also suggested that particular contexts, including multipurpose dams, high cumulative regulation by multiple dams, diversions, close proximity to dams, and certain hydrologic classes are all sources of increased error when predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Statistical models, such as the ones presented herein, show promise in their ability to model the effects of dam regulation effects at

  11. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  12. A Generalized Fokker-Planck Model for Transport of Collimated Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prinja, Anil K.; Pomraning, G.C.

    2001-03-15

    A generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) model is introduced for application to the problem of the angular spreading of a broad beam of charged particles. This approach extends the classic Fokker-Planck (FP) approximation of the scattering operator to instances when the differential scattering cross section is not sufficiently forward peaked for the strict FP representation to be valid. Our previously developed (1 - {mu}){sup n}-moments method is used to construct a truncated hierarchy of moment equations from the GFP and transport equations. For slab thicknesses that are small compared to the transport mean-free-path, the scalar flux is explicitly represented as a Taylor expansion in the depth variable for different truncation orders and for different orders of the generalized Fokker-Planck expansion. Numerical results indicate that the GFP method is a viable method for dealing with larger scattering angles than are possible with the classic FP approximation.

  13. 6Be General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6Be General Table The General Table for 6Be is subdivided into the following categories: Cluster Model Model Calculations...

  14. Testing the (generalized) Chaplygin gas model with the lookback time-redshift data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhengxiang; Wu, Puxun; Yu, Hongwei E-mail: wpx0227@gmail.com

    2009-09-01

    The Chaplygin gas (CG) and the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) models, proposed as candidates of the unified dark matter-dark energy (UDME), are tested with the look-back time (LT) redshift data. We find that the LT data only give a very weak constraint on the model parameter. However, by combing the LT with the baryonic acoustic oscillation peak, we obtain, at the 95.4% confidence level, 0.68 ≤ A{sub c} ≤ 0.82 and 0.59 ≤ h ≤ 0.65 for the CG model , and 0.67 ≤ A{sub s} ≤ 0.89 and −0.29 ≤ α ≤ 0.61 for the GCG model. This shows that both the CG and the GCG are viable as a candidate of UDME. Within the GCG model, we also find that the Chaplygin gas model (α = 1) is ruled out by these data at the 99.7% confidence level.

  15. Integrated cumulus ensemble and turbulence (ICET): An integrated parameterization system for general circulation models (GCMs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.L.; Frank, W.M.; Young, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    Successful simulations of the global circulation and climate require accurate representation of the properties of shallow and deep convective clouds, stable-layer clouds, and the interactions between various cloud types, the boundary layer, and the radiative fluxes. Each of these phenomena play an important role in the global energy balance, and each must be parameterized in a global climate model. These processes are highly interactive. One major problem limiting the accuracy of parameterizations of clouds and other processes in general circulation models (GCMs) is that most of the parameterization packages are not linked with a common physical basis. Further, these schemes have not, in general, been rigorously verified against observations adequate to the task of resolving subgrid-scale effects. To address these problems, we are designing a new Integrated Cumulus Ensemble and Turbulence (ICET) parameterization scheme, installing it in a climate model (CCM2), and evaluating the performance of the new scheme using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites.

  16. Computable General Equilibrium Model Fiscal Year 2013 Capability Development Report - April 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Brian Keith; Rivera, Michael K.; Boero, Riccardo

    2014-04-01

    This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.

  17. The Madden-Julian oscillation in ECHAM4 coupled and uncoupled general circulation models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Gualdi, Silvio; Legutke, Stephanie; Gayler, Veronika

    2005-06-29

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) dominates tropical variability on timescales of 30–70 days. During the boreal winter/spring, it is manifested as an eastward propagating disturbance, with a strong convective signature over the eastern hemisphere. The space–time structure of the MJO is analyzed using simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model run with observed monthly mean sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and coupled to three different ocean models. The coherence of the eastward propagation of MJO convection is sensitive to the ocean model to which ECHAM4 is coupled. For ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, models for which ~100 years of daily data is available, Montemore » Carlo sampling indicates that their metrics of eastward propagation are different at the 1% significance level. The flux-adjusted coupled simulations, ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, maintain a more realistic mean-state, and have a more realistic MJO simulation than the nonadjusted scale interaction experiment (SINTEX) coupled runs. The SINTEX model exhibits a cold bias in Indian Ocean and tropical West Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature of ~0.5°C. This cold bias affects the distribution of time-mean convection over the tropical eastern hemisphere. Furthermore, the eastward propagation of MJO convection in this model is not as coherent as in the two models that used flux adjustment or when compared to an integration of ECHAM4 with prescribed observed SST. This result suggests that simulating a realistic basic state is at least as important as air–sea interaction for organizing the MJO. While all of the coupled models simulate the warm (cold) SST anomalies that precede (succeed) the MJO convection, the interaction of the components of the net surface heat flux that lead to these anomalies are different over the Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4/OPYC model in which the atmospheric model is run at a horizontal resolution of T42, has eastward propagating zonal wind anomalies and latent heat

  18. A = 5 General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 General Tables The General Table for 5H is subdivided into the following categories: Cluster Model Hypernuclei Model Calculations Photodisintegration Pions The General Table for...

  19. Non-linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction Method for Developing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Non-Linearity in Seismic SSI Analysis Commercial Software Elements Commercial Software Non-Linear Constitutive Models Non-Linear Seismic SSI Damping ...

  20. A comparison of general circulation model predictions to sand drift and dune orientations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumberg, D.G.; Greeley, R.

    1996-12-01

    The growing concern over climate change and decertification stresses the importance of aeolian process prediction. In this paper the use of a general circulation model to predict current aeolian features is examined. A GCM developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center was used in conjunction with White`s aeolian sand flux model to produce a global potential aeolian transport map. Surface wind shear stress predictions were used from the output of a GCM simulation that was performed as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project on 1979 climate conditions. The spatial resolution of this study (as driven by the GCM) is 4{degrees} X 5{degrees}; instantaneous 6-hourly wind stress data were saved by the GCM and used in this report. A global map showing potential sand transport was compared to drift potential directions as inferred from Landsat images from the 1980s for several sand seas and a coastal dune field. Generally, results show a good correlation between the simulated sand drift direction and the drift direction inferred for dune forms. Discrepancies between the drift potential and the drift inferred from images were found in the North American deserts and the Arabian peninsula. An attempt to predict the type of dune that would be formed in specific regions was not successful. The model could probably be further improved by incorporating soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation information for a better assessment of sand threshold conditions. The correlation may permit use of a GCM to analyze {open_quotes}fossil{close_quotes} dunes or to forecast aeolian processes. 48 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Short ensembles: An Efficient Method for Discerning Climate-relevant Sensitivities in Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhang, Kai; Qian, Yun; Yan, Huiping; Zhao, Chun

    2014-09-08

    This paper explores the feasibility of an experimentation strategy for investigating sensitivities in fast components of atmospheric general circulation models. The basic idea is to replace the traditional serial-in-time long-term climate integrations by representative ensembles of shorter simulations. The key advantage of the proposed method lies in its efficiency: since fewer days of simulation are needed, the computational cost is less, and because individual realizations are independent and can be integrated simultaneously, the new dimension of parallelism can dramatically reduce the turnaround time in benchmark tests, sensitivities studies, and model tuning exercises. The strategy is not appropriate for exploring sensitivity of all model features, but it is very effective in many situations. Two examples are presented using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The first example demonstrates that the method is capable of characterizing the model cloud and precipitation sensitivity to time step length. A nudging technique is also applied to an additional set of simulations to help understand the contribution of physics-dynamics interaction to the detected time step sensitivity. In the second example, multiple empirical parameters related to cloud microphysics and aerosol lifecycle are perturbed simultaneously in order to explore which parameters have the largest impact on the simulated global mean top-of-atmosphere radiation balance. Results show that in both examples, short ensembles are able to correctly reproduce the main signals of model sensitivities revealed by traditional long-term climate simulations for fast processes in the climate system. The efficiency of the ensemble method makes it particularly useful for the development of high-resolution, costly and complex climate models.

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 44: Linearization of Compartmental Models for More Robust Estimates of Regional Hemodynamic, Metabolic and Functional Parameters using DCE-CT/PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blais, AR; Dekaban, M; Lee, T-Y

    2014-08-15

    Quantitative analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data usually involves minimizing a cost function with nonlinear regression, wherein the choice of starting parameter values and the presence of local minima affect the bias and variability of the estimated kinetic parameters. These nonlinear methods can also require lengthy computation time, making them unsuitable for use in clinical settings. Kinetic modeling of PET aims to estimate the rate parameter k{sub 3}, which is the binding affinity of the tracer to a biological process of interest and is highly susceptible to noise inherent in PET image acquisition. We have developed linearized kinetic models for kinetic analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT)/PET imaging, including a 2-compartment model for DCE-CT and a 3-compartment model for PET. Use of kinetic parameters estimated from DCE-CT can stabilize the kinetic analysis of dynamic PET data, allowing for more robust estimation of k{sub 3}. Furthermore, these linearized models are solved with a non-negative least squares algorithm and together they provide other advantages including: 1) only one possible solution and they do not require a choice of starting parameter values, 2) parameter estimates are comparable in accuracy to those from nonlinear models, 3) significantly reduced computational time. Our simulated data show that when blood volume and permeability are estimated with DCE-CT, the bias of k{sub 3} estimation with our linearized model is 1.97 ± 38.5% for 1,000 runs with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. In summary, we have developed a computationally efficient technique for accurate estimation of k{sub 3} from noisy dynamic PET data.

  3. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd

  4. Generalized parton distribution functions and the nucleon spin sum rules in the chiral quark soliton model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakamatsu, M.; Tsujimoto, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    The theoretical predictions are given for the forward limit of the unpolarized spin-flip isovector generalized parton distribution function (E{sup u}-E{sup d})(x,{xi},t) within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model, with full inclusion of the polarization of Dirac sea quarks. We observe that [(H{sup u}-H{sup d})+(E{sup u}-E{sup d})](x,0,0) has a sharp peak around x=0, which we interpret as a signal of the importance of the pionic qq excitation with large spatial extension in the transverse direction. Another interesting indication given by the predicted distribution in combination with Ji's angular momentum sum rule is that the d quark carries more angular momentum than the u quark in the proton, which may have some relation with the physics of the violation of the Gottfried sum rule.

  5. 10He General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General Table The General Table for 10He is subdivided into the following categories: Theoretical Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Special States Electromagnetic Transitions...

  6. 7Be General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Be General Table The General Table for 7Be is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Experimental Work Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Model...

  7. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is

  8. 5He General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He General Table The General Table for 5He is subdivided into the following categories: Ground State Properties Theoretical Special States Model Discussions Shell Model Cluster...

  9. 9He General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He General Table The General Table for 9He is subdivided into the following categories: Shell Model Other Model Calculations Theoretical

  10. 5H General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H General Table The General Table for 5H is subdivided into the following categories: Cluster Model Hypernuclei Model Calculations Photodisintegration Pions...

  11. Simulating coarse-scale vegetation dynamics using the Columbia River Basin succession model-crbsum. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keane, R.E.; Long, D.G.; Menakis, J.P.; Hann, W.J.; Bevins, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    The paper details the landscape succession model developed for the coarse-scale assessment called CRBSUM (Columbia River Basin SUccession Model) and presents some general results of the application of this model to the entire basin. CRBSUM was used to predict future landscape characteristics to evaluate management alternatives for both mid-and coarse-scale efforts. A test and sensitivity analysis of CRBSUM is also presented. This paper was written as a users guide for those who wish to run the model and interprete results, and its was also written as documentation for some results of the Interior Columbia River Basin simulation effort.

  12. A GRID OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STELLAR ATMOSPHERE MODELS OF SOLAR METALLICITY. I. GENERAL PROPERTIES, GRANULATION, AND ATMOSPHERIC EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trampedach, Regner; Asplund, Martin; Collet, Remo; Nordlund, Ake

    2013-05-20

    Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late-type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late-type stars, based on deep, three-dimensional (3D), convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations and improving stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize the use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, and asymptotic adiabat as functions of atmospheric parameters.

  13. An assessment of possible climate change in the Australian region based on intercomparison of general circulation modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whetton, P.H.; Pittock, A.B.; Haylock, M.R. ); Rayner, P.J. )

    1994-03-01

    To assist in estimating likely future climate change in the Australian region, the authors examine the results of four different general circulation modeling experiments run to assess the equilibrium impact of doubling greenhouse gases. The results examined were the most recent available at the time of study from various research centers in North America and Europe, as well as those of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). The approach used is, first, to assess the quality of the control (1 x CO[sub 2]) simulations from each of the models of mean sea level (MSL) pressure and precipitation in the Australian region by comparing these with the corresponding observed patterns; and, second, to then analyze the 2 x CO[sub 2] results of only those model experiments with the best control simulations. Of the models examined two are chosen on the basis of their simulation of current climate in the region: the CSIRO four-level model (CSIRO4) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) model. For conditions of equivalent doubling of CO[sub 2], both models show substantial increases in surface air temperature of around 4[degrees]-6[degrees] inland and 2[degrees]-4[degrees]C in coastal regions. Both models show decreased MSL pressure over the Australian continent and increases in rainfall over northern, central, and eastern Australia, particularly in the summer half of the year. The CSIRO4 model, but not the UKMO model, also shows increased pressure to the south of the continent and decreased winter rainfall in southwest and southern Australia. Generally, field significance tests show the pattern and magnitude of the changes to be significant of CSIRO4 (for which the necessary monthly simulated data were available). 42 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping

    2013-03-14

    This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar

  15. Planning under uncertainty solving large-scale stochastic linear programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Infanger, G. . Dept. of Operations Research Technische Univ., Vienna . Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft)

    1992-12-01

    For many practical problems, solutions obtained from deterministic models are unsatisfactory because they fail to hedge against certain contingencies that may occur in the future. Stochastic models address this shortcoming, but up to recently seemed to be intractable due to their size. Recent advances both in solution algorithms and in computer technology now allow us to solve important and general classes of practical stochastic problems. We show how large-scale stochastic linear programs can be efficiently solved by combining classical decomposition and Monte Carlo (importance) sampling techniques. We discuss the methodology for solving two-stage stochastic linear programs with recourse, present numerical results of large problems with numerous stochastic parameters, show how to efficiently implement the methodology on a parallel multi-computer and derive the theory for solving a general class of multi-stage problems with dependency of the stochastic parameters within a stage and between different stages.

  16. A general model of resource production and exchange in systems of interdependent specialists.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Breen, Peter; Kuypers, Marshall; Norton, Matthew David; Quach, Tu-Thach; Antognoli, Matthew; Mitchell, Michael David

    2011-11-01

    Infrastructures are networks of dynamically interacting systems designed for the flow of information, energy, and materials. Under certain circumstances, disturbances from a targeted attack or natural disasters can cause cascading failures within and between infrastructures that result in significant service losses and long recovery times. Reliable interdependency models that can capture such multi-network cascading do not exist. The research reported here has extended Sandia's infrastructure modeling capabilities by: (1) addressing interdependencies among networks, (2) incorporating adaptive behavioral models into the network models, and (3) providing mechanisms for evaluating vulnerability to targeted attack and unforeseen disruptions. We have applied these capabilities to evaluate the robustness of various systems, and to identify factors that control the scale and duration of disruption. This capability lays the foundation for developing advanced system security solutions that encompass both external shocks and internal dynamics.

  17. A = 10 General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Table for 10He is subdivided into the following categories: Theoretical Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Special States Electromagnetic Transitions The General Table for...

  18. A = 9 General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The General Table for 9Li is subdivided into the following categories: Shell Model Cluster Model Theoretical Ground State Properties Special States Other Model Calculations...

  19. 8Be General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Be General Tables The General Table for 8Be is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Photodisintegration Fission and Fusion Astrophysical b-decay Hypernuclei

  20. 9B General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B General Table The General Table for 9B is subdivided into the following categories: Shell Model Cluster Model Theoretical Other Model Calculations Complex Reactions Beta-Decay Pions Light-ion and Neutron Induced Reactions Hypernuclei

  1. 9C General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C General Table The General Table for 9C is subdivided into the following categories: Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Theoretical Beta-Decay Light-ion and Neutron Induced Reactions Astrophysical

  2. A Generalized Stability Analysis of the AMOC in Earth System Models: Implication for Decadal Variability and Abrupt Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, Alexey V.; Fedorov, Alexey

    2015-01-14

    The central goal of this research project was to understand the mechanisms of decadal and multi-decadal variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as related to climate variability and abrupt climate change within a hierarchy of climate models ranging from realistic ocean models to comprehensive Earth system models. Generalized Stability Analysis, a method that quantifies the transient and asymptotic growth of perturbations in the system, is one of the main approaches used throughout this project. The topics we have explored range from physical mechanisms that control AMOC variability to the factors that determine AMOC predictability in the Earth system models, to the stability and variability of the AMOC in past climates.

  3. Improvement of Moist and Radiative Processes in Highly Parallel Atmospheric General Circulation Models: Validation and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, William M.; Hack, James J.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    1997-02-24

    Research on designing an integrated moist process parameterization package was carried. This work began with a study that coupled an ensemble of cloud models to a boundary layer model to examine the feasibility of such a methodology for linking boundary layer and cumulus parameterization schemes. The approach proved feasible, prompting research to design and evaluate a coupled parameterization package for GCMS. This research contributed to the development of an Integrated Cumulus Ensemble-Turbulence (ICET) parameterization package. This package incorporates a higher-order turbulence boundary layer that feeds information concerning updraft properties and the variances of temperature and water vapor to the cloud parameterizations. The cumulus ensemble model has been developed, and initial sensitivity tests have been performed in the single column model (SCM) version of CCM2. It is currently being coupled to a convective wake/gust front model. The major function of the convective wake/gust front model is to simulate the partitioning of the boundary layer into disturbed and undisturbed regions. A second function of this model is to predict the nonlinear enhancement of surface to air sensible heat and moisture fluxes that occur in convective regimes due to correlations between winds and anomalously cold, dry air from downdrafts in the gust front region. The third function of the convective wake/gust front model is to predict the amount of undisturbed boundary layer air lifted by the leading edge of the wake and the height to which this air is lifted. The development of the wake/gust front model has been completed, and it has done well in initial testing as a stand-alone component. The current task, to be completed by the end of the funding period, is to tie the wake model to a cumulus ensemble model and to install both components into the single column model version of CCM3 for evaluation. Another area of parametrization research has been focused on the representation

  4. Cloud/Aerosol Parameterizations: Application and Improvement of General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, Joyce

    2012-06-30

    One of the biggest uncertainties associated with climate models and climate forcing is the treatment of aerosols and their effects on clouds. The effect of aerosols on clouds can be divided into two components: The first indirect effect is the forcing associated with increases in droplet concentrations; the second indirect effect is the forcing associated with changes in liquid water path, cloud morphology, and cloud lifetime. Both are highly uncertain. This project applied a cloud-resolving model to understand the response of clouds under a variety of conditions to changes in aerosols. These responses are categorized according to the large-scale meteorological conditions that lead to the response. Meteorological conditions were sampled from various fields, which, together with a global aerosol model determination of the change in aerosols from present day to pre-industrial conditions, was used to determine a first order estimate of the response of global cloud fields to changes in aerosols. The response of the clouds in the NCAR CAM3 GCM coupled to our global aerosol model were tested by examining whether the response is similar to that of the cloud resolving model and methods for improving the representation of clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions were examined.

  5. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT Lab. for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    A long standing problem in molecular biology is to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein, given its amino acid sequence. A variety of simplifying models have been proposed abstracting only the {open_quotes}essential physical properties{close_quotes} of real proteins. In these models, the three dimensional space is often represented by a lattice. Residues which are adjacent in the primary sequence (i.e. covalently linked) must be placed at adjacent points in the lattice. A conformation of a protein is simply a self-avoiding walk along the lattice. The protein folding problem STRING-FOLD is that of finding a conformation of the protein sequence on the lattice such that the overall energy is minimized, for some reasonable definition of energy. This formulation leaves open the choices of a lattice and an energy function. Once these choices are made, one may then address the algorithmic complexity of optimizing the energy function for the lattice. For a variety of such simple models, this minimization problem is in fact NP-hard. In this paper, we consider the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) Model introduced by Dill. The HP model abstracts the problem by grouping the 20 amino acids into two classes: hydrophobic (or non-polar) residues and hydrophilic (or polar) residues. For concreteness, we will take our input to be a string from (H,P){sup +}, where P represents polar residues, and H represents hydrophobic residues. Dill et.al. survey the literature analyzing this model. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. 6He General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He General Table The General Table for 6He is subdivided into the following categories: Ground State Properties Theoretical Special States Shell Model Cluster and alpha-particle...

  7. 7He General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He General Table The General Table for 7He is subdivided into the following categories: Experimental Theoretical Model Calculations Hypernuclei and Mesons Pions

  8. Belos Block Linear Solvers Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-03-01

    Belos is an extensible and interoperable framework for large-scale, iterative methods for solving systems of linear equations with multiple right-hand sides. The motivation for this framework is to provide a generic interface to a collection of algorithms for solving large-scale linear systems. Belos is interoperable because both the matrix and vectors are considered to be opaque objects--only knowledge of the matrix and vectors via elementary operations is necessary. An implementation of Balos is accomplished viamore » the use of interfaces. One of the goals of Belos is to allow the user flexibility in specifying the data representation for the matrix and vectors and so leverage any existing software investment. The algorithms that will be included in package are Krylov-based linear solvers, like Block GMRES (Generalized Minimal RESidual) and Block CG (Conjugate-Gradient).« less

  9. A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert G. Ellingson

    2004-09-28

    One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

  10. A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly; Kim, Young Jin; Jardine, Philip M; Watson, David B

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing NE equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-NE kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

  11. Users guide for SAMM: A prototype southeast Alaska multiresource model. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weyermann, D.L.; Fight, R.D.; Garrett, F.D.

    1991-08-01

    This paper instructs resource analysts on using the southeast Alaska multiresource model (SAMM). SAMM is an interactive microcomputer program that allows users to explore relations among several resources in southeast Alaska (timber, anadromous fish, deer, and hydrology) and the effects of timber management activities (logging, thinning, and road building) on those relations and resources. This guide assists users in installing SAMM on a microcomputer, developing input data files, making simulation runs, and strong output data for external analysis and graphic display.

  12. Charged black holes in generalized teleparallel gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigues, M.E.; Houndjo, M.J.S.; Tossa, J.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R. E-mail: sthoundjo@yahoo.fr E-mail: d.momeni@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we investigate charged static black holes in 4D for generalized teleparallel models of gravity, based on torsion as the geometric object for describing gravity according to the equivalence principle. As a motivated idea, we introduce a set of non-diagonal tetrads and derive the full system of non linear differential equations. We prove that the common Schwarzschild gauge is applicable only when we study linear f(T) case. We reobtain the Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter (or RN-AdS) solution for the linear case of f(T) and perform a parametric cosmological reconstruction for two nonlinear models. We also study in detail a type of the no-go theorem in the framework of this modified teleparallel gravity.

  13. 6Li General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li General Table The General Table for 6Li is subdivided into the following categories: Ground State Properties of 6Li Special States Theoretical Shell Model Cluster Models Complex...

  14. 8He General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He General Tables The General Table for 8He is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground-state Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Elastic and Inelastic Scattering b-decay

  15. 10N General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground-State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work These General Tables correspond to "Energy Levels of...

  16. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  17. Snapshot: Linear Lamps (TLEDs)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A report using LED Lighting Facts data to examine the current state of the market for linear fluorescent lamps. (8 pages, July 2016)

  18. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line.

  19. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-06-06

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 2 figs.

  20. SU-E-I-11: Cascaded Linear System Model for Columnar CsI Flat Panel Imagers with Depth Dependent Gain and Blur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, B; Lubinsky, A; Zheng, H; Zhao, W; Teymurazyan, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To implement a depth dependent gain and blur cascaded linear system model (CLSM) for optimizing columnar structured CsI indirect conversion flat panel imager (FPI) for advanced imaging applications. Methods: For experimental validation, depth dependent escape efficiency, e(z), was extracted from PHS measurement of different CsI scintillators (thickness, substrate and light output). The inherent MTF and DQE of CsI was measured using high resolution CMOS sensor. For CLSM, e(z) and the depth dependent MTF(f,z), were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation (Geant4) of optical photon transport through columnar CsI. Previous work showed that Monte Carlo simulation for CsI was hindered by the non-ideality of its columnar structure. In the present work we allowed variation in columnar width with depth, and assumed diffusive reflective backing and columns. Monte Carlo simulation was performed using an optical point source placed at different depth of the CsI layer, from which MTF(z,f) and e(z) were computed. The resulting e(z) with excellent matching with experimental measurements were then applied to the CLSM, Monte Carlo simulation was repeated until the modeled MTF, DQE(f) also match experimental measurement. Results: For a 150 micron FOS HL type CsI, e(z) varies between 0.56 to 0.45, and the MTF at 14 cycles/mm varies between 62.1% to 3.9%, from the front to the back of the scintillator. The overall MTF and DQE(f) at all frequencies are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements at all frequencies. Conclusion: We have developed a CLSM for columnar CsI scintillators with depth dependent gain and MTF, which were estimated from Monte Carlo simulation with novel optical simulation settings. Preliminary results showed excellent agreement between simulation results and experimental measurements. Future work is aimed at extending this approach to optimize CsI screen optic design and sensor structure for achieving higher DQE(f) in cone-beam CT, which uses

  1. Damping of linear waves via ionization and recombination in homogeneous plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2010-11-15

    An oscillation-center model is proposed that analytically describes transformation of an arbitrary homogeneous linear wave at gradual ionization and recombination in homogeneous plasma. For the case when either of the processes dominates, general adiabatic invariants are found, from which the wave energy is derived as a function of the frequency.

  2. Higher-degree linear approximations of nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karahan, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author develops a new method for obtaining higher degree linear approximations of nonlinear control systems. The standard approach in the analysis and synthesis of nonlinear systems is a first order approximation by a linear model. This is usually performed by obtaining a series expansion of the system at some nominal operating point and retaining only the first degree terms in the series. The accuracy of this approximation depends on how far the system moves away from the normal point, and on the relative magnitudes of the higher degree terms in the series expansion. The approximation is achieved by finding an appropriate nonlinear coordinate transformation-feedback pair to perform the higher degree linearization. With the proposed method, one can improve the accuracy of the approximation up to arbitrarily higher degrees, provided certain solvability conditions are satisfied. The Hunt-Su linearizability theorem makes these conditions precise. This approach is similar to Poincare's Normal Form Theorem in formulation, but different in its solution method. After some mathematical background the author derives a set of equations (called the Homological Equations). A solution to this system of linear equations is equivalent to the solution to the problem of approximate linearization. However, it is generally not possible to solve the system of equations exactly. He outlines a method for systematically finding approximate solutions to these equations using singular value decomposition, while minimizing an error with respect to some defined norm.

  3. Linearly polarized fiber amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kliner, Dahv A.; Koplow, Jeffery P.

    2004-11-30

    Optically pumped rare-earth-doped polarizing fibers exhibit significantly higher gain for one linear polarization state than for the orthogonal state. Such a fiber can be used to construct a single-polarization fiber laser, amplifier, or amplified-spontaneous-emission (ASE) source without the need for additional optical components to obtain stable, linearly polarized operation.

  4. Governance of the International Linear Collider Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, B.; Barish, B.; Delahaye, J.P.; Dosselli, U.; Elsen, E.; Harrison, M.; Mnich, J.; Paterson, J.M.; Richard, F.; Stapnes, S.; Suzuki, A.; Wormser, G.; Yamada, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2012-05-31

    Governance models for the International Linear Collider Project are examined in the light of experience from similar international projects around the world. Recommendations for one path which could be followed to realize the ILC successfully are outlined. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a unique endeavour in particle physics; fully international from the outset, it has no 'host laboratory' to provide infrastructure and support. The realization of this project therefore presents unique challenges, in scientific, technical and political arenas. This document outlines the main questions that need to be answered if the ILC is to become a reality. It describes the methodology used to harness the wisdom displayed and lessons learned from current and previous large international projects. From this basis, it suggests both general principles and outlines a specific model to realize the ILC. It recognizes that there is no unique model for such a laboratory and that there are often several solutions to a particular problem. Nevertheless it proposes concrete solutions that the authors believe are currently the best choices in order to stimulate discussion and catalyze proposals as to how to bring the ILC project to fruition. The ILC Laboratory would be set up by international treaty and be governed by a strong Council to whom a Director General and an associated Directorate would report. Council would empower the Director General to give strong management to the project. It would take its decisions in a timely manner, giving appropriate weight to the financial contributions of the member states. The ILC Laboratory would be set up for a fixed term, capable of extension by agreement of all the partners. The construction of the machine would be based on a Work Breakdown Structure and value engineering and would have a common cash fund sufficiently large to allow the management flexibility to optimize the project's construction. Appropriate contingency, clearly

  5. Prognostic residual mean flow in an ocean general circulation model and its relation to prognostic Eulerian mean flow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saenz, Juan A.; Chen, Qingshan; Ringler, Todd

    2015-05-19

    Recent work has shown that taking the thickness-weighted average (TWA) of the Boussinesq equations in buoyancy coordinates results in exact equations governing the prognostic residual mean flow where eddy–mean flow interactions appear in the horizontal momentum equations as the divergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux tensor (EPFT). It has been proposed that, given the mathematical tractability of the TWA equations, the physical interpretation of the EPFT, and its relation to potential vorticity fluxes, the TWA is an appropriate framework for modeling ocean circulation with parameterized eddies. The authors test the feasibility of this proposition and investigate the connections between the TWAmore » framework and the conventional framework used in models, where Eulerian mean flow prognostic variables are solved for. Using the TWA framework as a starting point, this study explores the well-known connections between vertical transfer of horizontal momentum by eddy form drag and eddy overturning by the bolus velocity, used by Greatbatch and Lamb and Gent and McWilliams to parameterize eddies. After implementing the TWA framework in an ocean general circulation model, we verify our analysis by comparing the flows in an idealized Southern Ocean configuration simulated using the TWA and conventional frameworks with the same mesoscale eddy parameterization.« less

  6. Prognostic residual mean flow in an ocean general circulation model and its relation to prognostic Eulerian mean flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenz, Juan A.; Chen, Qingshan; Ringler, Todd

    2015-05-19

    Recent work has shown that taking the thickness-weighted average (TWA) of the Boussinesq equations in buoyancy coordinates results in exact equations governing the prognostic residual mean flow where eddy–mean flow interactions appear in the horizontal momentum equations as the divergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux tensor (EPFT). It has been proposed that, given the mathematical tractability of the TWA equations, the physical interpretation of the EPFT, and its relation to potential vorticity fluxes, the TWA is an appropriate framework for modeling ocean circulation with parameterized eddies. The authors test the feasibility of this proposition and investigate the connections between the TWA framework and the conventional framework used in models, where Eulerian mean flow prognostic variables are solved for. Using the TWA framework as a starting point, this study explores the well-known connections between vertical transfer of horizontal momentum by eddy form drag and eddy overturning by the bolus velocity, used by Greatbatch and Lamb and Gent and McWilliams to parameterize eddies. After implementing the TWA framework in an ocean general circulation model, we verify our analysis by comparing the flows in an idealized Southern Ocean configuration simulated using the TWA and conventional frameworks with the same mesoscale eddy parameterization.

  7. General Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    information General Information JLF Contacts Request a Tour

  8. Simulations of Cyclic Voltammetry for Electric Double Layers in Asymmetric Electrolytes: A Generalized Modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hainan; Thiele, Alexander; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-11-15

    This paper presents a generalized modified Poisson–Nernst–Planck (MPNP) model derived from first principles based on excess chemical potential and Langmuir activity coefficient to simulate electric double-layer dynamics in asymmetric electrolytes. The model accounts simultaneously for (1) asymmetric electrolytes with (2) multiple ion species, (3) finite ion sizes, and (4) Stern and diffuse layers along with Ohmic potential drop in the electrode. It was used to simulate cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements for binary asymmetric electrolytes. The results demonstrated that the current density increased significantly with decreasing ion diameter and/or increasing valency |zi| of either ion species. By contrast, the ion diffusion coefficients affected the CV curves and capacitance only at large scan rates. Dimensional analysis was also performed, and 11 dimensionless numbers were identified to govern the CV measurements of the electric double layer in binary asymmetric electrolytes between two identical planar electrodes of finite thickness. A self-similar behavior was identified for the electric double-layer integral capacitance estimated from CV measurement simulations. Two regimes were identified by comparing the half cycle period τCV and the “RC time scale” τRC corresponding to the characteristic time of ions’ electrodiffusion. For τRC ← τCV, quasi-equilibrium conditions prevailed and the capacitance was diffusion-independent while for τRC → τCV, the capacitance was diffusion-limited. The effect of the electrode was captured by the dimensionless electrode electrical conductivity representing the ratio of characteristic times associated with charge transport in the electrolyte and that in the electrode. The model developed here will be useful for simulating and designing various practical electrochemical, colloidal, and biological systems for a wide range of applications.

  9. 7Li General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li General Table The General Table for 7Li is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Model Calculations Photodisintegration Polarization Fission and Fusion Elastic and Inelastic Scattering Projectile Fragmentation and Multifragmentation Astrophysical Hyperfine Structure b-decay Muons Hypernuclei and Mesons Hypernuclei and Baryons Pion, Kaon and Eta-Mesons Other Work Applications

  10. 8B General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B General Tables The General Table for 8B is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Photodisintegration and Coulomb Dissociation Elastic and Inelastic Scattering Fragmentation Reactions Astrophysical b Decay Nucleon Spatial Distribution

  11. 8Li General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li General Tables The General Table for 8Li is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Photodissociation Fusion and Fission Elastic and Inelastic Scattering Fragmentation Reactions Astrophysical b Decay Hypernuclei Pions, Kaons and h-mesons

  12. 9Li General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li General Table The General Table for 9Li is subdivided into the following categories: Shell Model Cluster Model Theoretical Ground State Properties Special States Other Model Calculations Complex Reactions Beta-Decay Pions Muons Photodisintegration Elastic and Inelastic Scattering Electromagnetic Transitions Astrophysical

  13. 10Li General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li General Table The General Table for 10Li is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Theoretical Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Special States Astrophysical Electromagnetic Transitions Hypernuclei Photodisintegration Light-Ion and Neutron Induced Reactions These General Tables correspond to the 2003 preliminary evaluation of ``Energy Levels of Light Nuclei, A = 10''. The prepublication version of A = 10 is available on this website in PDF format: A =

  14. General circulation model calculations of the direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulfate and fossil-fuel soot aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haywood, J.M.; Roberts, D.L.; Slingo, A.

    1997-07-01

    A new radiation code within a general circulation model is used to assess the direct solar and thermal radiative forcing by sulfate aerosol of anthropogenic origin and soot aerosol from fossil-fuel burning. The radiative effects of different aerosol profiles, relative humidity parameterizations, chemical compositions, and internal and external mixtures of the two aerosol types are investigated. The contribution to the radiative forcing from cloudy sky regions is found to be negligible for sulfate aerosol; this is in contrast to recent studies where the cloudy sky contribution was estimated using a method in which the spatial correlation between cloud amount and sulfate burden was ignored. However, the radiative forcing due to fossil-fuel soot aerosol is enhanced in cloudy regions if soot aerosol exists within or above the cloud. The global solar radiative forcing due to sulfate aerosol is estimated to be -0.38 W m{sup -2} and the global thermal radiative forcing is estimated to be +0.01 W m{sup -2}. The hemispheric mean radiative forcings vary by only about 10% for reasonable assumptions about the chemical form of the sulfate aerosol and the relative humidity dependence; the uncertainties in the aerosol loading are far more significant. If a soot/sulfate mass ratio of 0.075 is assumed, then the global solar radiative forcing weakens to -0.18 W m{sup -2} for an external mixture and weakens further for an internal mixture. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the radiative forcing shows strong negative/positive forcing contrasts that may influence the dynamical response of the atmosphere. Although these results are extremely sensitive to the adopted soot/sulfate ratio and the assumed vertical profile, they indicate that fossil-fuel soot aerosol may exert a nonnegligible radiative forcing and emphasize the need to consider each anthropogenic aerosol species. 58 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosamykin, V.S.; Pavlovskiy, A.I.

    1984-03-01

    A linear induction accelerator of charged particles, containing inductors and an acceleration circuit, characterized by the fact that, for the purpose of increasing the power of the accelerator, each inductor is made in the form of a toroidal line with distributed parameters, from one end of which in the gap of the line a ring commutator is included, and from the other end of the ine a resistor is hooked up, is described.

  16. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  17. Linear induction accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  18. The Stanford Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emma, P.

    1995-06-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is the first and only high-energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider in the world. Its most remarkable features are high intensity, submicron sized, polarized (e{sup {minus}}) beams at a single interaction point. The main challenges posed by these unique characteristics include machine-wide emittance preservation, consistent high intensity operation, polarized electron production and transport, and the achievement of a high degree of beam stability on all time scales. In addition to serving as an important machine for the study of Z{sup 0} boson production and decay using polarized beams, the SLC is also an indispensable source of hands-on experience for future linear colliders. Each new year of operation has been highlighted with a marked improvement in performance. The most significant improvements for the 1994-95 run include new low impedance vacuum chambers for the damping rings, an upgrade to the optics and diagnostics of the final focus systems, and a higher degree of polarization from the electron source. As a result, the average luminosity has nearly doubled over the previous year with peaks approaching 10{sup 30} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and an 80% electron polarization at the interaction point. These developments as well as the remaining identifiable performance limitations will be discussed.

  19. Sorption testing and generalized composite surface complexation models for determining uranium sorption parameters at a proposed in-situ recovery site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Truax, Ryan A.; Lankford, David A.; Stone, James J.

    2016-02-03

    Solid-phase iron concentrations and generalized composite surface complexation models were used to evaluate procedures in determining uranium sorption on oxidized aquifer material at a proposed U in situ recovery (ISR) site. At the proposed Dewey Burdock ISR site in South Dakota, USA, oxidized aquifer material occurs downgradient of the U ore zones. Solid-phase Fe concentrations did not explain our batch sorption test results,though total extracted Fe appeared to be positively correlated with overall measured U sorption. Batch sorption test results were used to develop generalized composite surface complexation models that incorporated the full genericsorption potential of each sample, without detailedmore » mineralogiccharacterization. The resultant models provide U sorption parameters (site densities and equilibrium constants) for reactive transport modeling. The generalized composite surface complexation sorption models were calibrated to batch sorption data from three oxidized core samples using inverse modeling, and gave larger sorption parameters than just U sorption on the measured solidphase Fe. These larger sorption parameters can significantly influence reactive transport modeling, potentially increasing U attenuation. Because of the limited number of calibration points, inverse modeling required the reduction of estimated parameters by fixing two parameters. The best-fit models used fixed values for equilibrium constants, with the sorption site densities being estimated by the inversion process. While these inverse routines did provide best-fit sorption parameters, local minima and correlated parameters might require further evaluation. Despite our limited number of proxy samples, the procedures presented provide a valuable methodology to consider for sites where metal sorption parameters are required. Furthermore, these sorption parameters can be used in reactive transport modeling to assess downgradient metal attenuation, especially when no other

  20. Automating linear accelerator quality assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckhause, Tobias; Thorwarth, Ryan; Moran, Jean M.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Farrey, Karl; Ritter, Timothy; DeMarco, John; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Popple, Richard; Sharma, Vijeshwar; Park, SungYong; Perez, Mario; Booth, Jeremy T.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was 2-fold. One purpose was to develop an automated, streamlined quality assurance (QA) program for use by multiple centers. The second purpose was to evaluate machine performance over time for multiple centers using linear accelerator (Linac) log files and electronic portal images. The authors sought to evaluate variations in Linac performance to establish as a reference for other centers. Methods: The authors developed analytical software tools for a QA program using both log files and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. The first tool is a general analysis tool which can read and visually represent data in the log file. This tool, which can be used to automatically analyze patient treatment or QA log files, examines the files for Linac deviations which exceed thresholds. The second set of tools consists of a test suite of QA fields, a standard phantom, and software to collect information from the log files on deviations from the expected values. The test suite was designed to focus on the mechanical tests of the Linac to include jaw, MLC, and collimator positions during static, IMRT, and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery. A consortium of eight institutions delivered the test suite at monthly or weekly intervals on each Linac using a standard phantom. The behavior of various components was analyzed for eight TrueBeam Linacs. Results: For the EPID and trajectory log file analysis, all observed deviations which exceeded established thresholds for Linac behavior resulted in a beam hold off. In the absence of an interlock-triggering event, the maximum observed log file deviations between the expected and actual component positions (such as MLC leaves) varied from less than 1% to 26% of published tolerance thresholds. The maximum and standard deviations of the variations due to gantry sag, collimator angle, jaw position, and MLC positions are presented. Gantry sag among Linacs was 0.336 ± 0.072 mm. The

  1. Response to Comment on General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation [Phys. Fluids 26, 119101 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2014-11-15

    In R. A. Van Gorder, General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation, Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014) I discussed properties of generalized vortex filaments exhibiting purely rotational motion under the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation. Such solutions are stationary in terms of translational motion. In the Comment [N. Hietala, Comment on General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation [Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)], Phys. Fluids 26, 119101 (2014)], the author criticizes my paper for not including translational motion (although it was clearly stated that the filament motion was assumed rotational). As it turns out, if one is interested in studying the geometric structure of solutions (which was the point of my paper), one obtains the needed qualitative results on the structure of such solutions by studying the purely rotational case. Nevertheless, in this Response I shall discuss the vortex filaments that have both rotational and translational motions. I then briefly discuss why one might want to study such generalized rotating filament solutions, in contrast to simple the standard helical or planar examples (which are really special cases). I also discuss how one can study the time evolution of filaments which exhibit more complicated dynamics than pure translation and rotation. Doing this, one can study non-stationary solutions which initially appear purely rotational and gradually display other dynamics as the filaments evolve.

  2. Linear Fresnel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power » Linear Fresnel Linear Fresnel DOE funds solar research and development (R&D) in linear Fresnel systems as one of four CSP technologies aiming to meet the goals of the SunShot Initiative. Linear Fresnel systems, which are a type of linear concentrator, are active in Germany, Spain, Australia, India, and the United States. The SunShot Initiative funds R&D on linear Fresnel systems and related aspects within the industry, national laboratories and universities

  3. General Engineers

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    General Engineers The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the General Engineer, whose work is associated with analytical studies and evaluation projects pertaining to the operations of the energy industry. Responsibilities: General Engineers perform or participate in one or

  4. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  5. Positrons for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecklund, S.

    1987-11-01

    The requirements of a positron source for a linear collider are briefly reviewed, followed by methods of positron production and production of photons by electromagnetic cascade showers. Cross sections for the electromagnetic cascade shower processes of positron-electron pair production and Compton scattering are compared. A program used for Monte Carlo analysis of electromagnetic cascades is briefly discussed, and positron distributions obtained from several runs of the program are discussed. Photons from synchrotron radiation and from channeling are also mentioned briefly, as well as positron collection, transverse focusing techniques, and longitudinal capture. Computer ray tracing is then briefly discussed, followed by space-charge effects and thermal heating and stress due to showers. (LEW)

  6. History of Proton Linear Accelerators

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Alvarez, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    Some personal recollections are presented that relate to the author`s experience developing linear accelerators, particularly for protons. (LEW)

  7. Comment on General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation [Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hietala, Niklas Hnninen, Risto

    2014-11-15

    Van Gorder considers a formulation of the local induction approximation, which allows the vortex to move in the direction of the reference axis [General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation, Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)]. However, in his analytical and numerical study he does not use it. A mistake in the torsion of a helical vortex is also corrected.

  8. Nanoscale effects in the characterization of viscoelastic materials with atomic force microscopy: Coupling of a quasi-three-dimensional standard linear solid model with in-plane surface interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2016-04-15

    Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip-sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surfacemore » as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young's modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single-and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip-sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. As a result, a multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information.« less

  9. Winding for linear pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kliman, G.B.; Brynsvold, G.V.; Jahns, T.M.

    1989-08-22

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium are disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet. 4 figs.

  10. Winding for linear pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kliman, Gerald B.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Jahns, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium is disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet.

  11. Linear induction pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meisner, John W.; Moore, Robert M.; Bienvenue, Louis L.

    1985-03-19

    Electromagnetic linear induction pump for liquid metal which includes a unitary pump duct. The duct comprises two substantially flat parallel spaced-apart wall members, one being located above the other and two parallel opposing side members interconnecting the wall members. Located within the duct are a plurality of web members interconnecting the wall members and extending parallel to the side members whereby the wall members, side members and web members define a plurality of fluid passageways, each of the fluid passageways having substantially the same cross-sectional flow area. Attached to an outer surface of each side member is an electrically conductive end bar for the passage of an induced current therethrough. A multi-phase, electrical stator is located adjacent each of the wall members. The duct, stators, and end bars are enclosed in a housing which is provided with an inlet and outlet in fluid communication with opposite ends of the fluid passageways in the pump duct. In accordance with a preferred embodiment, the inlet and outlet includes a transition means which provides for a transition from a round cross-sectional flow path to a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow path defined by the pump duct.

  12. General Engineer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in Office of Standard Contract Management, within the Office of the General Counsel (GC). The purpose of the position is to conduct technical and engineering reviews of the...

  13. A general correlation of MPPS penetration as a function of face velocity with the model 8140 using the certitest 8160

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lifshutz, N.; Pierce, M.

    1997-08-01

    The CertiTest 8160 is a Condensation Nucleus Counter (CNC) based filtration test stand which permits measurement of penetration as a function of particle size. The Model 8140 is also a CNC based filtration test stand which provides a single penetration measurement for a fixed particle distribution aerosol challenge. A study was carried out measuring DOP penetration on a broad range of flat filtration media at various face velocities to compare these two instruments. The tests done on the CertiTest 8160 incorporated a range of particle sizes which encompassed the most penetrating particle size (MPPS). In this paper we present a correlation between the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160 and the penetration values obtained on the Model 8140. We observed that at the lowest air face velocities of the study the Model 8140 tended to overpredict the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160. We also present a correlation of MPPS penetration with face velocity which may be of use for extrapolation purposes. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  14. FDATMOS16 non-linear partitioning and organic volatility distributions in urban aerosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Madronich, Sasha; Kleinman, Larry; Conley, Andrew; Lee-Taylor, Julie; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, Bernard

    2015-12-17

    Gas-to-particle partitioning of organic aerosols (OA) is represented in most models by Raoult’s law, and depends on the existing mass of particles into which organic gases can dissolve. This raises the possibility of non-linear response of particle-phase OA to the emissions of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to this partitioning mass. Implications for air quality management are evident: A strong non-linear dependence would suggest that reductions in VOC emission would have a more-than-proportionate benefit in lowering ambient OA concentrations. Chamber measurements on simple VOC mixtures generally confirm the non-linear scaling between OA and VOCs, usually stated as amore » mass-dependence of the measured OA yields. However, for realistic ambient conditions including urban settings, no single component dominates the composition of the organic particles, and deviations from linearity are presumed to be small. Here we re-examine the linearity question using volatility spectra from several sources: (1) chamber studies of selected aerosols, (2) volatility inferred for aerosols sampled in two megacities, Mexico City and Paris, and (3) an explicit chemistry model (GECKO-A). These few available volatility distributions suggest that urban OA may be only slightly super-linear, with most values of the sensitivity exponent in the range 1.1-1.3, also substantially lower than seen in chambers for some specific aerosols. Furthermore, the rather low values suggest that OA concentrations in megacities are not an inevitable convergence of non-linear effects, but can be addressed (much like in smaller urban areas) by proportionate reductions in emissions.« less

  15. FDATMOS16 non-linear partitioning and organic volatility distributions in urban aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madronich, Sasha; Kleinman, Larry; Conley, Andrew; Lee-Taylor, Julie; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, Bernard

    2015-12-17

    Gas-to-particle partitioning of organic aerosols (OA) is represented in most models by Raoult’s law, and depends on the existing mass of particles into which organic gases can dissolve. This raises the possibility of non-linear response of particle-phase OA to the emissions of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to this partitioning mass. Implications for air quality management are evident: A strong non-linear dependence would suggest that reductions in VOC emission would have a more-than-proportionate benefit in lowering ambient OA concentrations. Chamber measurements on simple VOC mixtures generally confirm the non-linear scaling between OA and VOCs, usually stated as a mass-dependence of the measured OA yields. However, for realistic ambient conditions including urban settings, no single component dominates the composition of the organic particles, and deviations from linearity are presumed to be small. Here we re-examine the linearity question using volatility spectra from several sources: (1) chamber studies of selected aerosols, (2) volatility inferred for aerosols sampled in two megacities, Mexico City and Paris, and (3) an explicit chemistry model (GECKO-A). These few available volatility distributions suggest that urban OA may be only slightly super-linear, with most values of the sensitivity exponent in the range 1.1-1.3, also substantially lower than seen in chambers for some specific aerosols. Furthermore, the rather low values suggest that OA concentrations in megacities are not an inevitable convergence of non-linear effects, but can be addressed (much like in smaller urban areas) by proportionate reductions in emissions.

  16. Generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation induced from position-dependent effective mass quantum models and mass-deformed soliton solution through inverse scattering transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, A. E-mail: aganguly@maths.iitkgp.ernet.in; Das, A.

    2014-11-15

    We consider one-dimensional stationary position-dependent effective mass quantum model and derive a generalized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation in (1+1) dimension through Lax pair formulation, one being the effective mass Schrödinger operator and the other being the time-evolution of wave functions. We obtain an infinite number of conserved quantities for the generated nonlinear equation and explicitly show that the new generalized KdV equation is an integrable system. Inverse scattering transform method is applied to obtain general solution of the nonlinear equation, and then N-soliton solution is derived for reflectionless potentials. Finally, a special choice has been made for the variable mass function to get mass-deformed soliton solution. The influence of position and time-dependence of mass and also of the different representations of kinetic energy operator on the nature of such solitons is investigated in detail. The remarkable features of such solitons are demonstrated in several interesting figures and are contrasted with the conventional KdV-soliton associated with constant-mass quantum model.

  17. General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2014-06-15

    In his study of superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit, Svistunov [Superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit, Phys. Rev. B 52, 3647 (1995)] derived a Hamiltonian equation for the self-induced motion of a vortex filament. Under the local induction approximation (LIA), the Svistunov formulation is equivalent to a nonlinear dispersive partial differential equation. In this paper, we consider a family of rotating vortex filament solutions for the LIA reduction of the Svistunov formulation, which we refer to as the 2D LIA (since it permits a potential formulation in terms of two of the three Cartesian coordinates). This class of solutions holds the well-known Hasimoto-type planar vortex filament [H. Hasimoto, Motion of a vortex filament and its relation to elastica, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 31, 293 (1971)] as one reduction and helical solutions as another. More generally, we obtain solutions which are periodic in the space variable. A systematic analytical study of the behavior of such solutions is carried out. In the case where vortex filaments have small deviations from the axis of rotation, closed analytical forms of the filament solutions are given. A variety of numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the wide range of rotating filament behaviors possible. Doing so, we are able to determine a number of vortex filament structures not previously studied. We find that the solution structure progresses from planar to helical, and then to more intricate and complex filament structures, possibly indicating the onset of superfluid turbulence.

  18. Description of the stand-damage model: Part of the gypsy moth life system model. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colbert, J.J.; Sheehan, K.A.

    1995-08-16

    This document describes the structure, organization, and mathematical formulations for the Stand-Damage Model and the Biological basis for these formulations. Growth, mortality, and regeneration are modeled along with the effects of user-prescribed defoliation and stand-management actions. The appendices provide a full description of the logic and mathematics in the form of code listings, structure charts, and files.

  19. General Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General Publications General Publications Print ALS Strategic Plan 2015-19 cover image An updated version of the ALS Strategic Plan, covering the five-year period from 2015 to 2019. As in the 2014-18 version, Section I gives a brief synopsis on beamline and endstation projects. The science drivers behind these projects are explained in greater detail in Section II, and a very brief description of emerging plans for a ALS-U are in Section III. Soft X-ray Science Opportunities Using

  20. The TESLA superconducting linear collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    the TESLA Collaboration

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the present status of the studies for a superconducting Linear Collider (TESLA). {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Ordinary Isotropic Peridynamic Models; Position Aware Linear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  2. Ordinary Isotropic Peridynamic Models Position Aware Linear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    T(Y)x (S>- T(Y)Q(-S>dVQ Ordinary Oil Sandia National laboratories John Mitchell ... More later. Oil Sandia National laboratories John Mitchell Kinematic peridynamic states: ...

  3. Generalized galilean genesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2015-03-31

    The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by α) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as opposed to what happens in quasi-de Sitter inflation. We show that the spectral index of curvature perturbations is determined solely from the parameter α and does not depend on the other details of the model. In contrast to the original model, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is obtained for a specific choice of α.

  4. Galileons coupled to massive gravity: general analysis and cosmological solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goon, Garrett; Trodden, Mark; Gmrko?lu, A. Emir; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Mukohyama, Shinji E-mail: Emir.Gumrukcuoglu@nottingham.ac.uk E-mail: shinji.mukohyama@ipmu.jp

    2014-08-01

    We further develop the framework for coupling galileons and Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) scalar fields to a massive graviton while retaining both the non-linear symmetries of the scalars and ghost-freedom of the theory. The general construction is recast in terms of vielbeins which simplifies calculations and allows for compact expressions. Expressions for the general form of the action are derived, with special emphasis on those models which descend from maximally symmetric spaces. We demonstrate the existence of maximally symmetric solutions to the fully non-linear theory and analyze their spectrum of quadratic fluctuations. Finally, we consider self-accelerating cosmological solutions and study their perturbations, showing that the vector and scalar modes have vanishing kinetic terms.

  5. Northern Hemisphere wintertime variability in a two-level general circulation model. Part II. The maintenance of short and long time-scale disturbances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushnir, Y.; Esbensen, S.K.

    1986-12-01

    The energetics of large-scale disturbances of the wintertime, Northern Hemisphere circulation are studied with the OSU two-level general circulation model. The behavior of simulated eddies with short time-scale (2.5 to 10 days) is found to be consistent with observations and with baroclinic instability theory. Eddies with long time-scales (>10 days) appear to be maintained primarily by high-latitude baroclinic energy conversions. Energy conversions characteristic of barotropic processes are found at jet stream latitudes.

  6. General quantitative model for coal liquefaction kinetics: the thermal cleavage/hydrogen donor capping mechanism. [59 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangwer, T

    1980-01-01

    A mechanism for coal liquefaction, based on the concept of thermal cleavage-hydrogen capping donor complexes, is proposed and the quantitative agreement between the derived rate laws and the kinetic data obtained from fifteen publications is presented. The mechanism provides rate laws which describe the preasphaltene, asphaltene, oil and gas time/yield curves for the coal liquefaction process. A simplistic dissolution model is presented and used to relate the proposed mechanism to the experimentally observed products. Based on the quality of the mechanistic fit to the reported coal liquefaction systems, which cover a diverse range of reaction conditions, coal types and donor solvent compositions, it is proposed that the donor solvent/thermal bond cleavage/hydrogen capping mechanism provides a good, quantitative description of the rate limiting process. Interpretation of the rate constant/temperature dependencies in terms of transition state theory indicates formation of the activated complex can involve either physically or chemically controlled steps. A uniform free energy of activation of 52 kcal was found for the diverse liquefaction systems indicating a common transition state describes the reactions. Thus the proposed mechanism unifies the diverse liquefaction kinetic data by using a set of uniform reaction sequences, which have a common transition state, to describe the conversion chemistry. The mechanism thereby creates a common base for intercomparison, interpretation and evaluation of coal conversion for the broad range of processes currently being investigated in the liquefaction field.

  7. The northern wintertime divergence extrema at 200 hPa and surface cyclones as simulated in the AMIP integration of the ECMWF general circulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, J.S.

    1994-11-01

    Divergence and convergence centers at 200 hPa and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) cyclones were located every 6 hr for a 10-yr general circulation model (GCM) simulation with the ECMWF (Cycle 36) for the boreal winters from 1980 to 1988. The simulation used the observed monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST) for the decade. Analysis of the frequency, location, and strength of these centers and cyclones gives insight into the dynamical response of the model to the varying SST. The results indicate that (1) the model produces reasonable climatologies of upper-level divergence and MSLP cyclones; (2) the model distribution of anomalies of divergence and convergence centers and MSLP cyclones is consistent with observations for the 1982-83 and 1986-87 El Nifio events; (3) the tropical Indian Ocean is the region of greatest divergence activity and interannual variability in the model; (4) the variability of the divergence centers is greater than that of the convergence centers; (5) strong divergence centers occur chiefly over the ocean in the midlatitudes but are more land-based in the tropics, except in the Indian Ocean; and (6) locations of divergence and convergence centers can be a useful tool for the intercomparison of global atmospheric simulations.

  8. The Linear Engine Pathway of Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Linear Engine Pathway of Transformation The Linear Engine Pathway of Transformation This poster highlights the major milestones in the history of the linear engine in terms of technological advances, novel designs, and economic/social impact. p-06_covington.pdf (214.04 KB) More Documents & Publications Difficulty of Measuring Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Equipped with SCR and DPF Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Modeling the

  9. A general unified non-equilibrium model for predicting saturated and subcooled critical two-phase flow rates through short and long tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, D.W.H.; Abdelmessih, A.H.

    1995-09-01

    A general unified model is developed to predict one-component critical two-phase pipe flow. Modelling of the two-phase flow is accomplished by describing the evolution of the flow between the location of flashing inception and the exit (critical) plane. The model approximates the nonequilibrium phase change process via thermodynamic equilibrium paths. Included are the relative effects of varying the location of flashing inception, pipe geometry, fluid properties and length to diameter ratio. The model predicts that a range of critical mass fluxes exist and is bound by a maximum and minimum value for a given thermodynamic state. This range is more pronounced at lower subcooled stagnation states and can be attributed to the variation in the location of flashing inception. The model is based on the results of an experimental study of the critical two-phase flow of saturated and subcooled water through long tubes. In that study, the location of flashing inception was accurately controlled and adjusted through the use of a new device. The data obtained revealed that for fixed stagnation conditions, the maximum critical mass flux occurred with flashing inception located near the pipe exit; while minimum critical mass fluxes occurred with the flashing front located further upstream. Available data since 1970 for both short and long tubes over a wide range of conditions are compared with the model predictions. This includes test section L/D ratios from 25 to 300 and covers a temperature and pressure range of 110 to 280{degrees}C and 0.16 to 6.9 MPa. respectively. The predicted maximum and minimum critical mass fluxes show an excellent agreement with the range observed in the experimental data.

  10. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houze, Jr., Robert A.

    2013-11-13

    We examined cloud radar data in monsoon climates, using cloud radars at Darwin in the Australian monsoon, on a ship in the Bay of Bengal in the South Asian monsoon, and at Niamey in the West African monsoon. We followed on with a more in-depth study of the continental MCSs over West Africa. We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the observed anvil clouds to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model at high resolution using six different ice-phase microphysical schemes. We carried out further simulations with a cloud-resolving model forced by sounding network budgets over the Niamey region and over the northern Australian region. We have devoted some of the effort of this project to examining how well satellite data can determine the global breadth of the anvil cloud measurements obtained at the ARM ground sites. We next considered whether satellite data could be objectively analyzed to so that their large global measurement sets can be systematically related to the ARM measurements. Further differences were detailed between the land and ocean MCS anvil clouds by examining the interior structure of the anvils with the satellite-detected the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The satellite survey of anvil clouds in the Indo-Pacific region was continued to determine the role of MCSs in producing the cloud pattern associated with the MJO.

  11. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  12. Linear Accelerator | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Linear Accelerator Producing brilliant x-ray beams at the APS begins with electrons emitted from a cathode heated to 1100 C. The electrons are accelerated by high-voltage...

  13. Asynchronous parallel generating set search for linearly-constrained optimization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Griffin, Joshua D.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2006-08-01

    Generating set search (GSS) is a family of direct search methods that encompasses generalized pattern search and related methods. We describe an algorithm for asynchronous linearly-constrained GSS, which has some complexities that make it different from both the asynchronous bound-constrained case as well as the synchronous linearly-constrained case. The algorithm has been implemented in the APPSPACK software framework and we present results from an extensive numerical study using CUTEr test problems. We discuss the results, both positive and negative, and conclude that GSS is a reliable method for solving small-to-medium sized linearly-constrained optimization problems without derivatives.

  14. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  15. Linear Fresnel Power Plant Illustration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With this concentrating solar power (CSP) graphic, flat or slightly curved mirrors mounted on trackers on the ground are configured to reflect sunlight onto a receiver tube fixed in space above these mirrors. A small parabolic mirror is sometimes added atop the receiver to further focus the sunlight. Linear CSP collectors capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a linear receiver tube. The receiver contains a fluid that is heated by the sunlight and then used to create superheated steam that spins a turbine that drives a generator to produce electricity.

  16. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  17. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McComas, David J.; Nordholt, Jane E.

    1992-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field.

  18. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume ...

  19. Annular linear induction pump with an externally supported duct

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, Edwin R.; Semken, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    Several embodiments of an annular linear induction pump for pumping liquid metals are disclosed having the features of generally one pass flow of the liquid metal through the pump and an increased efficiency resulting from the use of thin duct walls to enclose the stator. The stator components of this pump are removable for repair and replacement.

  20. The use of artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression to predict rate of medical waste generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahandideh, Sepideh Jahandideh, Samad; Asadabadi, Ebrahim Barzegari; Askarian, Mehrdad; Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Somayyeh; Jahandideh, Mina

    2009-11-15

    Prediction of the amount of hospital waste production will be helpful in the storage, transportation and disposal of hospital waste management. Based on this fact, two predictor models including artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were applied to predict the rate of medical waste generation totally and in different types of sharp, infectious and general. In this study, a 5-fold cross-validation procedure on a database containing total of 50 hospitals of Fars province (Iran) were used to verify the performance of the models. Three performance measures including MAR, RMSE and R{sup 2} were used to evaluate performance of models. The MLR as a conventional model obtained poor prediction performance measure values. However, MLR distinguished hospital capacity and bed occupancy as more significant parameters. On the other hand, ANNs as a more powerful model, which has not been introduced in predicting rate of medical waste generation, showed high performance measure values, especially 0.99 value of R{sup 2} confirming the good fit of the data. Such satisfactory results could be attributed to the non-linear nature of ANNs in problem solving which provides the opportunity for relating independent variables to dependent ones non-linearly. In conclusion, the obtained results showed that our ANN-based model approach is very promising and may play a useful role in developing a better cost-effective strategy for waste management in future.

  1. The Next Linear Collider: NLC2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Burke et al.

    2002-01-14

    Recent studies in elementary particle physics have made the need for an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider able to reach energies of 500 GeV and above with high luminosity more compelling than ever [1]. Observations and measurements completed in the last five years at the SLC (SLAC), LEP (CERN), and the Tevatron (FNAL) can be explained only by the existence of at least one particle or interaction that has not yet been directly observed in experiment. The Higgs boson of the Standard Model could be that particle. The data point strongly to a mass for the Higgs boson that is just beyond the reach of existing colliders. This brings great urgency and excitement to the potential for discovery at the upgraded Tevatron early in this decade, and almost assures that later experiments at the LHC will find new physics. But the next generation of experiments to be mounted by the world-wide particle physics community must not only find this new physics, they must find out what it is. These experiments must also define the next important threshold in energy. The need is to understand physics at the TeV energy scale as well as the physics at the 100-GeV energy scale is now understood. This will require both the LHC and a companion linear electron-positron collider. A first Zeroth-Order Design Report (ZDR) [2] for a second-generation electron-positron linear collider, the Next Linear Collider (NLC), was published five years ago. The NLC design is based on a high-frequency room-temperature rf accelerator. Its goal is exploration of elementary particle physics at the TeV center-of-mass energy, while learning how to design and build colliders at still higher energies. Many advances in accelerator technologies and improvements in the design of the NLC have been made since 1996. This Report is a brief update of the ZDR.

  2. A spectral analysis of the domain decomposed Monte Carlo method for linear systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slattery, Stuart R.; Evans, Thomas M.; Wilson, Paul P. H.

    2015-09-08

    The domain decomposed behavior of the adjoint Neumann-Ulam Monte Carlo method for solving linear systems is analyzed using the spectral properties of the linear oper- ator. Relationships for the average length of the adjoint random walks, a measure of convergence speed and serial performance, are made with respect to the eigenvalues of the linear operator. In addition, relationships for the effective optical thickness of a domain in the decomposition are presented based on the spectral analysis and diffusion theory. Using the effective optical thickness, the Wigner rational approxi- mation and the mean chord approximation are applied to estimate the leakagemore » frac- tion of random walks from a domain in the decomposition as a measure of parallel performance and potential communication costs. The one-speed, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation is used as a model problem in numerical experiments to test the models for symmetric operators with spectral qualities similar to light water reactor problems. We find, in general, the derived approximations show good agreement with random walk lengths and leakage fractions computed by the numerical experiments.« less

  3. Constrained Generalized Supersymmetries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toppan, Francesco; Kuznetsova, Zhanna

    2005-10-17

    We present a classification of admissible types of constraint (hermitian, holomorphic, with reality condition on the bosonic sectors, etc.) for generalized supersymmetries in the presence of complex spinors. A generalized supersymmetry algebra involving n-component real spinors Qa is given by the anticommutators {l_brace}Q{sub a},Q{sub b}{r_brace} = Z{sub ab} where the matrix Z appearing in the r.h.s. is the most general symmetric matrix. A complex generalized supersymmetry algebra is expressed in terms of complex spinors Qa and their complex conjugate Q* a. The most general (with a saturated r.h.s.) algebra is in this case given by {l_brace}Q{sub a},Q{sub b}{r_brace} P{sub ab}{l_brace}Q*{sub a}, Q*{sub b}{r_brace} = P*{sub ab}{l_brace}Q{sub a},Q*{sub b}{r_brace} = R{sub ab} where the matrix Pab is symmetric, while Rab is hermitian. The bosonic right hand side can be expressed in terms of the rank-k totally antisymmetric tensors P{sub ab} {sigma}k(C{gamma}{sub [{mu}}{sub 1...{mu}}{sub k]}){sub ab}P{sup [{mu}{sup 1...{mu}{sup k}]}.The decomposition in terms of anti-symmetric tensors for any space-time up to dimension D = 13 is presented. Real type, complex type, and quaternionic type space-times are classified. Any restriction on the saturated bosonic generators that allows all possible combinations of these tensors is in principle admissible by a Lorenz-covariant requirement. We investigate division algebra constraints and their influence on physical models. High spin theory models are presented as examples of the applications of such models.

  4. Comparison of open-source linear programming solvers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Durfee, Justin D.; Jones, Katherine A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Detry, Richard Joseph

    2013-10-01

    When developing linear programming models, issues such as budget limitations, customer requirements, or licensing may preclude the use of commercial linear programming solvers. In such cases, one option is to use an open-source linear programming solver. A survey of linear programming tools was conducted to identify potential open-source solvers. From this survey, four open-source solvers were tested using a collection of linear programming test problems and the results were compared to IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimizer (CPLEX) [1], an industry standard. The solvers considered were: COIN-OR Linear Programming (CLP) [2], [3], GNU Linear Programming Kit (GLPK) [4], lp_solve [5] and Modular In-core Nonlinear Optimization System (MINOS) [6]. As no open-source solver outperforms CPLEX, this study demonstrates the power of commercial linear programming software. CLP was found to be the top performing open-source solver considered in terms of capability and speed. GLPK also performed well but cannot match the speed of CLP or CPLEX. lp_solve and MINOS were considerably slower and encountered issues when solving several test problems.

  5. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, David M.; Sampayan, Stephen; Slenes, Kirk; Stoller, H. M.

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  6. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  7. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  8. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jatko, W. Bruce (Knoxville, TN); McNeilly, David R. (Maryville, TN); Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp unction which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  9. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.

    1984-08-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  10. LDRD final report on a unified linear reference system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Mackoy, R.D.; Fletcher, D.R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the project was to describe existing deficiencies in Geographic Information Systems for transportation (GIS-T) applications and prescribe solutions that would benefit the transportation community in general. After an in-depth literature search and much consultation with noted transportation experts, the need for a common linear reference system that integrated and supported the planning and operational needs of the transportation community became very apparent. The focus of the project was set on a unified linear reference system and how to go about its requirements definition, design, implementation, and promulgation to the transportation community.

  11. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, H. Dale; Busse, Lawrence J.; Lemon, Douglas K.

    1985-01-01

    Defects in a structure are imaged as they propagate, using their emitted acoustic energy as a monitored source. Short bursts of acoustic energy propagate through the structure to a discrete element receiver array. A reference timing transducer located between the array and the inspection zone initiates a series of time-of-flight measurements. A resulting series of time-of-flight measurements are then treated as aperture data and are transferred to a computer for reconstruction of a synthetic linear holographic image. The images can be displayed and stored as a record of defect growth.

  12. Nonferromagnetic linear variable differential transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, James F.; Walstrom, Peter L.

    1977-06-14

    A nonferromagnetic linear variable differential transformer for accurately measuring mechanical displacements in the presence of high magnetic fields is provided. The device utilizes a movable primary coil inside a fixed secondary coil that consists of two series-opposed windings. Operation is such that the secondary output voltage is maintained in phase (depending on polarity) with the primary voltage. The transducer is well-suited to long cable runs and is useful for measuring small displacements in the presence of high or alternating magnetic fields.

  13. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  14. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  15. Interfacial wave behavior in oil-water channel flows: Prospects for a general understanding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCready, M.J.; Uphold, D.D.; Gifford, K.A.

    1997-12-31

    Oil-water pressure driven channel flow is examined as a model for general two-layer flows where interfacial disturbances are important. The goal is to develop sufficient understanding of this system so that the utility and limitations of linear and nonlinear theories can be known a priori. Experiments show that sometimes linear stability is useful at predicting the steady or dominant evolving waves. However in other situations there is no agreement between the linearly fastest growing wave and the spectral peak. An interesting preliminary result is that the bifurcation to interfacial waves is supercritical for all conditions that were studied for an oil-water channel flow, gas-liquid channel flow and two-liquid Couette flow. However, three different mechanisms are dominant for each of these three situations.

  16. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at kmore » ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M⊙ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less

  17. 8C General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C General Tables The General Table for 8C is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Other Theoretical Work...

  18. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  19. Reticle stage based linear dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2007-03-27

    A detector to measure EUV intensity employs a linear array of photodiodes. The detector is particularly suited for photolithography systems that includes: (i) a ringfield camera; (ii) a source of radiation; (iii) a condenser for processing radiation from the source of radiation to produce a ringfield illumination field for illuminating a mask; (iv) a reticle that is positioned at the ringfield camera's object plane and from which a reticle image in the form of an intensity profile is reflected into the entrance pupil of the ringfield camera, wherein the reticle moves in a direction that is transverse to the length of the ringfield illumination field that illuminates the reticle; (v) detector for measuring the entire intensity along the length of the ringfield illumination field that is projected onto the reticle; and (vi) a wafer onto which the reticle imaged is projected from the ringfield camera.

  20. Reticle stage based linear dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2005-06-14

    A detector to measure EUV intensity employs a linear array of photodiodes. The detector is particularly suited for photolithography systems that includes: (i) a ringfield camera; (ii) a source of radiation; (iii) a condenser for processing radiation from the source of radiation to produce a ringfield illumination field for illuminating a mask; (iv) a reticle that is positioned at the ringfield camera's object plane and from which a reticle image in the form of an intensity profile is reflected into the entrance pupil of the ringfield camera, wherein the reticle moves in a direction that is transverse to the length of the ringfield illumination field that illuminates the reticle; (v) detector for measuring the entire intensity along the length of the ringfield illumination field that is projected onto the reticle; and (vi) a wafer onto which the reticle imaged is projected from the ringfield camera.

  1. PC Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-09

    PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of thirty-eight routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, andmore » find the norm of a vector. The BLAS have been carefully written to minimize numerical problems such as loss of precision and underflow and are designed so that the computation is independent of the interface with the calling program. This independence is achieved through judicious use of Assembly language macros. Interfaces are provided for Lahey Fortran 77, Microsoft Fortran 77, and Ryan-McFarland IBM Professional Fortran.« less

  2. Linear induction accelerator parameter options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birx, D.L.; Caporaso, G.J.; Reginato, L.L.

    1986-04-21

    The principal undertaking of the Beam Research Program over the past decade has been the investigation of propagating intense self-focused beams. Recently, the major activity of the program has shifted toward the investigation of converting high quality electron beams directly to laser radiation. During the early years of the program, accelerator development was directed toward the generation of very high current (>10 kA), high energy beams (>50 MeV). In its new mission, the program has shifted the emphasis toward the production of lower current beams (>3 kA) with high brightness (>10/sup 6/ A/(rad-cm)/sup 2/) at very high average power levels. In efforts to produce these intense beams, the state of the art of linear induction accelerators (LIA) has been advanced to the point of satisfying not only the current requirements but also future national needs.

  3. High Performance Preconditioners and Linear Solvers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-07-27

    Hypre is a software library focused on the solution of large, sparse linear systems of equations on massively parallel computers.

  4. Faraday rotation assisted by linearly polarized light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jai Min; Kim, Jang Myun; Cho, D.

    2007-11-15

    We demonstrate a type of chiral effect of an atomic medium. Polarization rotation of a probe beam is observed only when both a magnetic field and a linearly polarized coupling beam are present. We compare it with other chiral effects like optical activity, the Faraday effect, and the optically induced Faraday effect from the viewpoint of spatial inversion and time reversal transformations. As a theoretical model we consider a five-level configuration involving the cesium D2 transition. We use spin-polarized cold cesium atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap to measure the polarization rotation versus probe detuning. The result shows reasonable agreement with a calculation from the master equation of the five-level configuration.

  5. Overview of linear induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1988-07-15

    In this paper, we survey the US induction linac technology, emphasizing electron machines. We also give a simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam to illustrate many general issues that designers of high-brightness and high-average-power induction linacs must consider. We give an example of the application of induction accelerator technology to the relativistic klystron, a power source for high-gradient accelerators. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. General features of Hugoniots-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The author has derived a differential version of the Principal Hugoniot jump relations for a shock wave. From this algebraic equation, relating equation of state and U{sub s} - U{sub p} Hugoniot variables, I explain the general features of the Hugoniot, including two regions of linearity, limiting forms, and insensitivity to shell structure.

  7. General Motors LLC Final Project Report: Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozeman, Jeffrey; Chen, Kuo-Huey

    2014-12-09

    On November 3, 2009, General Motors (GM) accepted U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement award number DE-EE0000014 from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). GM was selected to execute a three-year cost shared research and development project on Solid State Energy Conversion for Vehicular Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC) and for Waste Heat Recovery.

  8. Systematic study of doping dependence on linear magnetoresistance in p-PbTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, J. M.; Chitta, V. A.; Oliveira, N. F.; Peres, M. L. Castro, S. de; Soares, D. A. W.; Wiedmann, S.; Zeitler, U.; Abramof, E.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Mengui, U. A.

    2014-10-20

    We report on a large linear magnetoresistance effect observed in doped p-PbTe films. While undoped p-PbTe reveals a sublinear magnetoresistance, p-PbTe films doped with BaF{sub 2} exhibit a transition to a nearly perfect linear magnetoresistance behaviour that is persistent up to 30?T. The linear magnetoresistance slope ?R/?B is to a good approximation, independent of temperature. This is in agreement with the theory of Quantum Linear Magnetoresistance. We also performed magnetoresistance simulations using a classical model of linear magnetoresistance. We found that this model fails to explain the experimental data. A systematic study of the doping dependence reveals that the linear magnetoresistance response has a maximum for small BaF{sub 2} doping levels and diminishes rapidly for increasing doping levels. Exploiting the huge impact of doping on the linear magnetoresistance signal could lead to new classes of devices with giant magnetoresistance behavior.

  9. Decoherence of spin-deformed bosonic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehdashti, Sh.; Mahdifar, A.; Bagheri Harouni, M.; Roknizadeh, R.

    2013-07-15

    The decoherence rate and some parameters affecting it are investigated for the generalized spin-boson model. We consider the spin-bosonic model when the bosonic environment is modeled by the deformed harmonic oscillators. We show that the state of the environment approaches a non-linear coherent state. Then, we obtain the decoherence rate of a two-level system which is in contact with a deformed bosonic environment which is either in thermal equilibrium or in the ground state. By using some recent realization of f-deformed oscillators, we show that some physical parameters strongly affect the decoherence rate of a two-level system. -- Highlights: •Decoherence of the generalized spin-boson model is considered. •In this model the environment consists of f-oscillators. •Via the interaction, the state of the environment approaches non-linear coherent states. •Effective parameters on decoherence are considered.

  10. 2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1983-10-01

    ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  11. GFDL ARM Project Technical Report: Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Convection Parameterizations & Cloud-Convection-Radiation Interactions in the GFDL Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Ramaswamy; L. J. Donner; J-C. Golaz; S. A. Klein

    2010-06-17

    This report briefly summarizes the progress made by ARM postdoctoral fellow, Yanluan Lin, at GFDL during the period from October 2008 to present. Several ARM datasets have been used for GFDL model evaluation, understanding, and improvement. This includes a new ice fall speed parameterization with riming impact and its test in GFDL AM3, evaluation of model cloud and radiation diurnal and seasonal variation using ARM CMBE data, model ice water content evaluation using ARM cirrus data, and coordination of the TWPICE global model intercomparison. The work illustrates the potential and importance of ARM data for GCM evaluation, understanding, and ultimately, improvement of GCM cloud and radiation parameterizations. Future work includes evaluation and improvement of the new dynamicsPDF cloud scheme and aerosol activation in the GFDL model.

  12. General | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Jump to: navigation, search Informacin y Documentos Herramientas y Modelos <> Estadsticas de Energas Renovables Volver Pgina principal General banner.jpg Retrieved...

  13. LDRD final report : autotuning for scalable linear algebra.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Marker, Bryan

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress made as part of a one year lab-directed research and development (LDRD) project to fund the research efforts of Bryan Marker at the University of Texas at Austin. The goal of the project was to develop new techniques for automatically tuning the performance of dense linear algebra kernels. These kernels often represent the majority of computational time in an application. The primary outcome from this work is a demonstration of the value of model driven engineering as an approach to accurately predict and study performance trade-offs for dense linear algebra computations.

  14. Operation and maintenance linear accelerator. Conference summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    In the opening talk of this meeting, G. Kane defined the minimal standard model to be: (a) three generations of quarks and leptons; (b) massless neutrinos; (c) SU(3)/sub colour/ x SU(2)/sub L/ gauge theory; (d) one neutral Higgs boson; and (e) CP violation solely in the mass matrix. Reaching this point has been the tremendous achievement of the past decade. We have witnessed the discoveries of charm and the third generation, the discovery of neutral currents and the detailed confirmation of SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1), and the discovery of asymptotic freedom and the development of QCD and its experimental tests. In spite of these achievements, the resulting standard model is not entirely esthetically pleasing. It lacks a coherence which would explain its varied form and parameters; as a result, I would wager that none of us here believes that it represents the end of physics. A review of experimental activities is given. These fall into three general categories: searching for evidence of physics beyond the minimal standard model, testing the standard model, and making detailed measurements within this standard model. (WHK)

  15. International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    IWLC2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010ECFA-CLIC-ILC joint meeting: Monday 18 October - Friday 22 October 2010Venue: CERN and CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva, Switzerland)This year, the International Workshop on Linear Colliders organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both CLIC and ILC options.Contact Workshop SecretariatIWLC2010 is hostedby CERN

  16. International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    IWLC2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010ECFA-CLIC-ILC joint meeting: Monday 18 October - Friday 22 October 2010Venue: CERN and CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva, Switzerland) This year, the International Workshop on Linear Colliders organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both CLIC and ILC options.Contact Workshop Secretariat  IWLC2010 is hosted by CERN

  17. TU-F-12A-01: Quantitative Non-Linear Compartment Modeling of 89Zr- and 124I- Labeled J591 Monoclonal Antibody Kinetics Using Serial Non-Invasive Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in a Pre-Clinical Human Prostate Cancer Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, EK; Cheal, SM; Chalasani, S; Fareedy, SB; Punzalan, B; Humm, JL; Osborne, JR; Larson, SM; Zanzonico, PB; Otto, B; Bander, NH

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To examine the binding kinetics of human IgG monoclonal antibody J591 which targets prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in a pre-clinical mouse cancer model using quantitative PET compartmental analysis of two radiolabeled variants. Methods: PSMA is expressed in normal human prostate, and becomes highly upregulated in prostate cancer, making it a promising therapeutic target. Two forms of J591, radiolabeled with either {sup 89}Zr or {sup 124}I, were prepared. {sup 89}Zr is a radiometal that becomes trapped in the cell upon internalization by the antigen-antibody complex, while radioiodine leaves the cell. Mice with prostate cancer xenografts underwent non-invasive serial imaging on a Focus 120 microPET up to 144 hours post-injection of J591. A non-linear compartmental model describing the binding and internalization of antibody in tumor xenograft was developed and applied to the PET-derived time-activity curves. The antibody-antigen association rate constant (ka), total amount of antigen per gram tumor (Ag-total), internalization rate of antibody-antigen complex, and efflux rate of radioisotope from tumor were fitted using the model. The surface-bound and the internalized activity were also estimated. Results: Values for ka, Ag-total, and internalization rate were found to be similar regardless of radiolabel payload used. The efflux rate, however, was ∼ 9-fold higher for {sup 124}I-J591 than for {sup 89}Zr-J591. Time-dependent surface-bound and internalized radiotracer activity were similar for both radiolabels at early times post-injection, but clearly differed beyond 24 hours. Conclusion: Binding and internalization of J591 to PSMA-expressing tumor xenografts were similar when radiolabeled with either {sup 89}Zr or {sup 124}I payload. The difference in efflux of radioactivity from tumor may be attributable to differential biological fate intracellularly of the radioisotopes. This has great significance for radioimmunotherapy and antibody

  18. Independent Oversight Inspection, Stanford Linear Accelerator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Safety, and Health Programs at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center This report provides the results of an inspection of the environment, safety, and health programs at the ...

  19. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics Baer, Howard; Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Gao, Yuanning; Hoang, Andre; Kanemura, Shinya; List, Jenny; Logan, Heather...

  20. LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting...

  1. Linear Thermite Charge - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Linear Thermite Charge (LTC) is designed to rapidly cut through concrete and steel ... Can cut both concrete and steel at one time making rebarconcrete structural elements ...

  2. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design Report - Volume 2: Physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics You are accessing a ...

  3. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  4. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-07-22

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  5. Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for ...

  6. Entanglement Entropy of the Early Universe in Generalized Chaplygin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Entanglement Entropy of the Early Universe in Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Entanglement Entropy of the Early Universe in Generalized...

  7. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Publication Year 2009 URL http:www.nrel.govdocsfy09osti46100.pdf Building Models General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago High Plug Load Baseline, General Merchandise 2009...

  8. 5Li General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Table for 5Li is subdivided into the folowing categories: Ground State Properties Cluster Model Shell Model Special States Model Calculations Model Discussions Complex...

  9. A = 6 General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    following categories: Ground State Properties Theoretical Special States Shell Model Cluster and alpha-particle Models Other Models Model Calculations Complex Reactions Involving...

  10. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  11. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  12. Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities Release Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil,Benny Manuel; Ballance, Robert; Haskell, Karen

    2012-08-09

    Cielo is a massively parallel supercomputer funded by the DOE/NNSA Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, and operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES), a partnership between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The primary Cielo compute platform is physically located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model documents the capabilities and the environment to be provided for the Q1 FY12 Level 2 Cielo Capability Computing (CCC) Platform Production Readiness Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, or Sandia National Laboratories, but also addresses the needs of users working in the unclassified environment. The Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model maps the provided capabilities to the tri-Lab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the Production Readiness Milestone user environment capabilities of the ASC community. A description of ACE requirements met, and those requirements that are not met, are included in each section of this document. The Cielo Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the tri-Lab community.

  13. Physics at the e⁺e⁻ linear collider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moortgat-Picka, G.; Kronfeld, A. S.

    2015-08-14

    A comprehensive review of physics at an e⁺e⁻ linear collider in the energy range of √s = 92 GeV–3 TeV is presented in view of recent and expected LHC results, experiments from low-energy as well as astroparticle physics. The report focuses in particular on Higgs-boson, top-quark and electroweak precision physics, but also discusses several models of beyond the standard model physics such as supersymmetry, little Higgs models and extra gauge bosons. The connection to cosmology has been analysed as well.

  14. Physics at the e?e? linear collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moortgat-Picka, G.; Kronfeld, A. S.

    2015-08-14

    A comprehensive review of physics at an e?e? linear collider in the energy range of ?s = 92 GeV3 TeV is presented in view of recent and expected LHC results, experiments from low-energy as well as astroparticle physics. The report focuses in particular on Higgs-boson, top-quark and electroweak precision physics, but also discusses several models of beyond the standard model physics such as supersymmetry, little Higgs models and extra gauge bosons. The connection to cosmology has been analysed as well.

  15. Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamhalter, Jan

    2012-12-15

    In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

  16. PLUVIUS: a generalized one-dimensional model of reactive pollutant behavior, including dry deposition, precipitation formation, and wet removal. Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report is a second-edition user's manual for the PLUVIUS reactive-storm model. The PLUVIUS code simulates the formation of storm systems of a variety of types, and characterizes the behavior of air pollutants as they flow through, react within, and are scavenged by the storms. The computer code supplied with this report is known as PLUVIUS MOD 5.0, and is a substantial improvement over the MOD 3.1 version given in the original user's manual. Example applications of MOD 5.0 are given in the report to facilitate rapid application of the code for a variety of specific uses. 22 references, 7 figures, 48 tables.

  17. General Employee Radiological Training

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Part 2 page 5 The average annual radiation dose to a member of the general population is about 360 milliremyear. The average annual radiation dose to a member of the general ...

  18. Comment on ''Interacting holographic dark energy model and generalized second law of thermodynamics in a non-flat universe{sup ,} by M.R. Setare (JCAP 01 (2007) 023)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karami, K.

    2010-01-01

    Author of ref. 1, M.R. Setare (JCAP 01 (2007) 023), by redefining the event horizon measured from the sphere of the horizon as the system's IR cut-off for an interacting holographic dark energy model in a non-flat universe, showed that the generalized second law of thermodynamics is satisfied for the special range of the deceleration parameter. His paper includes an erroneous calculation of the entropy of the cold dark matter. Also there are some missing terms and some misprints in the equations of his paper. Here we present that his conclusion is not true and the generalized second law is violated for the present time independently of the deceleration parameter.

  19. OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    APP-005 Planning for and Measuring Office of Inspector General Results FY 2002 Annual Performance Report and FY 2003 Annual Performance Plan Office of Inspector General U.S. Department of Energy Inspector General's Message We are pleased to present the Office of Inspector General's (OIG) consolidated Fiscal Year 2002 Annual Performance Report and Fiscal Year 2003 Annual Performance Plan. This document evaluates our actual Fiscal Year (FY) 2002 performance and establishes the performance goals

  20. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-07-22

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  1. Optically isolated signal coupler with linear response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An optocoupler for isolating electrical signals that translates an electrical input signal linearly to an electrical output signal. The optocoupler comprises a light emitter, a light receiver, and a light transmitting medium. The light emitter, preferably a blue, silicon carbide LED, is of the type that provides linear, electro-optical conversion of electrical signals within a narrow wavelength range. Correspondingly, the light receiver, which converts light signals to electrical signals and is preferably a cadmium sulfide photoconductor, is linearly responsive to light signals within substantially the same wavelength range as the blue LED.

  2. Linear accelerators for TeV colliders. Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1985-10-01

    The basic scaling relations for important linear collider design parameters are introduced. Some of the basic concepts concerning the design of accelerating structures are presented, and breakdown limitations are discussed. Rf power sources are considered. Some of the key concepts of wakefield accelerators are discussed, and some examples of wake fields for typical linac structures are presented. Some general concepts concerning emittance, and the limitations on the emittance that can be obtained from linac guns and damping rings are discussed. 49 refs., 15 figs. (LEW)

  3. Beam Dynamics Design and Simulation in Ion Linear Accelerators (

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-08-01

    Orginally, the ray tracing code TRACK has been developed to fulfill the many special requirements for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Facility known as RIA. Since no available beam-dynamics code met all the necessary requirements, modifications to the code TRACK were introduced to allow end-to-end (from the ion souce to the production target) simulations of the RIA machine, TRACK is a general beam-dynamics code and can be applied for the design, commissioning and operation of modernmore » ion linear accelerators and beam transport systems.« less

  4. Non-Linear Luminescent Coupling in Series-Connected Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, M. A.; Geisz, J. F.

    2012-06-18

    The assumption of superposition or linearity of photocurrent with solar flux is widespread for calculations and measurements of solar cells. The well-known effect of luminescent coupling in multijunction solar cells has also been assumed to be linear with excess current. Here we show significant non-linearities in luminescent coupling in III-V multijunction solar cells and propose a simple model based on competition between radiative and nonradiative processes in the luminescent junction to explain these non-linearities. We demonstrate a technique for accurately measuring the junction photocurrents under a specified reference spectrum, that accounts for and quantifies luminescent coupling effects.

  5. Correlation function induced by a generalized diffusion equation with the presence of a harmonic potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fa, Kwok Sau

    2015-02-15

    An integro-differential diffusion equation with linear force, based on the continuous time random walk model, is considered. The equation generalizes the ordinary and fractional diffusion equations, which includes short, intermediate and long-time memory effects described by the waiting time probability density function. Analytical expression for the correlation function is obtained and analyzed, which can be used to describe, for instance, internal motions of proteins. The result shows that the generalized diffusion equation has a broad application and it may be used to describe different kinds of systems. - Highlights: • Calculation of the correlation function. • The correlation function is connected to the survival probability. • The model can be applied to the internal dynamics of proteins.

  6. Status of the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coupal, D.P.

    1989-07-01

    This report presents a brief review of the status of the Stanford Linear Collider. Topics covered are: Beam luminosity, Detectors and backgrounds; and Future prospects. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab. (LSP)

  7. Intersecting nonextreme p-branes and linear dilaton background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.-M.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2005-08-15

    We construct the general static solution to the supergravity action containing gravity, the dilaton and a set of antisymmetric forms describing the intersecting branes delocalized in the relative transverse dimensions. The solution is obtained by reducing the system to a set of separate Liouville equations (the intersection rules implying the separability); it contains the maximal number of free parameters corresponding to the rank of the differential equations. Imposing the requirement of the absence of naked singularities, we show that the general configurations are restricted to two and only two classes: the usual asymptotically flat intersecting branes, and the intersecting branes some of which are asymptotically flat and some approach the linear dilaton background at infinity. In both cases the configurations are black. These are supposed to be relevant for the description of the thermal phase of the QFT's in the corresponding Domain-Wall/QFT duality.

  8. General User Proposals (GUPs)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General User Proposals (GUPs) General User Proposals (GUPs) Print Tuesday, 01 June 2010 09:36 General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS or the Participating Research Team (PRT) that operates the beamline. Before Submitting a Proposal Review the ALS Beamlines Directory to learn about the research capabilities of individual beamlines at the ALS. Contact the beamline scientist or the local contact listed in

  9. The generalized SchrdingerLangevin equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bargueo, Pedro; Miret-Arts, Salvador

    2014-07-15

    In this work, for a Brownian particle interacting with a heat bath, we derive a generalization of the so-called SchrdingerLangevin or Kostin equation. This generalization is based on a nonlinear interaction model providing a state-dependent dissipation process exhibiting multiplicative noise. Two straightforward applications to the measurement process are then analyzed, continuous and weak measurements in terms of the quantum Bohmian trajectory formalism. Finally, it is also shown that the generalized uncertainty principle, which appears in some approaches to quantum gravity, can be expressed in terms of this generalized equation. -- Highlights: We generalize the Kostin equation for arbitrary systembath coupling. This generalization is developed both in the Schrdinger and Bohmian formalisms. We write the generalized Kostin equation for two measurement problems. We reformulate the generalized uncertainty principle in terms of this equation.

  10. General Service LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that compares general service incandescent lamps—i.e., light bulbs—to LED and CFL alternatives.

  11. General Service LED Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A U.S. DOE SSL technology fact sheet that compares general service LED light bulbs with incandescent and CFL bulbs.

  12. The Effective Combination of Mesh Adaptation and Non-linearThermo...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Effective Combination of Mesh Adaptation and Non-linear Thermo-mechanical Solution Components for the Modeling of Weld Failures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The...

  13. Approximate Bisimulation-Based Reduction of Power System Dynamic Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stankovic, AM; Dukic, SD; Saric, AT

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we propose approximate bisimulation relations and functions for reduction of power system dynamic models in differential- algebraic (descriptor) form. The full-size dynamic model is obtained by linearization of the nonlinear transient stability model. We generalize theoretical results on approximate bisimulation relations and bisimulation functions, originally derived for a class of constrained linear systems, to linear systems in descriptor form. An algorithm for transient stability assessment is proposed and used to determine whether the power system is able to maintain the synchronism after a large disturbance. Two benchmark power systems are used to illustrate the proposed algorithm and to evaluate the applicability of approximate bisimulation relations and bisimulation functions for reduction of the power system dynamic models.

  14. QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of model atoms in fields Milonni, P.W. 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS; OPTICAL MODELS; QUANTUM MECHANICS;...

  15. Surface wave and linear operating mode of a plasma antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogachev, N. N. Bogdankevich, I. L.; Gusein-zade, N. G.; Rukhadze, A. A.

    2015-10-15

    The relation between the propagation conditions of a surface electromagnetic wave along a finiteradius plasma cylinder and the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna is investigated. The solution to the dispersion relation for a surface wave propagating along a finite-radius plasma cylinder is analyzed for weakly and strongly collisional plasmas. Computer simulations of an asymmetrical plasma dipole antenna are performed using the KARAT code, wherein the dielectric properties of plasma are described in terms of the Drude model. The plasma parameters corresponding to the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna are determined. It is demonstrated that the characteristics of the plasma antenna in this mode are close to those of an analogous metal antenna.

  16. Finite element analyses of a linear-accelerator electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, M. E-mail: muniqbal@ihep.ac.cn; Wasy, A.; Islam, G. U.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-02-15

    Thermo-structural analyses of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII) linear-accelerator, electron gun, were performed for the gun operating with the cathode at 1000 °C. The gun was modeled in computer aided three-dimensional interactive application for finite element analyses through ANSYS workbench. This was followed by simulations using the SLAC electron beam trajectory program EGUN for beam optics analyses. The simulations were compared with experimental results of the assembly to verify its beam parameters under the same boundary conditions. Simulation and test results were found to be in good agreement and hence confirmed the design parameters under the defined operating temperature. The gun is operating continuously since commissioning without any thermal induced failures for the BEPCII linear accelerator.

  17. Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2010-11-02

    A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a microprocessor or a computer).

  18. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  19. Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Salil; Evans, Katherine J.; Hack, James J.; Truesdale, John

    2013-04-19

    The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $W^{-1}m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $ PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

  20. 10B General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Complex Reactions Reactions Involving Pions, Other...

  1. 10C General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for 10C is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Photodisintegration b-decay Complex Reactions...

  2. 9Be General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9Be is subdivided into the following categories: Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Theoretical Complex Reactions Beta-Decay Light-Ion and Neutron Induced...

  3. 10Be General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Photo- and Electro-Induced Reactions Atmospheric...

  4. A = 8 General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground-state Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Elastic and Inelastic Scattering b-decay Nuclear Spatial...

  5. Linear Transformation Method for Multinuclide Decay Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding Yuan

    2010-12-29

    A linear transformation method for generic multinuclide decay calculations is presented together with its properties and implications. The method takes advantage of the linear form of the decay solution N(t) = F(t)N{sub 0}, where N(t) is a column vector that represents the numbers of atoms of the radioactive nuclides in the decay chain, N{sub 0} is the initial value vector of N(t), and F(t) is a lower triangular matrix whose time-dependent elements are independent of the initial values of the system.

  6. Linear and angular retroreflecting interferometric alignment target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for measuring both the linear displacement and angular displacement of an object using a linear interferometer system and an optical target comprising a lens, a reflective surface and a retroreflector. The lens, reflecting surface and retroreflector are specifically aligned and fixed in optical connection with one another, creating a single optical target which moves as a unit that provides multi-axis displacement information for the object with which it is associated. This displacement information is useful in many applications including machine tool control systems and laser tracker systems, among others.

  7. Linear Concentrator Solar Power Plant Illustration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This graphic illustrates linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors that capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a linear receiver tube. The receiver contains a fluid that is heated by the sunlight and then used to create superheated steam that spins a turbine that drives a generator to produce electricity. Alternatively, steam can be generated directly in the solar field, eliminating the need for costly heat exchangers. In a parabolic trough system, the receiver tube is positioned along the focal line of each parabola-shaped reflector.

  8. Beamstrahlung spectra in next generation linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklow, T.; Chen, P. ); Kozanecki, W. )

    1992-04-01

    For the next generation of linear colliders, the energy loss due to beamstrahlung during the collision of the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} beams is expected to substantially influence the effective center-of-mass energy distribution of the colliding particles. In this paper, we first derive analytical formulae for the electron and photon energy spectra under multiple beamstrahlung processes, and for the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {gamma}{gamma} differential luminosities. We then apply our formulation to various classes of 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider designs currently under study.

  9. Self-Similar Nonlinear Dynamical Solutions for One-Component Nonneutral Plasma in a Time-Dependent Linear Focusing Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong Qin and Ronald C. Davidson

    2011-07-19

    In a linear trap confining a one-component nonneutral plasma, the external focusing force is a linear function of the configuration coordinates and/or the velocity coordinates. Linear traps include the classical Paul trap and the Penning trap, as well as the newly proposed rotating-radio- frequency traps and the Mobius accelerator. This paper describes a class of self-similar nonlinear solutions of nonneutral plasma in general time-dependent linear focusing devices, with self-consistent electrostatic field. This class of nonlinear solutions includes many known solutions as special cases.

  10. General Equilibrium Modeling Package (GEMPACK) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This tool is included in the Development Impacts Assessment (DIA) Toolkit from the LEDS Global Partnership. Approach The GEMPACK is used for building and solving applied...

  11. Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Related Tools Manual for Quantitative Evaluation of the Co-Benefits Approach to Climate Change Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) Object-Oriented Energy,...

  12. General Equilibrium Model for Economy - Energy - Environment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and non-energy related emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), other GHG such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N20) sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), and...

  13. Aerosol indirect effects - general circulation model intercomparison...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (a) and various cloud ... Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the ...

  14. Discrimination of new physics models with the International Linear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication Date: 2011-12-02 OSTI Identifier: 1098342 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review D Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 84; ...

  15. A comparison WEC control strategies for a linear WEC model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OR. A number of metrics, ranging from power-flow char- acteristics to kinematics are ... In this WEC optimal control problem, the space-time domain is discretized. At each time ...

  16. General Restaurant Equipment: Order (2013-CE-5344)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered General Restaurant Equipment Co. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding General Restaurant Equipment had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  17. PEMP General Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OF CONTENTS Num ber PEMP General Information A Introduction 2 B Roles and Responsibilities 3 C Process and Schedule 5 D Contractor Self-Assessment 5 E PEMP Numbering System and ...

  18. A = 7 General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hyperfine Structure b-decay Muons Hypernuclei and Baryons Pion, Kaon and Eta-Mesons Other Work Applications The General Table for 7Be is subdivided into the following categories:...

  19. Symmetric generalized binomial distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, H.; Curado, E. M. F.; Instituto Nacional de Cincia e Tecnologia - Sistemas Complexos, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ ; Gazeau, J. P.; APC, UMR 7164, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 75205 Paris ; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S. E-mail: evaldo@cbpf.br E-mail: ligia@cbpf.br

    2013-12-15

    In two recent articles, we have examined a generalization of the binomial distribution associated with a sequence of positive numbers, involving asymmetric expressions of probabilities that break the symmetry win-loss. We present in this article another generalization (always associated with a sequence of positive numbers) that preserves the symmetry win-loss. This approach is also based on generating functions and presents constraints of non-negativeness, similar to those encountered in our previous articles.

  20. General User Proposals (GUPs)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General User Proposals (GUPs) Print General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS or the Participating Research Team (PRT) that operates the beamline. Before Submitting a Proposal Review the ALS Beamlines Directory to learn about the research capabilities of individual beamlines at the ALS. Contact the beamline scientist or the local contact listed in the tables, for additional information about the

  1. 2011 IAEA General Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 IAEA General Conference Remarks as Prepared for Delivery Secretary Steven Chu Monday, September 19, 2011 Thank you, Ambassador Feruta. Congratulations on your election as President of this Conference. I also want to thank Director General Amano for his outstanding leadership. I am honored to represent the United States today, and I want to share a message from President Barack Obama: "On behalf of the United States, please accept my best wishes for a successful International Atomic Energy

  2. KLU2 Direct Linear Solver Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-01-04

    KLU2 is a direct sparse solver for solving unsymmetric linear systems. It is related to the existing KLU solver, (in Amesos package and also as a stand-alone package from University of Florida) but provides template support for scalar and ordinal types. It uses a left looking LU factorization method.

  3. Physics Case for the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Grojean, Christophe; Peskin, Michael E.; Barklow, Tim; Gao, Yuanning; Kanemura, Shinya; Kim, Hyungdo; List, Jenny; Nojiri, Mihoko; Perelstein, Maxim; Poeschl, Roman; Reuter, Juergen; Simon, Frank; Tanabe, Tomohiko; Yu, Jaehoon; Wells, James D.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; /Tohoku U.

    2015-06-23

    We summarize the physics case for the International Linear Collider (ILC). We review the key motivations for the ILC presented in the literature, updating the projected measurement uncertainties for the ILC experiments in accord with the expected schedule of operation of the accelerator and the results of the most recent simulation studies.

  4. Notes on beam dynamics in linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluckstern, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    A collection of notes, on various aspects of beam dynamics in linear accelerators, which were produced by the author during five years (1975 to 1980) of consultation for the LASL Accelerator Technology (AT) Division and Medium-Energy Physics (MP) Division is presented.

  5. A microcomputer-controlled linear heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuck, V.; Rahimi, S. )

    1991-10-01

    In this note the circuits and principles of operation of a relatively simple and inexpensive linear temperature ramp generator are described. The upper-temperature limit and the heating rate are controlled by an Apple II microcomputer. The temperature versus time is displayed on the screen and may be plotted by an {ital x}-{ital y} plotter.

  6. Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-03-18

    Sparse systems of linear equations arise in many engineering applications, including finite elements, finite volumes, and others. The solution of linear systems is often the most computationally intensive portion of the application. Depending on the complexity of problems addressed by the application, there may be no single solver capable of solving all of the linear systems that arise. This motivates the desire to switch an application from one solver librwy to another, depending on themore » problem being solved. The interfaces provided by solver libraries differ greatly, making it difficult to switch an application code from one library to another. The amount of library-specific code in an application Can be greatly reduced by having an abstraction layer between solver libraries and the application, putting a common "face" on various solver libraries. One such abstraction layer is the Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (EEl), which has seen significant use by finite element applications at Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.« less

  7. Linear and non-linear forced response of a conical, ducted, laminar premixed flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karimi, Nader; Brear, Michael J.; Jin, Seong-Ho; Monty, Jason P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010 Vic. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents an experimental study on the dynamics of a ducted, conical, laminar premixed flame subjected to acoustic excitation of varying amplitudes. The flame transfer function is measured over a range of forcing frequencies and equivalence ratios. In keeping with previous works, the measured flame transfer function is in good agreement with that predicted by linear kinematic theory at low amplitudes of acoustic velocity excitation. However, a systematic departure from linear behaviour is observed as the amplitude of the velocity forcing upstream of the flame increases. This non-linearity is mostly in the phase of the transfer function and manifests itself as a roughly constant phase at high forcing amplitude. Nonetheless, as predicted by non-linear kinematic arguments, the response always remains close to linear at low forcing frequencies, regardless of the forcing amplitude. The origin of this phase behaviour is then sought through optical data post-processing. (author)

  8. Particle simulations with a generalized gyrokinetic solver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishchenko, Alexey; Koenies, Axel; Hatzky, Roman

    2005-06-15

    This paper presents a generalized gyrokinetic solver which can be used for all perpendicular wavelengths of interest and allows to include the nonlinear gyrokinetic polarization density in the simulations. The polarization density, being an integral over the phase space is calculated using 'numerical particles' (not to be confused with the marker particles which are used in the charge assignment) and finite elements. Integrals over the gyroangle are calculated using an N-point approximation. The accuracy requirements on the number of the gyropoints and numerical particles are discussed. The linear part of the solver has been implemented numerically and benchmarked with the slab dispersion relation for both the ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) mode and the electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) mode. Additionally, linear ITG and ETG modes are considered in a two-dimensional bumpy pinch configuration.

  9. A robust return-map algorithm for general multisurface plasticity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adhikary, Deepak P.; Jayasundara, Chandana T.; Podgorney, Robert K.; Wilkins, Andy H.

    2016-06-16

    Three new contributions to the field of multisurface plasticity are presented for general situations with an arbitrary number of nonlinear yield surfaces with hardening or softening. A method for handling linearly dependent flow directions is described. A residual that can be used in a line search is defined. An algorithm that has been implemented and comprehensively tested is discussed in detail. Examples are presented to illustrate the computational cost of various components of the algorithm. The overall result is that a single Newton-Raphson iteration of the algorithm costs between 1.5 and 2 times that of an elastic calculation. Examples alsomore » illustrate the successful convergence of the algorithm in complicated situations. For example, without using the new contributions presented here, the algorithm fails to converge for approximately 50% of the trial stresses for a common geomechanical model of sedementary rocks, while the current algorithm results in complete success. Since it involves no approximations, the algorithm is used to quantify the accuracy of an efficient, pragmatic, but approximate, algorithm used for sedimentary-rock plasticity in a commercial software package. Furthermore, the main weakness of the algorithm is identified as the difficulty of correctly choosing the set of initially active constraints in the general setting.« less

  10. Deming's General Least Square Fitting

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-18

    DEM4-26 is a generalized least square fitting program based on Deming''s method. Functions built into the program for fitting include linear, quadratic, cubic, power, Howard''s, exponential, and Gaussian; others can easily be added. The program has the following capabilities: (1) entry, editing, and saving of data; (2) fitting of any of the built-in functions or of a user-supplied function; (3) plotting the data and fitted function on the display screen, with error limits if requested,more » and with the option of copying the plot to the printer; (4) interpolation of x or y values from the fitted curve with error estimates based on error limits selected by the user; and (5) plotting the residuals between the y data values and the fitted curve, with the option of copying the plot to the printer. If the plot is to be copied to a printer, GRAPHICS should be called from the operating system disk before the BASIC interpreter is loaded.« less

  11. Toward portable programming of numerical linear algebra on manycore...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Toward portable programming of numerical linear algebra on manycore nodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward portable programming of numerical linear algebra on ...

  12. Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dark energy, and the linear growth factor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor We study the degeneracies between ...

  13. Updates to the International Linear Collider Damping Rings Baseline...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Updates to the International Linear Collider Damping Rings Baseline Design Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Updates to the International Linear Collider Damping Rings...

  14. International Linear Collider-A Technical Progress Report (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: International Linear Collider-A Technical Progress Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: International Linear Collider-A Technical Progress Report The ...

  15. A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage Rings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron...

  16. MHK Technologies/Ocean Current Linear Turbine | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Current Linear Turbine < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Ocean Current Linear Turbine.jpg Technology Profile Primary...

  17. Computation of generalized and exact dispersion relations for longitudinal plasma waves in nonextensive statistics and the effects of the nonextensivity on the oscillation modes and damps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A.; Ebrahimi, V. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We have derived generalized dispersion relations for longitudinal waves in collisionless thermal plasma using linear Vlasov-Poisson kinetic model and nonextensive distributions for electrons. The Maxwellian limit of the dispersion relations, where the q-nonextensive parameter tends to one, is calculated. The generalized dispersion relations are reduced to polynomials for some specific values of q. The well-known modes of oscillations such as the Langmuir and electron acoustic waves have been obtained by solving the dispersion relations. Some new modes of oscillation are also found. Finally, the dependence of the oscillation modes and damps on q is discussed.

  18. Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques Justin Coleman, P.E. October 25th, 2011

  19. Posterior propriety for hierarchical models with log-likelihoods that have norm bounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Michalak, Sarah E.; Morris, Carl N.

    2015-07-17

    Statisticians often use improper priors to express ignorance or to provide good frequency properties, requiring that posterior propriety be verified. Our paper addresses generalized linear mixed models, GLMMs, when Level I parameters have Normal distributions, with many commonly-used hyperpriors. It provides easy-to-verify sufficient posterior propriety conditions based on dimensions, matrix ranks, and exponentiated norm bounds, ENBs, for the Level I likelihood. Since many familiar likelihoods have ENBs, which is often verifiable via log-concavity and MLE finiteness, our novel use of ENBs permits unification of posterior propriety results and posterior MGF/moment results for many useful Level I distributions, including those commonlymore » used with multilevel generalized linear models, e.g., GLMMs and hierarchical generalized linear models, HGLMs. Furthermore, those who need to verify existence of posterior distributions or of posterior MGFs/moments for a multilevel generalized linear model given a proper or improper multivariate F prior as in Section 1 should find the required results in Sections 1 and 2 and Theorem 3 (GLMMs), Theorem 4 (HGLMs), or Theorem 5 (posterior MGFs/moments).« less

  20. Exact linearized Coulomb collision operator in the moment expansion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ji, Jeong -Young; Held, Eric D.

    2006-10-05

    In the moment expansion, the Rosenbluth potentials, the linearized Coulomb collision operators, and the moments of the collision operators are analytically calculated for any moment. The explicit calculation of Rosenbluth potentials converts the integro-differential form of the Coulomb collision operator into a differential operator, which enables one to express the collision operator in a simple closed form for any arbitrary mass and temperature ratios. In addition, it is shown that gyrophase averaging the collision operator acting on arbitrary distribution functions is the same as the collision operator acting on the corresponding gyrophase averaged distribution functions. The moments of the collisionmore » operator are linear combinations of the fluid moments with collision coefficients parametrized by mass and temperature ratios. Furthermore, useful forms involving the small mass-ratio approximation are easily found since the collision operators and their moments are expressed in terms of the mass ratio. As an application, the general moment equations are explicitly written and the higher order heat flux equation is derived.« less

  1. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-09-22

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 6 figs.

  2. Noise in phase-preserving linear amplifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Shashank; Jiang, Zhang; Combes, Joshua; Caves, Carlton M.

    2014-12-04

    The purpose of a phase-preserving linear amplifier is to make a small signal larger, so that it can be perceived by instruments incapable of resolving the original signal, while sacrificing as little as possible in signal-to-noise. Quantum mechanics limits how well this can be done: the noise added by the amplifier, referred to the input, must be at least half a quantum at the operating frequency. This well-known quantum limit only constrains the second moments of the added noise. Here we provide the quantum constraints on the entire distribution of added noise: any phasepreserving linear amplifier is equivalent to a parametric amplifier with a physical state ? for the ancillary mode; ? determines the properties of the added noise.

  3. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Caporaso, George J.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  4. Inpainting with sparse linear combinations of exemplars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new exemplar-based inpainting algorithm based on representing the region to be inpainted as a sparse linear combination of blocks extracted from similar parts of the image being inpainted. This method is conceptually simple, being computed by functional minimization, and avoids the complexity of correctly ordering the filling in of missing regions of other exemplar-based methods. Initial performance comparisons on small inpainting regions indicate that this method provides similar or better performance than other recent methods.

  5. Radio frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moretti, Alfred

    1985-01-01

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  6. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  7. High gradient accelerators for linear light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barletta, W.A.

    1988-09-26

    Ultra-high gradient radio frequency linacs powered by relativistic klystrons appear to be able to provide compact sources of radiation at XUV and soft x-ray wavelengths with a duration of 1 picosecond or less. This paper provides a tutorial review of the physics applicable to scaling the present experience of the accelerator community to the regime applicable to compact linear light sources. 22 refs., 11 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. General Motors sidestream separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessier, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    On February 15, 1980, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, acting pursuant to Paragraph 113(D) (4) of the Clean Air Act, issued to General Motors an innovative technology order covering fifteen coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers located at six General Motors plants in Ohio. The purpose and effect of this order was to permit General Motors time to develop a new, innovative technique for controlling particulate emissions from the specified boilers before compliance with the federally approved Ohio particulate control regulation was required. This new technology was christened, The Sidestream Separator, by General Motors. It provides a highly cost effective means of reducing particulate emissions below levels currently obtainable with conventionally used high efficiency mechanical collectors. These improvements could prove to be of substantial benefit to many industrial facilities with spreader-stoker coal-fired boilers that cannot be brought into compliance with applicble air pollution regulations except by application of far more expensive and unwieldly electrostatic precipitators (ESP's) or fabric filters (baghouses).

  9. Towards a Future Linear Collider and The Linear Collider Studies at CERN

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    During the week 18-22 October, more than 400 physicists will meet at CERN and in the CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva) to review the global progress towards a future linear collider. The 2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both the CLIC and ILC options. Among the topics presented and discussed will be the progress towards the CLIC Conceptual Design Report in 2011, the ILC Technical Design Report in 2012, physics and detector studies linked to these reports, and an increasing numbers of common working group activities. The seminar will give an overview of these topics and also CERN?s linear collider studies, focusing on current activities and initial plans for the period 2011-16. n.b: The Council Chamber is also reserved for this colloquium with a live transmission from the Main Auditorium.

  10. Linear Collider Physics Resource Book Snowmass 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronan , M.T.

    2001-06-01

    The American particle physics community can look forward to a well-conceived and vital program of experimentation for the next ten years, using both colliders and fixed target beams to study a wide variety of pressing questions. Beyond 2010, these programs will be reaching the end of their expected lives. The CERN LHC will provide an experimental program of the first importance. But beyond the LHC, the American community needs a coherent plan. The Snowmass 2001 Workshop and the deliberations of the HEPAP subpanel offer a rare opportunity to engage the full community in planning our future for the next decade or more. A major accelerator project requires a decade from the beginning of an engineering design to the receipt of the first data. So it is now time to decide whether to begin a new accelerator project that will operate in the years soon after 2010. We believe that the world high-energy physics community needs such a project. With the great promise of discovery in physics at the next energy scale, and with the opportunity for the uncovering of profound insights, we cannot allow our field to contract to a single experimental program at a single laboratory in the world. We believe that an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider is an excellent choice for the next major project in high-energy physics. Applying experimental techniques very different from those used at hadron colliders, an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider will allow us to build on the discoveries made at the Tevatron and the LHC, and to add a level of precision and clarity that will be necessary to understand the physics of the next energy scale. It is not necessary to anticipate specific results from the hadron collider programs to argue for constructing an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider; in any scenario that is now discussed, physics will benefit from the new information that e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments can provide. This last point merits further emphasis. If a new accelerator could be designed and

  11. ANALYZING SURFACE ROUGHNESS DEPENDENCE OF LINEAR RF LOSSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.; Xu, Chen

    2012-09-01

    Topographic structure on Superconductivity Radio Frequency (SRF) surfaces can contribute additional cavity RF losses describable in terms of surface RF reflectivity and absorption indices of wave scattering theory. At isotropic homogeneous extent, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of roughness is introduced and quantifies the random surface topographic structure. PSD obtained from different surface treatments of niobium, such Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP), Electropolishing (EP), Nano-Mechanical Polishing (NMP) and Barrel Centrifugal Polishing (CBP) are compared. A perturbation model is utilized to calculate the additional rough surface RF losses based on PSD statistical analysis. This model will not consider that superconductor becomes normal conducting at fields higher than transition field. One can calculate the RF power dissipation ratio between rough surface and ideal smooth surface within this field range from linear loss mechanisms.

  12. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  13. General Employee Radiological Training

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE HANDBOOK GENERAL EMPLOYEE RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Not Measurement Sensitive This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 iii Foreword This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in chapter 14,

  14. General Employee Radiological Training

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Not Measurement Sensitive DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 December 2007_______ Change Notice 1 Reaffirmed 2013 DOE HANDBOOK GENERAL EMPLOYEE RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ Change 1 DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 Original Change Part 2 page 5 The

  15. Office of Inspector General

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Work Plan for FY 2013 Audits Central Audits Division  Ecotality  Funding Overlap  Follow-up on Smart Grid Investment Grant  DOE's Loan Program Office's Portfolio Management  Office of Fossil Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  Advanced Manufacturing Office's Combined Heat and Power Systems  DOE's Management of Contaminated Non-EM Facilities  Unneeded Real Estate  Review of For-Profit Grantees

  16. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangan, Michael A.; Blain, Matthew G.; Tigges, Chris P.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  17. Micromechanism linear actuator with capillary force sealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sniegowski, Jeffry J.

    1997-01-01

    A class of micromachine linear actuators whose function is based on gas driven pistons in which capillary forces are used to seal the gas behind the piston. The capillary forces also increase the amount of force transmitted from the gas pressure to the piston. In a major subclass of such devices, the gas bubble is produced by thermal vaporization of a working fluid. Because of their dependence on capillary forces for sealing, such devices are only practical on the sub-mm size scale, but in that regime they produce very large force times distance (total work) values.

  18. Rf power sources for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Farkas, Z.D.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoag, H.A.; Feinstein, J.; Ko, K.; Koontz, R.F.; Kroll, N.M.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Nelson, E.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B. ); Boyd, J.K.; Houk, T.; Ryne, R.D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S. (Lawrence Live

    1990-06-01

    The next generation of linear colliders requires peak power sources of over 200 MW per meter at frequencies above 10 GHz at pulse widths of less than 100 nsec. Several power sources are under active development, including a conventional klystron with rf pulse compression, a relativistic klystron (RK) and a crossed-field amplifier. Power from one of these has energized a 0.5 meter two- section High Gradient Accelerator (HGA) and accelerated a beam at over 80 MeV meter. Results of tests with these experimental devices are presented here.

  19. Tuning the DARHT Axis-II linear induction accelerator focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    2012-04-24

    solenoid in March of 2012. We took advantage of this opportunity to improve the design of the focusing tune with better models of the remaining partially failed solenoids, better estimates of beam initial conditions, and better values for pulsed-power voltages. As with all previous tunes for Axis-II, this one incorporates measures to mitigate beam-breakup (BBU) instability, image displacement instability (IDI), corkscrew (sweep), and emittance growth. Section II covers the general approach to of design of focusing solenoid tunes for the DARHT Axis-2 LIA. Section III explains the specific requirements and simulations needed to design the tune for the injector, which includes the thermionic electron source, diode, and six induction cells. Section IV explains the requirements and simulations for tuning the main accelerator, which consists of 68 induction cells. Finally, Section V explores sensitivity of the tune to deviations of parameters from nominal, random variations, and uncertainties in values. Four appendices list solenoid settings for this new tune, discuss comparisons of different simulation codes, show halo formation in mismatched beams, and present a brief discussion of the beam envelope equation, which is the heart of the method used to design LIA solenoid tunes.

  20. Generalized self-dual Chern-Simons vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazeia, D.; Hora, E. da; Santos, C. dos; Menezes, R.

    2010-06-15

    We search for vortices in a generalized Abelian Chern-Simons model with a nonstandard kinetic term. We illustrate our results, plotting and comparing several features of the vortex solution of the generalized model with those of the vortex solution found in the standard Chern-Simons model.

  1. Limits on linearity of missile allocation optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    Optimizations of missile allocation based on linearized exchange equations produce accurate allocations, but the limits of validity of the linearization are not known. These limits are explored in the context of the upload of weapons by one side to initially small, equal forces of vulnerable and survivable weapons. The analysis compares analytic and numerical optimizations and stability induces based on aggregated interactions of the two missile forces, the first and second strikes they could deliver, and they resulting costs. This note discusses the costs and stability indices induced by unilateral uploading of weapons to an initially symmetrical low force configuration. These limits are quantified for forces with a few hundred missiles by comparing analytic and numerical optimizations of first strike costs. For forces of 100 vulnerable and 100 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees closely with the numerical solution. For 200 vulnerable and 200 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees with the induces to within about 10%, but disagrees with the allocation of the side with more weapons by about 50%. The disagreement comes from the interaction of the possession of more weapons with the shift of allocation from missiles to value that they induce.

  2. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.

  3. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton acceleratorsmore » with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.« less

  4. Linear dimensions and volumes of human lungs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hickman, David P.

    2012-03-30

    TOTAL LUNG Capacity is defined as “the inspiratory capacity plus the functional residual capacity; the volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration; also equals vital capacity plus residual volume” (from MediLexicon.com). Within the Results and Discussion section of their April 2012 Health Physics paper, Kramer et al. briefly noted that the lungs of their experimental subjects were “not fully inflated.” By definition and failure to obtain maximal inspiration, Kramer et. al. did not measure Total Lung Capacity (TLC). The TLC equation generated from this work will tend to underestimate TLC and does notmore » improve or update total lung capacity data provided by ICRP and others. Likewise, the five linear measurements performed by Kramer et. al. are only representative of the conditions of the measurement (i.e., not at-rest volume, but not fully inflated either). While there was significant work performed and the data are interesting, the data does not represent a maximal situation, a minimal situation, or an at-rest situation. Moreover, while interesting, the linear data generated by this study is limited by the conditions of the experiment and may not be fully comparative with other lung or inspiratory parameters, measures, or physical dimensions.« less

  5. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF AGREEMENT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PRINCIPLES OF AGREEMENT HWB-14-20 and HWB-14-21 These General Principles of Agreement ("Principles of Agreement") are agreed upon by the New Mexico Environment Department ("NMED"), and the United States Department of Energy ("DOE"), Los Alamos National Security, LLC ("LANS"), and Nuclear Waste Partnership, LLC ("NWP") (collectively, with DOE and LANS, the "DOE Permittees") for the purpose of resolving Compliance Order Nos. HWB-14- 20

  6. United States Attorney General

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    93, 5 U.S. Op. Off. Legal Counsel 1, 1981 WL 30865 (U.S.A.G.) United States Attorney General ***1 *293 January 16, 1981 **1 The President The White House Washington, D.C. 20500 MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: You have asked my opinion concerning the scope of currently existing legal and constitutional authorities for the continuance of government functions during a temporary lapse in appropriations, such as the Government sustained on October 1, 1980. As you know, some initial determination concerning

  7. General Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motors Jump to: navigation, search Name: General Motors Place: Detroit, MI Website: www.generalmotors.com References: General Motors1 Information About Partnership with NREL...

  8. CALiPER Report 21.1. Linear (T8) Lamps in a 2x4 K12-Lensed Troffer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-04-01

    This report focuses on the performance of the same 31 linear LED lamps operated in a typical troffer with a K12 prismatic lens. In general, luminaire efficacy is strongly dictated by lamp efficacy, but the optical system of the luminaire substantially reduces the differences between the luminous intensity distributions of the lamps. While the distributions in the luminaire are similar, the differences remain large enough that workplane illuminance uniformity may be reduced if linear LED lamps with a narrow distribution are used. At the same time, linear LED lamps with a narrower distribution result in slightly higher luminaire efficiency.

  9. Navier-Stokes Solvers and Generalizations for Reacting Flow Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elman, Howard C

    2013-01-27

    This is an overview of our accomplishments during the final term of this grant (1 September 2008 -- 30 June 2012). These fall mainly into three categories: fast algorithms for linear eigenvalue problems; solution algorithms and modeling methods for partial differential equations with uncertain coefficients; and preconditioning methods and solvers for models of computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  10. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, Solar Newsletter, SunShot, Systems Analysis Sandia Develops Stochastic ...

  11. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monte Carlo modeling it was found that for noisy signals with a significant background component, accuracy is improved by fitting the total emission data which includes the...

  12. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Sandia Labs Releases New Version of PVLib Toolbox Sandia has released version 1.3 of PVLib, its widely used Matlab toolbox for modeling photovoltaic (PV) power ...

  13. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Sandia Will Host PV Bankability Workshop at Solar Power International (SPI) 2013 Computational Modeling & Simulation, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Facilities, Grid ...

  14. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science and Actuarial Practice" Read More Permalink New Project Is the ACME of Computer Science to Address Climate Change Analysis, Climate, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, ...

  15. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Though adequate for modeling mean transport, this approach does not address ... Microphysics such as diffusive transport and chemical kinetics are represented by ...

  16. Tunnel magnetoresistance and linear conductance of double quantum dots strongly coupled to ferromagnetic leads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weymann, Ireneusz

    2015-05-07

    We analyze the spin-dependent linear-response transport properties of double quantum dots strongly coupled to external ferromagnetic leads. By using the numerical renormalization group method, we determine the dependence of the linear conductance and tunnel magnetoresistance on the degree of spin polarization of the leads and the position of the double dot levels. We focus on the transport regime where the system exhibits the SU(4) Kondo effect. It is shown that the presence of ferromagnets generally leads the suppression of the linear conductance due to the presence of an exchange field. Moreover, the exchange field gives rise to a transition from the SU(4) to the orbital SU(2) Kondo effect. We also analyze the dependence of the tunnel magnetoresistance on the double dot levels' positions and show that it exhibits a very nontrivial behavior.

  17. Modular Applied General Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Related Tools CRiSTAL Forests MCA4Climate - Guidance for scientifically sound climate change planning Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium Model...

  18. TLD linearity vs. beam energy and modality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troncalli, Andrew J.; Chapman, Jane

    2002-12-31

    Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) is considered to be a valuable dosimetric tool in determining patient dose. Lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (TLD-100) is widely used, as it does not display widely divergent energy dependence. For many years, we have known that TLD-100 shows supralinearity to dose. In a radiotherapy clinic, there are multiple energies and modality beams. This work investigates whether individual linearity corrections must be used for each beam or whether a single correction can be applied to all beams. The response of TLD as a function of dose was measured from 25 cGy to 1000 cGy on both electrons and photons from 6 to 18 MeV. This work shows that, within our measurement uncertainty, TLD-100 exhibits supralinearity at all megavoltage energies and modalities.

  19. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.

  20. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts tomore » adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.« less

  1. Linear nozzle with tailored gas plumes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leon, David D.; Kozarek, Robert L.; Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    2001-01-01

    There is claimed a method for depositing fluid material from a linear nozzle in a substantially uniform manner across and along a surface. The method includes directing gaseous medium through said nozzle to provide a gaseous stream at the nozzle exit that entrains fluid material supplied to the nozzle, said gaseous stream being provided with a velocity profile across the nozzle width that compensates for the gaseous medium's tendency to assume an axisymmetric configuration after leaving the nozzle and before reaching the surface. There is also claimed a nozzle divided into respective side-by-side zones, or preferably chambers, through which a gaseous stream can be delivered in various velocity profiles across the width of said nozzle to compensate for the tendency of this gaseous medium to assume an axisymmetric configuration.

  2. Linear nozzle with tailored gas plumes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozarek, Robert L.; Straub, William D.; Fischer, Joern E.; Leon, David D.

    2003-01-01

    There is claimed a method for depositing fluid material from a linear nozzle in a substantially uniform manner across and along a surface. The method includes directing gaseous medium through said nozzle to provide a gaseous stream at the nozzle exit that entrains fluid material supplied to the nozzle, said gaseous stream being provided with a velocity profile across the nozzle width that compensates for the gaseous medium's tendency to assume an axisymmetric configuration after leaving the nozzle and before reaching the surface. There is also claimed a nozzle divided into respective side-by-side zones, or preferably chambers, through which a gaseous stream can be delivered in various velocity profiles across the width of said nozzle to compensate for the tendency of this gaseous medium to assume an axisymmetric configuration.

  3. Radio frequency focused interdigital linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Donald A.; Starling, W. Joel

    2006-08-29

    An interdigital (Wideroe) linear accelerator employing drift tubes, and associated support stems that couple to both the longitudinal and support stem electromagnetic fields of the linac, creating rf quadrupole fields along the axis of the linac to provide transverse focusing for the particle beam. Each drift tube comprises two separate electrodes operating at different electrical potentials as determined by cavity rf fields. Each electrode supports two fingers, pointing towards the opposite end of the drift tube, forming a four-finger geometry that produces an rf quadrupole field distribution along its axis. The fundamental periodicity of the structure is equal to one half of the particle wavelength .beta..lamda., where .beta. is the particle velocity in units of the velocity of light and .lamda. is the free space wavelength of the rf. Particles are accelerated in the gaps between drift tubes. The particle beam is focused in regions inside the drift tubes.

  4. International linear collider reference design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  5. Linear-array systems for aerospace NDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Robert A.; Willsher, Stephen J.; Bending, Jamie M.

    1999-12-02

    Rapid large-area inspection of composite structures for impact damage and multi-layered aluminum skins for corrosion has been a recognized priority for several years in both military and civil aerospace applications. Approaches to this requirement have followed two clearly different routes: the development of novel large-area inspection systems, and the enhancement of current ultrasonic or eddy-current methods to reduce inspection times. Ultrasonic inspection is possible with standard flaw detection equipment but the addition of a linear ultrasonic array could reduce inspection times considerably. In order to investigate their potential, 9-element and 17-element linear ultrasonic arrays for composites, and 64-element arrays for aluminum skins, have been developed to DERA specifications for use with the ANDSCAN area scanning system. A 5 m{sup 2} composite wing surface has been scanned with a scan resolution of approximately 3 mm in 6 hours. With subsequent software and hardware improvements all four composite wing surfaces (top/bottom, left/right) of a military fighter aircraft can potentially be inspected in less than a day. Array technology has been very widely used in the medical ultrasound field although rarely above 10 MHz, whereas lap-joint inspection requires a pulse center-frequency of 12 to 20 MHz in order to resolve the separate interfaces in the lap joint. A 128 mm-long multi-element array of 5 mmx2 mm ultrasonic elements for use with the ANDSCAN scanning software was produced to a DERA specification by an NDT manufacturer with experience in the medical imaging field. This paper analyses the performance of the transducers that have been produced and evaluates their use in scanning systems of different configurations.

  6. Project Profile: Commercial Development of an Advanced Linear...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Commercial Development of an Advanced Linear-Fresnel-Based CSP Concept SkyFuel logo SkyFuel, under the CSP R&D FOA, is developing a commercial linear-Fresnel-based ...

  7. CALiPER Application Summary Report 19. LED Linear Pendants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-10-01

    Report 19 reviews the independently tested performance of nine LED linear pendants and also evaluates a collection of 11 linear pendant products available in both an LED and fluorescent version.

  8. Dose calculation for permanent prostate implants incorporating spatially anisotropic linearly time-resolving edema

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monajemi, T. T.; Clements, Charles M.; Sloboda, Ron S.

    2011-04-15

    )]. Results: As expected, RE{sub preplan} for our edema model indicated underdosage in the calculation volume with a clear dependence on seed and calculation point positions, and increased with increasing values of {Delta} and T. Values of RE{sub preplan} were generally larger near the ends of the virtual prostate in the RPC phantom compared with more central locations. For edema characteristics similar to the population average values previously measured at our center, i.e., {Delta}=0.2 and T=28 d, mean values of RE{sub preplan} in an axial plane located 1.5 cm from the center of the seed distribution were 8.3% for {sup 131}Cs seeds, 7.5% for {sup 103}Pd seeds, and 2.2% for {sup 125}I seeds. Maximum values of RE{sub preplan} in the same plane were about 1.5 times greater. Note that detailed results strictly apply only for loose seed implants where the seeds are fixed in tissue and move in synchrony with that tissue. Conclusions: A dose calculation method for permanent prostate implants incorporating spatially anisotropic linearly time-resolving edema was developed for which cumulative dose can be written in closed form. The method yields values for RE{sub preplan} that differ from those for spatially isotropic edema. The method is suitable for calculating pre- and postimplant dosimetry correction factors for clinical seed configurations when edema characteristics can be measured or estimated.

  9. Physics and technology of the next linear collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    The authors present the prospects for the next generation of high-energy physics experiments with electron-positron colliding beams. This report summarizes the current status of the design and technological basis of a linear collider of center-of-mass energy 0.5--1.5 TeV, and the opportunities for high-energy physics experiments that this machine is expected to open. The physics goals discussed here are: Standard Model processes and simulation; top quark physics; Higgs boson searches and properties; supersymmetry; anomalous gauge boson couplings; strong WW scattering; new gauge bosons and exotic particles; e{sup {minus}}e{sup {minus}}, e{sup {minus}}{gamma}, and {gamma}{gamma} interactions; and precision tests of QCD.

  10. Parallel computation of transverse wakes in linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhan, Xiaowei; Ko, Kwok

    1996-11-01

    SLAC has proposed the detuned structure (DS) as one possible design to control the emittance growth of long bunch trains due to transverse wakefields in the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The DS consists of 206 cells with tapering from cell to cell of the order of few microns to provide Gaussian detuning of the dipole modes. The decoherence of these modes leads to two orders of magnitude reduction in wakefield experienced by the trailing bunch. To model such a large heterogeneous structure realistically is impractical with finite-difference codes using structured grids. The authors have calculated the wakefield in the DS on a parallel computer with a finite-element code using an unstructured grid. The parallel implementation issues are presented along with simulation results that include contributions from higher dipole bands and wall dissipation.

  11. Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-03-09

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  12. NON-BAROTROPIC LINEAR ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITY IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Min-Kai

    2013-03-10

    Astrophysical disks with localized radial structure, such as protoplanetary disks containing dead zones or gaps due to disk-planet interaction, may be subject to the non-axisymmetric Rossby wave instability (RWI) that leads to vortex formation. The linear instability has recently been demonstrated in three-dimensional (3D) barotropic disks. It is the purpose of this study to generalize the 3D linear problem to include an energy equation, thereby accounting for baroclinity in three dimensions. Linear stability calculations are presented for radially structured, vertically stratified, geometrically thin disks with non-uniform entropy distribution in both directions. Polytropic equilibria are considered but adiabatic perturbations assumed. The unperturbed disk has a localized radial density bump, making it susceptible to the RWI. The linearized fluid equations are solved numerically as a partial differential equation eigenvalue problem. Emphasis on the ease of method implementation is given. It is found that when the polytropic index is fixed and adiabatic index increased, non-uniform entropy has negligible effect on the RWI growth rate, but pressure and density perturbation magnitudes near a pressure enhancement increase away from the midplane. The associated meridional flow is also qualitatively changed from homentropic calculations. Meridional vortical motion is identified in the nonhomentropic linear solution, as well as in a nonlinear global hydrodynamic simulation of the RWI in an initially isothermal disk evolved adiabatically. Numerical results suggest that buoyancy forces play an important role in the internal flow of Rossby vortices.

  13. Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.

  14. Quasi-linear heating and acceleration in bi-Maxwellian plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2013-12-15

    Quasi-linear acceleration and heating rates are derived for drifting bi-Maxwellian distribution functions in a general nonrelativistic case for arbitrary wave vectors, propagation angles, and growth/damping rates. The heating rates in a proton-electron plasma due to ion-cyclotron/kinetic Alfvén and mirror waves for a wide range of wavelengths, directions of propagation, and growth or damping rates are explicitly computed.

  15. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with application in modeling NDCX-II experiments Wangyi Liu 1 , John Barnard 2 , Alex Friedman 2 , Nathan Masters 2 , Aaron Fisher 2 , Alice Koniges 2 , David Eder 2 1 LBNL, USA, 2...

  16. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA Earth at Night Video EC, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Global, Modeling, News & Events, Solid-State Lighting, Videos NASA Earth at Night Video Have you ever wondered what the ...

  17. General Electric: ENERGY STAR Referral (PFSF5NFZ****)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE referred the matter of General Electric refrigerator-freezer basic model PFSF5NFZ**** to the EPA for appropriate action after DOE testing showed that the model does not meet the ENERGY STAR specification.

  18. Numerical simulation of linear fiction welding (LFW) processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratini, L.; La Spisa, D. [University of Palermo-Dept. of Industrial engineering (Italy)

    2011-05-04

    Solid state welding processes are becoming increasingly important due to a large number of advantages related to joining ''unweldable'' materials and in particular light weight alloys. Linear friction welding (LFW) has been used successfully to bond non-axisymmetric components of a range of materials including titanium alloys, steels, aluminum alloys, nickel, copper, and also dissimilar material combinations. The technique is useful in the research of quality of the joints and in reducing costs of components and parts of the aeronautic and automotive industries.LFW involves parts to be welded through the relative reciprocating motion of two components under an axial force. In such process the heat source is given by the frictional forces work decaying into heat determining a local softening of the material and proper bonding conditions due to both the temperature increase and the local pressure of the two edges to be welded. This paper is a comparative test between the numerical model in two dimensions, i.e. in plane strain conditions, and in three dimensions of a LFW process of AISI1045 steel specimens. It must be observed that the 3D model assures a faithful simulation of the actual threedimensional material flow, even if the two-dimensional simulation computational times are very short, a few hours instead of several ones as the 3D model. The obtained results were compared with experimental values found out in the scientific literature.

  19. Analytical methods for describing charged particle dynamics in general focusing lattices using generalized Courant-Snyder theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Burby, Joshua W.; Chung, Moses

    2014-04-08

    The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy is parametrized using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or a U2 element. The 1D envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation in higher dimensions. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the transfer matrix, Twiss functions, and CS invariant (also known as the Lewis invariant) all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory. The gauge group structure of the generalized theory is analyzed. By fixing the gauge freedom with a desired symmetry, the generalized CS parametrization assumes the form of the modified Iwasawa decomposition, whose importance in phase space optics and phase space quantum mechanics has been recently realized. This gauge fixing also symmetrizes the generalized envelope equation and expresses the theory using only the generalized Twiss function ?. The generalized phase advance completely determines the spectral and structural stability properties of a general focusing lattice. For structural stability, the generalized CS theory enables application of the Krein-Moser theory to greatly simplify the stability analysis. The generalized CS theory provides an effective tool to study coupled dynamics and to discover more optimized lattice designs in the larger parameter space of general focusing lattices.

  20. Title 1 General Provisions Chapter 5 Common Law; General Rights...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Provisions Chapter 5 Common Law; General Rights 3 V.S.A. Section 2809 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute:...

  1. Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) provides legal support for non-programmatic issues other than those involving procurement and intellectual property.  The office...

  2. Linear air-fuel sensor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garzon, F.; Miller, C.

    1996-12-14

    The electrochemical zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor, is extensively used for monitoring oxygen concentrations in various fields. They are currently utilized in automobiles to monitor the exhaust gas composition and control the air-to-fuel ratio, thus reducing harmful emission components and improving fuel economy. Zirconia oxygen sensors, are divided into two classes of devices: (1) potentiometric or logarithmic air/fuel sensors; and (2) amperometric or linear air/fuel sensors. The potentiometric sensors are ideally suited to monitor the air-to-fuel ratio close to the complete combustion stoichiometry; a value of about 14.8 to 1 parts by volume. This occurs because the oxygen concentration changes by many orders of magnitude as the air/fuel ratio is varied through the stoichiometric value. However, the potentiometric sensor is not very sensitive to changes in oxygen partial pressure away from the stoichiometric point due to the logarithmic dependence of the output voltage signal on the oxygen partial pressure. It is often advantageous to operate gasoline power piston engines with excess combustion air; this improves fuel economy and reduces hydrocarbon emissions. To maintain stable combustion away from stoichiometry, and enable engines to operate in the excess oxygen (lean burn) region several limiting-current amperometric sensors have been reported. These sensors are based on the electrochemical oxygen ion pumping of a zirconia electrolyte. They typically show reproducible limiting current plateaus with an applied voltage caused by the gas diffusion overpotential at the cathode.

  3. VINETA II: A linear magnetic reconnection experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohlin, H. Von Stechow, A.; Rahbarnia, K.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, Domstr. 11, 17489 Greifswald

    2014-02-15

    A linear experiment dedicated to the study of driven magnetic reconnection is presented. The new device (VINETA II) is suitable for investigating both collisional and near collisionless reconnection. Reconnection is achieved by externally driving magnetic field lines towards an X-point, inducing a current in the background plasma which consequently modifies the magnetic field topology. Owing to the open field line configuration of the experiment, the current is limited by the axial sheath boundary conditions. A plasma gun is used as an additional electron source in order to counterbalance the charge separation effects and supply the required current. Two drive methods are used in the device. First, an oscillating current through two parallel conductors drive the reconnection. Second, a stationary X-point topology is formed by the parallel conductors, and the drive is achieved by an oscillating current through a third conductor. In the first setup, the magnetic field of the axial plasma current dominates the field topology near the X-point throughout most of the drive. The second setup allows for the amplitude of the plasma current as well as the motion of the flux to be set independently of the X-point topology of the parallel conductors.

  4. Precision envelope detector and linear rectifier circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for the precise linear rectification and envelope detection of oscillatory signals. The signal is applied to a voltage-to-current converter which supplies current to a constant current sink. The connection between the converter and the sink is also applied through a diode and an output load resistor to a ground connection. The connection is also connected to ground through a second diode of opposite polarity from the diode in series with the load resistor. Very small amplitude voltage signals applied to the converter will cause a small change in the output current of the converter, and the difference between the output current and the constant current sink will be applied either directly to ground through the single diode, or across the output load resistor, dependent upon the polarity. Disclosed also is a full-wave rectifier utilizing constant current sinks and voltage-to-current converters. Additionally, disclosed is a combination of the voltage-to-current converters with differential integrated circuit preamplifiers to boost the initial signal amplitude, and with low pass filtering applied so as to obtain a video or signal envelope output.

  5. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, A.S.

    1983-12-08

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  6. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, Aaron S.

    1985-01-01

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  7. Linear Fixed-Field Multi-Pass Arcs for Recirculating Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.S. Morozov, S.A. Bogacz, Y.R. Roblin, K.B. Beard

    2012-06-01

    Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA's) provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dog-bone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of two. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dog-bone RLA.

  8. MODEL SELECTION FOR SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC INVERSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Martinez Gonzalez, M. J.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Viticchie, B.

    2012-04-01

    Inferring magnetic and thermodynamic information from spectropolarimetric observations relies on the assumption of a parameterized model atmosphere whose parameters are tuned by comparison with observations. Often, the choice of the underlying atmospheric model is based on subjective reasons. In other cases, complex models are chosen based on objective reasons (for instance, the necessity to explain asymmetries in the Stokes profiles) but it is not clear what degree of complexity is needed. The lack of an objective way of comparing models has, sometimes, led to opposing views of the solar magnetism because the inferred physical scenarios are essentially different. We present the first quantitative model comparison based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence ratios for spectropolarimetric observations. Our results show that there is not a single model appropriate for all profiles simultaneously. Data with moderate signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) favor models without gradients along the line of sight. If the observations show clear circular and linear polarization signals above the noise level, models with gradients along the line are preferred. As a general rule, observations with large S/Ns favor more complex models. We demonstrate that the evidence ratios correlate well with simple proxies. Therefore, we propose to calculate these proxies when carrying out standard least-squares inversions to allow for model comparison in the future.

  9. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carder, B.M.

    1998-05-26

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter. 10 figs.

  10. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carder, Bruce M.

    1998-01-01

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter.

  11. Comparison of chiller models for use in model-based fault detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sreedharan, Priya; Haves, Philip

    2001-06-07

    Selecting the model is an important and essential step in model based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD). Factors that are considered in evaluating a model include accuracy, training data requirements, calibration effort, generality, and computational requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate different modeling approaches for their applicability to model based FDD of vapor compression chillers. Three different models were studied: the Gordon and Ng Universal Chiller model (2nd generation) and a modified version of the ASHRAE Primary Toolkit model, which are both based on first principles, and the DOE-2 chiller model, as implemented in CoolTools{trademark}, which is empirical. The models were compared in terms of their ability to reproduce the observed performance of an older, centrifugal chiller operating in a commercial office building and a newer centrifugal chiller in a laboratory. All three models displayed similar levels of accuracy. Of the first principles models, the Gordon-Ng model has the advantage of being linear in the parameters, which allows more robust parameter estimation methods to be used and facilitates estimation of the uncertainty in the parameter values. The ASHRAE Toolkit Model may have advantages when refrigerant temperature measurements are also available. The DOE-2 model can be expected to have advantages when very limited data are available to calibrate the model, as long as one of the previously identified models in the CoolTools library matches the performance of the chiller in question.

  12. Soliton configurations in generalized Mie electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rybakov, Yu. P.

    2011-07-15

    The generalization of the Mie electrodynamics within the scope of the effective 8-spinor field model is suggested, with the Lagrangian including Higgs-like potential and higher degrees of the invariant A{sub Micro-Sign }A{sup Micro-Sign }. Using special Brioschi 8-spinor identity, we show that the model includes the Skyrme and the Faddeev models as particular cases. We investigate the large-distance asymptotic of static solutions and estimate the electromagnetic contribution to the energy of the localized charged configuration.

  13. A fully non-linear multi-species Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator for simulation of fusion plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; D'Azevedo, E. F.; Worley, P. H.; Chang, C. S.

    2016-04-04

    Fusion edge plasmas can be far from thermal equilibrium and require the use of a non-linear collision operator for accurate numerical simulations. The non-linear single-species Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator developed by Yoon and Chang (2014) [9] is generalized to include multiple particle species. Moreover, the finite volume discretization used in this work naturally yields exact conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The implementation of this new non-linear Fokker–Planck–Landau operator in the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 and XGCa is described and results of a verification study are discussed. Finally, the numerical techniques that make our non-linear collision operator viable on high-performance computingmore » systems are described, including specialized load balancing algorithms and nested OpenMP parallelization. As a result, the collision operator's good weak and strong scaling behavior are shown.« less

  14. On approaches to analyze the sensitivity of simulated hydrologic fluxes to model parameters in the community land model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-04

    Here, effective sensitivity analysis approaches are needed to identify important parameters or factors and their uncertainties in complex Earth system models composed of multi-phase multi-component phenomena and multiple biogeophysical-biogeochemical processes. In this study, the impacts of 10 hydrologic parameters in the Community Land Model on simulations of runoff and latent heat flux are evaluated using data from a watershed. Different metrics, including residual statistics, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, and log mean square error, are used as alternative measures of the deviations between the simulated and field observed values. Four sensitivity analysis (SA) approaches, including analysis of variance based on the generalized linear model, generalized cross validation based on the multivariate adaptive regression splines model, standardized regression coefficients based on a linear regression model, and analysis of variance based on support vector machine, are investigated. Results suggest that these approaches show consistent measurement of the impacts of major hydrologic parameters on response variables, but with differences in the relative contributions, particularly for the secondary parameters. The convergence behaviors of the SA with respect to the number of sampling points are also examined with different combinations of input parameter sets and output response variables and their alternative metrics. This study helps identify the optimal SA approach, provides guidance for the calibration of the Community Land Model parameters to improve the model simulations of land surface fluxes, and approximates the magnitudes to be adjusted in the parameter values during parametric model optimization.

  15. Electronic Non-Contacting Linear Position Measuring System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-06-14

    A non-contacting linear position location system employs a special transmission line to encode and transmit magnetic signals to a receiver on the object whose position is to be measured. The invention is useful as a non-contact linear locator of moving objects, e.g., to determine the location of a magnetic-levitation train for the operation of the linear-synchronous motor drive system.

  16. Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loth, E.; Tryggvason, G.; Tsuji, Y.; Elghobashi, S. E.; Crowe, Clayton T.; Berlemont, A.; Reeks, M.; Simonin, O.; Frank, Th; Onishi, Yasuo; Van Wachem, B.

    2005-09-01

    Slurry flows occur in many circumstances, including chemical manufacturing processes, pipeline transfer of coal, sand, and minerals; mud flows; and disposal of dredged materials. In this section we discuss slurry flow applications related to radioactive waste management. The Hanford tank waste solids and interstitial liquids will be mixed to form a slurry so it can be pumped out for retrieval and treatment. The waste is very complex chemically and physically. The ARIEL code is used to model the chemical interactions and fluid dynamics of the waste.

  17. General Atomics (GA) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General Atomics (GA) Subscribe to RSS - General Atomics (GA) General Atomics Image: General Atomics (GA) The Scorpion's Strategy: "Catch and Subdue" Read more about The Scorpion's...

  18. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Steven J.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  19. Knot Undulator to Generate Linearly Polarized Photons with Low...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heat load on beamline optics is a serious problem to generate pure linearly polarized ... Language: English Subject: 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; OPTICS; PERMANENT MAGNETS; PHOTONS; ...

  20. Vibronic coupling simulations for linear and nonlinear optical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    optical processes: Theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Vibronic coupling simulations for linear and nonlinear optical processes: Theory A comprehensive vibronic ...

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Stanford Linear Accelerator...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center was established in 1962 as a research facility for high energy particle physics. The Environmental Management mission at this site is to ...

  2. Optimizing minimum free-energy crossing points in solution: Linear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimizing minimum free-energy crossing points in solution: Linear-response free energyspin-flip density functional theory approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  3. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  4. Top Quark Anomalous Couplings at the International Linear Collider...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to a precision of approximately 1% for each of two choices of beam polarization. ... INTERMEDIATE BOSONS; LINEAR COLLIDERS; POLARIZATION; PROBES; QUARKS; SILICON; SIMULATION; ...

  5. The Klynac: An Integrated Klystron and Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, J. M., Schwellenbach, D., Meidinger, A.

    2012-08-07

    The Klynac concept integrates an electron gun, a radio frequency (RF) power source, and a coupled-cavity linear accelerator into a single resonant system

  6. Knot Undulator to Generate Linearly Polarized Photons with Low...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    pure linearly polarized photons in the third generation synchrotron radiation facilities. ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 43 ...

  7. A posteriori error analysis of parameterized linear systems using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A posteriori error analysis of parameterized linear systems using spectral methods. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A posteriori error analysis of ...

  8. Self-Sustained Micromechanical Oscillator with Linear Feedback...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Self-Sustained Micromechanical Oscillator with Linear Feedback This content will become publicly available on July 1, 2017 Prev Next Title: ...

  9. Entropy-based separation of linear chain molecules by exploiting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Entropy-based separation of linear chain molecules by exploiting differences in the saturation capacities in cage-type zeolites Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna, Jasper M. van...

  10. Simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  11. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic ... The effect is unique in that it allows us to distinguish which atomic species magnetism ...

  12. A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage Rings The well-known Haissinski distribution provides a stable equilibrium of longitudinal beam distribution in ...

  13. Linearly Polarized Thermal Emitter for More Efficient Thermophotovolta...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Linearly Polarized Thermal Emitter for More Efficient Thermophotovoltaic Devices Ames ... than can be used to create more efficient thermophotovoltaic devices for power generation. ...

  14. Resource-Efficient Generataion of Linear Cluster States by Linear Optics with postselection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uskov, Dmitry B; Alsing, Paul; Fanto, Michael; Kaplan, Lev; Kim, R; Szep, Atilla; Smith IV, Amos M

    2015-01-01

    We report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon-photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups that are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneous detectionmore » of all photons with 1/9 success probability for each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne, and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that the maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to 1/2^n-1; an m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of 1/4^m-1.« less

  15. Resource-Efficient Generataion of Linear Cluster States by Linear Optics with postselection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uskov, Dmitry B; Alsing, Paul; Fanto, Michael; Kaplan, Lev; Kim, R; Szep, Atilla; Smith IV, Amos M

    2015-01-01

    We report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon-photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups that are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneous detection of all photons with 1/9 success probability for each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne, and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that the maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to 1/2^n-1; an m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of 1/4^m-1.

  16. Resource-efficient generation of linear cluster states by linear optics with postselection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uskov, D. B.; Alsing, P. M.; Fanto, M. L.; Kaplan, L.; Kim, R.; Szep, A.; Smith, A. M.

    2015-01-30

    Here we report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon-photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups that are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneousmore » detection of all photons with 1/9 success probability for each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne, and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that the maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to 1/2n-1; an m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of 1/4m-1.« less

  17. Unraveling hadron structure with generalized parton distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrei Belitsky; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2004-10-01

    The recently introduced generalized parton distributions have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. They combine the features of form factors, parton densities and distribution amplitudes - the functions used for a long time in studies of hadronic structure. Generalized parton distributions are analogous to the phase-space Wigner quasi-probability function of non-relativistic quantum mechanics which encodes full information on a quantum-mechanical system. We give an extensive review of main achievements in the development of this formalism. We discuss physical interpretation and basic properties of generalized parton distributions, their modeling and QCD evolution in the leading and next-to-leading orders. We describe how these functions enter a wide class of exclusive reactions, such as electro- and photo-production of photons, lepton pairs, or mesons.

  18. Software requirements specification for the GIS-T/ISTEA pooled fund study phase C linear referencing engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amai, W.; Espinoza, J. Jr.; Fletcher, D.R.

    1997-06-01

    This Software Requirements Specification (SRS) describes the features to be provided by the software for the GIS-T/ISTEA Pooled Fund Study Phase C Linear Referencing Engine project. This document conforms to the recommendations of IEEE Standard 830-1984, IEEE Guide to Software Requirements Specification (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1984). The software specified in this SRS is a proof-of-concept implementation of the Linear Referencing Engine as described in the GIS-T/ISTEA pooled Fund Study Phase B Summary, specifically Sheet 13 of the Phase B object model. The software allows an operator to convert between two linear referencing methods and a datum network.

  19. General Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: General Biodiesel Address: 4034 West Marginal Way Place: Seattle, Washington Zip: 98106 Region: Pacific Northwest Area Sector: Biofuels...

  20. Singularities of Generalized Parton Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2012-05-14

    The basic ideas of the theory of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) are reviewed. Recent developments in the study of singularities of GPDs are discussed.

  1. General Atomics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: General Atomics offers research, development and consulting services to the nuclear industry, including nuclear energy production, manufacturing, defense and related...

  2. A general formulation for compositional reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, F.; Guzman, J.; Galindo-Nava, A.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the authors present a general formulation to solve the non-linear difference equations that arise in compositional reservoir simulation. The general approach here presented is based on newton`s method and provides a systematic approach to generate several formulations to solve the compositional problem, each possessing a different degree of implicitness and stability characteristics. The Fully-Implicit method is at the higher end of the implicitness spectrum while the IMPECS method, implicit in pressure-explicit in composition and saturation, is at the lower end. They show that all methods may be obtained as particular cases of the fully-implicit method. Regarding the matrix problem, all methods have a similar matrix structure; the composition of the Jacobian matrix is however unique in each case, being in some instances amenable to reductions for optimal solution of the matrix problem. Based on this, a different approach to derive IMPECS type methods is proposed; in this case, the whole set of 2nc + 6 equations, that apply in each gridblock, is reduced to a single pressure equation through matrix reduction operations; this provides a more stable numerical scheme, compared to other published IMPCS methods, in which the subset of thermodynamic equilibrium equations is arbitrarily decoupled form the set of gridblock equations to perform such reduction. The authors discuss how the general formulation here presented can be used to formulate and construct an adaptive-implicit compositional simulators. They also present results on the numerical performance of FI, IMPSEC and IMPECS methods on some test problems.

  3. Variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.; Potter, James M.; Stovall, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A linear accelerator system includes a plurality of post-coupled drift-tubes wherein each post coupler is bistably positionable to either of two positions which result in different field distributions. With binary control over a plurality of post couplers, a significant accumlative effect in the resulting field distribution is achieved yielding a variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator.

  4. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  5. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

    1980-03-11

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  6. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  7. Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a linear receiver tube. The receiver contains a fluid that is heated by the sunlight and then used to heat a traditional power cycle that spins a turbine that drives a generator to produce electricity.

  8. Variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.; Potter, J.M.; Stovall, J.E.

    A linear accelerator system includes a plurality of post-coupled drift-tubes wherein each post coupler is bistably positionable to either of two positions which result in different field distributions. With binary control over a plurality of post couplers, a significant accumlative effect in the resulting field distribution is achieved yielding a variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator.

  9. Access to generalized parton distributions at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-04-10

    A brief experimentalist's introduction to Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) is given. Recent COMPASS results are shown on transverse target-spin asymmetries in hard exclusive ρ{sup 0} production and their interpretation in terms of a phenomenological model as indication for chiral-odd, transverse GPDs is discussed. For deeply virtual Compton scattering, it is briefly outlined how to access GPDs and projections are shown for future COMPASS measurements.

  10. Nonlinear vs. linear biasing in Trp-cage folding simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiwok, Vojt?ch Oborsk, Pavel; Krlov, Blanka; Pazrikov, Jana

    2015-03-21

    Biased simulations have great potential for the study of slow processes, including protein folding. Atomic motions in molecules are nonlinear, which suggests that simulations with enhanced sampling of collective motions traced by nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods may perform better than linear ones. In this study, we compare an unbiased folding simulation of the Trp-cage miniprotein with metadynamics simulations using both linear (principle component analysis) and nonlinear (Isomap) low dimensional embeddings as collective variables. Folding of the mini-protein was successfully simulated in 200?ns simulation with linear biasing and non-linear motion biasing. The folded state was correctly predicted as the free energy minimum in both simulations. We found that the advantage of linear motion biasing is that it can sample a larger conformational space, whereas the advantage of nonlinear motion biasing lies in slightly better resolution of the resulting free energy surface. In terms of sampling efficiency, both methods are comparable.

  11. Adhesive joint and composites modeling in SIERRA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Brown, Arthur A.; Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Chambers, Robert S.; Foulk, James W., III

    2005-11-01

    Polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites play an important role in many Defense Program applications. Recently an advanced nonlinear viscoelastic model for polymers has been developed and incorporated into ADAGIO, Sandia's SIERRA-based quasi-static analysis code. Standard linear elastic shell and continuum models for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites have also been added to ADAGIO. This report details the use of these models for advanced adhesive joint and composites simulations carried out as part of an Advanced Simulation and Computing Advanced Deployment (ASC AD) project. More specifically, the thermo-mechanical response of an adhesive joint when loaded during repeated thermal cycling is simulated, the response of some composite rings under internal pressurization is calculated, and the performance of a composite container subjected to internal pressurization, thermal loading, and distributed mechanical loading is determined. Finally, general comparisons between the continuum and shell element approaches for modeling composites using ADAGIO are given.

  12. SFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 29 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  13. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 31 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  14. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 19 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  15. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 22 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2014) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  16. EFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 39 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Apr 2013) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  17. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 33 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  18. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 20 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  19. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 29 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2014) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  20. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 9/26/14) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 29 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2014) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  1. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 31 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  2. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 18 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  3. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 6 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1C DEFINITIONS (Jun 2010) ........................................................................................................... 2 GC-6C ORDER OF PRECEDENCE (Mar 2012) .................................................................................... 2 GC-8B COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS, RULES, REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS (Jun 2010) .......... 2 GC-11 NEW MEXICO GROSS

  4. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 21 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  5. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 12/15/14) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 20 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  6. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 11/9/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 9 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1C DEFINITIONS (Jun 2010) ...................................................................................................... 2 GC-6C ORDER OF PRECEDENCE (Mar 2012) ................................................................................ 2 GC-8B COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS, RULES, REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS (Jun 2010)

  7. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 8 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1C DEFINITIONS (Jun 2010) ........................................................................................................... 2 GC-6C ORDER OF PRECEDENCE (Mar 2012) .................................................................................... 2 GC-8B COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS, RULES, REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS (Jun 2010) .......... 2 GC-11 NEW MEXICO GROSS

  8. Production Planning Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-04-20

    PRODMOD is an integrated computational tool for performing dynamic simulation and optimization for the entire high level waste complex at the Savannah River Site (SRS) It is being used at SRS for planning purposes so that all waste can be processed efficiently. The computational tool 1) optimizes waste blending sequences, 2) minimizes waste volume production, 3) reduces waste processing time, 4) provides better process control and understanding, and 5) assists strategic planning, scheduling, and costmore » estimation. PRODMOD has been developed using Aspen Technology''s software development package SPEEDUP. PRODMOD models all the key HLW processing operations at SRS: storage and evaporation: saltcake production and dissolution: filtration (dewatering): precipitation: sludge and precipitate washing: glass, grout, and organics production. Innovative approaches have been used in making PRODMOD a very fast computational tool. These innovative approaches are 1) constructing a dynamic problem as a steady state problem 2) mapping between event-space (batch processes) and time-space (dynamic processes) without sacrificing the details in the batch process. The dynamic nature of the problem is constructed in linear form where time dependence is implicit. The linear constructs and mapping algorithms have made it possible to devise a general purpose optimization scheme which couples the optimization driver with the PRODMOD simulator. The optimization scheme is capable of generating single or multiple optimal input conditions for different types of objective functions over single or multiple years of operations depending on the nature of the objective function and operating constraints.« less

  9. SPEAR fuel reliability code system. General description. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, R.

    1980-03-01

    A general description is presented for the SPEAR fuel reliability code system. Included is a discussion of the methodology employed and the structure of the code system, as well as discussion of the major components: the data preparation routines, the mechanistic fuel performance model, the mechanistic cladding failure model, and the statistical failure model.

  10. A Nth-order linear algorithm for extracting diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow indices in heterogeneous tissues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2014-09-29

    Conventional semi-infinite analytical solutions of correlation diffusion equation may lead to errors when calculating blood flow index (BFI) from diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements in tissues with irregular geometries. Very recently, we created an algorithm integrating a Nth-order linear model of autocorrelation function with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon migrations in homogenous tissues with arbitrary geometries for extraction of BFI (i.e., αD{sub B}). The purpose of this study is to extend the capability of the Nth-order linear algorithm for extracting BFI in heterogeneous tissues with arbitrary geometries. The previous linear algorithm was modified to extract BFIs in different types of tissues simultaneously through utilizing DCS data at multiple source-detector separations. We compared the proposed linear algorithm with the semi-infinite homogenous solution in a computer model of adult head with heterogeneous tissue layers of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain. To test the capability of the linear algorithm for extracting relative changes of cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in deep brain, we assigned ten levels of αD{sub B} in the brain layer with a step decrement of 10% while maintaining αD{sub B} values constant in other layers. Simulation results demonstrate the accuracy (errors < 3%) of high-order (N ≥ 5) linear algorithm in extracting BFIs in different tissue layers and rCBF in deep brain. By contrast, the semi-infinite homogenous solution resulted in substantial errors in rCBF (34.5% ≤ errors ≤ 60.2%) and BFIs in different layers. The Nth-order linear model simplifies data analysis, thus allowing for online data processing and displaying. Future study will test this linear algorithm in heterogeneous tissues with different levels of blood flow variations and noises.

  11. Louisiana Title V General Permits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, B.E.; Neal, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires federal operating permits for all major sources of air pollution. In 1992, Title 40, Part 70 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 70) codified the law s requirements. These federal regulations, entitled Operating Permit Program, define the minimum requirements for state administered operating permit programs. The intent of Title V is to put into one document all requirements of an operating permit. General Permits for oil and gas facilities may be preferred if the facility can comply with all permit requirements. If greater flexibility than allowed by the General Permit is required, then the facility should apply for an individual Title V permit. General Permits are designed to streamline the permitting process, shorten the time it takes to obtain approval for initial and modified permits. The advantages of the General Permit include reduced paperwork and greater consistency because the permits are standardized. There should be less uncertainty because permit requirements will be known at the time of application. Approval times for Initial and modified General Permits should be reduced. Lengthy public notice procedures (and possible hearings) will be required for only the initial approval of the General Permit and not for each applicant to the permit. A disadvantage of General Permits is reduced flexibility since the facility must comply with the requirements of a standardized permit.

  12. Stability of linear systems in second-order form based on structure preserving similarity transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Pommer, Christian; Kliem, Wolfhard

    2015-10-31

    This paper deals with two stability aspects of linear systems of the form I ¨ x +B˙ x +Cx = 0 given by the triple (I;B;C). A general transformation scheme is given for a structure and Jordan form preserving transformation of the triple. We investigate how a system can be transformed by suitable choices of the transformation parameters into a new system (I;B1;C1) with a symmetrizable matrix C1. This procedure facilitates stability investigations. We also consider systems with a Hamiltonian spectrum which discloses marginal stability after a Jordan form preserving transformation.

  13. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-02-13

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  14. Evolution of the design of a silicon tracker for the Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, W.E.

    2005-10-01

    A design for the silicon tracker for SiD was proposed at the Victoria Linear Collider Workshop [1]. This paper describes development of that design by the SiD group into a baseline model for simulation studies. The design has been modified to take into account detector fabrication and servicing requirements, features specific to the vertex chamber, and detector elements in the region surrounding the silicon tracker.

  15. LA-2271 CHEMISTRY-GENERAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2271 CHEMISTRY-GENERAL TID-4500, 14th Ed. LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY OF THE ... U in Vol. n of A Treatise on Physical Chemistry, edited by H. S. Taylor and S. ...

  16. General Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Electric Place: Fairfield, Connecticut Zip: 06828 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Year Founded: 1892 Website: www.ge.com Coordinates: 41.1758333, -73.2719444...

  17. Posters Treatment of Cloud Radiative Effects in General Circulation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Posters Treatment of Cloud Radiative Effects in General Circulation Models W.-C. Wang, M. P. Dudek, X.-Z. Liang, M. Ding, L. Zhu, E. Joseph, and S. Cox Atmospheric Sciences...

  18. Effective Yukawa couplings and flavor-changing Higgs boson decays at linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabrielli, E.; Mele, B.

    2011-04-01

    We analyze the advantages of a linear-collider program for testing a recent theoretical proposal where the Higgs boson Yukawa couplings are radiatively generated, keeping unchanged the standard-model mechanism for electroweak-gauge-symmetry breaking. Fermion masses arise at a large energy scale through an unknown mechanism, and the standard model at the electroweak scale is regarded as an effective field theory. In this scenario, Higgs boson decays into photons and electroweak gauge-boson pairs are considerably enhanced for a light Higgs boson, which makes a signal observation at the LHC straightforward. On the other hand, the clean environment of a linear collider is required to directly probe the radiative fermionic sector of the Higgs boson couplings. Also, we show that the flavor-changing Higgs boson decays are dramatically enhanced with respect to the standard model. In particular, we find a measurable branching ratio in the range (10{sup -4}-10{sup -3}) for the decay H{yields}bs for a Higgs boson lighter than 140 GeV, depending on the high-energy scale where Yukawa couplings vanish. We present a detailed analysis of the Higgs boson production cross sections at linear colliders for interesting decay signatures, as well as branching-ratio correlations for different flavor-conserving/nonconserving fermionic decays.

  19. Linear Scaling Electronic Structure Methods with Periodic Boundary Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavo E. Scuseria

    2008-02-08

    The methodological development and computational implementation of linear scaling quantum chemistry methods for the accurate calculation of electronic structure and properties of periodic systems (solids, surfaces, and polymers) and their application to chemical problems of DOE relevance.

  20. Spin relaxation and linear-in-electric-field frequency shift...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    arbitrary, time-independent magnetic field Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spin relaxation and linear-in-electric-field frequency shift in an arbitrary, time-independen...

  1. Linear Scaling of the Exciton Binding Energy versus the Band...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Linear Scaling of the Exciton Binding Energy versus the Band Gap of Two-Dimensional Materials This content will become publicly available on August 6, 2016 Prev Next Title:...

  2. Linear and cubic response to the initial eccentricity in heavy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Linear and cubic response to the initial eccentricity in heavy-ion collisions Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January 21, 2017 ...

  3. Method and apparatus of highly linear optical modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeRose, Christopher; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-05-03

    In a new optical intensity modulator, a nonlinear change in refractive index is used to balance the nonlinearities in the optical transfer function in a way that leads to highly linear optical intensity modulation.

  4. Physics Case for the International Linear Collider (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We summarize the physics case for the International Linear Collider (ILC). We review the ... in accord with the expected schedule of operation of the accelerator and the results of ...

  5. Fourth order resonance of a high intensity linear accelerator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    For a high intensity beam, the 4nu1 resonance of a linear accelerator is manifested through the octupolar term of space charge potential when the depressed phase advance sigma ...

  6. Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    may be integrated with existing or new combined-cycle natural-gas- and coal-fired plants. ... Illustration of a linear concentrator power plant using parabolic trough collectors. ...

  7. General Renewable Energy Technology Resources | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    General Renewable Energy Technology Resources General Renewable Energy Technology Resources Below are general resources for Tribes on renewable energy technologies. Developing ...

  8. General Privacy Act Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Privacy Act Guidance General Privacy Act Guidance This document provides information on Privacy Act Requests and responses to general FAQs PDF icon General Privacy Act Guidance ...

  9. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics Authors: Baer, Howard ; Barklow, Tim ; Fujii, Keisuke ; Gao, Yuanning ; Hoang, Andre ; Kanemura, Shinya ; List, Jenny ; Logan, Heather E. ; Nomerotski, Andrei ; Perelstein, Maxim ; Peskin, Michael E. ; Poschl, Roman ; Reuter, Jurgen ; Riemann, Sabine ; Savoy-Navarro,

  10. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  11. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  12. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  13. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  14. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  15. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic

  16. JLab Supports International Linear Collider Cavity Development Work |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Supports International Linear Collider Cavity Development Work JLab Supports International Linear Collider Cavity Development Work NEWPORT NEWS, Va. Feb. 12, 2008 - It's not often that major-league baseball and nuclear physics get to share the limelight, but that's what's happening at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab. The baseball connection involves a nine-cell niobium cavity developed by KEK accelerator scientists in Japan as one of several designs being tested for

  17. Free piston variable-stroke linear-alternator generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M.

    1998-01-01

    A free-piston variable stroke linear-alternator AC power generator for a combustion engine. An alternator mechanism and oscillator system generates AC current. The oscillation system includes two oscillation devices each having a combustion cylinder and a flying turnbuckle. The flying turnbuckle moves in accordance with the oscillation device. The alternator system is a linear alternator coupled between the two oscillation devices by a slotted connecting rod.

  18. Producing Linear Alpha Olefins From Biomass - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Producing Linear Alpha Olefins From Biomass Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Linear alpha olefins (LAOs) are valuable commodity chemicals traditionally derived from petroleum. They are versatile building blocks for making a range of chemical products like polyethylene, synthetic oils, plasticizers, detergents and oilfield fluids. Relying on fossil fuel to manufacture LAOs is problematic. Not only are the standard methods

  19. Direct Probes of Linearly Polarized Gluons inside Unpolarized Hadrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boer, Daniel; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian; /Cagliari U. /INFN, Cagliari

    2011-02-07

    We show that the unmeasured distribution of linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be directly probed in jet or heavy quark pair production both in electron-hadron and hadron-hadron collisions. We present expressions for the simplest cos 2{phi} asymmetries and estimate their maximal value in the particular case of electron-hadron collisions. Measurements of the linearly polarized gluon distribution in the proton should be feasible in future EIC or LHeC experiments.

  20. Accessing the Distribution of Linearly Polarized Gluons in Unpolarized Hadrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boer, Daniel; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian; /Cagliari U. /INFN, Cagliari

    2011-08-19

    Gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be linearly polarized provided they have a nonzero transverse momentum. The simplest and theoretically safest way to probe this distribution of linearly polarized gluons is through cos2{phi} asymmetries in heavy quark pair or dijet production in electron-hadron collisions. Future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) or Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) experiments are ideally suited for this purpose. Here we estimate the maximum asymmetries for EIC kinematics.

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Stanford Linear Accelerator Center -

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    005 Stanford Linear Accelerator Center - 005 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (005) More information at www.slac.stanford.edu Designated Name: Not Designated under FUSRAP Alternate Name: SLAC Location: Palo Alto, California Evaluation Year: Not considered for FUSRAP - in another program Site Operations: Research Site Disposition: Remediation completed by DOE Office of Environmental Management in 2014. DOE Office of Science is responsible for long-term

  2. Free piston variable-stroke linear-alternator generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, C.M.

    1998-12-15

    A free-piston variable stroke linear-alternator AC power generator for a combustion engine is described. An alternator mechanism and oscillator system generates AC current. The oscillation system includes two oscillation devices each having a combustion cylinder and a flying turnbuckle. The flying turnbuckle moves in accordance with the oscillation device. The alternator system is a linear alternator coupled between the two oscillation devices by a slotted connecting rod. 8 figs.

  3. Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.

  4. CALiPER Report 21.3. Cost Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  5. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  6. Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) (Redirected from GCOMAP) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Generalized Comprehensive...

  7. Interdisciplinary General Engineer/Physical Scientist (Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Interdisciplinary General EngineerPhysical Scientist (Facility Representative) Interdisciplinary General EngineerPhysical Scientist (Facility Representative) Submitted by admin ...

  8. GENERAL@ELECTtiIC COMPINY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    GENERAL@ELECTtiIC COMPINY ~9013 ~APPROVAL NO. 143 Article II, Section 8(b) PICHLAND, WASHINGTON .~. "ANFORD ATOMlC PlOD"CTS O*Ert*,ION ,. u/S; Atomic Energy Comisaion Hailfbrd operations Office Richland, Washington Attention: Mr. J. E. Travis, Manager Gentlemen: EXTRUSION OF URANIUM DIOXIDE FOR GENERAL ~ED&'RIC - APED The Atoinic Power Equipment Depart!++ of ~the The uranium dioxide necess :Material License No. C-3351. for establishing the value'of the.material will be developed

  9. Real-time nonlinear optimization as a generalized equation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavala, V. M.; Anitescu, M. (Mathematics and Computer Science)

    2010-11-11

    We establish results for the problem of tracking a time-dependent manifold arising in real-time optimization by casting this as a parametric generalized equation. We demonstrate that if points along a solution manifold are consistently strongly regular, it is possible to track the manifold approximately by solving a single linear complementarity problem (LCP) at each time step. We derive sufficient conditions guaranteeing that the tracking error remains bounded to second order with the size of the time step even if the LCP is solved only approximately. We use these results to derive a fast, augmented Lagrangian tracking algorithm and demonstrate the developments through a numerical case study.

  10. Development of a General Purpose Power System Control Board

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, S.H.; Jeong, S.H.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, S.C.; Park, S.S.; Suh, J.H.; Bellomo, P.; Cassel, R.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-07-23

    In an effort to control modern solid state power modules, a general purpose, multi function power system control board (PSCB) has been under development as a collaboration project between Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Korea, and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), USA. The PSCB is an embedded, interlock supervisory, diagnostic, timing, and set-point control board. It is designed to use in various power systems such as sequenced kicker pulsers, solid state RF modulators, simple DC magnet power supplies, etc. The PSCB has the Ethernet communication with the TCP/IP Modbus protocol.

  11. First moments of nucleon generalized parton distributions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, P.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-06-01

    We extrapolate the first moments of the generalized parton distributions using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The calculation is based on the one loop level with the finite range regularization. The description of the lattice data is satisfactory, and the extrapolated moments at physical pion mass are consistent with the results obtained with dimensional regularization, although the extrapolation in the momentum transfer to t=0 does show sensitivity to form factor effects, which lie outside the realm of chiral perturbation theory. We discuss the significance of the results in the light of modern experiments as well as QCD inspired models.

  12. On approaches to analyze the sensitivity of simulated hydrologic fluxes to model parameters in the community land model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bao, Jie; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-04

    Here, effective sensitivity analysis approaches are needed to identify important parameters or factors and their uncertainties in complex Earth system models composed of multi-phase multi-component phenomena and multiple biogeophysical-biogeochemical processes. In this study, the impacts of 10 hydrologic parameters in the Community Land Model on simulations of runoff and latent heat flux are evaluated using data from a watershed. Different metrics, including residual statistics, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, and log mean square error, are used as alternative measures of the deviations between the simulated and field observed values. Four sensitivity analysis (SA) approaches, including analysis of variance based on the generalizedmore » linear model, generalized cross validation based on the multivariate adaptive regression splines model, standardized regression coefficients based on a linear regression model, and analysis of variance based on support vector machine, are investigated. Results suggest that these approaches show consistent measurement of the impacts of major hydrologic parameters on response variables, but with differences in the relative contributions, particularly for the secondary parameters. The convergence behaviors of the SA with respect to the number of sampling points are also examined with different combinations of input parameter sets and output response variables and their alternative metrics. This study helps identify the optimal SA approach, provides guidance for the calibration of the Community Land Model parameters to improve the model simulations of land surface fluxes, and approximates the magnitudes to be adjusted in the parameter values during parametric model optimization.« less

  13. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  14. Application of autoregressive moving average linear prediction filters to the characterization of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borst, C.N.

    1996-01-01

    Linear prediction filtering techniques have been used in studying the coupling processes between the solar wind and magnetosphere. Linear models were built and tested on the Bargatze data set, consisting of over 70 days of geomagnetic indices and solar wind data ordered in 34 intervals of increasing geomagnetic activity. Linear filtering techniques employing single-and multiple-input, autoregressive models predicted values of the magnetic index AL from solar wind data. The impulse response curves of the AL-coupling function groups showed amplitude peaks at 25 and 70 minutes, confirming results in previous studies. The separate peaks indicate responses corresponding to the driven and unloading time scales.

  15. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  16. Linear and nonlinear dust acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous magnetized dusty plasma with nonextensive electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Taibany, W. F. E-mail: eltaibany@hotmail.com; Selim, M. M.; Al-Abbasy, O. M.; El-Bedwehy, N. A.

    2014-07-15

    The propagation of both linear and nonlinear dust acoustic waves (DAWs) in an inhomogeneous magnetized collisional and warm dusty plasma (DP) consisting of Boltzmann ions, nonextensive electrons, and inertial dust particles is investigated. The number density gradients of all DP components besides the inhomogeneities of electrostatic potential and the initial dust fluid velocity are taken into account. The linear dispersion relation and a nonlinear modified Zakharov-Kusnetsov (MZK) equation governing the propagation of the three-dimensional DAWs are derived. The analytical solution of the MZK reveals the creation of both compressive and rarefactive DAW solitons in the proposed model. It is found that the inhomogeneity dimension parameter and the electron nonextensive parameter affect significantly the nonlinear DAW's amplitude, width, and Mach number. The relations of our findings with some astrophysical situations have been given.

  17. New non-linear photovoltaic effect in uniform bipolar semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volovichev, I.

    2014-11-21

    A linear theory of the new non-linear photovoltaic effect in the closed circuit consisting of a non-uniformly illuminated uniform bipolar semiconductor with neutral impurities is developed. The non-uniform photo-excitation of impurities results in the position-dependant current carrier mobility that breaks the semiconductor homogeneity and induces the photo-electromotive force (emf). As both the electron (or hole) mobility gradient and the current carrier generation rate depend on the light intensity, the photo-emf and the short-circuit current prove to be non-linear functions of the incident light intensity at an arbitrarily low illumination. The influence of the sample size on the photovoltaic effect magnitude is studied. Physical relations and distinctions between the considered effect and the Dember and bulk photovoltaic effects are also discussed.

  18. APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORK ALGORITHMS FOR BPM LINEARIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musson, John C.; Seaton, Chad; Spata, Mike F.; Yan, Jianxun

    2012-11-01

    Stripline BPM sensors contain inherent non-linearities, as a result of field distortions from the pickup elements. Many methods have been devised to facilitate corrections, often employing polynomial fitting. The cost of computation makes real-time correction difficult, particulalry when integer math is utilized. The application of neural-network technology, particularly the multi-layer perceptron algorithm, is proposed as an efficient alternative for electrode linearization. A process of supervised learning is initially used to determine the weighting coefficients, which are subsequently applied to the incoming electrode data. A non-linear layer, known as an ?activation layer,? is responsible for the removal of saturation effects. Implementation of a perceptron in an FPGA-based software-defined radio (SDR) is presented, along with performance comparisons. In addition, efficient calculation of the sigmoidal activation function via the CORDIC algorithm is presented.

  19. Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coffey, Howard T.

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle leviation.

  20. Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coffey, H.T.

    1993-10-19

    A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle levitation. 3 figures.