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1

Exposure factors handbook  

SciTech Connect

The document provides a summary of the available data on various factors used in assessing human exposure including drinking-water consumption, consumption rates of broad classes of food including fruits, vegetables, beef, dairy products, and fish; soil ingestion; inhalation rate; skin area; lifetime; activity patterns; and body weight. Additionally, a number of specific exposure scenarios are identified with recommendations for default values to use when site-specific data are not available. The basic equations using these parameters to calculate exposure levels are also presented for each scenario. Default values are presented as ranges from typical to reasonable worst case and as frequency distributions where appropriate data were available. Finally, procedures for assessing the uncertainties in exposure assessments are also presented with illustrative examples. These procedures include qualitative and quantitative methods such as Monte Carlo and sensitivity analysis.

Konz, J.J.; Lisi, K.; Friebele, E.; Dixon, D.A.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook - Appendix: Literature Review Database  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wildlife Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook Appendix: Literature Review Database Volume II of II United States Office of Research EPA/600/R-93/187 Environmental Protection and Development December 1993 Agency (8603) Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook Appendix: Literature Review Database Volume II of II EPA/600/R-93/187 December 1993 WILDLIFE EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK APPENDIX: LITERATURE REVIEW DATABASE Volume II of II Office of Health and Environmental Assessment Office of Research and Development U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C. 20460 Additional major funding for this Handbook was provided by the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response and by the Office of Science and Technology, Office of Water U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

3

Use of Personal-Indoor-Outdoor Sulfur Concentrations to Estimate the Infiltration Factor and Outdoor Exposure Factor for Individual Homes and Persons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Use of Personal-Indoor-Outdoor Sulfur Concentrations to Estimate the Infiltration Factor and Outdoor Exposure Factor for Individual Homes and Persons ...

Lance Wallace; Ron Williams:?

2005-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

4

Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review  

SciTech Connect

Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

Mendell, M.J.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Generalized parton distributions from nucleon form factor data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a simple empirical parameterization of the x- and t-dependence of generalized parton distributions at zero skewness, using forward parton distributions as input. A fit to experimental data for the Dirac, Pauli and axial form factors of the nucleon allows us to discuss quantitatively the interplay between longitudinal and transverse partonic degrees of freedom in the nucleon ("nucleon tomography"). In particular we obtain the transverse distribution of valence quarks at given momentum fraction x. We calculate various moments of the distributions, including the form factors that appear in the handbag approximation to wide-angle Compton scattering. This allows us to estimate the minimal momentum transfer required for reliable predictions in that approach to be around |t|~3 GeV^2. We also evaluate the valence contributions to the energy-momentum form factors entering Ji's sum rule.

M. Diehl; Th. Feldmann; R. Jakob; P. Kroll

2004-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

6

Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons  

SciTech Connect

Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons have been calculated for approximately 500 radionuclides of potential importance in environmental radiological assessments. The dose-rate factors were obtained using the DOSFACTER computer code. The results given in this report incorporate calculation of electron dose-rate factors for radiosensitive tissues of the skin, improved estimates of organ dose-rate factors for photons, based on organ doses for monoenergetic sources at the body surface of an exposed individual, and the spectra of scattered photons in air from monoenergetic sources in an infinite, uniformly contaminated atmospheric cloud, calculation of dose-rate factors for other radionuclides in addition to those of interest in the nuclear fuel cycle, and incorporation of updated radioactive decay data for all radionuclides. Dose-rate factors are calculated for three exposure modes - immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and exposure at a height of 1 m above a contaminated ground surface. The report presents the equations used to calculate the external dose-rate factors for photons and electrons, documentation of the revised DOSFACTER computer code, and a complete tabulation of the calculated dose-rate factors. 30 refs., 12 figs.

Kocher, D.C.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Development and evaluation of probability density functions for a set of human exposure factors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe efforts carried out during 1998 and 1999 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to assist the U.S. EPA in developing and ranking the robustness of a set of default probability distributions for exposure assessment factors. Among the current needs of the exposure-assessment community is the need to provide data for linking exposure, dose, and health information in ways that improve environmental surveillance, improve predictive models, and enhance risk assessment and risk management (NAS, 1994). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) plays a lead role in developing national guidance and planning future activities that support the EPA Superfund Program. OERR is in the process of updating its 1989 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) as part of the EPA Superfund reform activities. Volume III of RAGS, when completed in 1999 will provide guidance for conducting probabilistic risk assessments. This revised document will contain technical information including probability density functions (PDFs) and methods used to develop and evaluate these PDFs. The PDFs provided in this EPA document are limited to those relating to exposure factors.

Maddalena, R.L.; McKone, T.E.; Bodnar, A.; Jacobson, J.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

A Generalized Finite Source Calibration Factor: A Natural Improvement to the Finite Source Correction Factor for Uranium Holdup Measurements  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes refinements to the finite source correction factor used in holdup measurements. Specifically it focuses on a more general method to estimate the average detector response for a finite source. This proposed method for the average detector response is based directly on the Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) assay method. First, the finite source correction factor as originally proposed is reviewed in this paper. Following this review the GGH assay method is described. Lastly, a new finite area calibration factor based on GGH is then proposed for finite point and line sources. As an alternative to the direct use of the finite arca calibration factor, finite source correction factors are also derived from this calibration factor. This new correction factor can be used in a manner similar to the finite source correction factor as currently implemented.

Gunn, C.A.; Oberer, R.B.; chiang, L.G.; Ceo, R.N.

2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

9

Use of Personal-Indoor-Outdoor Sulfur Concentrations to Estimate the Infiltration Factor and Outdoor Exposure Factor for Individual Homes and Persons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Use of Personal-Indoor-Outdoor Sulfur Concentrations to Estimate the Infiltration Factor and Outdoor Exposure Factor for Individual Homes and Persons ... Indoor?outdoor comparisons of sulfur concentrations thus provide a direct way to estimate Finf for each individual home. ... Of 36 homes, 22 had intercepts not significantly different from zero, indicating no apparent source of sulfur in the home. ...

Lance Wallace; Ron Williams

2005-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

10

Nucleon generalized form factors with twisted mass fermions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results on the nucleon form factors, momentum fraction and helicity moment for $N_f=2$ and $N_f=2+1+1$ twisted mass fermions for a number of lattice volumes and lattice spacings. First results for a new $N_f=2$ ensemble at the physical pion mass are also included. The implications of these results on the spin content of the nucleon are discussed taking into account the disconnected contributions at one pion mass.

C. Alexandrou; M. Constantinou; V. Drach; K. Jansen; Ch. Kallidonis; G. Koutsou

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

11

General formula for the incidence factor of a solar heliostat receiver system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A general formula is derived for the effective incidence factor of an array of heliostat mirrors for solar power collection. The formula can be greatly simplified for arrays of high...

Wei, Ling Y

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

No generalized transverse momentum dependent factorization in the hadroproduction of high transverse momentum hadrons  

SciTech Connect

It has by now been established that standard QCD factorization using transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions fails in hadroproduction of nearly back-to-back hadrons with high transverse momentum. The essential problem is that gauge-invariant transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions cannot be defined with process-independent Wilson line operators, thus implying a breakdown of universality. This has led naturally to proposals that a correct approach is to instead use a type of generalized transverse momentum dependent factorization in which the basic factorized structure is assumed to remain valid, but with transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions that contain nonstandard, process-dependent Wilson line structures. In other words, to recover a factorization formula, it has become common to assume that it is sufficient to simply modify the Wilson lines in the parton correlation functions for each separate hadron. In this paper, we will illustrate by direct counterexample that this is not possible in a non-Abelian gauge theory. Since a proof of generalized transverse momentum dependent factorization should apply generally to any hard hadroproduction process, a single counterexample suffices to show that a general proof does not exist. Therefore, to make the counter-argument clear and explicit, we illustrate with a specific calculation for a double spin asymmetry in a spectator model with a non-Abelian gauge field. The observed breakdown of generalized transverse momentum dependent factorization challenges the notion that the role of parton transverse momentum in such processes can be described using separate correlation functions for each external hadron.

Rogers, Ted C.; Mulders, Piet J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

No Generalized TMD-Factorization in the Hadro-Production of High Transverse Momentum Hadrons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has by now been established that standard QCD factorization using transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions fails in hadro-production of nearly back-to-back hadrons with high transverse momentum. The essential problem is that gauge invariant transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions cannot be defined with process-independent Wilson line operators, thus implying a breakdown of universality. This has led naturally to proposals that a correct approach is to instead use a type of "generalized" transverse momentum dependent factorization in which the basic factorized structure is assumed to remain valid, but with transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions that contain non-standard, process dependent Wilson line structures. In other words, to recover a factorization formula, it has become common to assume that it is sufficient to simply modify the Wilson lines in the parton correlation functions for each separate hadron. In this paper, we will illustrate by direct counter-example that this is not possible in a non-Abelian gauge theory. Since a proof of generalized transverse momentum dependent factorization should apply generally to any hard hadro-production process, a single counter-example suffices to show that a general proof does not exist. Therefore, to make the counter-argument clear and explicit, we illustrate with a specific calculation for a double spin asymmetry in a spectator model with a non-Abelian gauge field. The observed breakdown of generalized transverse momentum dependent factorization challenges the notion that the role of parton transverse momentum in such processes can be described using separate correlation functions for each external hadron.

Ted C. Rogers; Piet J. Mulders

2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

14

Task- and Time-Dependent Weighting Factors in a Retrospective Exposure Assessment of Chemical Laboratory Workers  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported from a chemical exposure assessment that was conducted for a cohort mortality study of 6157 chemical laboratory workers employed between 1943 and 1998 at four Department of Energy sites in Oak Ridge, Tenn., and Aiken, S.C.

Scott A. Henn, David F. Utterback, Kathleen M. Waters, Andrea M. Markey, William G. Tankersley

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Energy content of macrobenthic invertebrates: general conversion factors from weight to energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In ecological studies, especially in those dealing with energy circulation in nature, determinations of the energy content of organisms are inevitable. Energy determinations are, however, laborious and time-consuming. Average conversion factors based on different species form various areas and seasons may often be a shortcut for overcoming this problem. To establish general energy conversion factors for aquatic invertebrate groups, we used 376 values of J · mg?1 DW and 255 values of J · mg?1 AFDW, representing 308 and 229 species, respectively. The dry-weight-to-energy factors were highly variable both within and between taxonomic groups, e.g.: Porifera, 6.1 J · mg?1 DW; insect larvae, 22.4 J · mg?1 DW (median values). The energy-conversion factors related to AFDW showed a much smaller dispersion with a minimum median value of 19.7 J · mg?1 AFDW (Ascidiacea) and a maximum of 23.8 J · mg?1 AFDW (insect larvae). Within taxonomic groups, the 95% confidence intervals (AFDW) were only a few percent of the median values. The use of energy-conversion factors based on AFDW is preferable due to their lower dispersion. For aquatic macrobenthic invertebrates, a general conversion factor of 23 J · mg?1 AFDW can be used.

Thomas Brey; Heye Rumohr; Sven Ankar

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

General formula for the incidence factor of a solar heliostat receiver system  

SciTech Connect

A general formula is derived for the effective incidence factor of an array of heliostat mirrors for solar power collection. The formula can be greatly simplified for arrays of high symmetry and offers quick computation of the performance of the array. It shows clearly how the mirror distribution and locations affect the overall performance and thus provide a useful guidance for the design of a solar heliostat receiver system.

Wei, L.Y.

1980-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

General description of Dirac spin-rotation effect with relativistic factor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Mashhoon rotation-spin coupling is studied by means of the parallelism description of general relativity. The relativistic rotational tetrad is exploited, which results in the Minkowski metric, and the torsion axial-vector and Dirac spin coupling will give the Mashhoon rotation-spin term. For the high speed rotating cases, the tangent velocity constructed by the angular velocity $\\Ome$ multiplying the distance r may exceed over the speed of light c, i.e., $\\Ome r \\ge c$, which will make the relativistic factor $\\gamma$ infinity or imaginary. In order to avoid this "meaningless" difficulty occurred in $\\gamma$ factor, we choose to make the rotation nonuniform and position-dependent in a particular way, and then we find that the new rotation-spin coupling energy expression is consistent with the previous results in the low speed limit.

C. M. Zhang

2007-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

18

Measurement of the generalized form factors near threshold via ?*p ? n?+ at high Q2  

We report the first extraction of the pion-nucleon multipoles near the production threshold for the n?+ channel at relatively high momentum transfer (Q2 up to 4.2 GeV2). The dominance of the s-wave transverse multipole (E0+), expected in this region, allowed us to access the generalized form factor G1 within the light-cone sum rule (LCSR) framework as well as the axial form factor GA. The data analyzed in this work were collected by the nearly 4? CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) using a 5.754-GeV electron beam on a proton target. The differential cross section and the ?-N multipole E0+/GD were measured using two different methods, the LCSR and a direct multipole fit. The results from the two methods are found to be consistent and almost Q2 independent.

Park, K; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Bennett, R P; Biselli, A S; Bookwalter, C; Boiarinov, S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Euginio, P; Fedotov, G; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Graham, L; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Khandaker, M; Khertarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Kubarovsky, A; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paolone, M; Pappalardo, L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, S; Anefalos Pereira, S; Phelps, E; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Ricco, G; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabati ee, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, E S; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tian, Y; Tkachenko, S; Trivedi, A; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

19

Characterization of guinea pig transfer factor collected by In vivo exposure to antilymphocyte gamma globulin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

but have found difficulties in the reliability of the ALS treatment. They have characterized their transfer factor-like material from the plasma of sensitive donors as dialyzable, having a 280nm/260nm absorbance ratio of 0. 71, and having electrophoretic..., at the same pH. The dialysis membrane tubing (Union Carbide Corp. ) was prepared for use by. boiling in a calcium carbonate solution for 5 min, rinsing in distilled water, and storing in 50) ethanol at 4 C. Prior to use~ the membrane tubing was thoroughly...

Stewart, Robert Stanley

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 564 (2006) 319323 Passive monitoring of the equilibrium factor inside a radon exposure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-lived radon progeny contributes about half of the total exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation of the determined ranges of F for a few LR 115 SSNTDs can give a very good estimate of the true equilibrium factor. It is also well known that the radon dose delivered to the lungs is not attributed to the radon gas itself

Yu, K.N.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants  

SciTech Connect

This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. • land use • water use • CO2 emissions • radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

A general moment NRIXS approach to the determination of equilibrium Fe isotopic fractionation factors: application to goethite and jarosite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We measured the reduced partition function ratios for iron isotopes in goethite FeO(OH), potassium-jarosite KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6, and hydronium-jarosite (H3O)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6, by Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering (NRIXS, also known as Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy -NRVS- or Nuclear Inelastic Scattering -NIS) at the Advanced Photon Source. These measurements were made on synthetic minerals enriched in 57Fe. A new method (i.e., the general moment approach) is presented to calculate {\\beta}-factors from the moments of the NRIXS spectrum S(E). The first term in the moment expansion controls iron isotopic fractionation at high temperature and corresponds to the mean force constant of the iron bonds, a quantity that is readily measured and often reported in NRIXS studies.

Dauphas, N; Alp, E E; Golden, D C; Sio, C K; Tissot, F L H; Hu, M; Zhao, J; Gao, L; Morris, R V

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Surreptitious Lead Exposure from an Asian Indian Medication  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......case-report Case Report Surreptitious Lead Exposure from an...during routine biological monitoring for lead exposure conducted...the general public. Surreptitious lead exposure from an...during routine biological monitoring for lead exposure conducted......

Leon A. Saryan

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Modeling Residential Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transfer factors for air pollution health risk assessment.combustion, air pollution exposure, and health: The situa-

Klepeis, Neil E; Nazaroff, William W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Exposure of Bacillus subtilis to Low Pressure (5 Kilopascals) Induces Several Global Regulons, Including Those Involved in the SigB-Mediated General Stress Response  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...whose products are involved in energy stress activation of the SigB...three pathways responsive to energy stress (65); exposure to...the NASA Planetary Biology Internship (PBI) program to J.A...beta hydrolase is required for energy stress activation of the sigma...

Samantha M. Waters; José A. Robles-Martínez; Wayne L. Nicholson

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

27

The Comet Assay as a Rapid Test in Biomonitoring Occupational Exposure to DNA-damaging Agents and Effect of Confounding Factors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...3-butadiene production plant. 1,3-Butadiene...that is used in the production of synthetic rubber...workers in the production unit were exposed...effect of exposure to solar radiation by the...population of scored cells; Ref. 66 ). There...protective effect. Organic Solvents and Hydrocarbons...

Peter Møller; Lisbeth E. Knudsen; Steffen Loft; and Håkan Wallin

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

29

Measurement of the generalized form factors near threshold via ?*p ? n?+ at high Q2  

SciTech Connect

We report the first extraction of the pion-nucleon multipoles near the production threshold for the n?+ channel at relatively high momentum transfer (Q2 up to 4.2 GeV2). The dominance of the s-wave transverse multipole (E0+), expected in this region, allowed us to access the generalized form factor G1 within the light-cone sum rule (LCSR) framework as well as the axial form factor GA. The data analyzed in this work were collected by the nearly 4? CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) using a 5.754-GeV electron beam on a proton target. The differential cross section and the ?-N multipole E0+/GD were measured using two different methods, the LCSR and a direct multipole fit. The results from the two methods are found to be consistent and almost Q2 independent.

Park, K; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Bennett, R P; Biselli, A S; Bookwalter, C; Boiarinov, S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Euginio, P; Fedotov, G; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Graham, L; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Khandaker, M; Khertarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Kubarovsky, A; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paolone, M; Pappalardo, L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, S; Anefalos Pereira, S; Phelps, E; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Ricco, G; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabati ee, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, E S; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tian, Y; Tkachenko, S; Trivedi, A; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

30

E-Print Network 3.0 - activity exposure rate Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

residential sources contributed to variability in total PM2.5 exposures... rates and penetration factors were applied to estimate the exposure. Modeling with multiple zones...

31

Radiation Exposure from CT Examinations in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computed tomography (CT) is the largest source of medical radiation exposure to the general population, and is ... assess the current situation of CT use in Japan, and to investigate variations in radiation expos...

Yoshito Tsushima; Ayako Taketomi-Takahashi; Hiroyuki Takei…

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Track 3: Exposure Hazards  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 3: Exposure Hazards

33

General Education GENERAL EDUCATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the pursuit of truth, the intellectual and ethical development of students, and the general well the consequences of human actions. E. Cross-Cultural Awareness Demonstrate the ability to critically compare

Stuart, Steven J.

34

AC field exposure study: human exposure to 60-Hz electric fields  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to develop a method of estimating human exposure to the 60 Hz electric fields created by transmission lines. The Activity Systems Model simulates human activities in a variety of situations where exposure to electric fields is possible. The model combines maps of electric fields, activity maps, and experimentally determined activity factors to provide histograms of time spent in electric fields of various strengths in the course of agricultural, recreational, and domestic activities. For corroboration, the study team measured actual human exposure at locations across the United States near transmission lines ranging in voltage from 115 to 1200 kV. The data were collected with a specially designed vest that measures exposure. These data demonstrate the accuracy of the exposure model presented in this report and revealed that most exposure time is spent in fields of magnitudes similar to many household situations. The report provides annual exposure estimates for human activities near transmission lines and in the home and compares them with exposure data from typical laboratory animal experiments. For one exposure index, the cumulative product of time and electric field, exposure during some of the laboratory animal experiments is two to four orders of magnitude greater than cumulative exposure for a human during one year of outdoor work on a farm crossed by a transmission line.

Silva, J.M.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Exposure Evaluation Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

symptoms, further evaluation by HCP, and recommendations from evaluation by referral. It is a clinical judgment based on the history of the exposure, including what is...

36

Avian inhalation exposure chamber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exposure system for delivering gaseous material ranging in particle size from 0.4 micrometers to 20.0 micrometers uniformly to the heads of experimental animals, primarily birds. The system includes a vertical outer cylinder and a central chimney with animal holding bottles connected to exposure ports on the vertical outer cylinder.

Briant, James K. (P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352); Driver, Crystal J. (P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Avian inhalation exposure chamber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exposure system is designed for delivering gaseous material ranging in particle size from 0.4 micrometers to 20.0 micrometers uniformly to the heads of experimental animals, primarily birds. The system includes a vertical outer cylinder and a central chimney with animal holding bottles connected to exposure ports on the vertical outer cylinder. 2 figs.

Briant, J.K.; Driver, C.J.

1992-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

38

Commuting behaviors and exposure to air pollution in Montreal, Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractBackground Vehicular traffic is a major source of outdoor air pollution in urban areas, and studies have shown that air pollution is worse during hours of commuting to and from work and school. However, it is unclear to what extent different commuting behaviors are a source of air pollution compared to non-commuters, and if air pollution exposure actually differs by the mode of commuting. This study aimed to examine the relationships between commuting behaviors and air pollution exposure levels measured by urinary 1-OHP (1-hydroxypyrene), a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Methods A cross-sectional study of 174 volunteers living in Montreal, 92 females and 82 males, aged 20 to 53 years was conducted in 2011. Each participant completed a questionnaire regarding demographic factors, commuting behaviors, home and workplace addresses, and potential sources of PAH exposure, and provided a complete first morning void urine sample for 1-OHP analysis. Multivariable general linear regression models were used to examine the relationships between different types of commuting and urinary 1-OHP levels. Results Compared to non-commuters, commuters traveling by foot or bicycle and by car or truck had a significantly higher urinary 1-OHP concentration in urine (p = 0.01 for foot or bicycle vs. non-commuters; p = 0.02 for car or truck vs. non-commuters); those traveling with public transportation and combinations of two or more types of modes tended to have an increased 1-OHP level in urine (p = 0.06 for public transportation vs. non-commuters; p = 0.05 for commuters with combinations of two or more types of modes vs. non-commuters). No significant difference in urinary 1-OHP variation was found by mode of commuting. Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that despite the mode of commuting, all types of commuting during rush hours increase exposure to air pollution as measured by a sensitive PAH metabolite biomarker, and mode of commuting did not explain exposure variation.

Qun Miao; Michèle Bouchard; Dongmei Chen; Mark W. Rosenberg; Kristan J. Aronson

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958  

SciTech Connect

In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

VOC Exposure Metrics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 VOC Exposure Metrics ... and "Sick Building Syndrome" Figure1: The elevated odds ratios (above unity) in this figure suggest that exposures to VOCs from water-based points and solvents are associated with a variety of sick building symptions (* indicates the OR is significant at p < 0.05; ** for p < 0.01). The indoors is often regarded as safe haven from problems associated with outdoor air pollution, but a growing number of reports have suggested that exposures in indoor environments may lead to health problems. One area in which evidence has been accumulating is the relationship between working in office buildings (as opposed to industrial exposure conditions) and a variety of health effects, such as eye, nose, and throat irritation and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Microenvironmental Exposures to VOCs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microenvironmental Exposures to VOCs Microenvironmental Exposures to VOCs Speaker(s): Miranda Loh Date: February 1, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 The Boston Exposure Assessment in Microenvironments (BEAM) study was designed to examine the concentration distributions of VOCs in various microenvironments in and around Boston with the main objective of reducing the uncertainties in predicting exposure levels. A suite of VOC's with potential health effects including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, several chlorinated compounds and aldehydes were collected in all microenvironments. Phase I. BEAM examined common non-residential microenvironments that have not been extensively studied, in particular, dining, shopping, and transportation microenvironments. Sampling using scripted activities in these microenvironments. For some compounds,

42

Oriel UV Exposure Station  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and a mask holder for standard 5" x 5" optical masks. Capabilities: Light Source 1000 Watt Hg(Xe) lamp Wavelength range: 220-450 nm Digital timer for exposure control with...

43

Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and apparatus for providing ultra accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing of samples under controlled weathering without introducing unrealistic failure mechanisms in exposed materials and without breaking reciprocity relationships between flux exposure levels and cumulative dose that includes multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity at high levels of natural sunlight comprising: a) concentrating solar flux uniformly; b) directing the controlled uniform sunlight onto sample materials in a chamber enclosing multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity to allow the sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a sufficient period of time in days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth of representative weathering of the sample materials.

Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Bingham, Carl (Lakewood, CO); Goggin, Rita (Englewood, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Netter, Judy C. (Westminster, CO)

2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

44

Guidelines for Exposure Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Z-92/001 Z-92/001 May 1992 Guidelines for Exposure Assessment Published on May 29, 1992, Federal Register 57(104):22888-22938 These guidelines replace the previously issued final Guidelines for Estimating Exposures (September 24, 1986), Federal Register 51(185):34042-34054, and the Proposed Guidelines for Exposure-Related Measurements (December 2, 1988), Federal Register 53(232):48830- 48853. Risk Assessment Forum U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. Note: This document represents the final guidelines. A number of editorial corrections have

45

General Engineers  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

General Engineers General Engineers The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the General Engineer, whose work is associated with analytical studies and evaluation projects pertaining to the operations of the energy industry. Responsibilities: General Engineers perform or participate in one or more of the following important functions: * Design modeling systems to represent energy markets and the physical properties of energy industries * Conceive, initiate, monitor and/or conduct planning and evaluation projects and studies of continuing and future

46

Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) repository.

47

General Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... principally in the Journal of the Franklin Institute. These ideas relate to a study of thermodynamics from what the author calls a generalized point of view, which concerns itself with ... from what the author calls a generalized point of view, which concerns itself with the thermodynamics of metastable states and irreversible processes as wall as with the stable states and reversible ...

R. W. HAYWOOD

1956-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

48

Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde, Hematotoxicity, and Leukemia-Specific Chromosome Changes in Cultured Myeloid Progenitor Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...excess of exposure levels in the general population. Characteristics of...chemicals in excess of levels in the general population. It is theoretically...Emission comparison of urban bus engine fueled with diesel oil and biodiesel blend. Sci...

Luoping Zhang; Xiaojiang Tang; Nathaniel Rothman; Roel Vermeulen; Zhiying Ji; Min Shen; Chuangyi Qiu; Weihong Guo; Songwang Liu; Boris Reiss; Laura Beane Freeman; Yichen Ge; Alan E. Hubbard; Ming Hua; Aaron Blair; Noe Galvan; Xiaolin Ruan; Blanche P. Alter; Kerry X. Xin; Senhua Li; Lee E. Moore; Sungkyoon Kim; Yuxuan Xie; Richard B. Hayes; Mariko Azuma; Michael Hauptmann; Jun Xiong; Patricia Stewart; Laiyu Li; Stephen M. Rappaport; Hanlin Huang; Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr.; Martyn T. Smith; and Qing Lan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Number of Nevi and Early-Life Ambient UV Exposure Are Associated with BRAF-Mutant Melanoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Epidemiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico; Departments of 5 Pathology and...regarding their risk factors. Ambient solar UV exposures were estimated using...increased number of melanocytic nevi, solar UV exposure, including high levels...

Nancy E. Thomas; Sharon N. Edmiston; Audrey Alexander; Robert C. Millikan; Pamela A. Groben; Honglin Hao; Dawn Tolbert; Marianne Berwick; Klaus Busam; Colin B. Begg; Dianne Mattingly; David W. Ollila; Chiu Kit Tse; Amanda Hummer; Julia Lee-Taylor; and Kathleen Conway

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Empirical Estimation of Biota Exposure Range for Calculation of Bioaccumulation Parameters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and biota­sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) are frequently used to predict contaminant bioaccumulation for optimizing bioaccumulation parameters (BAF and BSAF) in aquatic species, such as fish, whose exposure history. Keywords: Bioaccumulation factor Exposure range BSAF Sediments INTRODUCTION Legacy pollutants have severely

51

Generalized Greedy Algorithm for Shortest Superstring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an approximation factor of 2. The greedy set covering algorithm. To see that the approximation factor of GreedyHn factor approximation algorithm, using the greedy set cover algorithm [11], where Hn = 1 + 1 2 + 1 of optimal set and generalize the primitive greedy algorithm. The generalized algorithm can be reduced

Markowitch, Olivier

52

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports September 24, 2013 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2012 Report...

53

Occupational Radiation Exposure | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Radiation Exposure Welcome The Occupational Radiation Exposure Information page on this web page is intended to provide the latest available information on radiation exposure to...

54

General Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ASD General Information ASD General Information APS Resources & Information A list of useful links for APS staff and users. APS Technical Publications Links to APS technical publications. APS Publications Database The official and comprehensive source of references for APS-related journal articles, conference papers, book chapters, dissertations, abstracts, awards, invited talks, etc. Image Library A collection of APS images. Responsibilities & Interfaces for APS Technical Systems Descriptions of the responsibilities of APS technical groups and how they interface with one another. APS Procedures Operational procedures for the APS. APS Specifications Specifications and approvals for upgrades or changes to existing APS hardware and software. APS Radiation Safety Policy & Procedures Committee Minutes

55

Exposure to transmission line electric fields during farming operations  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an analysis of exposure to transmission line electric fields during typical farming operations. This analysis makes use of experimentally determined ''activity factors'' and time budget information for typical farms as compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A detailed exposure assessment for 18 ''typical farms'' (as defined by USDA) is provided for a base case 345 kV design. Exposure estimates for transmission lines ranging from 115-765 kV are provided for a representative farm.

Silva, M.; Huber, D.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Interactions between the glutathione pathway enzymes and tobacco smoke exposure on lung function outcomes and asthma related phenotypes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??[Truncated abstract] It is well recognised that complex diseases such as asthma, atopy and other related phenotypes are influenced by genetic factors and environmental exposures.… (more)

Murdzoska, Jasminka

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

SciTech Connect: Generalized displacement correlation method...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Journal Article: Generalized displacement correlation method for estimating stress intensity factors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generalized displacement correlation...

58

Superfund Exposure Assessment Manual  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1-881001 1-881001 OSWER Directive 9285.5-1 April 1988 Superfund Exposure Assessment Manual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Remedial Response Washington, DC 20460 Notice This report was prepared under contract to an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any of its employees, contractors, subcontractors, or their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for any third party' s use of or the results of such use of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use by such third party would not infringe on privately owned rights. ii Table of Contents Chapter Page List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

Inspector General  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of the Under Secretary for Nuclear Security Edward B. Held (Acting) Under Secretary for Nuclear Security DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of the Under Secretary for Management & Performance Vacant Under Secretary for Management and Performance Office of the Under Secretary for Science & Energy Vacant Under Secretary for Science and Energy Southwestern Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Southeastern Power Administration U.S. Energy Information Administration Loan Programs Office Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy General Counsel Assistant Secretary for Congressional & Intergovernmental Affairs Chief Human Capital Officer

60

Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants  

SciTech Connect

A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

Shinn, J.H.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Cadmium exposure in association with history of stroke and heart failure  

SciTech Connect

Background: It is unclear whether environmental cadmium exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease, although recent data suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of measured cadmium exposure with stroke and heart failure (HF) in the general population. Methods: We analyzed data from 12,049 participants, aged 30 years and older, in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for whom information was available on body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and socio-demographic characteristics. Results: At their interviews, 492 persons reported a history of stroke, and 471 a history of HF. After adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, a 50% increase in blood cadmium corresponded to a 35% increased odds of prevalent stroke [OR: 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.65] and a 50% increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 9% increase in prevalent stroke [OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00-1.19]. This association was higher among women [OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.11-1.72] than men [OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 0.93-1.79] (p-value for interaction=0.05). A 50% increase in blood cadmium corresponded to a 48% increased odds of prevalent HF [OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.17-1.87] and a 50% increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 12% increase in prevalent HF [OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20], with no difference in sex-specific associations. Conclusions: Environmental exposure to cadmium was associated with significantly increased stroke and heart failure prevalence. Cadmium exposure may increase these important manifestations of cardiovascular disease.

Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: jpeters@hsph.harvard.edu [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Perlstein, Todd S. [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Perry, Melissa J.; McNeely, Eileen [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Weuve, Jennifer [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States) [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University, Chicago, IL (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

General Category  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sunrise and Sunset Visual Differences Sunrise and Sunset Visual Differences Name: Joey Status: other Grade: other Country: Canada Date: Spring 2012 Question: It seems that sunrise and sunset don't look symmetric. I mean that sunsets tend to have much redder skies and sunrise is usually a bit gloomier. If you see a picture, many times you can tell if its sunrise or sunset, even though I would think they should like identical, except that the sun is either going up or going down. Why do they not appear the same but in reverse? Replies: Funny you should ask as a paper just arrived which is sure to have the answer and I will read it now....... OK, the morning sky, and the sky in general, is blue due to Rayleigh scattering [which affects short wavelengths the most] of the sun light by air molecules and other microscopic particles.

63

Low Dose Radiation Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo. 1 Blyth, B.J., 1 Sykes, P.J. 1 Department of Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Bedford Park, South Australia, 5042, The general population is daily exposed to chronic, low doses of ionizing radiation from both natural and artificial sources. The shape of the radiation dose-response curve at these low doses is currently linearly extrapolated from data obtained after high dose exposure due to the low sensitivity of traditional biological assays after near-background exposures. At odds with this Linear No-Threshold model, are the phenomena collectively referred to as the radiation-induced bystander effect. The bystander effect describes a collection of in vitro

64

Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case–control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case–control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

Jolyon H Hendry; Steven L Simon; Andrzej Wojcik; Mehdi Sohrabi; Werner Burkart; Elisabeth Cardis; Dominique Laurier; Margot Tirmarche; Isamu Hayata

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Can UV Exposure Reduce Mortality?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with cancer mortality, such as solar elastosis and serum vitamin...studies conducted on the role of solar UV exposure and melanoma etiology...27); increased DNA repair capacity (e.g, 28); as well as...Boscoe FP , Schymura MJ.Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and...

Marianne Berwick

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Reducing Indoor Residential Exposures to Outdoor Pollutants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Indoor Residential Exposures to Outdoor Pollutants Reducing Indoor Residential Exposures to Outdoor Pollutants Title Reducing Indoor Residential Exposures to Outdoor Pollutants Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-51758 Year of Publication 2003 Authors Sherman, Max H., and Nance Matson Start Page Chapter Abstract Basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks

67

Noise exposures in US coal mines  

SciTech Connect

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) inspectors conduct full-shift environmental noise surveys to determine the occupational noise levels to which coal miners are exposed. These noise surveys are performed to determine compliance with the noise standard promulgated under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Data from over 60,000 full-shift noise surveys conducted from fiscal year 1986 through 1992 were entered into a computer data base to facilitate analysis. This paper presents the mean and standard deviation of over 60,000 full-shift noise dose measurements for various underground and surface coal mining occupations. Additionally, it compares and contrasts the levels with historical noise exposure measurements for selected coal mining occupations that were published in the 1970`s. The findings were that the percentage of miners surveyed that were subjected to noise exposures above 100%, neglecting personal hearing protectors, were 26.5% and 21.6% for surface and underground mining, respectively. Generally, the trend is that the noise exposures for selected occupations have decreased since the 1970`s.

Seiler, J.P.; Valoski, M.P.; Crivaro, M.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

MarineMammalNoiseExposureCriteria 435 Weighting(dB)Weighting(dB)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of SEL is based on the assumption that sounds of equivalent energy will have generally similar effects exposure pattern (Kryter, 1970; Nielsen et al., 1986; Yost, 1994; NIOSH, 1998). Under the equal-energy assumption, at exposure levels above TTS-onset, each doubling of sound duration is associated with a 3 d

69

Receptor modeling assessment of particle total exposure assessment methodology data  

SciTech Connect

Data from the 1991 Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (PTEAM) study in Riverside, CA, were analyzed using a new receptor modeling method. In this study, ambient (outdoor), indoor, and personal particulate matter (PM) concentrations and elemental concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} were measured for a number of participants. These measurements made is possible to relate the pollution to which people were exposed throughout their daily activities with the outdoor air conditions. Personal daytime concentrations of the PM{sub 10} and majority of elements were significantly higher than outdoor or indoor concentrations, suggesting that a significant part of personal aerosol exposure is the result of personal daily activities. Possible sources of additional particulate mass include resuspension of particles that penetrate from the outdoors and formation of new particles during cooking, smoking, etc. Positive matrix factorization analysis was performed to describe the sources of personal exposure. To identify relative contribution of different sources, regression of the particulate matter mass against the factor contributions was performed. Major sources of PM{sub 2.5} were oil combustion, nonferrous metal operations, and motor vehicles. The mass contributions of particles from these sources were similar for outdoor air and personal exposure. Personal exposure to particles from these sources can be controlled by changing outdoor sources. The primary source of PM{sub 10} was soil.

Yakovleva, E.; Hopke, P.K.; Wallace, L.

1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Youth Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Adjustment: The Role of Cognitive Appraisals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exposure to community violence (CV) is a significant risk factor that many urban youth experience. CV is significantly predictive of a host of psychological difficulties; however, not all youth experience psychological problems and actually exhibit...

Drerup, Lauren

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

71

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation

72

Can UV Exposure Reduce Mortality?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Cancer Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001. Phone: 505-272-4369...Affiliation: University of New Mexico Cancer Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico A Swedish cohort analysis in...recommendations are based on minimal solar exposure (i.e., almost...

Marianne Berwick

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

available on the U.S. Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System Program Web Site at: http:energy.govehssoccupational-radiation-exposure Foreword iii MATTHEW B....

74

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2008 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2008.

75

Comparing Accelerated Testing and Outdoor Exposure | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Comparing Accelerated Testing and Outdoor Exposure Comparing Accelerated Testing and Outdoor Exposure Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013,...

76

ANNUAL DOE OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE | 2013 REPORT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2013.

77

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2004 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE 2004 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2004.

78

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2000 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE 2000 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2000.

79

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1999 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1999 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at DOE facilities during the calendar year 1999.

80

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1974 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Seventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for AEC & AEC Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its contractor employees during 1974.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1997 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1997 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1997.

82

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1995 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1995 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1995.

83

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1996 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1996.

84

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1998 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1998 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at DOE facilities during the calendar year 1998.

85

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2001 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE 2001 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2001.

86

Quantification of the relationship between pulmonary ventilation rate and vapor contaminant concentration in exposure profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Human Factor's Laboratory located on the garage level of the Zachry Engineering Center was used as the exposure chamber facility. It has an approximate volume of 107, 000 liters. Through the use of an elaborate environmental monitoring... The Human Factor's Laboratory located on the garage level of the Zachry Engineering Center was used as the exposure chamber facility. It has an approximate volume of 107, 000 liters. Through the use of an elaborate environmental monitoring...

Horbal, Terrence Myron

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

87

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

Kudela, Raphael M.

88

BASICS OF GENERALIZED PARTON DISTRIBUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of the theory of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is given. We discuss the basic concepts of the GPD theory and relationship between GPDs and simpler phenomenological functions, viz. form factors, parton densities and distribution amplitudes. A special emphasis is given to the formulation of GPDs in terms of double distributions.

Anatoly Radyushkin

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Occupational exposures of airborne trichloramine at indoor swimming pools in Taipei  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ten indoor swimming pools in Taipei, Taiwan were included in the study to assess the exposure of people to airborne trichloramine (NCl3) and also to discover the factors that might affect the associated concentrations. An active air sampling method was performed to determine the levels of NCl3, while questionnaires were administered to swimming pool workers, including lifeguards, swimming instructors, and management employees. The results show that the concentrations of trichloramine ranged from 0.017 to 0.15 mg m? 3, which were generally lower than what have been reported from other studies. Symptoms of sore throat and phlegm were more frequent among lifeguards and swimming instructors (exposure group) than management employees (reference group) (odds ratios were 11.28 and 4.22 for sore throat and phlegm, respectively). It seems that the current exposure limit for airborne NCl3, which was recommended by WHO, was not lower enough to protect the health of pool attendants. Regulated level of free available chlorine in Taipei (i.e., 0.3–0.7 ppm) is lower than what is required in other countries (e.g., 1–3 ppm in the UK). This might be the main reason why the concentrations of \\{NCl3\\} reported elsewhere were higher than what were found in this research. Further international comparisons will help to elucidate if low free chlorine concentration should be adopted as an operating standard. For the indoor swimming pools in Taipei, the air quality is suggested to be improved, since even with the low concentrations of NCl3, higher respiratory ailments among pool workers were observed.

Tsai-Shu Chu; Shu-Fang Cheng; Gen-Shuh Wang; Shih-Wei Tsai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight Exposure Testing Facilities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS onto a secondary reflector that delivers a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in a chamber that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up to 100.times. of natural sunlight that allow sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a significant period of time of about 3 to 10 days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth representative weathering of sample materials.

Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO)

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

91

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure Pamela J Sykes, Michelle R Newman, Benjamin J Blyth and Rebecca J Ormsby Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 Australia. (pam.sykes@flinders.edu.au). Our goal is to study the mechanisms involved in biological responses to low doses of radiation in vivo in the dose range that is relevant to population and occupational exposures. At high radiation doses, DNA double-strand breaks are considered the critical lesion underlying the initiation of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, at the very low radiation doses relevant for the general public, the induction of DNA double-strand breaks

92

Ecological Exposure Limits and Guidelines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ecological exposure limits and guidelines represent the maximum level of a chemical substance that is considered to be safe or acceptable in environmental releases or compartments. The ecological exposure limits are established to protect the ecosystems and environmental resources and may refer to the emissions, e.g., effluents, atmospheric emissions or discharges, or to the final concentration in the receiving body, e.g., water, sediment, or soil. There are two main methods for setting these limits. One focuses on the identification of best available practices for different sectors and processes; the other is a particular case of risk assessment, named by some authors as reverse risk assessment, which establishes the maximum level in the emission or receiving compartment maintaining an acceptable level of risk. The term ‘exposure limit’ is rarely used in the ecological context; the most usual terms are criteria, standards, or objectives.

J.V. Tarazona

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Eight-year atmospheric corrosion exposure of steels in China  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric exposures were made of 17 steels at seven sites in China over 8 years. The exposed steels included the most common carbon steels and low-alloy weathering steels. Testing sites covered typical conditions of temperature, subtropical, industrial, marine, rural, humid, and dry environments. Data were regressed, and it was shown that long-term corrosion behavior could be predicted by 4-year exposure data. The environmental factor of humid, hot temperatures was much more important over the long term than the ordinarily acknowledged factors of humidity, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and chloride ion (Cl{sup {minus}}) pollution. Apart from the commonly acknowledged effect on corrosion resistance of high phosphorus and copper content, significant effects were observed with variation of copper, phosphorus, and sulfur content in carbon steels and copper-free low-alloy steels in corrosive environments. New ways of developing weathering steels were discussed, and a concept of economic weathering steel was suggested.

Hou, W.; Liang, C. [Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, Wheat Island, Qingdao (China). Qingdao Research Inst. for Marine Corrosion

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Douglas Factors  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Merit Systems Protection Board in its landmark decision, Douglas vs. Veterans Administration, 5 MSPR 280, established criteria that supervisors must consider in determining an appropriate penalty to impose for an act of employee misconduct. These twelve factors are commonly referred to as “Douglas Factors” and have been incorporated into the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Personnel Management System and various FAA Labor Agreements.

95

IWGT report on quantitative approaches to genotoxicity risk assessment II. Use of point-of-departure (PoD) metrics in defining acceptable exposure limits and assessing human risk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This is the second of two reports from the International Workshops on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) Working Group on Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Toxicology Risk Assessment (the QWG). The first report summarized the discussions and recommendations of the QWG related to the need for quantitative dose–response analysis of genetic toxicology data, the existence and appropriate evaluation of threshold responses, and methods to analyze exposure-response relationships and derive points of departure (PoDs) from which acceptable exposure levels could be determined. This report summarizes the QWG discussions and recommendations regarding appropriate approaches to evaluate exposure-related risks of genotoxic damage, including extrapolation below identified PoDs and across test systems and species. Recommendations include the selection of appropriate genetic endpoints and target tissues, uncertainty factors and extrapolation methods to be considered, the importance and use of information on mode of action, toxicokinetics, and metabolism, and exposure biomarkers when using quantitative exposure-response data to determine acceptable exposure levels in human populations or to assess the risk associated with known or anticipated exposures. The empirical relationship between genetic damage (mutation and chromosomal aberration) and cancer in animal models was also examined. It was concluded that there is a general correlation between cancer induction and mutagenic and/or clastogenic damage for agents thought to act via a genotoxic mechanism, but that the correlation is limited due to an inadequate number of cases in which mutation and cancer can be compared at a sufficient number of doses in the same target tissues of the same species and strain exposed under directly comparable routes and experimental protocols.

James T. MacGregor; Roland Frötschl; Paul A. White; Kenny S. Crump; David A. Eastmond; Shoji Fukushima; Melanie Guérard; Makoto Hayashi; Lya Soeteman-Hernandez; George E. Johnson; Toshio Kasamatsu; Dan D. Levy; Takeshi Morita; Lutz Müller; Rita Schoeny; Maik J. Schuler; Véronique Thybaud

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Occupation, Exposure to Chemicals, Sensitizing Agents, and Risk of Multiple Myeloma in Sweden  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation, asbestos, metals, engine exhausts, and specific solvents...fishing sector both in the general cohort [RR, 1.18; 95 confidence...associations observed in the general cohort. Third, the so-called...etiologic agents, exposure to diesel exhausts, zoonotic virus infections...

Virginia Lope; Beatriz Pérez-Gómez; Nuria Aragonés; Gonzalo López-Abente; Per Gustavsson; Nils Plato; Jan-Paul Zock; and Marina Pollán

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Neglecting health effects from indoor pollutant emissions and exposure, as currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers? or consumers? health. To close this gap, methods for considering indoor exposure to chemicals are needed to complement the methods for outdoor human exposure assessment already in use. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. A new methodological framework is proposed for a general procedure to include human-health effects from indoor exposure in LCA. Exposure models from occupational hygiene and household indoor air quality studies and practices are critically reviewed and recommendations are provided on the appropriateness of various model alternatives in the context of LCA. A single-compartment box model is recommended for use as a default in LCA, enabling one to screen occupational and household exposures consistent with the existing models to assess outdoor emission in a multimedia environment. An initial set of model parameter values was collected. The comparison between indoor and outdoor human exposure per unit of emission shows that for many pollutants, intake per unit of indoor emission may be several orders of magnitude higher than for outdoor emissions. It is concluded that indoor exposure should be routinely addressed within LCA.

Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Meijer, Arjen; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; McKone, Thomas E.

2008-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

98

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1990 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Twenty-third Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1990.

99

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1991 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Twenty-fourth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1991.

100

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1989 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Twenty-second Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1989.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Assessment of exposure to depleted uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Article Assessment of exposure to depleted uranium P. Roth V. Hollriegl E. Werner...for determining the amount of depleted uranium (DU) incorporated. The problems...Assessment of exposure to depleted uranium. | In most circumstances......

P. Roth; V. Höllriegl; E. Werner; P. Schramel

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1986 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Nineteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1986.

103

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1982 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Fifteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1982.

104

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1983 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Sixteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1983.

105

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1980 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Thirteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1980.

106

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1979 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Twelfth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1979.

107

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1987 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Twentieth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1987.

108

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1985 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Eighteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1985.

109

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1984 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Seventeenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1984.

110

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1981 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Fourteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1981.

111

Draft General Conformity Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

I I Draft General Conformity Determination U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service MMS Cape Wind Energy Project January 2009 Final EIS Appendix I Draft General Conformity Determination Draft General Conformity Determination Cape Wind Energy Project Prepared by Minerals Management Service Herndon, VA November 2008 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROPOSED ACTION............................................................... 1 2.0 GENERAL CONFORMITY REGULATORY BACKGROUND .......................................... 2 2.1 GENERAL CONFORMITY REQUIREMENTS.................................................................... 2 2.2 GENERAL CONFORMITY APPLICABILITY.....................................................................

112

General | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Volver Pgina principal General banner.jpg Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGeneral&oldid519011" What links here Related changes Special pages Printable...

113

General User Proposals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General User Proposals Print General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS or the...

114

General User Proposals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office General User Proposals Print General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS...

115

Dispersion models and air quality data for population exposure assessment to air pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaluating the extent of exposure to chemicals in absence of continuous measurements of their concentration in air and direct measures of personal exposure is crucial for epidemiological studies. Dispersion models can be a useful tool for reproducing spatio-temporal distribution of contaminants emitted by a specific source. However, they cannot easily be applied to short-term epidemiological studies because they require precise information on daily emission scenarios for a long time, which are generally not available. The aim of this study was to better assess the exposure in the industrial area of Brindisi, which suffers from various critical epidemiological situations, by integrating air pollution concentration data, emissions and model simulations concerning a specific point source. The results suggest that in the absence of direct exposure data and detailed information on specific pollutants associated to an emission, population exposure may be better assessed by taking into account proxy pollutants and the wind (direction and speed) as a potential health effects modifier.

Cristina Mangia; Marco Cervino; Emilio Antonio Luca Gianicolo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Risk of Gastrointestinal Disease Associated with Exposure to Pathogens in the Sediments of the Lower Passaic River  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...based on the USEPAs 1986 standard of 104 fecal Streptococcus...selected following a review of the literature presented...planning with water quality standards reviews. EPA-833-R-01-002...supplemental guidance: standard default exposure factors...

E. P. Donovan; D. F. Staskal; K. M. Unice; J. D. Roberts; L. C. Haws; B. L. Finley; M. A. Harris

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

117

Protection from Potential Exposure for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement  

SciTech Connect

The Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium has recently completed developing the conceptual design for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement (NSC). Battelle has the scope of work related to environment and safety of the design. As part of the safety analysis, an analysis was performed to determine the degree of protection to be provided during the construction and 100-year operation period for expected upsets and lower-probability events that would occur from errors, procedures, other human factors, and equipment failures, i.e., ''potential exposures'' other than normal operations. The analysis was based on results of the Preliminary Hazards Analysis. The potential exposure analysis was performed in accordance with existing Ukranian regulations and working processes and procedures in place at the Shelter Object. KSK (a Ukranian Consortium), a subcontractor to the Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium, performed much of the dose analysis. The analysis concluded that potential exposures, outside of those expected during normal operations, would be acceptable and that design criteria and features, and preventative and mitigative measures currently in place at the Shelter would be sufficient to meet operating exposure limits.

Shipler, Dillard B.; Rudko, Vladimir; Batiy, Valeriy; Timmins, Douglas C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Schmidt, John P.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Schmieman, Eric A.

2004-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

118

The effect of penetration factor, deposition, and environmental factors on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The effect of penetration factor, deposition, and environmental factors on The effect of penetration factor, deposition, and environmental factors on the indoor concentration of pm2.5 sulfate, nitrate, and carbon Title The effect of penetration factor, deposition, and environmental factors on the indoor concentration of pm2.5 sulfate, nitrate, and carbon Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2002 Authors Thatcher, Tracy L., Melissa M. Lunden, Richard G. Sextro, Susanne V. Hering, and Nancy J. Brown Conference Name Proceedings of the Indoor Air 2002 Conference, Monterey, CA Volume 1 Pagination 846-851 Publisher Indoor Air 2002, Santa Cruz, CA Abstract Indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin constitutes an important exposure pathway. We conducted an intensive set of indoor particle measurements in an unoccupied house under differing operating conditions. Real-time measurements were conducted both indoors and outdoors, including PM2.5 nitrate, sulfate, and carbon. Because the time-scale of the fluctuations in outdoor particle concentrations and meteorological conditions are often similar to the time constant for building air exchange, a steady state concentration may never be reached. The time-series experimental data were used to determine the effect of changes in air exchange rate and indoor/outdoor temperature and relative humidity differences on indoor particle concentrations. A multivariate regression was performed to investigate the difference between measured indoor concentrations and results from a simple time-dependent physical model. Environmental conditions had a significant effect on indoor concentrations of all three PM2.5 species, but did not explain all of the model variation

119

Exposure Assessment for Bioaerosols in Health Studies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exposure Assessment for Bioaerosols in Health Studies Exposure Assessment for Bioaerosols in Health Studies Speaker(s): Carol Rao Date: July 9, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Mark Mendell Exposures to fungi have been linked with asthma, toxicoses, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and a range of non-specific symptoms. Definitive associations between indoor fungal exposure and health effects in population-based exposure-response studies, however, have not been well established. Issues in exposure assessment methods, both in collection and analysis, are major limitations. Classic methods for assessing airborne fungi rely upon collecting and analyzing whole fungal spores by culture. However, quantifying whole fungal spores may not fully describe fungal exposures, especially for purposes of investigating adverse respiratory

120

Hazard of intermittent noise exposures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The chief shortcoming of the “equal energy” hypothesis—the notion that equal products of time and intensity provide equal hazard—is that the recuperative powers of the auditory system are essentially ignored. A single sustained stimulus is regarded as no more dangerous than an intermittent one of the same total energy. A two?year study of the effect of intermittency on the TTS produced in normal young adults by 6? or 8?h exposures to octave bands of noise whose center frequencies ranged from 250 to 4000 Hz indicates that even for the most hazardous noise (the 4000?Hz OB) cutting the cumulative exposure time in half by interjecting regular quiet periods will permit an increase in level of 5 dB for constant TTS at least up to about 100 dB SPL. At 1000 Hz the trading relation is 6–7 dB for halving time and at 250 Hz is even greater. Thus the 5?dBA?per?halving?time relation employed by the present OSHA standard is essentially correct for intermittent noise except perhaps above 100 to 105 dBA where the equal?energy hypothesis may be more appropriate for spectra with high?frequency dominance. A single 5?dBA “correction for intermittency” is an oversimplification. [Research supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Public Health Service.

W. D. Ward

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A review of fundamental drivers governing the emissions, dispersion and exposure to vehicle-emitted nanoparticles at signalised traffic intersections  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Signalised traffic intersections (TIs) are considered as pollution hot-spots in urban areas, but the knowledge of fundamental drivers governing emission, dispersion and exposure to vehicle-emitted nanoparticles (represented by particle number concentration, PNC) at \\{TIs\\} is yet to be established. A number of following key factors, which are important for developing an emission and exposure framework for nanoparticles at TIs, are critically evaluated as a part of this review article. In particular, (i) how do traffic- and wind-flow features affect emission and dispersion of nanoparticles? (ii) What levels of \\{PNCs\\} can be typically expected under diverse signal- and traffic-conditions? (iii) How does the traffic driving condition affect the particle number (PN) emissions and the particle number emission factors (PNEF)? (iv) What is the relative importance of particle transformation processes in affecting the PNCs? (v) What are important considerations for the dispersion modelling of nanoparticles? (vi) What is extent of exposure at \\{TIs\\} with respect to other locations in urban settings? (vii) What are the gaps in current knowledge on this topic where the future research should focus? We found that the accurate consideration of dynamic traffic flow features at \\{TIs\\} is essential for reliable estimates of PN emissions. Wind flow features at \\{TIs\\} are generally complex to generalise. Only a few field studies have monitored \\{PNCs\\} at \\{TIs\\} until now, reporting over an order of magnitude larger peak \\{PNCs\\} (0.7–5.4 × 105 cm?3) compared with average \\{PNCs\\} at typical roadsides (?0.3 × 105 cm?3). The PN emission and thus the \\{PNEFs\\} can be up to an order of magnitude higher during acceleration compared with steady speed conditions. The time scale analysis suggests nucleation as the fastest transformation process, followed by dilution, deposition, coagulation and condensation. Consideration of appropriate flow features, \\{PNEFs\\} and transformation processes emerged as important parameters for reliable modelling of \\{PNCs\\} at TIs. Computation of respiratory deposition doses (RDD) based on the available PNC data suggest that the peak RDD at \\{TIs\\} can be up to 12-times higher compared with average RDD at urban roadsides. Systematic field and modelling studies are needed to develop a sound understanding of the emissions, dispersion and exposure of nanoparticles at the TIs.

Anju Goel; Prashant Kumar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to environmental racism'' by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.

Nieves, L.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Nieves, A.L. (Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, IL (United States) Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Impact of Genetic Factors on the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Low-Dose Radiation Janet E. Baulch University of California, Davis Why This Project? There is concern about the possible genetic effects of low dose radiation exposure. As a result, much effort has gone towards understanding mutation of cells due to radiation exposure. While recognition of the potential for mutation from exposure to ionizing radiation has led to extensive research, less effort has been given to the possible delayed risk of radiation exposure transmitted to the offspring of the exposed parent. Data from animal models show that parental exposures to DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation, predispose the offspring to serious health effects, including cancer offspring. Additionally, data from both humans and animal

125

Stress intensity Factors calculated generally by the Finite Element Technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... accuracy of the method. Brown, W. F., and Srawley, J. E., ASTM STP 410 (American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1966).

J. R. DIXON; L. P. POOK

1969-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

126

Y-12 Uranium Exposure Study  

SciTech Connect

Following the recent restart of operations at the Y-12 Plant, the Radiological Control Organization (RCO) observed that the enriched uranium exposures appeared to involve insoluble rather than soluble uranium that presumably characterized most earlier Y-12 operations. These observations necessitated changes in the bioassay program, particularly the need for routine fecal sampling. In addition, it was not reasonable to interpret the bioassay data using metabolic parameter values established during earlier Y-12 operations. Thus, the recent urinary and fecal bioassay data were interpreted using the default guidance in Publication 54 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP); that is, inhalation of Class Y uranium with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1 {micro}m. Faced with apparently new workplace conditions, these actions were appropriate and ensured a cautionary approach to worker protection. As additional bioassay data were accumulated, it became apparent that the data were not consistent with Publication 54. Therefore, this study was undertaken to examine the situation.

Eckerman, K.F.; Kerr, G.D.

1999-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

127

Occupational and residential 60-Hz electromagnetic fields and high-frequency electric transients: exposure assessment using a new dosimeter  

SciTech Connect

One problem that has limited past epidemiologic studies of cancer and exposure to extremely low-frequency (0-100 Hz) electric and magnetic fields has been the lack of adequate methods for assessing personal exposure to these fields. A new 60-Hz electromagnetic field dosimeter was tested to assess occupational and residential exposures of a group of electrical utility workers and a comparison background group over a 7-day period. Comparing work periods only, utility workers' exposures were significantly higher than background levels by a factor of about 10 for electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields and by a factor of 171 for high-frequency transient electric (HFTE) fields. When overall weekly time-weighted averages combining work and nonwork exposures were compared, ratios of the exposed to background groups were lower. B and HFTE exposure ratios remained statistically significant, with values of 3.5 and 58, respectively, whereas the electric field exposure ratio was no longer significant, with a value of 1.7. E-field exposures of the background group were the highest during the nonwork period, probably reflecting the use of electrical appliances at home. Residential E- and B-field exposures were in the same range as published results from other surveys, whereas occupational E-field exposures tended to be lower than exposures reported in other studies. The high variability associated with occupational exposures probably accounts for the latter discrepancy. Worker acceptance of wearing the dosimeter was good: 95% of participants found it to be of little or no inconvenience while at work. At home, 37% found the device to be inconvenient in its present form but would not object to wearing a slightly smaller and lighter dosimeter.

Deadman, J.E.; Camus, M.; Armstrong, B.G.; Heroux, P.; Cyr, D.; Plante, M.; Theriault, G.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Development of exposure scenarios for CERCLA risk assessments at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

A CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA) is performed to determine if there are any potential risks to human health and the environment from waste unit at SRS. The SRS has numerous waste units to evaluate in the RFMU and CMS/FS programs and, in order to provide a consistent approach, four standard exposure scenarios were developed for exposure assessments to be used in human health risk assessments. The standard exposure scenarios are divided into two temporal categories: (a) Current Land Use in the BRA, and (b) Future Land Use in the RERA. The Current Land Use scenarios consist of the evaluation of human health risk for Industrial Exposure (of a worker not involved in waste unit characterization or remediation), a Trespasser, a hypothetical current On-site Resident, and an Off-site Resident. The Future Land Use scenario considers exposure to an On-site Resident following termination of institutional control in the absence of any remedial action (No Action Alternative), as well as evaluating potential remedial alternatives against the four scenarios from the BRA. A critical facet in the development of a BRA or RERA is the scoping of exposure scenarios that reflect actual conditions at a waste unit, rather than using factors such as EPA Standard Default Exposure Scenarios (OSWER Directive 9285.6-03) that are based on upper-bound exposures that tend to reflect worst case conditions. The use of site-specific information for developing risk assessment exposure scenarios will result in a more realistic estimate of Reasonable Maximum Exposure for SRS waste units.

Nix, D.W.; Immel, J.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Phifer, M.A. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Development of exposure scenarios for CERCLA risk assessments at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

A CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA) is performed to determine if there are any potential risks to human health and the environment from waste unit at SRS. The SRS has numerous waste units to evaluate in the RFMU and CMS/FS programs and, in order to provide a consistent approach, four standard exposure scenarios were developed for exposure assessments to be used in human health risk assessments. The standard exposure scenarios are divided into two temporal categories: (a) Current Land Use in the BRA, and (b) Future Land Use in the RERA. The Current Land Use scenarios consist of the evaluation of human health risk for Industrial Exposure (of a worker not involved in waste unit characterization or remediation), a Trespasser, a hypothetical current On-site Resident, and an Off-site Resident. The Future Land Use scenario considers exposure to an On-site Resident following termination of institutional control in the absence of any remedial action (No Action Alternative), as well as evaluating potential remedial alternatives against the four scenarios from the BRA. A critical facet in the development of a BRA or RERA is the scoping of exposure scenarios that reflect actual conditions at a waste unit, rather than using factors such as EPA Standard Default Exposure Scenarios (OSWER Directive 9285.6-03) that are based on upper-bound exposures that tend to reflect worst case conditions. The use of site-specific information for developing risk assessment exposure scenarios will result in a more realistic estimate of Reasonable Maximum Exposure for SRS waste units.

Nix, D.W.; Immel, J.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Phifer, M.A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans  

SciTech Connect

Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers.

Tseng, C.-H. [National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research and Development, National Taiwan University Hospital Yun-Lin Branch, Yun-Lin, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine of the National Health Research Institutes, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ccktsh@ms6.hinet.net

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Exposure assessment in ergonomic epidemiology Is there something specific to the assessment of biomechanical exposures?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exposure assessment in ergonomic epidemiology Is there something specific to the assessment.leclerc@st-maurice.inserm.fr Key words : ergonomics, work, exposure, cancer In this issue of the Journal the authors of two articles in "ergonomic epidemiology" stress several necessary qualities of exposure data: they must

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

132

Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media monitoring, and/or personal exposure modeling. However, emerging research reveals that the greatest progress comes from integration among two or more of these efforts.

McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

ESTIMATION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT BURDEN RESULTING FROM A PROLONGED INHALATION EXPOSURE TO AEROSOLS OF DU, BASED ON THE U IN A 24-H URINE SAMPLE TAKEN YEARS AFTER EXPOSURE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of atomic radiation to the general assembly. Annex B-exposures...depleted uranium (DU): a general overview. J. Environ. Radioact...org/info/Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle/Uranium-Resources/Uranium-and-Depleted-Uranium...responses to chronically inhaled diesel exhaust and coal dust in rats......

M. Valdés

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Assessing protection against radiation exposure after prostate 125I brachytherapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractPurpose To expand the radiation dose rate measurement data set by measuring radiation under various prostate 125I brachytherapy situations. Methods and Materials Measurements were obtained from 63 consecutive unselected patients at Tokyo Medical Center, Japan. Differences in factors during measurements, such as body postures, distances from the skin surface, and measurement directions were considered. Furthermore, shielding effects of lead-lined underwear, consisting mainly of 0.1-mm thickness of lead, were also assessed. Results Radiation exposure varies according to the patient's body posture, with results differing as much as approximately 40.0% in measured radiation dose rates at 30 cm from the anterior skin surface. Weight, body mass index, and tissue thickness showed good correlations with measured radiation dose rates. The magnitude of radiation exposure attenuation by shielding was approximately 95.8%, similar to the attenuation ratio based on tissue measurements made in the lateral direction. The respective mean times required to reach 1 mSv were 1.2, 7.6, and 65.4 days in the standing position and 0.6, 4.6, and 40.4 days in the supine position at the site of contact, and at 30 and 100 cm from the anterior skin surface. Conclusions This study obtained supplemental information pertaining to radiological protection and confirmed that shielding can be an effective tool for reducing exposures.

Takashi Hanada; Atsunori Yorozu; Riki Kikumura; Toshio Ohashi; Naoyuki Shigematsu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Exposure Control Plan Bloodborne Pathogen Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) will review and revise the Plan annually in accordance with the current OSHA BBP Standard. 2. OCCUPATIONAL. The Standard requires employers to develop and implement a written Exposure Control Plan (the "Plan"). The Plan provisions of the Standard. The Exposure Control Plan is contained in the Laboratory Safety Manual

Natelson, Douglas

136

Environmental Health Formaldehyde Exposure in Homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Health Formaldehyde Exposure in Homes: A Reference for State Officials to Use in Decision-making Background The issue of formaldehyde exposure in homes is long-standing and has been other construction components. In the past, formaldehyde was also used in insulation of many homes

137

Cumulative exposure to medical sources of ionizing radiation in the first year after pediatric heart transplantation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background Pediatric heart transplant recipients undergo a variety of radiologic tests with the attendant risk of exposure to ionizing radiation. We sought to quantify and describe the cumulative exposure to all forms of medical radiation during the first year after pediatric heart transplantation and identify factors associated with higher exposure. Methods Pediatric patients who received a heart transplant between January 2009 and May 2012 with follow-up at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were included if they survived through 1 year and the first coronary angiography. All medical testing using ionizing radiation performed during follow-up was compiled, and exposures were converted to effective dose (mSv). Results Included were 31 patients who underwent heart transplantation at a median age of 13.6 years (range, 0.3–18.3 years). The median number of radiologic tests performed was 38 (range, 18–154), including 8 catheterizations (range, 2–12), and 28 X-ray images (range, 11–135). Median cumulative effective dose was 53.5 mSv (range, 10.6–153.5 mSv), of which 91% (range, 34%–98%) derived from catheterizations, 31% (range, 8%–89%) of the exposure occurred during the transplant admission, 59% (range, 11%–88%) during planned follow-up, and 3% (0%–56%) during unplanned follow-up. Older age at transplant was a risk factor for increased exposure (p = 0.006). When adjusted for age, a trend toward increased exposure was shown for congenital heart disease as the indication for transplant (p = 0.08), pre-sensitization (p = 0.12), and positive crossmatch (p = 0.09). Conclusions Pediatric heart transplant patients are exposed to significant amounts of ionizing radiation during the first post-transplant year, most during scheduled catheterization. As survival improves, considering the long-term risks associated with these levels of exposure is important.

Alicia McDonnell; Tacy E. Downing; Xiaowei Zhu; Rachel Ryan; Joseph W. Rossano; Andrew C. Glatz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

DOE General Competencies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE General Competencies are the personal and professional attributes that are critical to successful performance.  A competency model is a collection of competencies that together define...

139

General User Proposals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proposals Print General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS or the Participating Research...

140

Drinking Water as Route of Exposure to Microcystins in Great Lakes Communities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Drinking Water as Route of Exposure to Microcystins in Great Lakes Communities Primary Investigator Erie is a source of drinking water for many communities and may also be a source of algal toxins drinking water. While there are state regulatory standards for factors like turbidity and fecal coliforms

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Generalized finite element method for multiscale analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the Partition of Unity Method (PUM). It is shown that the p-version of the Generalized FEM using mesh-based handbook functions is capable of achieving very high accuracy. It is also analyzed that the effect of the main factors affecting the accuracy...

Zhang, Lin

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

APP-005 APP-005 Planning for and Measuring Office of Inspector General Results FY 2002 Annual Performance Report and FY 2003 Annual Performance Plan Office of Inspector General U.S. Department of Energy Inspector General's Message We are pleased to present the Office of Inspector General's (OIG) consolidated Fiscal Year 2002 Annual Performance Report and Fiscal Year 2003 Annual Performance Plan. This document evaluates our actual Fiscal Year (FY) 2002 performance and establishes the performance goals and strategies we will pursue in FY 2003 to fulfill our mission. As mandated by the Inspector General Act, the OIG promotes the effective, efficient, and economical operation of the Department of Energy's programs and operations, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

143

Generalized Galilean Genesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by {\\alpha}) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as ...

Nishi, Sakine

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Dermal Exposure Assessment: Principles and Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Health and Health and EPA/600/8-91/011B Environmental Protection Environmental Assessment January 1992 Agency Washington, DC 20460 Interim Report Research and Development Dermal Exposure Assessment: Principles and Applications EPA/600/8 -91/OllB January 1992 Interim Report DERMAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS Exposure Assessment Group Office of Health and Environmental Assessment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C. 20460 DISCLAIMER This document is an interim report subject to review by the Science Advisory Board. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii

145

Ultraviolet Exposure and Mortality among Women in Sweden  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts;6Department of Etiological...association between mortality and solar and artificial UV exposure...a solarium. Conclusions: Solar UV exposure was associated...between UV exposure, be it solar or artificial, and the risk...

Ling Yang; Marie Lof; Marit Bragelien Veierød; Sven Sandin; Hans-Olov Adami; and Elisabete Weiderpass

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Health-exposure modeling and the ecological fallacy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......components of (3.8) (the health and exposure models) takes an...computation of the exposure and health models, but is dangerous since the errors-in-variables...three-stage model: Stage 1, Health model. Stage 2, Exposure model......

Jon Wakefield; Gavin Shaddick

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

ORISE: DOE's Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Monitoring System (REMS) Monitoring System (REMS) ORISE maintains large database of radition exposure records for the U.S. Department of Energy ORISE staff monitoring radiation data for DOE Rule 10 CFR 835 establishes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) occupational protection rule and requires assessment and recording of radiation doses to individuals who are exposed to sources of radiation or contamination. The Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) database is the radiation exposure data repository for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors and members of the public. REMS maintains dose records for all monitored individuals dating back to 1969. Aggregated, site-specific data are available on the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System website for all years since 1986. Currently,

148

Diesel exhaust exposure and bladder cancer risk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A total of 136 cases of men with urinary bladder cancer and 272 matched hospital controls were examined for potential exposure to diesel exhaust. A lifetime occupational history was obtained for ... in the study ...

V. Iyer; R. E. Harris; E. L. Wynder

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Assessment of exposure to depleted uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......ingestion of natural uranium in food and drink, and...for the measurement of uranium in urine samples, DU...respect to potential health hazards can be detected...Assessment of exposure to depleted uranium. | In most circumstances......

P. Roth; V. Höllriegl; E. Werner; P. Schramel

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Real time chemical exposure and risk monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The apparatus of the present invention is a combination of a breath interface and an external exposure dosimeter interface to a chemical analysis device, all controlled by an electronic processor for quantitatively analyzing chemical analysis data from both the breath interface and the external exposure dosimeter for determining internal tissue dose. The method of the present invention is a combination of steps of measuring an external dose, measuring breath content, then analyzing the external dose and breath content and determining internal tissue dose.

Thrall, Karla D. (3804 Alder Lake Ct., West Richland, WA 99353); Kenny, Donald V. (6947 Sparrow La., Worthington, OH 43235); Endres, George W. R. (2112 Briarwood Ct., Richland, WA 99352); Sisk, Daniel R. (1211 Marshall Ave., Richland, WA 99352)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

general_atomics.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

former General former General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was constructed in 1959 and operated until 1991. The site encompassed approximately 7,400 square feet of laboratory and remote operations cells. Licensed operations at the facility included receipt, handling, and shipment of radioactive materials; remote handling, examination, and storage of previously irradiated nuclear fuel materials; pilot-scale tritium extraction operations; and development, fabrication, and inspection of uranium oxide-beryllium oxide fuel materials. General Atomics performed most of the work for the federal government. The General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was located in a 60-acre complex 13 miles northwest of downtown San Diego, 1 mile inland from the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 300 feet above sea level.

152

general_atomics.cdr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

former former General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was constructed in 1959 and operated until 1991. The site encompassed approximately 7,400 square feet of laboratory and remote operations cells. Licensed operations at the facility included receipt, handling, and shipment of radioactive materials; remote handling, examination, and storage of previously irradiated nuclear fuel materials; pilot-scale tritium extraction operations; and development, fabrication, and inspection of uranium oxide-beryllium oxide fuel materials. General Atomics performed most of the work for the federal government. The General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was located in a 60-acre complex 13 miles northwest of downtown San Diego, 1 mile inland from the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 300 feet above sea level. The General Atomics site is in the center of Torrey Mesa Science Center, a 304-acre industrial

153

MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL Page 1 of 4 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL Position: Quality & Safety and efficacy of our practice, reporting this data out to department clinicians, senior leadership and hospital hospital and department groups, exceptional interpersonal, communication, project organization, time

Adams, Mark

154

1 General Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 General Information. 1.1 Class time / location: TTh 9-10:15, REC 114. 1.2 Office Hours: T 1:00-2:30 and Th 12:00-1:00. 1.3 Textbook: Elementary differential ...

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

155

general_atomics.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

300 feet above sea level. The General Atomics site is in the center of Torrey Mesa Science Center, a 304-acre industrial park. No ground water wells are at or near the Hot Cell...

156

General User Proposals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proposals Print Tuesday, 01 June 2010 09:36 General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS...

157

Introduction: General Landslide Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highlights for several papers included in the “general landslide” session for the 3rd World Landslide Forum are presented. Topics range from early warning systems and modelling to geomorphology and solid waste...

Peter Bobrowsky; Yueping Yin…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

General relativity and experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The confrontation between Einstein's theory of gravitation and experiment is summarized. Although all current experimental data are compatible with general relativity, the importance of pursuing the quest for possible deviations from Einstein's theory is emphasized.

T. Damour

1994-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

159

2011 IAEA General Conference  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2011 IAEA General Conference 2011 IAEA General Conference Remarks as Prepared for Delivery Secretary Steven Chu Monday, September 19, 2011 Thank you, Ambassador Feruta. Congratulations on your election as President of this Conference. I also want to thank Director General Amano for his outstanding leadership. I am honored to represent the United States today, and I want to share a message from President Barack Obama: "On behalf of the United States, please accept my best wishes for a successful International Atomic Energy Agency General Conference. This year's meeting takes place against the backdrop of the severe earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan in March and the devastating accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station that followed. Along with

160

Symmetric generalized binomial distributions  

SciTech Connect

In two recent articles, we have examined a generalization of the binomial distribution associated with a sequence of positive numbers, involving asymmetric expressions of probabilities that break the symmetry win-loss. We present in this article another generalization (always associated with a sequence of positive numbers) that preserves the symmetry win-loss. This approach is also based on generating functions and presents constraints of non-negativeness, similar to those encountered in our previous articles.

Bergeron, H. [Univ Paris-Sud, ISMO, UMR 8214, 91405 Orsay (France)] [Univ Paris-Sud, ISMO, UMR 8214, 91405 Orsay (France); Curado, E. M. F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia - Sistemas Complexos, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gazeau, J. P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); APC, UMR 7164, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75205 Paris (France); Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S., E-mail: herve.bergeron@u-psud.fr, E-mail: evaldo@cbpf.br, E-mail: gazeau@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: ligia@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

LLNL-JRNL-501931 Generalized  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

JRNL-501931 JRNL-501931 Generalized displacement correlation method for estimating stress intensity factors P. Fu, S. M. Johnson, R. R. Settgast, C. R. Carrigan September 29, 2011 Engineering Fracture Mechanics Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or

162

LA-2271 CHEMISTRY-GENERAL  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

2271 2271 CHEMISTRY-GENERAL TID-4500, 14th Ed. LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ALAMOS NEW MEXICO REPORT WRITTEN: August 1958 REPORT DISTRIBUTED: March 17, 1959 COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS AND FUGACITY COEFFICIENTS CALCULATED FROM THE BEATTIE-BRIDGEMAN EQUATION OF STATE FOR HYDROGEN, NITROGEN, OXYGEN, CARBON DIOXIDE, AMMONIA, METHANE, AND HELIUM by C. E. Holley, J r . W. J. Worlton R. K. Zeigler » * This report expresses the opinions of the author or authors and does not necessarily reflect the opinions or views of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Contract W-7405-ENG. 36 with the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States

163

General Counsel Law Student Intern Program | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Counsel Law Counsel Law Student Intern Program General Counsel Law Student Intern Program The Department of Energy's Office of the General Counsel is accepting applications on a rolling basis for its Law Student Intern Program. The Office of the General Counsel offers an exciting opportunity for law students to gain firsthand exposure to the fast-moving and evolving practice of energy law. The General Counsel is charged by the Secretary of Energy with the authority to determine the Department's authoritative position on any question of law. The General Counsel's Office provides legal advice, counsel, and support to the Secretary, the Deputy Secretary, and program offices throughout DOE to further the Department's mission of advancing the national, economic, and energy security of the United States

164

Effectiveness of facemasks to reduce exposure hazards for airborne infections among general populations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...influenza-like illnesses in households [12,20]. In many Asia...influenza transmission in households. PLoS ONE 3, e2101. 10...among health care workers in Japan: a randomized controlled...respiratory virus transmission in households. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

A Probabilistic Approach for Deriving Acceptable Human Intake Limits and Human Health Risks from Toxicological Studies: General Framework  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of uncertainty factors in the standard method for deriving acceptable intake or exposure limits for humans, such as the Reference Dose (RfD), may be viewed as a conservative method of taking various un...

W. Slob; M. N. Pieters

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

General Employee Radiological Training  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Not Measurement Not Measurement Sensitive DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 December 2007_______ Change Notice 1 Reaffirmed 2013 DOE HANDBOOK GENERAL EMPLOYEE RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ Change 1 DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 Original Change Part 2 page 5 The average annual radiation dose to a member of the general population is about 360 millirem/year. The average annual radiation dose to a member of the general population is about 620 millirem/year. Part 2 page 5 Natural background radiation is by far the

167

General User Proposal Scores  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General User Proposal Scores General User Proposal Scores General User Proposal Scores Print Tuesday, 01 June 2010 10:34 Scoring Proposals are scored on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being the best score and 5 the worst. Reviewers are requested to use the following ranking schema: Must do High Priority Medium Priority Low priority Don't do Beam time is assigned based on each proposal's score in relation to all other proposals for a given beamline. For beamlines where beamtime requests exceed available beamtime, a cutoff score is assigned after which no beam time is allocated. proposal scores Beam Time Cutoff Scores for the Current Cycle The table below lists the percent of beam time shifts allocated/requested for each beamline, and the cutoff scores, below which no beam time was assigned.

168

General Employee Radiological Training  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

_______ _______ Change Notice 1 June 2009 DOE HANDBOOK GENERAL EMPLOYEE RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Not Measurement Sensitive This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ Change 1 DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 Original Change Part 2 page 5 The average annual radiation dose to a member of the general population is about 360 millirem/year. The average annual radiation dose to a member of the general population is about 620 millirem/year. Part 2 page 5 Natural background radiation is by far the

169

NEWTON's General Science References  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Science References General Science References Do you have a great general science reference link? Please click our Ideas page. Featured Reference Links: First.gov Science and Technology First.gov Science and Technology This site, sponsered by the US Government provides reference links to topics on science, telecommunications, computers, research agencies, and news. NASA Science NASA Science NASA Science, is a website sponsered by NASA, that supplies resources for understanding our world and the world above. Topics include earth science, heliophysics, the planets, astrophysics and much more. There is also an educator page! Nobel Laueate Listings and Stories Nobel Laueate Listings and Stories See the official site for the Nobel Prize, and read biographies about all of the Nobel Laureates, and there life changing discoveries and accomplishments.

170

Generalized coherent states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the coherent state of the harmonic oscillator, the probability density is that of the ground state subjected to an oscillation along a classical trajectory. Senitzky and others pointed out that there are states of the harmonic oscillator corresponding to an identical oscillatory displacement of the probability density of any energy eigenstate. These generalizations of the coherent state are rarely discussed, yet they furnish an interesting set of quantum states of light that combine features of number states and coherent states. Here we give an elementary account of the quantum optics of generalized coherent states.

T. G. Philbin

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

171

Magnetic field exposure among utility workers  

SciTech Connect

The Electric and Magnetic Field Measurement Project for Utilities -- the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Electric and Magnetic Field Digital Exposure (EMDEX) Project (the EPRI EMDEX Project) -- was a multifaceted project that entailed technology transfer, measurement protocol design, data management, and exposure assessment analyses. This paper addresses one specific objective of the project: the collection, analysis, and documentation of power-frequency magnetic filed exposures for a diverse population of utility employees at 59 sites in four countries between September, 1988, and September, 1989. Specially designed sampling procedures and data collection protocols were used to ensure uniform implementation across sites. Volunteers within 13 job classifications recorded which of eight work or three nonwork environments they occupied while wearing an EMDEX meter. Approximately 50,000 hours of magnetic field exposure records taken at 10 s intervals were obtained, about 70% of which were from work environments. Exposures and time spent in environments were analyzed by primary work environment, by occupied environment, and by job classification.

Bracken, T.D.; Senior, R.S. [T. Dan Bracken, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Rankin, R.F. [Applied Research Services, Inc., Lake Oswego, OR (United States); Alldredge, J.R. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Sussman, S.S. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Personal/Mobile Exposure Monitors D K Arvind & Michael Walters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Personal/Mobile Exposure Monitors D K Arvind & Michael Walters School of Informatics dka · Personal/Mobile Exposure Monitoring · Mapping the public space using numerous personal/mobile exposure per second) #12;Mobile Exposure Monitor · 16-bin (PM10 ­ PM1.0) Optical Particle Counter (Alphasense

173

Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke Elsa Nielsen, Marianne Dybdahl HUMAN EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES FROM WOOD SMOKE 7 HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS 8 Human non-cancer health effects from exposure to particles from wood smoke 8 Human carcinogenic effects from exposure to particles from

174

Power Factor Compensation (PFC) Power Factor Compensation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Factor Compensation (PFC) Power Factor Compensation The power factor (PF) is defined as the ratio between the active power and the apparent power of a system. If the current and voltage are periodic with period , and [ ), then the active power is defined by ( ) ( ) (their inner product

Knobloch,Jürgen

175

Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Increases Reactive Oxygen Species by Inducing Spermine Oxidase in Human Lung Epithelial Cells: A Potential Mechanism for Inflammation-Induced Carcinogenesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...increasing levels of positive cell cycle regulators, as well as components...exposure to TNF-alpha, a general mediator of inflammation...molecular mechanism by which general inflammation can contribute...intratracheal administration of diesel exhaust particles. Carcinogenesis...

Naveen Babbar and Robert A. Casero, Jr.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

ENGINEERING General Information 436  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

great power to control their environment and, with this power, the responsibility to control it wiselySCHOOL OF ENGINEERING General Information 436 Descriptions of Fields of Study 438 Facilities 443 Information HISTORY AND AIMS OF THE SCHOOL Instruction in engineering began at Rutgers in 1864, when the state

Garfunkel, Eric

177

GENERAL CIRCULATION Mean Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of California, Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, Davis, CA 95616-8627, USA Introduction state. The general circulation undergoes seasonal change. In many fields the seasonal change is much on an annual average. Simple geometry (see Figure 1) shows that the amount of solar radiation reaching unit

Grotjahn, Richard

178

General com Technology community  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Campus IT General com m unity Technology community ITsystem owners Campus Council for Information Technology (CCFIT) · ~30 members · Advisory evaluation and review role · Input from faculty, staff, students formal representation on steering team and subcommittees Technology Support Program · Technology support

Ferrara, Katherine W.

179

Singular Value Decomposition Generalized  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Overview The singular value decomposition (SVD) is a generalization of the eigen- ferent eigenvalues are pairwise orthogonal. Let X be a positive semi-definite, its eigen containing the eigenvalues of X. The SVD uses the eigen-decomposition of a positive semi-definite matrix

Abdi, Hervé

180

Should we relax seismic criteria for shorter system exposure times?  

SciTech Connect

Structures are conventionally designed for a level of earthquake-induced ground motion associated with a specified annual frequency of exceedance. Recently, a question has been raised as to whether the design basis seismic load can be reduced for systems with exposure durations much shorter than the normal economic life of a facility implying that a greater annual frequency of exceedance can be justified. Examples are temporary structures and structures with a short remaining life. With the intent of initiating a dialogue for establishing a well-founded basis for design of such systems, this paper identifies factors that might influence their design, introduces some fundamental safety principles that should be considered and reviews several related analyses that suggest bases for such reductions.

Cornell, C.A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Bandyopadhyay, K.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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181

Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from drinking water for beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides. Another objective of this analysis was to re-qualify the output of the previous revision (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164403]).

M. Wasiolek

2004-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

182

Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities  

SciTech Connect

Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Office of Inspector General  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Inspector General Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Work Plan for FY 2013 Audits Central Audits Division  Ecotality  Funding Overlap  Follow-up on Smart Grid Investment Grant  DOE's Loan Program Office's Portfolio Management  Office of Fossil Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  Advanced Manufacturing Office's Combined Heat and Power Systems  DOE's Management of Contaminated Non-EM Facilities  Unneeded Real Estate  Review of For-Profit Grantees for selected DOE programs  Commercialization Efforts at National Laboratories  Research Misconduct at Office of Science  Public Dissemination of Research Results  BPA's Management of Borrowing Authority Construction  Controls Over PMA's Use of Hedging Instruments

184

EMSL: News: General Stories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General News General News Battery development may extend range of electric cars Battery development may extend range of electric cars New anode quadruples life of lithium-sulfur battery, could also help store renewable energy more cheaply Released: January 09, 2014 Scientists used EMSL capabilities and expertise to help develop and test a new anode design for lithium-sulfur batteries. The "hybrid" anode significantly extends the life of lithium-sulfur batteries, bringing them closer to commercial use. Read the PNNL news release. Batteries as they are meant to be seen Batteries as they are meant to be seen The search for long-lasting, inexpensive rechargeable batteries Released: December 27, 2013 Researchers working at EMSL study how a battery works under wet conditions

185

Extremal generalized quantum measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A measurement on a section K of the set of states of a finite dimensional C*-algebra is defined as an affine map from K to a probability simplex. Special cases of such sections are used in description of quantum networks, in particular quantum channels. Measurements on a section correspond to equivalence classes of so-called generalized POVMs, which are called quantum testers in the case of networks. We find extremality conditions for measurements on K and characterize generalized POVMs such that the corresponding measurement is extremal. These results are applied to the set of channels. We find explicit extremality conditions for two outcome measurements on qubit channels and give an example of an extremal qubit 1-tester such that the corresponding measurement is not extremal.

Anna Jencova

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

186

Generalized qudit Choi maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Following the linear programming prescription of Ref. \\cite{PRA72}, the $d\\otimes d$ Bell diagonal entanglement witnesses are provided. By using Jamiolkowski isomorphism, it is shown that the corresponding positive maps are the generalized qudit Choi maps. Also by manipulating particular $d\\otimes d$ Bell diagonal separable states and constructing corresponding bound entangled states, it is shown that thus obtained $d\\otimes d$ BDEW's (consequently qudit Choi maps) are non-decomposable in certain range of their parameters.

M. A. Jafarizadeh; M. Rezaeen; S. Ahadpour

2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

187

A Generalized Deletion Machine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we prescribe a more generalized quantum-deleting machine (input state dependent). The fidelity of deletion is dependent on some machine parameters such that on alteration of machine parameters we get back to standard deleting machines. We also carried out a various comparative study of various kinds of quantum deleting machines. We also plotted graphs, making a comparative study of fidelity of deletion of the deletion machines, obtained as particular cases on changing the machine parameters of our machine.

Indranil Chakrabarty; Satyabrata Adhikari

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

188

Statistical Exposure Estimation Spatial Confounding Bias  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and 3 Account for spatial correlation in the health outcome data. Applications include air pollution Epidemiology Estimates of chronic health effects of air pollution are identified from cross-sectional (i Exposure Estimation Methods for Air Pollution Often researchers estimate ambient concentrations and use

Paciorek, Chris

189

INSTRUCTION CONCERNING PRENATAL RADIATION EXPOSURE A. INTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/fetus exposed to radiation, a dose limit for the embryo/fetus, and suggestions for reducing radiation exposure and the Radiation Control Officer in writing that she is pregnant and the estimated date of conception.311, FAC, places different radiation dose limits on declared pregnant workers than on adult workers

Slatton, Clint

190

FINAL REPORT EXPOSURE SCENARIOS FOR USE IN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FINAL REPORT EXPOSURE SCENARIOS FOR USE IN ESTIMATING RADIATION DOSES TO THE PUBLIC FROM HISTORICAL for use in the estimation of doses to reference individuals due to atmospheric releases of radionuclides). This report was prepared in response to Task 3 of the INEL dose reconstruction study commissioned

191

General Motors | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

General Motors Place: Detroit, MI Website: http:www.generalmotors.com References: General Motors1 Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership...

192

Generalized Adaptive A* Xiaoxun Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generalized Adaptive A* Xiaoxun Sun USC Computer Science Los Angeles, California xiaoxuns spaces changes. Adaptive A* [7] is a Cite as: Generalized Adaptive A*, Xiaoxun Sun, Sven Koenig

Yeoh, William

193

Generalized utility metrics for supercomputers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007:1–12 Generalized utility metrics for supercomputers 12.ISSUE PAPER Generalized utility metrics for supercomputersproblem of ranking the utility of supercom- puter systems

Strohmaier, Erich

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Performance of a high fill factor, indirect detection prototype flat-panel imager for mammography  

SciTech Connect

Empirical and theoretical investigations of the performance of a small-area, high-spatial-resolution, active matrix flat-panel imager, operated under mammographic conditions, is reported. The imager is based on an indirect detection array incorporating a continuous photodiode design, as opposed to the discrete photodiode design employed in conventional flat-panel imagers. Continuous photodiodes offer the prospect of higher fill factors, particularly for arrays with pixel pitches below {approx}100 {mu}m. The array has a pixel-to-pixel pitch of 75 {mu}m and a pixel format of 512x512, resulting in an active area of {approx}3.8x3.8 cm{sup 2}. The array was coupled to two commercially available, structured CsI:Tl scintillators of {approx}150 {mu}m thickness: one optimized for high light output (FOS-HL) and the other for high spatial resolution (FOS-HR), resulting in a pair of imager configurations. Measurements of sensitivity, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were performed with a 26 kVp mammography beam at exposures ranging from {approx}0.5 to {approx}19 mR. MTF results from both CsI:Tl scintillators show that the array demonstrates good spatial resolution, indicating effective isolation between adjacent pixels. The effect of additive noise of the system on DQE was observed to be significantly higher for the FOS-HR scintillator compared to the FOS-HL scintillator due to lower sensitivity of the former. For the FOS-HL scintillator, DQE performance was generally high at high exposures, limited by the x-ray quantum efficiency, Swank factor and the MTF of the scintillators. For both scintillators, the DQE performance degrades at lower exposures due to the relatively large contribution of additive noise. Theoretical calculations based on a cascaded systems model were found to be in general agreement with the empirically determined NPS and DQE values. Finally, such calculations were used to predict potential DQE performance for hypothetical 50 {mu}m pixel pitch imagers, employing similar continuous photodiode design and realistic inputs derived from the empirical measurements.

El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao Qihua; Wang Yi; Li Yixin; Du Hong; Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Developing and evaluating distributions for probabilistic human exposure assessments  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research carried out at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assist the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in developing a consistent yet flexible approach for evaluating the inputs to probabilistic risk assessments. The U.S. EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) recently released Volume 3 Part A of Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), as an update to the existing two-volume set of RAGS. The update provides policy and technical guidance on performing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consequently, EPA risk managers and decision-makers need to review and evaluate the adequacy of PRAs for supporting regulatory decisions. A critical part of evaluating a PRA is the problem of evaluating or judging the adequacy of input distributions PRA. Although the overarching theme of this report is the need to improve the ease and consistency of the regulatory review process, the specific objectives are presented in two parts. The objective of Part 1 is to develop a consistent yet flexible process for evaluating distributions in a PRA by identifying the critical attributes of an exposure factor distribution and discussing how these attributes relate to the task-specific adequacy of the input. This objective is carried out with emphasis on the perspective of a risk manager or decision-maker. The proposed evaluation procedure provides consistency to the review process without a loss of flexibility. As a result, the approach described in Part 1 provides an opportunity to apply a single review framework for all EPA regions and yet provide the regional risk manager with the flexibility to deal with site- and case-specific issues in the PRA process. However, as the number of inputs to a PRA increases, so does the complexity of the process for calculating, communicating and managing risk. As a result, there is increasing effort required of both the risk professionals performing the analysis and the risk manager reviewing it. For deterministic risk assessments, the use of default inputs has improved the ease and the consistency of both performing and reviewing assessments. By analogy, it is expected that similar advantage will be seen in the field of probabilistic risk assessment through the introduction of default distributions. In Part 2 of this report, we consider when a default distribution might be appropriate for use in PRA and work towards development of recommended task-specific distributions for several frequently used exposure factors. An approach that we develop using body weight and exposure duration as case studies offers a transparent way for developing task-specific exposure factor distributions. A third case study using water intake highlights the need for further study aimed at improving the relevance of ''short-term'' data before recommendations on task-specific distributions of water intake can be made.

Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Who is stressed? A pilot study of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase concentrations in agoraphobic patients and their novice therapists undergoing in vivo exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In cognitive behavioural therapy of phobic anxiety, in vivo exposure is considered as an effective treatment strategy. Apparently, it involves the experience of stress and anxiety in patients. Given the therapist's role during exposure sessions, it is conceivable that the performance is also accompanied with the experience of stress in therapists, especially when unversed in conducting psychotherapy. Studies confirmed that cognitive behavioural therapists tend to avoid therapist-guided in vivo exposure. The objective of this study was the simultaneous investigation of therapist's and patient's stress response during in vivo exposure. Therefore, 23 agoraphobic patients and their 23 treating therapists in training provided five saliva samples during an in vivo exposure and five samples during an ordinary therapy session. Before and during exposure session, subjective evaluations of stress and anxiety were assessed. Results suggested that therapists reported similar levels of perceived stress as patients before exposure. Both groups displayed significantly elevated salivary cortisol (sC) levels during exposure compared to the control session and a trend for alterations in salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity was found. Therapists reached peak concentrations of sC before start of the intervention followed by a decline during exposure, while patients displayed peak levels of cortisol secretion after 60 min of exposure. In vivo exposure seems to be a demanding intervention not only for the patient, but also for therapists in training. However, it was also demonstrated that physiological and subjective stress rather decrease during the intervention and that both groups rated exposure to be substantially successful. Based on the presented results, another potential factor contributing to the under-usage of exposure treatment is conceivable and needs to be addressed in future research.

Sarah Schumacher; Katharina Gaudlitz; Jens Plag; Robert Miller; Clemens Kirschbaum; Lydia Fehm; Thomas Fydrich; Andreas Ströhle

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Overview of ozone human exposure and health risk analyses used in the U.S. EPA's review of the ozone air quality standard.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the ozone human exposure and health risk analyses developed under sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These analyses are being used in the current review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The analyses consist of three principal steps: (1) estimating short-term ozone exposure for particular populations (exposure model); (2) estimating population response to exposures or concentrations (exposure-response or concentration-response models); and (3) integrating concentrations or exposure with concentration-response or exposure-response models to produce overall risk estimates (risk model). The exposure model, called the probabilistic NAAQS exposure model for ozone (pNEM/03), incorporates the following factors: hourly ambient ozone concentrations; spatial distribution of concentrations; ventilation state of individuals at time of exposure; and movement of people through various microenvironments (e.g., outdoors, indoors, inside a vehicle) of varying air quality. Exposure estimates are represented by probability distributions. Exposure-response relationships have been developed for several respiratory symptom and lung function health effects, based on the results of controlled human exposure studies. These relationships also are probabilistic and reflect uncertainties associated with sample size and variability of response among subjects. The analyses also provide estimates of excess hospital admissions in the New York City area based on results from an epidemiology study. Overall risk results for selected health endpoints and recently analyzed air quality scenarios associated with alternative 8-hour NAAQS and the current 1-hour standard for outdoor children are used to illustrate application of the methodology.

Whitfield, R. G.

1999-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

198

Extracellular Factor(s) following Exposure to ? Particles Can Cause Sister Chromatid Exchanges in Normal Human Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Energy-funded projects entitled Latent...emitted from inhaled radon and radon progeny...inhaled radon and radon progeny cause lung...Energy-funded projects entitled oeLatentExpression...Nos. 1 "3,International Corn mission for...Nero (ed), Radon and Its Decay Products...

Bruce E. Lehnert and Edwin H. Goodwin

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS  

SciTech Connect

On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash in an 84-acre complex of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Steam Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits extended as far as 4 miles upstream (Emory River mile 6) of the Plant, and some ash was carried as far downstream as Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}4 miles downstream of the Tennessee River confluence with the Clinch River). A byproduct of coal burning power plants, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be toxic to biological systems. The effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to be the effects of specific ash constituents, especially selenium, on fish early life stages. Uptake by adult female fish of fly ash constituents through the food chain and subsequent maternal transfer of contaminants to the developing eggs is thought to be the primary route of selenium exposure to larval fish (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Lemly 1999, Moscatello and others 2006), but direct contact of the fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash constituents in river water and sediments is also a potential risk factor (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Jezierska and others 2009). To address the risk of fly ash from the Kingston spill to the reproductive health of downstream fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA including: (1) a field study of the bioaccumulation of fly ash constituents in fish ovaries and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill; (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (reported in the current technical manuscript); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence; and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers. These fish reproduction and early life-stage studies are being conducted in conjunction with a broader biological monitoring program administered by TVA that includes a field study of the condition of larval fish in the Emory and Clinch Rivers along with assessments of water quality, sediment composition, ecotoxicological studies, terrestrial wildlife studies, and human and ecological risk assessment. Information and data generated from these studies will provide direct input into risk assessment efforts and will also complement and help support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program. Fish eggs, in general, are known to be capable of concentrating heavy metals and other environmental contaminants from water-borne exposures during embryonic development (Jezierska and others 2009), and fathead minnow embryos in particular have been shown to concentrate methylmercury (Devlin 2006) as well as other chemical toxicants. This technical report focuses on the responses of fathead minnow embryos to simple contact exposures to fly ash in laboratory toxicity tests adapted from a standard fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test (method 1001.0 in EPA 2002) with mortality, hatching success, and the incidences of developmental abnormalities as measured endpoints.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

none,

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Sources Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Natural background Medical Consumer products Industrial, security, educational and research Occupational 0.311 rem 0.300 rem 0.013 rem 0.0003 rem 0.0005 rem Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, provides radiological protection services and oversight at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These services include radiation dose measurements for persons who enter areas where they may be exposed to radiation or radioactive material. The results are periodically reported to monitored individuals. The results listed are based on a radiation dose system developed by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The system uses the terms "effective dose," "equivalent dose" and units of rem. You may be more familiar with the term "millirem" (mrem), which is 1/1000 of a rem.

202

Fate and Exposure Modeling of Environmental Contaminants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fate and Exposure Modeling of Environmental Contaminants Fate and Exposure Modeling of Environmental Contaminants Speaker(s): Mathew MacLeod Date: June 29, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Thomas McKone Chemical products pervade modern society, and furnish unprecedented wealth and comfort to citizens of countries with industrialized economies. Demand for products such as pesticides, industrial chemicals, flame-retardants and additives for consumer products requires large scale production and distribution of these chemicals, and they are inevitably released into the environment. Responsible management of chemicals therefore requires a quantitative understanding of amounts released, how the chemicals partition and travel in the environment, and how they might expose and thus adversely affect human and ecological populations. This

203

Pneumoconiosis and exposures of dental laboratory technicians  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and seventy-eight dental laboratory technicians and 69 non-exposed controls participated in an epidemiological respiratory study. Eight technicians who had a mean of 28 years grinding nonprecious metal alloys were diagnosed as having a simple pneumoconiosis by chest radiograph. Mean values for per cent predicted FVC and FEV1 were reduced among male nonsmoker technicians compared to male nonsmoker controls; after controlling for age, there was also a reduction in spirometry with increasing work-years. An industrial hygiene survey was conducted in 13 laboratories randomly selected from 42 laboratories stratified by size and type of operation in the Salt Lake City, Utah metropolitan area. Personal exposures to beryllium and cobalt exceeded the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) in one laboratory. Occupational exposures in dental laboratories need to be controlled to prevent beryllium-related lung disorders as well as simple pneumoconiosis.

Rom, W.N.; Lockey, J.E.; Lee, J.S.; Kimball, A.C.; Bang, K.M.; Leaman, H.; Johns, R.E. Jr.; Perrota, D.; Gibbons, H.L.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Cross hedging jet-fuel price exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the cross hedging performance of several oil forwards contracts using WTI, Brent, gasoil and heating oil to manage jet-fuel spot price exposure. We apply three econometric techniques that have been widely tested and applied in the cross hedging literature on foreign exchange and stock index futures markets. Using quotes from the financial industry on forward contracts, we can show that the optimal cross hedging instrument depends on the maturity of the instrument's forwards contract. The results highlight that the standard approach in the literature to use crude oil as a cross hedge is not optimal for time horizons of three months or less. By contrast, for short hedging horizons our results indicate that gasoil forwards contracts represent the highest cross hedging efficiency for jet-fuel spot price exposure, while for maturities of more than three months, the predominance of gasoil diminishes in comparison to WTI and Brent.

Zeno Adams; Mathias Gerner

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Extended correlations of porosity, permeability, and formation resistivity factor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and the second is an empirically established correlation between the individual parameters. Although the two relationships are of the same form, the empirical form permits an independent detezmination of characterizing factors that appear in the rela..., and the characterizing factors for several formations have been calculated. These characterizing factors may have some merit for characterizing formations in general. Methods are also suggested for estimating these factors when limited data is available...

Ellis, Keith Wade

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

ELRA: The exposure limiting robotic apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A problem situation involving the handling of radioactive material at Argonne National Laboratory -- West (ANL-W) was solved through the use of remote handling techniques, providing significant exposure reduction to personnel. Robotic devices can be useful, but the cost of a robot is often prohibitive for many jobs. A low cost, disposable robot was built which successfully removed a highly radioactive and potentially explosive system from a hot cell at ANL-W.

Knighton, G.C.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Henslee, S.P.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Wilkes, C.W.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Determination of ‘Acceptable’ and ’safe’ Levels of Chemical Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An important and yet controversial issue that comes up in attempts to establish’ safe’ or ‘tolerable’ levels for human exposure to chemical constituents relates to the notion of an ‘acceptable chemical exposure l...

Kofi Asante-Duah

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1992- 1994 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994.

209

Indoor Residential Chemical Emissions as Risk Factors for Children's  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Indoor Residential Chemical Emissions as Risk Factors for Children's Indoor Residential Chemical Emissions as Risk Factors for Children's Respiratory Health Speaker(s): Mark Mendell Date: February 23, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Most research into the effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. A growing body of research suggests that chemical emissions from common indoor materials and finishes have adverse effects, including increased risk of asthma, allergies, and pulmonary infections. The identified risk factors include specific organic compounds such as formaldehyde, benzene, and phthalates, as well as indoor materials or finishes such as vinyl flooring, carpet, paint, and plastics. This presentation presents a brief review of studies

210

General Employee Radiological Training  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE HANDBOOK GENERAL EMPLOYEE RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Not Measurement Sensitive This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 iii Foreword This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in chapter 14, Radiation Safety Training, of Implementation Guide G44.1B, Radiation Protection Programs Guide, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard [RCS - DOE-STD-1098-99, Ch. 1]. The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals

211

Teacher and General Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Argonne Argonne Science Project Ideas! Our Teacher and General Resources section provides you with online aids for learning about science, such as a tutorial of science equipment, as well as guides for the metric system. Please select any item below that interests you. Also, if you have an idea for a great teacher resource that we could share, please click our Ideas page. We would love to hear from you! Science Equipment Resources: Online Basic Laboratory Equipment Information An Introduction to Basic Laboratory Equipment All students need to know and understand the function of the equipment that they will be using in the science classroom. This exercise is to help students know a beaker from a bunsen burner! TSwift MB 3200 Microscope Online Tutorial Online Microscope Tutorial

212

Ocean General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect

1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

213

United States Attorney General  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

93, 5 U.S. Op. Off. Legal Counsel 1, 1981 WL 30865 (U.S.A.G.) 93, 5 U.S. Op. Off. Legal Counsel 1, 1981 WL 30865 (U.S.A.G.) United States Attorney General ***1 *293 January 16, 1981 **1 The President The White House Washington, D.C. 20500 MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: You have asked my opinion concerning the scope of currently existing legal and constitutional authorities for the continuance of government functions during a temporary lapse in appropriations, such as the Government sustained on October 1, 1980. As you know, some initial determination concerning the extent of these authorities had to be made in the waning hours of the last fiscal year in order to avoid extreme administrative confusion that might have arisen from Congress' failure timely to enact 11 of the 13 anticipated regular appropriations bills, FN;B1[FN1]FN;F1 or a

214

Microfield exposure tool enables advances in EUV lithography development  

SciTech Connect

With demonstrated resist resolution of 20 nm half pitch, the SEMATECH Berkeley BUV microfield exposure tool continues to push crucial advances in the areas of BUY resists and masks. The ever progressing shrink in computer chip feature sizes has been fueled over the years by a continual reduction in the wavelength of light used to pattern the chips. Recently, this trend has been threatened by unavailability of lens materials suitable for wavelengths shorter than 193 nm. To circumvent this roadblock, a reflective technology utilizing a significantly shorter extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength (13.5 nm) has been under development for the past decade. The dramatic wavelength shrink was required to compensate for optical design limitations intrinsic in mirror-based systems compared to refractive lens systems. With this significant reduction in wavelength comes a variety of new challenges including developing sources of adequate power, photoresists with suitable resolution, sensitivity, and line-edge roughness characteristics, as well as the fabrication of reflection masks with zero defects. While source development can proceed in the absence of available exposure tools, in order for progress to be made in the areas of resists and masks it is crucial to have access to advanced exposure tools with resolutions equal to or better than that expected from initial production tools. These advanced development tools, however, need not be full field tools. Also, implementing such tools at synchrotron facilities allows them to be developed independent of the availability of reliable stand-alone BUY sources. One such tool is the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool (MET). The most unique attribute of the SEMA TECH Berkeley MET is its use of a custom-coherence illuminator made possible by its implementation on a synchrotron beamline. With only conventional illumination and conventional binary masks, the resolution limit of the 0.3-NA optic is approximately 25 nm, however, with EUV not expected in production before the 22-nm half pitch node even finer resolution capabilities are now required from development tools. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET's custom-coherence illuminator allows it to be used with aggressive modified illumination enabling kJ factors as low as 0.25. Noting that the lithographic resolution of an exposure tool is defined as k{sub 1}{lambda}/NA, yielding an ultimate resolution limit of 11 nm. To achieve sub-20-nm aerial-image resolution while avoiding forbidden pitches on Manhattan-geometry features with the centrally-obscured MET optic, a 45-degree oriented dipole pupil fill is used. Figure 1 shows the computed aerial-image contrast as a function of half pitch for a dipole pupil fill optimized to print down to the 19-nm half pitch level. This is achieved with relatively uniform performance at larger dimensions. Using this illumination, printing down to the 20-nm half pitch level has been demonstrated in chemically amplified resists as shown in Fig. 2. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET tool plays a crucial role in the advancement of EUV resists. The unique programmable coherence properties of this tool enable it to achieve higher resolution than other EUV projection tools. As presented here, over the past year the tool has been used to demonstrate resist resolutions of 20 half pitch. Although not discussed here, because the Berkeley MET tool is a true projection lithography tool, it also plays a crucial role in advanced EUV mask research. Examples of the work done in this area include defect printability, mask architecture, and phase shift masks.

Naulleau, Patrick

2009-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

215

Contact for the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Sue Wadel, Deputy Assistant General Counsel 202-586-4040 sue.wadel@hq.doe.gov Isiah Smith Jr., Deputy Assistant General Counsel 202-586-6724 isiah.smith@hq.doe.gov Yvonne...

216

Pesticide exposure and sprayer design: ergonomics evaluation to reduce pesticide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pesticide exposure and sprayer design: ergonomics evaluation to reduce pesticide exposure Sonia of operator exposure to plant protection products through the introduction of ergonomics to the design process. It is suggested that a systematic ergonomics evaluation of sprayer interfaces with the view of reducing direct

217

RESEARCH Open Access Childhood lead exposure in France: benefit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

benefits of exposure abatement. Methods: Monetary benefits were assessed in terms of avoided national costs avoided costs were included. Costs of pollutant exposure control were partially estimated in regardRESEARCH Open Access Childhood lead exposure in France: benefit estimation and partial cost

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model  

SciTech Connect

This analysis is one of the technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), referred to in this report as the biosphere model. ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'' is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1 (based on BSC 2006 [DIRS 176938]). This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This analysis report defines and justifies values of atmospheric mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of the biosphere model to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception. This report is concerned primarily with the physical attributes of airborne particulate matter, such as the airborne concentrations of particles and their sizes. The conditions of receptor exposure (duration of exposure in various microenvironments), breathing rates, and dosimetry of inhaled particulates are discussed in more detail in ''Characteristics of the Receptor for the Biosphere Model'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]).

M. Wasiolek

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

219

Estimating cancer risk from dental cone-beam CT exposures based on skin dosimetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to measure entrance skin doses on patients undergoing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) examinations, to establish conversion factors between skin and organ doses, and to estimate cancer risk from CBCT exposures. 266 patients (age 8–83) were included, involving three imaging centres. CBCT scans were acquired using the SCANORA 3D (Soredex, Tuusula, Finland) and NewTom 9000 (QR, Verona, Italy). Eight thermoluminescent dosimeters were attached to the patient's skin at standardized locations. Using previously published organ dose estimations on various CBCTs with an anthropomorphic phantom, correlation factors to convert skin dose to organ doses were calculated and applied to estimate patient organ doses. The BEIR VII age- and gender-dependent dose-risk model was applied to estimate the lifetime attributable cancer risk. For the SCANORA 3D, average skin doses over the eight locations varied between 484 and 1788 µGy. For the NewTom 9000 the range was between 821 and 1686 µGy for Centre 1 and between 292 and 2325 µGy for Centre 2. Entrance skin dose measurements demonstrated the combined effect of exposure and patient factors on the dose. The lifetime attributable cancer risk, expressed as the probability to develop a radiation-induced cancer, varied between 2.7 per million (age >60) and 9.8 per million (age 8–11) with an average of 6.0 per million. On average, the risk for female patients was 40% higher. The estimated radiation risk was primarily influenced by the age at exposure and the gender, pointing out the continuing need for justification and optimization of CBCT exposures, with a specific focus on children.

Ruben Pauwels; Lesley Cockmartin; Deimante Ivanauskaité; Ausra Urbonien?; Sophia Gavala; Catherine Donta; Kostas Tsiklakis; Reinhilde Jacobs; Hilde Bosmans; Ria Bogaerts; Keith Horner; The SEDENTEXCT Project Consortium

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The Importance of Historical Trauma & Stress as a Factor in Diabetes and Obesity Prevention among American Indian Adolescents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

events, exacerbated by historical trauma, contribute to a heightened level of stress among American Indians that is unparalleled. Given that research has linked stress and trauma to the onset of diabetes, exposure to these risk factors for American...

Hale, Jason William

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Power Factor Improvement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power factor control is a necessary ingredient in any successful Energy Management Program. Many companies are operating with power factors of 70% or less and are being penalized through the electrical utility bill. This paper starts by describing...

Viljoen, T. A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

DYNAMIC INTERACTION FACTORS FOR FLOATING PILE GROUPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-numerical formulation for two ideal- ized soil profiles (a homogeneous half-space and a half-space with modulus pro interaction factors for static deformation analysis of pile groups. INTRODUCTION Under static working loads) the sharing among individual piles of the load applied at the pile cap is generally uneven, with the corner

Entekhabi, Dara

223

Chapter 22 - General Concepts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary The term Electronic Design Automation (EDA) refers to the tools that are used to design and verify integrated circuits (ICs), printed circuit boards (PCBs), and electronic systems, in general. Over time, these early computer-aided drafting tools evolved into interactive programs that performed integrated circuit layout. Other companies like Racal-Redac, SCI-Cards, and Telesis created equivalent layout programs for printed circuit boards. These integrated circuit and circuit board layout programs became known as Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools. The companies promoting front-end tools for schematic capture and simulation classed them as Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE). The term “automation” refers to the ability for end-users to augment, customize, and drive the capabilities of electronic design and verification tools by means of a scripting language and associated support utilities. There are a wide variety of programming languages available, but—excepting specialist application areas—the most commonly used by far are traditional C and its object-oriented offspring, C++. A gate-level netlist refers to a circuit representation at the level of individual logic gates, registers, and other simple functions. The netlist will also specify the connections (wires) between the various gates and functions. A component-level netlist refers to a circuit representation at the level of individual components. System programming languages such as C, C++, and Java™ are designed to allow programmers to build data structures, algorithms, and—ultimately—applications from the ground up.

Clive Max Maxfield

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Study of anticipated impact on DOE programs from proposed reductions to the external occupational radiation exposure limit  

SciTech Connect

A study of the impact of reducing the occupational radiation exposure limit from 5 rem/yr to 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5 rem/yr, respectively produced the following conclusions: reduction of the occupational exposure limit would result in significant increase in total accumulated exposure to the current radiation worker population and could require an increase in the work force; important programs would have to be abandoned at a planned exposure limit of 0.5 rem/yr; some engineering technology is not sufficiently developed to design or operate at the 0.5 rem/yr limit; even a factor of 2 reduction (2.5 rem/yr) would significantly increase costs and would result in an increase in total exposure to the work force; in addition to a significant one-time initial capital cost resulting from a 0.5 rem/yr limit, there would be a significant increase in annual costs; the major emphasis in controlling occupational exposure should be on further reduction of total man-rem; and current standards are used only as a limit. For example, 97% of the employees receive less than 0.5 rem/yr.

None

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Exposure assessment of acrylates/methacrylates in radiation-cured applications  

SciTech Connect

Occupational exposures to radiation-cured acrylates/methacrylates during their processing and use in coatings, inks, and adhesives were evaluated in 12 walk-through surveys at formulator and applicator sites. Inhalation and dermal-exposure routes were studied. According to the authors, the basic process used to formulate coatings, inks, and adhesives consists of blending raw materials in closed mixing vessels using local exhaust ventilation in the form of elephant trunks at vessel charging and packaging locations. Application methods surveyed included reverse-roll coaters, direct roll coaters, curtain/rain coaters, laminators, pneumatic injection, spray guns, and manual application. At the sites surveyed, the number of workers potentially exposed at each site ranged from two to 142. Process operators at applicator sites had the greatest potential for dermal exposure. Generally, the potential for inhalation exposure was low due to low volatility of the multifunctional acrylates/methacrylates used in the formulations. No reliable air-monitoring data were available at any site. Respirator use was limited and sporadic.

Not Available

1987-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

226

Generalized entropies in a turbulent dynamo simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simulation of hydromagnetic turbulence exhibiting dynamo action is employed to estimate the generalized entropies, Hq, from the distribution of moments of local expansion factors of material line elements. These generalized entropies can be used to characterize the dynamics of turbulence and of nonlinear dynamo action. The value of the metric entropy, H1, is comparable to the largest Lyapunov exponent describing the divergence of trajectories in phase space, which in turn is somewhat larger than the growth rate of the magnetic energy. The value of the topological entropy, H0, is similar to the conversion rate of kinetic to magnetic energy, but larger than the growth rate of the dynamo. This is in agreement with results stating that the growth rate of the kinematic dynamo is limited by the topological entropy. The dependence of Hq on q leads to a criterion from which we infer that the degree of intermittency in our particular system is weak.

Axel Brandenburg; Isaac Klapper; Jürgen Kurths

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

nasa Office Of Inspector General  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nasa Office Of Inspector General S E m I A N N u A L r E P O r T october 1, 2010­march 31, 2011 #12;#12;FROM THE INSPECTOR GENERAL In January 2011, the NASA Office of Inspector General (OIG) took the unusual step of sending a letter to the Chairs and Ranking Members of NASA's congressional oversight

Christian, Eric

228

Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1-1). The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states (present day, monsoon, and glacial transition) considered in the TSPA-LA, as well as conversion factors for compliance evaluation with the groundwater protection standards. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from drinking water for beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides.

M.A. Wasiolek

2005-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

229

Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment  

SciTech Connect

In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

Janeen Denise Robertson

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

The possible association between exposure to air pollution and the risk for congenital malformations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractBackground Over the last decade, there is growing evidence that exposure to air pollution may be associated with increased risk for congenital malformations. Objectives To evaluate the possible association between exposures to air pollution during pregnancy and congenital malformations among infants born following spontaneously conceived (SC) pregnancies and assisted reproductive technology (ART) pregnancies. Methods This is an historical cohort study comprising 216,730 infants: 207,825 SC infants and 8905 ART conceived infants, during the periods 1997–2004. Air pollution data including sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter air monitoring stations database for the study period. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and the Kriging procedure, exposure to air pollution during the first trimester and the entire pregnancy was assessed for each woman according to her residential location. Logistic regression models with generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach were used to evaluate the adjusted risk for congenital malformations. Results In the study cohort increased concentrations of PM10 and \\{NOx\\} pollutants in the entire pregnancy were associated with slightly increased risk for congenital malformations: OR 1.06(95% CI, 1.01–1.11) for 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 and OR 1.03(95% CI, 1.01–1.04) for 10 ppb increase in NOx. Specific malformations were evident in the circulatory system (for PM10 and \\{NOx\\} exposure) and genital organs (for \\{NOx\\} exposure). SO2 and O3 pollutants were not significantly associated with increased risk for congenital malformations. In the ART group higher concentrations of SO2 and O3 in entire pregnancy were associated (although not significantly) with an increased risk for congenital malformations: OR 1.06(95% CI, 0.96–1.17) for 1 ppb increase in SO2 and OR 1.15(95% CI, 0.69–1.91) for 10 ppb increase in O3. Conclusions Exposure to higher levels of PM10 and \\{NOx\\} during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for congenital malformations. Specific malformations were evident in the circulatory system and genital organs. Among ART pregnancies possible adverse association of SO2 and O3 exposure was also observed. Further studies are warranted, including more accurate exposure assessment and a larger sample size for ART pregnancies, in order to confirm these findings.

Adel Farhi; Valentina Boyko; Jonatan Almagor; Itzhak Benenson; Enrico Segre; Yinon Rudich; Eli Stern; Liat Lerner-Geva

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009  

SciTech Connect

A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Review and validation of exposure assessment methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

factors were selected for the final version of the model out of 33 identified initially. ' In Armstrong et al. a sensitivity calculation was used to aid researchers in selecting these parameters. In this exercise, the percent change of the estimated...

Shaw, Eduardo

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

changed as a result of adopting ICRP 60 dosimetry system; u Used the ICRP 68 dose conversion factors to determine values for the derived air concentrations (DACs); and u Adopted...

234

Depleted Uranium: Exposure and Possible Health Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the enrichment process of 235U used for fission in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. It has both civilian and military applications. The military use of DU is of defensive as well as of offensive nature, being mainly employed as armor-piercing ammunition. So far, the usage of ammunitions containing DU has been officially confirmed in four military conflicts: Iraq (1991), Bosnia (1994), Kosovo (1999), and again Iraq (2003). During their deployment in the military actions, most penetrators are thought to have missed their intended targets. Therefore, a substantial amount of DU is still present in the environment and may act as a source of contamination for the environment and the population. The possible effects of this radioactive and chemically toxic material have attracted particular notice. To evaluate these consequences, it is important to have accurate methods to assess the exposure to DU in both environmental and biological samples. This article is therefore intended to point out the problematic nature of the experimental techniques and of the analytical methods so far used to quantify the exposure to DU in the light of possible health effects of DU.

U. Oeh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Mineral fiber content of lung tissue in patients with environmental exposures: household contacts vs building occupants  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of tissue mineral fiber content in patients with environmental exposures has seldom been reported in the past. Our studies of six household contacts of asbestos workers indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos concentrations similar to some occupationally exposed individuals. In contrast, our studies of four occupants of buildings with asbestos-containing materials indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos burdens indistinguishable from the general nonoccupationally exposed population. However, one such building occupant exposed for many years and who later developed pleural mesothelioma was studied in detail, and it was concluded that her exposure as a teacher's aide in a school building containing acoustical plaster was the likely cause of her mesothelioma.

Roggli, V.L.; Longo, W.E. (Department of Pathology, Durham Veterans Administration, NC (United States))

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Chapter 3 - Oxidative Stress Induced by Air Pollution and Exposure to Sunlight  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air pollution contains small particles, and particles smaller than 10 ?m can generate free radicals when inhaled. In addition, various free radicals may also be present in polluted air. In general, the air quality of urban areas is poorer than that of rural areas. Industrial smoke also contains free radicals and small particles. Breathing polluted air for a long period of time may induce oxidative stress in the body, causing various illnesses including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Sunlight contains UV radiation, and prolonged exposure to sunlight or sunbathing without application of sunscreen may cause sunburn, skin damage, and even skin cancer including melanoma, which is linked to oxidative stress. During the summer months when the UV index is high, exposure to sunlight should be reduced or protective clothing should be worn. Moreover, use of sunglasses is recommended because UV light can induce oxidative stress in eyes, causing cataract formation and other eye diseases such as macular degeneration.

Amitava Dasgupta; Kimberly Klein

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Retrospective beryllium exposure assessment at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1960`s, beryllium machining was performed to make nuclear weapon components at the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant. Beryllium exposure was assessed via fixed airhead (FAH) sampling in which the filter cassette was affixed to the machine, generally within a few feet of the worker`s breathing zone. Approximately 500,000 FAH samples were collected for beryllium over three decades. From 1984 to 1987, personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples were also collected as part of the evaluation of a new high velocity/low volume local exhaust ventilation (HV/LV LEV) system. The purpose of this study was to determine how the two types of sampling data could be used for an exposure assessment in the beryllium shop.

Barnard, A.E.; Torma-Krajewski, J. [Department of Energy, Rocky Flats Field Office, Golden, CO (United States); Viet, S.M. [M.H. Chew & Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

The EM algorithm for the extended finite mixture of the factor analyzers model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to extending common factors and categorical variables in the model of a finite mixture of factor analyzers based on the multivariate generalized linear model and the principle of maximum random utility in the probabilistic choice ...

Xingcai Zhou; Xinsheng Liu

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Agreements --General/Regional 171 GENERAL/REGIONAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belgium; Bolivia; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso African convention on the conservation of nature and natural resources March 25, 1957 General Belgium

Wolf, Aaron

240

OLEDS FOR GENERAL LIGHTING  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program was to reduce the long term technical risks that were keeping the lighting industry from embracing and developing organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology for general illumination. The specific goal was to develop OLEDs for lighting to the point where it was possible to demonstrate a large area white light panel with brightness and light quality comparable to a fluorescence source and with an efficacy comparable to that of an incandescent source. it was recognized that achieving this would require significant advances in three area: (1) the improvement of white light quality for illumination, (2) the improvement of OLED energy efficiency at high brightness, and (3) the development of cost-effective large area fabrication techniques. The program was organized such that, each year, a ''deliverable'' device would be fabricated which demonstrated progress in one or more of the three critical research areas. In the first year (2001), effort concentrated on developing an OLED capable of generating high illumination-quality white light. Ultimately, a down-conversion method where a blue OLED was coupled with various down-conversion layers was chosen. Various color and scattering models were developed to aid in material development and device optimization. The first year utilized this approach to deliver a 1 inch x 1 inch OLED with higher illumination-quality than available fluorescent sources. A picture of this device is shown and performance metrics are listed. To their knowledge, this was the first demonstration of true illumination-quality light from an OLED. During the second year, effort concentrated on developing a scalable approach to large area devices. A novel device architecture consisting of dividing the device area into smaller elements that are monolithically connected in series was developed. In the course of this development, it was realized that, in addition to being scalable, this approach made the device tolerant to the most common OLED defect--electrical shorts. This architecture enabled the fabrication of a 6 inch x 6 inch OLED deliverable for 2002. A picture of this deliverable is shown and the performance metrics are listed. At the time, this was the highest efficiency, highest lumen output illumination-quality OLED in existence. The third year effort concentrated on improving the fabrication yield of the 6 inch x 6 inch devices and improving the underlying blue device efficiency. An efficiency breakthrough was achieved through the invention of a new device structure such that now 15 lumen per watt devices could be fabricated. A 2 feet x 2 feet OLED panel consisting of sixteen 6 inch x 6 inch high efficiency devices tiled together was then fabricated. Pictures of this panel are shown with performance metrics listed. This panel met all project objectives and was the final deliverable for the project. It is now the highest efficiency, highest lumen output, illumination-quality OLED in existence.

Anil Duggal; Don Foust; Chris Heller; Bill Nealon; Larry Turner; Joe Shiang; Nick Baynes; Tim Butler; Nalin Patel

2004-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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241

Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)  

SciTech Connect

This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.

Kerr, Kent

2005-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

242

DNA damage-inducible genes as biomarkers for exposures to environmental agents  

SciTech Connect

A biodosimetric approach to determine alpha-particle dose to the respiratory tract epithelium from known exposures to radon has been developed in the rat. Cytotoxicity assays have been used to obtain dose-conversion factors for cumulative exposures typical of those encountered by underground uranium miners. However, this approach is not sensitive enough to derive close-conversion factors for indoor radon exposures. The expression of DNA damage-inducible genes is being investigated as a biomarker of exposure to radon progeny. Exposure of cultures of A549 cells to alpha particles resulted in an increase in the protein levels of the DNA damage-inducible genes, p53, Cip 1, and Gadd45. These protein changes were associated with a transient arrest of cells passing through the cell cycle. This arrest was typified by an increase in the number of cells in the G{sub 1} and G{sub 2} phases and a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase. The effect of inhaled alpha particles (radon progeny) in rats was examined in the epithelial cells of the lateral wall of the anterior nasal cavity. Exposures to radon progeny resulted in a significant increase in the number of cells in the G{sub 1} phase and a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase. These cell-cycle changes were concomitant with an increase in the number of cells containing DNA strand breaks. In addition to ionizing radiation, A549 cells were exposed to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, methyl methanesulphonate, crocidolite asbestos, and glass microfiber. These studies showed that physical and chemical agents induce different expression patterns of p53, Cip 1, and Gadd153 proteins and they could be used to discriminate between toxic and nontoxic materials such as asbestos and glass microfiber. The measurement of gene expression in A549 cells may provide a means to identify a broad spectrum of physical and chemical toxicants encountered in the environment. 9 figs., 42 refs.

Johnson, N.F.; Carpenter, T.R.; Jaramillo, R.J.; Liberati, T.A. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

The Douglas Factors  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Douglas Factors Douglas Factors The Merit Systems Protection Board in its landmark decision, Douglas vs. Veterans Administration, 5 MSPR 280, established criteria that supervisors must consider in determining an appropriate penalty to impose for an act of employee misconduct. These twelve factors are commonly referred to as "Douglas Factors: (1) The nature and seriousness of the offense, and its relation to the employee's duties, position, and responsibilities, including whether the offense was intentional or technical or inadvertent, or was committed maliciously or for gain, or was frequently repeated; (2) the employee's job level and type of employment, including supervisory or fiduciary role,

244

Meson electromagnetic form factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electromagnetic structure of the pseudoscalar meson nonet is completely described by the sophisticated Unitary&Analytic model, respecting all known theoretical properties of the corresponding form factors.

Stanislav Dubnicka; Anna Z. Dubnickova

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

245

Variations in film exposure, effective kVp, and HVL among thirty-five dental x-ray units  

SciTech Connect

Speed group ''E'' dental films were exposed in thirty-five dental x-ray units and processed under rigidly controlled conditions. The exposure, in milliroentgens required to produce an overall film density between 0.85 and 1.05 density units at the 9 mm. step of an aluminum step-wedge, ranged from 94 to 186 mR. The wide range in normalized exposure required to produce a standard density of 1.0 was associated with half-value layer and effective operating kilovoltage in only a general way. The half-value layer of thirty-five dental x-ray units ranged from 1.9 to 2.9 mm. Al, and their effective operating kilovoltages ranged from 62 to 77 kVp when units were set at 70 kVp. The exposure required to produce a specific radiographic density depended largely on the individual characteristics of the x-ray unit used.

Preece, J.W.; Jensen, C.W.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 20 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

247

EFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 26 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Apr 2013) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

248

EFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 39 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Apr 2013) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

249

AES Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 18 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

250

SFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 16 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

251

A study of generalized inverses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A STUDY OF GENERALIZED INVERSES A Thesis by NANCY LEE MCKINNEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Mathematics A... STUDY OF GENERALIZED INVERSES A Thesis by NANCY LEE MCKINNEY Approved as to style and content by: airman o ittee Hea o epartment e er Me er August 1973 ABSTRACT A Study of Generalized Inverses. (August 1973) Nancy Lee NcKinney, B. A...

McKinney, Nancy Lee

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

SFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 29 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

253

Extremality conditions for generalized channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A generalized channel is a completely positive map that preserves trace on a given subspace. We find conditions under which a generalized channel with respect to a positively generated subspace J is an extreme point in the set of all such generalized channels. As a special case, this yields extremality conditions for quantum protocols. In particular, we obtain new extremality conditions for quantum 1-testers with 2 outcomes, which correspond to yes/no measurements on the set of quantum channels.

Anna Jencova

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

254

EFFECTS OF TRITIUM EXPOSURE ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL  

SciTech Connect

Samples of three polymers, Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, also known as Teflon{reg_sign}), and Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide were exposed to 1 atmosphere of tritium gas at ambient temperature for varying times up to 2.3 years in closed containers. Sample mass and size measurements (to calculate density), spectra-colorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the effects of tritium exposure on these samples. Changes of the tritium exposure gas itself were characterized at the end of exposure by measuring total pressure and by mass spectroscopic analysis of the gas composition. None of the polymers exhibited significant changes of density. The color of initially white UHMW-PE and PTFE dramatically darkened to the eye and the color also significantly changed as measured by colorimetry. The bulk of UHMW-PE darkened just like the external surfaces, however the fracture surface of PTFE appeared white compared to the PTFE external surfaces. The white interior could have been formed while the sample was breaking or could reflect the extra tritium dose at the surface directly from the gas. The dynamic mechanical response of UHMW-PE was typical of radiation effects on polymers- an initial stiffening (increased storage modulus) and reduction of viscous behavior after three months exposure, followed by lowering of the storage modulus after one year exposure and longer. The storage modulus of PTFE increased through about nine months tritium exposure, then the samples became too weak to handle or test using DMA. Characterization of Vespel{reg_sign} using DMA was problematic--sample-to-sample variations were significant and no systematic change with tritium exposure could be discerned. Isotopic exchange and incorporation of tritium into UHMW-PE (exchanging for protium) and into PTFE (exchanging for fluorine) was observed by FT-IR using an attenuated total reflectance method. No significant change in the Vespel{reg_sign} infrared spectrum was observed after three months exposure. Protium significantly pressurized the UHMW-PE containers during exposure to about nine atmospheres (the initial pressure was one atmosphere of tritium). This is consistent with the well-known production of hydrogen by irradiation of polyethylene by ionizing radiation. The total pressure in the PTFE containers decreased, and a mass balance reveals that the observed decrease is consistent with the formation of small amounts of {sup 3}HF, which is condensed at ambient temperature. No significant change of pressure occurred in the Vespel{reg_sign} containers; however the composition of the gas became about 50% protium, showing that Vespel{reg_sign} interacted with the tritium gas atmosphere to some degree. The relative resistance to degradation from tritium exposure is least for PTFE, more for UHMW-PE, and the most for Vespel{reg_sign}, which is consistent with the known relative resistance of these polymers to gamma irradiation. This qualitatively agrees with the concept of equivalent effects for equivalent absorbed doses of radiation damage of polymers. Some of the changes of different polymers are qualitatively similar; however each polymer exhibited unique property changes when exposed to tritium. Information from this study that can be applied to a tritium facility is: (1) the relative resistance to tritium degradation of the three polymers studied is the same as the relative resistance to gamma irradiation in air (so relative rankings of polymer resistance to ionizing radiation can be used as a relative ranking for assessing tritium compatibility and polymer selection); and (2) all three polymers changed the gas atmosphere during tritium exposure--UHMW-PE and Vespel{reg_sign} exposed to tritium formed H{sub 2} gas (UHMW-PE much more so), and PTFE exposed to tritium formed {sup 3}HF. This observation of forming {sup 3}HF supports the general concept of minimizing chlorofluorocarbon polymers in tritium systems.

Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

255

Singularities of Generalized Parton Distributions  

SciTech Connect

The basic ideas of the theory of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) are reviewed. Recent developments in the study of singularities of GPDs are discussed.

Anatoly Radyushkin

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

256

Singularities of Generalized Parton Distributions  

SciTech Connect

Progress of recent work on modeling generalized parton distributions is given. Special attention was paid to study of their singularities structure.

Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [JLAB, Old Dominion U.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

3 - Nanoparticle exposure assessment: methods, sampling techniques, and data analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Nanotechnology is now applied to many industries, resulting in a wide range of nanomaterial-containing products, such as electronic components, cosmetics, medicines, vehicles, and home appliances. Nanoparticles can be released throughout the life cycle of nanoproducts, including manufacture, consumer use, and disposal, thereby involving workers, consumers, and the environment in potential exposure. However, there is no current consensus on the best sampling method for characterizing manufactured nanoparticle exposure. Therefore, this chapter addresses nanoparticle exposure assessment methods, sampling techniques, and data analysis.

I.J. Yu; G. Ichihara; K. Ahn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Preformation factor for ? particles in isotopes near N=Z  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combining the experimental ?-decay energies and half-lives, the ?-particle preformation factors for the nuclei around N=Z=50 are extracted within the generalized liquid drop model. It is found that the average order of magnitude of the preformation factor is 1.0×10?1. In addition, a detailed discussion on the odd-even effect of the preformation factor is performed.

Y. Z. Wang; J. Z. Gu; Z. Y. Hou

2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

259

NSF ITR Project General Notes on Trypsin Test Procedure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NSF ITR Project Fall 2004 General Notes on Trypsin Test Procedure: Automated performance procedure the assay still work"?) Calculation of the Z' ­ Factor (quality criteria) Manual performance procedure: (Uses/purpose of procedure: Setup a new assay. Use as basis for comparison with automated version

Kaber, David B.

260

DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report ALARA Activities...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

disconnection allows termination of correction elements to be conducted in a lower dose rate area and in less time. This innovation will greatly reduce radiation exposures to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Patient exposure trends in medical and dental radiography  

SciTech Connect

Patient exposure to medical and dental x rays has long been of interest to the radiological health community. With the cooperation of state and local agencies and professional groups, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health has conducted three major surveys of patient exposure to x rays. The latest of these surveys, the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT), collected x-ray exposure data for each year starting in 1972. Two earlier studies, the 1964 and 1970 X-ray Exposure Studies collected x-ray data during the years these surveys were conducted. Exposure trends presented are based on results of all three studies. Major improvements in beam limitation are seen for medical and dental radiography. Since 1964, when the first nationwide survey was conducted, dental exposures have decreased about 75%. Decreases of up to one-third occurred in exposures for medical examinations. The current exposure data presented continue to show a wide variation in medical exposures. Also presented are organ doses for four organs (ovaries, testes, thyroid and active bone marrow).

Johnson, D.W.; Goetz, W.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This pamphlet is intended to provide a short summary of the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program and DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring

263

Consequences of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure and Maternal Stress on Offspring.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Extensive evidence in humans suggests that exposure to insults during gestation, such as ethanol or maternal stress, can negatively impact the developing fetus in manners… (more)

Staples, Miranda

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

An exposure assessment survey of the Mont Belvieu polyethylene plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exposure health risks based on quantitative and qualitative data; ~ Provide a quality tool for standardizing the measurement of workplace exposure health risk; and ~ Provide a means for an immediate and out-of-cycle exposure assessment following... with indicator substances in corres ondin RAC Worker Group HCW Kl K3 K5 Ll Lg L9 Number of RACs with Rankin of I Number of RACs Number of RACs with Rankin of 2 with Rankin of 3 The results from the exposure assessment of individual job tasks, based...

Tucker, Thomas Franklin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

265

A Basic Overview of the Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for...

266

Computing nonnegative tensor factorizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 19, 2006 ... Keywords N-dimensional arrays, tensors, nonnegative tensor factorization, alternating ..... for each A(n)) are standard nonnegative linear least-squares problems over the vector ..... interface (lsNTF) implements the nonnegative tensor factorization for N = 3 and relies on .... and inaccurate measurements.

2006-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

267

Current Trends in General Psychology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE programme for the morning session on August 9 of Section J (Psychology) of the British Association consisted of three papers discussing tendencies in general ... ) of the British Association consisted of three papers discussing tendencies in general psychology. The discussion presents certain difficulties to anyone attempting to summarize it, in that the ...

J. DREVER

1951-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

268

NASA OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NASA OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL SEMIANNUAL REPORT October 1, 2012­March 31, 2013 #12;A-3 Rocket 9 rocket lifts off from Cape Canaveral NASA's Curiosity rover on the Martian surface The Sun captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory #12;October 1, 2012­March 31, 2013 FROM THE INSPECTOR GENERAL

269

Generalized Transforms and Special Functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the properties of different type of transforms by means of operational methods and discuss the relevant interplay with many families of special functions. We consider in particular the binomial transform and its generalizations. A general method, based on the use of the Fourier transform technique, is proposed for the study of the properties of functions of operators.

G. Dattoli; E. Sabia

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

270

Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 4. An assessment of exposure to mercury in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This volume assesses exposure of the U.S. general population to methylmercury through consumption of fish and shellfish. Analyses of patterns of fish consumption by humans were based on contemporary food consumption surveys of nationally representative populations in the United States, and for subpopulations identified as consumers of substaintially higher amounts of fish/shellfish than are more typical consumers. These subpopulations include: Native American Tribal groups, Alaskan natives, persons of Asian/Caribbean/South Pacific Island ethnicity, and subsistence fishers. Mercury concentrations in marine/fresh water/estuarine species are described. Commerical data on quantities of seafood available and sources of fish/shellfish consumed are provided based on commercial and National Marine Fisheries Service data bases. Mercury exposures are calculated for multiple groups, but particularly for women of childbearing age, and for children. Alternative presentations of patterns of fish/shellfish consumption (e.g., daily, per capita, consumers only, and month-long patterns) for the general population are provided. Assessment of mercury exposures based on biomonitoring of mercury in hair and blood among North American groups are provided. A brief summary of additional sources of mercury (e.g., occupational exposures) is included. Sources of variability and uncertainty are described, and when possible, quantitated.

Mahaffey, K.R.; Rice, G.E.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Photovoltaic module performance and durability following long-term field exposure  

SciTech Connect

Our investigations of both new and field-aged photovoltaic modules have indicated that, in general, today's commercially available modules area highly reliable product. However, by using new test procedures, subtle failure mechanisms have also been identified that must be addressed in order to achieve 30-year module lifetimes. This paper summarizes diagnostic test procedures, results, and implications of in-depth investigations of the performance and durability characteristics of commercial modules after long-term field exposure. A collaborative effort with U.S. module manufacturers aimed at achieving 30-year module lifetimes is also described.

Ellibee, D.E.; Hansen, B.R.; King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Quintana, M.A.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

272

Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system shows, in general, a good performance for both long-term averages (annual and monthly averages), short-term averages (hourly and daily) as well as when reproducing spatial variation in air pollution concentrations. Some shortcomings and future perspectives of the system are discussed too.

Matthias Ketzel; Ruwim Berkowicz; Martin Hvidberg; Steen Solvang Jensen; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Enhancement factors for resuspended aerosol radioactivity: Effects of topsoil disturbance  

SciTech Connect

The enhancement factor for airborne radionuclides resuspended by wind is defined as the ratio of the activity density (Bq g{sup {minus}1}) in the aerosol to the activity density in the underlying surface of contaminated soil. Enhancement factors are useful for assessment of worst-case exposure scenarios and transport conditions, and are one of the criteria for setting environmental standards for radioactivity in soil. This paper presents results of experimental studies where resuspension of {sup 239}Pu was measured when air concentrations were equilibrated to the soil surface. Enhancement factors were observed for several types of man-made disturbances (bulldozer-blading, soil raking, vacuum-cleaning) and natural disturbances (springtime thaw, soil-drying, wildfire). For some cases, enhancement factors are compared over range of geographical locations (Bikini Atoll, California, Nevada, and South Carolina). The particle-size distributions of aerosol activity are compared to particle-size distributions of the underlying soil.

Shinn, J.H.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Research Laboratories General Motors Corporation General Motors Technical Center  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

MI. 1-q Research Laboratories General Motors Corporation General Motors Technical Center Warren, Michigan 48090 January 21, 1977 Occupational Health Standards Branch Office of Standards Development U. S. Nuclear Requlatory Commission Washington, D.C. 20555 Attention: Mr. Robert E. Alexander, Chief Dear Mr. Alexander: In 1974, General Motors Corporation acquired a manufacturing plant in Adrian, Michigan. On October 21, 1976, General Motors announced that work would begin immediately to prepare the plant for manufacturing operations (Appendix A). A news release, made by Mr. Irving Loop of ERDA and carried by radio station WABJ of Adrian, Michigan on May 11, 1976, stated that natural uranium was handled in the plant after World War II and that

275

Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

M. Wasiolek

2000-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

276

LIGHTNING EXPOSURE OF WIND TURBINES University of Toronto  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LIGHTNING EXPOSURE OF WIND TURBINES Dale Dolan University of Toronto e-mail: dale@ecf.utoronto.ca Abstract This paper applies the electrogeometric model of lightning exposure to a wind turbine to compute. For a typical 45 m wind turbine, the probability of being struck by a downward negative flash, as predicted

Lehn, Peter W.

277

Progressive Commercial Cigarette Yield Reduction: Biochemical Exposure and Behavioral Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cotinine analyses, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service; 1971. 15...biochemical exposure and behavioral assessment. | Mandated reduction of...smoking behavior, with an assessment of nicotine intake and exposure...

Neal L. Benowitz; Katherine M. Dains; Sharon M. Hall; Susan Stewart; Margaret Wilson; Delia Dempsey; and Peyton Jacob III

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON EPDM ELASTOMER  

SciTech Connect

Samples of four formulations of ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomer were exposed to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere and ambient temperature for various times up to about 420 days in closed containers. Two formulations were carbon-black-filled commercial formulations, and two were the equivalent formulations without filler synthesized for this work. Tritium effects on the samples were characterized by measuring the sample volume, mass, flexibility, and dynamic mechanical properties and by noting changes in appearance. The glass transition temperature was determined by analysis of the dynamic mechanical properties. The glass transition temperature increased significantly with tritium exposure, and the unfilled formulations ceased to behave as elastomers after the longest tritium exposure. The filled formulations were more resistant to tritium exposure. Tritium exposure made all samples significantly stiffer and therefore much less able to form a reliable seal when employed as O-rings. No consistent change of volume or density was observed; there was a systematic lowering of sample mass with tritium exposure. In addition, the significant radiolytic production of gas, mainly protium (H{sub 2}) and HT, by the samples when exposed to tritium was characterized by measuring total pressure in the container at the end of each exposure and by mass spectroscopy of a gas sample at the end of each exposure. The total pressure in the containers more than doubled after {approx}420 days tritium exposure.

Clark, E.

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

279

Modelling of radiation exposure at high altitudes during solar storms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......with a different energy spectrum. To estimate...exposure due to solar flares, a model...measuring the flux of solar and galactic particles...and the high-energy proton and alpha...Exposure during Solar Maximum) project. One flight from......

H. Al Anid; B. J. Lewis; L. G. I. Bennett; M. Takada

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Exposure assessment: implications for epidemiological studies of ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......et al. (4) used average doses to birth cohorts...were made in the homes of 58% of the interviewed...histories (e.g. consumption of milk) in order...exposure to radon in homes and lung cancer have...controls on radon in homes are often based on...exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET......

Colin R. Muirhead

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Ultraviolet Exposure and Mortality among Women in Sweden  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...questions using detailed data on solar and artificial UV exposure during...843 subjects with a total energy intake outside the 1st and 99th...Risks to Humans Volume 55: Solar and Ultraviolet Radiation...Boscoe FP , Schymura MJ.Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and...

Ling Yang; Marie Lof; Marit Bragelien Veierød; Sven Sandin; Hans-Olov Adami; and Elisabete Weiderpass

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Sun Exposure and Melanoma Survival: A GEM Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...countries-Australia, Italy, Canada, and the United...dose, histologic solar elastosis, and season...evaluated measures of solar UVR exposure before...of Piedmont, in Canada in the provinces...Cancer Registries in Canada. In Italy, deaths...associations between solar UV exposure at season...

Marianne Berwick; Anne S. Reiner; Susan Paine; Bruce K. Armstrong; Anne Kricker; Chris Goumas; Anne E. Cust; Nancy E. Thomas; Pamela A. Groben; Lynn From; Klaus Busam; Irene Orlow; Loraine D. Marrett; Richard P. Gallagher; Stephen B. Gruber; Hoda Anton-Culver; Stefano Rosso; Roberto Zanetti; Peter A. Kanetsky; Terry Dwyer; Alison Venn; Julia Lee-Taylor; Colin B. Begg; and for the GEM Study Group

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Two-Factor Authentication  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) is a system wherein two different methods are used to authenticate an individual. 2FA is based on something you know (a secret PIN) and something you have (an...

284

factors | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

36 36 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142253836 Varnish cache server factors Dataset Summary Description This dataset is from the report Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature (J. Macknick, R. Newmark, G. Heath and K.C. Hallett) and provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released August 28th, 2012 (2 years ago)

285

GENERAL  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...learn much of its geology and natural history, and it will also...that even the principle of natural selection lies less deep...physiological selection. He accords to natural selection a suibordinate role...within it." IN Argentina, Cyprus and many other countries the...

1897-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

286

Global Framework for Climate Risk Exposure | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Framework for Climate Risk Exposure Framework for Climate Risk Exposure Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Global Framework for Climate Risk Exposure Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Environment Programme Topics: Finance, Co-benefits assessment, Market analysis Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual Website: www.unepfi.org/fileadmin/documents/global_framework.pdf Global Framework for Climate Risk Exposure Screenshot References: Global Framework for Climate Risk Exposure[1] Summary "A group of leading institutional investors from around the world released the Global Framework for Climate Risk Disclosure-a new statement on disclosure that investors expect from companies-in October 2006. Investors require this information in order to analyze a company's business risks and opportunities resulting from climate change, as well as

287

Generalized spin systems and ? models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A generalization of the SU(2) spin systems on a lattice and their continuum limit to an arbitrary compact group G is discussed. The continuum limits are, in general, nonrelativistic ?-model-type field theories targeted on a homogeneous space G/H, where H contains the maximal torus of G. In the ferromagnetic case the equations of motion derived from our continuum Lagrangian generalize the Landau-Lifshitz equations with quadratic dispersion relation for small wave vectors. In the antiferromagnetic case the dispersion law is always linear in the long-wavelength limit. The models become relativistic only when G/H is a symmetric space. Also discussed are a generalization of the Holstein-Primakoff representation of the SU(N) algebra, the topological term, and the existence of the instanton-type solutions in the continuum limit of the antiferromagnetic systems.

S. Randjbar-Daemi; Abdus Salam; J. Strathdee

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Finsler manifolds with general symmetries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we study generalized symmetric Finsler spaces. We first study symmetry preserving diffeomorphisms, then we show that the group of symmetry preserving diffeomorphisms is a transitive Lie transformation group. Finally we give some existence theorems.

Latifi, Dariush

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model  

SciTech Connect

This analysis is one of 10 reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception.

K. Rautenstrauch

2004-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

290

Resuspension studies at Bikini Atoll. [Pulmonary exposure from dust-borne plutonium aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The following experiments were conducted on Bikini Atoll to provide key parameters for an assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: (1) a characterization of background (plutonium activity, dust, plutonium, sea spray, and organic aerosol concentrations); (2) a study of plutonium resuspension from a bare field; (3) a study of plutonium resuspension by traffic; and (4) a study of personal inhalation exposure. Dust concentrations of 21 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ and sea spray of 34 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ were the background throughout the Bikini Island except within 50 m of the windward beach. Background concentrations of /sup 239 +240/Pu were 60 aCi m/sup -3/ in the coconut grove and 264 aCi m/sup -3/ over rain-stabilized bare soil. The ratio of plutonium activity in aerosols relative to the activity in underlying soil, defined as the enhancement factor, EF, was typically less than one. Enhancement factors increased about 3.8 as a result of tilling. Plutonium resuspension flux was estimated at 0.49 pCi m/sup -2/ year/sup -1/ over most of Bikini Island. Aerosol size distributions associated with mass and with plutonium activity were typically log-normal with median aerodynamic diameter 2.44 ..mu..m, which decreased to 2.0 ..mu..m above freshly tilled soil. The Pu concentration in aerosols collected over disturbed soil increased by a factor of 19.1. Vehicular traffic produced dust pulses typically of 10 s duration, 28 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ average concentration, and plutonium enhancement factor 2.5. Personal dosimetry showed that enhancement of dust by a worker was a factor of 2.64 for heavy work outdoors and 1.86 for light work in and around houses. Pulmonary deposition of plutonium was calculated for various exposure conditions. The pulmonary deposition ranged from 1476 aCi h/sup -1/ to 12 aCi h/sup -1/ with intermediate values for heavy outdoor work and for light work in and around houses.

Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.; Robison, W.L.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

In-Vehicle Exposures to Particulate Air Pollution in Canadian Metropolitan Areas: The Urban Transportation Exposure Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In-Vehicle Exposures to Particulate Air Pollution in Canadian Metropolitan Areas: The Urban Transportation Exposure Study ... Commuters may be exposed to increased levels of traffic-related air pollution owing to close proximity to traffic-emissions. ... We collected in-vehicle and roof-top air pollution measurements over 238 commutes in Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver, Canada between 2010 and 2013. ...

Scott Weichenthal; Keith Van Ryswyk; Ryan Kulka; Liu Sun; Lance Wallace; Lawrence Joseph

2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

292

Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169671]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis''. The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash exposure scenario and the dose factors for calculating inhalation doses during volcanic eruption (eruption phase of the volcanic event). For the volcanic ash exposure scenario, the mode of radionuclide release into the biosphere is a volcanic eruption through the repository with the resulting entrainment of contaminated waste in the tephra and the subsequent atmospheric transport and dispersion of contaminated material in the biosphere. The biosphere process model for this scenario uses the surface deposition of contaminated ash as the source of radionuclides in the biosphere. The initial atmospheric transport and dispersion of the ash as well as its subsequent redistribution by fluvial and aeolian processes are not addressed within the biosphere model. These processes influence the value of the source term that is calculated elsewhere and then combined with the BDCFs in the TSPA model to calculate expected dose to the receptor. Another objective of this analysis was to re-qualify the output of the previous revision (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163958]).

M. Wasiolek

2004-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

293

Natural radioactivity and radiation exposure at the Minjingu phosphate mine in Tanzania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the results of studies on activity and ambient radiation background around the Minjingu phosphate mine in Tanzania are presented. The outdoor dose rate in air and the activity levels of samples from and outside the mine were determined by thermoluminiscent dosimeters and a gamma spectrometer system with a Hyper Pure germanium detector system respectively. The determination of activity was made for the 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K radionuclides. High concentrations of radium-226 were observed in phosphate rock (5760±107 Bq kg-1 ), waste rock (4250±98 Bq kg-1 ), wild leaf vegetation (650±11 Bq kg-1 ), edible leaf vegetation (393±9 Bq kg-1 ), surface water (4.7±0.4 mBq l-1 ) and chicken feed (4±0.1 Bq kg-1 ) relative to selected control sites. These findings suggest a radiation health risk particularly when the samples are ingested, because the internal exposure may give rise to an effective dose exceeding 20 mSv which is the annual limit of intake of natural radionuclides recommended by the ICRP. On the other hand, the radiation dose from ambient air over five years at the phosphate mine ranges from 1375 to 1475 nGy h-1 with an average of 1415 nGy h-1 . The average is about 28 times that of the global average background radiation from terrestrial sources, and about 12 times the allowed average dose limit for public exposure over five consecutive years. Future investigations on the occupancy factor, external dose rate and radon and radon progeny exposure in drinking water, buildings and activity content in the locally grown foodstuffs are proposed, for the realistic quantification of the overall exposure of workers and public at Minjingu, and remedial measures for future radiation safety.

Firmi P Banzi; Leonard D Kifanga; Felician M Bundala

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

A mouse model links asthma susceptibility to prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background Most asthma begins in the first years of life. This early onset cannot be attributed merely to genetic factors because the prevalence of asthma is increasing. Epidemiologic studies have indicated roles for prenatal and early childhood exposures, including exposure to diesel exhaust. However, little is known about the mechanisms. This is largely due to a paucity of animal models. Objective We aimed to develop a mouse model of asthma susceptibility through prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 female mice were given repeated intranasal applications of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) or PBS. Offspring underwent suboptimal immunization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) or received PBS. Pups were examined for features of asthma; lung and liver tissues were analyzed for transcription of DEP-regulated genes. Results Offspring of mice exposed to \\{DEPs\\} were hypersensitive to OVA, as indicated by airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, increased serum OVA-specific IgE levels, and increased pulmonary and systemic TH2 and TH17 cytokine levels. These cytokines were primarily produced by natural killer (NK) cells. Antibody-mediated depletion of NK cells prevented airway inflammation. Asthma susceptibility was associated with increased transcription of genes known to be specifically regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and oxidative stress. Features of asthma were either marginal or absent in OVA-treated pups of PBS-exposed mice. Conclusion We created a mouse model that linked maternal exposure to \\{DEPs\\} with asthma susceptibility in offspring. Development of asthma was dependent on NK cells and associated with increased transcription from aryl hydrocarbon receptor– and oxidative stress–regulated genes.

Sarah Manners; Rafeul Alam; David A. Schwartz; Magdalena M. Gorska

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

In vitro atrazine exposure affects the phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells  

SciTech Connect

Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in the presence of growth factors and selected maturational stimuli in vitro. Next, we exposed the DC cell line to a concentration range of atrazine and examined its effects on phenotypic and functional maturation of DC. Atrazine exposure interfered with the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Among the phenotypic changes caused by atrazine exposure was a dose-dependent removal of surface MHC-I with a significant decrease being observed at 1 {mu}M concentration. In addition, atrazine exposure decreased the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 and it downregulated the expression of the CD11b and CD11c accessory molecules and the myeloid developmental marker CD14. When, for comparative purposes, we exposed primary thymic DC to atrazine, MHC-I and CD11c expression was also decreased. Phenotypic changes in JAWSII DC maturation were associated with functional inhibition of maturation as, albeit at higher concentrations, receptor-mediated antigen uptake was increased by atrazine. Thus, our data suggest that atrazine directly targets DC maturation and that toxicants such as atrazine that efficiently remove MHC-I molecules from the DC surface are likely to contribute to immune evasion.

Pinchuk, Lesya M.; Lee, Sang-Ryul [Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Filipov, Nikolay M. [Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Center for Environmental Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)], E-mail: filipov@cvm.msstate.edu

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Diesel and biodiesel exhaust particle effects on rat alveolar macrophages with in vitro exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Combustion emissions from diesel engines emit particulate matter which deposits within the lungs. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) encounter the particles and attempt to engulf the particles. Emissions particles from diesel combustion engines have been found to contain diverse biologically active components including metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons which cause adverse health effects. However little is known about AM response to particles from the incorporation of biodiesel. The objective of this study was to examine the toxicity in Wistar Kyoto rat AM of biodiesel blend (B20) and low sulfur petroleum diesel (PDEP) exhaust particles. Particles were independently suspended in media at a range of 1–500 ?g mL?1. Results indicated B20 and PDEP initiated a dose dependent increase of inflammatory signals from AM after exposure. After 24 h exposure to B20 and PDEP gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) increased. B20 exposure resulted in elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release at lower particle concentrations compared to PDEP. B20 and PDEP demonstrated similar affinity for sequestration of PGE2 at high concentrations, suggesting detection is not impaired. Our data suggests PGE2 release from AM is dependent on the chemical composition of the particles. Particle analysis including measurements of metals and ions indicate B20 contains more of select metals than PDEP. Other particle components generally reduced by 20% with 20% incorporation of biodiesel into original diesel. This study shows AM exposure to B20 results in increased production of PGE2 in vitro relative to diesel.

Laya Bhavaraju; Jonathan Shannahan; Aaron William; Robert McCormick; John McGee; Urmila Kodavanti; Michael Madden

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

General expressions for energy–release rates for delamination in composite laminates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...General expressions for energy-release rates for delamination...A 8) Finally, the energy-release rates can be...mechanics, vol. 28. New York: Academic. Hwu, C...Stress intensity factors and energy release rates of delamination...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Study on the general layout of semi-submersible offshore drilling platforms based on process flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The general layout of 6th generation semi-submersible drilling platforms is the main factor impacting the efficiency ... a reference for implementation of domestic designs of semi-submersible rigs.

Ji-xiang Yue ???; Yao-guang Qi ???…

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

The generalized second law of thermodynamics in generalized gravity theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSL) in generalized theories of gravity. We examine the total entropy evolution with time including the horizon entropy, the non-equilibrium entropy production, and the entropy of all matter, field and energy components. We derive a universal condition to protect the generalized second law and study its validity in different gravity theories. In Einstein gravity, (even in the phantom-dominated universe with a Schwarzschild black hole), Lovelock gravity, and braneworld gravity, we show that the condition to keep the GSL can always be satisfied. In $f(R)$ gravity and scalar-tensor gravity, the condition to protect the GSL can also hold because the gravity is always attractive and the effective Newton constant should be approximate constant satisfying the experimental bounds.

Shao-Feng Wu; Bin Wang; Guo-Hong Yang; Peng-Ming Zhang

2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

300

Combined methodology for estimating dose rates and health effects from exposure to radioactive pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The work described in the report is basically a synthesis of two previously existing computer codes: INREM II, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and CAIRD, developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The INREM II code uses contemporary dosimetric methods to estimate doses to specified reference organs due to inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. The CAIRD code employs actuarial life tables to account for competing risks in estimating numbers of health effects resulting from exposure of a cohort to some incremental risk. The combined computer code, referred to as RADRISK, estimates numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 persons due to continuous lifetime inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. Also briefly discussed in this report is a method of estimating numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort due to continuous lifetime exposure to external radiation. This method employs the CAIRD methodology together with dose conversion factors generated by the computer code DOSFACTER, developed at ORNL; these dose conversion factors are used to estimate dose rates to persons due to radionuclides in the air or on the ground surface. The combination of the life table and dosimetric guidelines for the release of radioactive pollutants to the atmosphere, as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Methylene chloride exposure and birthweight in Monroe County, New York  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the relationship between birthweight and exposure to emissions of methylene chloride (DCM) from manufacturing processes of the Eastman Kodak Company at Kodak Park in Rochester, Monroe County, New York. County census tracts were categorized as exposed to high, moderate, low or no DCM based on the Kodak Air Monitoring Program (KAMP) model, a theoretical dispersion model of DCM developed by Eastman Kodak Company. Birthweight and information on variables known to influence birthweight were obtained from 91,302 birth certificates of white singleton births to Monroe County residents from 1976 to 1987. No significant adverse effects of exposure to DCM on birthweight were found. Adjusted birthweight in high exposure census tracts was 18.7 g less than in areas with no exposure (95% confidence interval for the difference between high and no exposure - 51.6, 14.2 g). Problems inherent in the method of estimation of exposure, which may decrease power or bias the results, are discussed. Better methods to estimate exposure to emissions from multiple industrial point sources are needed.

Bell, B.P.; Franks, P.; Hildreth, N.; Melius, J. (Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York (USA))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias  

SciTech Connect

The impact of low-level carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency in patients with ischemic heart disease has not been thoroughly studied. The issue is of concern because of the potential proarrhythmic effect of carbon monoxide in patients with ischemic heart disease. We studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. By using appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency at rest, during exercise, and during ambulatory activities. The carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. The carbon monoxide exposure protocol produced target levels in 60 minutes, and the levels were maintained for an additional 90 minutes to provide adequate time to assess the impact of carbon monoxide on the frequency of ventricular ectopic beats. The data on total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed for seven specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide or air exposure; (3) during a two-hour rest period; (4) during an exercise period; (5) during an exercise recovery period; (6) six hours after carbon monoxide or air exposure; and (7) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity.

Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.; Wiens, R.D. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Multi-factor authentication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

305

Testing general relativity with gravitational waves: a reality check  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The observations of gravitational-wave signals from astrophysical sources such as binary inspirals will be used to test General Relativity for self consistency and against alternative theories of gravity. I describe a simple formula that can be used to characterize the prospects of such tests, by estimating the matched-filtering signal-to-noise ratio required to detect non-General-Relativistic corrections of a given magnitude. The formula is valid for sufficiently strong signals; it requires the computation of a single number, the fitting factor between the General-Relativistic and corrected waveform families; and it can be applied to all tests that embed General Relativity in a larger theory, including tests of individual theories such as Brans-Dicke gravity, as well as the phenomenological schemes that introduce corrections and extra terms in the post-Newtonian phasing expressions of inspiral waveforms. The formula suggests that the volume-limited gravitational-wave searches performed with second-generation ground-based detectors would detect alternative-gravity corrections to General-Relativistic waveforms no smaller than 1-10% (corresponding to fitting factors of 0.9 to 0.99).

Michele Vallisneri

2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

306

Limiting factors and microbial organometallic transformations in anaerobic subsurface environments  

SciTech Connect

Microbial communities from subsurface materials were analyzed for microbial community-particle size relationships, effects of arsenic and mercury compounds on microbial community structure, and limiting factors influencing mercury volatilization under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The microbial communities showed strong relationships to particle size and size distribution. Major differences were found in relation to aerobic and anaerobic populations and for aerobic populations between the largest and smallest fractions. Under aerobic conditions, a significant increase in low nutrient responsive microbes occurred. After exposure to four metal compounds (phenylmercuric acetate (PMA), mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}), phenylarsonic acid (PAA), and sodium arsenate (Na{sub 2}AsO{sub 4})) major changes in populations occurred. Previous exposure to these metals increased the aerobic and anaerobic populations of GS-9, indicating an adaptive response. In GS-20, previous exposure to all four compounds caused a decrease in both the aerobic and anaerobic populations. The effect was most pronounced in sediments treated with PMA or HgCl{sub 2}. Limiting nutritional factors for the volatilization of mercury under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were identified in control and PMA impacted samples from GS-9 and GS-20.

Klein, D.A.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

The Entire General Science Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Topics Archives General Topics Archives General Topics Archives, Since November 1991 Table of Contents: What Sciences are included in Earth Science? Magnetosphere Magnetic Compasses Aftershocks vs. Earthquakes Illinois Earthquakes Center of the Earth Why is the Earth round? Project Mohole Minerals, Rocks, or not? Water Origin of Saltwater Weight of Clouds Barometers Chaos and Weather Forecasting Lightning Strikes Tornado Spinning Tornado Safety in a Building Tornadoes and High Rise Structures Tornadoes Avoiding Downtown Chicago Coldest Temperature? Thermal Inversions Fog Blue Sky Gravitational pull vs. Atmospheric pressure Weights and Measures Science Demonstrations Cyanide Gas Bermuda Triangle X-30 Flower colors Ice Cream Headaches Rubber Egg Silver Dental Fillings and Aluminum Foil Birds and Wires

308

GENERAL@ELECTtiIC COMPINY  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

GENERAL@ELECTtiIC GENERAL@ELECTtiIC COMPINY ~9013 ~APPROVAL NO. 143 Article II, Section 8(b) PICHLAND, WASHINGTON .~. "ANFORD ATOMlC PlOD"CTS O*Ert*,ION ,. u/S; Atomic Energy Comisaion Hailfbrd operations Office Richland, Washington Attention: Mr. J. E. Travis, Manager Gentlemen: EXTRUSION OF URANIUM DIOXIDE FOR GENERAL ~ED&'RIC - APED The Atoinic Power Equipment Depart!++ of ~the The uranium dioxide necess :Material License No. C-3351. for establishing the value'of the.material will be developed with appropriate representatives of your office in accordance with established procedures. A small amount of scrap will be generated in the process but, since this will be usable and is needed in waging studies at Hanford, we do not propose to charge for reprocessing.

309

Generalized Macdonald-Ruijsenaars systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the polynomial representation of Double Affine Hecke Algebras (DAHAs) and construct its submodules as ideals of functions vanishing on the special collections of affine planes. This generalizes certain results of Kasatani in types A_n, (C_n^\\vee,C_n). We obtain commutative algebras of difference operators given by the action of invariant combinations of Cherednik-Dunkl operators in the corresponding quotient modules of the polynomial representation. This gives known and new generalized Macdonald-Ruijsenaars systems. Thus in the cases of DAHAs of types A_n and (C_n^\\vee,C_n) we derive Chalykh-Sergeev-Veselov operators and a generalization of the Koornwinder operator respectively, together with complete sets of quantum integrals in the explicit form.

M. Feigin; A. Silantyev

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Where Is the Surgeon General?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...job of the Surgeon General and the Public Health Service staff, will be vital. We rely on the National Institutes of Health for advances in health science; we rely on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for epidemiologic surveillance and disease tracking; we rely on the Public Health... As an unchecked Ebola epidemic moves out of West Africa to touch the United States and the rest of the world, we should rightfully ask, “Where is the Surgeon General?” The answer is, quite simply, that we do not have one. We face a growing crisis of ...

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

311

1 - Mobile Robots: General Concepts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents the fundamental general concepts of mobile robots that can move from one place to another autonomously within a predefined workspace to achieve their desired goals. Specifically, the chapter (i) provides a list of the main historical landmarks of general robotics and mobile robots, (ii) discusses the locomotion issues of ground (wheeled, legged) mobile robots, (iii) investigates the wheel and drive types of mobile robots (nonholonomic, omnidirectional) and, (iv) introduces the concepts of mobile robot degree of mobility, degree of steerability, and maneuverability.

Spyros G. Tzafestas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 5. Human health risk assessment (HHRA): Evaluation of potential risks from multipathway exposure to emissions. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

The Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) portion of the WTI Risk Assessment involves the integration of information about the facility with site-specific data for the surrounding region and population to characterize the potential human health risks due to emissions from the facility. The estimation of human health risks is comprised of the following general steps: (1) identification of substances of potential concern; (2) estimation of the nature and magnitude of chemical releases from the WTI facility; (3) prediction of the atmospheric transport of the emitted contaminants; (4) determination of the types of adverse effects associated with exposure to the substances of potential concern (referred to as hazard identification), and the relationship between the level of exposure and the severity of any health effect (referred to as dose-response assessment); (5) estimation of the magnitude of exposure (referred to as exposure assessment); and (6) characterization of the health risks associated with exposure (referred to as risk characterization).

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Protection From Exposure to Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke: Policy recommendations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on SHS exposure’s dangerous health effects has developed,$ 156 million. 53 health from the dangerous effects of SHS.health effects of SHS exposure and even claim that WHO has concluded that SHS is not dangerous.

World Health Organization

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. Policy recommendations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on SHS exposure’s dangerous health effects has developed,$ 156 million. 53 health from the dangerous effects of SHS.health effects of SHS exposure and even claim that WHO has concluded that SHS is not dangerous.

World Health Organization

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Sun and Solarium Exposure and Melanoma Risk: Effects of Age, Pigmentary Characteristics, and Nevi  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...solarium| Introduction Although solar UV exposure is the major established...repeated sun exposure) and solar exposure (corresponding number...case-control study in Ontario, Canada. Int J Epidemiol 1999;28...prospective studies have analyzed solar and artificial (solarium...

Marit Bragelien Veierød; Hans-Olov Adami; Eiliv Lund; Bruce Konrad Armstrong; and Elisabete Weiderpass

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Public Health FAT FACTORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: THE UNITED STATES SPENDS MORE ON HEALTH CARE THAN ANY OTHER COUNTRY. YET WE CONTINUE TO FALL FAR BEHIND States spends an astonishing percent of our gross domestic product on health care--significantly moreColumbia Public Health HOT TOPIC Climate Change FAT FACTORS Obesity Prevention BOOK SMART

Qian, Ning

317

Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

Strom, Daniel J.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

318

Integrate Experiments and Models to Estimate Exposure - (1) Building  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrate Experiments and Models to Estimate Exposure - (1) Building Integrate Experiments and Models to Estimate Exposure - (1) Building Fumigation and (2) Elemental Mercury Spill Speaker(s): Wanyu Chan Date: February 22, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3075 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Michael Sohn Models that predict exposure concentrations in the indoor and outdoor air can be improved by experiments designed to validate or calibrate the models. This presentation will showcase two examples where experiments and models are integrated to estimate exposure concentrations. One example is the use of methyl bromide as fumigant at food processing facilities. Field studies were conducted at three mill sites that are representative of typical industry practices in terms of size, operation, and fumigation protocol. Concentrations of methyl bromide inside the mills and outdoors

319

Improving microenvironmental exposure assessment with sensor-based  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving microenvironmental exposure assessment with sensor-based Improving microenvironmental exposure assessment with sensor-based time-activity data Speaker(s): Amanda Northcross Date: December 18, 2009 - 2:00pm Location: 90-3122 Exposure assessments to air pollution typically focus on either personal or microenvironmental measurements. Personal measurements can provide more accurate individual exposures, but tend to be intrusive and expensive. Microenvironmental measurements are commonly cheaper and have more flexibility in size, number, and weight requirements of the instrumentation, but must be adjusted by time-activity information for the population of interest. Time-activity data has traditionally been difficult to obtain and imprecise using the available social-science methods or expensive with GPS and more sophisticated equipment. Deployment of new

320

ORISE: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Radiation Exposure Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information and Reporting System (REIRS) Information and Reporting System (REIRS) ORISE maintains large database of radiation exposure records for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is required by federal mandate to maintain and evaluate radiation protection data for workers at facilities that it licenses. As part of its mission of safety, the NRC operates the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS), a database system containing all occupational radiation exposure records that have been submitted to the NRC under 10 CFR Part 20. REIRS encompasses 1,800-plus NRC licensees and contains more than five million records for more than one million monitored individuals.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

TYPICAL EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO EMF: EXPOSIMETRY AND DOSIMETRY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......simple but standardised information, which could be used for post-hoc data analysis. For ELF exposure, Enertech Emdex II (Enertech Consultants, Campbell, CA, USA) was used, which measures the 3D LF magnetic flux density in the frequency......

Blaž Vali?; Bor Kos; Peter Gajšek

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Measurements of Personal Exposure to MF in Korean Population  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Industrializing process including marked increase of electric appliances has expanded personal exposure to magnetic fields (MF) whose effects on human health have long been out of scientific concern (London et...

Yoon Shin Kim; Yong Sung Cho

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

An Examination of Different Explanations for the Mere Exposure Effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article investigates two competing explanations of the mere exposure effect— the cognition-based perceptual fluency/misattribution theory (PF/M) and the affect-based hedonic fluency model (HFM)—under incidental ...

Fang, Xiang; Singh, Surendra N.; Ahluwalia, Rohini

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

j.envpol.2012.01.042 Environmental Pollution 164 (2012) 211e218 environmental (i.e., sediment) exposure to trace elements on survival, growth, and performance of larval southern...

325

Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides an overview summary of radiation doses from occupational exposures at the Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration for the year 2013.

326

Depleted uranium exposure and health effects in Gulf War veterans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2006 research-article Depleted uranium exposure and health effects in Gulf War...Medicine) Gulf War and health. In Depleted uranium, pyridostigmine bromide...McDiarmid, M.A , Health effects of depleted uranium on exposed Gulf War...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Exposure to radon in dwellings in the Sharri community, Kosovo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......higher than those at Kuk, hit by depleted uranium. On the other hand, at Brrut...Meddings D. R. , Haldimann M. Depleted uranium in Kosovo: an assessment of potential exposure for aid workers. Health Phys. (2002) 82:467-472......

M. Bahtijari; J. Vaupotic; A. Gregoric; P. Stegnar; I. Kobal

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Radon in context of natural radiation exposure: the Czech experience  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......doses from ingestion of water are reasonably avertable...and intervention (remediation of existing exposure...effective dose caused by water containing 1000 Bq l1...radon concentrations in ground water vary from some Becquerel......

J. Hulka

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Exposure Modeling of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exposure Modeling of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Environment ... Colvin, V. L. The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials Nat. ... ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering2014 2 (10), 2275-2282 ...

Nicole C. Mueller; Bernd Nowack

2008-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

330

DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Depleted uranium exposure and health effects in Gulf War veterans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Environmental Management Project (Fernald Environmental Management Project 1997; McDiarmid...Lyon, France:International Agency for Research...following exposure to radon daughters and uranium...Environmental Management Project (FEMP). 1997...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

General Laser Control Measures Operating instructions for a specific laser are found in the manual for that laser.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

General Laser Control Measures Operating instructions for a specific laser are found in the manual for that laser. There are several procedures that will reduce the potential for exposure to laser beams. 1. The beam from Class IIIB and Class IV lasers should be terminated in highly absorbent, non specular

Huennekens, John

333

Nonsmoking-related Arylamine Exposure and Bladder Cancer Risk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...bladder cancer in the general population. Introduction...emissions (28) and diesel engine exhaust (29) , and...bladder cancer in the general population. The costs...bladder cancer in the general population. | Biological...

Paul L. Skipper; Steven R. Tannenbaum; Ronald K. Ross; and Mimi C. Yu

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: ExposureAssessment  

SciTech Connect

Human exposure assessment is a key step in estimating the environmental and public health burdens that result chemical emissions in the life cycle of an industrial product or service. This column presents the third in a series of overviews of the state of the art in integrated environmental assessment - earlier columns described emissions estimation (Frey and Small, 2003) and fate and transport modeling (Ramaswami, et al., 2004). When combined, these first two assessment elements provide estimates of ambient concentrations in the environment. Here we discuss how both models and measurements are used to translate ambient concentrations into metrics of human and ecological exposure, the necessary precursors to impact assessment. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring and/or modeling the magnitude, frequency and duration of contact between a potentially harmful agent and a target population, including the size and characteristics of that population (IPCS, 2001; Zartarian, et al., 2005). Ideally the exposure assessment process should characterize the sources, routes, pathways, and uncertainties in the assessment. Route of exposure refers to the way that an agent enters the receptor during an exposure event. Humans contact pollutants through three routes--inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake. Inhalation occurs in both outdoor environments and indoor environments where most people spend the majority of their time. Ingestion includes both water and food, as well as soil and dust uptake due to hand-to-mouth activity. Dermal uptake occurs through contacts with consumer products; indoor and outdoor surfaces; the water supply during washing or bathing; ambient surface waters during swimming or boating; soil during activities such as work, gardening, and play; and, to a lesser extent, from the air that surrounds us. An exposure pathway is the course that a pollutant takes from an ambient environmental medium (air, soil, water, biota, etc), to an exposure medium (indoor air, food, tap water, etc.) and to an exposed individual. Exposure scenarios are used to define plausible pathways for human contact. Recognition of the multiple pathways possible for exposure highlights the importance of a multimedia, multipathway exposure framework.

McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Historical Information H.1 General  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

1 1 . . General Book 1 Effects Evaluation- for Project Rulison, June 1969 DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. . . . . . . . . . . - ,--- ..-... . . . 0 . , . , ~ , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L . < - ....:.-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - , , - . d - i , . .. * :=.:. 5 . . .:. : - . . . . . . : -.. .. ' . . - - .- - : . 7 : P . f l - ~ . - R - t f - . . . . . . . . . .;- .. +:.7'; . : : - . . . . . - . . . ..- : . . - ' . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . .~ ~-.-- . . : - ., > .. , . .( . > - - . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . ' : -. . . . - - _ _ . . - . . . . ' * . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . 5 . . . . -- ' . . - ,. . , . . .... . . . * , . ; ) . , . ".ii . . - . '2-io- b . / . N V O - 4 3 ( F I

336

LFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Page 1 of 31 Page 1 of 31 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

337

Generalized parton distributions: recent results  

SciTech Connect

I review progress on selected issues connected with generalized parton distributions. Topics range from the description of hard exclusive reactions to the spatial distribution of quarks in the nucleon and the contribution of their orbital angular momentum to the nucleon spin.

Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchroton DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

338

Wind Turbine Blockset General Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind Turbine Blockset in Saber General Overview and Description of the Models Florin Iov, Adrian Turbine Blockset in Saber Abstract. This report presents a new developed Saber Toolbox for wind turbine, optimize and design wind turbines". The report provides a quick overview of the Saber and then explains

339

Generalized teleportation and entanglement recycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group [Bennett, et al. Physical Review Letters, 70(13) 1895-1899] and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka [Physical Review Letters, 101(24) 240501], that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient condition for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk.

Sergii Strelchuk; Micha? Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

340

GENERAL PRINCIPLES Art. 1 (Aims)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 STATUTE GENERAL PRINCIPLES Art. 1 (Aims) 1. The University of Torino (hereinafter "the organizational criteria suitable for its institutional purposes according to principles of efficacy, efficiency to determine the advancement and the allocation of the staff. This planning is based on principles of quality

Sproston, Jeremy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Interacting new generalized Chaplygin gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have presented a model in which the new generalized Chaplygin gas interacts with matter. We find that there exists a stable scaling solution at late times in the evolution of the universe. Moreover, the phantom crossing scenario is observed in this model.

Mubasher Jamil

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

342

General purpose programmable accelerator board  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Witzke, Edward L. (Edgewood, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Factors Affecting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why This Project The short-term effects of high doses of ionizing radiation on cellular responses are relatively well understood. Less clear are the long-term consequences of exposure to low dose/low dose-rate radiation and the effects of radiation exposure on the progeny of surviving cells. If a cell survives radiation, it is generally thought to have repaired all the radiation-induced insults and be capable of a "normal healthy life". At a certain frequency, however, we have found that some cells surviving radiation grow normally, but will rearrange their genetic material during time in culture. We call this radiation-induced genomic instability. Many

344

Biodiesel versus diesel exposure: Enhanced pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, and differential morphological changes in the mouse lung  

SciTech Connect

The use of biodiesel (BD) or its blends with petroleum diesel (D) is considered to be a viable approach to reduce occupational and environmental exposures to particulate matter (PM). Due to its lower particulate mass emissions compared to D, use of BD is thought to alleviate adverse health effects. Considering BD fuel is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids, we hypothesize that BD exhaust particles could induce pronounced adverse outcomes, due to their ability to readily oxidize. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of particles generated by engine fueled with neat BD and neat petroleum-based D. Biomarkers of tissue damage and inflammation were significantly elevated in lungs of mice exposed to BD particulates. Additionally, BD particulates caused a significant accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins and an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal. The up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors was higher in lungs upon BD particulate exposure. Histological evaluation of lung sections indicated presence of lymphocytic infiltrate and impaired clearance with prolonged retention of BD particulate in pigment laden macrophages. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that BD exhaust particles could exert more toxic effects compared to D. - Highlights: • Exposure of mice to BDPM caused higher pulmonary toxicity compared to DPM. • Oxidative stress and inflammation were higher in BD vs to D exposed mice. • Inflammatory lymphocyte infiltrates were seen only in lungs of mice exposed to BD. • Ineffective clearance, prolonged PM retention was present only after BD exposure.

Yanamala, Naveena, E-mail: wqu1@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Hatfield, Meghan K., E-mail: wla4@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Farcas, Mariana T., E-mail: woe7@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Schwegler-Berry, Diane [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Hummer, Jon A., E-mail: qzh3@cdc.gov [Office of Mine Safety and Health Research/NIOSH/CDC, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); Shurin, Michael R., E-mail: shurinmr@upmc.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Birch, M. Eileen, E-mail: mib2@cdc.gov [NIOSH/CDC, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226 (United States); Gutkin, Dmitriy W., E-mail: dwgutkin@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kisin, Elena, E-mail: edk8@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Kagan, Valerian E., E-mail: kagan@pitt.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bugarski, Aleksandar D., E-mail: zjl1@cdc.gov [Office of Mine Safety and Health Research/NIOSH/CDC, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Department Physiology and Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

E-Print Network 3.0 - adolescent ethanol exposure Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ethanol exposure Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adolescent ethanol exposure Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Influence of Age at...

346

E-Print Network 3.0 - atrazine exposure affects Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ecological Applications Vol. 18, No. 7 12;exposure affected the susceptibility of green frog tadpoles to E... loads are a product of both exposure and susceptibility, and...

347

Acute cardiovascular effects of exposure to air pollution: components, vascular mechanisms and protecting the public   

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exposure to air pollution, particularly fine and ultrafine particulate matter derived from combustion sources, has been consistently associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent controlled exposure ...

Langrish, Jeremy Patrick

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

348

Personal and Ambient Air Pollution Exposures and Lung Function Decrements in Children with Asthma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2006. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide exposure with2003. Personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and theview: effects of nitrogen dioxide on human health-derivation

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing potential exposure Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and assess the likelihood of worker exposure. When there is likelihood of worker... the procedures used in handling the substance, the actual and potential exposure of workers to...

350

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment potential exposure Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and assess the likelihood of worker exposure. When there is likelihood of worker... the procedures used in handling the substance, the actual and potential exposure of workers to...

351

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash inhalation exposure Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in England and Summary: tests on blocks containing mixed ash. 1 See page 17, Dioxins, what they are, their sources, our exposure... into the potential exposure to dioxins...

352

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient air exposures Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

source-specific population exposure to ambient urban air... -specific exposure to ambient air pollution for an entire urbanpopulation at a fine geographical scale. Byarea, total......

353

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollution exposure Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

exposure Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air pollution exposure Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Poster Design & Printing by...

354

The environmental protection agency's research program on total human exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) research program on total human exposure to environmental pollution seeks to develop a newly emerging concept in the environmental sciences. Instead of focusing purely on the sources of pollution or their transport and movement through the environment, this research focuses on human beings as the receptors of these pollutants. People and daily activities become the center of attention. The methodology measures and models the pollutant concentrations found at the physical boundaries of people, regardless of whether the pollutants arrive through the air, water, food, or skin. It seeks to characterize quantitatively the impact of pollution on people by determining if an environmental problem exists at the human interface and, if so, by determining the sources, nature, extent, and severity of this environmental problem. By exploiting an emerging new arsenal of miniaturized instruments and by developing statistically representative survey designs for sampling the population of cities, significant progress has been made in recent years in providing previously unavailable human exposure field data needed for making valid risk assessments. The U.S. EPA total human exposure research program includes: development of measurement methods and instruments, development of exposure models and statistical protocols, microenvironmental field studies, total human exposure studies, validation of human exposure models with empirical data, and dosage research investigations.

Wayne Ott; Lance Wallace; David Mage; Gerald Akland; Robert Lewis; Harold Sauls; Charles Rodes; David Kleffman; Donna Kuroda; Karen Morehouse

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Dose-Response Modeling of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...are formed during incomplete combustion and constitute a mixture of various...carcinogenic potency. Their chemistry and formation have been reviewed...exposures in aluminium production, coal gasification, coal production, and iron and steel...

Beate Pesch; Martin Kappler; Kurt Straif; Boleslaw Marczynski; Ralf Preuss; Bernd Ro?bach; Hans-Peter Rihs; Tobias Weiss; Sylvia Rabstein; Christiane Pierl; Michael Scherenberg; Ansgar Adams; Heiko Udo Käfferlein; Jürgen Angerer; Michael Wilhelm; Albrecht Seidel; and Thomas Brüning

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Many Factors Affect MPG  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Many Factors Affect Fuel Economy Many Factors Affect Fuel Economy How You Drive Vehicle Maintenance Fuel Variations Vehicle Variations Engine Break-In Vehicles in traffic Quick acceleration and heavy braking can reduce fuel economy by up to 33 percent on the highway and 5 percent around town. New EPA tests account for faster acceleration rates, but vigorous driving can still lower MPG. Excessive idling decreases MPG. The EPA city test includes idling, but more idling will lower MPG. Driving at higher speeds increases aerodynamic drag (wind resistance), reducing fuel economy. The new EPA tests account for aerodynamic drag up to highway speeds of 80 mph, but some drivers exceed this speed. Cold weather and frequent short trips can reduce fuel economy, since your engine doesn't operate efficiently until it is warmed up. In colder

357

Form factors and other measures of strangeness in the nucleon  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the phenomenology of strange-quark dynamics in the nucleon, based on experimental and theoretical results for electroweak form factors and for parton densities. In particular, we construct a model for the generalized parton distribution that relates the asymmetry s(x)-s(x) between the longitudinal momentum distributions of strange quarks and antiquarks with the form factor F{sub 1}{sup s}(t), which describes the distribution of strangeness in transverse position space.

Diehl, Markus; Feldmann, Thorsten; Kroll, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchroton DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Theoretische Physik I, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Arsenic exposure, hyperuricemia, and gout in US adults  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractBackground There is very limited information on the association between arsenic and serum uric acid levels or gout. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of arsenic with hyperuricemia and gout in US adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5632 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2010 with determinations of serum uric acid and urine total arsenic and dimethylarsinate (DMA). Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid higher than 7.0 mg/dL for men and 6.0 mg/dL for women. Gout was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis and medication use. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and arsenobetaine levels, the increase in the geometric means of serum uric acid associated with one interquartile range increase in total arsenic and DMA levels was 3% (95% CI 2–5) and 3% (2–5), respectively, in men and 1% (0–3) and 2% (0–4), respectively, in women. In men, the adjusted odds ratio for hyperuricemia comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of total arsenic was 1.84 (95% CI, 1.26–2.68) and for DMA it was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.01–1.96). The corresponding odds ratios in women were 1.26 (0.77, 2.07) and 1.49 (0.96, 2.31), respectively. The odds ratio for gout comparing the highest to lowest tertiles was 5.46 (95% CI, 1.70–17.6) for total arsenic and 1.98 (0.64–6.15) for DMA among women older than 40 years old. Urine arsenic was not associated with gout in men. Conclusion Low level arsenic exposures may be associated with the risk of hyperuricemia in men and with the prevalence of gout in women. Prospective research focusing on establishing the direction of the relationship among arsenic, hyperuricemia, and gout is needed.

Chin-Chi Kuo; Virginia Weaver; Jeffrey J. Fadrowski; Yu-Sheng Lin; Eliseo Guallar; Ana Navas-Acien

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Human Factors Review Plan  

SciTech Connect

''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

A programmable exposure control system for determination of the effects of pollutant exposure regimes on plant growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A field-exposure research facility was constructed to provide a controlled environment to determine the influence of the various components of ozone exposure (concentration, frequency and duration) on plant response. The facility uses modified open-top chambers and an automated control system for continuous delivery and control of single or multiple pollutants over a growing season. Numerous exposure profiles (e.g. various episodic regimes, daily peak profiles with sinusoidal-type or square-wave type peaks) can be produced and controlled in all chambers. Ozone is produced by commercially available generators; their outputs are controlled by an HP 41CV hand-held computer through a Hewlett-Packard Interface Loop System (HP-IL). Chamber microenvironmental data and ozone concentration data are collected continuously with a data acquisition system that includes mean hourly ozone concentration, air and soil temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. The hourly ozone concentration in each chamber ranged from 2 to 12% of the requested concentration over a 174-day season. Initial studies with this facility compared the response of alfalfa and tall fescue growth to episodic and daily peak exposure profiles with equivalent integrated exposure indices over the growing season. Over the period of three cuttings (133 days) alfalfa growth was reduced more when exposed to the episodic profile than with the exposure regime of daily ozone peaks. Tall fescue growth was reduced only slightly over a period of three cuttings (90 days) when exposed to either regime.

W.E. Hogsett; David T. Tingey; S.R. Holman

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

United States General Accounting Office  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Washington, DC 20548 Washington, DC 20548 Comptroller General of the United States Decision Matter of: The Jones/Hill Joint Venture File: B-286194.4; B-286194.5; B-286194.6 Date: December 5, 2001 William A. Roberts III, Esq., Phillip H. Harrington, Esq., William S. Lieth, Esq., and Janet L. Eichers, Esq., Wiley, Rein & Fielding, for the protester. Marvin D. Norman, Esq., Vicki E. O'Keefe, Esq., and Robert E. Little, Jr., Esq., Department of the Navy, for the agency. Louis A. Chiarella, Esq., John L. Formica, Esq., and James A. Spangenberg, Esq., Office of the General Counsel, GAO, participated in the preparation of the decision. DIGEST 1. A conflict of interest existed in an Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76 commercial activities study where a Navy employee and a private-sector consultant

362

LFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dated 5-20-13 Dated 5-20-13 Subcontract No. 241314 Page 1 of 19 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012 - Deviation) ........................................................................................ 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 4 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

363

Data Center Observatory General Schematic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data Center Observatory General Schematic Rack 12 critical infrastr. Rack 10 1U Rack 11 1U Rack 9 Blades Battery Battery UPS UPS PDU PDU Rack 8 mix Rack 7 1U Rack 6 1U Rack 5 1U Rack 4 3U Rack 3 1U Rack 2 1U Rack 1 3U Air FM40 Air FM40 Campuschilledwaterloop PUMP ROOM (FMS BUILDING) CICBUILDING ZONE 1

364

A Generalization of Deutsch's Example  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum parallelism is the main feature of quantum computation. In 1985 D. Deutsch showed that a single quantum computation may be sufficient to state whether a two-valued function of a two-valued variable is constant or not. Though the generalized problem with unconstrained domain and range size admits no deterministic quantum solution, a fully probabilistic quantum algorithm is presented in which quantum parallelism is harnessed to achieve a quicker exploration of the domain with respect to the classical ``sampling'' strategy.

Giovanni Costantini; Fabrizio Smeraldi

1997-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

365

Kidney cancer and hydrocarbon exposures among petroleum refinery workers  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the hypothesis of increased kidney cancer risk after exposure to hydrocarbons, especially those present in gasoline, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of approximately 100,000 male refinery workers from five petroleum companies. A review of 18,323 death certificates identified 102 kidney cancer cases, to each of whom four controls were matched by refinery location and decade of birth. Work histories, containing an average of 15.7 job assignments per subject, were found for 98% of the cases and 94% of the controls. Tb each job, industrial hygienists assigned semiquantitative ratings for the intensity and frequency of exposures to three hydrocarbon categories: nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the more volatile hydrocarbons. Ratings of {open_quotes}present{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}absent{close_quotes} were assigned for seven additional exposures: higher boiling hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, chlorinated solvents, ionizing radiation, and lead. Each exposure had either no association or a weak association with kidney cancer. For the hydrocarbon category of principal a priori interest, the nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, the estimated relative risk (RR) for any exposure above refinery background was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-1.9). Analyses of cumulative exposures and of exposures in varying time periods before kidney cancer occurrence also produced null or near-null results. In an analysis of the longest job held by each subject (average duration 9.2 years or 40% of the refiner&y work history), three groups appeared to be at increased risk: laborers (RR = 1.9,95% CI 1.0-3.9); workers in receipt, storage, and movements (RR = 2.5,95% CI 0.9-6.6); and unit cleaners (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.5-9.9). 53 refs., 7 tabs.

Poole, C.; Dreyer, N.A.; Satterfield, M.H. [Epidemiology Resources Inc., Newton Lower Falls, MA (United States); Levin, L. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Federal Energy Management Program: General Services Administration -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Services General Services Administration - Suitland, Maryland to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: General Services Administration - Suitland, Maryland on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: General Services Administration - Suitland, Maryland on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: General Services Administration - Suitland, Maryland on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: General Services Administration - Suitland, Maryland on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: General Services Administration - Suitland, Maryland on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: General Services Administration - Suitland, Maryland on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products

367

8.962 General Relativity, Spring 2002  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This course covers the basic principles of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Also discussed are differential geometry, experimental tests of general relativity, black holes, and cosmology.

Bertschinger, Edmund W.

368

Alaska - CPCN General Information | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CPCN General Information Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Instructions: Alaska - CPCN General...

369

Protein Folding: Generalized-Ensemble Algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We briefly review the development of generalized-ensemble optimization techniques and their application since publication of “Protein Folding: Generalized-Ensemble Algorithms” was published in...

Ulrich H. E. Hansmann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

SWRCB General NPDES Permits | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SWRCB General NPDES Permits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Permit ApplicationPermit Application: SWRCB General NPDES...

371

" Row: General Energy-Management Activities...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Number of Establishments by Participation in General Energy-Management Activities, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: General Energy-Management Activities within NAICS...

372

Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact Assessment: Status quo and prospects Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Computable General...

373

Coronary heart diseases: Assessment of risk associated with work exposure to ultralow-frequency magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The present analysis was stimulated by previous findings on the possible influence of natural ultralow-frequency (ULF; 0.001--10 Hz) geomagnetic field variations on the cardiovascular system and indications of an effect of man-made ULF magnetic fields on the rate of myocardial infarction. In the present study, the authors considered the occupational health hazards of the strongest ULF magnetic fields in densely populated urban areas. Measurements of ULF magnetic field fluctuations produced by trains powered by DC electricity were performed by means of a computer-based, highly sensitive, three-component magnetometer. The authors found that the magnitude of magnetic field pulses inside the driver`s cab of electric locomotives (ELs) could be {ge} 280 {micro}T in the vertical component, and, in the driver`s compartment of electric motor unit (EMU) trains, they were approximately 50 and 35 {micro}T, respectively. The authors have investigated the relationships between the occupational exposure to ULF magnetic field fluctuations produced by electric trains and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among railroad workers in the former Soviet Union. They have analyzed medical statistical data for a period of 3 years for approximately 45,000 railroad workers and 4,000 engine drivers. The authors have also analyzed 3 years of morbidity data for three subgroups of engine drivers ({approximately} 4,000 in each group) operating different types of trains. They find that EL drivers have a twofold increase in risk (2.00 {+-} 0.27) of coronary heart diseases (CHDs) compared with EMU drivers. Because the analysis of major CVDs shows that the examined subpopulations of drivers can be considered to have had equal exposure to all known risk factors, the elevated CHD risk among El drivers could be attributed to the increased occupational exposure to ULF magnetic fields.

Ptitsyna, N.G.; Kopytenko, Y.A.; Tyasto, M.I.; Kopytenko, E.A.; Voronov, P.M.; Zaitsev, D.B. [Inst. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)] [Inst. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Villoresi, G. [CNR, Frascati (Italy). Inst. di Fisica Spazio Interplanetario] [CNR, Frascati (Italy). Inst. di Fisica Spazio Interplanetario; Kudrin, V.A. [Inst. of Railroad Workers` Hygiene, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Inst. of Railroad Workers` Hygiene, Moscow (Russian Federation); Iucci, N. [Terza Univ. di Roma, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica E. Amaldi] [Terza Univ. di Roma, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica E. Amaldi

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Immunological changes of chronic oral exposure to depleted uranium in mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Direct ingestion of contaminated soil by depleted uranium (DU) might lead to internal exposure to DU by local populations through hand contamination. The purpose of this study was to assess the immunological changes of long-term exposure to various doses of DU in mice. Three-week-old Kunming mice were divided into the following 4 groups based on the various feeding doses (containing DU): 0 (control group), 3 (DU3 group), 30 (DU30 group), and 300 mg/kg feed (DU300 group). After 4 months of exposure, in the DU300 group, the innate immune function decreased, manifesting as decreased secretion of nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-18, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? in the peritoneal macrophages, as well as reduced cytotoxicity of the splenic natural killer cells. Moreover, the cellular and humoral immune functions were abnormal, as manifested by decreased proliferation of the splenic T cells, proportion of the cluster of differentiation (CD) 3+ cells, ratio of CD4+/CD8+ cells and delayed-type hypersensitivity, and increased proliferation of the splenic B cells, total serum immunoglobin (Ig) G and IgE, and proportion of splenic mIgM+mIgD+ cells. Through stimulation, the secretion levels of interferon (IFN)-? and TNF-? in the splenic cells were reduced, and the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were increased. By comparison, in the DU30 and DU3 groups, the effects were either minor or indiscernible. In conclusions, chronic intake of higher doses of DU (300 mg/kg) had a significant impact on the immune function, most likely due to an imbalance in T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cytokines.

Yuhui Hao; Jiong Ren; Jing Liu; Zhangyou Yang; Cong Liu; Rong Li; Yongping Su

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application. It is possible to have confidence in the predictions of many of the existing models because of their fundamental physical and chemical mechanistic underpinnings and the extensive work already done to compare model predictions and empirical observations. The working group recommends that modeling tools be applied for benchmarking PBT/POPs according to exposure-to-emissions relationships, and that modeling tools be used to interpret emissions and monitoring data. The further development of models that couple fate, long-range transport, and bioaccumulation should be fostered, especially models that will allow time trends to be scientifically addressed in the risk profile.

Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Respiratory hospitalizations of children and residential exposure to traffic air pollution in Jerusalem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Although exposure to traffic-related air pollution has been reported to be associated with respiratory morbidity in children, this association has not been examined in Israel. Jerusalem is ranked among the leading Israeli cities in transport-related air pollution. This case–control study examined whether pediatric hospitalization for respiratory diseases in Jerusalem is related to residential exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Cases (n = 4844) were Jerusalem residents aged 0–14 years hospitalized for respiratory illnesses between 2000 and 2006. These were compared to children admitted electively (n = 2161) or urgently (n = 3085) for non-respiratory conditions. Individual measures of exposure included distance from residence to nearest main road, the total length of main roads, traffic volume, and bus load within buffers of 50, 150, and 300 m around each address. Cases were more likely to have any diesel buses passing within 50 m of their home (adjusted odds ratios = 1.16 and 1.10, 95% confidence intervals 1.04–1.30 and 1.01–1.20 for elective and emergency controls, respectively). Our findings indicated that older girls (5–14) and younger boys (0–4) had increased risks of respiratory hospitalization, albeit with generally widened confidence intervals due to small sample sizes. Our results add to the limited body of evidence regarding associations between diesel exhaust particles and respiratory morbidity. The findings also point to possible differential associations between traffic-related air pollution and pediatric hospitalization among boys and girls in different age groups.

Ronit Nirel; Michal Schiff; Ora Paltiel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Prime number generation and factor elimination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have presented a multivariate polynomial function termed as factor elimination function,by which, we can generate prime numbers. This function's mapping behavior can explain the irregularities in the occurrence of prime numbers on the number line. Generally the different categories of prime numbers found till date, satisfy the form of this function. We present some absolute and probabilistic conditions for the primality of the number generated by this method. This function is capable of leading to highly efficient algorithms for generating prime numbers.

Vineet Kumar

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

378

Occupational Radiation Exposures at the Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Occupational Radiation Exposures at the Department of Energy Nimi Rao*, U.S. Department of Energy ; Derek Hagemeyer, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Abstract: The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) project began in 1969 under the AEC and has undergone significant evolutions since inception. The system serves as the central repository for occupational radiation exposure records for all individuals monitored at DOE facilities. One of the primary purposes of the REMS database is to gather the information needed to produce the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. The report provides analysis of monitoring results over the past 5 years, as well as a historical perspective. The presentation will include the latest information collected for the 2013 monitoring year. Tables and graphics will provide an overview of trends and areas of interest. In addition to the traditional static tables and graphs from the annual report, DOE has initiated a data visualization effort to offer more interactive e-products for the data in REMS. An interactive dashboard tool will be presented, as well as an interactive report on the major impacts on occupational radiation exposure at DOE over the last 10 years.

379

The Dose Rate Conversion Factors for Nuclear Fallout  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper, the composite exposure rate conversion factor (ECF) for nuclear fallout was calculated using a simple theoretical photon-transport model. The theoretical model was used to fill in the gaps in the FGR-12 table generated by ORNL. The FGR-12 table contains the individual conversion factors for approximate 1000 radionuclides. However, in order to calculate the exposure rate during the first 30 minutes following a nuclear detonation, the conversion factors for approximately 2000 radionuclides are needed. From a human-effects standpoint, it is also necessary to have the dose rate conversion factors (DCFs) for all 2000 radionuclides. The DCFs are used to predict the whole-body dose rates that would occur if a human were standing in a radiation field of known exposure rate. As calculated by ORNL, the whole-body dose rate (rem/hr) is approximately 70% of the exposure rate (R/hr) at one meter above the surface. Hence, the individual DCFs could be estimated by multiplying the individual ECFs by 0.7. Although this is a handy rule-of-thumb, a more consistent (and perhaps, more accurate) method of estimating the individual DCFs for the missing radionuclides in the FGR-12 table is to use the linear relationship between DCF and total gamma energy released per decay. This relationship is shown in Figure 1. The DCFs for individual organs in the body can also be estimated from the estimated whole-body DCF. Using the DCFs given FGR-12, the ratio of the organ-specific DCFs to the whole-body DCF were plotted as a function of the whole-body DCF. From these plots, the asymptotic ratios were obtained (see Table 1). Using these asymptotic ratios, the organ-specific DCFs can be estimated using the estimated whole-body DCF for each of the missing radionuclides in the FGR-12 table. Although this procedure for estimating the organ-specific DCFs may over-estimate the value for some low gamma-energy emitters, having a finite value for the organ-specific DCFs in the table is probably better than having no value at all. A summary of the complete ECF and DCF values are given in Table 2.

Spriggs, G D

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

380

Optimizing Power Factor Correction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

studied were 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 500 hours times each value of KW. The values of the capacitor cost parameters B and D were chosen to cover the range of costs suggested by capacitor suppliers and an electrical contractor. The values for B... plots correspond Power Factor Range: 0.5 to 1.0. to values of KW and KWH as shown in Fig. 5. The Figure 6; B ? $1,500; D ? $15 per kV I\\R. values of KWH are the products of the KW's and the hours. KWH/KII, hr 100 150 200 300 400 500 KII, kll...

Phillips, R. K.; Burmeister, L. C.

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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Purcell factor of Mie resonators featuring electric and magnetic modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a modal approach to compute the Purcell factor in Mie resonators exhibiting both electric and magnetic resonances. The analytic expressions of the normal modes are used to calculate the effective volumes. We show that important features of the effective volume can be predicted thanks to the translation-addition coefficients of a displaced dipole. Using our formalism, it is easy to see that, in general, the Purcell factor of Mie resonators is not dominated by a single mode, but rather by a large superposition. Finally we consider a silicon resonator homogeneously doped with electric dipolar emitters, and we show that the average electric Purcell factor dominates over the magnetic one.

Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Chemico-Biological Interactions 166 (2007) 264276 Chemical process-based reconstruction of exposures for an  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the chloroprene (CD) and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposures were modeled for plant specific job title classes to chloroprene (CD) and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), the historical exposure levels were reconstructed of exposures for an epidemiological study Part II. Estimated exposures to chloroprene and vinyl chloride Nurtan

Illinois at Chicago, University of

383

Prospective Study of UV Exposure and Cancer Incidence Among Swedish Women  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...needed to define the amount of solar or artificial UV exposure that...Cancer (IARC) concluded that solar UV exposure is the main environmental...Thus there was evidence that solar or artificial UV exposure...in a case-control study in Canada in relation to age at exposure...

Ling Yang; Marit B. Veierød; Marie Löf; Sven Sandin; Hans-Olov Adami; and Elisabete Weiderpass

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Breast Cancer and Personal Environmental Risk Factors in Marin County --  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breast Cancer and Personal Environmental Risk Factors in Marin County -- Breast Cancer and Personal Environmental Risk Factors in Marin County -- Pilot Study Title Breast Cancer and Personal Environmental Risk Factors in Marin County -- Pilot Study Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2003 Authors Erdmann, Christine A., Georgianna Farren, Kimberly Baltzell, Terri Chew, Cynthia Clarkson, Ruth Fleshman, Colin Leary, Mary Mizroch, Fern Orenstein, Marion L. Russell, Virginia Souders-Mason, and Margaret Wrensch Abstract The purpose of the Personal Environmental Risk Factor Study (PERFS) pilot project was to develop methodologies and a questionnaire for a future population-based case-control study to investigate the role of selected environmental exposures in breast cancer development. Identification of etiologically relevant exposures during a period of potential vulnerability proximate to disease onset offers the possibility of clinical disease prevention even when disease initiation may have already occurred many years earlier. Certain personal environmental agents or combinations of agents may influence disease promotion. Therefore, this pilot study focused on exposures that occurred during the ten-year period prior to diagnosis for cases and the last ten years for controls, rather than more historic exposures. For this pilot study, we used a community-based research approach. In our collaborative efforts, community members participated with academic researchers in all phases of the research, including research question identification, study design, development of research tools, development of the human subjects protocol, and report writing. Community member inclusion was based upon the concept that community participation could improve the relevance of scientific studies and ultimate success of the research by encouraging an ongoing dialogue between community members and academic representatives. Early activities of this project focused on the collection of input from the community regarding the possible role of environmental factors in the incidence of breast cancer in Marin County. The intent was to inform the scientists of community concerns, enhance the research team's understanding of the community being studied, and provide interested community members with a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional research methods through active participation in the research process. This pilot study identified specific testable hypotheses through review of the literature and consultation with relevant experts and the affected community. Initially, the study was to focus on modifiable personal environmental exposures that are associated with breast tumor promotion and higher socioeconomic status (SES). However, little information was available in the scientific literature regarding the putative mechanism by which some of the suspected environmental factors may act (i.e., initiator vs. promoter). Likewise, little is known about the distribution of personal environmental risk factors by socioeconomic status. Therefore, tumor promotion involvement and association with SES were not very useful as selection criteria, and selection of topics was based primarily on published scientific findings of human studies and community input. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at the University of California at San Francisco (Committee on Human Research) and at the University of California at Berkeley (Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects)

385

II. GENERAL COMPLIANCE SUPPLEMENT INTRODUCTION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rather than repeat these compliance requirements, audit objectives, and suggested audit procedures for each program, they are provided once in this part. For each program in this Compliance Supplement (this Supplement), the program-specific compliance guidance section (Part III of this guidance) contains additional information about the compliance requirements that arise from laws and regulations applicable to each program, including the requirements specific to each program that should be tested using the guidance in this part. Compliance Requirements, Audit Objectives, and Suggested Audit Procedures At the end of this General Compliance Supplement is a matrix that outlines the compliance requirements, including special tests and provisions, that are applicable to programs performed under

386

SINGULARITIES OF GENERALIZED PARTON DISTRIBUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We discuss recent developments in building models for generalized parton distributions (GPDs) that are based on the formalism of double distributions (DDs). A special attention is given to a careful analysis of the singularity structure of DDs. The DD formalism is applied to construction of a model GPDs with a singular Regge behavior. Within the developed DD-based approach, we discuss the structure of GPD sum rules. It is shown that separation of DDs into the so-called ``plus'' part and the D-term part may be treated as a renormalization procedure for the GPD sum rules. This approach is compared with an alternative prescription based on analytic regularization.

Anatoly Radyushkin

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Accelerator experiments contradicting general relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The deflection of gamma-rays in Earth's gravitational field is tested in laser Compton scattering at high energy accelerators. Within a formalism connecting the bending angle to the photon's momentum it follows that detected gamma-ray spectra are inconsistent with a deflection magnitude of 2.78 nrad, predicted by Einstein's gravity theory. Moreover, preliminary results for 13-28 GeV photons from two different laboratories show opposite - away from the Earth - deflection, amounting to 33.8-0.8 prad. I conclude that general relativity, which describes gravity at low energies precisely, break down at high energies.

Vahagn Gharibyan

2014-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

388

A general purpose microprogrammable emulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/HEAD. MICRO/MACRO T IMNG DUMP. EXEC and END. Simulation Time Commands All Functions PRT Field . V CONCLUSION. REFERENCES APPENDIX A CONSOLIDATED CODING SHEET 8 NOVA EMULATION. C PROGRAM LISTING VITA PAGE 6 10 16 19 19 21 23 23 42 42 44... interconnection scheme 1. PAGE 10 6 Arbitrary interconnection scheme 2. Generalized bus structured CPU. Typical bus structured CPU. Microprogrammed control signal transfer 12 14 15 18 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Logic diagram and block...

Adams, James Monroe

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

389

Risk analysis of thyroid cancer incidence after exposure in childhood in the most contaminated areas of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia in comparison with other studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The current knowledge about thyroid cancer induction due to 131I exposures during childhood is limited. Due to the low incidences observed, it was assumed that 131I is less effective in cancer induction by a factor of 3, if compared to external exposures. An increase of the thyroid cancer incidence among children and adolescents from the south-eastern Belorussian, the northern Ukrainian, and the western Russian oblasts after the reactor accident in Chernobyl is reported. As a result of the further improvement of the dose estimation methods, the individual exposure doses based on the results of direct thyroid activity measurement were recalculated, and the geographical pattern of age-dependent thyroid doses was analysed. These resulted in the re-assessment of collective doses and of thyroid cancer risk.

G. Goulko; M. Tronko; T. Bogdanova; K. Henrichs; I. Kayro; V. Shpak; M. Lassmann; Chr. Reiners

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Effects of exposure equalization on image signal-to-noise ratios in digital mammography: A simulation study with an anthropomorphic breast phantom  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The scan equalization digital mammography (SEDM) technique combines slot scanning and exposure equalization to improve low-contrast performance of digital mammography in dense tissue areas. In this study, full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired with an anti-scatter grid at various exposure levels were superimposed to simulate SEDM images and investigate the improvement of low-contrast performance as quantified by primary signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs). Methods: We imaged an anthropomorphic breast phantom (Gammex 169 ''Rachel,'' Gammex RMI, Middleton, WI) at various exposure levels using a FFDM system (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). The exposure equalization factors were computed based on a standard FFDM image acquired in the automatic exposure control (AEC) mode. The equalized image was simulated and constructed by superimposing a selected set of FFDM images acquired at 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 times of exposure levels to the standard AEC timed technique (125 mAs) using the equalization factors computed for each region. Finally, the equalized image was renormalized regionally with the exposure equalization factors to result in an appearance similar to that with standard digital mammography. Two sets of FFDM images were acquired to allow for two identically, but independently, formed equalized images to be subtracted from each other to estimate the noise levels. Similarly, two identically but independently acquired standard FFDM images were subtracted to estimate the noise levels. Corrections were applied to remove the excess system noise accumulated during image superimposition in forming the equalized image. PSNRs over the compressed area of breast phantom were computed and used to quantitatively study the effects of exposure equalization on low-contrast performance in digital mammography. Results: We found that the highest achievable PSNR improvement factor was 1.89 for the anthropomorphic breast phantom used in this study. The overall PSNRs were measured to be 79.6 for the FFDM imaging and 107.6 for the simulated SEDM imaging on average in the compressed area of breast phantom, resulting in an average improvement of PSNR by {approx}35% with exposure equalization. We also found that the PSNRs appeared to be largely uniform with exposure equalization, and the standard deviations of PSNRs were estimated to be 10.3 and 7.9 for the FFDM imaging and the simulated SEDM imaging, respectively. The average glandular dose for SEDM was estimated to be 212.5 mrad, {approx}34% lower than that of standard AEC-timed FFDM (323.8 mrad) as a result of exposure equalization for the entire breast phantom. Conclusions: Exposure equalization was found to substantially improve image PSNRs in dense tissue regions and result in more uniform image PSNRs. This improvement may lead to better low-contrast performance in detecting and visualizing soft tissue masses and micro-calcifications in dense tissue areas for breast imaging tasks.

Liu Xinming; Lai Chaojen; Whitman, Gary J.; Geiser, William R.; Shen Youtao; Yi Ying; Shaw, Chris C. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Developmental Implications for Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Toxins: Consumption Habits of Pregnant Women and Prenatal Nicotine Exposure in a Mouse Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). Reproductive Toxicology,exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and the risk of self-reportedcaffeine, MeHg, PCBs, BPA, and tap water contaminants, so as

Santiago, Sarah Emily

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

22 - Conversion Factors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter details the viscosity and pressure conversion chart. To convert absolute or dynamic viscosity from one set of units to another, one must locate the given set of units in the left-hand column then multiply the numerical value by the factor shown horizontally to the right-hand side, under the set of units desired. The chapter also explains that to convert kinematic viscosity from one set of units to another, one must locate the given set of units in the left-hand column and multiply the numerical value by the factor shown horizontally to the right-hand side, under the set of units desired. The chapter also defines how the conversion from natural gas to other fuels has progressed from possibility to reality for many companies and will become necessary for many others in months and years ahead. Fuels that are considered practical replacements for gas include coal, heavy fuel oils, middle distillates (such as kerosine–typeturbo fuel and burner fuel oils) and liquefied petroleum gas.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Vibration of Generalized Double Well Oscillators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have applied the Melnikov criterion to examine a global homoclinic bifurcation and transition to chaos in a case of a double well dynamical system with a nonlinear fractional damping term and external excitation. The usual double well Duffing potential having a negative square term and positive quartic term has been generalized to a double well potential with a negative square term and a positive one with an arbitrary real exponent $q > 2$. We have also used a fractional damping term with an arbitrary power $p$ applied to velocity which enables one to cover a wide range of realistic damping factors: from dry friction $p \\to 0$ to turbulent resistance phenomena $p=2$. Using perturbation methods we have found a critical forcing amplitude $\\mu_c$ above which the system may behave chaotically. Our results show that the vibrating system is less stable in transition to chaos for smaller $p$ satisfying an exponential scaling low. The critical amplitude $\\mu_c$ as an exponential function of $p$. The analytical results have been illustrated by numerical simulations using standard nonlinear tools such as Poincare maps and the maximal Lyapunov exponent. As usual for chosen system parameters we have identified a chaotic motion above the critical Melnikov amplitude $\\mu_c$.

Grzegorz Litak; Marek Borowiec; Arkadiusz Syta

2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

394

Hypothyroidism prevalence following exposure to radioiodines in childhood  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hypothyroidism prevalence following exposure to radioiodines in childhood Hypothyroidism prevalence following exposure to radioiodines in childhood and adolescence: Belarusian-American Cohort Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases after the Chernobyl Accident Ostroumova Evgenia National Cancer Institute Abstract Background. Hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid abnormality in patients treated with high doses of iodine-131 (131I). Data on risk of hypothyroidism from low to moderate 131I thyroid doses are limited and inconsistent. Objective. To assess the risk of hypothyroidism prevalence in relation to 131I doses from Chernobyl fallout exposure. Materials and methods. The analysis is based on the first screening cycle (1996–2003) of a Belarus-American study of thyroid diseases in a cohort of 10,827 individuals under 18 years of age at the time of the

395

Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA Modeling Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA Modeling Tools for Policy Making Speaker(s): Jennifer Logue Date: October 27, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines air toxics as pollutants that are known or suspected to cause serious health effects. Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act established 189 chemicals as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants. Large uncertainties still exist regarding exposure, risks, and sources and there has been a heavy reliance on inventories and modeling to determine sources and risks. In January 2002, Carnegie Mellon University in collaboration with the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) embarked on a project to investigate air toxics in Allegheny County. This

396

Quantifying the Air Pollution Exposure Consequences of Distributed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantifying the Air Pollution Exposure Consequences of Distributed Quantifying the Air Pollution Exposure Consequences of Distributed Electricity Generation Speaker(s): Garvin Heath Date: November 8, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 This talk will highlight my research investigating differences in potential for human inhalation exposure to air pollutants emitted by distributed electricity generation (DG) technologies and existing central station power plants in California. The most sophisticated research on environmental impacts of DG has focused on evaluating spatially and temporally resolved air pollutant concentrations (e.g., ozone) that result from scenarios of future deployment of DG technologies (Samuelsen at al., 2003 and collaborations amongst Tonse, van Buskirk and Heath, unpublished). I extend this research to consider the relationship between where pollutants are

397

OSTI Establishes OAI Server, Achieves Broader Exposure for Records | OSTI,  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Establishes OAI Server, Achieves Broader Exposure for Records Establishes OAI Server, Achieves Broader Exposure for Records June 2005 Oak Ridge, TN - OSTI is pleased to announce the establishment of an Open Archives Initiative (OAI) server, which immediately opened more than 108,000 DOE scientific and technical reports for harvesting by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) and other OAI users. Establishment of an OAI server achieves broader exposure of searchable science through OSTI's suite of R&D databases. By becoming a data provider adopting the OAI technical framework, OSTI took another step toward easing access and search of the deep Web. This is in keeping with OSTI's mission to advance science and sustain technological creativity by making R&D findings available and useful to DOE researchers and the American people.

398

EMDEX (Electric and Magnetic Field Digital EXposure) system manuals  

SciTech Connect

The EPRI Electric and Magnetic Field Digital EXposure (EMDEX) system consists of hardware and software for characterizing electric and magnetic field exposures. The EMDEX meter is a computer-based portable unit that samples, at a user-programmable rate, the three vector components of magnetic flux density, a measure of the average electric field acting on the torso of the wearer (if an optional sensor is worn) and a measure of rotational motion of the meter in the earth's magnetic field. Modules of the DATACALC software package are used to program the EMDEX, retrieve data at the end of a measurement session, analyze EMDEX data, and prepare tabular and graphical data summaries. The User Manual is designed to provide instruction on the use of the exposure system hardware and software. The Technical Reference Manual provides additional, detailed descriptions of the hardware, software and methodologies used in the EMDEX system.

Not Available

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Military use of depleted uranium assessment of prolonged population exposure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is an exposure assessment for a population living in an area contaminated by use of depleted uranium (DU) weapons. RESRAD 5.91 code is used to evaluate the average effective dose delivered from 1, 10, 20 cm depths of contaminated soil, in a residential farmer scenario. Critical pathway and group are identified in soil inhalation or ingestion and children playing with the soil, respectively. From available information on DU released on targeted sites, both critical and average exposure can leave to toxicological hazards; annual dose limit for population can be exceeded on short-term period (years) for soil inhalation. As a consequence, in targeted sites cleaning up must be planned on the basis of measured concentration, when available, while special cautions have to be adopted altogether to reduce unaware exposures, taking into account the amount of the avertable dose.

Giannardi, C

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Reducing Toxic Exposure In Buildings: Application of Computational Fluid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Toxic Exposure In Buildings: Application of Computational Fluid Reducing Toxic Exposure In Buildings: Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Speaker(s): Buvana Jayaraman Date: December 8, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 I investigate three applications related to toxic exposure in buildings and demonstrate the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to address important issues: 1. Improving containment of airborne hazardous materials in an existing room containing a downdraft table. CFD is used to find a ventilation configuration that ensures better containment of the hazardous material and hence improved worker safety. 2. Modeling gas transport in a large indoor space. The goal of this study is to understand how the level of detail of the CFD model affects its accuracy. Comparison of predictions with experimental data will be presented. 3. Understanding

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Exposure to diesel exhaust up-regulates iNOS expression in ApoE knockout mice  

SciTech Connect

Traffic related particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods: ApoE knockout mice (30-week) were exposed to DE (at 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of particulate matter) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). iNOS expression in the blood vessels and heart was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. To examine iNOS activity, thoracic aortae were mounted in a wire myograph, and vasoconstriction stimulated by phenylephrine (PE) was measured with and without the presence of the specific inhibitor for iNOS (1400 W). NF-{kappa}B (p65) activity was examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B (p65) was determined by real-time PCR. Results: DE exposure significantly enhanced iNOS expression in the thoracic aorta (4-fold) and heart (1.5 fold). DE exposure significantly attenuated PE-stimulated vasoconstriction by {approx} 20%, which was partly reversed by 1400 W. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B was significantly augmented after DE exposure. NF-{kappa}B activity was enhanced 2-fold after DE inhalation, and the augmented NF-{kappa}B activity was positively correlated with iNOS expression (R{sup 2} = 0.5998). Conclusions: We show that exposure to DE increases iNOS expression and activity possibly via NF-{kappa}B-mediated pathway. We suspect that DE exposure-caused up-regulation of iNOS contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis, which could ultimately lead to urban air pollution-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. - Highlights: > Exposed ApoE knockout mice (30-week) to diesel exhaust (DE) for 7 weeks. > Examine iNOS expression and activity in the blood vessels and heart. > DE exposure enhanced iNOS protein and mRNA expression in the aorta and heart. > iNOS activity was also increased after DE exposure. > This up-regulation of iNOS may contribute to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis.

Bai Ni [Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kido, Takashi [James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Rosenfeld, Michael E. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Breemen, Cornelis van [Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Eeden, Stephan F. van, E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca [James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Office of Inspector General | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites

Inspector General Inspector General Search Search form Search Office of Inspector General Office of Inspector General Services Services Home Hotline Whistleblower Ombudsman FOIA Reports Reports Home Calendar Year Reports Recovery Act Recovery Act Home Recovery Act Reports Peer Reviews DOE Directives Performance Strategic Plan Testimony Financial Statements Semiannual Reports Work Plan Mission Mission Home Audits & Inspections Investigations Management & Administration About Us About Us Home Leadership Careers Careers Home Auditor Criminal Investigator Inspector Other Positions Vacancies Audits & Inspections Investigations Management & Administration Field Offices Contact Us Offices You are here Energy Department » Office of Inspector General Office of Inspector General Office of Inspector General

403

Assessment of relative exposure of minority and low-income groups to outdoor air pollution  

SciTech Connect

A diverse research effort, conducted by both federal agencies and scholars in academia, has addressed the issue of environmental justice. Recent environmental justice studies have generally focused on the demographics of areas close to hazardous waste facilities; landfills; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) sites; and Superfund sites. Recent efforts at the federal and state levels to determine risk-related priorities in allocating resources for research and remediation have found that hazardous wastes present much lower health effect risks than air pollution does. Past research findings, funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed disproportionately high levels of substandard air quality exposure for minority and low-income populations. This study is a continuation of that earlier research.

Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Non-destructive method for determining neutron exposure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A non-destructive method for determination of neutron exposure in an object, such as a reactor pressure vessel, is based on the observation of characteristic gamma-rays emitted by activation products in the object by using a unique continuous gamma-ray spectrometer. The spectrometer views the object through appropriate collimators to determine the absolute emission rate of these characteristic gamma-rays, thereby ascertaining the absolute activity of given activation products in the object. These data can then be used to deduce the spatial and angular dependence of neutron exposure at regions of interest within the object.

Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Evaluation of occupational noise exposure using a wireless microphone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

August 1973l Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene EVALUATION OF OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE USING A WIRELESS MICROPHONE A Thesis by ROBERT BACOT NASH, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Cha man of mmit e Z~ Kv-~ Head of Department Member... Member August 1/74 ABSTRACT Evaluation of Occupational Noise Exposure Using a Wireless Microphone. (August 1974) Robert Bacot Nash, Jr. , B. S. , Texas A8cM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr, Richard B. Konzen The output of a Vega...

Nash, Robert Bacot

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

406

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Design and construction of a general purpose Human Factors Environmental Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Support 2. Wall Interiocking Cr-oss Section 3. Wir. dow I'rame Support. Top View of Door Cross S ction 13 IG Roof t. o Wall Joint 17 Schematic Wiring Diagram for I. ighting 7. Airflow Pattern 27 g. Duct Patterns for uYu Transition Pieces 9... be considered, and temperature" in the range of 33' F to I40' F would be adequate for normal industrial situations, Humidity hcu'd be controllal. le on the heating cycle, within a normal industrial o' res'deuti el ran~c, A treadmill and a turntable werc di...

Hennigan, James Kerness

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

408

Growth factor delivery-based tissue engineering: general approaches and a review of recent developments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles containing...structures [168]. 3.3.3. Control...95)93115-3 ( doi:10.1016...95)93115-3 ) 190 Hua, F...containing poly(epsilon-caprolactone...poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogels. Biomaterials...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Growth factor delivery-based tissue engineering: general approaches and a review of recent developments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hydrogels prepared by a blend of chitosan, phopholipid and lauric aldehyde...163]. A number of MMP inhibitor-containing systems have...BMP-7 delivery system into chitosan-based scaffolds for bone...Biocompatibility of injectable chitosan-phospholipid implant systems...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

he study of space is generally passive, as the input factors to an environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

field. a, New open field lines (red lines) are produced at a reconnection site XS and solar wind energy

Lockwood, Mike

411

Part I, General Audit Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and subrecipients of and subrecipients of federal financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE). Such compliance audits must be conducted in accordance with the requirements and guidance set forth in Statement on Auditing Standards No. 117, Compliance Audits (SAS 117) and generally accepted government auditing standards (GAGAS). See section C below for more detail. The audit procedures provided in this Audit Program are the minimum necessary for uniform and consistent audit coverage. Auditors conducting audits of entities subject to the requirements of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular No. A-133, Audits of States, Local Governments and Non-Profit Organizations, should not use this Audit Program and should instead refer to the Circular and the

412

General Electric | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electric Electric Jump to: navigation, search Name General Electric Place Fairfield, Connecticut Zip 06828 Stock Symbol GE Year founded 1892 Number of employees 10,000+"+" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property. Website http://www.ge.com/ Coordinates 41.1758333°, -73.2719444° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.1758333,"lon":-73.2719444,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

413

General Compression | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Compression Compression Jump to: navigation, search Name General Compression Place Newton, Massachusetts Zip 2458 Product Massachusetts-based developer of compressed air energy storage systems. Coordinates 43.996685°, -87.803724° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.996685,"lon":-87.803724,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

414

rmotc general letter.qxp  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Naval Petroleum Reserve No. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Teapot Dome Oilfield Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center T eapot Dome was the popular name for the scandal during the administration of U.S. President Warren G. Harding. The scandal, which involved the secret leasing of naval oil reserve lands to private companies, was first revealed to the general public in 1924 after findings by a committee of the U.S. Senate. The creation of the Naval Petroleum Reserves originated with the growth of federal conserva- tion policy under presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. The reserves were tracts of public land where oil should be kept in its natural reservoirs for the future use of the Navy. "Teapot Dome" originally acquired its name from a rock nearby which resembled a teapot.

415

General Biodiesel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biodiesel Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name General Biodiesel Address 4034 West Marginal Way Place Seattle, Washington Zip 98106 Sector Biofuels Product Aims to turn waste cooking oil and animal fat into feedstock for biodiesel Website http://generalbiodiesel.com/ Coordinates 47.5677317°, -122.3542271° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.5677317,"lon":-122.3542271,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

416

Triclosan: environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Triclosan: environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action Andrea B. Dann and Alice Hontela* ABSTRACT: Triclosan [5chloro2(2,4dichlorophenoxy)phenol; TCS] is a broad spectrum antibacterial been shown to be effective. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Keywords: triclosan; irgasan

Hontela, Alice

417

Indoor exposure to radiation in the case of an outdoorrelease  

SciTech Connect

This report quantifies the effectiveness of ''sheltering in place'' in a commercial building in the event of an outdoor radiological release. The indoor exposure to airborne particles is calculated by solving the mass balance equation that accounts for the loss of particles due to deposition, filtration and exhaust. Quantitative estimates of shelter-inplace effectiveness are provided for typical commercial buildings.

Price, Phillip N.; Jayaraman, Buvana

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Causal Analysis of the Unanticipated Extremity Exposure at HFEF  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the unintended extremity exposure to an operator while handling a metallurgical mount sample of irradiated fuel following an off-scale high beta radiation reading of the sample. The decision was made to continue working after the meter indicated high off-scale by the HPT Supervisor, which resulted in the operator at the next operation being exposed.

David E. James; Charles R. Posegate; Thomas P. Zahn; Alan G. Wagner

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Assessment of paediatric CT exposure in a Portuguese hospital  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......paediatric CT exposure in a Portuguese hospital A. Neves 1 * A. Nunes 1 M. Rufino...2 Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central, Hospital de S. Jose, Rua Jose Antonio Serrano...procedures was performed for a Portuguese hospital. Dosimetric data and technical parameters......

A. Neves; A. Nunes; M. Rufino; P. Madeira; P. Vaz; A. Pascoal

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

EPa`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Exposure issues  

SciTech Connect

Three major issues to be dealt with over the next ten years in the exposure assessment field are: consistency in terminology, the impact of computer technology on the choice of data and modeling, and conceptual issues such as the use of time-weighted averages.

Callahan, M.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Intracranial Pressure Increases during Exposure to a Shock Wave  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Afghanistan. The extent of a blast TBI, especially initially, is difficult to diagnose, as internal injuries pressure; overpressure; traumatic brain injury Introduction Blast traumatic brain injuries (blast TBI of the mechanism of injury of TBI after exposure to blast. Substantial resources have been spent on the IED problem

VandeVord, Pamela

422

Molecular signatures of low dose radiation exposure in human subjects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Molecular signatures of low dose radiation exposure in human subjects...Volume 46, 2005] 3096 Low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) in the 1-10 cGy range has largely unknown biological...the effect and risk at low dose by extrapolation from measured...

Zelanna Goldberg; Chad W. Schwietert; Maggie Isbell; Joerg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Christine Hartmann Siantar; and David M. Rocke

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update  

SciTech Connect

This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

424

Radiation exposure assessment for portsmouth naval shipyard health studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of radiation worker cohorts employed...Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory...Canada (AECL) workers from the Chalk...squares) between 1950 and 1996. DISCUSSION...for 13,468 workers with PNS exposure...assignments before and after adjustments......

R. D. Daniels; T. D. Taulbee; P. Chen

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Brief Communications Nocturnal Light Exposure Impairs Affective Responses in a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conditions have led to excessive exposure to light at night (LAN), and particularly to blue wavelength lights include television and computer screens, light pollution, shift work, compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs, and trans- meridian travel. ipRGCs are maximally sensitive to blue light ( 480 nm) and minimally

Nelson, Randy J.

426

Exposure to seismic survey alters blue whale acoustic communication  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Animal behaviour 1001 14 Exposure to seismic survey alters blue whale acoustic communication...their natural functions. Sounds from seismic surveys are intense and have peak frequency...changed their vocal behaviour during a seismic survey that deployed a low-medium power...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pushing operations at the coke-oven battery section) involving exposure to high levels...PCR System (Applied Biosystems). The thermal cycling conditions for mtDNA PCR were...60-second anneal/extend at 60C. The thermal cycling conditions for the hbg PCR were...

Sofia Pavanello; Laura Dioni; Mirjam Hoxha; Ugo Fedeli; Danuta Mielzynska-Švach; and Andrea A. Baccarelli

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Chronic Cyanide Exposure — A Biochemical and Industrial Hygiene Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......above 16 mg/24 hrs should be regarded as dangerous. Lawton et al (11) reported that urinary...exposed to cyanide. Indian J. Occup. Health (Communi- cated, 1979) 10. H.B...for smoking exposure. Arch. Environ. Health. 14: 865-74 (1967) 15. A.R......

Harish Chandra; B.N. Gupta; S.K. Bhargava; S.H. Clerk; P.N. Mahendra

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...arsenic exposure derived from household tap water intake...two national surveys, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and those...to consume rice than non-Hispanic whites; members...of water samples from their household (i.e., kitchen) tap...

Diane Gilbert-Diamond; Kathryn L. Cottingham; Joann F. Gruber; Tracy Punshon; Vicki Sayarath; A. Jay Gandolfi; Emily R. Baker; Brian P. Jackson; Carol L. Folt; Margaret R. Karagas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Deciphering boulder mobility and erosion from cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al., 2004]. When mobilized by floods or debris flows, boulders can present a major hazardDeciphering boulder mobility and erosion from cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating Benjamin H. Mackey; published 6 March 2013. [1] Large boulders are prominent features in many geomorphic systems

431

Radiation Exposure From Medical Imaging Time to Regulate?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

smaller population exposure. The current US situation is that quality control and qual- ity assurance modern medical imaging, there are serious is- sues of quality control, training, and, particularly of different standards and rules are in place; accreditation programs, through the American College

Brenner, David Jonathan

432

Uncertainties in estimating health risks associated with exposure to ionising radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The information for the present discussion on the uncertainties associated with estimation of radiation risks and probability of disease causation was assembled for the recently published NCRP Report No. 171 on this topic. This memorandum provides a timely overview of the topic, given that quantitative uncertainty analysis is the state of the art in health risk assessment and given its potential importance to developments in radiation protection. Over the past decade the increasing volume of epidemiology data and the supporting radiobiology findings have aided in the reduction of uncertainty in the risk estimates derived. However, it is equally apparent that there remain significant uncertainties related to dose assessment, low dose and low dose-rate extrapolation approaches (e.g. the selection of an appropriate dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), the biological effectiveness where considerations of the health effects of high-LET and lower-energy low-LET radiations are required and the transfer of risks from a population for which health effects data are available to one for which such data are not available. The impact of radiation on human health has focused in recent years on cancer, although there has been a decided increase in the data for noncancer effects together with more reliable estimates of the risk following radiation exposure, even at relatively low doses (notably for cataracts and cardiovascular disease). New approaches for the estimation of hereditary risk have been developed with the use of human data whenever feasible, although the current estimates of heritable radiation effects still are based on mouse data because of an absence of effects in human studies. Uncertainties associated with estimation of these different types of health effects are discussed in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner as appropriate. The way forward would seem to require additional epidemiological studies, especially studies of low dose and low dose-rate occupational and perhaps environmental exposures and for exposures to x rays and high-LET radiations used in medicine. The development of models for more reliably combining the epidemiology data with experimental laboratory animal and cellular data can enhance the overall risk assessment approach by providing biologically refined data to strengthen the estimation of effects at low doses as opposed to the sole use of mathematical models of epidemiological data that are primarily driven by medium/high doses. NASA's approach to radiation protection for astronauts, although a unique occupational group, indicates the possible applicability of estimates of risk and their uncertainty in a broader context for developing recommendations on: (1) dose limits for occupational exposure and exposure of members of the public; (2) criteria to limit exposures of workers and members of the public to radon and its short-lived decay products; and (3) the dosimetric quantity (effective dose) used in radiation protection.

R Julian Preston; John D Boice Jr; A Bertrand Brill; Ranajit Chakraborty; Rory Conolly; F Owen Hoffman; Richard W Hornung; David C Kocher; Charles E Land; Roy E Shore; Gayle E Woloschak

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - General Atomics (GA)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

general-atomics-ga General general-atomics-ga General Atomics en The Scorpion's Strategy: "Catch and Subdue" http://www.pppl.gov/node/1132

American Fusion News Category: 
general-atomics-ga">General Atomics (GA)
434

Recommended Practices for Human Factors Evaluation Development Process for Advanced Avionics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advanced avionic systems are currently being developed for use in general aviation aircraft. The avionics include both primary flight displays and multi-functional displays. In order to support the human factors development ...

Lyne, Lisette

435

Risk factors for stuttering: a secondary analysis of a large data base  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The spectrum of risk and concomitant factors in stuttering is generally thought to be wide and ... The analyses rely on self-reported information about stuttering in childhood, problems at birth, problems ... fre...

Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross; Stefan Vetter…

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS  

SciTech Connect

Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation state of the main backbone chain, or by protonation of the imine groups [de Acevedo, 1999]. There are several types of radiation sensors commercially available, including ionization chambers, geiger counters, proportional counters, scintillators and solid state detectors. Each type has advantages, although many of these sensors require expensive electronics for signal amplification, are large and bulky, have limited battery life or require expensive materials for fabrication. A radiation sensor constructed of a polymeric material could be flexible, light, and the geometry designed to suit the application. Very simple and inexpensive electronics would be necessary to measure the change in conductivity with exposure to radiation and provide an alarm system when a set change of conductivity occurs in the sensor that corresponds to a predetermined radiation dose having been absorbed by the polymer. The advantages of using a polymeric sensor of this type rather than those currently in use are the flexibility of sensor geometry and relatively low cost. It is anticipated that these sensors can be made small enough for glovebox applications or have the ability to monitor the air tritium levels in places where a traditional monitor cannot be placed. There have been a few studies on the changes in conductivity of polyaniline specifically for radiation detection [de Acevedo, 1999; Lima Pacheco, 2003], but there have been no reports on the effects of tritium (beta radiation) on conducting polymers, such as polyaniline or polythiophene. The direct implementation of conducting polymers as radiation sensor materials has not yet been commercialized due to differing responses with total dose, dose rate, etc. Some have reported a large increase in the surface conductivity with radiation dose while others report a marked decrease in conductive properties; these differing observations may reflect the competing mechanisms of chain scission and cross-linking. However, it is clear that the radiation dose effects on conducting polymers must be fully understood before these materials can be used

Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

437

Electric and magnetic field exposure associated with electric blankets  

SciTech Connect

electric blankets may be important contributors to the public's overall exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) since they are common appliances that are used close to the body for long periods of time. This report describes a series of experimental and computer analyses characterizing various aspects of EMF exposure from electric blankets in use prior to Fall 1990. Almost of electric blankets were found to use on/off controllers with cycle periods of minutes. Calculations of magnetic fields within the body show that, when blankets are heating, flux densities averaged over the whole body range from 15--33 mG during the on'' cycle with typical values of 22 mG. Duty cycles are predicted to vary widely from user-to-user, with typical values of perhaps 40%. Given typical blanket usage patterns, the long-term body-averaged magnetic field exposure from blankets is expected to be comparable to that form other EMF sources for a significant fraction of the blanket-using population. No significant differences were found between time-averaged magnetic field exposures from blankets with metal alloy and plastic polymer heating elements. Blankets with alloy and polymer heating elements did differ significantly in electric field exposure. Calculations show that the unperturbed field 5 cm above flat blankets range from 60--150 V/m for alloy heating cables and unperturbed field 5 cm above flat blankets range from 60--150 V/m for alloy heating cables and 10--40 V/m polymer cables. Starting in Fall 1990, electric blanket manufactures introduced new designs that produce much smaller magnetic fields. These are expected to replace the current in-use stock at a rate of 10--15% per year.

Florig, H.K.; Hoburg, J.F. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Engineering and Public Policy)

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Anthrax Lethal Factor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thiang Yian Wong, Robert Schwarzenbacher and Robert C. Liddington Thiang Yian Wong, Robert Schwarzenbacher and Robert C. Liddington The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037. Anthrax Toxin is a major virulence factor in the infectious disease, Anthrax1. This toxin is produced by Bacillus anthracis, which is an encapsulated, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium. Inhalation anthrax, the most deadly form, is contracted through breathing spores. Once spores germinate within cells of the immune system called macrophages2, bacterial cells are released into the bloodstream. There they proliferate rapidly and secrete Anthrax Toxin, ultimately leading to septic shock and death. Although antibiotics may be used to kill the bacteria, the level of toxin has often become so high in the bloodstream that removing the bacteria alone is not sufficient to prevent death. Therefore, the design of anti-toxins offers the prospect of treatment in the advanced stages of infection. Together with collaborators from the NIH and Harvard Medical School, we are involved in the atomic resolution study of the Anthrax Toxin components and their complexes, including small molecules with therapeutic potential. Data collection at SSRL and other synchrotron radiation sources has been key to the advances made in this research so far and is expected to play a continuing role in the future.

439

A generalized interval probability-based optimization method for training generalized hidden Markov model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently a generalized hidden Markov model (GHMM) was proposed for solving the information fusion problems under aleatory and epistemic uncertainties in engineering application. In GHMM, aleatory uncertainty is captured by the probability measure whereas ... Keywords: Generalized Baum-Welch algorithm, Generalized Jensen inequality, Generalized hidden Markov model, Generalized interval probability, State recognition

Fengyun Xie; Bo Wu; Youmin Hu; Yan Wang; Guangfei Jia; Yao Cheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Degenerate Extensions of General Relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

General relativity has previously been extended to incorporate degenerate metrics using Ashtekar's hamiltonian formulation of the theory. In this letter, we show that a natural alternative choice for the form of the hamiltonian constraints leads to a theory which agrees with GR for non-degenerate metrics, but differs in the degenerate sector from Ashtekar's original degenerate extension. The Poisson bracket algebra of the alternative constraints closes in the non-degenerate sector, with structure functions that involve the {\\it inverse} of the spatial triad. Thus, the algebra does {\\it not} close in the degenerate sector. We find that it must be supplemented by an infinite number ofsecondary constraints, which are shown to be first class (although their explicit form is not worked out in detail). All of the constraints taken together are implied by, but do not imply, Ashtekar's original form of constraints. Thus, the alternative constraints give rise to a different degenerate extension of GR. In the corresponding quantum theory, the single loop and intersecting loop holonomy states found in the connection representation satisfy {\\it all} of the constraints. These states are therefore exact (formal) solutions to this alternative degenerate extension of quantum gravity, even though they are {\\it not} solutions to the usual vector constraint.

Ted Jacobson; Joseph D. Romano

1992-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Challenging the generalized second law  

SciTech Connect

The generalized second law (GSL) of black hole thermodynamics states that the sum of changes in black hole entropy and the ordinary entropy of matter and fields outside the hole must be non-negative. In the classical limit, the GSL reduces to Hawking's area theorem. Neither law identifies the specific effects that make it work in particular situations. Motivated by Davies' recent gedanken experiment he used to infer a bound on the size of the fine structure constant from the GSL, we study a series of variants in which an electric test charge is lowered to a finite radius and then dropped into a Schwarzschild, a near-extremal magnetic Reissner-Nordstroem or a near-extremal Kerr black hole. For a classical charge, we demonstrate that a specific 'backreaction' effect is responsible for protecting the area theorem in the near-extremal examples. For the magnetically charged Reissner-Nordstroem hole an area theorem violation is defused by taking into account a subtle source of repulsion of the charge: the spinning up of the black hole in the process of bringing the charge down to its dropping point. In Kerr hole case, the electric self-force on the charge is sufficient to right matters. However, in all experiments involving an elementary charge, the full GSL would apparently be violated were the fine structure constant greater than about order unity. We argue that in this case a quantum effect, the Unruh-Wald quantum buoyancy, may protect the GSL.

Eling, Christopher; Bekenstein, Jacob D. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

GENERAL TECHNICAL BASE QUALIFICATION STANDARD REFERENCE GUIDE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

General General Technical Base Qualification Standard Reference Guide MARCH 2012 This page is intentionally blank. Table of Contents i FIGURES ...................................................................................................................................... iii TABLES ........................................................................................................................................ iii ACRONYMS ................................................................................................................................ iv PURPOSE ...................................................................................................................................... 1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................... 1

443

General Construction Company Private Development Procedure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

administration and subcontractor management in the execution of each project. General’s current operations are very conducive to private development. However, the company can no longer rely on an oral system to relay historical processes and procedures...

Eason, Scott W.

2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

444

A SMALLEST GENERALIZATION STEP STRATEGY Claire NEDELLEC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-91490 Gif, France known positive examples, just as with timid generalization [Berwick R.C., 1986 [Shapiro, 83] is a critical aspect of the more general problem of knowledge acquisition . At that time

445

General surface equations for glancing incidence telescopes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A generalized set of equations are derived for two mirror glancing incidence telescopes using Fermat’s principle, a differential form of the law of reflection, the generalized sine...

Saha, Timo T

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Generating trees for permutations avoiding generalized patterns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generating trees for permutations avoiding generalized patterns Sergi Elizalde Dartmouth College Permutation Patterns 2006, Reykjavik Permutation Patterns 2006, Reykjavik ­ p.1 #12;Generating trees patterns Generating trees Rightward generating trees Enumeration of permutations avoiding generalized

Elizalde, Sergi

447

Interacting holographic generalized Chaplygin gas model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we consider a correspondence between the holographic dark energy density and interacting generalized Chaplygin gas energy density in FRW universe. Then we reconstruct the potential of the scalar field which describe the generalized Chaplygin cosmology.

M. R. Setare

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 22 is an extremely Corrosion Resistant Material, with a very stable passive film. Based upon exposures in the LTCTF, the GC rates of Alloy 22 are typically below the level of detection, with four outliers having reported rates up to 0.75 #mu#m per year. In any event, over the 10,000 year life of the repository, GC of the Alloy 22 (assumed to be 2 cm thick) should not be life limiting. Because measured corrosion potentials are far below threshold potentials, localized breakdown of the passive film is unlikely under plausible conditions, even in SSW at 120 deg C. The pH in ambient-temperature crevices formed from Alloy 22 have been determined experimentally, with only modest lowering of the crevice pH observed under plausible conditions. Extreme lowering of the crevice pH was only observed under situations where the applied potential at the crevice mouth was sufficient to result in catastrophic breakdown of the passive film above the threshold potential in non-buffered conditions not characteristic of the Yucca Mountain environment. In cases where naturally ocurring buffers are present in the crevice solution, little or no lowering of the pH was observed, even with significant applied potential. With exposures of twelve months, no evidence of crevice corrosion has been observed in SDW, SCW and SAW at temperatures up to 90 deg C. An abstracted model has been presented, with parameters determined experimentally, that should enable performance assessment to account for the general and localized corrosion of this material. A feature of this model is the use of the materials specification to limit the range of corrosion and threshold potentials, thereby making sure that substandard materials prone to localized attack are avoided. Model validation will be covered in part by a companion SMR on abstraction of this model.

Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

2000-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

449

General Accounting .:. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CFO U.S. Department of Energy --- Cost Accounting Standards DOE Accounting Handbook Federal Accounting Standards Generally Accepted Accounting...

450

A General Derivation of Pointer States: Decoherence and Classicality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of the present study is to derive the pointer states of a macroscopic system interacting with its environment, under the general assumptions, i.e., without assuming any form of the interaction Hamiltonian. The lowest order perturbation leads that the interaction energy shifts the phase factors of the state vectors. For a macroscopic system, these factors are the macroscopic quantities even for the very weak interaction. When we group the state vector of the total system by the view point of environmental side, the destructive interference occurs and the stationary phase approximation can be adopted. Only the pointer states then survive and the decoherence also occurs. The present approach is within the standard quantum mechanics as same as the standard decoherence theory, but the meaning of the classical state is much clear.

Kentaro Urasaki

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

451

Generalized space and linear momentum operators in quantum mechanics  

SciTech Connect

We propose a modification of a recently introduced generalized translation operator, by including a q-exponential factor, which implies in the definition of a Hermitian deformed linear momentum operator p{sup ^}{sub q}, and its canonically conjugate deformed position operator x{sup ^}{sub q}. A canonical transformation leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of a deformed phase space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space may be expressed in terms of the generalized dual q-derivative. A position-dependent mass confined in an infinite square potential well is shown as an instance. Uncertainty and correspondence principles are analyzed.

Costa, Bruno G. da, E-mail: bruno.costa@ifsertao-pe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sertão Pernambucano, Campus Petrolina, BR 407, km 08, 56314-520 Petrolina, Pernambuco (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, R. Barão de Jeremoabo s/n, 40170-115 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Borges, Ernesto P., E-mail: ernesto@ufba.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, R. Barão de Jeremoabo s/n, 40170-115 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

General Electric Company Oahu Wind Integration Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

General Electric Company Oahu Wind Integration Study Final Report Delivered to: Richard Rocheleau-956-8346 e-mail: rochelea@hawaii.edu General Electric Company (in alphabetical order) Sebastian Achilles Date: December 16 2010 #12;2 Legal Notices This report was prepared by the General Electric Company (GE

453

Assessment of selenium food chain transfer and critical exposure factors for avian wildlife species: Need for site-specific data  

SciTech Connect

Observations of selenium poisoning in Belews Lake, NC in the mid-1970s and Kesterson Reservoir, CA in the mid-1980s precipitated a large number of selenium studies. Numerous authors have evaluated the potential for selenium to cause ecologically significant effects via food chain transfer in aquatic ecosystems, especially wetlands. Additionally, bioaccumulation models have been proposed for estimating selenium concentrations in food chains and water that should not be exceeded in order to avoid reproductive effects in avian and aquatic species. The current national chronic ambient water quality criterion (WQC) for protection of aquatic life is 5 {micro}g/L. Scientists with the US Fish and Wildlife Service have recommended setting the ambient water quality criterion at 2 {micro}g/L for both aquatic and wildlife protection.

Adams, W.J. [Kennecott Utah Copper, Magna, UT (United States); Brix, K.V.; Cothern, K.A.; Tear, L.M.; Cardwell, R.D.; Toll, J.E. [Parametrix, Inc., Kirkland, WA (United States); Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

454

Test Factoring: Focusing Test Suites for the Task at Hand Michael D. Ernst, research advisor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Test Factoring: Focusing Test Suites for the Task at Hand David Saff Michael D. Ernst, research and Subject Descriptors: D.2.5 (Testing and Debug� ging): Testing tools General Terms: Algorithms, Design, Performance, Verification Keywords: test factoring, mock objects, unit testing 1. Problem: slow, unfocused

Liskov, Barbara

455

Test Factoring: Focusing Test Suites for the Task at Hand Michael D. Ernst, research advisor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Test Factoring: Focusing Test Suites for the Task at Hand David Saff Michael D. Ernst, research and Subject Descriptors: D.2.5 (Testing and Debug- ging): Testing tools General Terms: Algorithms, Design, Performance, Verification Keywords: test factoring, mock objects, unit testing 1. Problem: slow, unfocused

Liskov, Barbara

456

NREL: Technology Transfer - Materials Exposure Testing Market Expands with  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Exposure Testing Market Expands with Ultra-Accelerated Weathering Materials Exposure Testing Market Expands with Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System In this video, NREL researchers Gary Jorgenson and Carl Bingham discuss the NREL-developed ultra accelerated weathering system and its ability to revolutionize the weathering industry. Get the Adobe Flash Player to see this video. Credit: Fireside Production Learn more about the Ultra Accelerated Weathering System. Printable Version Technology Transfer Home About Technology Transfer Technology Partnership Agreements Licensing Agreements Nondisclosure Agreements Research Facilities Commercialization Programs Success Stories News Contacts Did you find what you needed? Yes 1 No 0 Thank you for your feedback. Would you like to take a moment to tell us how we can improve this page? Submit

457

Temporary Emergency Exposure Limits for Chemicals: Methods and Practice  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE-HDBK-1046-2008 August 2008 DOE HANDBOOK TEMPORARY EMERGENCY EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR CHEMICALS: METHODS AND PRACTICE U.S. Department of Energy AREA EMER Washington, D.C. 20585 DOE-HDBK-1046-2008 ii DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-HDBK-1046-2008 iii Available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ DOE-HDBK-1046-2008 iv FOREWORD In 2005, the Office of Emergency Management and Policy (NA-41) within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), issued DOE O 151.1C, Comprehensive Emergency Management System. This order, and its Guides issued in 2007, reference Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) and Emergency Response Planning

458

Space Science Technology Health General Sci-fi & Gaming Oddities International Business Politics Education Entertainment Sports Electronic Nose Sniffs Out Toxic Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at concentrations known to be immediately dangerous to life or health were included. The laboratory studies usedSpace Science Technology Health General Sci-fi & Gaming Oddities International Business Politics serious health risks in the workplace or through accidental exposure. "Our device is simply a digital

Suslick, Kenneth S.

459

Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring  

SciTech Connect

Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Multi-exposure imaging for measurements in rubber production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the paper, the application of high dynamic range and exposure fusion techniques to image-based measurement systems is described. The advantages of such techniques are discussed, and their performances are compared to the original high-contrast images and between them. Results will show the improvements of measurement reliability achieved with the technique presented in the case of length measurements of industrial products characterized by different surface reflectance.

M Bevilacqua; G Di Leo; M Landi; A Paolillo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Biofilm Shows Spatially Stratified Metabolic Responses to Contaminant Exposure  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to elucidate the spatiotemporal responses of live S. oneidensis MR-1 biofilms to U(VI) (uranyl, UO22+) and Cr(VI) (chromate, CrO42-), important environmental contaminants at DOE contaminated sites. Toward this goal, we applied noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, diffusion, relaxation and spectroscopy techniques to monitor in situ spatiotemporal responses of S. oneidensis biofilms to U(VI) and Cr(VI) exposure in terms of changes in biofilm structures, diffusion properties, and cellular metabolism. Exposure to U(VI) or Cr(VI) did not appear to change the overall biomass distribution but caused changes in the physicochemical microenvironments inside the biofilm as indicated by diffusion measurements. Changes in the diffusion properties of the biofilms in response to U(VI) and Cr(VI) exposure imply a novel function of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) affecting the biotransformation and transport of contaminants in the environment. In the presence of U(VI) or Cr(VI), the anaerobic metabolism of lactate was inhibited significantly, although the biofilms were still capable of reducing U(VI) and Cr(VI). Local concentrations of Cr(III)aq in the biofilm suggested relatively high Cr(VI) reduction activities at the top of the biofilm, near the medium-biofilm interface. The depth-resolved metabolic activities of the biofilm suggested higher diversion effects of gluconeogenesis and C1 metabolism pathways at the bottom of the biofilm and in the presence of U(VI). This study provides a noninvasive means to investigate spatiotemporal responses of biofilms, including surface-associated microbial communities in engineering, natural and medical settings, to various environmental perturbations including exposure to environmental contaminants and antimicrobials.

Cao, Bin; Majors, Paul D.; Ahmed, B.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Sylvia, Crystal P.; Shi, Liang; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

CNS Drug Design: Balancing Physicochemical Properties for Optimal Brain Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CNS Drug Design: Balancing Physicochemical Properties for Optimal Brain Exposure ... The human brain is a uniquely complex organ, which has evolved a sophisticated protection system to prevent injury from external insults and toxins. ... Designing molecules that can overcome this protection system and achieve optimal concentration at the desired therapeutic target in the brain is a specific and major challenge for medicinal chemists working in CNS drug discovery. ...

Zoran Rankovic

2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

463

Fluoxetine Exposure during Adolescence Alters Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Adulthood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mechanisms underlying the enduring neurobiological consequences of antidepressant exposure during adolescence are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the long-term effects of exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), a selective ...

Iniguez, Sergio D.

464

Occupational Trichloroethylene Exposure and Renal Carcinoma Risk: Evidence of Genetic Susceptibility by Reductive Metabolism Gene Variants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...were trained at each center to perform face-to-face...precision of the exposure assessment, specialized occupational...previously (8). Exposure assessment teams from each center with extensive knowledge...training by the NCI industrial hygienist (PS) for...

Lee E. Moore; Paolo Boffetta; Sara Karami; Paul Brennan; Patricia S. Stewart; Rayjean Hung; David Zaridze; Vsevolod Matveev; Vladimir Janout; Helena Kollarova; Vladimir Bencko; Marie Navratilova; Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska; Dana Mates; Jan Gromiec; Ivana Holcatova; Maria Merino; Stephen Chanock; Wong-Ho Chow; and Nathaniel Rothman

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING PAEDIATRIC CT IN SUDAN: CT DOSE, ORGAN AND EFFECTIVE DOSES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Paper RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING PAEDIATRIC...Energy Commission, Radiation Safety Institute, PO Box 3001...assess the magnitude of radiation exposure during paediatric...CT-Expo 2.1 dosimetry software. Doses were evaluated......

I. I. Suliman; H. M. Khamis; T. H. Ombada; K. Alzimami; M. Alkhorayef; A. Sulieman

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Sun and Solarium Exposure and Melanoma Risk: Effects of Age, Pigmentary Characteristics, and Nevi  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts; 4 Institute of Community...studies have analyzed solar and artificial (solarium...repeated sun exposure) and solar exposure (corresponding...statistics. 2nd ed. Massachusetts: Blackwell Science...studies have analyzed solar and artificial (solarium...

Marit Bragelien Veierød; Hans-Olov Adami; Eiliv Lund; Bruce Konrad Armstrong; and Elisabete Weiderpass

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Human Exposure to Foodborne Toxins in Ghana: Intervention Strategy for Reduction of Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Bioavailability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

......................................................................................18 1.1.8 Human exposure in Africa .............................................................................21 1.1.9 AFB1 metabolism ...........................................................................................25... of exposure .................................................................................48 1.2.7 Regulation ......................................................................................................49 1.3 AFB1/FB1 co...

Mitchell, Nicole Jean

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

468

Ecosystem health at the texas coastal bend: a spatial analysis of exposure and response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Inc. and ALCOA facilities located in Calhoun County, Texas. Concerns expressed were for potential genotoxicity resulting from exposure to complex chemical mixtures released by the facilities. Exposure assessment of the marine environment was performed...

Bissett, Wesley Thurlow, Jr.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

Estimating the lung burden from exposure to aerosols of depleted uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......from exposure to aerosols of depleted uranium Marcelo Valdes * * Corresponding...Following exposure to aerosols of depleted uranium (DU), biological samples...uranyl phosphates. INTRODUCTION Depleted uranium (DU) is a waste product of......

Marcelo Valdés

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: prospective cohort  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease the association. Design Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in drinking water from wells was 214.3 per 100 000 person years in people drinking water containing

van Geen, Alexander

471

Developmental effects of inhalation exposure to 2-bromopropane in rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

2-Bromopropane (2-BP), known as a reproductive and hematopoietic toxicant in humans, was assessed for developmental toxicity. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation to 2-BP at a concentration of 0 (control), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 ppm for 6 h per day, 7 days per week during 2 weeks of the pre-mating period, during the mating period until copulation and during the period of gestation days 0–19. After parturition, dams were allowed to breast feed their pups until postnatal day 4. 2-BP exposure resulted in no signs of maternal toxicity as assessed by clinical observations and body weight gain. On the other hand, the inhalation exposure to 1000 ppm markedly decreased the number of pups born, although the number of implantations did not decrease. No effect of 2-BP on pups weights or survival until postnatal day 4 was found. It was found that the repeated inhalation exposure of rats to 1000 ppm 2-BP induced fetal lethality during the post-implantation period.

Tetsuya Takeuchi; Hirokazu Okuda; Heihachiro Arito; Kasuke Nagano; Seigo Yamamoto; Taijiro Matsushima

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Exposure Time Calculator for Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph: IGRINS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an exposure-time calculator (ETC) for the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS). The signal and noise values are calculated by taking into account the telluric background emission and absorption, the emission and transmission of the telescope and instrument optics, and the dark current and read noise of the infrared detector arrays. For the atmospheric transmission, we apply models based on the amount of precipitable water vapor along the line of sight to the target. The ETC produces the expected signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for each resolution element, given the exposure-time and number of exposures. In this paper, we compare the simulated continuum S/N for the early-type star HD 124683 and the late-type star GSS 32, and the simulated emission line S/N for the H2 rovibrational transitions from the Iris Nebula NGC 7023 with the observed IGRINS spectra. The simulated S/N from the ETC is overestimate by 10 - 15 % for the sample continuum targets.

Le, Huynh Anh N; Jaffe, Daniel T; Lee, Jae-Joon; Im, Myungshin; Kaplan, Kyle; Seifahrt, Andreas

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric sciences exposure Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemistry and Physics Discussions Utilising polyphenylene oxide for high exposure solar UVA ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection:...

474

Evaluating Indoor Exposure Modeling Alternatives for LCA: A Case Study in the Vehicle Repair Industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaluating Indoor Exposure Modeling Alternatives for LCA: A Case Study in the Vehicle Repair Industry ... Alternatives for modeling occupational exposure in LCA are evaluated using experimental monitoring data in the vehicle-repair industry. ... In addition to their use in occupational hygiene, exposure models may also be applied in environmental assessments, such as risk assessment (RA) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). ...

Evangelia Demou; Stefanie Hellweg; Michael P. Wilson; S. Katharine Hammond; Thomas E. McKone

2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

475

Prospective Study of UV Exposure and Cancer Incidence Among Swedish Women  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; and 8 Department of Community...needed to define the amount of solar or artificial UV exposure that...Cancer (IARC) concluded that solar UV exposure is the main environmental...their vitamin D requirement. Solar UVB exposure is indeed the...

Ling Yang; Marit B. Veierød; Marie Löf; Sven Sandin; Hans-Olov Adami; and Elisabete Weiderpass

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Session 3: Past, current and future exposure to air pollutants and its  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measurements and model to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in air pollution exposure and resulting health Examine health effects of this long-term exposure #12;Air pollution trends- past and future We can useSession 3: Past, current and future exposure to air pollutants and its effects Chris Dibben, Tom

477

Prospective Study of UV Exposure and Cancer Incidence Among Swedish Women  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...detailed individual data on solar and artificial UV exposure in...843 subjects with a total energy intake outside the 1st and 99th...cancer incidence for either solar UV exposure (as indicated by...our study as a crude proxy of solar UV exposure. Sunburns are a...

Ling Yang; Marit B. Veierød; Marie Löf; Sven Sandin; Hans-Olov Adami; and Elisabete Weiderpass

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Gingerman challenge: a persuasive game for promoting adequate sunlight exposure for office workers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we present Gingerman Challenge, which is a persuasive mobile game designed to promote moderate sunlight exposure. The design goals of Gingerman Challenge are to help players to recognize the merits of sunlight exposure and to promote maintenance ... Keywords: behavior change, casual game, design for moderation, health game, persuasive game, sun exposure, vitamin d

Hajin Lim, Jaehyeon Park, Bongwon Suh

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Gestational exposure of Ahr and Arnt hypomorphs to dioxin rescues vascular development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gestational exposure of Ahr and Arnt hypomorphs to dioxin rescues vascular development Jacqueline A of xenobiotics and in the toxic events that follow exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-di- oxin (dioxin hypomorphs could be efficiently closed by dioxin exposure as early as embryonic day 12.5 and as late

Bradfield, Christopher A.

480

Reducing Power Factor Cost | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Power Factor Cost Reducing Power Factor Cost Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general factors exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Extra Spin Asymmetries From the Breakdown of TMD-Factorization in Hadron-Hadron Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate that partonic correlations that would traditionally be identified as subleading on the basis of a generalized TMD-factorization conjecture can become leading-power because of TMD-factorization breaking that arises in hadron-hadron collisions with large transverse momentum back-to-back hadrons produced in the final state. General forms of TMD-factorization fail for such processes because of a previously noted incompatibility between the requirements for TMD-factorization and the Ward identities of non-Abelian gauge theories. We first review the basic steps for factorizing the gluon distribution and then show that a conflict between TMD-factorization and the non-Abelian Ward identity arises already at the level of a single extra soft or collinear gluon when the partonic subprocess involves a TMD gluon distribution. Next we show that the resulting TMD-factorization violating effects produce leading-power final state spin asymmetries that would be classified as subleading in a generalized TMD-factorization framework. We argue that similar extra TMD-factorization breaking effects may be necessary to explain a range of open phenomenological QCD puzzles. The potential to observe extra transverse spin or azimuthal asymmetries in future experiments is highlighted as their discovery may indicate an influence from novel and unexpected large distance parton correlations.

Ted C. Rogers

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z