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Sample records for general equilibrium models

  1. Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Applied General Equilibrium (MIRAGE) AgencyCompany Organization: International Food Policy Research Institute, Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations...

  2. General Equilibrium Emissions Model (GEEM) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpAFlexStock| OpenLatina JumpGeermuLtdEquilibrium

  3. Learning Algorithms in a Decentralized General Equilibrium Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    by lowering prices. This suggests that agent-based models with decentralized interaction risk untenable The growing body of ACE literature has addressed issues in finance (LeBaron 2000), labour markets (Tesfatsion

  4. Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Model (ENVISAGE) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium Model (ENVISAGE) Agency...

  5. Essays in dynamic general equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Dân (Dân Vu?)

    2010-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters studying dynamic economies in general equilibrium. The first chapter considers an economy in business cycles with potentially imperfect financial markets. The second chapter investigates ...

  6. RELAXATION METHODS FOR GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanzow, Christian

    RELAXATION METHODS FOR GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS WITH INEXACT LINE SEARCH Anna von@mathematik.uni-wuerzburg.de February 21, 2008 #12;Abstract. The generalized Nash equilibrium problem (GNEP) is an extension of the stan- dard Nash game where both the utility functions and the strategy spaces of each player also depend

  7. Computing the Electricity Market Equilibrium: Uses of market equilibrium models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldick, Ross

    1 Computing the Electricity Market Equilibrium: Uses of market equilibrium models Ross Baldick Abstract--In this paper we consider the formulation and uses of electric- ity market equilibrium models. Keywords--Electricity market, Equilibrium models I. INTRODUCTION Electricity market equilibrium modelling

  8. Computable General Equilibrium Models for the Analysis of Energy and Climate Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Ian Sue

    Dept. of Geography and Environment, Boston University Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, MIT Prepared for the International Handbook of Energy Economics Abstract This chapter is a simple algebraic framework of a CGE model is developed from microeconomic fundamentals, and employed to illustrate

  9. PENALTY METHODS FOR THE SOLUTION OF GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanzow, Christian

    PENALTY METHODS FOR THE SOLUTION OF GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS (WITH COMPLETE TEST@mathematik.uni-wuerzburg.de February 11, 2009 Abstract The generalized Nash equilibrium problem (GNEP) is an extension of the classical Nash equilibrium problem where both the objective functions and the constraints of each player may

  10. OPTIMIZATION REFORMULATIONS OF THE GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanzow, Christian

    OPTIMIZATION REFORMULATIONS OF THE GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM USING NIKAIDO@mathematik.uni-wuerzburg.de July 17, 2006 #12;Abstract. We consider the generalized Nash equilibrium problem which, in contrast to the standard Nash equilibrium problem, allows joint constraints of all players involved in the game. Using

  11. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Proposals: Application of a Forward-Looking Computable General Equilibrium Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurgel, Angelo C.

    We develop a forward-looking version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and apply it to examine the economic implications of proposals in the U.S. Congress to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) ...

  12. Rotating figures of equilibrium in General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Papakostas

    2005-11-15

    A generalization of the notion of surfaces of revolution in the spaces of General Relativity is presented. We apply this definition to the case of Carter's family [A] of solutions and we study the Kerr's metric with respect the above mentioned foliation.

  13. Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer

    Many efforts to address greenhouse gas emissions combine a cap-and-trade system with other measures such as a renewable portfolio standard. In this paper we use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, the MIT Emissions ...

  14. Modelling the Electricity Market: from Equilibrium Models to Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    Modelling the Electricity Market: from Equilibrium Models to Simulation Yoann Poirier Abstract - This paper aims at providing an overview of the different models used in order to describe the Electricity the Electricity Market: Cournot Equilibrium, Bertrand Equilibrium and Supply Function Equilibrium. I will make

  15. Spatial Equilibrium Modeling with Imperfectly Competitive Markets: An Application to Rice Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    when all trading countries comply with the free trade agreement. #12;1 Spatial Equilibrium ModelingSpatial Equilibrium Modeling with Imperfectly Competitive Markets: An Application to Rice Trade Chi: An Application to Rice Trade Abstract A general imperfect competition spatial equilibrium model is developed

  16. General equilibrium, electricity generation technologies and the cost of carbon abatement: A structural sensitivity analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    General equilibrium, electricity generation technologies and the cost of carbon abatement Institute of Technology, USA a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 25 February 2011: C61 C68 D58 Q43 Keywords: Carbon policy Energy modeling Electric power sector Bottom-up Top

  17. NEWTON'S METHOD FOR COMPUTING A NORMALIZED EQUILIBRIUM IN THE GENERALIZED NASH GAME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanzow, Christian

    NEWTON'S METHOD FOR COMPUTING A NORMALIZED EQUILIBRIUM IN THE GENERALIZED NASH GAME THROUGH FIXED Society for the Promotion of Science. 1 #12;Abstract. We consider the generalized Nash equilibrium problem: Generalized Nash equilibrium problem; Normalized equilib- rium; Fixed point characterization; Nonsmooth Newton

  18. A general equilibrium analysis of the effects of carbon emission restrictions on economic growth in a developing country

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blitzer, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    A general equilibrium approach, in the form of a multisector, intertemporal programming model, is used to analyze the effects on the growth of the Egyptian economy of carbon emissions constraints that differ across sectors ...

  19. On characterization of robust feedback Nash equilibrium for generalized multi-channel systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antsaklis, Panos

    1 On characterization of robust feedback Nash equilibrium for generalized multi-channel systems) On characterization of robust feedback Nash equilibrium for generalized multi-channel systems Getachew K. Befekadu. Specifically, we pro- vide a sufficient condition for the existence of a robust feedback Nash equilibrium when

  20. Multicomponent Equilibrium Models for Testing Geothermometry Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, D. Craig; Carl D. Palmer; Robert W. Smith; Travis L. McLing

    2013-02-01

    Geothermometry is an important tool for estimating deep reservoir temperature from the geochemical composition of shallower and cooler waters. The underlying assumption of geothermometry is that the waters collected from shallow wells and seeps maintain a chemical signature that reflects equilibrium in the deeper reservoir. Many of the geothermometers used in practice are based on correlation between water temperatures and composition or using thermodynamic calculations based a subset (typically silica, cations or cation ratios) of the dissolved constituents. An alternative approach is to use complete water compositions and equilibrium geochemical modeling to calculate the degree of disequilibrium (saturation index) for large number of potential reservoir minerals as a function of temperature. We have constructed several “forward” geochemical models using The Geochemist’s Workbench to simulate the change in chemical composition of reservoir fluids as they migrate toward the surface. These models explicitly account for the formation (mass and composition) of a steam phase and equilibrium partitioning of volatile components (e.g., CO2, H2S, and H2) into the steam as a result of pressure decreases associated with upward fluid migration from depth. We use the synthetic data generated from these simulations to determine the advantages and limitations of various geothermometry and optimization approaches for estimating the likely conditions (e.g., temperature, pCO2) to which the water was exposed in the deep subsurface. We demonstrate the magnitude of errors that can result from boiling, loss of volatiles, and analytical error from sampling and instrumental analysis. The estimated reservoir temperatures for these scenarios are also compared to conventional geothermometers. These results can help improve estimation of geothermal resource temperature during exploration and early development.

  1. Directed transport in equilibrium : analysis of the dimer model with inertial terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bhattacharyay

    2011-08-15

    We have previously shown an analysis of our dimer model in the over-damped regime to show directed transport in equilibrium. Here we analyze the full model with inertial terms present to establish the same result. First we derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the system following a Galilean transformation to show that a uniformly translating equilibrium distribution is possible. Then, we find out the velocity selection for the centre of mass motion using that distribution on our model. We suggest generalization of our calculations for soft collision potentials and indicate to interesting situation with possibility of oscillatory non-equilibrium state within equilibrium.

  2. Long-run Implications of a Forest-based Carbon Sequestration Policy on the United States Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Modeling Approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monge, Juan

    2012-10-19

    The economic impacts of a government-funded, forest-based sequestration program were analyzed under two different payment schemes. The impacts were obtained by developing a regional, static CGE model built to accommodate a modified IMPLAN SAM for a...

  3. Equilibrium Statistical-Thermal Models in High-Energy Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel Nasser Tawfik

    2014-10-25

    We review some recent highlights from the applications of statistical-thermal models to different experimental measurements and lattice QCD thermodynamics, that have been made during the last decade. We start with a short review of the historical milestones on the path of constructing statistical-thermal models for heavy-ion physics. We discovered that Heinz Koppe formulated in 1948 an almost complete recipe for the statistical-thermal models. In 1950, Enrico Fermi generalized this statistical approach, in which he started with a general cross-section formula and inserted into it simplifying assumptions about the matrix element of the interaction process that likely reflects many features of the high-energy reactions dominated by density in the phase space of final states. In 1964, Hagedorn systematically analysed the high-energy phenomena using all tools of statistical physics and introduced the concept of limiting temperature based on the statistical bootstrap model. It turns to be quite often that many-particle systems can be studied with the help of statistical-thermal methods. The analysis of yield multiplicities in high-energy collisions gives an overwhelming evidence for the chemical equilibrium in the final state. The strange particles might be an exception, as they are suppressed at lower beam energies. However, their relative yields fulfill statistical equilibrium, as well. We review the equilibrium statistical-thermal models for particle production, fluctuations and collective flow in heavy-ion experiments. We also review their reproduction of the lattice QCD thermodynamics at vanishing and finite chemical potential. During the last decade, five conditions have been suggested to describe the universal behavior of the chemical freeze out parameters.

  4. Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Heidelberg Topics: Co-benefits assessment Resource Type: Guidemanual, Publications, Softwaremodeling tools User Interface: Other Website: iatools.jrc.ec.europa.eudocs...

  5. Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005MinnehahaElectric Coop,Mithril GmbHMobius

  6. Equilibrium Distribution of Mutators in the Single Fitness Peak Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Deeds, Eric J.; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2003-09-26

    This Letter develops an analytically tractable model for determining the equilibrium distribution of mismatch repair deficient strains in unicellular populations. The approach is based on the single fitness peak model, ...

  7. Non-Equilibrium Modeling of Arc Plasma Torches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trelles, J P; Heberlein, J V R

    2013-01-01

    A two-temperature thermal non-equilibrium model is developed and applied to the three-dimensional and time-dependent simulation of the flow inside a DC arc plasma torch. A detailed comparison of the results of the non-equilibrium model with those of an equilibrium model is presented. The fluid and electromagnetic equations in both models are approximated numerically in a fully-coupled approach by a variational multi-scale finite element method. In contrast to the equilibrium model, the non-equilibrium model did not need a separate reattachment model to produce an arc reattachment process and to limit the magnitude of the total voltage drop and arc length. The non-equilibrium results show large non-equilibrium regions in the plasma - cold-flow interaction region and close to the anode surface. Marked differences in the arc dynamics, especially in the arc reattachment process, and in the magnitudes of the total voltage drop and outlet temperatures and velocities between the models are observed. The non-equilibr...

  8. On characterization of robust feedback Nash equilibrium for generalized multi-channel systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vijay

    On characterization of robust feedback Nash equilibrium for generalized multi-channel systems condition for the existence of a robust feedback Nash equilibrium when every agent aims to optimize the structure of the game. For such a case, we characterize the robust feedback Nash equilibria via a set

  9. Lithium-ion battery modeling using non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Todd R. (Todd Richard)

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis work is the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in lithium-ion battery modeling. As the demand for higher power and longer lasting batteries increases, the search for materials suitable ...

  10. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend, Robert

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting ...

  11. Modular Applied General Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec(Pritchett, 2004) | Open EnergyModelos yModestoEnergyGeneral

  12. Heavy ion collisions and the pre-equilibrium exciton model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betak, E.

    2012-10-20

    We present a feasible way to apply the pre-equilibrium exciton model in its masterequation formulation to heavy-ion induced reactions including spin variables. Emission of nucleons, {gamma}'s and also light clusters is included in our model.

  13. Verification of the Equilibrium and MHD Stability Codes within the Integrated Tokamak Modeling Task Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verification of the Equilibrium and MHD Stability Codes within the Integrated Tokamak Modeling Task Force

  14. Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States Engineering ABSTRACT The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions

  15. 1 SIDE CONSTRAINED TRAFFIC EQUILIBRIUM MODELS---TRAFFIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patriksson, Michael

    i #12; #12; 1 SIDE CONSTRAINED TRAFFIC EQUILIBRIUM MODELS---TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT THROUGH LINK TOLLS in the inelastic demand case; this fact enables the traffic manager to choose a toll scheme which satisfies flow restrictions as side constraints. The set of toll prices obtained is not necessarily unique

  16. Electricity market equilibrium models: The effect of parametrization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldick, Ross

    1 Electricity market equilibrium models: The effect of parametrization Ross Baldick Department-based electricity markets both with and with- out transmission constraints. I will demonstrate constraints. I. Introduction In recent papers discussing electricity markets [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7

  17. CSEM WP 164 An Equilibrium Model of Investment in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    incentives is also influenced by the firms' con- tractual or retail obligations in the market. Just as long-term contracts or retail obligations change a firm's incentives in the short-term markets, so do they influ- enceCSEM WP 164 An Equilibrium Model of Investment in Restructured Electricity Markets James Bushnell

  18. A Geometric Study of Ringed Ribosome Flow Model Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yirmeyahu J. Kaminski

    2015-10-12

    We perform a geometric study of the equilibrium locus of the Ribosome Flow Model on a Ring. We prove that when considering the set of all possible values of the parameters, the equilibrium locus is a smooth manifold with boundaries, while for a given value of the parameters, it is an embedded smooth and connected curve. For different values of the parameters, the curves are all isomorphic. Moreover, we show how to build a homotopy between different curves obtained for different values of the parameter set. This procedure allows the efficient computation of the equilibrium point for each value of some first integral of the system. This point would have been otherwise difficult to be computed for higher dimensions. We illustrate this construction by some numerical experiments.

  19. A Geometric Study of Ringed Ribosome Flow Model Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yirmeyahu J. Kaminski

    2015-09-25

    We perform a geometric study of the equilibrium locus of the Ribosome Flow Model on a Ring. We prove that the for the set of all possible values of the parameters, the equilibrium locus is a smooth manifold with boundaries, while for a given value of the parameters, it is an embedded smooth and connected curve. For different values of the parameters, the curves are all isomorphic. Moreover, we show how to build a homotopy between different curves obtained for different values of the parameter set. This procedure allows the efficient computation of the equilibrium point for each value of some first integral of the system. This point would have been otherwise difficult to be computed for higher dimensions. We illustrate this construction by some numerical experiments.

  20. Entropy Production and Equilibrium Conditions of General-Covariant Spin Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Muschik; Horst-Heino von Borzeszkowski

    2015-08-07

    In generalizing the special-relativistic one-component version of Eckart's continuum thermodynamics to general-relativistic space-times with Riemannian or post-Riemannian geometry, we consider the entropy production and other themodynamical quantities such as the entropy flux and the Gibbs fundamental equation. We discuss equilibrium conditions in gravitational theories which are based on such geometries. In particular, thermodynamic implications of the non-symmetry of the energy-momentum tensor and the related spin balance equations are investigated, also for the special case of General Relativity.

  1. Entropy Production and Equilibrium Conditions in General-Covariant Continuum Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Muschik; Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski

    2015-01-03

    Starting out with an entropy identity, the entropy flux, the entropy production and the corresponding Gibbs and Gibbs-Duhem equations of general-covariant conti\\-nuum thermodynamics are established. Non-dissipative materials and equilibria are investigated. It is proved that equilibrium conditions only put on material properties cannot generate equilibria, rather additionally, the Killing property of the 4-temperature is a necessary condition for space-times in which equilibria are possible.

  2. Ocean General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

    2012-09-30

    1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

  3. Complex Dynamics in Equilibrium Asset Pricing Models with Boundedly Rational, Heterogeneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    their optimal portfolio and the market equilibrium, investors must compute future aggregate demands for assets] for critiques of equilibrium models and the response [4] by Robert Lucas. 3The Lucas [5] paper is one one

  4. Nonlocal transport model in equilibrium two-component plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Zhen; Rozmus, W. [Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2J1 (Canada); Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Brantov, A. V. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Capjack, C. E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2V4 (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    The full set of linearized Fokker-Planck kinetic equations with Landau collision terms have been solved as an initial-value problem for equilibrium electron-ion plasmas. This work is a generalization of the nonlocal transport theory by Bychenkov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4405 (1995)] to both electron and ion components with frequency-dependent responses. Transport closure relations have been obtained for the complete set of electron and ion fluid equations which are valid over the full range of particle collisionality and for an arbitrary ionic charge. The well-known limits of collisionless and strongly collisional plasma transport theory have been recovered. Practical fits based on the numerical calculations have been introduced for nonlocal and frequency-dependent ion transport coefficients.

  5. Stellar and Gaseous Disk Structures in Cosmological Galaxy Equilibrium Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathaus, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We present "radially-resolved-equilibrium-models" for the growth of stellar and gaseous disks in cosmologically accreting massive halos. Our focus is on objects that evolve to redshifts $z\\sim 2$. We solve the time-dependent equations that govern the radially dependent star-formation rates, inflows and outflows from and to the inter- and circum-galactic medium, and inward radial gas flows within the disks. The stellar and gaseous disks reach equilibrium configurations on dynamical time scales much shorter than variations in the cosmological dark matter halo growth and baryonic accretions rates. We show analytically that mass and global angular momentum conservation naturally give rise to exponential gas and stellar disks over many radial length scales. The gaseous disks are more extended as set by the condition Toomre $Q<1$ for star-formation. The disks rapidly become baryon dominated. For massive, $5\\times 10^{12}M_\\odot$ halos at redshift $z=2$, we reproduced the typical observed star-formation rates of ...

  6. Local thermal equilibrium for certain stochastic models of heat transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao Li; Peter Nandori; Lai-Sang Young

    2015-05-08

    This paper is about nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) of a class of stochastic models in which particles exchange energy with their "local environments" rather than directly with one another. The physical domain of the system can be a bounded region of $\\mathbb R^d$ for any $d \\ge 1$. We assume that the temperature at the boundary of the domain is prescribed and is nonconstant, so that the system is forced out of equilibrium. Our main result is local thermal equilibrium in the infinite volume limit. In the Hamiltonian context, this would mean that at any location $x$ in the domain, local marginal distributions of NESS tend to a probability with density $\\frac{1}{Z} e^{-\\beta (x) H}$, permitting one to define the local temperature at $x$ to be $\\beta(x)^{-1}$. We prove also that in the infinite volume limit, the mean energy profile of NESS satisfies Laplace's equation for the prescribed boundary condition. Our method of proof is duality: by reversing the sample paths of particle movements, we convert the problem of studying local marginal energy distributions at $x$ to that of joint hitting distributions of certain random walks starting from $x$, and prove that the walks in question become increasingly independent as system size tends to infinity.

  7. Coupling of an average-atom model with a collisional-radiative equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.

    2014-11-15

    We present a method to combine a collisional-radiative equilibrium model and an average-atom model to calculate bound and free electron wavefunctions in hot dense plasmas by taking into account screening. This approach allows us to calculate electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity as well as pressure in non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas. Illustrations of the method are presented for dilute titanium plasma.

  8. An Equilibrium-Based Model of Gas Reaction and Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2000-04-01

    During gaseous diffusion plant operations, conditions leading to the formation of flammable gas mixtures may occasionally arise. Currently, these could consist of the evaporative coolant CFC-114 and fluorinating agents such as F2 and ClF3. Replacement of CFC-114 with a non-ozone-depleting substitute is planned. Consequently, in the future, the substitute coolant must also be considered as a potential fuel in flammable gas mixtures. Two questions of practical interest arise: (1) can a particular mixture sustain and propagate a flame if ignited, and (2) what is the maximum pressure that can be generated by the burning (and possibly exploding) gas mixture, should it ignite? Experimental data on these systems, particularly for the newer coolant candidates, are limited. To assist in answering these questions, a mathematical model was developed to serve as a tool for predicting the potential detonation pressures and for estimating the composition limits of flammability for these systems based on empirical correlations between gas mixture thermodynamics and flammability for known systems. The present model uses the thermodynamic equilibrium to determine the reaction endpoint of a reactive gas mixture and uses detonation theory to estimate an upper bound to the pressure that could be generated upon ignition. The model described and documented in this report is an extended version of related models developed in 1992 and 1999.

  9. VHTR Prismatic Super Lattice Model for Equilibrium Fuel Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang

    2006-09-01

    The advanced Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR), which is currently being developed, achieves simplification of safety through reliance on innovative features and passive systems. One of the VHTRs innovative features is the reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles to retain the fission products under extreme accident conditions. The effect of the random fuel kernel distribution in the fuel prismatic block is addressed through the use of the Dancoff correction factor in the resonance treatment. However, if the fuel kernels are not perfect black absorbers, the Dancoff correction factor is a function of burnup and fuel kernel packing factor, which requires that the Dancoff correction factor be updated during Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (EqFC) analysis. An advanced Kernel-by-Kernel (K-b-K) hexagonal super lattice model can be used to address and update the burnup dependent Dancoff effect during the EqFC analysis. The developed Prismatic Super Homogeneous Lattice Model (PSHLM) is verified by comparing the calculated burnup characteristics of the double-heterogeneous Prismatic Super Kernel-by-Kernel Lattice Model (PSK-b-KLM). This paper summarizes and compares the PSHLM and PSK-b-KLM burnup analysis study and results. This paper also discusses the coupling of a Monte-Carlo code with fuel depletion and buildup code, which provides the fuel burnup analysis tool used to produce the results of the VHTR EqFC burnup analysis.

  10. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium effects in the collapse of a model polypeptide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natalia A. Denesyuk; John D. Weeks

    2009-02-16

    We present results of molecular simulations of a model protein whose hydrophobic collapse proceeds as a cascade of downhill transitions between distinct intermediate states. Different intermediates are stabilized by means of appropriate harmonic constraints, allowing explicit calculation of the equilibrium free energy landscape. Nonequilibrium collapse trajectories are simulated independently and compared to diffusion on the calculated free energy surface. We find that collapse generally adheres to this surface, but quantitative agreement is complicated by nonequilibrium effects and by dependence of the diffusion coefficient on position on the surface.

  11. A general concept of natural information equilibrium: from the ideal gas law to the K-Trumpler effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Fielitz; G. Borchardt

    2014-07-22

    Information theory provides shortcuts which allow one to deal with complex systems. The basic idea one uses for this purpose is the maximum entropy principle developed by Jaynes. However, an extension of this maximum entropy principle to systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium or even to non-physical systems is problematic because it requires an adequate choice of constraints. In this paper we discuss a general concept of natural information equilibrium which does not require any choice of adequate constraints. It is, therefore, directly applicable to systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium and to non-physical systems/processes (e.g. biological processes and economical processes). We demonstrate the validity and the applicability of the concept by three well understood physical processes. As an interesting astronomical application we will show that the concept of natural information equilibrium allows one to rationalize and to quantify the K-Trumpler effect.

  12. The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Approach to Far-From-Local-Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE) method for the description of the time-dependent behavior of dynamical systems in non-equilibrium states is a general, effective, physically based method for model order ...

  13. A Network Equilibrium Framework for Internet Advertising: Models, Qualitative Analysis, and Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    A Network Equilibrium Framework for Internet Advertising: Models, Qualitative Analysis engaged in Internet advertising among multiple websites. The model allows for the determination of both the equilibrium online advertising budget as well as the advertising expenditures on the different websites. We

  14. Non-equilibrium microtubule fluctuations in a model cytoskeleton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. P. Brangwynne; G. H. Koenderink; F. C. MacKintosh; D. A. Weitz

    2007-09-19

    Biological activity gives rise to non-equilibrium fluctuations in the cytoplasm of cells; however, there are few methods to directly measure these fluctuations. Using a reconstituted actin cytoskeleton, we show that the bending dynamics of embedded microtubules can be used to probe local stress fluctuations. We add myosin motors that drive the network out of equilibrium, resulting in an increased amplitude and modified time-dependence of microtubule bending fluctuations. We show that this behavior results from step-like forces on the order of 10 pN driven by collective motor dynamics.

  15. Specie resumption as viewed through the general equilibrium model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, Jack Lee

    1974-01-01

    178 182 168 170 160 160 143 140 141 137 139 139 138 146 Degree of Unskilled 187 181 173 160 150 148 139 134 125 127 123 122 122 122 127 skill skilled 175 169 169 160 160 150 150 144 140 141 137 138 135 136... 140 SOURCE: Ralph Andreano, The Economic ~Im act of the American civil (Cambridge: Schenkman Publishing Co. , 1962), p. 179. war, 30 Interest Rates: 1865-1868 Probably one of the most difficult things to discuss about the fourteen years...

  16. Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium Model

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH JumpEllenville, NewLtdEnergypediaEntabanEnviroMarketPark SFlume

  17. ENV-Linkages General Equilibrium Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the NationalDynetek Europe GmbHEDENERGY STARENV-Linkages

  18. General Equilibrium Modeling Package (GEMPACK) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXAGemini Solar DevelopmentPackage (GEMPACK) Jump

  19. Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact Assessment:

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower Ventures JumpCommercial Jump(Thompson, 1985)(Laney, 2005) |Status quo

  20. A Nash equilibrium macroscopic closure for kinetic models coupled with Mean-Field Games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Degond; Jian-Guo Liu; Christian Ringhofer

    2012-12-26

    We introduce a new mean field kinetic model for systems of rational agents interacting in a game theoretical framework. This model is inspired from non-cooperative anonymous games with a continuum of players and Mean-Field Games. The large time behavior of the system is given by a macroscopic closure with a Nash equilibrium serving as the local thermodynamic equilibrium. An application of the presented theory to a social model (herding behavior) is discussed.

  1. Unique Equilibrium in the Eaton-Gersovitz Model of Sovereign Debt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auclert, Adrien

    2014-09-04

    We provide a proof that Markov Perfect equilibrium is unique in the standard infinitehorizon incomplete-market model with a default option which, following Eaton and Gersovitz (1981), has become a benchmark for quantitative ...

  2. Molecular finite-size effects in stochastic models of equilibrium chemical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a standard modelling approach for understanding stochastic and spatial chemical kinetics. An inherent assumption is that molecules are point-like. Here we introduce the crowded reaction-diffusion master equation (cRDME) which takes into account volume exclusion effects on stochastic kinetics due to a finite molecular radius. We obtain an exact closed form solution of the RDME and of the cRDME for a general chemical system in equilibrium conditions. The difference between the two solutions increases with the ratio of molecular diameter to the compartment length scale. We show that an increase in molecular crowding can (i) lead to deviations from the classical inverse square root law for the noise-strength; (ii) flip the skewness of the probability distribution from right to left-skewed; (iii) shift the equilibrium of bimolecular reactions so that more product molecules are formed; (iv) strongly modulate the Fano factors and coefficients of variation. These crowd...

  3. Plasmoid solutions of the Hahm–Kulsrud–Taylor equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewar, R. L. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia and Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)] [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia and Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, A.; Kulsrud, R. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Wright, A. M. [The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)] [The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-08-15

    The Hahm–Kulsrud (HK) [T. S. Hahm and R. M. Kulsrud, Phys. Fluids 28, 2412 (1985)] solutions for a magnetically sheared plasma slab driven by a resonant periodic boundary perturbation illustrate fully shielded (current sheet) and fully reconnected (magnetic island) responses. On the global scale, reconnection involves solving a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium problem. In systems with a continuous symmetry, such MHD equilibria are typically found by solving the Grad–Shafranov equation, and in slab geometry the elliptic operator in this equation is the 2-D Laplacian. Thus, assuming appropriate pressure and poloidal current profiles, a conformal mapping method can be used to transform one solution into another with different boundary conditions, giving a continuous sequence of solutions in the form of partially reconnected magnetic islands (plasmoids) separated by Syrovatsky current sheets. The two HK solutions appear as special cases.

  4. A Multi-period Equilibrium Pricing Model of Weather Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yongheon; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2008-01-01

    2002). On modelling and pricing weather derivatives. Applied2003). Arbitrage-fee pricing of weather derivatives based onfects and valuation of weather derivatives. The Financial

  5. A simple model for semipermeable membrane: Donnan equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felipe Jimenez-Angeles; Marcelo Lozada-Cassou

    2003-11-03

    We study a model for macroions in an electrolyte solution confined by a semipermeable membrane. The membrane finite thickness is considered and both membrane surfaces are uniformly charged. The model explicitly includes electrostatic and size particles correlations. Our study is focused on the adsorption of macroions on the membrane surface and on the osmotic pressure. The theoretical prediction for the osmotic pressure shows a good agreement with experimental results.

  6. Equilibrium statistical mechanics and energy partition for the shallow water model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renaud, Antoine; Bouchet, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to use large deviation theory in order to compute the entropy of macrostates for the microcanonical measure of the shallow water system. The main prediction of this full statistical mechanics computation is the energy partition between a large scale vortical flow and small scale fluctuations related to inertia-gravity waves. We introduce for that purpose a discretized model of the continuous shallow water system, and compute the corresponding statistical equilibria. We argue that microcanonical equilibrium states of the discretized model in the continuous limit are equilibrium states of the actual shallow water system. We show that the presence of small scale fluctuations selects a subclass of equilibria among the states that were previously computed by phenomenological approaches that were neglecting such fluctuations. In the limit of weak height fluctuations, the equilibrium state can be interpreted as two subsystems in thermal contact: one subsystem corresponds to the large scale v...

  7. Modelling of FAST equilibrium configurations by a Toroidal Multipolar Expansion code using Kepler workflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlad, Gregorio

    (with scaled plasma current) and suitable to fulfil plasma conditions for integrated studies of plasma­wall interaction, burning plasma physics, ITER relevant operation problems and steady state scenarios. FIXFREE is a toroidal multipolar expansions equilibrium code, recently ported to the Integrated Tokamak Modelling (ITM

  8. Application of an Equilibrium Vaporization Model to the Ablation of Chondritic and Achondritic Meteoroids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Schaefer; Bruce Fegley Jr

    2005-06-01

    We modeled equilibrium vaporization of chondritic and achondritic materials using the MAGMA code. We calculated both instantaneous and integrated element abundances of Na, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe, Si, Ti, and K in chondritic and achondritic meteors. Our results are qualitatively consistent with observations of meteor spectra.

  9. Discrete Boltzmann modeling of multiphase flows: hydrodynamic and thermodynamic non-equilibrium effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, Yanbiao; Zhang, Guangcai; Succi, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    A discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) is developed to investigate the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic non-equilibrium (TNE) effects in phase separation process. The interparticle forces drive changes and the gradient force, induced by gradients of macroscopic quantities, oppose them. In this paper we investigate the interplay between them by providing detailed inspection of various non-equilibrium observables. Based on the TNE features, we define a TNE strength which roughly estimates the deviation amplitude from the thermodynamic equilibrium. The time evolution of the TNE intensity provides a convenient and efficient physical criterion to separate the stages of the spinodal decomposition and domain growth. Via the DBM simulation and this criterion, we quantitatively study the effects of latent heat and surface tension on phase separation. It is found that, the TNE strength attains its maximum at the end of the spinodal decomposition stage, and it decreases when the latent heat increases from zero. The surface tens...

  10. Best-fit quasi-equilibrium ensembles: a general approach to statistical closure of underresolved Hamiltonian dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce Turkington; Petr Plechac

    2010-10-21

    A new method of deriving reduced models of Hamiltonian dynamical systems is developed using techniques from optimization and statistical estimation. Given a set of resolved variables that define a model reduction, the quasi-equilibrium ensembles associated with the resolved variables are employed as a family of trial probability densities on phase space. The residual that results from submitting these trial densities to the Liouville equation is quantified by an ensemble-averaged cost function related to the information loss rate of the reduction. From an initial nonequilibrium state, the statistical state of the system at any later time is estimated by minimizing the time integral of the cost function over paths of trial densities. Statistical closure of the underresolved dynamics is obtained at the level of the value function, which equals the optimal cost of reduction with respect to the resolved variables, and the evolution of the estimated statistical state is deduced from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation satisfied by the value function. In the near-equilibrium regime, or under a local quadratic approximation in the far-from-equilibrium regime, this best-fit closure is governed by a differential equation for the estimated state vector coupled to a Riccati differential equation for the Hessian matrix of the value function. Since memory effects are not explicitly included in the trial densities, a single adjustable parameter is introduced into the cost function to capture a time-scale ratio between resolved and unresolved motions. Apart from this parameter, the closed equations for the resolved variables are completely determined by the underlying deterministic dynamics.

  11. General Equilibrium, Electricity Generation Technologies and the Cost of Carbon Abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanz, Bruno, 1980-

    Electricity generation is a major contributor to carbon dioxide emissions, and a key determinant of abatement costs. Ex-ante assessments of carbon policies mainly rely on either of two modeling paradigms: (i) partial ...

  12. ASHEE: a compressible, equilibrium-Eulerian model for volcanic ash plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerminara, Matteo; Berselli, Luigi Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A new fluid-dynamic model is developed to numerically simulate the non-equilibrium dynamics of polydisperse gas-particle mixtures forming volcanic plumes. Starting from the three-dimensional N-phase Eulerian transport equations for a mixture of gases and solid particles, we adopt an asymptotic expansion strategy to derive a compressible version of the first-order non-equilibrium model, valid for low concentration regimes and small particles Stokes $St<0.2$. When $St < 0.001$ the model reduces to the dusty-gas one. The new model is significantly faster than the Eulerian model while retaining the capability to describe gas-particle non-equilibrium. Direct numerical simulation accurately reproduce the dynamics of isotropic turbulence in subsonic regime. For gas-particle mixtures, it describes the main features of density fluctuations and the preferential concentration of particles by turbulence, verifying the model reliability and suitability for the simulation of high-Reynolds number and high-temperature ...

  13. Comparison of transition densities in the DDHMS model of pre-equilibrium emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brito, L.; Carlson, B. V.

    2014-11-11

    The DDHMS (double differential hybrid Monte Carlo simulation) model treats nucleon-induced pre-equilibrium reactions as a series of particle-particle and particle-hole interactions in the space of energy and angle. This work compares spectra obtained within the model using diferent approximations to the density of accessible states. The calculations are performed with the EMPIRE reaction model code, a modular system containing several nuclear reaction models that permits a fairly complete descritpion of the reaction, from elastic scattering and absorption through the pre-equilbrium stage to the final decay by statistical emission.

  14. Multilinearity of two-point correlation functions in one-dimensional models out of equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Redig; Wioletta Ruszel

    2015-02-27

    In this note we consider non-equilibrium steady states of one-dimensional models of heat conduction (wealth exchange) which are coupled to some reservoirs creating currents. In particular we will give sufficient and necessary conditions which will depend only on the first two moments of the reservoir measures and the redistribution parameter under which the two-point functions are multilinear. This presents the first example of multilinear two-point functions in the absence of product stationary measures.

  15. A Multiphase First Order Model for Non-Equilibrium Sand Erosion, Transport and Sedimentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preziosi, Luigi; Bruno, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Three phenomena are involved in sand movement: erosion, wind transport, and sedimentation. This paper presents a comprehensive easy-to-use multiphase model that include all three aspects with a particular attention to situations in which erosion due to wind shear and sedimentation due to gravity are not in equilibrium. The interest is related to the fact that these are the situations leading to a change of profile of the sand bed.

  16. A General Multitiered Supply Chain Network Model of Quality Competition with Suppliers Dong Li1 and Anna Nagurney2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    A General Multitiered Supply Chain Network Model of Quality Competition with Suppliers Dong Li1 a general multitiered supply chain network equilibrium model consisting of competing suppliers and competing, along with sensi- tivity analysis in which the impacts of capacity disruptions and complete supplier

  17. Bankruptcy in general equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabarwal, Tarun

    2000-01-01

    ;KLFNM?FI)2OAF#4;PQ>%'*),H RS'*M?T09U-.V*A-XWGY[Z]\\*^%_*_a`Ab jO E(9:)?M2A-XlsrktN # FN)L\\*D0Wu\\5^A^A^ v#4;wyx{z}|N~=jz ?????????? ?=?#19;?.?{0?!?J????????,???J...{? ??%??;???g???%3?? ?j???¬?j?u{?J??%???[? ?Q?#23;?A?%{? ???j?Gj{%?2?j?0{±5?=? ? ?«¢??,? ??? ¡ ?«??? #5;?íNÙ,Ó¬Ë#25;Ù,ÓhÍ!ÌNÍìÔ7Ê,áÑÏÑÞ(Ù?Ý?ÔhàIÍ!àIáÑÞ³ÔhÙ,ÓeÐ?Ù,ÕåÛIÊ,ÝIçÓh×NÎNÔhäÖÐ#17;ÏiÊ #5;Çé?ÔhàIÍ#15;ÓhÍ?Ê,ÌNÍÖÓ¬ä?Ê,Ý#23;äÖÙ?ÝIÞe×NÏûÔ#7;#6;kÊ2Óe...

  18. Equilibrium Response and Transient Dynamics Datasets from VEMAP: Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Users of the VEMAP Portal can access input files of numerical data that include monthly and daily files of geographic data, soil and site files, scenario files, etc. Model results from Phase I, the Equilibrium Response datasets, are available through the NCAR anonymous FTP site at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/vresults.html. Phase II, Transient Dynamics, include climate datasets, models results, and analysis tools. Many supplemental files are also available from the main data page at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/datasets.html.

  19. Discrete Boltzmann modeling of multiphase flows: hydrodynamic and thermodynamic non-equilibrium effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanbiao Gan; Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Sauro Succi

    2015-05-11

    A discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) is developed to investigate the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic non-equilibrium (TNE) effects in phase separation processes. The interparticle force drives changes and the gradient force, induced by gradients of macroscopic quantities, opposes them. In this paper, we investigate the interplay between them by providing detailed inspection of various non-equilibrium observables. Based on the TNE features, we define a TNE strength which roughly estimates the deviation amplitude from the thermodynamic equilibrium. The time evolution of the TNE intensity provides a convenient and efficient physical criterion to discriminate the stages of the spinodal decomposition and domain growth. Via the DBM simulation and this criterion, we quantitatively study the effects of latent heat and surface tension on phase separation. It is found that, the TNE strength attains its maximum at the end of the spinodal decomposition stage, and it decreases when the latent heat increases from zero. The surface tension effects are threefold, to prolong the duration of the spinodal decomposition stage, decrease the maximum TNE intensity, and accelerate the speed of the domain growth stage.

  20. Laser induced plasma on copper target, a non-equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oumeziane, Amina Ait, E-mail: a.aitoumeziane@gmail.com; Liani, Bachir [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University, Tlemcen (Algeria)] [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University, Tlemcen (Algeria); Parisse, Jean-Denis [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)] [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive numerical model for the UV laser ablation of metal targets, it focuses mainly on the prediction of laser induced plasma thresholds, the effect of the laser-plasma interaction, and the importance of the electronic non-equilibrium in the laser induced plume and its expansion in the background gas. This paper describes a set of numerical models for laser-matter interaction between 193-248 and 355?nm lasers and a copper target. Along with the thermal effects inside the material resulting from the irradiation of the latter with the pulsed laser, the laser-evaporated matter interaction and the plasma formation are thoroughly modelled. In the laser induced plume, the electronic nonequilibrium and the laser beam absorption have been investigated. Our calculations of the plasmas ignition thresholds on copper targets have been validated and compared to experimental as well as theoretical results. Comparison with experiment data indicates that our results are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, the inclusion of electronic non-equilibrium in our work indicated that this important process must be included in models of laser ablation and plasma plume formation.

  1. A non-equilibrium model for fixed-bed multi-component adiabatic adsorption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harwell, Jeffrey Harry

    1979-01-01

    , 1970, 1972b). The objectives ares 1, To develop a non-equilibrium model for multicomponent adiabatic adsorption and show the dynamic behavior of the dependent' variables Cia qi ~ Tg and Ts, 2. Examine the validity of the assumption of local... mass of. solid, respec- tively, Qi is the saturation value of qi for component i, It depends on the surface ares occupied by one molecule of i and:W -hence independent of temperature. Ki is the zeciprocai of Ci when half the suz'face is oc- cupied...

  2. Non-equilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin film active gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Head; W. J. Briels; G. Gompper

    2014-02-26

    In the presence of ATP, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modelling can help to quantify the relationship between individual motors plus filaments to organisation and dynamics on molecular and supra-molecular length scales. Here we present results of extensive numerical simulations of active gels where the motors and filaments are confined between two infinite parallel plates. Thermal fluctuations and excluded-volume interactions between filaments are included. A systematic variation of rates for motor motion, attachment and detachment, including a differential detachment rate from filament ends, reveals a range of non-equilibrium behaviour. Strong motor binding produces structured filament aggregates that we refer to as asters, bundles or layers, whose stability depends on motor speed and differential end-detachment. The gross features of the dependence of the observed structures on the motor rate and the filament concentration can be captured by a simple one-filament model. Loosely bound aggregates exhibit super-diffusive mass transport, where filament translocation scales with lag time with non-unique exponents that depend on motor kinetics. An empirical data collapse of filament speed as a function of motor speed and end-detachment is found, suggesting a dimensional reduction of the relevant parameter space. We conclude by discussing the perspectives of microscopic modelling in the field of active gels.

  3. Simple implementation of general dark energy models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon K. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave #37241, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Pearson, Jonathan A., E-mail: jolyon@mit.edu, E-mail: jonathan.pearson@durham.ac.uk [Centre for Particle Theory, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We present a formalism for the numerical implementation of general theories of dark energy, combining the computational simplicity of the equation of state for perturbations approach with the generality of the effective field theory approach. An effective fluid description is employed, based on a general action describing single-scalar field models. The formalism is developed from first principles, and constructed keeping the goal of a simple implementation into CAMB in mind. Benefits of this approach include its straightforward implementation, the generality of the underlying theory, the fact that the evolved variables are physical quantities, and that model-independent phenomenological descriptions may be straightforwardly investigated. We hope this formulation will provide a powerful tool for the comparison of theoretical models of dark energy with observational data.

  4. Newtonian Aspects of General Relativistic Galaxy Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksandar Rakic; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-11-13

    Many cosmological observations call for the existence of dark matter. The most direct evidence for dark matter is inferred from the measured flatness of galactic rotation curves. The latter is based on Newtonian gravity. Alternative approaches to the rotation curve problem by means of general relativity have recently been put forward. The class of models of interest is a subset of the axially symmetric and stationary solutions of Einstein's equations with rotating dust. As a step toward the understanding of general relativistic galaxy models, we analyse rigidly as well as non-rigidly rotating (Post-)Newtonian spacetimes. We find that the Newtonian limit of the considered general relativistic galaxy model leads to Post-Newtonian terms in the metric.

  5. Modelling anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petarpa Boonserm; Tritos Ngampitipan; Matt Visser

    2015-02-03

    We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic anisotropic fluid sphere, (spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully modelled by suitable linear combinations of quite ordinary classical matter: an isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field, and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model that is used to mimic the anisotropic fluid sphere. Consequently, we can build physically reasonable matter models for almost any spherically symmetric spacetime.

  6. Modelling anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2015-01-01

    We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic anisotropic fluid sphere, (spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully modelled by suitable linear combinations of quite ordinary classical matter: an isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field, and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model that is used to mimic the anisotropic fluid sphere. Consequently, we can build physically reasonable matter models for almost any spherically symmetric spacetime.

  7. Abstract polymer models with general pair interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldo Procacci

    2008-11-26

    A convergence criterion of cluster expansion is presented in the case of an abstract polymer system with general pair interactions (i.e. not necessarily hard core or repulsive). As a concrete example, the low temperature disordered phase of the BEG model with infinite range interactions, decaying polynomially as $1/r^{d+\\lambda}$ with $\\lambda>0$, is studied.

  8. Analysis of the classical pseudo-3D model for hydraulic fracture with equilibrium height growth across stress barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peirce, Anthony

    Analysis of the classical pseudo-3D model for hydraulic fracture with equilibrium height growth t This paper deals with the so-called ``pseudo three-dimensional'' (P3D) model for a hydraulic fracture of the length, height, and aperture of the hydraulic fracture, in contrast to the numerical formulations adopted

  9. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01

    in Emission Permits Oligopolistic Electricity Markets 3.1Regulation on Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium 2.1in California’s electricity market. Journal of Industrial

  10. Heat Transfer and Fluid Transport of Supercritical CO2 in Enhanced Geothermal System with Local Thermal Non-equilibrium Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Le; Luo, Feng; Xu, Ruina; Jiang, Peixue; Liu, Huihai

    2014-12-31

    The heat transfer and fluid transport of supercritical CO2 in enhanced geothermal system (EGS) is studied numerically with local thermal non-equilibrium model, which accounts for the temperature difference between solid matrix and fluid components in porous media and uses two energy equations to describe heat transfer in the solid matrix and in the fluid, respectively. As compared with the previous results of our research group, the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium mainly depends on the volumetric heat transfer coefficient ah, which has a significant effect on the production temperature at reservoir outlet and thermal breakthrough time. The uniformity of volumetricmore »heat transfer coefficient ah has little influence on the thermal breakthrough time, but the temperature difference become more obvious with time after thermal breakthrough with this simulation model. The thermal breakthrough time reduces and the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium becomes significant with decreasing ah.« less

  11. Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental Finance. MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES REN´E CARMONA , MAX FEHR , JURI HINZ , AND ARNAUD PORCHET to help policy makers and regulators understand the pros and the cons of the emissions markets. We propose

  12. A thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model in local thermal non-equilibrium for fractured HDR reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model in local thermal non-equilibrium for fractured HDR of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. Abstract The constitutive thermo-hydro-mechanical equations is next applied to simulate circulation tests at the Fenton Hill HDR reservoir. The finer thermo-hydro

  13. An Equilibrium Pricing Model for Weather Derivatives in a Multi-commodity Setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yongheon; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2008-01-01

    e?ects and valuation of weather derivatives. The FinancialWei, J. (1999). Pricing weather derivative: an equilibrium2005). An introduction to cme weather products. www.cme.com/

  14. A Model for the Dynamic User-Equilibrium Problem Using a Hydrodynamic Theory Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perakis, Georgia

    In this paper we study the dynamic user-equilibrium problem. The development of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) has made this problem very popular in the recent years. In this paper we take a hydrodynamic theory ...

  15. MODELING THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET BAND OF GK STARS. I. LOCAL THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, C. Ian [Department of Astronomy and Physics and Institute for Computational Astrophysics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada); Hauschildt, P. H., E-mail: ishort@ap.smu.c, E-mail: yeti@hs.uni-hamburg.d [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-08-01

    We present a grid of LTE atmospheric models and synthetic spectra that covers the spectral class range from mid-G to mid-K, and luminosity classes from V to III, that is dense in T{sub eff} sampling ({Delta}T {sub eff} = 62.5 K), for stars of solar metallicity and moderately metal-poor scaled solar abundance ([A/H]=0.0 and -0.5). All models have been computed with two choices of atomic line list: (1) the 'big' line lists of Kurucz that best reproduce the broadband solar blue and near-UV f{sub {lambda}} level, and (2) the 'small' lists of Kurucz and Peytremann that provide the best fit to the high-resolution solar blue and near-UV spectrum. We compare our model spectral energy distributions to a sample of stars carefully selected from the large catalog of uniformly re-calibrated spectrophotometry of Burnashev with the goal of determining how the quality of fit varies with stellar parameters, especially in the historically troublesome blue and near-UV bands. We confirm that our models computed with the 'big' line list recover the derived T {sub eff} values of the PHOENIX NextGen grid, but find that the models computed with the 'small' line list provide greater internal self-consistency among different spectral bands, and closer agreement with the empirical T{sub eff} scale of Ramirez and Melendez, but not to the interferometrically derived T{sub eff} values of Baines et al. We find no evidence that the near-UV band discrepancy between models and observations for Arcturus ({alpha} Boo) reported in two works by Short and Hauschildt is pervasive, and that Arcturus may be peculiar in this regard.

  16. Distributional Impacts of a U.S. Greenhouse Gas Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis of Carbon Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey

    We develop a new model of the U.S., the U.S. Regional Energy Policy (USREP) model that is resolved for large states and regions of the U.S. and by income class and apply the model to investigate a $15 per ton CO2 equivalent ...

  17. New model for nucleon generalized parton distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new type of models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E. They are heavily based on the fact nucleon GPDs require to use two forms of double distribution (DD) representations. The outcome of the new treatment is that the usual DD+D-term construction should be amended by an extra term, {xi} E{sub +}{sup 1} (x,{xi}) which has the DD structure {alpha}/{beta} e({beta},{alpha}, with e({beta},{alpha}) being the DD that generates GPD E(x,{xi}). We found that this function, unlike the D-term, has support in the whole -1 <= x <= 1 region. Furthermore, it does not vanish at the border points |x|={xi}.

  18. Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States and Japan: A general equilibrium analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States and Japan: A general-in hybrid electric vehicles Environmental policy Emissions a b s t r a c t The plug-in hybrid electric-powered vehicles. A representative vehicle tech- nology that runs on electricity in addition to conventional fuels

  19. Dynamical Reduction Models with General Gaussian Noises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelo Bassi; GianCarlo Ghirardi

    2002-01-27

    We consider the effect of replacing in stochastic differential equations leading to the dynamical collapse of the statevector, white noise stochastic processes with non white ones. We prove that such a modification can be consistently performed without altering the most interesting features of the previous models. One of the reasons to discuss this matter derives from the desire of being allowed to deal with physical stochastic fields, such as the gravitational one, which cannot give rise to white noises. From our point of view the most relevant motivation for the approach we propose here derives from the fact that in relativistic models the occurrence of white noises is the main responsible for the appearance of untractable divergences. Therefore, one can hope that resorting to non white noises one can overcome such a difficulty. We investigate stochastic equations with non white noises, we discuss their reduction properties and their physical implications. Our analysis has a precise interest not only for the above mentioned subject but also for the general study of dissipative systems and decoherence.

  20. EXTENSIONS OF GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELING APPROACH TO STOCHASTIC WEATHER GENERATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    weather) -- Software R open source statistical programming language: Function glm "Family;(2) Generalized Linear Models Statistical Framework -- Multiple Regression Analysis (Linear model or LM) Response

  1. Extending Stochastic Resonance for Neuron Models to General Levy Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    Extending Stochastic Resonance for Neuron Models to General Levy Noise David Applebaum, Probability resonance for general feedback continuous and spiking neuron models using additive Levy noise constrained extends to general Levy noise models. We achieve this by showing that "large jump" discontinuities

  2. General single phase wellbore flow model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Liang-Biao; Arbabi, S.; Aziz, K.

    1997-02-05

    A general wellbore flow model, which incorporates not only frictional, accelerational and gravitational pressure drops, but also the pressure drop caused by inflow, is presented in this report. The new wellbore model is readily applicable to any wellbore perforation patterns and well completions, and can be easily incorporated in reservoir simulators or analytical reservoir inflow models. Three dimensionless numbers, the accelerational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub af}, the gravitational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub gf}, and the inflow-directional to accelerational pressure gradient ratio R{sub da}, have been introduced to quantitatively describe the relative importance of different pressure gradient components. For fluid flow in a production well, it is expected that there may exist up to three different regions of the wellbore: the laminar flow region, the partially-developed turbulent flow region, and the fully-developed turbulent flow region. The laminar flow region is located near the well toe, the partially-turbulent flow region lies in the middle of the wellbore, while the fully-developed turbulent flow region is at the downstream end or the heel of the wellbore. Length of each region depends on fluid properties, wellbore geometry and flow rate. As the distance from the well toe increases, flow rate in the wellbore increases and the ratios R{sub af} and R{sub da} decrease. Consequently accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops have the greatest impact in the toe region of the wellbore. Near the well heel the local wellbore flow rate becomes large and close to the total well production rate, here R{sub af} and R{sub da} are small, therefore, both the accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops can be neglected.

  3. Kinetic equilibrium and relativistic thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Ván

    2011-02-01

    Relativistic thermodynamics is treated from the point of view of kinetic theory. It is shown that the generalized J\\"uttner distribution suggested in [1] is compatible with kinetic equilibrium. The requirement of compatibility of kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium reveals several generalizations of the Gibbs relation where the velocity field is an independent thermodynamic variable.

  4. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  5. A general moment NRIXS approach to the determination of equilibrium Fe isotopic fractionation factors: application to goethite and jarosite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dauphas, N; Alp, E E; Golden, D C; Sio, C K; Tissot, F L H; Hu, M; Zhao, J; Gao, L; Morris, R V

    2012-01-01

    We measured the reduced partition function ratios for iron isotopes in goethite FeO(OH), potassium-jarosite KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6, and hydronium-jarosite (H3O)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6, by Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering (NRIXS, also known as Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy -NRVS- or Nuclear Inelastic Scattering -NIS) at the Advanced Photon Source. These measurements were made on synthetic minerals enriched in 57Fe. A new method (i.e., the general moment approach) is presented to calculate {\\beta}-factors from the moments of the NRIXS spectrum S(E). The first term in the moment expansion controls iron isotopic fractionation at high temperature and corresponds to the mean force constant of the iron bonds, a quantity that is readily measured and often reported in NRIXS studies.

  6. Change of variables as a method to study general ?-models: Bulk universality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shcherbina, M.

    2014-04-15

    We consider ? matrix models with real analytic potentials. Assuming that the corresponding equilibrium density ? has a one-interval support (without loss of generality ? = [?2, 2]), we study the transformation of the correlation functions after the change of variables ?{sub i} ? ?(?{sub i}) with ?(?) chosen from the equation ?{sup ?}(?)?(?(?)) = ?{sub sc}(?), where ?{sub sc}(?) is the standard semicircle density. This gives us the “deformed” ?-model which has an additional “interaction” term. Standard transformation with the Gaussian integral allows us to show that the “deformed” ?-model may be reduced to the standard Gaussian ?-model with a small perturbation n{sup ?1}h(?). This reduces most of the problems of local and global regimes for ?-models to the corresponding problems for the Gaussian ?-model with a small perturbation. In the present paper, we prove the bulk universality of local eigenvalue statistics for both one-cut and multi-cut cases.

  7. Essays on the specification of New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Yong-Gook

    2007-01-01

    good Price adjustment costs Capital adjustment costsfrictions, capital adjustment costs, and stock prices.with time-to-build and capital adjustment cost speci?cation

  8. General Equilibrium Model for Economy - Energy - Environment (GEM-E3) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway Edit HistoryGearyAtomics Jump

  9. A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lautenberger, Chris

    2007-01-01

    development of the FDS5 pyrolysis model have helped shapebeta versions of the pyrolysis model, but never complained,pyrolysis. 153 Figure

  10. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Importantmore »swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.« less

  11. Adaptive Grids for Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jablonowski, Christiane

    the wind speed OMEGA model Courtesy of A. Sarma (SAIC, NC, USA) #12;Two Adaptive Shallow Water Models AMR the vertical resolutions adds another factor of 2 We need to increase our computational power by a factor

  12. Equilibrium distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashot Vagharshakyan

    2015-08-29

    In the paper discusses the interaction between two charged balls in equilibrium state. It is shown that, depending of the sizes, charges and distance, the balls can move in the same or opposite direction. They can repulse and attract. It is proved, that one of the balls may vibrate.

  13. How good are supply function equilibrium models: an empirical analysis of the ERCOT balancing market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Oren, Shmuel

    2007-01-01

    Tenaska Gateway Partners Cogeneration Lyondell BastropTenaska Gateway Partners Cogeneration Lyondell BastropPower Cooperative Sweeny Cogeneration General Hays Energy

  14. How Good are Supply Function Equilibrium Models: An Empirical Analysis of the ERCOT Balancing Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Oren, Shmuel S

    2006-01-01

    Power Cooperative Sweeny Cogeneration General Hays EnergyTenaska Gateway Partners Cogeneration Lyondell BastropBES. Furthermore, since cogeneration is a byproduct of their

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Generalized River/Reservoir System Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, Ralph A.

    2005-01-01

    modeling systems that simulate the storage, flow, and diversion of water in a system of reservoirs and river reaches. Generalized means that a computer modeling system is designed for application to a range of concerns dealing with river basin systems...

  16. Testing Generalized Linear Models Using Smoothing Spline Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuedong

    Testing Generalized Linear Models Using Smoothing Spline Methods Anna Liu, Wendy Meiring and Yuedong Wang University of California, Santa Barbara Abstract This article considers testing exponential families. The tests developed are based on the connection between the smoothing spline models

  17. Condensation of helium in aerogels as an experimental realization of the out-of-equilibrium Random Field Ising Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Condensation of helium in aerogels as an experimental realization of the out-of-equilibrium Random-catalysed silica aerogels of large porosity presents a similar out-of-equilibrium behavior when the temperature

  18. A GENERAL EMPIRICALLY BASED MICROINSTABILITY TRANSPORT MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlad, Gregorio

    by turbulent processes. At present, no definitive transport model (i.e. a closed expression for energy­gyro-Bohm, shear dependent thermal diffusion coefficient to model the anomalous thermal transport in tokamaks processes generated by small scale, collisionless, electro- static microinstabilities (Romanelli, F., Zonca

  19. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01

    constraints, and unit commitment. With all these complextypically considered in unit-commitment models. This impliesare typically considered in unit-commitment models. 10 The

  20. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01

    network in the DC OPF model without transmission losses. Oila lossless DC load flow model where transmission flows arethe transmission network, we employ a direct current (DC)

  1. Generalized matrix models and AGT correspondence at all genera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giulio Bonelli; Kazunobu Maruyoshi; Alessandro Tanzini; Futoshi Yagi

    2011-07-11

    We study generalized matrix models corresponding to n-point Virasoro conformal blocks on Riemann surfaces with arbitrary genus g. Upon AGT correspondence, these describe four dimensional N=2 SU(2)^{n+3g-3} gauge theories with generalized quiver diagrams. We obtain the generalized matrix models from the perturbative evaluation of the Liouville correlation functions and verify the consistency of the description with respect to degenerations of the Riemann surface. Moreover, we derive the Seiberg-Witten curve for the N=2 gauge theory as the spectral curve of the generalized matrix model, thus providing a check of AGT correspondence at all genera.

  2. Droidel: A General Approach to Android Framework Modeling Sam Blackshear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan

    Droidel: A General Approach to Android Framework Modeling Sam Blackshear University of Colorado.chang@colorado.edu Abstract We present an approach and tool for general-purpose modeling of Android for static analysis. Our approach is to explicate the reflective bridge between the Android framework and an application to make

  3. Negative Binomial-Generalized Exponential Distribution: Generalized Linear Model and its Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vangala, Prathyusha

    2015-05-06

    Modelling crash data has been an integral part of the research done in highway safety. Different tools have been suggested by researchers to analyze crash data. One such tool, which was recently proposed, is the Negative Binomial Generalized...

  4. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01

    model where electric power flows on transmission lines arelocation. Electric power flows on the transmission lines are

  5. Generalized models and benchmarks for channel coordination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toptal, Aysegul

    2004-09-30

    Models and Benchmarks for Channel Coordination. (August 2003) Ay¸ ¨ Toptal, B.S., Bilkent University, Turkey; M.S., Bilkent University, Turkey Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Sõla Cetinkaya This dissertation takes into account the latest industrial... of the Idea Behind Algorithm 3 . . . . . . . . . . . 58 12 Illustration of the Cost and Material Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 13 Illustration of Piv(Q) when (c -p)Pv > Rv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 14 Different illustrations of Piv...

  6. NON-EQUILIBRIUM CHEMISTRY OF DYNAMICALLY EVOLVING PRESTELLAR CORES. I. BASIC MAGNETIC AND NON-MAGNETIC MODELS AND PARAMETER STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Willacy, Karen; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We combine dynamical and non-equilibrium chemical modeling of evolving prestellar molecular cloud cores and investigate the evolution of molecular abundances in the contracting core. We model both magnetic cores, with varying degrees of initial magnetic support, and non-magnetic cores, with varying collapse delay times. We explore, through a parameter study, the competing effects of various model parameters in the evolving molecular abundances, including the elemental C/O ratio, the temperature, and the cosmic-ray ionization rate. We find that different models show their largest quantitative differences at the center of the core, whereas the outer layers, which evolve slower, have abundances which are severely degenerate among different dynamical models. There is a large range of possible abundance values for different models at a fixed evolutionary stage (central density), which demonstrates the large potential of chemical differentiation in prestellar cores. However, degeneracies among different models, compounded with uncertainties induced by other model parameters, make it difficult to discriminate among dynamical models. To address these difficulties, we identify abundance ratios between particular molecules, the measurement of which would have maximal potential for discrimination among the different models examined here. In particular, we find that the ratios between NH{sub 3} and CO, NH{sub 2} and CO, and NH{sub 3} and HCO{sup +} are sensitive to the evolutionary timescale, and that the ratio between HCN and OH is sensitive to the C/O ratio. Finally, we demonstrate that measurements of the central deviation (central depletion or enhancement) of abundances of certain molecules are good indicators of the dynamics of the core.

  7. Discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transition in a threshold Schloegl model for autocatalysis: Generic two-phase coexistence and metastability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Chi -Jen; Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-28

    Threshold versions of Schloegl’s model on a lattice, which involve autocatalytic creation and spontaneous annihilation of particles, can provide a simple prototype for discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transitions. These models are equivalent to so-called threshold contact processes. A discontinuous transition between populated and vacuum states can occur selecting a threshold of N ? 2 for the minimum number, N, of neighboring particles enabling autocatalytic creation at an empty site. Fundamental open questions remain given the lack of a thermodynamic framework for analysis. For a square lattice with N = 2, we show that phase coexistence occurs not at a unique valuemore »but for a finite range of particle annihilation rate (the natural control parameter). This generic two-phase coexistence also persists when perturbing the model to allow spontaneous particle creation. Such behavior contrasts both the Gibbs phase rule for thermodynamic systems and also previous analysis for this model. We find metastability near the transition corresponding to a non-zero effective line tension, also contrasting previously suggested critical behavior. As a result, mean-field type analysis, extended to treat spatially heterogeneous states, further elucidates model behavior.« less

  8. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    2012-01-01

    The case of wholesale power trading in Germany Power andY. (2011). Market power in emissions trading: strategicallyto model market power in permit trading. The conjectural

  9. Spectral -Lagrangian methods for Collisional Models of Non -Equilibrium Statistical States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of related models in [12]. The method also produces accurate results in the case of inelastic diffusive of inter-particle potentials and their interaction rate is modeled as a product of power laws for the relative speed and the differential cross (an- gular) section. When such rates are independent

  10. A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model for investigating atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (s) into the building blocks of climate models seems necessary. The Earth system as a whole is virtually driven system 1. INTRODUCTION Climate models built on the principles of energy, momentum and mass balances have and maintained by the radiation exchange between the Earth system and space (e.g. Lesins 1990; Stephens & O

  11. Orthogonal Forward Regression based on Directly Maximizing Model Generalization Capability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sheng

    for costly model evaluation. Index Terms -- orthogonal forward regression, structure identification, cross struc- ture construction process as a cost function in order to op- timize the model generalization introduces a construction algorithm for sparse kernel modelling using the leave-one-out test score also known

  12. Commodity Money Equilibrium in a Walrasian Trading Post Model: An Elementary Example

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STARR, ROSS M

    2005-01-01

    that the existence of money poses to the theorist is this:This pattern of trade poses a problem. It is not anin a Walrasian Trading Post Model: An Elementary Example

  13. Commodity Money Equilibrium in a Walrasian Trading Post Model: An Example

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Starr, Ross M.

    2006-01-01

    that the existence of money poses to the theorist is this:This pattern of trade poses a problem. It is not anin a Walrasian Trading Post Model: An Elementary Example BY

  14. Capturing Natural Resource Dynamics in Top-Down Energy?Economic Equilibrium Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Da

    2015-10-20

    Top-down energy-economic modeling approaches often use deliberately simple techniques to represent heterogeneous resource inputs to production. We show that for some policies, such as feed-in tariffs (FIT) for renewable ...

  15. Modelling of three dimensional equilibrium and stability of MAST plasmas with magnetic perturbations using VMEC and COBRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, C. J., E-mail: christopher.ham@ccfe.ac.uk; Chapman, I. T.; Kirk, A.; Saarelma, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    It is known that magnetic perturbations can mitigate edge localized modes (ELMs) in experiments, for example, MAST [Kirk et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 043007 (2013)]. One hypothesis is that the magnetic perturbations cause a three dimensional corrugation of the plasma and this corrugated plasma has different stability properties to peeling-ballooning modes compared to an axisymmetric plasma. It has been shown in an up-down symmetric plasma that magnetic perturbations in tokamaks will break the usual axisymmetry of the plasma causing three dimensional displacements [Chapman et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 105013 (2012)]. We produce a free boundary three-dimensional equilibrium of a lower single null MAST relevant plasma using VMEC [S. P. Hirshman and J. C. Whitson, Phys. Fluids 26, 3553 (1983)]. The safety factor and pressure profiles used for the modelling are similar to those deduced from axisymmetric analysis of experimental data with ELMs. We focus on the effect of applying n?=?3 and n?=?6 magnetic perturbations using the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) coils. A midplane displacement of over ±1?cm is seen when the full current is applied. The current in the coils is scanned and a linear relationship between coil current and midplane displacement is found. The pressure gradient in real space in different toroidal locations is shown to change when RMPs are applied. This effect should be taken into account when diagnosing plasmas with RMPs applied. The helical Pfirsch-Schlüter currents which arise as a result of the assumption of nested flux surfaces are estimated for this equilibrium. The effect of this non-axisymmetric equilibrium on infinite n ballooning stability is investigated using COBRA [Sanchez et al., J. Comput. Phys. 161, 576–588 (2000)]. The infinite n ballooning stability is analysed for two reasons; it may give an indication of the effect of non-axisymmetry on finite n peeling-ballooning modes, responsible for ELMs; and infinite n ballooning modes are correlated to kinetic ballooning modes which are thought to limit the pressure gradient of the pedestal [Snyder et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056118 (2009)]. The ballooning mode growth rate gains a variation in toroidal angle. The equilibria with midplane displacements due to RMP coils have a higher ballooning mode growth rate than the axisymmetric case and the possible implications are discussed.

  16. Seiberg-Witten curve via generalized matrix model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazunobu Maruyoshi; Futoshi Yagi

    2010-12-27

    We study the generalized matrix model which corresponds to the n-point toric Virasoro conformal block. This describes four-dimensional N=2 SU(2)^n gauge theory with circular quiver diagram by the AGT relation. We first verify that it is obtained from the perturbative calculation of the Liouville correlation function. We derive the Seiberg-Witten curve for N=2 gauge theory as a spectral curve of the generalized matrix model.

  17. Typicality of thermal equilibrium and thermalization in isolated macroscopic quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hal Tasaki

    2015-08-01

    Based on the view that thermal equilibrium should be characterized through macroscopic observations, we develop a general theory about typicality of thermal equilibrium and the approach to thermal equilibrium in macroscopic quantum systems. We first formulate the notion that a pure state in an isolated quantum system represents thermal equilibrium. Then by assuming, or proving in certain classes of nontrivial models (including that of two bodies in thermal contact), large-deviation type bounds (which we call thermodynamic bounds) for the microcanonical ensemble, we prove that to represent thermal equilibrium is a typical property for pure states in the microcanonical energy shell. We also establish the approach to thermal equilibrium under two different assumptions; one is that the initial state has a moderate energy distribution, and the other is the energy eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. We also discuss three easily solvable models in which these assumptions can be verified.

  18. Solvent Extraction of Sodium Hydroxide Using Alkylphenols and Fluorinated Alcohols: Understanding the Extraction Mechanism by Equilibrium Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun-Ah; Engle, Nancy L.; Bonnesen Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In the present work, it has been the aim to examine extraction efficiencies of nine proton-ionizable alcohols (HAs) in 1-octanol and to identify both the controlling equilibria and predominant species involved in the extraction process within a thermochemical model. Distribution ratios for sodium (DNa) extraction were measured as a function of organic-phase HA and aqueous-phase NaOH molarity at 25 °C. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the HAs, 4-(tert-octyl) phenol (HA 1a) and 4-noctyl- a,a-bis-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (HA 2a) being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. By use of the equilibrium-modeling program SXLSQI, a model for the extraction of NaOH has been advanced based on an ion-pair extraction by the diluent to give organic-phase Na+OH- and corresponding free ions and cation exchange by the weak acids to form monomeric organic-phase Na+A- and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  19. Solving Problems with GCMs: General Circulation Models and Their Role in the Climate Modeling Hierarchy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Andrew W.

    Solving Problems with GCMs: General Circulation Models and Their Role in the Climate Modeling of a hierarchy of models for solving problems in climate dynamics. General circulation models (GCMs) occupy, capture all the phenomena, and solve all the problems. Hence the concept of a hierarchy of climate models

  20. Modeling and Computing Two-settlement Oligopolistic Equilibrium in a Congested Electricity Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , CA 94720 {jyao, adler, oren}@ieor.berkeley.edu Abstract A model of two-settlement electricity markets to this goal is market power, both vertical and horizon- tal. Vertical market power in electricity markets has elasticity, high market concentration and limited transmission capacities. Among the many proposed

  1. Equilibrium calculation of transport coefficients for a fluid-particle model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Ihle; Erkan Tuzel; Daniel M. Kroll

    2005-09-26

    A recently introduced particle-based model for fluid flow, called Stochastic Rotation Dynamics, can be made Galilean invariant by introducing a random shift of the computational grid before collisions. In this paper, it is shown how the Green-Kubo relations derived previously can be resummed to obtain exact expressions for the collisional contributions to the transport coefficients. It is also shown that the collisional contribution to the microscopic stress tensor is not symmetric, and that this leads to an additional viscosity. The resulting identification of the transport coefficients for the hydrodynamic modes is discussed in detail, and it is shown that this does not impose restrictions on the applicability of the model. The collisional contribution to the thermal conductivity, which becomes important for small mean free path and small average particle number per cell, is also derived.

  2. Molecular-level simulations of chemical reaction equilibrium and diffusion in slit and cylindrical nanopores: model dimerisation reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    Molecular-level simulations of chemical reaction equilibrium and diffusion in slit and cylindrical study of the effects of confinement on chemical reaction equilibrium and diffusion in both slit nanopores 1. Introduction The behaviour of chemical reactions confined in nanopores is of extensive

  3. Bose-Hubbard Model: Relation Between Driven-Dissipative Steady-States and Equilibrium Quantum Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandre Le Boité; Giuliano Orso; Cristiano Ciuti

    2014-08-06

    We present analytical solutions for the mean-field master equation of the driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model for cavity photons, in the limit of both weak pumping and weak dissipation. Instead of pure Mott insulator states, we find statistical mixtures with the same second-order coherence as a Fock state with n photons, but a mean photon number of n/2. These mixed states occur when n pump photons have the same energy as n interacting photons inside the nonlinear cavity and survive up to a critical tunneling coupling strength, above which a crossover to classical coherent state takes place. We also explain the origin of both antibunching and superbunching predicted by P-representation mean-field theory at higher pumping and dissipation. In particular, we show that the strongly correlated region of the associated phase diagram cannot be described within the semiclassical Gross-Pitaevski approach.

  4. Hartle's model within the general theory of perturbative matchings: the change in mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borja Reina; Raül Vera

    2014-12-22

    Hartle's model provides the most widely used analytic framework to describe isolated compact bodies rotating slowly in equilibrium up to second order in perturbations in the context of General Relativity. Apart from some explicit assumptions, there are some implicit, like the "continuity" of the functions in the perturbed metric across the surface of the body. In this work we sketch the basics for the analysis of the second order problem using the modern theory of perturbed matchings. In particular, the result we present is that when the energy density of the fluid in the static configuration does not vanish at the boundary, one of the functions of the second order perturbation in the setting of the original work by Hartle is not continuous. This discrepancy affects the calculation of the change in mass of the rotating star with respect to the static configuration needed to keep the central energy density unchanged.

  5. Generalization of neuron network model with delay feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanjeet Maisnam; R. K. Brojen Singh

    2015-07-16

    We present generalized delayed neural network (DNN) model with positive delay feedback and neuron history. The local stability analysis around trivial local equilibria of delayed neural networks has applied and determine the conditions for the existence of zero root. We develop few innovative delayed neural network models in different dimensions through transformation and extension of some existing models. We found that zero root can have multiplicity two under certain conditions. We further show how the characteristic equation can have zero root and its multiplicity is dependent on the conditions undertaken. Finally, we generalize the neural network of $N$ neurons through which we determine the general form of Jacobian of the linear form and corresponding characteristic equation of the system.

  6. Modeling Smart Grid using Generalized Stochastic Petri Net

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dey, Amrita; Sanyal, Sugata

    2011-01-01

    Building smart grid for power system is a major challenge for safe, automated and energy efficient usage of electricity. The full implementation of the smart grid will evolve over time. However, before a new set of infrastructures are invested to build the smart grid, proper modeling and analysis is needed to avoid wastage of resources. Modeling also helps to identify and prioritize appropriate systems parameters. In this paper, an all comprehensive model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The model is used to analyze the constraints and deliverables of the smart power grid of future.

  7. On linking an Earth system model to the equilibrium carbon representation of an economically optimizing land use model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Calvin, Katherine V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Mao, Jiafu; Patel, Pralit L.; Shi, Xiaoying; Thomson, Allison M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2014-01-01

    Human activities are significantly altering biogeochemical cycles at the global scale, posing a significant problem for earth system models (ESMs), which may incorporate static land-use change inputs but do not actively simulate policy or economic forces. One option to address this problem is a to couple an ESM with an economically oriented integrated assessment model. Here we have implemented and tested a coupling mechanism between the carbon cycles of an ESM (CLM) and an integrated assessment (GCAM) model, examining the best proxy variables to share between the models, and quantifying our ability to distinguish climate- and land-use-driven flux changes. CLM’s net primary production and heterotrophic respiration outputs were found to be the most robust proxy variables by which to manipulate GCAM’s assumptions of long-term ecosystem steady state carbon, with short-term forest production strongly correlated with long-term biomass changes in climate-change model runs. By leveraging the fact that carbon-cycle effects of anthropogenic land-use change are short-term and spatially limited relative to widely distributed climate effects, we were able to distinguish these effects successfully in the model coupling, passing only the latter to GCAM. By allowing climate effects from a full earth system model to dynamically modulate the economic and policy decisions of an integrated assessment model, this work provides a foundation for linking these models in a robust and flexible framework capable of examining two-way interactions between human and earth system processes.

  8. A-model and generalized Chern-Simons theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Schwarz

    2005-01-30

    The relation between open topological strings and Chern-Simons theory was discovered by E. Witten. He proved that A-model on T*M where M is a three-dimensional manifold is equivalent to Chern-Simons theory on M and that A-model on arbitrary Calabi-Yau 3-fold is related to Chern-Simons theory with instanton corrections. In present paper we discuss multidimensional generalization of these results.

  9. General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinzelman, Wendi

    General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network Deployment Strategies Zhao Cheng, Mark Perillo, and Wendi B. Heinzelman, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--In multihop wireless sensor to energy imbalance among sensors often appear. Sensors closer to a data sink are usually required

  10. Abstract polymer models with general pair interactions Aldo Procacci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Procacci, Aldo

    Abstract polymer models with general pair interactions Aldo Procacci Dep. Matem´atica-ICEx, UFMG (i.e. not necessarily hard core or repulsive). A concrete example is given in which polymers are r0 (possibly attractive), of the type 1/rd+ with > 0. 1. Introduction The abstract polymer gas is an important

  11. Simulation of snow mass and extent in general circulation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Simulation of snow mass and extent in general circulation models Zong-Liang Yang,1,2* Robert E Scheme (BATS) snow submodel was conducted, both in a stand-alone mode and within the National Center Union and from Mammoth Mountain, California. The BATS snow scheme reproduces well the seasonal evolution

  12. A General Method for Feature Matching and Model Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Clark F.

    A General Method for Feature Matching and Model Extraction Clark F. Olson Jet Propulsion Laboratory is extracted from or #12;t to data that draws bene#12;ts from both generate-and-test methods and those based that are ecient and robust. We apply this method to object recognition, geometric primitive extraction, robust

  13. GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELING APPROACH TO STOCHASTIC WEATHER GENERATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    ) Multisites (Spatial dependence of daily weather) -- Software R open source statistical programming language (Capable of "reproducing" any desired statistic) -- Disadvantages Synthetic weather looks too much like") Not amenable to uncertainty analysis #12;#12;#12;(2) Generalized Linear Models · Statistical Framework

  14. Bayesian Comparison of Spatially Regularised General Linear Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    Bayesian Comparison of Spatially Regularised General Linear Models Will Penny,1* Guillaume Flandin, London WC1N 3BG 2 Cuban Neuroscience Center, Havana, Cuba Abstract: In previous work (Penny et al., [2005. In neuroimaging, BMC is used in the analysis of func- tional integration [Penny et al., 2004]. This allows infer

  15. Dynamical Topological Order Parameters far from Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Carl Budich; Markus Heyl

    2015-09-21

    We report the discovery of a novel topological quantum number, represented by a momentum space winding number of the Pancharatnam geometric phase, that is dynamically defined and can change its integer value at discrete times where so called dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) occur. By contrast, straightforward non-equilibrium generalizations of conventional topological invariants are well known to be constants of motion under coherent time evolution. DQPTs have been recently introduced as a non-equilibrium analog in quantum real-time evolution of conventional phase transitions, where increasing time replaces the notion of conventional control parameters such as temperature. Here, studying quantum quenches in two-banded Bogoliubov de Gennes models, we identify for the first time a quantity that can be seen as the dynamical analog of an order parameter which changes its topologically quantized value at DQPTs.

  16. A general holographic metal/superconductor phase transition model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan Peng; Yunqi Liu

    2015-03-03

    We study the scalar condensation of a general holographic superconductor model in AdS black hole background away from the probe limit. We find the model parameters together with the scalar mass and backreaction can determine the order of phase transitions completely. In addition, we observe two types of discontinuities of the scalar operator in the case of first order phase transitions. We analyze in detail the effects of the scalar mass and backreaction on the formation of discontinuities and arrive at an approximate relation between the threshold model parameters. Furthermore, we obtain superconductor solutions corresponding to higher energy states and examine the stability of these superconductor solutions.

  17. A dark energy model alternative to generalized Chaplygin gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hova, Hoavo

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new fluid model of dark energy for $-1 \\leq \\omega_{\\text{eff}} \\leq 0$ as an alternative to the generalized Chaplygin gas models. The energy density of dark energy fluid is severely suppressed during barotropic matter dominant epochs, and it dominates the universe evolution only for eras of small redshift. From the perspective of fundamental physics, the fluid is a tachyon field with a scalar potential flatter than that of power-law decelerated expansion. Different from the standard $\\Lambda\\text{CDM}$ model, the suggested dark energy model claims that the cosmic acceleration at present epoch can not continue forever but will cease in the near future and a decelerated cosmic expansion will recover afterwards.

  18. A dark energy model alternative to generalized Chaplygin gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoavo Hova; Huanxiong Yang

    2010-11-22

    We propose a new fluid model of dark energy for $-1 \\leq \\omega_{\\text{eff}} \\leq 0$ as an alternative to the generalized Chaplygin gas models. The energy density of dark energy fluid is severely suppressed during barotropic matter dominant epochs, and it dominates the universe evolution only for eras of small redshift. From the perspective of fundamental physics, the fluid is a tachyon field with a scalar potential flatter than that of power-law decelerated expansion. Different from the standard $\\Lambda\\text{CDM}$ model, the suggested dark energy model claims that the cosmic acceleration at present epoch can not continue forever but will cease in the near future and a decelerated cosmic expansion will recover afterwards.

  19. Exceptional and regular spectra of a generalized Rabi model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Tomka; Omar El Araby; Mikhail Pletyukhov; Vladimir Gritsev

    2014-12-05

    We study the spectrum of the generalized Rabi model in which co- and counter-rotating terms have different coupling strengths. It is also equivalent to the model of a two-dimensional electron gas in a magnetic field with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. Like in case of the Rabi model, the spectrum of the generalized Rabi model consists of the regular and the exceptional parts. The latter is represented by the energy levels which cross at certain parameters' values which we determine explicitly. The wave functions of these exceptional states are given by finite order polynomials in the Bargmann representation. The roots of these polynomials satisfy a Bethe ansatz equation of the Gaudin type. At the exceptional points the model is therefore quasi-exactly solvable. An analytical approximation is derived for the regular part of the spectrum in the weak- and strong-coupling limits. In particular, in the strong-coupling limit the spectrum consists of two quasi-degenerate equidistant ladders.

  20. Reshocks, rarefactions, and the generalized Layzer model for hydrodynamic instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikaelian, K O

    2008-06-10

    We report numerical simulations and analytic modeling of shock tube experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. We examine single interfaces of the type A/B where the incident shock is initiated in A and the transmitted shock proceeds into B. Examples are He/air and air/He. In addition, we study finite-thickness or double-interface A/B/A configurations like air/SF{sub 6}/air gas-curtain experiments. We first consider conventional shock tubes that have a 'fixed' boundary: A solid endwall which reflects the transmitted shock and reshocks the interface(s). Then we focus on new experiments with a 'free' boundary--a membrane disrupted mechanically or by the transmitted shock, sending back a rarefaction towards the interface(s). Complex acceleration histories are achieved, relevant for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. We compare our simulation results with a generalized Layzer model for two fluids with time-dependent densities, and derive a new freeze-out condition whereby accelerating and compressive forces cancel each other out. Except for the recently reported failures of the Layzer model, the generalized Layzer model and hydrocode simulations for reshocks and rarefactions agree well with each other, and remain to be verified experimentally.

  1. A General Approach to the Modelling of Trophic Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rui Dilao; Tiago Domingos

    1999-02-10

    Based on the law of mass action (and its microscopic foundation) and mass conservation, we present here a method to derive consistent dynamic models for the time evolution of systems with an arbitrary number of species. Equations are derived through a mechanistic description, ensuring that all parameters have ecological meaning. After discussing the biological mechanisms associated to the logistic and Lotka-Volterra equations, we show how to derive general models for trophic chains, including the effects of internal states at fast time scales. We show that conformity with the mass action law leads to different functional forms for the Lotka-Volterra and trophic chain models. We use mass conservation to recover the concept of carrying capacity for an arbitrary food chain.

  2. A general two-cycle network model of molecular motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yunxin Zhang

    2009-04-24

    Molecular motors are single macromolecules that generate forces at the piconewton range and nanometer scale. They convert chemical energy into mechanical work by moving along filamentous structures. In this paper, we study the velocity of two-head molecular motors in the framework of a mechanochemical network theory. The network model, a generalization of the recently work of Liepelt and Lipowsky (PRL 98, 258102 (2007)), is based on the discrete mechanochemical states of a molecular motor with multiple cycles. By generalizing the mathematical method developed by Fisher and Kolomeisky for single cycle motor (PNAS(2001) 98(14) P7748-7753), we are able to obtain an explicit formula for the velocity of a molecular motor.

  3. Improved Indoor Tracking Based on Generalized t-Distribution Noise Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuo, Liu; Le, Yin; Khuen, Ho Weng; Voon, Ling Keck

    2015-01-01

    t distribution noise model. Industrial & EngineeringGeneralized t -Distribution Noise Model Liu Shuo Yin Le Hogeneralized t-distribution noise model based on influence

  4. Negative specific heat in out-of-equilibrium nonextensive systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rapisarda; V. Latora

    2002-02-26

    We discuss the occurrence of negative specific heat in a nonextensive system which has an equilibrium second-order phase transition.The specific heat is negative only in a transient regime before equilibration, in correspondence to long-lasting metastable states. For these states standard equilibrium Bolzmann-Gibbs thermodynamics does not apply and the system shows non-Gaussian velocity distributions, anomalous diffusion and correlation in phase space. Similar results have recently been found also in several other nonextensive systems, supporting the general validity of this scenario. These models seem also to support the conjecture that a nonexstensive statistical formalism, like the one proposed by Tsallis, should be applied in such cases. The theoretical scenario is not completely clear yet, but there are already many strong theoretical indications suggesting that, it can be wrong to consider the observation of an experimental negative specific heat as an unique and unambiguous signature of a standard equilibrium first-order phase transition.

  5. Goodness-of-Fit Test Issues in Generalized Linear Mixed Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Nai-Wei

    2012-02-14

    Linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models are random-effects models widely applied to analyze clustered or hierarchical data. Generally, random effects are often assumed to be normally distributed in the ...

  6. Electromagnetic Mass Models in General Theory of Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumana Bhadra

    2007-10-30

    "Electromagnetic mass" where gravitational mass and other physical quantities originate from the electromagnetic field alone has a century long distinguished history. In the introductory chapter we have divided this history into three broad categories -- classical, quantum mechanical and general relativistic. Each of the categories has been described at a length to get the detailed picture of the physical background. Recent developments on Repulsive Electromagnetic Mass Models are of special interest in this introductory part of the thesis. In this context we have also stated motivation of our work. In the subsequent chapters we have presented our results and their physical significances. It is concluded that the electromagnetic mass models which are the sources of purely electromagnetic origin ``have not only heuristic flavor associated with the conjecture of Lorentz but even a physics having unconventional yet novel features characterizing their own contributions independent of the rest of the physics".

  7. Modelling the global prospects and impacts of heavy duty liquefied natural gas vehicles in computable general equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yip, Arthur Hong Chun

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas vehicles have the prospects of making substantial contributions to transportation needs. The adoption of natural gas vehicles could lead to impacts on energy and environmental systems. An analysis of the main ...

  8. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter F. Wreszinski

    2015-07-05

    We review some rigorous results on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors.

  9. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter F. Wreszinski

    2015-06-26

    We review some rigorous results on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors.

  10. Eulerian and Lagrangian pictures of non-equilibrium diffusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael Chetrite; Krzysztof Gawedzki

    2009-05-28

    We show that a non-equilibrium diffusive dynamics in a finite-dimensional space takes in the Lagrangian frame of its mean local velocity an equilibrium form with the detailed balance property. This explains the equilibrium nature of the fluctuation-dissipation relations in that frame observed previously. The general considerations are illustrated on few examples of stochastic particle dynamics.

  11. An assessment of possible climate change in the Australian region based on intercomparison of general circulation modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whetton, P.H.; Pittock, A.B.; Haylock, M.R. ); Rayner, P.J. )

    1994-03-01

    To assist in estimating likely future climate change in the Australian region, the authors examine the results of four different general circulation modeling experiments run to assess the equilibrium impact of doubling greenhouse gases. The results examined were the most recent available at the time of study from various research centers in North America and Europe, as well as those of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). The approach used is, first, to assess the quality of the control (1 x CO[sub 2]) simulations from each of the models of mean sea level (MSL) pressure and precipitation in the Australian region by comparing these with the corresponding observed patterns; and, second, to then analyze the 2 x CO[sub 2] results of only those model experiments with the best control simulations. Of the models examined two are chosen on the basis of their simulation of current climate in the region: the CSIRO four-level model (CSIRO4) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) model. For conditions of equivalent doubling of CO[sub 2], both models show substantial increases in surface air temperature of around 4[degrees]-6[degrees] inland and 2[degrees]-4[degrees]C in coastal regions. Both models show decreased MSL pressure over the Australian continent and increases in rainfall over northern, central, and eastern Australia, particularly in the summer half of the year. The CSIRO4 model, but not the UKMO model, also shows increased pressure to the south of the continent and decreased winter rainfall in southwest and southern Australia. Generally, field significance tests show the pattern and magnitude of the changes to be significant of CSIRO4 (for which the necessary monthly simulated data were available). 42 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Some Properties of Correlations of Quantum Lattice Systems in Thermal Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juerg Froehlich; Daniel Ueltschi

    2015-05-27

    Simple proofs of uniqueness of the thermodynamic limit of KMS states and of the decay of equilibrium correlations are presented for a large class of quantum lattice systems at high temperatures. New quantum correlation inequalities for general Heisenberg models are described. Finally, a simplified derivation of a general result on power-law decay of correlations in 2D quantum lattice systems with continuous symmetries is given, extending results of Mc Bryan and Spencer for the 2D classical XY model.

  13. Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Dong; H. F. Zhang; G. Royer

    2009-06-02

    The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of protons are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) including the proximity effects between nuclei in a neck and the mass and charge asymmetry. The penetrability is calculated with the WKB approximation. The spectroscopic factor has been taken into account in half-life calculation, which is obtained by employing the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory combined with the BCS method with the force NL3. The half-lives within the GLDM are compared with the experimental data and other theoretical values. The GLDM works quite well for spherical proton emitters when the spectroscopic factors are considered, indicating the necessity of introducing the spectroscopic factor and the success of the GLDM for proton emission. Finally, we present two formulas for proton emission half-life calculation similar to the Viola-Seaborg formulas and Royer's formulas of alpha decay.

  14. A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert G. Ellingson

    2004-09-28

    One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

  15. Inventories and capacity utilization in general equilibrium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trupkin, Danilo Rogelio

    2009-05-15

    , then both can be seen as providing a short-run adjustment "buffer stock"mechanism.The analysis of the relationship between those variables is centered on the effectsof two possible shocks: preference (demand) shocks and technology shocks. Impulse...

  16. Interacting generalized Chaplygin gas model in non-flat universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M R Setare

    2007-11-04

    We employ the generalized Chaplygin gas of interacting dark energy to obtain the equation of state for the generalized Chaplygin gas energy density in non-flat universe. By choosing a negative value for $B$ we see that $w_{\\rm \\Lambda}^{eff}universe dominated by phantom dark energy.

  17. Abstract--In models of imperfect competition of deregulated electricity markets, the key task is to find the Nash equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldick, Ross

    1 Abstract--In models of imperfect competition of deregulated electricity markets, the key task techniques are adopted in this paper. Two example application problems arising from electricity markets Terms-- Bimatrix Game, Complementarity Problem, Deregulation, Dominated Strategy, Electric Power Market

  18. PAC-Learning with General Class Noise Models Shahin Jabbari1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holte, Robert

    -dimension with the Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) strategy. We introduce simple noise models for which classical ERM is not successful. Aiming at a more general- purpose algorithm for learning under noise, we generalize ERM to a more

  19. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. V.

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a “shelf Coulomb” model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The “shelf Coulomb” model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ? parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ? and ? = ?e{sup 2}n{sup 1/3} (where ? = 1/k{sub B}T, n is the particle's density, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ? and ? parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ?{sub crit}?13(T{sub crit}{sup *}?0.076),?{sub crit}?1.8(v{sub crit}{sup *}?0.17),P{sub crit}{sup *}?0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/?{sup 3} and reduced temperature T{sup *} = ?{sup ?1}.

  20. Generalized charge-screening in relativistic Thomas–Fermi model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar objects.

  1. EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION FROM DISCRETE MAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS IN A TOKAMAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faugeras, Blaise

    EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION FROM DISCRETE MAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS IN A TOKAMAK Blaise Faugeras (joint of the equilibrium in a Tokamak from discrete magnetic mea- surements. In order to solve this inverse problem we of a plasma in a Tokamak [1]. The state variable of interest in the modelization of such an equilibrium under

  2. Towards breaking temperature equilibrium in multi-component Eulerian schemes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grove, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Masser, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effects ofthermal equilibrium on hydrodynamic flows and describe models for breaking the assumption ofa single temperature for a mixture of components in a cell. A computational study comparing pressure-temperature equilibrium simulations of two dimensional implosions with explicit front tracking is described as well as implementation and J-D calculations for non-equilibrium temperature methods.

  3. Fluid transport properties by equilibrium molecular dynamics. III. Evaluation of united atom interaction potential models for pure alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    Received 2 August 1999; accepted 9 February 2000 Results of new simulations for n-butane, n-decane, n and density of transport property studies by MD of n-butane, n-decane, and n-hexadecane using flexible, mul- tisite molecular models. In the case of n-butane there have been performed at least 14 transport

  4. Cooperative Equilibrium beyond Social Dilemmas: Pareto Solvable Games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capraro, Valerio; Venanzi, Matteo; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2015-01-01

    A recently introduced concept of "cooperative equilibrium", based on the assumption that players have a natural attitude to cooperation, has been proven a powerful tool in predicting human behaviour in social dilemmas. In this paper, we extend this idea to more general game models, termed "Pareto solvable" games, which in particular include the Nash Bargaining Problem and the Ultimatum Game. We show that games in this class possess a unique pure cooperative equilibrium. Furthermore, for the Ultimatum Game, this notion appears to be strongly correlated with a suitably defined variant of the Dictator Game. We support this observation with the results of a behavioural experiment conducted using Amazon Mechanical Turk, which demonstrates that our approach allows for making statistically precise predictions of average behaviour in such settings.

  5. A Generalized Cohesive Zone Model of Peel Test for Pressure Sensitive Adhesives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Liang

    2010-01-16

    itself. Generally, the failure of the adhesive is accompanied with a process of cavitation and fibrillation. Therefore, the cohesive zone is modeled as a continuous fibrillated region. A Maxwell model is employed to characterize the viscoelastic behavior...

  6. Slow Rise and Partial Eruption of a Double-Decker Filament. II. Modeling by a Double Flux Rope Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kliem, Bernhard; Titov, Viacheslav S; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A; Liu, Rui; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin

    2014-01-01

    Force-free equilibria containing two vertically arranged magnetic flux ropes of like chirality and current direction are considered as a model for split filaments/prominences and filament-sigmoid systems. Such equilibria are constructed analytically through an extension of the methods developed in Titov & D\\'emoulin (1999) and numerically through an evolutionary sequence including shear flows, flux emergence, and flux cancellation in the photospheric boundary. It is demonstrated that the analytical equilibria are stable if an external toroidal (shear) field component exceeding a threshold value is included. If this component decreases sufficiently, then both flux ropes turn unstable for conditions typical of solar active regions, with the lower rope typically being unstable first. Either both flux ropes erupt upward, or only the upper rope erupts while the lower rope reconnects with the ambient flux low in the corona and is destroyed. However, for shear field strengths staying somewhat above the threshold...

  7. The China-in-Global Energy Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, T.

    The China-in-Global Energy Model (C-GEM) is a global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model that captures the interaction of production, consumption and trade among multiple global regions and sectors – including five ...

  8. Generalized Functional Linear Models Hans-Georg Muller (UC Davis) und U. Stadtmuller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    Generalized Functional Linear Models Hans-Georg M¨uller (UC Davis) und U. Stadtm¨uller Preprint FUNCTIONAL LINEAR MODELS Hans-Georg M¨uller1 and Ulrich Stadtm¨uller2 March 2004 1Department of Statistics. Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie, Universit¨at Ulm, 89069 Ulm, Germany #12;ABSTRACT We propose a generalized functional linear

  9. GENERALIZED FUNCTIONAL LINEAR MODELS Hans-Georg Muller1 and Ulrich Stadtmuller2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Hans-Georg

    GENERALIZED FUNCTIONAL LINEAR MODELS Hans-Georg M¨uller1 and Ulrich Stadtm¨uller2 March 2004 1 a generalized functional linear regression model for a regression situation where the response variable is a scalar and the predictor is a random function. A linear predictor is obtained by forming the scalar

  10. From residue matching patterns to protein folding topographies: General model and bovine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    From residue matching patterns to protein folding topographies: General model and bovine pancreatic-grained model for protein-folding dynamics is introduced based on a discretized representation of torsional, pattern recognition, and general characteristics of protein folding kinetics. Topology here implies

  11. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  12. Generalized Ginzburg-Landau models for non-conventional superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Esposito; G. Salesi

    2009-06-20

    We review some recent extensions of the Ginzburg-Landau model able to describe several properties of non-conventional superconductors. In the first extension, s-wave superconductors endowed with two different critical temperatures are considered, their main thermodynamical and magnetic properties being calculated and discussed. Instead in the second extension we describe spin-triplet superconductivity (with a single critical temperature), studying in detail the main predicted physical properties. A thorough discussion of the peculiar predictions of our models and their physical consequences is as well performed.

  13. A new eight vertex model and higher dimensional, multiparameter generalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Abdesselam; A. Chakrabarti

    2008-02-12

    We study statistical models, specifically transfer matrices corresponding to a multiparameter hierarchy of braid matrices of $(2n)^2\\times(2n)^2$ dimensions with $2n^2$ free parameters $(n=1,2,3,...)$. The simplest, $4\\times 4$ case is treated in detail. Powerful recursion relations are constructed giving the dependence on the spectral parameter $\\theta$ of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix explicitly at each level of coproduct sequence. A brief study of higher dimensional cases ($n\\geq 2$) is presented pointing out features of particular interest. Spin chain Hamiltonians are also briefly presented for the hierarchy. In a long final section basic results are recapitulated with systematic analysis of their contents. Our eight vertex $4\\times 4$ case is compared to standard six vertex and eight vertex models.

  14. System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2011.12.2, released on December 2, 2011. SAM is software that models the cost and performance of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financing structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). Advanced analysis options facilitate parametric, sensitivity, and statistical analyses, and allow for interfacing SAM with Microsoft Excel or with other computer programs. SAM is available as a free download at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  15. System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.; Freeman, J.; Neises, T.; Wagner, M.; Ferguson, T.; Gilman, P.; Janzou, S.

    2014-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2013.9.20, released on September 9, 2013. SAM is a computer model that calculates performance and financial metrics of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar water heating, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financial structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). SAM's advanced simulation options facilitate parametric and sensitivity analyses, and statistical analysis capabilities are available for Monte Carlo simulation and weather variability (P50/P90) studies. SAM can also read input variables from Microsoft Excel worksheets. For software developers, the SAM software development kit (SDK) makes it possible to use SAM simulation modules in their applications written in C/C++, C#, Java, Python, and MATLAB. NREL provides both SAM and the SDK as free downloads at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  16. Equilibrium Chemical Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatsuo Shibata; Shin-ichi Sasa

    1997-10-30

    An equilibrium reversible cycle with a certain engine to transduce the energy of any chemical reaction into mechanical energy is proposed. The efficiency for chemical energy transduction is also defined so as to be compared with Carnot efficiency. Relevance to the study of protein motors is discussed. KEYWORDS: Chemical thermodynamics, Engine, Efficiency, Molecular machine.

  17. Generalized models as a universal approach to the analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thilo Gross; Ulrike Feudel

    2006-01-29

    We present a universal approach to the investigation of the dynamics in generalized models. In these models the processes that are taken into account are not restricted to specific functional forms. Therefore a single generalized models can describe a class of systems which share a similar structure. Despite this generality, the proposed approach allows us to study the dynamical properties of generalized models efficiently in the framework of local bifurcation theory. The approach is based on a normalization procedure that is used to identify natural parameters of the system. The Jacobian in a steady state is then derived as a function of these parameters. The analytical computation of local bifurcations using computer algebra reveals conditions for the local asymptotic stability of steady states and provides certain insights on the global dynamics of the system. The proposed approach yields a close connection between modelling and nonlinear dynamics. We illustrate the investigation of generalized models by considering examples from three different disciplines of science: a socio-economic model of dynastic cycles in china, a model for a coupled laser system and a general ecological food web.

  18. Unified Einstein-Virasoro Master Equation in the General Non-Linear Sigma Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boer, J. de; Halpern, M.B.

    1996-06-05

    The Virasoro master equation (VME) describes the general affine-Virasoro construction $T=L^abJ_aJ_b+iD^a \\dif J_a$ in the operator algebra of the WZW model, where $L^ab$ is the inverse inertia tensor and $D^a $ is the improvement vector. In this paper, we generalize this construction to find the general (one-loop) Virasoro construction in the operator algebra of the general non-linear sigma model. The result is a unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation which couples the spacetime spin-two field $L^ab$ to the background fields of the sigma model. For a particular solution $L_G^ab$, the unified system reduces to the canonical stress tensors and conventional Einstein equations of the sigma model, and the system reduces to the general affine-Virasoro construction and the VME when the sigma model is taken to be the WZW action. More generally, the unified system describes a space of conformal field theories which is presumably much larger than the sum of the general affine-Virasoro construction and the sigma model with its canonical stress tensors. We also discuss a number of algebraic and geometrical properties of the system, including its relation to an unsolved problem in the theory of $G$-structures on manifolds with torsion.

  19. Generalized Algorithms for Constructing Statistical Language Models Cyril Allauzen, Mehryar Mohri, Brian Roark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohri, Mehryar

    applications or for adaptation purposes, one often needs to construct a language model based on the out­ put has been incorporated in a general software library for language modeling, the GRM Library, information extraction, machine translation, or document classification. In all cases, a language model

  20. Extension of a Martian general circulation model to thermospheric altitudes: UV heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forget, François

    Extension of a Martian general circulation model to thermospheric altitudes: UV heating altitudes: UV heating and photochemical models, J. Geophys. Res., 110, E09008, doi:10.1029/2004JE002312. 1. Introduction [2] New modeling efforts and new data from spacecraft instrumentation are two relevant topics

  1. An integrated life cycle quality model for general public market software products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suryn, Witold

    An integrated life cycle quality model for general public market software products Witold Suryn1 of the software product results from its ultimate quality seen by both acquirers and end users. An integrated life cycle quality model, further called complement model for software product quality combines high level

  2. THE BETA-JACOBI MATRIX MODEL, THE CS DECOMPOSITION, AND GENERALIZED SINGULAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutton, Brian

    THE BETA-JACOBI MATRIX MODEL, THE CS DECOMPOSITION, AND GENERALIZED SINGULAR VALUE PROBLEMS ALAN EDELMAN AND BRIAN D. SUTTON Abstract. We provide a solution to the -Jacobi matrix model problem posed the algorithm on a Haar-distributed random matrix to produce the -Jacobi matrix model. The Jacobi ensemble on Rn

  3. Dilatonic Equation of Hydrostatic Equilibrium and Neutron Star Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. H. Hendi; G. H. Bordbar; B. Eslam Panah; M. Najafi

    2015-06-30

    In this paper, we present a new hydrostatic equilibrium equation related to dilaton gravity. We consider a spherical symmetric metric to obtain the hydrostatic equilibrium equation of stars in $4$-dimensions, and generalize TOV equation to the case of regarding a dilaton field. Then, we calculate the structure properties of neutron star using our obtained hydrostatic equilibrium equation employing the modern equations of state of neutron star matter derived from microscopic calculations. We show that the maximum mass of neutron star depends on the parameters of dilaton field and cosmological constant. In other words, by setting the parameters of new hydrostatic equilibrium equation, we calculate the maximum mass of neutron star.

  4. Representing energy technologies in top-down economic models using bottom-up information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarland, James R.; Reilly, John M.; Herzog, Howard J.

    This paper uses bottom-up engineering information as a basis for modeling new technologies within the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. ...

  5. A Forward Looking Version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babiker, Mustafa M.H.

    This paper documents a forward looking multi-regional general equilibrium model developed from the latest version of the recursive-dynamic MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model. The model represents ...

  6. The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model: Version 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey.

    The Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model is the part of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) that represents the human systems. EPPA is a recursive-dynamic multi-regional general equilibrium model ...

  7. Potential and flux field landscape theory. II. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of spatially inhomogeneous stochastic dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2014-09-14

    We have established a general non-equilibrium thermodynamic formalism consistently applicable to both spatially homogeneous and, more importantly, spatially inhomogeneous systems, governed by the Langevin and Fokker-Planck stochastic dynamics with multiple state transition mechanisms, using the potential-flux landscape framework as a bridge connecting stochastic dynamics with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A set of non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations, quantifying the relations of the non-equilibrium entropy, entropy flow, entropy production, and other thermodynamic quantities, together with their specific expressions, is constructed from a set of dynamical decomposition equations associated with the potential-flux landscape framework. The flux velocity plays a pivotal role on both the dynamic and thermodynamic levels. On the dynamic level, it represents a dynamic force breaking detailed balance, entailing the dynamical decomposition equations. On the thermodynamic level, it represents a thermodynamic force generating entropy production, manifested in the non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and more specific examples, the spatial stochastic neuronal model, in particular, are studied to test and illustrate the general theory. This theoretical framework is particularly suitable to study the non-equilibrium (thermo)dynamics of spatially inhomogeneous systems abundant in nature. This paper is the second of a series.

  8. Robust Bayesian general linear models W.D. Penny, J. Kilner, and F. Blankenburg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    Robust Bayesian general linear models W.D. Penny, J. Kilner, and F. Blankenburg Wellcome Department or cardiac noise sources (Penny et al., 2003). More recently, a number of approaches based on robust

  9. Recurrence and non-ergodicity in generalized wind-tree models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krzysztof Fr?czek; Pascal Hubert

    2015-06-19

    In this paper, we consider generalized wind-tree models and $\\Z^d$-covers over compact translation surfaces. Under suitable hypothesis, we prove recurrence of the linear flow in a generic direction and non-ergodicity of Lebesgue measure.

  10. Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rober Alicki; David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky

    2015-07-07

    Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system ("working fluid") coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) called sometimes work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines operating under their influences is limited by a generalized Carnot bound.

  11. Gravity, Dimension, Equilibrium, & Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerome Perez

    2006-03-30

    Is it actually possible to interpret gravitation as space's property in a pure classical way. Then, we note that extended self-gravitating system equilibrium depends directly on the number of dimension of the space in which it evolves. Given those precisions, we review the principal thermodynamical knowledge in the context of classical gravity with arbitrary dimension of space. Stability analyses for bounded 3D systems, namely the Antonov instability paradigm, are then rapproched to some amazing properties of globular clusters and galaxies.

  12. AIAA 2003-3549 Numerical Prediction of Non-equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Ambrosio, Domenic

    models with respect to the macroscopic thermochemical non-equilibrium models that are usually used i (per unit mass) ev,eq i specific equilibrium vibrational energy of species i h mixture enthalpy hf i formation enthalpy of species i hi species enthalpy (per unit mass) ho stagnation enthalpy K time

  13. Generalized Poland-Scheraga denaturation model and two-dimensional renewal processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giambattista Giacomin; Maha Khatib

    2015-10-27

    The Poland-Scheraga model describes the denaturation transition of two complementary - in particular, equally long - strands of DNA, and it has enjoyed a remarkable success both for quantitative modeling purposes and at a more theoretical level. The solvable character of the homogeneous version of the model is one of features to which its success is due. In the bio-physical literature a generalization of the model, allowing different length and non complementarity of the strands, has been considered and the solvable character extends to this substantial generalization. We present a mathematical analysis of the homogeneous generalized Poland-Scheraga model. Our approach is based on the fact that such a model is a homogeneous pinning model based on a bivariate renewal process, much like the basic Poland-Scheraga model is a pinning model based on a univariate, i.e. standard, renewal. We present a complete analysis of the free energy singularities, which include the localization-delocalization critical point and (in general) other critical points that have been only partially captured in the physical literature. We obtain also precise estimates on the path properties of the model.

  14. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manh Hong Duong

    2015-03-06

    In this paper, we cast damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems into a general framework for non-equilibrium thermodynamics, namely the GENERIC (General Equation for Non-Equilibrium Reversible-Irreversible Coupling) framework. The main ingredients of GENERIC consist of five building blocks: a state space, a Poisson operator, a dissipative operator, an energy functional, and an entropy functional. The GENERIC formulation of damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems brings several benefits. First, it provides alternative ways to derive thermodynamically consistent models of these systems by construct- ing building blocks instead of invoking conservation laws and constitutive relations. Second, it reveals clear physical and geometrical structures of these systems, e.g., the role of the energy and the entropy as the driving forces for the reversible and irreversible dynamics respectively. Third, it allows us to introduce a new GENERIC model for damped Timoshenko systems that is not existing in the literature.

  15. A General Relativistic Model for Magnetic Monopole-Infused Compact Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zoran Pazameta

    2012-01-30

    Emergent concepts from astroparticle physics are incorporated into a classical solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations for a binary magnetohydrodynamic fluid, in order to describe the final equilibrium state of compact objects infused with magnetic monopoles produced by proton-proton collisions within the intense dipolar magnetic fields generated by these objects during their collapse. It is found that the effective mass of such an object's acquired monopolar magnetic field is three times greater than the mass of its native fluid and monopoles combined, necessitating that the interior matter undergo a transition to a state of negative pressure in order to attain equilibrium. Assuming full symmetry between the electric and magnetic Maxwell equations yields expressions for the monopole charge density and magnetic field by direct analogy with their electrostatic equivalents; inserting these into the Einstein equations then leads to an interior metric which is well-behaved from the origin to the surface, where it matches smoothly to an exterior magnetic Reissner-Nordstr\\"om metric free of any coordinate pathologies. The source fields comprising the model are all described by simple, well-behaved polynomial functions of the radial coordinate, and are combined with straightforward regularity conditions to yield expressions delimiting several fundamental physical parameters pertaining to this hypothetical astrophysical object.

  16. New self-dual $k$-generalized Abelian-Higgs models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casana, R; Santos, A C

    2015-01-01

    We have shown the existence of self-dual solutions in new Maxwell-Higgs scenarios whose gauge field possess $k$-generalized dynamics, i.e., the kinetic part of the gauge action being highly nonlinear. We have implemented the BPS formalism providing highly nonlinear generalized self-dual equations whose solutions possess a total energy proportional to the magnetic flux. However, there is a key condition which allows to express the self-dual equations in a form mathematically similar those arising in the Maxwell-Higgs model. Under such a key condition, we have analyzed the general properties of the self-dual axially symmetric vortices. We have observed the generalization modifies the vortex core, the magnetic field amplitude and the bosonic masses but the total energy remains proportional to the quantized magnetic flux. Finally, we have established a prescription which allows to obtain different $k$-generalized Abelian Higgs models providing self-dual configurations.

  17. Representing Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for an Aqueous MEA-CO2 System Using the Electrolyte Nonrandom-Two-Liquid Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Luzheng

    for processing to-be-liquefied natural gas, syn- thesis gas, and hydrogen stream, which require low CO2 leakage processing the natural gas and refinery gas streams. The disadvantages of aqueous MEA include the followingRepresenting Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for an Aqueous MEA-CO2 System Using the Electrolyte Nonrandom-Two-Liquid

  18. Non-meanfield deterministic limits in chemical reaction kinetics far from equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. E. Lee DeVille; Cyrill B. Muratov; Eric Vanden-Eijnden

    2005-12-25

    A general mechanism is proposed by which small intrinsic fluctuations in a system far from equilibrium can result in nearly deterministic dynamical behaviors which are markedly distinct from those realized in the meanfield limit. The mechanism is demonstrated for the kinetic Monte-Carlo version of the Schnakenberg reaction where we identified a scaling limit in which the global deterministic bifurcation picture is fundamentally altered by fluctuations. Numerical simulations of the model are found to be in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions.

  19. OLAF ---A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fliege, Jörg

    OLAF --- A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air Polluting.2 The Air Dispersion Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3 Ecology and Chemokinetics 17 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6.1.3 Meteorological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6.1.4 Pollutant Data

  20. Modeling benzene plume elongation mechanisms exerted by ethanol using RT3D with a general

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Modeling benzene plume elongation mechanisms exerted by ethanol using RT3D with a general substrate ethanol on benzene fate and transport in fuel-contaminated groundwater and to discern the most influential benzene plume elongation mechanisms. The model, developed as a module for the Reactive Transport in 3

  1. The Effect of Topography on Storm-Track Intensity in a Relatively Simple General Circulation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Seok-Woo

    The Effect of Topography on Storm-Track Intensity in a Relatively Simple General Circulation Model The effect of topography on storm-track intensity is examined with a set of primitive equation model flow impinging on the topography. If the background flow consists of a weak double jet, higher

  2. GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 Fuel Load Modeling From Mensuration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of this study was to model a dead fuel load based on forest mensuration attributes from forest management from management programs are an efficient and low-cost alternative for estimating forest fuel loadsGENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 274 Fuel Load Modeling From Mensuration Attributes

  3. A GENERALIZED MODEL OF MUTATION-SELECTION BALANCE WITH APPLICATIONS TO AGING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Steven N.

    A GENERALIZED MODEL OF MUTATION-SELECTION BALANCE WITH APPLICATIONS TO AGING DAVID STEINSALTZ to cover mutation-driven changes in full age-specific demo- graphic schedules. The model accommodates of solutions in a restricted case. Examples are given of applications to the biodemography of aging. 1

  4. Heterogeneous Interacting Agent Models for Understanding Monetary Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    of a standard competitive equilibrium theory. There have been numerous critiques of that theory, for example and the limitations of the mainstream approach. Formulated as a DSGE (dynamic stochastic general equilibrium) model that trivially lead to conclusions that there can be no unemployment or liquidity crises; how can such a model

  5. Geometry and General Relativity in the Groupoid Model with a Finite Structure Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Heller; T. Miller; L. Pysiak; W. Sasin

    2015-01-08

    In a series of papers we proposed a model unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics. The idea was to deduce both general relativity and quantum mechanics from a noncommutative algebra ${\\cal A}_{\\Gamma}$ defined on a transformation groupoid $\\Gamma$ determined by the action of the Lorentz group on the frame bundle $(E, \\pi_M, M)$ over space-time $M$. In the present work, we construct a simplified version of the gravitational sector of this model in which the Lorentz group is replaced by a finite group $G$ and the frame bundle is trivial $E=M\\times G$. The model is fully computable. We define the Einstein-Hilbert action, with the help of which we derive the generalized vacuum Einstein equations. When the equations are projected to space-time (giving the "general relativistic limit"), the extra terms that appear due to our generalization can be interpreted as "matter terms", as in Kaluza-Klein-type models. To illustrate this effect we further simplify the metric matrix to a block diagonal form, compute for it the generalized Einstein equations and find two of their "Friedmann-like" solutions for the special case when $G =\\mathbb{Z}_2$. One of them gives the flat Minkowski space-time (which, however, is not static), another, a hyperbolic, linearly expanding universe.

  6. Space Charge and Equilibrium Emittances in Damping Rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu; Wolski, Andy

    2006-06-21

    We present a model of dynamics to account for the possible impact of space charge on the equilibrium emittances in storage rings and apply the model to study the current design of the International Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings.

  7. Nash Equilibrium Based Fairness Hisao Kameda, Eitan Altman, Corinne Touati and Arnaud Legrand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nash Equilibrium Based Fairness Hisao Kameda, Eitan Altman, Corinne Touati and Arnaud Legrand is then the Nash equilibrium. Nash equilibria are generally Pareto inefficient. On the other hand, we consider a Nash equilibrium to be fair as it is defined in a context of fair competition without coalitions (such

  8. Interacting holographic dark energy model and generalized second law of thermodynamics in non-flat universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. R. Setare

    2007-01-26

    In the present paper we consider the interacting holographic model of dark energy to investigate the validity of the generalized second laws of thermodynamics in non-flat (closed) universe enclosed by the event horizon measured from the sphere of the horizon named $L$. We show that for $L$ as the system's IR cut-off the generalized second law is respected for the special range of the deceleration parameter.

  9. Trade, Environment, and Public Health in Chile. Evidence from an Economywide Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    health in Chile. Using a general equilibrium framework, we synthesize economic, engineering, and health three areas. The basic tool of analysis is a 75-sector calibrated general equilibrium (CGE) model impact on local mortality and morbidity. These three pollutants appear to be complementary in economic

  10. Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...

  11. Exclusive $B \\to PV $ Decays and CP Violation in the General two-Higgs-doublet Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Y L; 10.1103/PhysRevD.75.115006

    2008-01-01

    We calculate all the branching ratios and direct CP violations of $B \\to PV$ decays in a most general two-Higgs-doublet model with spontaneous CP violation. As the model has rich CP-violating sources, it is shown that the new physics effects to direct CP violations and branching ratios in some channels can be significant when adopting the generalized factorization approach to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements, which provides good signals for probing new physics beyond the SM in the future B experiments.

  12. Exclusive $B \\to PV $ Decays and CP Violation in the General two-Higgs-doublet Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. L. Wu; C. Zhuang

    2007-01-10

    We calculate all the branching ratios and direct CP violations of $B \\to PV$ decays in a most general two-Higgs-doublet model with spontaneous CP violation. As the model has rich CP-violating sources, it is shown that the new physics effects to direct CP violations and branching ratios in some channels can be significant when adopting the generalized factorization approach to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements, which provides good signals for probing new physics beyond the SM in the future B experiments.

  13. A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, E T; Shumlak, U

    2012-04-06

    A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.

  14. Entropy production in non-equilibrium fluctuating hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacomo Gradenigo; Andrea Puglisi; Alessandro Sarracino

    2012-05-16

    Fluctuating entropy production is studied for a set of linearly coupled complex fields. The general result is applied to non-equilibrium fluctuating hydrodynamic equations for coarse-grained fields (density, temperature and velocity), in the framework of model granular fluids. We find that the average entropy production, obtained from the microscopic stochastic description, can be expressed in terms of macroscopic quantities, in analogy with linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We consider the specific cases of driven granular fluids with two different kinds of thermostat and the homogeneous cooling regime. In all cases, the average entropy production turns out to be the product of a thermodynamic force and a current: the former depends on the specific energy injection mechanism, the latter takes always the form of a static correlation between fluctuations of density and temperature time-derivative. Both vanish in the elastic limit. The behavior of the entropy production is studied at different length scales and the qualitative differences arising for the different granular models are discussed.

  15. Thermospheric tides simulated by the national center for atmospheric research thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model at equinox

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesen, C.G. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)); Roble, R.G.; Ridley, E.C. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1993-05-01

    The authors use the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermosphere/ionosphere general circulation model (TIGCM) to model tides and dynamics in the thermosphere. This model incorporates the latest advances in the thermosphere general circulation model. Model results emphasized the 70[degree] W longitude region to overlap a series of incoherent radar scatter installations. Data and the model are available on data bases. The results of this theoretical modeling are compared with available data, and with prediction of more empirical models. In general there is broad agreement within the comparisons.

  16. Phase synchronization of coupled bursting neurons and the generalized Kuramoto model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabiano A. S. Ferrari; Ricardo L. Viana; Sérgio R. Lopes; Ruedi Stoop

    2015-02-13

    Bursting neurons fire rapid sequences of action potential spikes followed by a quiescent period. The basic dynamical mechanism of bursting is the slow currents that modulate a fast spiking activity caused by rapid ionic currents. Minimal models of bursting neurons must include both effects. We considered one of these models and its relation with a generalized Kuramoto model, thanks to the definition of a geometrical phase for bursting and a corresponding frequency. We considered neuronal networks with different connection topologies and investigated the transition from a non-synchronized to a partially phase-synchronized state as the coupling strength is varied. The numerically determined critical coupling strength value for this transition to occur is compared with theoretical results valid for the generalized Kuramoto model.

  17. Equilibrium and transient morphologies of river networks : discriminating among fluvial erosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasparini, Nicole Marie, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    We examine the equilibrium and transient morphology of alluvial and bedrock river networks. We apply analytical methods and an iterative model to solve for equilibrium slope-area and texture- area (in alluvial networks) ...

  18. Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model J. M. Dong,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model J. M. Dong,1 H. F. Zhang,1 and G. Royer) The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of proton are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within

  19. A generalized kinetic model for the formation and growth of single-walled metal oxide nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    A generalized kinetic model for the formation and growth of single-walled metal oxide nanotubes G,n a School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA b School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA c

  20. Tighter Relaxations for Higher-Order Models based on Generalized Roof Duality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunds Universitet

    Tighter Relaxations for Higher-Order Models based on Generalized Roof Duality Johan Fredriksson one of the most successful approaches, namely roof duality, for approximately solving such problems cone. In the sec- ond method, it is shown that the roof dual bound can be applied in an iterated way

  1. Towards a Generalized Regression Model for On-body Energy Prediction from Treadmill Walking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    Towards a Generalized Regression Model for On-body Energy Prediction from Treadmill Walking sensor data to energy expenditure is the ques- tion of normalizating across physiological parameters. Common approaches such as weight scaling require validation for each new population. An alternative

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 26, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2010 837 Modeling Deformations of General Parametric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Yan-Bin

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 26, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2010 837 Modeling Deformations of General Parametric Shells Grasped by a Robot Hand Jiang Tian and Yan-Bin Jia, Member, IEEE Abstract--The robot hand and normal of the contact area. Design and analysis of a manipulation strategy thus depend on reliable

  3. Capacity Planning in a General Supply Chain with Multiple Contract Types Single Period Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, Stephen C.

    and sufficient capacity to meet market demands. However, capacity planning is a very challenging task for manyCapacity Planning in a General Supply Chain with Multiple Contract Types ­ Single Period Model Xin Huang · Stephen C. Graves Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts

  4. USE OF GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL OUTPUT IN THE CREATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    , Sub-Saharan Africa and Venezuela, for use in biological effects models. By combining the general, and possible solar variations, and all agree that surface air temperatures will rise, pre- cipitation patterns will change, and sea level will rise. Even though such projections of the future are relatively crude

  5. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D.; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  6. Impact Assessment of Satellite-Derived Leaf Area Index Datasets Using a General Circulation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Yongkang

    Impact Assessment of Satellite-Derived Leaf Area Index Datasets Using a General Circulation Model the impact of two different remote sensing­derived leaf area index (RSLAI) datasets retrieved from the same using the RSLAI and other satellite-derived land surface products showed sub- stantial improvements

  7. Electrodynamic effects of thermospheric winds from the NCAR thermospheric general circulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richmond, A.D.; Roble, R.G.

    1987-11-01

    The ionospheric electric fields and currents and the associated ground magnetic variations, generated by the dynamo action of winds simulated with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. (NCAR) Thermospheric General Circulation Model (TGCM), are modelled and compared with observations for equinox solar minimum conditions. The dynamo model uses a tilted dipole geomagnetic field and allows for field-aligned current flow between conjugate points, but no magnetospheric dynamo effects are included. Two TGCM wind simulations are used, one of which is driven only by in situ solar ultraviolet heating and the other of which includes lower boundary forcing that mimics the effects of upward propagating semidiurnal tides, as described by Fesen et al. (1986). Without tidal forcing, the TGCM winds produce ground magnetic variations that have the general pattern of observed Sq variations but are only about half as strong.

  8. Well-posedness and generalized plane waves simulations of a 2D mode conversion model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imbert-Gérard, Lise-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Certain types of electro-magnetic waves propagating in a plasma can undergo a mode conversion process. In magnetic confinement fusion, this phenomenon is very useful to heat the plasma, since it permits to transfer the heat at or near the plasma center. This work focuses on a mathematical model of wave propagation around the mode conversion region, from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It aims at developing, for a well-posed equation, specific basis functions to study a wave mode conversion process. These basis functions, called generalized plane waves, are intrinsically based on variable coefficients. As such, they are particularly adapted to the mode conversion problem. The design of generalized plane waves for the proposed model is described in detail. Their implementation within a discontinuous Galerkin method then provides numerical simulations of the process. These first 2D simulations for this model agree with qualitative aspects studied in previous works.

  9. Well-posedness and generalized plane waves simulations of a 2D mode conversion model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lise-Marie Imbert-Gérard

    2015-04-27

    Certain types of electro-magnetic waves propagating in a plasma can undergo a mode conversion process. In magnetic confinement fusion, this phenomenon is very useful to heat the plasma, since it permits to transfer the heat at or near the plasma center. This work focuses on a mathematical model of wave propagation around the mode conversion region, from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It aims at developing, for a well-posed equation, specific basis functions to study a wave mode conversion process. These basis functions, called generalized plane waves, are intrinsically based on variable coefficients. As such, they are particularly adapted to the mode conversion problem. The design of generalized plane waves for the proposed model is described in detail. Their implementation within a discontinuous Galerkin method then provides numerical simulations of the process. These first 2D simulations for this model agree with qualitative aspects studied in previous works.

  10. Equilibrium Distributions and Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashot Vagharshakyan

    2011-06-07

    In this article two models for charges distributions are discussed. On the basis of our consideration we put different points of view for stationary state. We prove that only finite energy model for charges' distribution and well-known variation principle explain some well-known experimental results. A new model for superconductivity was suggested, too. In frame of that model some characteristic experimental results for superconductors is possible to explain.

  11. The economics of US greenhouse gas emissions reduction policy : assessing distributional effects across households and the 50 United States using a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Look, Wesley Allen

    2013-01-01

    The political economy of US climate policy has revolved around state- and district- level distributional economics, and to a lesser extent household-level distribution questions. Many politicians and analysts have suggested ...

  12. Technology and Technical Change in the MIT EPPA Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    Potential technology change has a strong influence on projections of greenhouse gas emissions and costs of control, and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are a common device for studying these phenomena. Using ...

  13. General transformation of alpha cluster model wave function to jj-coupling shell model in various 4N nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Itagaki; H. Matsuno; T. Suhara

    2015-07-09

    The antisymmetrized quasi-cluster model (AQCM) is a method to describe a transition from the alpha-cluster wave function to the jj-coupling shell model wave function. In this model, the cluster-shell transition is characterized by only two parameters; R representing the distance between alpha clusters and Lambda describing the breaking of alpha clusters, and the contribution of the spin-orbit interaction, very important in the jj-coupling shell model, can be taken into account starting with the alpha cluster model wave function. In this article we show the generality of AQCM by extending the application to heavier region; various 4N nuclei from 4He to 52Fe. We show and compare the energy curves for the alpha+40Ca cluster configuration calculated with and without alpha breaking effect in 44Ti.

  14. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    We consider the problem of determining the three-dimensional folding of a protein given its one-dimensional amino acid sequence. We use the HP model for protein folding proposed by Dill, which models protein as a chain of amino acid residues that are either hydrophobic or polar, and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant initial driving force for the protein folding. Hart and Istrail gave approximation algorithms for folding proteins on the cubic lattice under HP model. In this paper, we examine the choice of a lattice by considering its algorithmic and geometric implications and argue that triangular lattice is a more reasonable choice. We present a set of folding rules for a triangular lattice and analyze the approximation ratio which they achieve. In addition, we introduce a generalization of the HP model to account for residues having different levels of hydrophobicity. After describing the biological foundation for this generalization, we show that in the new model we are able to achieve similar constant factor approximation guarantees on the triangular lattice as were achieved in the standard HP model. While the structures derived from our folding rules are probably still far from biological reality, we hope that having a set of folding rules with different properties will yield more interesting folds when combined.

  15. A General Hippocampal Computational Model Combining Episodic and Spatial Memory in a Spiking Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguiar, Paulo de Castro

    The hippocampus, in humans and rats, plays crucial roles in spatial tasks and nonspatial tasks involving episodic-type memory. This thesis presents a novel computational model of the hippocampus (CA1, CA3 and dentate ...

  16. Model Parameterization, Prior Distributions, and the General Time-Reversible Model in Bayesian Phylogenetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zwickl, Derrick J.; Holder, Mark T.

    2004-01-01

    .— Bayesian phylo^enetic methods reiiuire Ihe selection of prior probability distribulions for all parameters of the model of evolution. These distribulii>ns allow one to incorporate prior information into a liayesian analysis, but even in the absence...

  17. Modelling ocean circulation processes in the MIT general circulation model using nen 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnshaw, Heather E

    2007-09-24

    Previous work by Reitsma and Albrecht (2005, 2006) and Reitsma and Dubayah (2006) documented the development and implementation of a new process-based data model, called nen. This paper extends that work by applying the ...

  18. Energy-Momentum of the Friedmann Models in General Relativity and Teleparallel Theory of Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif; M. Jamil Amir

    2008-09-09

    This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the energy-momentum density components for the Friedmann models. For this purpose, we have used M${\\o}$ller's pseudotensor prescription in General Relativity and a certain energy-momentum density developed from his teleparallel formulation. It is shown that the energy density of the closed Friedmann universe vanishes on the spherical shell at the radius $\\rho=2\\sqrt{3}$. This coincides with the earlier results available in the literature. We also discuss the energy of the flat and open models. A comparison shows a partial consistency between the M${\\o}$ller's pseudotensor for General Relativity and teleparallel theory. Further, it is shown that the results are independent of the free dimensionless coupling constant of the teleparallel gravity.

  19. Regret Testing: A Simple Payoff-Based Procedure for Learning Nash Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    Regret Testing: A Simple Payoff-Based Procedure for Learning Nash Equilibrium DEAN P. FOSTER aspiration learning models, whose period-by- period behavior comes arbitrarily close to Nash equilibrium employ a rule from this class their period-by-period strategic behavior approximates Nash equilibrium

  20. Fourier analysis for generalized cylinders with polar models of cross-sections 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsythe, William Clarence

    1990-01-01

    . Background 1. 2. Modeling Criteria 1. 3. Modeling Methods 1. 3. 1. Voxel Methods 1. 3. 2. Constructive Solid Geometry 1. 3. 3. Boundary Representation 1. 3. 4. Superquadrics 1. 4. Generalized Cylinder 1. 4. 1. GC Definition 1. 4. 2. GC Research 1. 4. 3. GC... such as spheres, cuboids, and tetrahedrons. This method works well with man-made objects. For instance, a table may be represented with five cuboids, using one cuboid for the top of the table, and one cuboid each, positioned appropriately, for the four legs...

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of system oscillations modeled by a forced Van der Pol generalized oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. Hinvi; C. H. Miwadinou; A. V. Monwanou; J. B. Chabi Orou

    2014-02-18

    This paper considers the oscillations modeled by a forced Van der Pol generalized oscillator. These oscillations are described by a nonlinear differential equation of the form $ \\ddot{x}+x-\\varepsilon\\left(1-ax^2-b\\dot{x}^2\\right)\\dot{x}=E\\sin{{\\Omega}t}.$ The amplitudes of the forced harmonic, primary resonance superharmonic and subharmonic oscillatory states are obtained using the harmonic balance technique and the multiple time scales methods. We obtain also the hysteresis and jump phenomena in the system oscillations. Bifurcation sequences displayed by the model for each type of oscillatory states are performed numerically through the fourth-order Runge- Kutta scheme.

  2. A generalized multi-dimensional mathematical model for charging and discharging processes in a supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allu, Srikanth; Velamur Asokan, Badri; Shelton, William A; Philip, Bobby; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2014-01-01

    A generalized three dimensional computational model based on unied formulation of electrode- electrolyte-electrode system of a electric double layer supercapacitor has been developed. The model accounts for charge transport across the solid-liquid system. This formulation based on volume averaging process is a widely used concept for the multiphase ow equations ([28] [36]) and is analogous to porous media theory typically employed for electrochemical systems [22] [39] [12]. This formulation is extended to the electrochemical equations for a supercapacitor in a consistent fashion, which allows for a single-domain approach with no need for explicit interfacial boundary conditions as previously employed ([38]). In this model it is easy to introduce the spatio-temporal variations, anisotropies of physical properties and it is also conducive for introducing any upscaled parameters from lower length{scale simulations and experiments. Due to the irregular geometric congurations including porous electrode, the charge transport and subsequent performance characteristics of the super-capacitor can be easily captured in higher dimensions. A generalized model of this nature also provides insight into the applicability of 1D models ([38]) and where multidimensional eects need to be considered. In addition, simple sensitivity analysis on key input parameters is performed in order to ascertain the dependence of the charge and discharge processes on these parameters. Finally, we demonstarted how this new formulation can be applied to non-planar supercapacitors

  3. Equilibrium Electro-osmotic Instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Isaak

    2014-01-01

    Since its prediction fifteen years ago, electro-osmotic instability has been attributed to non-equilibrium electro-osmosis related to the extended space charge which develops at the limiting current in the course of concentration polarization at a charge-selective interface. This attribution had a double basis. Firstly, it has been recognized that equilibrium electro-osmosis cannot yield instability for a perfectly charge-selective solid. Secondly, it has been shown that non-equilibrium electro-osmosis can. First theoretical studies in which electro-osmotic instability was predicted and analyzed employed the assumption of perfect charge-selectivity for the sake of simplicity and so did the subsequent numerical studies of various time-dependent and nonlinear features of electro-osmotic instability. In this letter, we show that relaxing the assumption of perfect charge-selectivity (tantamount to fixing the electrochemical potential in the solid) allows for equilibrium electro-osmotic instability. Moreover, we s...

  4. Minimum Description Length Model Selection Criteria for Generalized Linear Models Mark Hansen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bin

    of simulations for logistic regression illustrate that mixture MDL can ``bridge'' AIC and BIC in the sense. By viewing statistical modeling as a means of generating descriptions of observed data, the MDL framework (cf for a probability distribution Q on A. An integer­valued function L corresponds to the code length of a binary

  5. Equilibrium Electro-osmotic Instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaak Rubinstein; Boris Zaltzman

    2014-03-18

    Since its prediction fifteen years ago, electro-osmotic instability has been attributed to non-equilibrium electro-osmosis related to the extended space charge which develops at the limiting current in the course of concentration polarization at a charge-selective interface. This attribution had a double basis. Firstly, it has been recognized that equilibrium electro-osmosis cannot yield instability for a perfectly charge-selective solid. Secondly, it has been shown that non-equilibrium electro-osmosis can. First theoretical studies in which electro-osmotic instability was predicted and analyzed employed the assumption of perfect charge-selectivity for the sake of simplicity and so did the subsequent numerical studies of various time-dependent and nonlinear features of electro-osmotic instability. In this letter, we show that relaxing the assumption of perfect charge-selectivity (tantamount to fixing the electrochemical potential in the solid) allows for equilibrium electro-osmotic instability. Moreover, we suggest a simple experimental test for determining the true, either equilibrium or non-equilibrium, origin of electro-osmotic instability.

  6. Investigating the ability of general circulation models to capture the effects of Eurasian snow cover on winter climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Investigating the ability of general circulation models to capture the effects of Eurasian snow of general circulation models (GCMs) to reproduce the observed strong correlations of Eurasian snow extent in the troposphere in response to snow-forced surface cooling and a coupled zonal-mean stratosphere

  7. Out-of-equilibrium liquids that form due to dynamics of the molecules that depend on the local density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sear, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    RNA molecules in living cells form what look like liquid droplets formed by liquid/liquid phase separation. But unlike the molecules in conventional phase separating mixtures, RNA molecules are transported by molecular motors that consume energy and so are out of equilibrium. Motivated by this we study models with out-of-equilibrium dynamics that depend on the local density. Our simulations suggest that density-dependent dynamics in which the motion of a molecule slows down in the presence of nearby molecules, tend to cause condensation into an out-of-equilibrium liquid state. This out-of-equilibrium state behaves like a liquid in the sense that it coexists with a much more dilute phase, droplets coalesce, and the state has a well-defined surface tension --- which we calculate. Liquid/liquid separation appears to be a very general phenomenon that occurs in and out of equilibrium. We also look at the analogous separation of the two blocks of a block copolymer, in which the monomers of one block have dynamics t...

  8. Introduction Central Limit Problem for inelastic Kac model Main results Beyond Kac's equation Speed of approach to equilibrium for an inelastic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bassetti, Federico

    Introduction Central Limit Problem for inelastic Kac model Main results Beyond Kac's equation Speed;Introduction Central Limit Problem for inelastic Kac model Main results Beyond Kac's equation Summary developments #12;Introduction Central Limit Problem for inelastic Kac model Main results Beyond Kac's equation

  9. Generalized Uncertainty Relations and Long Time Limits for Quantum Brownian Motion Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Anastopoulos; J. J. Halliwell

    1994-07-27

    We study the time evolution of the reduced Wigner function for a class of quantum Brownian motion models. We derive two generalized uncertainty relations. The first consists of a sharp lower bound on the uncertainty function, $U = (\\Delta p)^2 (\\Delta q)^2 $, after evolution for time $t$ in the presence of an environment. The second, a stronger and simpler result, consists of a lower bound at time $t$ on a modified uncertainty function, essentially the area enclosed by the $1-\\sigma$ contour of the Wigner function. In both cases the minimizing initial state is a non-minimal Gaussian pure state. These generalized uncertainty relations supply a measure of the comparative size of quantum and thermal fluctuations. We prove two simple inequalites, relating uncertainty to von Neumann entropy, and the von Neumann entropy to linear entropy. We also prove some results on the long-time limit of the Wigner function for arbitrary initial states. For the harmonic oscillator the Wigner function for all initial states becomes a Gaussian at large times (often, but not always, a thermal state). We derive the explicit forms of the long-time limit for the free particle (which does not in general go to a Gaussian), and also for more general potentials in the approximation of high temperature.

  10. Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics for Non-canonical Scalar Field Model with Corrected-Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Sudipta; Mamon, Abdulla Al

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have considered a non-canonical scalar field dark energy model in the framework of flat FRW background. It has also been assumed that the dark matter sector interacts with the non-canonical dark energy sector through some interaction term. Using the solutions for this interacting non-canonical scalar field dark energy model, we have investigated the validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in various scenarios using first law and area law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, we have assumed two types of horizons viz apparent horizon and event horizon for the universe and using first law of thermodynamics, we have examined the validity of GSL on both apparent and event horizons. Next, we have considered two types of entropy-corrections on apparent and event horizons. Using the modified area law, we have examined the validity of GSL of thermodynamics on apparent and event horizons under some restrictions of model parameters.

  11. General model selection estimation of a periodic regression with a Gaussian noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konev, Victor; 10.1007/s10463-008-0193-1

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of estimating a periodic function in a continuous time regression model with an additive stationary gaussian noise having unknown correlation function. A general model selection procedure on the basis of arbitrary projective estimates, which does not need the knowledge of the noise correlation function, is proposed. A non-asymptotic upper bound for quadratic risk (oracle inequality) has been derived under mild conditions on the noise. For the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise the risk upper bound is shown to be uniform in the nuisance parameter. In the case of gaussian white noise the constructed procedure has some advantages as compared with the procedure based on the least squares estimates (LSE). The asymptotic minimaxity of the estimates has been proved. The proposed model selection scheme is extended also to the estimation problem based on the discrete data applicably to the situation when high frequency sampling can not be provided.

  12. Equilibrium insertion of nanoscale objects into phospholipid bilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergey Pogodin; Vladimir A. Baulin

    2011-08-30

    Certain membrane proteins, peptides, nanoparticles and nanotubes have rigid structure and fixed shape. They are often viewed as spheres and cylinders with certain surface properties. Single Chain Mean Field theory is used to model the equilibrium insertion of nanoscale spheres and rods into the phospholipid bilayer. The equilibrium structures and the resulting free energies of the nano-objects in the bilayer allow to distinguish different orientations in the bilayer and estimate the energy barrier of insertion.

  13. Mathematical Conception of "Phenomenological" Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. P. Maslov

    2012-06-29

    In the paper, the principal aspects of the mathematical theory of equilibrium thermodynamics are distinguished. It is proved that the points of degeneration of a Bose gas of fractal dimension in the momentum space coincide with critical points or real gases, whereas the jumps of critical indices and the Maxwell rule are related to the tunnel generalization of thermodynamics. Semiclassical methods are considered for the tunnel generalization of thermodynamics and also for the second and ultrasecond quantization (operators of creation and annihilation of pairs). To every pure gas there corresponds a new critical point of the limit negative pressure below which the liquid passes to a dispersed state (a foam). Relations for critical points of a homogeneous mixture of pure gases are given in dependence on the concentration of gases.

  14. Mathematical Conception of "Phenomenological" Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maslov, V P

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, the principal aspects of the mathematical theory of equilibrium thermodynamics are distinguished. It is proved that the points of degeneration of a Bose gas of fractal dimension in the momentum space coincide with critical points or real gases, whereas the jumps of critical indices and the Maxwell rule are related to the tunnel generalization of thermodynamics. Semiclassical methods are considered for the tunnel generalization of thermodynamics and also for the second and ultrasecond quantization (operators of creation and annihilation of pairs). To every pure gas there corresponds a new critical point of the limit negative pressure below which the liquid passes to a dispersed state (a foam). Relations for critical points of a homogeneous mixture of pure gases are given in dependence on the concentration of gases.

  15. Development of a free boundary Tokamak Equilibrium Solver (TES) for Advanced Study of Tokamak Equilibria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Y M

    2015-01-01

    A free-boundary Tokamak Equilibrium Solver (TES), developed for advanced study of tokamak equilibra, is described with two distinctive features. One is a generalized method to resolve the intrinsic axisymmetric instability, which is encountered after all in equilibrium calculation with a free-boundary condition. The other is an extension to deal with a new divertor geometry such as snowflake or X divertors. For validations, the uniqueness of a solution is confirmed by the independence on variations of computational domain, the mathematical correctness and accuracy of equilibrium profiles are checked by a direct comparison with an analytic equilibrium known as a generalized Solovev equilibrium, and the governing force balance relation is tested by examining the intrinsic axisymmetric instabilities. As a valuable application, a snowflake equilibrium that requires a second order zero of the poloidal magnetic field is discussed in the circumstance of KSTAR coil system.

  16. Non-equilibrium fluctuations and mechanochemical couplings of a molecular motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. W. C. Lau; D. Lacoste; K. Mallick

    2007-07-30

    We investigate theoretically the violations of Einstein and Onsager relations, and the efficiency for a single processive motor operating far from equilibrium using an extension of the two-state model introduced by Kafri {\\em et al.} [Biophys. J. {\\bf 86}, 3373 (2004)]. With the aid of the Fluctuation Theorem, we analyze the general features of these violations and this efficiency and link them to mechanochemical couplings of motors. In particular, an analysis of the experimental data of kinesin using our framework leads to interesting predictions that may serve as a guide for future experiments.

  17. A Generalized Linear Transport Model for Spatially-Correlated Stochastic Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony B. Davis; Feng Xu

    2014-10-29

    We formulate a new model for transport in stochastic media with long-range spatial correlations where exponential attenuation (controlling the propagation part of the transport) becomes power law. Direct transmission over optical distance $\\tau(s)$, for fixed physical distance $s$, thus becomes $(1+\\tau(s)/a)^{-a}$, with standard exponential decay recovered when $a\\to\\infty$. Atmospheric turbulence phenomenology for fluctuating optical properties rationalizes this switch. Foundational equations for this generalized transport model are stated in integral form for $d=1,2,3$ spatial dimensions. A deterministic numerical solution is developed in $d=1$ using Markov Chain formalism, verified with Monte Carlo, and used to investigate internal radiation fields. Standard two-stream theory, where diffusion is exact, is recovered when $a=\\infty$. Differential diffusion equations are not presently known when $adetection, the other in a transition from one position to another in the medium.

  18. A comparison of general circulation model predictions to sand drift and dune orientations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumberg, D.G.; Greeley, R.

    1996-12-01

    The growing concern over climate change and decertification stresses the importance of aeolian process prediction. In this paper the use of a general circulation model to predict current aeolian features is examined. A GCM developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center was used in conjunction with White`s aeolian sand flux model to produce a global potential aeolian transport map. Surface wind shear stress predictions were used from the output of a GCM simulation that was performed as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project on 1979 climate conditions. The spatial resolution of this study (as driven by the GCM) is 4{degrees} X 5{degrees}; instantaneous 6-hourly wind stress data were saved by the GCM and used in this report. A global map showing potential sand transport was compared to drift potential directions as inferred from Landsat images from the 1980s for several sand seas and a coastal dune field. Generally, results show a good correlation between the simulated sand drift direction and the drift direction inferred for dune forms. Discrepancies between the drift potential and the drift inferred from images were found in the North American deserts and the Arabian peninsula. An attempt to predict the type of dune that would be formed in specific regions was not successful. The model could probably be further improved by incorporating soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation information for a better assessment of sand threshold conditions. The correlation may permit use of a GCM to analyze {open_quotes}fossil{close_quotes} dunes or to forecast aeolian processes. 48 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Short ensembles: An Efficient Method for Discerning Climate-relevant Sensitivities in Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhang, Kai; Qian, Yun; Yan, Huiping; Zhao, Chun

    2014-09-08

    This paper explores the feasibility of an experimentation strategy for investigating sensitivities in fast components of atmospheric general circulation models. The basic idea is to replace the traditional serial-in-time long-term climate integrations by representative ensembles of shorter simulations. The key advantage of the proposed method lies in its efficiency: since fewer days of simulation are needed, the computational cost is less, and because individual realizations are independent and can be integrated simultaneously, the new dimension of parallelism can dramatically reduce the turnaround time in benchmark tests, sensitivities studies, and model tuning exercises. The strategy is not appropriate for exploring sensitivity of all model features, but it is very effective in many situations. Two examples are presented using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The first example demonstrates that the method is capable of characterizing the model cloud and precipitation sensitivity to time step length. A nudging technique is also applied to an additional set of simulations to help understand the contribution of physics-dynamics interaction to the detected time step sensitivity. In the second example, multiple empirical parameters related to cloud microphysics and aerosol lifecycle are perturbed simultaneously in order to explore which parameters have the largest impact on the simulated global mean top-of-atmosphere radiation balance. Results show that in both examples, short ensembles are able to correctly reproduce the main signals of model sensitivities revealed by traditional long-term climate simulations for fast processes in the climate system. The efficiency of the ensemble method makes it particularly useful for the development of high-resolution, costly and complex climate models.

  20. EGU General Assembly 2014, Vienna, Austria Relative importance of coloured noise vs. model errors in reduced scale gravity field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuttgart, Universität

    EGU General Assembly 2014, Vienna, Austria Relative importance of coloured noise vs. model errors produced by time-variable background model errors. In particular, the effects of measurement noise models for every time epoch which provides the observables in the dimension of range acceleration

  1. Degeneracies and scaling relations in general power-law models for gravitational lenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olaf Wucknitz

    2002-02-20

    The time delay in gravitational lenses can be used to derive the Hubble constant in a relatively simple way. The results of this method are less dependent on astrophysical assumptions than in many other methods. The most important uncertainty is related to the mass model used. We discuss a family of models with a separable radial power-law and an arbitrary angular dependence for the potential psi = r^beta * F(theta). Isothermal potentials are a special case of these models with beta=1. An additional external shear is used to take into account perturbations from other galaxies. Using a simple linear formalism for quadruple lenses, we can derive H0 as a function of the observables and the shear. If the latter is fixed, the result depends on the assumed power-law exponent according to H0 proportional to (2-beta)/beta. The effect of external shear is quantified by introducing a `critical shear' gamma_c as a measure for the amount of shear that changes the result significantly. The analysis shows, that in the general case H0 and gamma_c do not depend on the position of the lens galaxy. We discuss these results and compare with numerical models for a number of real lens systems.

  2. Reverse Supply Chain Management and Electronic Waste Recycling: A Multitiered Network Equilibrium Framework for E-Cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Reverse Supply Chain Management and Electronic Waste Recycling: A Multitiered Network Equilibrium for the modeling of reverse supply chain management of electronic waste, which includes recycling. We describe networks; Environment; Waste management; Reverse logistics; Variational inequali- ties; Network equilibrium

  3. Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. K. Sinclair

    2007-02-03

    Lattice QCD allows us to simulate QCD at non-zero temperature and/or densities. Such equilibrium thermodynamics calculations are relevant to the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. I give a brief review of the field with emphasis on our work.

  4. LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM Lab I -1 In biological systems, most objects of interest system. OBJECTIVES: After successfully completing this laboratory, you should be able to: · Determine and 6), and chapter 15 (section 4). It is likely that you will be doing some of these laboratory

  5. A non-equilibrium quantum Landauer principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Goold; Mauro Paternostro; Kavan Modi

    2015-01-09

    Using the operational framework of completely positive, trace preserving operations and thermodynamic fluctuation relations, we derive a lower bound for the heat exchange in a Landauer erasure process on a quantum system. Our bound comes from a non-phenomenological derivation of the Landauer principle which holds for generic non-equilibrium dynamics. Furthermore the bound depends on the non-unitality of dynamics, giving it a physical significance that differs from other derivations. We apply our framework to the model of a spin-1/2 system coupled to an interacting spin chain at finite temperature.

  6. A new general model with non-spherical interactions for dense polymer systems and a potential parametrization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    A new general model with non-spherical interactions for dense polymer systems and a potential of Bisphenol-A-Poly- carbonate, which is regarded here, the torsional potential is

  7. Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornton, P. E.; Doney, S. C.; Lindsay, Keith; Moore, J. K.; Mahowald, N. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Fung, I.; Lamarque, J. F.; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Inclusion of fundamental ecological interactions between carbon and nitrogen cycles in the land component of an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) leads to decreased carbon uptake associated ...

  8. Diluted equilibrium sterile neutrino dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amol V. Patwardhan; George M. Fuller; Chad T. Kishimoto; Alexander Kusenko

    2015-11-12

    We present a model where sterile neutrinos with rest masses in the range ~ keV to ~ MeV can be the dark matter and be consistent with all laboratory, cosmological, large-scale structure, as well as x-ray constraints. These sterile neutrinos are assumed to freeze out of thermal and chemical equilibrium with matter and radiation in the very early Universe, prior to an epoch of prodigious entropy generation ("dilution") from out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy particles. In this work, we consider heavy, entropy-producing particles in the ~ TeV to ~ EeV rest-mass range, possibly associated with new physics at high-energy scales. The process of dilution can give the sterile neutrinos the appropriate relic densities, but it also alters their energy spectra so that they could act like cold dark matter, despite relatively low rest masses as compared to conventional dark matter candidates. Moreover, since the model does not rely on active-sterile mixing for producing the relic density, the mixing angles can be small enough to evade current x-ray or lifetime constraints. Nevertheless, we discuss how future x-ray observations, future lepton number constraints, and future observations and sophisticated simulations of large-scale structure could, in conjunction, provide evidence for this model and/or constrain and probe its parameters.

  9. A general approach to statistical modeling of physical laws: nonparametric regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Grabec

    2007-04-01

    Statistical modeling of experimental physical laws is based on the probability density function of measured variables. It is expressed by experimental data via a kernel estimator. The kernel is determined objectively by the scattering of data during calibration of experimental setup. A physical law, which relates measured variables, is optimally extracted from experimental data by the conditional average estimator. It is derived directly from the kernel estimator and corresponds to a general nonparametric regression. The proposed method is demonstrated by the modeling of a return map of noisy chaotic data. In this example, the nonparametric regression is used to predict a future value of chaotic time series from the present one. The mean predictor error is used in the definition of predictor quality, while the redundancy is expressed by the mean square distance between data points. Both statistics are used in a new definition of predictor cost function. From the minimum of the predictor cost function, a proper number of data in the model is estimated.

  10. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5+-0.5 Wm-2. An alternative estimate obtained by scaling the simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic Ta and satellite-retrieved Nd - Ta regression slopes, respectively, yields a global annual mean clear-sky (aerosol direct effect) estimate of -0.4+-0.2 Wm-2 and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7+-0.5 Wm-2, with a total estimate of -1.2+-0.4 Wm-2.

  11. Of Bulk and Boundaries: Generalized Transfer Matrices for Tight-Binding Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vatsal Dwivedi; Victor Chua

    2015-10-14

    We construct a generalized transfer matrix corresponding to noninteracting tight-binding lattice models, which can subsequently be used to compute the bulk bands as well as the edge states. Crucially, our formalism works even in cases where the hopping matrix is non-invertible. Following Hatsugai [PRL 71, 3697 (1993)], we explicitly construct the energy Riemann surfaces associated with the band structure for a specific class of systems which includes systems like Chern insulator, Dirac semimetal and graphene. The edge states can then be interpreted as non-contractible loops, with the winding number equal to the bulk Chern number. For these systems, the transfer matrix is symplectic, and hence we also describe the windings associated with the edge states on $Sp(2, \\mathbb{R})$ and interpret the corresponding winding number as a Maslov index.

  12. Of Bulk and Boundaries: Generalized Transfer Matrices for Tight-Binding Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vatsal Dwivedi; Victor Chua

    2015-10-26

    We construct a generalized transfer matrix corresponding to noninteracting tight-binding lattice models, which can subsequently be used to compute the bulk bands as well as the edge states. Crucially, our formalism works even in cases where the hopping matrix is non-invertible. Following Hatsugai [PRL 71, 3697 (1993)], we explicitly construct the energy Riemann surfaces associated with the band structure for a specific class of systems which includes systems like Chern insulator, Dirac semimetal and graphene. The edge states can then be interpreted as non-contractible loops, with the winding number equal to the bulk Chern number. For these systems, the transfer matrix is symplectic, and hence we also describe the windings associated with the edge states on $Sp(2, \\mathbb{R})$ and interpret the corresponding winding number as a Maslov index.

  13. Generalized parton distribution functions and the nucleon spin sum rules in the chiral quark soliton model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakamatsu, M.; Tsujimoto, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    The theoretical predictions are given for the forward limit of the unpolarized spin-flip isovector generalized parton distribution function (E{sup u}-E{sup d})(x,{xi},t) within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model, with full inclusion of the polarization of Dirac sea quarks. We observe that [(H{sup u}-H{sup d})+(E{sup u}-E{sup d})](x,0,0) has a sharp peak around x=0, which we interpret as a signal of the importance of the pionic qq excitation with large spatial extension in the transverse direction. Another interesting indication given by the predicted distribution in combination with Ji's angular momentum sum rule is that the d quark carries more angular momentum than the u quark in the proton, which may have some relation with the physics of the violation of the Gottfried sum rule.

  14. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yock, Adam D. Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Rao, Arvind; Dong, Lei; Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S.; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: ?11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: ?7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: ?6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: ?1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: ?11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography images and facilitate improved treatment management.

  15. Diluted Equilibrium Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patwardhan, Amol V; Kishimoto, Chad T; Kusenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We present a model where sterile neutrinos with rest masses in the range ~ keV to ~ MeV can be the dark matter and be consistent with all laboratory, cosmological, large scale structure, and X-ray constraints. These sterile neutrinos are assumed to freeze out of thermal and chemical equilibrium with matter and radiation in the very early universe, prior to an epoch of prodigious entropy generation ("dilution") from out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy particles. In this work, we consider heavy, entropy-producing particles in the ~ TeV to ~ EeV rest mass range, possibly associated with new physics at high energy scales. The process of dilution can give the sterile neutrinos the appropriate relic densities, but it also alters their energy spectra so that they could act like cold dark matter, despite relatively low rest masses as compared to conventional dark matter candidates. Moreover, since the model does not rely on active-sterile mixing for producing the relic density, the mixing angles can be small enough to ...

  16. Evaluating Parameterizations in General Circulation Models: Climate Simulation Meets Weather Prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, T J; Potter, G L; Williamson, D L; Cederwall, R T; Boyle, J S; Fiorino, M; Hnilo, J J; Olson, J G; Xie, S; Yio, J J

    2004-05-06

    To significantly improve the simulation of climate by general circulation models (GCMs), systematic errors in representations of relevant processes must first be identified, and then reduced. This endeavor demands that the GCM parameterizations of unresolved processes, in particular, should be tested over a wide range of time scales, not just in climate simulations. Thus, a numerical weather prediction (NWP) methodology for evaluating model parameterizations and gaining insights into their behavior may prove useful, provided that suitable adaptations are made for implementation in climate GCMs. This method entails the generation of short-range weather forecasts by a realistically initialized climate GCM, and the application of six-hourly NWP analyses and observations of parameterized variables to evaluate these forecasts. The behavior of the parameterizations in such a weather-forecasting framework can provide insights on how these schemes might be improved, and modified parameterizations then can be tested in the same framework. In order to further this method for evaluating and analyzing parameterizations in climate GCMs, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding a joint venture of its Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT). This article elaborates the scientific rationale for CAPT, discusses technical aspects of its methodology, and presents examples of its implementation in a representative climate GCM.

  17. A General Asset-Liability Management Model for the Efficient Simulation of Portfolios of Life Insurance Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crauel, Hans

    A General Asset-Liability Management Model for the Efficient Simulation of Portfolios of Life and a stronger competition have increased the importance of stochastic asset-liability management (ALM) models development of life insurance products. Keywords: asset-liability management, participating policies

  18. Convective Precipitation Variability as a Tool for General Circulation Model Analysis CHARLOTTE A. DEMOTT, DAVID A. RANDALL, AND MARAT KHAIROUTDINOV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Convective Precipitation Variability as a Tool for General Circulation Model Analysis CHARLOTTE A Precipitation variability is analyzed in two versions of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM), the standard rainfall as soon as the boundary layer energizes. Precipitation is also concurrent with tropospheric

  19. Adjusting to policy expectations in climate change modeling : an interdiciplinary study of flux adjustments in coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shackley, Simon.; Risbey, James; Stone, Peter H.; Wynne, Brian

    This paper surveys and interprets the attitudes of scientists to the use of flux adjustments in climate projections with coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Models. The survey is based largely on the responses of ...

  20. The virtues and vices of equilibrium and the future of financial economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The virtues and vices of equilibrium and the future of financial economics J. Doyne Farmer and John Geanakoplos March 20, 2008 Abstract The use of equilibrium models in economics springs from the desire for parsimonious models of economic phenomena that take human rea- soning into account. This approach has been

  1. On static equilibrium and balance puzzler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samrat Dey; Ashish Paul; Dipankar Saikia; Deepjyoti Kalita; Anamika Debbarma; Shaheen Akhtar Wahab; Saurabh Sarma

    2012-12-12

    The principles of static equilibrium are of special interest to civil engineers. For a rigid body to be in static equilibrium the condition is that net force and net torque acting on the body should be zero. That clearly signifies that if equal weights are placed on either sides of a balance, the balance should be in equilibrium, even if its beam is not horizontal (we have considered the beam to be straight and have no thickness, an ideal case). Thus, although the weights are equal, they will appear different which is puzzling. This also shows that the concept of equilibrium is confusing, especially neutral equilibrium is confused to be stable equilibrium. The study not only throws more light on the concept of static equilibrium, but also clarifies that a structure need not be firm and steady even if it is in static equilibrium.

  2. Forced and free variations of the surface temperature field in a general circulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    North, G.R.; Yip, K.J.J.; Laiyung Leung (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States)); Chervin, R.M. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The concept of forced' and free' variations of large-scale surface temperature is examined by analyzing several long runs of the Community Climate Model (CCM0) with idealized boundary conditions and forcing. (1) The planet is all land with uniform sea-level topography and fixed soil moisture. (2) The planetary surface and prescribed ozone are reflection symmetric across the equator and there is no generation of snow. (3) The obliquity is set to zero so that the climate is for a perpetual equinox solar insolation (i.e., sun fixed over the equator). After examining some relevant aspects of the undisturbed climate (surface temperature field) such as temporal and spatial autocorrelations and the corresponding spectra, two types of changes in external forcing are imposed to study the model response: (1) sinusoidal changes of the solar constant (5%, 10%, 20%, and 40% amplitudes) at periods of 15 and 30 days (the latter is the autocorrelation time for the global average surface temperature) and 20% at 60 days and (2) insertion of steady heat sources (points and zonal bands) of variable strength at the surface. Then the temporal spectra of large scales for the periodically forced climate and the ensemble-averaged influence functions are examined for the point source disturbed climates. In each class of experiments the response of ensemble-averaged amplitudes was found to be proportional to the amplitude of the forcing. These results suggest that the lowest moments of the surface temperature field have a particularly simple dependence on forcing. Furthermore, the apparent finiteness of the variance spectrum at low frequencies suggest that estimates of long-term statistics are stable in this type of atmospheric general circulation model. 31 refs., 17 figs.

  3. Heterogeneous Beliefs, Collateralization, and Transactions in General Equilibrium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Xu

    2012-10-19

    requirements endogenously determined, along with interest rates and loan quantities. The theme of the first work is to study private transactions in currency crises. I assume that domestic residents have different beliefs on how resilient the central bank...

  4. A general equilibrium analysis of climate policy for aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillespie, Christopher Whittlesey

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of aviation's contribution to the global problem of climate change is increasingly likely in the near term, but the method agreed upon by most economists-a multi-sectoral market-based approach such as a cap and ...

  5. The general equilibrium of tax and expenditure limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moule, Ellen Concetta

    2010-01-01

    Institute of Technology. Schick, Allen. 1995. The FederalDC: Brookings Institution Press. Schick, Allen. 2005.Statement of Allen Schick before the House Committee on the

  6. The general equilibrium of tax and expenditure limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moule, Ellen Concetta

    2010-01-01

    this prediction is that if a taxpayer knows how a TEL shouldfrom year to year, that taxpayer would easily be able toMassachusetts from 1982-2000. Taxpayer A is from San Diego,

  7. Oblivious Router Policies and Nash Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    Oblivious Router Policies and Nash Equilibrium Juan A. Almendral, Luis L. Fern´andez, Vicent Cholvi. In such a scenario, having a Nash equilibrium guarantees that no selfish user has incentive to unilaterally deviate users). However, here we formally prove that an efficient Nash equilibrium can not be reached

  8. NonEquilibrium Thermodynamics Explains Semiotic Shapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Non­Equilibrium Thermodynamics Explains Semiotic Shapes: Applications to Astronomy and to Non­equilibrium thermodynamics, non­destructive testing, aerospace structures 1. SEMIOTIC SHAPES IN ASTRONOMY: FORMULATION by using the fundamental physical ideas of symmetry and non­equilibrium thermodynamics. 2. MAIN PHYSICAL

  9. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of {tau}{sub a}, and parameterization assumptions such as a lower bound on N{sub d}. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5 {+-} 0.5 Wm{sup -2}. In an alternative approach, the radiative flux perturbation due to anthropogenic aerosols can be broken down into a component over the cloud-free portion of the globe (approximately the aerosol direct effect) and a component over the cloudy portion of the globe (approximately the aerosol indirect effect). An estimate obtained by scaling these simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic {tau}{sub a} and satellite-retrieved Nd - {tau}{sub a} regression slopes, respectively, yields a global, annual-mean aerosol direct effect estimate of -0.4 {+-} 0.2 Wm{sup -2} and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7 {+-} 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, with a total estimate of -1.2 {+-} 0.4 Wm{sup -2}.

  10. Non-equilibrium condensation process in holographic superconductor with nonlinear electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yunqi Liu; Yungui Gong; Bin Wang

    2015-05-14

    We study the non-equilibrium condensation process in a holographic superconductor with nonlinear corrections to the U(1) gauge field. We start with an asymptotic Anti-de-Sitter(AdS) black hole against a complex scalar perturbation at the initial time, and solve the dynamics of the gravitational systems in the bulk. When the black hole temperature T is smaller than a critical value Tc, the scalar perturbation grows exponentially till saturation, the final state of spacetime approaches to a hairy black hole. In the bulk theory, we find the clue of the influence of nonlinear corrections in the gauge field on the process of the scalar field condensation. We show that the bulk dynamics in the non-equilibrium process is completely consistent with the observations on the boundary order parameter. Furthermore we examine the time evolution of horizons in the bulk non-equilibrium transformation process from the bald AdS black hole to the AdS hairy hole. Both the evolution of apparent and event horizons show that the original AdS black hole configuration requires more time to finish the transformation to become a hairy black hole if there is nonlinear correction to the electromagnetic field. We generalize our non-equilibrium discussions to the holographic entanglement entropy and find that the holographic entanglement entropy can give us further understanding of the influence of the nonlinearity in the gauge field on the scalar condensation. In our analysis, we also compare the effect of different models on the corrections to the gauge field on the formation of holographic superconductor.

  11. Critical Langevin dynamics of the O(N)-Ginzburg-Landau model with correlated noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julius Bonart; Leticia F. Cugliandolo; Andrea Gambassi

    2011-12-25

    We use the perturbative renormalization group to study classical stochastic processes with memory. We focus on the generalized Langevin dynamics of the \\phi^4 Ginzburg-Landau model with additive noise, the correlations of which are local in space but decay as a power-law with exponent \\alpha in time. These correlations are assumed to be due to the coupling to an equilibrium thermal bath. We study both the equilibrium dynamics at the critical point and quenches towards it, deriving the corresponding scaling forms and the associated equilibrium and non-equilibrium critical exponents \\eta, \

  12. General relativistic neutron stars with twisted magnetosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Pili; N. Bucciantini; L. Del Zanna

    2014-12-12

    Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars are extreme manifestations of the most magnetized neutron stars: magnetars. The phenomenology of their emission and spectral properties strongly support the idea that the magnetospheres of these astrophysical objects are tightly twisted in the vicinity of the star. Previous studies on equilibrium configurations have so far focused on either the internal or the external magnetic field configuration, without considering a real coupling between the two fields. Here we investigate numerical equilibrium models of magnetized neutron stars endowed with a confined twisted magnetosphere, solving the general relativistic Grad-Shafranov equation both in the interior and in the exterior of the compact object. A comprehensive study of the parameters space is provided to investigate the effects of different current distributions on the overall magnetic field structure.

  13. General Permit General Permit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L General Permit Parking LOT A General Permit Parking LOT C General Permit Parking LOT R Reserved Parking LOT D Faculty/Staff Parking LOT K General Permit Parking LOT J Reserved Parking PV LOT General Parking after 3 p.m. WEST CAMPUS PARKING LOT O General Permit Parking LOT M General Permit Parking LOT P

  14. General Permit General Permit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    98 28 28 60 96 31 7 23 LOT L General Permit Parking LOT A General Permit Parking LOT C General Permit Parking LOT R Reserved Parking LOT D Faculty/Staff Parking LOT K General Permit Parking LOT J Reserved Parking PV LOT General Parking after 3 p.m. WEST CAMPUS PARKING LOT O General Permit Parking LOT M General

  15. Elements of fractal generalization of dual-porosity model for solute transport in unsaturated fractured rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Matveev, L.; Pruess, K.

    2008-09-01

    In this study, new elements were developed to generalize the dual-porosity model for moisture infiltration on and solute transport in unsaturated rocks, taking into account fractal aspects of the percolation process. Random advection was considered as a basic mechanism of solute transport in self-similar fracture systems. In addition to spatial variations in the infiltration velocity field, temporal fluctuations were also taken into account. The rock matrix, a low-permeability component of the heterogeneous geologic medium, acts as a trap for solute particles and moisture. Scaling relations were derived for the moisture infiltration flux, the velocity correlation length, the average velocity of infiltration, and the velocity correlation function. The effect of temporal variations in precipitation intensity on the infiltration processes was analyzed. It showed that the mode of solute transport is determined by the power exponent in the advection velocity correlation function and the dimensionality of the trapping system, both of which may change with time. Therefore, depending on time, various transport regimes may be realized: superdiffusion, subdiffusion, or classical diffusion. The complex structure of breakthrough curves from changes in the transport regimes was also examined. A renormalization of the solute source strength due to characteristic fluctuations of highly disordered media was established.

  16. Fluid transport properties by equilibrium molecular dynamics. II. Multicomponent systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    Fluid transport properties by equilibrium molecular dynamics. II. Multicomponent systems D. K than 25 years molecular dynamics has been used to study fluid transport properties. Such MD studies and multicenter molecular models.8­16 d The study of transport properties of certain fluids and classes of fluids

  17. Partial Equilibrium and Market Completion # Campus de Beaulieu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imkeller, Peter

    a typical example of an incomplete financial market. We design a model of a market on which the externalPartial Equilibrium and Market Completion # Ying Hu IRMAR Campus de Beaulieu Universitâ??e de Rennes markets with agents exposed to an external source of risk which cannot be hedged through investments

  18. Partial Equilibrium and Market Completion Campus de Beaulieu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imkeller, Peter

    a typical example of an incomplete financial market. We design a model of a market on which the externalPartial Equilibrium and Market Completion Ying Hu IRMAR Campus de Beaulieu Universit´e de Rennes 1 markets with agents exposed to an external source of risk which cannot be hedged through investments

  19. Scaling Behavior and Equilibrium Lengths of Knotted Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Scaling Behavior and Equilibrium Lengths of Knotted Polymers Eric Rawdon Akos Dobay John C. Kern numerical simulations to investigate how the chain length and topology of freely fluctuating knotted polymer of a characteristic changes with the chain size and how this change depends on the topology of the modeled polymers

  20. Nash equilibrium quantum states and optimal quantum data classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faisal Shah Khan

    2015-07-27

    This letter reports a novel application of game theory to quantum informational processes which can be used to optimally classify data generated by these processes. To this end, the notion of simultaneously distinguishing a pure quantum state, generated by a quantum informational process, from its constituent observable states optimally - given the constraint of these observables being orthogonal to each other, is first introduced. This problem is solved via a non-cooperative game model and the affiliated solution concept of Nash equilibrium. The notion of Nash equilibrium quantum states is introduced and used to classify quantum data optimally.

  1. Non-equilibrium chemistry in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Saumon; M. S. Marley; K. Lodders; R. S. Freedman

    2002-07-02

    Carbon monoxide and ammonia have been detected in the spectrum of Gl 229B at abundances that differ substantially from those obtained from chemical equilibrium. Vertical mixing in the atmosphere is a mechanism that can drive slowly reacting species out of chemical equilibrium. We explore the effects of vertical mixing as a function of mixing efficiency and effective temperature on the chemical abundances in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and on their spectra. The models compare favorably with the observational evidence and indicate that vertical mixing plays an important role in brown dwarf atmospheres.

  2. Plasma Equilibrium in a Magnetic Field with Stochastic Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Krommes and Allan H. Reiman

    2009-04-23

    The nature of plasma equilibrium in a magnetic field with stochastic regions is examined. It is shown that the magnetic differential equation that determines the equilibrium Pfirsch-Schluter currents can be cast in a form similar to various nonlinear equations for a turbulent plasma, allowing application of the mathematical methods of statistical turbulence theory. An analytically tractable model, previously studied in the context of resonance-broadening theory, is applied with particular attention paid to the periodicity constraints required in toroidal configurations. It is shown that even a very weak radial diffusion of the magnetic field lines can have a significant effect on the equilibrium in the neighborhood of the rational surfaces, strongly modifying the near-resonant Pfirsch-Schluter currents. Implications for the numerical calculation of 3D equilibria are discussed

  3. Near-equilibrium measurements of nonequilibrium free energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crooks, Gavin

    2012-04-09

    A central endeavor of thermodynamics is the measurement of free energy changes. Regrettably, although we can measure the free energy of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium, typically all we can say about the free energy of a nonequilibrium ensemble is that it is larger than that of the same system at equilibrium. Herein, we derive a formally exact expression for the probability distribution of a driven system, which involves path ensemble averages of the work over trajectories of the time-reversed system. From this we find a simple near-equilibrium approximation for the free energy in terms of an excess mean time-reversed work, which can be experimentally measured on real systems. With analysis and computer simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our approximations for several simple models.

  4. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...

  5. Changing the Climate Sensitivity of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model through Cloud Radiative Adjustment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolov, Andrei P.

    Conducting probabilistic climate projections with a particular climate model requires the ability to vary the model’s characteristics, such as its climate sensitivity. In this study, the authors implement and validate a ...

  6. Using Theory to Model Polymer Properties There are two general themes to this research: (1) polymer degradation that occurs when

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the polymer with nanoinclusions of carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets and other structures. PolymerUsing Theory to Model Polymer Properties There are two general themes to this research: (1) polymer degradation that occurs when polymers are exposed to low earth orbit conditions, and (2) polymer mechanical

  7. Passive tracers in a general circulation model of the Southern Ocean I. G. Stevens, D. P. Stevens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, David

    Passive tracers in a general circulation model of the Southern Ocean I. G. Stevens, D. P. Stevens: 22 January 1999 / Accepted: 12 February 1999 Abstract. Passive tracers are used in an o-line version and provide information on the inter-ocean exchange of water masses. The use of passive tracers allows

  8. Enhancing the resolution of sea ice in long-term global ocean general circulation model (gcm) integrations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Joong Tae

    2007-09-17

    Open water in sea ice, such as leads and polynyas, plays a crucial role in determining the formation of deep- and bottom-water, as well as their long-term global properties and circulation. Ocean general circulation models (GCMs) designed...

  9. Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) on Riemannian Manifolds with Applications to Statistical Analysis of Diffusion Weighted Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) on Riemannian Manifolds with Applications to Statistical range of such methods by deriv- ing schemes for multivariate multiple linear regression -- a manifold ] , ^ = ¯y - ^¯x. (2) If x and y are multivariates, one can easily replace the mul- tiplication and division

  10. Ocean Water Clarity and the Ocean General Circulation in a Coupled Climate Model ANAND GNANADESIKAN AND WHIT G. ANDERSON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gnanadesikan, Anand

    shortwave penetration in the high-latitude Southern Ocean causes an increase in the formation of mode waterOcean Water Clarity and the Ocean General Circulation in a Coupled Climate Model ANAND GNANADESIKAN Jersey (Manuscript received 11 October 2007, in final form 17 July 2008) ABSTRACT Ocean water clarity

  11. Solvation Free Energy of Biomacromolecules: Parameters for a Modified Generalized Born Model Consistent with the AMBER Force Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

    Solvation Free Energy of Biomacromolecules: Parameters for a Modified Generalized Born Model provides rapid estimates of the electrostatic free energies of solvation for diverse molecules of parameters compatible with the AMBER force field is described. The method is used to estimate free energies

  12. On the (Non-)Lattice Structure of the Equilibrium Set in Games with Strategic Substitutes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Sunanda; Sabarwal, Tarun

    2008-01-01

    where additionally, some variables may be strategic complements. The main result here is that the equilibrium set in such models is a non-empty, complete lattice, if, and only if, there is a unique equilibrium. Indeed, for a given parameter value, a pair...

  13. STATION KEEPING CLOSE TO UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM POINTS WITH A SOLAR SAIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barcelona, Universitat de

    AAS 07-347 STATION KEEPING CLOSE TO UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM POINTS WITH A SOLAR SAIL Ariadna Farr´es and `Angel Jorba We have considered the movement of a solar sail in the Sun - Earth system. Using the Circular RTBP adding the solar radiation pressure as a model we have a 2D family of equilibrium points

  14. The Impact of Imperfect Permit Market on Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    The Impact of Imperfect Permit Market on Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium Tanachai Limpaitoon, Yihsu Chen, Shmuel S. Oren The impact and efficacy of a cap-and-trade regulation on electric, and strategic behavior of generation firms. This paper develops an equilibrium model of an oligopoly electricity

  15. Theory and Application of Linear Supply Function Equilibrium in Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldick, Ross

    Theory and Application of Linear Supply Function Equilibrium in Electricity Markets Ross Baldick Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C equilibrium (SFE) model of interaction in an electricity market. We assume a linear demand function

  16. A Grid of 3D Stellar Atmosphere Models of Solar Metallicity: I. General Properties, Granulation and Atmospheric Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trampedach, Regner; Collet, Remo; Nordlund, Åke; Stein, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations, and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late type stars, based on deep, 3D, convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations, and improve stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, asymptotic adiabat, as function of atmospheric parameters. These and other re...

  17. Improved Indoor Tracking Based on Generalized t-Distribution Noise Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuo, Liu; Le, Yin; Khuen, Ho Weng; Voon, Ling Keck

    2015-01-01

    function. Industrial & engineering chemistry research, 42(model. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 52(11):

  18. Improved Indoor Tracking Based on Generalized t-Distribution Noise Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuo, Liu; Le, Yin; Khuen, Ho Weng; Voon, Ling Keck

    2015-01-01

    objective function. Industrial & engineering chemistryfunction approac. Industrial & Engineering Chem- istrynoise model. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research,

  19. Thermodynamical description of modified generalized Chaplygin gas model of dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Ebadi; H. Moradpour

    2015-04-15

    We consider a universe filled by a modified generalized Chaplygin gas together with a pressureless dark matter component. We get a thermodynamical interpretation for the modified generalized Chaplygin gas confined to the apparent horizon of FRW universe, whiles dark sectors do not interact with each other. Thereinafter, by taking into account a mutual interaction between the dark sectors of the cosmos, we find a thermodynamical interpretation for interacting modified generalized Chaplygin gas. Additionally, probable relation between the thermal fluctuations of the system and the assumed mutual interaction is investigated. Finally, we show that if one wants to solve the coincidence problem by using this mutual interaction, then the coupling constants of the interaction will be constrained. The corresponding constraint is also addressed. Moreover, the thermodynamic interpretation of using either a generalized Chaplygin gas or a Chaplygin gas to describe dark energy is also addressed throughout the paper.

  20. Improving Groundwater Predictions Utilizing Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts from General Circulation Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Sankar

    Improving Groundwater Predictions Utilizing Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts from General. The research reported in this paper evaluates the potential in developing 6-month-ahead groundwater Surface Temperature forecasts. Ten groundwater wells and nine streamgauges from the USGS Groundwater

  1. Computing Model Variance Without Computing the Complete Generalized Inverse Bill Menke, February 19. 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menke, William

    trivially. 4. The damped least squares generalized inverse has the form Note that since is symmetric, its least squares generalized inverse % GMG = (G'*G + epsi*eye(M,M)) \\ G' epsi = 0.1; A = (G'*G + epsi data kernel s=0.1; G=random('Normal',0, s, N, M ) + eye(N,M); % stddev of data sigmad = 1; % use damped

  2. Multiple Nash-equilibrium in Quantum Game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgy Parfionov

    2008-06-06

    Methods of exploring Nash equilibrium in quantum games are studied. Analytical conditions of the existence, the uniqueness or the multiplicity of the equilibria are found.

  3. Magnetic diagnostics for equilibrium reconstructions with eddy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic diagnostics for equilibrium reconstructions with eddy currents on the lithium tokamak experimenta) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic diagnostics for...

  4. A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Simulating Charring, Intumescent, Smoldering, and Noncharring Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lautenberger, Chris; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    State-of-the-Art in Pyrolysis Modeling of LignocellulosicC. & Fernandez-Pello, A.C. , “Pyrolysis Modeling, ThermalKuo, J.T. & Hsi, C. -L. , “Pyrolysis and Ignition of Single

  5. Testing Lack-of-Fit of Generalized Linear Models via Laplace Approximation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glab, Daniel Laurence

    2012-07-16

    In this study we develop a new method for testing the null hypothesis that the predictor function in a canonical link regression model has a prescribed linear form. The class of models, which we will refer to as canonical ...

  6. Petascale Atmospheric General Circulation Models R. D. Nair and H. M. Tufo#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Ramachandran D.

    ) into an Earth system model will require a highly scalable and accurate flux-form formulation of the dynamics

  7. Generalized Algorithms for Constructing Statistical Language Models Cyril Allauzen, Mehryar Mohri, Brian Roark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allauzen, Cyril

    applications or for adaptation purposes, one often needs to construct a language model based on the out- put library for language modeling, the GRM Library, that includes many other text and grammar processing classification. In all cases, a language model is used in combination with other in- formation sources to rank

  8. On Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Space-Time and Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Munkhammar

    2015-07-02

    Based on recent results from general relativistic statistical mechanics and black hole information transfer limits a space-time entropy-action equivalence is proposed as a generalization of the holographic principle. With this conjecture, the action principle can be replaced by the second law of thermodynamics, and for the Einstein-Hilbert action the Einstein field equations are conceptually the result of thermodynamic equilibrium. For non-equilibrium situations Jaynes' information-theoretic approach to maximum entropy production is adopted instead of the second law of thermodynamics. As it turns out, for appropriate choices of constants quantum gravity is obtained. For the special case of a free particle the Bekenstein-Verlinde entropy-to-displacement relation of holographic gravity, and thus the traditional holographic principle, emerges. Although Jacobson's original thermodynamic equilibrium approach proposed that gravity might not necessarily be quantized, this particular non-equilibrium treatment might require it.

  9. Chapter 9. Chemical Equilibrium 9.1 The Nature of Chemical Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    the equilibrium constant take a unique value for each individual che and KP: empirical equilibrium constant Law of mass action: 1) The numerical value of KC or KP of the equilibrium state or position of the reaction. #12;Law of Mass Action for Gas-Phase Reactions · A deeper study

  10. Chemical equilibrium in supercritical fluids: Solvent effects on the dimerization equilibrium constant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabani, Eran

    supercritical sol- vents CO2 , CHF3 , CClF3 , Ar, and Xe across the whole solvent density range, from gasChemical equilibrium in supercritical fluids: Solvent effects on the dimerization equilibrium; accepted 27 February 2002 We study dimerization equilibrium between two dilute solutes in a supercritical

  11. Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.

  12. Nash Equilibrium and Dynamics Sergiu Hart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Sergiu

    Nash Equilibrium and Dynamics Sergiu Hart June 2008 Conference in Honor of John Nash's 80th Birthday Opening Panel SERGIU HART c 2008 ­ p. #12;NASH EQUILIBRIUM AND DYNAMICS Sergiu Hart Center for the Study of Rationality Dept of Economics Dept of Mathematics The Hebrew University of Jerusalem hart

  13. The Stability of the NonEquilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    non­equilibrium steady state (NESS) far from equilibrium has at­ tracted considerable interests. The NESS is introduced as a state asymptotically realized from an inhomogeneous initial state [11]­[12]. A question rises naturally here; is the NESS macroscopically stable? As an analogy of return to equilib­ rium

  14. Ocean mixed layer processes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in coupled general circulation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    Ocean mixed layer processes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in coupled general circulation to be larger for CGCMs with a larger ocean heat transport in the region. Keywords Pacific Decadal Oscillation Á. 1994a, b; Zhanget al. 1996), ocean-atmosphere interactions over the North Pacific (e.g., Latif

  15. Effective Field Theory out of Equilibrium: Brownian quantum fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Boyanovsky

    2015-06-19

    The emergence of an effective field theory out of equilibrium is studied in the case in which a light field --the system-- interacts with very heavy fields in a finite temperature bath. We obtain the reduced density matrix for the light field, its time evolution is determined by an effective action that includes the \\emph{influence action} from correlations of the heavy degrees of freedom. The non-equilibrium effective field theory yields a Langevin equation of motion for the light field in terms of dissipative and noise kernels that obey a generalized fluctuation dissipation relation. These are completely determined by the spectral density of the bath which is analyzed in detail for several cases. At $T=0$ we elucidate the effect of thresholds in the renormalization aspects and the asymptotic emergence of a local effective field theory with unitary time evolution. At $T\

  16. Gravitational Wave Tests of Strong Field General Relativity with Binary Inspirals: Realistic Injections and Optimal Model Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Sampson; Neil Cornish; Nicolas Yunes

    2013-03-05

    We study generic tests of strong-field General Relativity using gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral of compact binaries. Previous studies have considered simple extensions to the standard post-Newtonian waveforms that differ by a single term in the phase. Here we improve on these studies by (i) increasing the realism of injections and (ii) determining the optimal waveform families for detecting and characterizing such signals. We construct waveforms that deviate from those in General Relativity through a series of post-Newtonian terms, and find that these higher-order terms can affect our ability to test General Relativity, in some cases by making it easier to detect a deviation, and in some cases by making it more difficult. We find that simple single-phase post-Einsteinian waveforms are sufficient for detecting deviations from General Relativity, and there is little to be gained from using more complicated models with multiple phase terms. The results found here will help guide future attempts to test General Relativity with advanced ground-based detectors.

  17. Critical rotation of general-relativistic polytropic models simulating neutron stars: a post-Newtonian hybrid approximative scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassilis S. Geroyannis; Vasileios G. Karageorgopoulos

    2014-09-30

    We develop a "hybrid approximative scheme" in the framework of the post-Newtonian approximation for computing general-relativistic polytropic models simulating neutron stars in critical rigid rotation. We treat the differential equations governing such a model as a "complex initial value problem", and we solve it by using the so-called "complex-plane strategy". We incorporate into the computations the complete solution for the relativistic effects, this issue representing a significant improvement with regard to the classical post-Newtonian approximation, as verified by extended comparisons of the numerical results.

  18. The Overlooked Potential of Generalized Linear Models in Astronomy-III: Bayesian Negative Binomial Regression and Globular Cluster Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Souza, R S; Buelens, B; Riggs, J D; Cameron, E; Ishida, E E O; Chies-Santos, A L; Killedar, M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the third in a series illustrating the power of generalized linear models (GLMs) for the astronomical community, we elucidate the potential of the class of GLMs which handles count data. The size of a galaxy's globular cluster population $N_{\\rm GC}$ is a prolonged puzzle in the astronomical literature. It falls in the category of count data analysis, yet it is usually modelled as if it were a continuous response variable. We have developed a Bayesian negative binomial regression model to study the connection between $N_{\\rm GC}$ and the following galaxy properties: central black hole mass, dynamical bulge mass, bulge velocity dispersion, and absolute visual magnitude. The methodology introduced herein naturally accounts for heteroscedasticity, intrinsic scatter, errors in measurements in both axes (either discrete or continuous), and allows modelling the population of globular clusters on their natural scale as a non-negative integer variable. Prediction intervals of 99% around the trend for e...

  19. Generalized parton distributions and transverse densities in a light-front quark-diquark model for the nucleons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandan Mondal; Dipankar Chakrabarti

    2015-06-17

    We present a study of the generalized parton distributions for the quarks in a proton in both momentum and position spaces using the light-front wave functions of a quark-diquark model for the nucleon predicted by the soft-wall model of AdS/QCD. The results are compared with the soft-wall AdS/QCD model of proton GPDs for zero skewness. We also calculate the GPDs for nonzero skewness. We observe that the GPDs have a diffraction pattern in longitudinal position space, as seen before in other models. Then we present a comparitive study of the nucleon charge and anomalous magnetization densities in the transverse plane. Flavor decompositions of the form factors and transverse densities are also discussed.

  20. L.R.S. Bianchi type II Stiff Fluid cosmological model with Decaying Vacuum Energy Density $?$ in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassan Amirhashchi

    2010-11-26

    Locally rotationally symmetric (L.R.S.) Bianchi type II stiff fluid cosmological model is investigated. To get the deterministic model of the universe, we have assumed a condition $A=B^{m}$ between metric potentials $A,~B$ where $n$ is the constant. It is shown that the vacuum energy density $\\Lambda$ is positive and proportional to $\\frac{1}{t^{2}}$. The values of deceleration parameter $q$, matter-energy density $\\Omega_{m}$ and dark-energy density $\\Omega_{\\Lambda}$ are found to be in good agreement with the values obtain from 5-years WMAP observations. the predicted value of the jerk parameter agrees with the SNLS SNIa and X-ray galaxy cluster distance data but does not with the SNIa gold sample data. In general, the model represent accelerating, shearing and non-rotating universe.The physical and geometrical behavior of these models are also discussed.

  1. Spectroscopy of Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Charge Transfer in Semiconductor Quantum Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemens Rössler; Simon Burkhard; Tobias Krähenmann; Marc Röösli; Peter Märki; Julien Basset; Thomas Ihn; Klaus Ensslin; Christian Reichl; Werner Wegscheider

    2014-08-22

    We investigate equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-transfer processes by performing high-resolution transport spectroscopy. Using electrostatically defined quantum dots for energy-selective emission and detection, we achieved unprecedented spectral resolution and a high degree of tunability of relevant experimental parameters. Most importantly, we observe that the spectral width of elastically transferred electrons can be substantially smaller than the linewidth of a thermally broadened Coulomb peak. This finding indicates that the charge-transfer process is fast compared to the electron--phonon interaction time. By drawing an analogy to double quantum dots, we argue that the spectral width of the elastic resonance is determined by the lifetime broadening $h\\it{\\Gamma}$ of the emitter and detector states. Good agreement with the model is found also in an experiment in which the charge transfer is in the regime $h\\it{\\Gamma}\\gg k_{\\rm{B}}T$. By performing spectroscopy below the Fermi energy, we furthermore observe elastic and inelastic transfer of holes.

  2. A new general model with non-spherical interactions for dense polymer systems and a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    parametrization for Bisphenol-A-Polycarbonate Klaus M. Zimmer, Andreas Linke and Dieter W. Heermann Institut fur modeling of the monomer units. We apply the model to the special case of Bisphenol-A-Polycarbonate BPA material, we describe the approach for the Bisphenol-A-Polycarbonate BPA-PC and a variation

  3. PREDICTING HABITAT RESPONSE TO FLOW USING GENERALIZED HABITAT MODELS FOR TROUT IN ROCKY MOUNTAIN STREAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bledsoe, Brian

    The Nature Conservancy, Fort Collins, Colorado USA ABSTRACT Dams and water diversions can dramatically alter the hydraulic habitats of stream ecosystems. Predicting how water depth and velocity respond to flow alteration is possible using hydraulic models, such as Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM); however, such models

  4. Equilibrium and Media of Exchange in a Convex Trading Post Economy With Transaction Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Starr, Ross M.

    2007-01-01

    that the existence of money poses to the theorist is this:equilibrium. The trading post model endogenously generates aExchange in a Convex Trading Post Economy with Transaction

  5. Mesoscale simulation of polymer reaction equilibrium: Combining dissipative particle dynamics with reaction ensemble Monte Carlo.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    Mesoscale simulation of polymer reaction equilibrium: Combining dissipative particle dynamics a mesoscale simulation technique, called the reaction ensemble dissipative particle dynamics RxDPD method. Coarse-grained, particle- based mesoscale models that retain only the most essential features

  6. Wind waves in shallow microtidal basins and the dynamic equilibrium of tidal flats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    resuspension by wind waves and is applied to the Venice lagoon, Italy. Model results show that the equilibrium becomes emergent, the inundation period decreases, so that less sediment deposits leading to a reduction

  7. Non-equilibrium thermo-hydrodynamic effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in compressible flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huilin Lai; Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Yanbiao Gan; Yangjun Ying; Sauro Succi

    2015-07-04

    A discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) is developed to investigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in compressible flows. Compressibility effects are investigated by inspecting the interplay between thermodynamic and hydrodynamic non-equilibrium manifestations (TNE, HNE, respectively) and their impact on the dynamics of the bubble and the spike at the interface between the heavy and the light fluid. To this purpose, two effective approaches are presented, one tracking the \\emph{local} TNE manifestations and the other focussing on the mean temperature of the flow. Both compressibility effect and the \\emph{global} TNE intensity show different trends in the initial and the later stages of the instability. Compressibility is found to retard the initial stage of the RTI and accelerate the later one. It is also found that TNE effects are generally enhanced by compressibility, especially in the later stage of the instability.

  8. AMMONIA AS A TRACER OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM IN THE T7.5 DWARF GLIESE 570D D. Saumon,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AMMONIA AS A TRACER OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM IN THE T7.5 DWARF GLIESE 570D D. Saumon,1 M. S. Marley March 15; accepted 2006 April 25 ABSTRACT We present the first analysis of an optical to mid order of magnitude from the value obtained with chemical-equilibrium models. We model departures from

  9. OLAF _ A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fliege, Jörg

    ........................17 3.1.1The Standard Model ....................17 3.1.2Metabolism.1.2The Objective Function ..................40 5.1.3The Gradient of the Objective Function

  10. Re-analysis of deep excavation collapse using a generalized effective stress soil model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral Jofré, Gonzalo Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This thesis re-analyzes the well-documented failure of a 30m deep braced excavation underconsolidated marine clay. Prior analyses of the collapse of the Nicoll Highway have relied on simplified soil models with undrained ...

  11. A general model of resource production and exchange in systems of interdependent specialists.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Breen, Peter; Kuypers, Marshall; Norton, Matthew David; Quach, Tu-Thach; Antognoli, Matthew; Mitchell, Michael David

    2011-11-01

    Infrastructures are networks of dynamically interacting systems designed for the flow of information, energy, and materials. Under certain circumstances, disturbances from a targeted attack or natural disasters can cause cascading failures within and between infrastructures that result in significant service losses and long recovery times. Reliable interdependency models that can capture such multi-network cascading do not exist. The research reported here has extended Sandia's infrastructure modeling capabilities by: (1) addressing interdependencies among networks, (2) incorporating adaptive behavioral models into the network models, and (3) providing mechanisms for evaluating vulnerability to targeted attack and unforeseen disruptions. We have applied these capabilities to evaluate the robustness of various systems, and to identify factors that control the scale and duration of disruption. This capability lays the foundation for developing advanced system security solutions that encompass both external shocks and internal dynamics.

  12. A generalized nutrition model for Odocoileus deer and its application in a natural environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applegath, Matthew Thomas

    2002-01-01

    A model of protein and energy balance was created for Odocoileus deer [white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (O. hemionus), and black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus, O. h. sitkensis)] capable of predicting changes in body weight...

  13. Inference for Clustered Mixed Outcomes from a Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hsiang-Chun

    2013-08-01

    . Bayesian methods are widely used techniques for analyzing MGLMM. The need for noninformative priors arises when there is insufficient prior information on the model parameters. Another aim of this study is to propose an approximate uniform shrinkage prior...

  14. Self-repelling fractional Brownian motion - a generalized Edwards model for chain polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jinky Bornales; Maria João Oliveira; Ludwig Streit

    2011-12-10

    We present an extension of the Edwards model for conformations of individual chain molecules in solvents in terms of fractional Brownian motion, and discuss the excluded volume effect on the end-to-end length of such trajectories or molecules.

  15. Departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium in cutting arc plasmas derived from electron and gas density measurements using a two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2011-03-15

    A two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique that allows inferring the electron and gas densities of axisymmetric arc plasmas without imposing any assumption regarding statistical equilibrium models is reported. This technique was applied to the study of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) departures within the core of a 30 A high-energy density cutting arc. In order to derive the electron and heavy particle temperatures from the inferred density profiles, a generalized two-temperature Saha equation together with the plasma equation of state and the quasineutrality condition were employed. Factors such as arc fluctuations that influence the accuracy of the measurements and the validity of the assumptions used to derive the plasma species temperature were considered. Significant deviations from chemical equilibrium as well as kinetic equilibrium were found at elevated electron temperatures and gas densities toward the arc core edge. An electron temperature profile nearly constant through the arc core with a value of about 14000-15000 K, well decoupled from the heavy particle temperature of about 1500 K at the arc core edge, was inferred.

  16. Two stage stochastic equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-08-12

    Aug 12, 2010 ... erator's dispatch and power flow in the network. ... sign and the coordinated transmission auction for electricity trade and transmissions. ... games for the oligopolistic competition models in electric ..... gers using their lines.

  17. A general approach to develop reduced order models for simulation of solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Bao, Jie; Lo, Chaomei; Lai, Canhai; Agarwal, Khushbu; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2013-06-15

    A reduced order modeling approach based on response surface techniques was developed for solid oxide fuel cell stacks. This approach creates a numerical model that can quickly compute desired performance variables of interest for a stack based on its input parameter set. The approach carefully samples the multidimensional design space based on the input parameter ranges, evaluates a detailed stack model at each of the sampled points, and performs regression for selected performance variables of interest to determine the responsive surfaces. After error analysis to ensure that sufficient accuracy is established for the response surfaces, they are then implemented in a calculator module for system-level studies. The benefit of this modeling approach is that it is sufficiently fast for integration with system modeling software and simulation of fuel cell-based power systems while still providing high fidelity information about the internal distributions of key variables. This paper describes the sampling, regression, sensitivity, error, and principal component analyses to identify the applicable methods for simulating a planar fuel cell stack.

  18. Cloud/Aerosol Parameterizations: Application and Improvement of General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, Joyce

    2012-06-30

    One of the biggest uncertainties associated with climate models and climate forcing is the treatment of aerosols and their effects on clouds. The effect of aerosols on clouds can be divided into two components: The first indirect effect is the forcing associated with increases in droplet concentrations; the second indirect effect is the forcing associated with changes in liquid water path, cloud morphology, and cloud lifetime. Both are highly uncertain. This project applied a cloud-resolving model to understand the response of clouds under a variety of conditions to changes in aerosols. These responses are categorized according to the large-scale meteorological conditions that lead to the response. Meteorological conditions were sampled from various fields, which, together with a global aerosol model determination of the change in aerosols from present day to pre-industrial conditions, was used to determine a first order estimate of the response of global cloud fields to changes in aerosols. The response of the clouds in the NCAR CAM3 GCM coupled to our global aerosol model were tested by examining whether the response is similar to that of the cloud resolving model and methods for improving the representation of clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions were examined.

  19. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT Lab. for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    A long standing problem in molecular biology is to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein, given its amino acid sequence. A variety of simplifying models have been proposed abstracting only the {open_quotes}essential physical properties{close_quotes} of real proteins. In these models, the three dimensional space is often represented by a lattice. Residues which are adjacent in the primary sequence (i.e. covalently linked) must be placed at adjacent points in the lattice. A conformation of a protein is simply a self-avoiding walk along the lattice. The protein folding problem STRING-FOLD is that of finding a conformation of the protein sequence on the lattice such that the overall energy is minimized, for some reasonable definition of energy. This formulation leaves open the choices of a lattice and an energy function. Once these choices are made, one may then address the algorithmic complexity of optimizing the energy function for the lattice. For a variety of such simple models, this minimization problem is in fact NP-hard. In this paper, we consider the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) Model introduced by Dill. The HP model abstracts the problem by grouping the 20 amino acids into two classes: hydrophobic (or non-polar) residues and hydrophilic (or polar) residues. For concreteness, we will take our input to be a string from (H,P){sup +}, where P represents polar residues, and H represents hydrophobic residues. Dill et.al. survey the literature analyzing this model. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Factored Language Models and Generalized Parallel Backoff Jeff A. Bilmes Katrin Kirchhoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    model, a word is viewed as a vec- tor of k factors, so that wt {f1 t , f2 t , . . . , fK t }. Fac- tors. An FLM is a model over factors, i.e., p(f1:K t |f1:K t-1:t-n), that can be factored as a product of probabilities of the form p(f|f1, f2, . . . , fN ). Our task is twofold: 1) find an appropriate set of factors

  1. Thermodynamic modelling of solid solutions JIBAMITRA GANGULY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganguly, Jibamitra

    with the phase equilibrium constraints. The latter are calculated from the internally consistent thermochemical will summarise the general concepts of thermodynamic solution theory and a number of macroscopic models that have were originally developed for polymer and liquid solutions, but are also applicable to oxide and solid

  2. Generalisation of Levine's prediction for the distribution of freezing temperatures of droplets: A general singular model for ice nucleation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard P. Sear

    2013-07-29

    Models without an explicit time dependence, called singular models, are widely used for fitting the distribution of temperatures at which water droplets freeze. In 1950 Levine developed the original singular model. His key assumption was that each droplet contained many nucleation sites, and that freezing occurred due to the nucleation site with the highest freezing temperature. The fact that freezing occurs due to the maximum value out of large number of nucleation temperatures, means that we can apply the results of what is called extreme-value statistics. This is the statistics of the extreme, i.e., maximum or minimum, value of a large number of random variables. Here we use the results of extreme-value statistics to show that we can generalise Levine's model to produce the most general singular model possible. We show that when a singular model is a good approximation, the distribution of freezing temperatures should always be given by what is called the generalised extreme-value distribution. In addition, we also show that the distribution of freezing temperatures for droplets of onesize, can be used to make predictions for the scaling of the median nucleation temperature with droplet size, and vice versa.

  3. Nonlocal actin orientation models select for a unique orientation pattern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Smith; Jian Liu

    2013-10-31

    Many models have been developed to study the role of branching actin networks in motility. One important component of those models is the distribution of filament orientations relative to the cell membrane. Two mean-field models previously proposed are generalized and analyzed. In particular, we find that both models uniquely select for a dominant orientation pattern. In the linear case, the pattern is the eigenfunction associated with the principal eigenvalue. In the nonlinear case, we show there exists a unique equilibrium and that the equilibrium is locally stable. Approximate techniques are then used to provide evidence for global stability.

  4. Finite-temperature properties of the generalized Falicov-Kimball model S. El Shawish,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonèa, Janez

    Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA Received 4 July 2003; published 18 November 2003 in intermediate valence com- pounds. A renewed interest in this model started when Por- tengen et al.2 suggested an important role in defining the nature of the low energy spectrum of the ferroelectric state.4 For simplicity

  5. Separating expansion from contraction: generalized TOV condition, LTB models with pressure and CDM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , we adopt the Generalised Painlevé-Gullstrand (hereafter GPG) formalism used in Lasky & Lun [6], which TO LTB MODELS IN GPG SYSTEM We consider a spherically symmetric Generalised Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi metric to include pressure. Performing an ADM 3+1 splitting in the GPG coordinates [6] , the metric reads ds2 = -(t

  6. Negative specific heat in a quasi-2D generalized vorticity model T. D. Andersen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Chjan C.

    ) model for the unbounded plane under strong magnetic confinement. We derive the specific heat using, this results in a runaway reaction leading to a collapse of the cluster. In a magnetic fusion system or other- found implications for fusion where extreme confinement is critical to a sustained reaction

  7. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-16 A GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL FOR LAKES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stability 4.5 Energy Conservation PRELIMINARY RESULTS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES of prognostic variables. Vertically integrated transport function under the south- westerly wind. Time evolution of the kinetic energy in the Lake Ontario model; (a) Total kinetic energy, (b) Kinetic energy of the barorropic

  8. A Generalized Battery Model of a Collection of Thermostatically Controlled Loads for Providing Ancillary Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    Ancillary Service He Hao, Borhan M. Sanandaji, Kameshwar Poolla, and Tyrone L. Vincent Abstract for providing various ancillary services to the grid. In this work, we study aggregate modeling, and uncontrollability of renewable resources. To ensure the func- tionality and reliability of the grid, more ancillary

  9. Internal noise driven generalized Langevin equation from a nonlocal continuum model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikat Sarkar; Shubhankar Roy Chowdhury; Debasish Roy; Ram Mohan Vasu

    2015-03-10

    Starting with a micropolar formulation, known to account for nonlocal microstructural effects at the continuum level, a generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for a particle, describing the predominant motion of a localized region through a single displacement degree-of-freedom (DOF), is derived. The GLE features a memory dependent multiplicative or internal noise, which appears upon recognising that the micro-rotation variables possess randomness owing to an uncertainty principle. Unlike its classical version, the new GLE qualitatively reproduces the experimentally measured fluctuations in the steady-state mean square displacement of scattering centers in a polyvinyl alcohol slab. The origin of the fluctuations is traced to nonlocal spatial interactions within the continuum. A constraint equation, similar to a fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT), is shown to statistically relate the internal noise to the other parameters in the GLE.

  10. Democratic neutrino mass matrix from generalized Fridberg-Lee model with the perturbative solar mass splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Razzaghi

    2015-05-17

    We propose a phenomenological model of the Dirac neutrino mass matrix based on the Fridberg-Lee neutrino mass model at a special point. In this case, the Fridberg-Lee model reduces to the Democratic mass matrix with the $S_3$ permutation family symmetry. The Democratic mass matrix has an experimentally unfavored degenerate mass spectrum on the base of tribimaximal mixing matrix. We rescue the model to find a nondegenerate mass spectrum by adding the breaking mass term as preserving the twisted Fridberg-Lee symmetry. The tribimaximal mixing matrix can be also realized. Exact tribimaximal mixing leads to $\\theta_{13}=0$. However, the results from Daya Bay and RENO experiments have established a nonzero value for $\\theta_{13}$. Keeping the leading behavior of $U$ as tribimaximal, we use Broken Democratic neutrino mass model. We characterize a perturbation mass matrix which is responsible for a nonzero $\\theta_{13}$ along with CP violation, besides the solar neutrino mass splitting has been resulted from it. We consider this work in two stages: In the first stage, we obtain the perturbation mass matrix with real components which breaks softly the $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetry and this leads to a nonzero value for $\\theta_{13}$. In the second stage, we extend the perturbation mass matrix to a complex symmetric matrix which leads to CP violation. Therefore obtain a realistic neutrino mixing matrix with $\\theta_{23}=45^\\circ$. We obtain the solar mass splitting, the ordering of the neutrino masses is inverted. Using only two sets of the experimental data, we can fix all of the parameters of mass matrix and predict the masses of neutrinos and phases. These predictions include the following: $m_{1}\\approx(4.82-4.93)10^{-2}eV $, $|m_2|\\approx(4.90-5.01)10^{-2} eV$, $m_3\\approx0$ and, $\\phi\\approx(0.687^\\circ-10.31^\\circ)$ as the origin of the Majorana phases.

  11. The Theory of Variances in Equilibrium Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharov, Leonid E.; Lewandowski, Jerome; Foley, Elizabeth L.; Levinton, Fred M.; Yuh, Howard Y.; Drozdov, Vladimir; McDonald, Darren

    2008-01-14

    The theory of variances of equilibrium reconstruction is presented. It complements existing practices with information regarding what kind of plasma profiles can be reconstructed, how accurately, and what remains beyond the abilities of diagnostic systems. The #27;?-curves, introduced by the present theory, give a quantitative assessment of quality of effectiveness of diagnostic systems in constraining equilibrium reconstructions. The theory also suggests a method for aligning the accuracy of measurements of different physical nature.

  12. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourhasan, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P = P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  13. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razieh Pourhasan

    2015-11-20

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P = P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  14. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razieh Pourhasan

    2015-09-03

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P = P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  15. Description of FLIPSIM V: a General Firm Level Policy Simulation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, James W.; Nixon, Clair J.

    1986-01-01

    be taken for all purchases of equipment, as well as investment tax credit. If equipment or cattle are sold rather than traded in, the capital. gains or losses realized from the sale are calculated and used in computing personal income taxes. Depreciation...) standard tax tables. The model selects the tax strategy which results in the lower income tax liability. All investment tax credit allowances are deducted from the regular income tax liability with the result being compared to the income tax liability...

  16. Examining the Generalized Waring Model for the Analysis of Traffic Crashes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Yichuan

    2013-05-03

    Figure 5.19 Sensitivity analysis of covariate ADT for Michigan data ........................ 95 Figure 6.1 Comparison of rankings between NB and GW models ............................. 99 x LIST OF TABLES... sites based on the available information, such as traffic flow and other road geometric variables. They also can be used to investigate specific or significant effects of the variables on the risk of the collision. In addition, the number of 2...

  17. Users guide for SAMM: A prototype southeast Alaska multiresource model. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weyermann, D.L.; Fight, R.D.; Garrett, F.D.

    1991-08-01

    This paper instructs resource analysts on using the southeast Alaska multiresource model (SAMM). SAMM is an interactive microcomputer program that allows users to explore relations among several resources in southeast Alaska (timber, anadromous fish, deer, and hydrology) and the effects of timber management activities (logging, thinning, and road building) on those relations and resources. This guide assists users in installing SAMM on a microcomputer, developing input data files, making simulation runs, and strong output data for external analysis and graphic display.

  18. Quantum systems in a stationary environment out of thermal equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno Bellomo; Riccardo Messina; Didier Felbacq; Mauro Antezza

    2013-01-15

    We discuss how the thermalization of an elementary quantum system is modified when the system is placed in an environment out of thermal equilibrium. To this aim we provide a detailed investigation of the dynamics of an atomic system placed close to a body of arbitrary geometry and dielectric permittivity, whose temperature $T_M$ is different from that of the surrounding walls $T_W$. A suitable master equation for the general case of an $N$-level atom is first derived and then specialized to the cases of a two- and three-level atom. Transition rates and steady states are explicitly expressed as a function of the scattering matrices of the body and become both qualitatively and quantitatively different from the case of radiation at thermal equilibrium. Out of equilibrium, the system steady state depends on the system-body distance, on the geometry of the body and on the interplay of all such parameters with the body optical resonances. While a two-level atom tends toward a thermal state, this is not the case already in the presence of three atomic levels. This peculiar behavior can be exploited, for example, to invert the populations ordering and to provide an efficient cooling mechanism for the internal state of the quantum system. We finally provide numerical studies and asymptotic expressions when the body is a slab of finite thickness. Our predictions can be relevant for a wide class of experimental configurations out of thermal equilibrium involving different physical realizations of two or three-level systems.

  19. A global view of gravity waves in the Martian atmosphere inferred from a high-resolution general circulation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Yi?it, Erdal; Hartogh, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Global characteristics of the small-scale gravity wave (GW) field in the Martian atmosphere obtained from a high-resolution general circulation model (GCM) are presented for the first time. The simulated GW-induced temperature variances are in a good agreement with available radio occultation data in the lower atmosphere between 10 and 30 km. The model reveals a latitudinal asymmetry with stronger wave generation in the winter hemisphere, and two distinctive sources of GWs: mountainous regions and the meandering winter polar jet. Orographic GWs are filtered while propagating upward, and the mesosphere is primarily dominated by harmonics with faster horizontal phase velocities. Wave fluxes are directed mainly against the local wind. GW dissipation in the upper mesosphere generates body forces of tens of m~s$^{-1}$~sol$^{-1}$, which tend to close the simulated jets. The results represent a realistic surrogate for missing observations, which can be used for constraining GW parameterizations and validating GCM si...

  20. Renormalization of lattice-regularized quantum gravity models I. General considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshua H. Cooperman

    2014-10-21

    Lattice regularization is a standard technique for the nonperturbative definition of a quantum theory of fields. Several approaches to the construction of a quantum theory of gravity adopt this technique either explicitly or implicitly. A crucial complement to lattice regularization is the process of renormalization through which a continuous description of the quantum theory arises. I provide a comprehensive conceptual discussion of the renormalization of lattice-regularized quantum gravity models. I begin with a presentation of the renormalization group from the Wilsonian perspective. I then consider the application of the renormalization group in four contexts: quantum field theory on a continuous nondynamical spacetime, quantum field theory on a lattice-regularized nondynamical spacetime, quantum field theory of continuous dynamical spacetime, and quantum field theory of lattice-regularized dynamical spacetime. The first three contexts serve to identify successively the particular issues that arise in the fourth context. These issues originate in the inescability of establishing all scales solely on the basis of the dynamics. While most of this discussion rehearses established knowledge, the attention that I pay to these issues, especially the previously underappreciated role of standard units of measure, is largely novel. I conclude by briefly reviewing past studies of renormalization of lattice-regularized quantum gravity models. In the second paper of this two-part series, I illustrate the ideas presented here by proposing a renormalization group scheme for causal dynamical triangulations.

  1. Testing General Relativity using Bayesian model selection: Applications to observations of gravitational waves from compact binary systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter Del Pozzo; John Veitch; Alberto Vecchio

    2011-01-07

    Second generation interferometric gravitational wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, are expected to begin operation by 2015. Such instruments plan to reach sensitivities that will offer the unique possibility to test General Relativity in the dynamical, strong field regime and investigate departures from its predictions, in particular using the signal from coalescing binary systems. We introduce a statistical framework based on Bayesian model selection in which the Bayes factor between two competing hypotheses measures which theory is favored by the data. Probability density functions of the model parameters are then used to quantify the inference on individual parameters. We also develop a method to combine the information coming from multiple independent observations of gravitational waves, and show how much stronger inference could be. As an introduction and illustration of this framework - and a practical numerical implementation through the Monte Carlo integration technique of nested sampling - we apply it to gravitational waves from the inspiral phase of coalescing binary systems as predicted by General Relativity and a very simple alternative theory in which the graviton has a non-zero mass. This method can trivially (and should) be extended to more realistic and physically motivated theories.

  2. A non-equilibrium potential function to study competition in neural systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mejias, Jorge F. [Department of Physics and Centre for Neural Dynamics, University of Ottawa, K1N 6N5 Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-03-24

    In this work, I overview some novel results concerning the theoretical calculation of a non-equilibrium potential function for a biologically motivated model of a neural network. Such model displays competition between different populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, which is known to originate synchronous dynamics, fast activity oscillations, and other nontrivial behavior in more sophisticated models of neural media.

  3. TMED-4 INTERIM REPORT PURE ZR EQUILIBRIUM TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.; Morgan, G.

    2010-12-17

    Due to higher than expected permeation rates in the production of tritium in the TVA, a development and testing program was implemented to develop the understanding of why the higher rates were occurring. In addition, improved data are needed for both the design as well as the predictive models. One part of the program was to determine the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen and tritium over NPZ (1). During the course of this testing, some curious results were discovered (2) compared to the published literature data (3). Due to these apparently results, a follow-on task was undertaken to determine the equilibrium pressure of protium and deuterium over pure zirconium. A series of experiments were conducted to determine equilibrium pressures and isotherm data for the zirconium - protium and zirconium - deuterium systems. The data match the published literature data reasonably well with the plateau extending to loadings of about 1.4. There is a significant pressure rise for loadings greater than 1.7.

  4. Prognostic residual mean flow in an ocean general circulation model and its relation to prognostic Eulerian mean flow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saenz, Juan A.; Chen, Qingshan; Ringler, Todd

    2015-05-19

    Recent work has shown that taking the thickness-weighted average (TWA) of the Boussinesq equations in buoyancy coordinates results in exact equations governing the prognostic residual mean flow where eddy–mean flow interactions appear in the horizontal momentum equations as the divergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux tensor (EPFT). It has been proposed that, given the mathematical tractability of the TWA equations, the physical interpretation of the EPFT, and its relation to potential vorticity fluxes, the TWA is an appropriate framework for modeling ocean circulation with parameterized eddies. The authors test the feasibility of this proposition and investigate the connections between the TWAmore »framework and the conventional framework used in models, where Eulerian mean flow prognostic variables are solved for. Using the TWA framework as a starting point, this study explores the well-known connections between vertical transfer of horizontal momentum by eddy form drag and eddy overturning by the bolus velocity, used by Greatbatch and Lamb and Gent and McWilliams to parameterize eddies. After implementing the TWA framework in an ocean general circulation model, we verify our analysis by comparing the flows in an idealized Southern Ocean configuration simulated using the TWA and conventional frameworks with the same mesoscale eddy parameterization.« less

  5. Isodynamic axisymmetric equilibrium near the magnetic axis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arsenin, V. V., E-mail: arsenin@nfi.kiae.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    Plasma equilibrium near the magnetic axis of an axisymmetric toroidal magnetic confinement system is described in orthogonal flux coordinates. For the case of a constant current density in the vicinity of the axis and magnetic surfaces with nearly circular cross sections, expressions for the poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components are obtained in these coordinates by using expansion in the reciprocal of the aspect ratio. These expressions allow one to easily derive relationships between quantities in an isodynamic equilibrium, in which the absolute value of the magnetic field is constant along the magnetic surface (Palumbo’s configuration)

  6. Transport and equilibrium in field-reversed mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    Two plasma models relevant to compact torus research have been developed to study transport and equilibrium in field reversed mirrors. In the first model for small Larmor radius and large collision frequency, the plasma is described as an adiabatic hydromagnetic fluid. In the second model for large Larmor radius and small collision frequency, a kinetic theory description has been developed. Various aspects of the two models have been studied in five computer codes ADB, AV, NEO, OHK, RES. The ADB code computes two dimensional equilibrium and one dimensional transport in a flux coordinate. The AV code calculates orbit average integrals in a harmonic oscillator potential. The NEO code follows particle trajectories in a Hill's vortex magnetic field to study stochasticity, invariants of the motion, and orbit average formulas. The OHK code displays analytic psi(r), B/sub Z/(r), phi(r), E/sub r/(r) formulas developed for the kinetic theory description. The RES code calculates resonance curves to consider overlap regions relevant to stochastic orbit behavior.

  7. The generalized parton distribution functions and the nucleon spin sum rules in the chiral quark soliton model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wakamatsu; H. Tsujimoto

    2005-03-29

    The theoretical predictions are given for the forward limit of the unpolarized spin-flip isovector generalized parton distribution function $(E^u - E^d)(x, \\xi, t)$ within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model, with full inclusion of the polarization of Dirac sea quarks. We observe that $[(H^u - H^d) + (E^u - E^d)](x,0,0)$ has a sharp peak around $x=0$, which we interpret as a signal of the importance of the pionic $q \\bar{q}$ excitation with large spatial extension in the transverse direction. Another interesting indication given by the predicted distribution in combination with Ji's angular momentum sum rule is that the $\\bar{d}$-quark carries more angular momentum than the $\\bar{u}$-quark in the proton, which may have some relation with the physics of the violation of the Gottfried sum rule.

  8. On the Use of Structural Petri Net Analysis for Studying Product Form Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gribaudo, Marco

    relations between the Petri net formalism and the queueing networks with blocking. This type of queueing that the representation of these queueing networks by means of Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets offers the possibility equilibrium distributions for queueing networks with block- ing by means of structural Petri net results. More

  9. An Equilibrium Balance of the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ernst Fischer

    2007-08-27

    An alternative cosmological model is presented, which avoids the requirement of dark energy and dark matter. Based on the proposition that energy conservation should be valid not only locally but also globally, the energy tensor of general relativity has to be corrected, including potential energy of matter explicitly. This leads to the consequence that a homogeneous universe must be static, as potential energy acts as a field with negative pressure. In this static universe cosmological red shift can be understood as energy loss by gravitational radiation. There exists a continuous matter cycle, beginning from hot intergalactic plasma, which is replenished by the jets of quasars, the formation of large web-like structures, the formation of galaxies and stars, to the final collapse into quasars again. The model is confirmed qualitatively by the observed size distribution of cosmic structures. Quantitative confirmation is obtained from the diffuse x-ray background and from observations of supernovas. As the total energy content of the universe (trace of the energy tensor) is zero in this model, creation ex nihilo is possible, but requires changes of our elementary particle models. An idea of a modified model is presented.

  10. Neoclassical toroidal viscosity in perturbed equilibria with general tokamak geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, Nikolas C.; Park, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Kimin; Wang, Zhirui; Berkery, John W.

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents a calculation of neoclassical toroidal viscous torque independent of large-aspect-ratio expansions across kinetic regimes. The Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) code was developed for this purpose, and is compared to previous combined regime models as well as regime specific limits and a drift kinetic ?f guiding center code. It is shown that retaining general expressions, without circular large-aspect-ratio or other orbit approximations, can be important at experimentally relevant aspect ratio and shaping. The superbanana plateau, a kinetic resonance effect recently recognized for its relevance to ITER, is recovered by the PENT calculations and shown to require highly accurate treatment of geometric effects.

  11. 3. Energy conversion, balances, efficiency, equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    1/124 3. Energy conversion, balances, efficiency, equilibrium (Introduction to Thermodynamics) Ron and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland 2/124 3.1: Energy Åbo Akademi University | Thermal and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland #12;3/124 What is energy? /1 "Energy is any quantity that changes

  12. Problems on Non-Equilibrium Statistical Physics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Moochan

    2011-08-08

    Four problems in non-equilibrium statistical physics are investigated: 1. The thermodynamics of single-photon gas; 2. Energy of the ground state in Multi-electron atoms; 3. Energy state of the H2 molecule; and 4. The Condensation behavior in N...

  13. Behavior of fluidized beds similar to equilibrium states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kengo Ichiki; Hisao Hayakawa

    1997-04-25

    Systematic simulations are carried out based on the model of fluidized beds proposed by the present authors [K.Ichiki and H.Hayakawa, Phys. Rev. E vol.52, 658 (1995)]. From our simulation, we confirm that fluidization is a continuous transition. We also confirm the existence of two types of fluidized phases, the channeling phase and the bubbling phase. We find the close relations between the averaged behaviors in fluidized beds and quasi equilibrium states in dense liquids. In fluidized beds, (i) the flow rate plays the role of the effective temperature, and (ii) the existence of a kind of the fluctuation-dissipation relation is suggested.

  14. Equilibrium configurations of nematic liquid crystals on a torus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Segatti; Michael Snarski; Marco Veneroni

    2014-06-13

    The topology and the geometry of a surface play a fundamental role in determining the equilibrium configurations of thin films of liquid crystals. We propose here a theoretical analysis of a recently introduced surface Frank energy, in the case of two-dimensional nematic liquid crystals coating a toroidal particle. Our aim is to show how a different modeling of the effect of extrinsic curvature acts as a selection principle among equilibria of the classical energy, and how new configurations emerge. In particular, our analysis predicts the existence of new stable equilibria with complex windings.

  15. Computing stationary distributions in equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems with Forward Flux Sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chantal Valeriani; Rosalind J. Allen; Marco J. Morelli; Daan Frenkel; Pieter Rein ten Wolde

    2009-07-03

    We present a method for computing stationary distributions for activated processes in equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems using Forward Flux Sampling (FFS). In this method, the stationary distributions are obtained directly from the rate constant calculations for the forward and backward reactions; there is no need to perform separate calculations for the stationary distribution and the rate constant. We apply the method to the non-equilibrium rare event problem proposed by Maier and Stein, to nucleation in a 2-dimensional Ising system, and to the flipping of a genetic switch.

  16. Modelling Prospects for Hydrogen-powered Transportation Until 2100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for this work provided by the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change through a consortium, especially the US Department of Energy, Integrated Assessment Program in the Office of Biological to the current gasoline-powered fleet. Using a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy, we

  17. A 3D general circulation model for Pluto and Triton with fixed volatile abundance and simplified surface forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zalucha, Angela

    2012-01-01

    We present a 3D general circulation model of Pluto and Triton's atmospheres, which uses radiative-conductive-convective forcing. In both the Pluto and Triton models, an easterly (prograde) jet is present at the equator with a maximum magnitude of 10-12 m/s and 4 m/s, respectively. Neither atmosphere shows any significant overturning circulation in the meridional and vertical directions. Rather, it is horizontal motions (mean circulation and transient waves) that transport heat meridionally at a magnitude of 1 and 3 x 10^7 W at Pluto's autumn equinox and winter solstice, respectively (seasons referenced to the Northern Hemisphere). The meridional and dayside-nightside temperature contrast is small (<5 K). We find that the lack of vertical motion can be explained on Pluto by the strong temperature inversion in the lower atmosphere. The height of the Voyager 2 plumes on Triton can be explained by the dynamical properties of the lower atmosphere alone (i.e., strong wind shear) and does not require a thermally ...

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF A GENERAL MODEL FOR THE MPP PERFORMANCE OF PV-MODULES FOR THE APPLICATION IN A PROCEDURE FOR THE PERFORMANCE CHECK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    IDENTIFICATION OF A GENERAL MODEL FOR THE MPP PERFORMANCE OF PV-MODULES FOR THE APPLICATION. ABSTRACT: To assure the maximal energy yield of grid connected PV systems, system faults have of this model for the application to grid connected PV systems using cSi, aSi and CIS modules is demonstrated. 1

  19. A general methodology for quantum modeling of free-energy profile of reactions in solution: An application to the Menshutkin NH3 CH3Cl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    A general methodology for quantum modeling of free-energy profile of reactions in solution methodology for calculating free-energy profile of reaction in solution using quantum mechanical methods of molecules in solution, quantum model- ing of free-energy profile in solution still remains a challenge.1

  20. Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magnetic Fields: Heating of the Solar · A theorem on Parker's model [Ng & Bhattacharjee, 1998] · Future directions Solar corona: heating problem Parker's Model (1972) · Reconnection without magnetic nulls · Conclusion #12;http://science.nasa.gov/ssl/PAD/solar

  1. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics of particle-stabilized thin liquid films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Blawzdziewicz; E. Wajnryb

    2008-08-13

    Our recent quasi-two-dimensional thermodynamic description of thin-liquid films stabilized by colloidal particles is generalized to describe nonuniform equilibrium states of films in external potentials and nonequilibrium transport processes produced in the film by gradients of thermodynamic forces. Using a Monte--Carlo simulation method, we have determined equilibrium equations of state for a film stabilized by a suspension of hard spheres. Employing a multipolar-expansion method combined with a flow-reflection technique, we have also evaluated the short-time film-viscosity coefficients and collective particle mobility.

  2. Convergence to equilibrium for the discrete coagulation-fragmentation equations with detailed balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    José Alfredo Cañizo

    2007-11-19

    Under the condition of detailed balance and some additional restrictions on the size of the coefficients, we identify the equilibrium distribution to which solutions of the discrete coagulation-fragmentation system of equations converge for large times, thus showing that there is a critical mass which marks a change in the behavior of the solutions. This was previously known only for particular cases as the generalized Becker-D\\"oring equations. Our proof is based on an inequality between the entropy and the entropy production which also gives some information on the rate of convergence to equilibrium for solutions under the critical mass.

  3. Boltzmann-Shannon Entropy: Generalization and Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. G. Chakrabarti; Indranil Chakrabarty

    2006-10-20

    The paper deals with the generalization of both Boltzmann entropy and distribution in the light of most-probable interpretation of statistical equilibrium. The statistical analysis of the generalized entropy and distribution leads to some new interesting results of significant physical importance.

  4. A Variational Method in Out of Equilibrium Physical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario J. Pinheiro

    2012-09-26

    A variational principle is further developed for out of equilibrium dynamical systems by using the concept of maximum entropy. With this new formulation it is obtained a set of two first-order differential equations, revealing the same formal symplectic structure shared by classical mechanics, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. In particular, it is obtained an extended equation of motion for a rotating dynamical system, from where it emerges a kind of topological torsion current of the form $\\epsilon_{ijk} A_j \\omega_k$, with $A_j$ and $\\omega_k$ denoting components of the vector potential (gravitational or/and electromagnetic) and $\\omega$ is the angular velocity of the accelerated frame. In addition, it is derived a special form of Umov-Poynting's theorem for rotating gravito-electromagnetic systems, and obtained a general condition of equilibrium for a rotating plasma. The variational method is then applied to clarify the working mechanism of some particular devices, such as the Bennett pinch and vacuum arcs, to calculate the power extraction from an hurricane, and to discuss the effect of transport angular momentum on the radiactive heating of planetary atmospheres. This development is seen to be advantageous and opens options for systematic improvements.

  5. Nash equilibrium and evolutionary dynamics in semifinalists' dilemma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baek, Seung Ki; Jeong, Hyeong-Chai

    2015-01-01

    We consider a tournament among four equally strong semifinalists. The players have to decide how much stamina to use in the semifinals, provided that the rest is available in the final and the third-place playoff. We investigate optimal strategies for allocating stamina to the successive matches when players' prizes (payoffs) are given according to the tournament results. From the basic assumption that the probability to win a match follows a nondecreasing function of stamina difference, we present symmetric Nash equilibria for general payoff structures. We find three different phases of the Nash equilibria in the payoff space. First, when the champion wins a much bigger payoff than the others, any pure strategy can constitute a Nash equilibrium as long as all four players adopt it in common. Second, when the first two places are much more valuable than the other two, the only Nash equilibrium is such that everyone uses a pure strategy investing all stamina in the semifinal. Third, when the payoff for last pl...

  6. Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batista, E.; Monnerat, S.; Stragevitch, L.; Pina, C.G.; Goncalves, C.B.; Meirelles, A.J.A.

    1999-12-01

    Group interaction parameters for the UNIFAC and ASOG models were specially adjusted for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20 to 45 C. Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for systems of triolein, oleic acid, and ethanol and of triolein, stearic acid, and ethanol were measured and utilized in the adjustment. The average percent deviation between experimental and calculated compositions was 0.79% and 0.52% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol was quite successful, with an average deviation of 1.31% and 1.32% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively.

  7. Hamiltonian dynamics in extended phase space for gravity and its consistency with Lagrangian formalism: a generalized spherically symmetric model as an example

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. P. Shestakova

    2013-03-06

    Among theoretical issues in General Relativity the problem of constructing its Hamiltonian formulation is still of interest. The most of attempts to quantize Gravity are based upon Dirac generalization of Hamiltonian dynamics for system with constraints. At the same time there exists another way to formulate Hamiltonian dynamics for constrained systems guided by the idea of extended phase space. We have already considered some features of this approach in the previous MG12 Meeting by the example of a simple isotropic model. Now we apply the approach to a generalized spherically symmetric model which imitates the structure of General Relativity much better. In particular, making use of a global BRST symmetry and the Noether theorem, we construct the BRST charge that generates correct gauge transformations for all gravitational degrees of freedom.

  8. The rigorous stochastic matrix multiplication scheme for the calculations of reduced equilibrium density matrices of open multilevel quantum systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xin

    2014-04-21

    Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.

  9. ON MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FORMATION AND THE MAGNETOHYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM OF SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaeggli, S. A.; Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Uitenbroek, H. [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the problem of sunspot magnetohydrostatic equilibrium with comprehensive IR sunspot magnetic field survey observations of the highly sensitive Fe I lines at 15650 A and nearby OH lines. We have found that some sunspots show isothermal increases in umbral magnetic field strength which cannot be explained by the simplified sunspot model with a single-component ideal gas atmosphere assumed in previous investigations. Large sunspots universally display nonlinear increases in magnetic pressure over temperature, while small sunspots and pores display linear behavior. The formation of molecules provides a mechanism for isothermal concentration of the umbral magnetic field, and we propose that this may explain the observed rapid increase in umbral magnetic field strength relative to temperature. Existing multi-component sunspot atmospheric models predict that a significant amount of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) exists in the sunspot umbra. The formation of H{sub 2} can significantly alter the thermodynamic properties of the sunspot atmosphere and may play a significant role in sunspot evolution. In addition to the survey observations, we have performed detailed chemical equilibrium calculations with full consideration of radiative transfer effects to establish OH as a proxy for H{sub 2}, and demonstrate that a significant population of H{sub 2} exists in the coolest regions of large sunspots.

  10. Atomic loss and gain as a resource for non-equilibrium phase transitions in optical lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everest, Ben; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in the experimental manipulation of strongly interacting atomic Rydberg gases in lattice potentials have opened a new avenue for the study of many-body phenomena. Considerable efforts are currently being undertaken to achieve clean experimental settings that show a minimal amount of noise and disorder and are close to zero temperature. A complementary direction investigates the interplay between coherent and dissipative processes. Recent experiments have revealed a first glimpse into the emergence of a rich non-equilibrium behavior stemming from the competition of laser excitation, strong interactions and radiative decay of Rydberg atoms. The aim of the present theoretical work is to show that local incoherent loss and gain of atoms can in fact be the source of interesting out-of-equilibrium dynamics. This perspective opens new paths for the exploration of non-equilibrium critical phenomena and, more generally, phase transitions, some of which so far have been rather difficult to study. T...

  11. The nuclear fusion reaction rate based on relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Miin Liu

    2002-10-20

    The Coulomb barrier is in general much higher than thermal energy. Nuclear fusion reactions occur only among few protons and nuclei with higher relative energies than Coulomb barrier. It is the equilibrium velocity distribution of these high-energy protons and nuclei that participates in determining the rate of nuclear fusion reactions. In the circumstance it is inappropriate to use the Maxwellian velocity distribution for calculating the nuclear fusion reaction rate. We use the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for this purpose. The rate based on the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution has a reduction factor with respect to that based on the Maxwellian distribution, which factor depends on the temperature, reduced mass and atomic numbers of the studied nuclear fusion reactions. This signifies much to the solar neutrino problem.

  12. Statistical equilibrium in deterministic cellular automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siamak Taati

    2015-05-24

    Some deterministic cellular automata have been observed to follow the pattern of the second law of thermodynamics: starting from a partially disordered state, the system evolves towards a state of equilibrium characterized by maximal disorder. This chapter is an exposition of this phenomenon and of a statistical scheme for its explanation. The formulation is in the same vein as Boltzmann's ideas, but the simple combinatorial setup offers clarification and hope for generic mathematically rigorous results. Probabilities represent frequencies and subjective interpretations are avoided.

  13. A probability theory for non-equilibrium gravitational systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peñarrubia, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses dynamical invariants to describe the evolution of collisionless systems subject to time-dependent gravitational forces without resorting to maximum-entropy probabilities. We show that collisionless relaxation can be viewed as a special type of diffusion process in the integral-of-motion space. In time-varying potentials with a fixed spatial symmetry the diffusion coefficients are closely related to virial quantities, such as the specific moment of inertia, the virial factor and the mean kinetic and potential energy of microcanonical particle ensembles. The non-equilibrium distribution function (DF) is found by convolving the initial DF with the Green function that solves Einstein's equation for freely diffusing particles. Such a convolution also yields a natural solution to the Fokker-Planck equations in the energy space. Our mathematical formalism can be generalized to potentials with a time-varying symmetry, where diffusion extends over multiple dimensions of the integral-of-motion space. Th...

  14. A definition of thermodynamic entropy valid for non-equilibrium states and few-particle systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gian Paolo Beretta; Enzo Zanchini

    2014-11-19

    From a new rigorous formulation of the general axiomatic foundations of thermodynamics we derive an operational definition of entropy that responds to the emergent need in many technological frameworks to understand and deploy thermodynamic entropy well beyond the traditional realm of equilibrium states of macroscopic systems. The new definition is achieved by avoiding to resort to the traditional concepts of "heat" (which restricts $a$ $priori$ the traditional definitions of entropy to the equilibrium domain) and of "thermal reservoir" (which restricts $in$ $practice$ our previous definitions of non-equilibrium entropy to the many-particle domain). The measurement procedure that defines entropy is free from intrinsic limitations and can be applied, $in$ $principle$, even to non-equilibrium states of few-particle systems, provided they are separable and uncorrelated. The construction starts from a previously developed set of carefully worded operational definitions for all the basic concepts. Then, through a new set of fully spelled-out fundamental hypotheses (four postulates and five assumptions) we derive the definitions of energy and entropy of any state, and of temperature of any stable equilibrium state. Finally, we prove the principle of entropy non-decrease, the additivity of entropy differences, the maximum entropy principle, and the impossibility of existence of a thermal reservoir.

  15. Design principles for non-equilibrium self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suriyanarayanan Vaikuntanathan

    2015-07-31

    We consider an important class of self-assembly problems and using the formalism of stochastic thermodynamics, we derive a set of design principles for growing controlled assemblies far from equilibrium. The design principles constrain the set of structures that can be obtained under non-equilibrium conditions. Our central result provides intuition for how equilibrium self-assembly landscapes are modified under finite non-equilibrium drive.

  16. Energy conservation, counting statistics, and return to equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vojkan Jaksic; Jane Panangaden; Annalisa Panati; Claude-Alain Pillet

    2014-09-30

    We study a microscopic Hamiltonian model describing an N-level quantum system S coupled to an infinitely extended thermal reservoir R. Initially, the system S is in an arbitrary state while the reservoir is in thermal equilibrium at temperature T. Assuming that the coupled system S+R is mixing with respect to the joint thermal equilibrium state, we study the Full Counting Statistics (FCS) of the energy transfers S->R and R->S in the process of return to equilibrium. The first FCS describes the increase of the energy of the system S. It is an atomic probability measure, denoted $P_{S,\\lambda,t}$, concentrated on the set of energy differences $\\sigma(H_S)-\\sigma(H_S)$ ($\\sigma(H_S)$ is the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of S, $t$ is the length of the time interval during which the measurement of the energy transfer is performed, and $\\lambda$ is the strength of the interaction between S and R). The second FCS, $P_{R,\\lambda,t}$, describes the decrease of the energy of the reservoir R and is typically a continuous probability measure whose support is the whole real line. We study the large time limit $t\\rightarrow\\infty$ of these two measures followed by the weak coupling limit $\\lambda\\rightarrow 0$ and prove that the limiting measures coincide. This result strengthens the first law of thermodynamics for open quantum systems. The proofs are based on modular theory of operator algebras and on a representation of $P_{R,\\lambda,t}$ by quantum transfer operators.

  17. NASA's new modeling framework for integrating cloud processes explicitly within each grid column of a general circulation model can improve realism over the conventional model that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    NASA's new modeling framework for integrating cloud processes explicitly within each grid column, AND SIMPSON--Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; CHERN--Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, and Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center

  18. Facets of the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture Rainer Feldmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavronicolas, Marios

    Facets of the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture Rainer Feldmann Marios Mavronicolas Andreas Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture, henceforth abbreviated as the FMNE Conjecture, in selfish routing it Quadratic Maximum Social Cost. A Nash equilibrium is a stable state where no user can improve her (expected

  19. NASH-STAMPACCHIA EQUILIBRIUM POINTS ON MANIFOLDS ALEXANDRU KRISTALY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NASH-STAMPACCHIA EQUILIBRIUM POINTS ON MANIFOLDS ALEXANDRU KRIST´ALY Abstract. Motivated by Nash equilibrium problems on 'curved' strategy sets, the concept of Nash-Stampacchia equilibrium points Riemannian manifolds. Characterization, existence, and stability of Nash- Stampacchia equilibria are studied

  20. A polynomialtime Nash equilibrium algorithm for repeated games #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littman, Michael L.

    A polynomial­time Nash equilibrium algorithm for repeated games # Michael L. Littman Dept theoretical and practical interest. The computational complexity of finding a Nash equilibrium for a one a Nash equilibrium for an average­payo# repeated bimatrix game, and presents a polynomial­time algorithm

  1. Non-equilibrium Chemistry in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metchev, Stanimir

    Non-equilibrium Chemistry in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres PHY688 Aaron Jackson April 27, 2009 #12 and convection #12;Non-equilibrium Chemistry In the context of Brown Dwarf Atmospheres, the relevant chemical;Outline What is non-equilibrium chemistry in the context of Brown Dwarfs? What is the observational

  2. Non-equilibrium processes in modern semiconductor devices. Spring 2008.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    EE 606 Non-equilibrium processes in modern semiconductor devices. Spring 2008. A. F. J. Levi TTh 11 still use equilibrium or near equilibrium concepts to describe device operation. The purpose of this course is to introduce a more realistic approach to understanding device operation in modern sub

  3. Validity of the Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics of the Universe Bounded by the Event Horizon in Holographic Dark Energy Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairwita Mazumder; Subenoy Chakraborty

    2010-05-19

    In this letter, we investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics of the universe bounded by the event horizon in the holographic dark energy model. The universe is chosen to be homogeneous and isotropic and the validity of the first law has been assumed here. The matter in the universe is taken in the form of non-interacting two fluid system- one component is the holographic dark energy model and the other component is in the form of dust.

  4. Adaptive Implicit Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Wang, Zhen [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel [ORNL; Pernice, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2013-01-01

    We describe methods for accurate and efficient long term time integra- tion of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion systems: implicit time integration for effi- cient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while control- ling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

  5. Process for operating equilibrium controlled reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Carvill, Brian Thomas (Orefield, PA); Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond (Fogelsville, PA); Mayorga, Steven Gerard (Allentown, PA); Gaffney, Thomas Richard (Allentown, PA); Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard (Bethlehem, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A cyclic process for operating an equilibrium controlled reaction in a plurality of reactors containing an admixture of an adsorbent and a reaction catalyst suitable for performing the desired reaction which is operated in a predetermined timed sequence wherein the heating and cooling requirements in a moving reaction mass transfer zone within each reactor are provided by indirect heat exchange with a fluid capable of phase change at temperatures maintained in each reactor during sorpreaction, depressurization, purging and pressurization steps during each process cycle.

  6. Equilibrium-like behavior in far-from-equilibrium chemical reaction networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David K. Lubensky

    2008-07-04

    In an equilibrium chemical reaction mixture, the number of molecules present obeys a Poisson distribution. We ask when the same is true of the steady state of a nonequilibrium reaction network and obtain an essentially complete answer. In particular, we show that networks with certain topological features must have a Poisson distribution, whatever the reaction rates. Such driven systems also obey an analog of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Our results may be relevant to biological systems and to the larger question of how equilibrium concepts might apply to nonequilibrium systems.

  7. PEO/CHCl3: Crystallinity of the polymer and vapor pressure of the solvent - Equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. KHassanova; B. A. Wolf

    2003-04-16

    Vapor pressures were measured for the system chloroform/polyethylene oxide (peo, weight average molar mass = 1000 kg/mol) at 25 degrees centigrade as a function of the weight fraction w of the polymer by means of a combination of head space sampling and gas chromatography. The establishment of thermodynamic equilibria was assisted by employing thin polymer films. The degrees of crystallinity alpha of the pure peo and of the solid polymer contained in the mixtures were determined via dsc. An analogous degree of polymer insolubility, beta, was calculated from the vapor pressures measured in this composition range. The experiments demonstrate that both quantities and their concentration dependence are markedly affected by the particular mode of film preparation. These non-equilibrium phenomena are discussed in terms of frozen local and temporal equilibria, where differences between alpha and beta are attributed to the occlusion of amorphous material within crystalline domains. Equilibrium information was obtained from two sources, namely from the vapor pressures in the absence of crystalline material (gas/liquid) and from the saturation concentration of peo (liquid/solid). The thermodynamic consistency of these data is demonstrated using a new approach that enables the modeling of composition dependent interaction parameters by means of two adjustable parameters only.

  8. Relative role of changes in CO? and climate to equilibrium responses of net primary production and carbon storage of the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Xiangming.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.

    In a partial factorial model experiment, we used the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, version 4.0) to assess the relative roles of changes in CO2, temperature, precipitation and cloudiness in equilibrium responses of ...

  9. Use of equilibrium and initial metal concentrations in determining Freundlich isotherms for soils and sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Cynthia

    and sediments Cynthia A. Coles a,, Raymond N. Yong b,1 a Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial Available online 27 March 2006 Abstract Batch equilibrium test results of Pb and Cd retention by kaolinite; Initial metal concentration; Transport prediciton models; Goodness of fit 1. Introduction Heavy metal

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of a chemical reaction; conditions for local equilibrium in a temperature gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a chemical reaction; conditions for local equilibrium have examined a simple chemical reaction in a temperature gradient; 2F $ F2. A mechanical model molecular dynamics simulations showed that the chemical reaction is in local thermodynamic as well

  11. Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Htotal implies a glassy NESS We can define NESS effective temperature D() exhibit LRT to SLRT crossover Quantum (s=0.01) T B #12;Quantum NESS for toy model with n.n. transitions d dt = -i[H, ] - 2 2 [V, [V,

  12. Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Daniel (s=0.85) Quantum (s=0.01) Stochastic (s=0.01) T B #12;Quantum NESS for toy model with n.n. transitions d dt = -i[H, ] - 2 2 [V, [V,

  13. The non-equilibrium steady state of sparse systems with non trivial topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    , the system will reach a Non-Equilibrium Steady State (NESS). #12;The model system System + Bath + Driving of cooling = DB TB - DB Tsystem Driving System Work (W)Heat (Q) Bath SB() SA() Hence at the NESS: Tsystem = 1 to the sparsity of the perturbation matrix, the NESS is of glassy nature [1]. 2. An extension of the Fluctuation

  14. Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Daniel + D() DB « TB Sparsity implies a glassy NESS We can define NESS effective temperature D() exhibit LRT (s=0.85) Quantum (s=0.01) Stochastic (s=0.01) T B #12;Quantum NESS for toy model with n

  15. Non-equilibrium quantum systems: Divergence between global and local descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro D. Manrique; Ferney Rodriguez; Luis Quiroga; Neil F. Johnson

    2015-02-24

    Even photosynthesis -- the most basic natural phenomenon underlying Life on Earth -- involves the non-trivial processing of excitations at the pico- and femtosecond scales during light-harvesting. The desire to understand such natural phenomena, as well as interpret the output from ultrafast experimental probes, creates an urgent need for accurate quantitative theories of open quantum systems. However it is unclear how best to generalize the well-established assumptions of an isolated system, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. Here we compare two popular approaches: a description in terms of a direct product of the states of each individual system (i.e. a local approach) versus the use of new states resulting from diagonalizing the whole Hamiltonian (i.e. a global approach). We show that their equivalence fails when the system is open, in particular under the experimentally ubiquitous condition of a temperature gradient. By solving for the steady-state populations and calculating the heat flux as a test observable, we uncover stark differences between the formulations. This divergence highlights the need to establish rigorous ranges of applicability for such methods in modeling nanoscale transfer phenomena -- including during the light-harvesting process in photosynthesis.

  16. "Wunderlich, meet Kirchhoff": A general and unified description of elastic ribbons and thin rods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcelo A. Dias; Basile Audoly

    2014-08-26

    The equations for the equilibrium of a thin elastic ribbon are derived by adapting the classical theory of thin elastic rods. Previously established ribbon models are extended to handle geodesic curvature, natural out-of-plane curvature, and a variable width. Both the case of a finite width (Wunderlich's model) and the limit of small width (Sadowksky's model) are recovered. The ribbon is assumed to remain developable as it deforms, and the direction of the generatrices is used as an internal variable. Internal constraints expressing inextensibility are identified. The equilibrium of the ribbon is found to be governed by an equation of equilibrium for the internal variable involving its second-gradient, by the classical Kirchhoff equations for thin rods, and by specific, thin-rod-like constitutive laws; this extends the results of Starostin and van der Heijden (2007) to a general ribbon model. Our equations are applicable in particular to ribbons having geodesic curvature, such as an annulus cut out in a piece of paper. Other examples of application are discussed. By making use of a material frame rather than the Fr\\'enet-Serret's frame, the present work unifies the description of thin ribbons and thin rods.

  17. Thermal Dynamics in General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. S. Lopez-Monsalvo; N. Andersson

    2010-06-15

    We discuss a relativistic model for heat conduction, building on a convective variational approach to multi-fluid systems where the entropy is treated as a distinct dynamical entity. We demonstrate how this approach leads to a relativistic version of the Cattaneo equation, encoding the finite thermal relaxation time that is required to satisfy causality. We also show that the model naturally includes the non-equilibrium Gibbs relation that is a key ingredient in most approaches to extended thermodynamics. Focussing on the pure heat conduction problem, we compare the variational results to the second-order model developed by Israel and Stewart. The comparison shows that, despite the very different philosophies behind the two approaches, the two models are equivalent at first order deviations from thermal equilibrium. Finally, we complete the picture by working out the non-relativistic limit of our results, making contact with recent work in that regime.

  18. Non-equilibrium many body dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.

    1997-09-22

    This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.

  19. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping

    2013-03-14

    This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar observations to evaluate model simulations In cooperation with Profs. Bob Houze at University of Washington and Steven Rutledge at Colorado State University, numerical model results were evaluated with observations from W- and C-band radars and CloudSat/TRMM satellites. These studies exhibited some shortcomings of current numerical models, such as too little of thin anvil clouds, directing the future improvement of cloud microphysics parameterization in CRMs. Two papers of Powell et al (2012) and Zeng et al. (2013), summarizing these studies, were published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 4. Analyzed the water budgets of MCSs Using ARM data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP and other field campaigns, the Goddard CRM simulations were carried out to analyze the water budgets of clouds from TWP-ICE and AMMA. The simulations generated a set of datasets on clouds and radiation, which are available http://cloud.gsfc.nasa.gov/. The cloud datasets were available for modelers and other researchers aiming to improve the representation of cloud processes in multi-scale modeling frameworks, GCMs and climate models. Special datasets, such as 3D cloud distributions every six minutes for TWP-ICE, were requested and generated for ARM/ASR investigators. Data server records show that 86,206 datasets were downloaded by 120 users between April of 2010 and January of 2012. 5. MMF simulations The Goddard MMF (multi-scale modeling framework) has been improved by coupling with the Goddard Land Information System (LIS) and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GOES5). It has also been optimized on NASA HEC supercomputers and can be run over 4000 CPUs. The improved MMF with high horizontal resolution (1 x 1 degree) is currently being applied to cases covering 2005 and 2006. The results show that the spatial distribution pattern of precipitation rate is well simulated by the MMF through comparisons with satellite retrievals from the CMOPRH and GPCP data sets. In addition, the MMF results were compared with three reanalyses (MERRA, ERA-Interim and CFSR). Although the MMF tends

  20. A study of longwave radiation codes for climate studies: Validation with ARM observations and tests in general circulation models. Final report, September 15, 1990--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.

    1998-09-01

    DOE has launched a major initiative -- the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program -- directed at improving the parameterization of the physics governing cloud and radiative processes in general circulation models (GCMs). One specific goal of ARM is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in GCMs under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. In 1990, the authors proposed to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems connected with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem -- longwave radiation. In particular, their long-term research goals are to: develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations, assess the impact of the longwave radiative forcing in a GCM, determine the sensitivity of a GCM to the radiative model used in it, and determine how the longwave radiative forcing contributes relatively when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and expansion.

  1. Conditions for the cosmological viability of the most general scalar-tensor theories and their applications to extended Galileon dark energy models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felice, Antonio De [TPTP and NEP, The Institute for Fundamental Study, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Tsujikawa, Shinji, E-mail: antoniod@nu.ac.th, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    In the Horndeski's most general scalar-tensor theories with second-order field equations, we derive the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities associated with scalar, tensor, and vector perturbations in the presence of two perfect fluids on the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background. Our general results are useful for the construction of theoretically consistent models of dark energy. We apply our formulas to extended Galileon models in which a tracker solution with an equation of state smaller than -1 is present. We clarify the allowed parameter space in which the ghosts and Laplacian instabilities are absent and we numerically confirm that such models are indeed cosmologically viable.

  2. Relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution, nuclear fusion reaction rate and the solar neutrino problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Miin Liu

    2003-07-07

    In solar interior, it is the equilibrium velocity distribution of few high-energy protons and nuclei that participates in determining nuclear fusion reaction rates. So, it is inappropriate to use the Maxwellian velocity distribution to calculate the rates of solar nuclear fusion reactions. We have to use the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for the purpose. The nuclear fusion reaction rate based on the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution has a reduction factor with respect to that based on the Maxwellian distribution. The reduction factor depends on the temperature, reduced mass and atomic numbers of the studied nuclear fusion reactions, in other words, it varies with the sort of neutrinos. Substituting the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for the Maxwellian distribution is not important for the calculation of solar sound speeds. The relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution, if adopted in standard solar models, will lower solar neutrino fluxes and change solar neutrino energy spectra but maintain solar sound speeds. This velocity distribution is possibly a solution to the solar neutrino problem.

  3. Response to “Comment on ‘General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation’” [Phys. Fluids 26, 119101 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2014-11-15

    In R. A. Van Gorder, “General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation,” Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014) I discussed properties of generalized vortex filaments exhibiting purely rotational motion under the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation. Such solutions are stationary in terms of translational motion. In the Comment [N. Hietala, “Comment on ‘General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation’ [Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)],” Phys. Fluids 26, 119101 (2014)], the author criticizes my paper for not including translational motion (although it was clearly stated that the filament motion was assumed rotational). As it turns out, if one is interested in studying the geometric structure of solutions (which was the point of my paper), one obtains the needed qualitative results on the structure of such solutions by studying the purely rotational case. Nevertheless, in this Response I shall discuss the vortex filaments that have both rotational and translational motions. I then briefly discuss why one might want to study such generalized rotating filament solutions, in contrast to simple the standard helical or planar examples (which are really special cases). I also discuss how one can study the time evolution of filaments which exhibit more complicated dynamics than pure translation and rotation. Doing this, one can study non-stationary solutions which initially appear purely rotational and gradually display other dynamics as the filaments evolve.

  4. Stabilization of beam-weibel instability by equilibrium density ripples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. Kaw, Predhiman; Das, A.; Sengupta, S.; Ravindra Kumar, G.

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, we present an approach to achieve suppression/complete stabilization of the transverse electromagnetic beam Weibel instability in counter streaming electron beams by modifying the background plasma with an equilibrium density ripple, shorter than the skin depth; this weakening is more pronounced when thermal effects are included. On the basis of a linear two stream fluid model, it is shown that the growth rate of transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be reduced to zero value provided certain threshold values for ripple parameters are exceeded. We point out the relevance of the work to recent experimental investigations on sustained (long length) collimation of fast electron beams and integral beam transport for laser induced fast ignition schemes, where beam divergence is suppressed with the assistance of carbon nano-tubes.

  5. Universal far-from-equilibrium Dynamics of a Holographic Superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julian Sonner; Adolfo del Campo; Wojciech H. Zurek

    2015-06-26

    Symmetry breaking phase transitions are an example of non-equilibrium processes that require real time treatment, a major challenge in strongly coupled systems without long-lived quasiparticles. Holographic duality provides such an approach by mapping strongly coupled field theories in D dimensions into weakly coupled quantum gravity in D+1 anti-de Sitter spacetime. Here, we use holographic duality to study formation of topological defects -- winding numbers -- in the course of a superconducting transition in a strongly coupled theory in a 1D ring. When the system undergoes the transition on a given quench time, the condensate builds up with a delay that can be deduced using the Kibble-Zurek mechanism from the quench time and the universality class of the theory, as determined from the quasinormal mode spectrum of the dual model. Typical winding numbers deposited in the ring exhibit a universal fractional power law dependence on the quench time, also predicted by the Kibble-Zurek Mechanism.

  6. Complex zero-free regions at large |q| for multivariate Tutte polynomials (alias Potts-model partition functions) with general complex edge weights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bill Jackson; Aldo Procacci; Alan D. Sokal

    2014-12-02

    We find zero-free regions in the complex plane at large |q| for the multivariate Tutte polynomial (also known in statistical mechanics as the Potts-model partition function) Z_G(q,w) of a graph G with general complex edge weights w = {w_e}. This generalizes a result of Sokal (cond-mat/9904146) that applies only within the complex antiferromagnetic regime |1+w_e| \\le 1. Our proof uses the polymer-gas representation of the multivariate Tutte polynomial together with the Penrose identity.

  7. Nash equilibrium seeking in noncooperative games and multi -agent deployment to planar curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frihauf, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    1.1 Nash Equilibrium Seeking in Noncooperative Games . . .Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NashNash Equilibrium Seeking with Non-Quadratic Payoffs . . .

  8. Non-equilibrium CO chemistry in the solar atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Asensio Ramos; J. Trujillo Bueno; M. Carlsson; J. Cernicharo

    2003-03-20

    Investigating the reliability of the assumption of instantaneous chemical equilibrium (ICE) for calculating the CO number density in the solar atmosphere is of crucial importance for the resolution of the long-standing controversy over the existence of `cool clouds' in the chromosphere, and for determining whether the cool gas owes its existence to CO radiative cooling or to a hydrodynamical process. Here we report the first results of such an investigation in which we have carried out time-dependent gas-phase chemistry calculations in radiation hydrodynamical simulations of solar chromospheric dynamics. We show that while the ICE approximation turns out to be suitable for modeling the observed infrared CO lines at the solar disk center, it may substantially overestimate the `heights of formation' of strong CO lines synthesized close to the edge of the solar disk, especially concerning vigorous dynamic cases resulting from relatively strong photospheric disturbances. This happens because during the cool phases of the hydrodynamical simulations the CO number density in the outer atmospheric regions is smaller than what is stipulated by the ICE approximation, resulting in decreased CO opacity in the solar chromosphere. As a result, the cool CO-bearing gas which produces the observed molecular lines must be located at atmospheric heights not greater than 700 km, approximately. We conclude that taking into account the non-equilibrium chemistry improves the agreement with the available on-disk and off-limb observations, but that the hydrodynamical simulation model has to be even cooler than anticipated by the ICE approximation, and this has to be the case at the `new' (i.e. deeper) formation regions of the rovibrational CO lines.

  9. Roles of energy dissipation in a liquid-solid transition of out-of-equilibrium systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuta Komatsu; Hajime Tanaka

    2015-09-11

    Self-organization of active matter as well as driven granular matter in non-equilibrium dynamical states has attracted considerable attention not only from the fundamental and application viewpoints but also as a model to understand the occurrence of such phenomena in nature. These systems share common features originating from their intrinsically out-of-equilibrium nature. It remains elusive how energy dissipation affects the state selection in such non-equilibrium states. As a simple model system, we consider a non-equilibrium stationary state maintained by continuous energy input, relevant to industrial processing of granular materials by vibration and/or flow. More specifically, we experimentally study roles of dissipation in self-organization of a driven granular particle monolayer. We find that the introduction of strong inelasticity entirely changes the nature of the liquid-solid transition from two-step (nearly) continuous transitions (liquid-hexatic-solid) to a strongly discontinuous first-order-like one (liquid-solid), where the two phases with different effective temperatures can coexist, unlike thermal systems, under a balance between energy input and dissipation. Our finding indicates a pivotal role of energy dissipation and suggests a novel principle in the self-organization of systems far from equilibrium. A similar principle may apply to active matter, which is another important class of out-of-equilibrium systems. On noting that interaction forces in active matter, and particularly in living systems, are often non-conservative and dissipative, our finding may also shed new light on the state selection in these systems.

  10. Statefinder and Om Diagnostics for Interacting New Holographic Dark Energy Model and Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ujjal Debnath; Surajit Chattopadhyay

    2011-03-26

    In this work, we have considered that the flat FRW universe is filled with the mixture of dark matter and the new holographic dark energy. If there is an interaction, we have investigated the natures of deceleration parameter, statefinder and $Om$ diagnostics. We have examined the validity of the first and generalized second laws of thermodynamics under these interactions on the event as well as apparent horizon. It has been observed that the first law is violated on the event horizon. However, the generalized second law is valid throughout the evolution of the universe enveloped by the apparent horizon. When the event horizon is considered as the enveloping horizon, the generalized second law is found to break down excepting at late stage of the universe.

  11. Quantum gambling based on Nash-equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pei Zhang; Xiao-Qi Zhou; Yun-Long Wang; Peter J. Shadbolt; Yong-Sheng Zhang; Hong Gao; Fu-Li Li; Jeremy L. O'Brien

    2014-08-27

    A fair gambling is hard to be made between two spatially separated parties without introducing a trusted third party. Here we propose a novel gambling protocol, which enables fair gambling between two distant parties without the help of a third party. By incorporating the key concepts and methods of game theory, our protocol will force the two parties to move their strategies to a Nash-equilibrium point which guarantees the fairness through the physical laws of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, we show that our protocol can be easily adapted to a biased version, which would find applications in lottery, casino, etc. A proof-of-principle optical demonstration of this protocol is reported as well.

  12. Gaussian tripartite entanglement out of equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio A. Valido; Luis A. Correa; Daniel Alonso

    2013-06-21

    The stationary multipartite entanglement between three interacting harmonic oscillators subjected to decoherence is analyzed in the largely unexplored non-equilibrium strong dissipation regime. We compute the exact asymptotic Gaussian state of the system and elucidate its separability properties, qualitatively assessing the regions of the space of parameters in which fully inseparable states are generated. Interestingly, the sharing structure of bipartite entanglement is seen to degrade as dissipation increases even for very low temperatures, at which the system approaches its ground state. We also find that establishing stationary energy currents across the harmonic chain does not correspond with the build-up of biseparable steady states, which relates instead just to the relative intensity of thermal fluctuations.

  13. Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milan Batista

    2013-03-27

    The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.

  14. Spatiotemporal study of the local thermodynamic equilibrium deviations in high-intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) deviations in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE deviations.

  15. Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas Eriksen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas Eriksen, Kristoffer A. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fontes, Christopher J. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Colgan,...

  16. Confined colloidal crystals in and out of equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Reinmüller; E. C. O?uz; R. Messina; H. Löwen; H. J. Schöpe; T. Palberg

    2013-09-11

    Recent studies on confined crystals of charged colloidal particles are reviewed, both in equilibrium and out of equilibrium. We focus in particular on direct comparisons of experiments (light scattering and microscopy) with lattice sum calculations and computer simulations. In equilibrium we address buckling and crystalline multilayering of charged systems in hard and soft slit confinement. We discuss also recent crystalline structures obtained for charged mixtures. Moreover, we put forward possibilities to apply external perturbations, in order to drive the system out of equilibrium. These include electrolyte gradients as well as the application of shear and electric fields.

  17. Comment on “General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation” [Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hietala, Niklas Hänninen, Risto

    2014-11-15

    Van Gorder considers a formulation of the local induction approximation, which allows the vortex to move in the direction of the reference axis [“General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation,” Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)]. However, in his analytical and numerical study he does not use it. A mistake in the torsion of a helical vortex is also corrected.

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of a feathered dinosaur measured using physical models. Effects of form on static stability and control effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evangelista, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    models constructed from styrofoam gliders, to test thebetween lead and styrofoam. Our predicted equilibrium glide

  19. New applications of Equinox code for real-time plasma equilibrium and profile reconstruction for tokamaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosak, K; Joffrin, E; Bosak, Krzysztof; Blum, Jacques; Joffrin, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Recent development of real-time equilibrium code Equinox [1] using a fixed-point algorithm [2] allow major plasma magnetic parameters to be identified in real-time, using rigorous analytical method. The code relies on the boundary flux code providing flux values on the first wall of vacuum vessel. By means of least-square minimization of differences between magnetic field obtained from previous solution and the next measurements the code identifies the source term of the non-linear Grad-Shafranov equation [3]. The strict use of analytical equations together with a flexible algorithm offers an opportunity to include new measurements into stable magnetic equilibrium code and compare the results directly between several tokamaks while maintaining the same physical model (i.e. no iron model is necessary inside the equilibrium code). The successful implementation of this equilibrium code for JET and Tore Supra have been already published [1], in this paper, we show the preliminary results of predictive runs of the...

  20. Convective plasma stability consistent with MHD equilibrium in magnetic confinement systems with a decreasing field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsventoukh, M. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-15

    A study is made of the convective (interchange, or flute) plasma stability consistent with equilibrium in magnetic confinement systems with a magnetic field decreasing outward and large curvature of magnetic field lines. Algorithms are developed which calculate convective plasma stability from the Kruskal-Oberman kinetic criterion and in which the convective stability is iteratively consistent with MHD equilibrium for a given pressure and a given type of anisotropy in actual magnetic geometry. Vacuum and equilibrium convectively stable configurations in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field are calculated. It is shown that, in convectively stable equilibrium, the possibility of achieving high plasma pressures in the central region is restricted either by the expansion of the separatrix (when there are large regions of a weak magnetic field) or by the filamentation of the gradient plasma current (when there are small regions of a weak magnetic field, in which case the pressure drops mainly near the separatrix). It is found that, from the standpoint of equilibrium and of the onset of nonpotential ballooning modes, a kinetic description of convective stability yields better plasma confinement parameters in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than a simpler MHD model and makes it possible to substantially improve the confinement parameters for a given type of anisotropy. For the Magnetor experimental compact device, the maximum central pressure consistent with equilibrium and stability is calculated to be as high as {beta} {approx} 30%. It is shown that, for the anisotropy of the distribution function that is typical of a background ECR plasma, the limiting pressure gradient is about two times steeper than that for an isotropic plasma. From a practical point of view, the possibility is demonstrated of achieving better confinement parameters of a hot collisionless plasma in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than those obtained with the simplest MHD description.

  1. Compact objects from gravitational collapse: an analytical toy model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Pankaj S

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a procedure to obtain regular static configurations as resulting from dynamical gravitational collapse of a massive matter cloud in general relativity. Under certain general physical assumptions for the collapsing cloud, we find the class of dynamical models that lead to an equilibrium configuration. To illustrate this, we provide a class of perfect fluid collapse models that lead to a static constant density object as limit. We suggest that similar models might possibly constitute the basis for the description of formation of compact objects in nature.

  2. Development of a general purpose subgrid wall boiling model from improved physical understanding for use in computational fluid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilman, Lindsey Anne

    2014-01-01

    Advanced modeling capabilities were developed for application to subcooled flow boiling through this work. The target was to introduce, and demonstrate, all necessary mechanisms required to accurately predict the temperature ...

  3. Phase-field investigation on the non-equilibrium interface dynamics of rapid alloy solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jeong

    2011-08-15

    The research program reported here is focused on critical issues that represent conspicuous gaps in current understanding of rapid solidification, limiting our ability to predict and control microstructural evolution (i.e. morphological dynamics and microsegregation) at high undercooling, where conditions depart significantly from local equilibrium. More specifically, through careful application of phase-field modeling, using appropriate thin-interface and anti-trapping corrections and addressing important details such as transient effects and a velocity-dependent (i.e. adaptive) numerics, the current analysis provides a reasonable simulation-based picture of non-equilibrium solute partitioning and the corresponding oscillatory dynamics associated with single-phase rapid solidification and show that this method is a suitable means for a self-consistent simulation of transient behavior and operating point selection under rapid growth conditions. Moving beyond the limitations of conventional theoretical/analytical treatments of non-equilibrium solute partitioning, these results serve to substantiate recent experimental findings and analytical treatments for single-phase rapid solidification. The departure from the equilibrium solid concentration at the solid-liquid interface was often observed during rapid solidification, and the energetic associated non-equilibrium solute partitioning has been treated in detail, providing possible ranges of interface concentrations for a given growth condition. Use of these treatments for analytical description of specific single-phase dendritic and cellular operating point selection, however, requires a model for solute partitioning under a given set of growth conditions. Therefore, analytical solute trapping models which describe the chemical partitioning as a function of steady state interface velocities have been developed and widely utilized in most of the theoretical investigations of rapid solidification. However, these solute trapping models are not rigorously verified due to the difficulty in experimentally measuring under rapid growth conditions. Moreover, since these solute trapping models include kinetic parameters which are difficult to directly measure from experiments, application of the solute trapping models or the associated analytic rapid solidification model is limited. These theoretical models for steady state rapid solidification which incorporate the solute trapping models do not describe the interdependency of solute diffusion, interface kinetics, and alloy thermodynamics. The phase-field approach allows calculating, spontaneously, the non-equilibrium growth effects of alloys and the associated time-dependent growth dynamics, without making the assumptions that solute partitioning is an explicit function of velocity, as is the current convention. In the research described here, by utilizing the phase-field model in the thin-interface limit, incorporating the anti-trapping current term, more quantitatively valid interface kinetics and solute diffusion across the interface are calculated. In order to sufficiently resolve the physical length scales (i.e. interface thickness and diffusion boundary length), grid spacings are continually adjusted in calculations. The full trajectories of transient planar growth dynamics under rapid directional solidification conditions with different pulling velocities are described. As a validation of a model, the predicted steady state conditions are consistent with the analytic approach for rapid growth. It was confirmed that rapid interface dynamics exhibits the abrupt acceleration of the planar front when the effect of the non-equilibrium solute partitioning at the interface becomes signi ficant. This is consistent with the previous linear stability analysis for the non-equilibrium interface dynamics. With an appropriate growth condition, the continuous oscillation dynamics was able to be simulated using continually adjusting grid spacings. This oscillatory dynamics including instantaneous jump of interface velocities are consistent

  4. Beyond Nash Equilibrium: Solution Concepts for the 21st Century #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halpern, Joseph Y.

    Beyond Nash Equilibrium: Solution Concepts for the 21st Century # Joseph Y. Halpern Cornell://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/halpern Abstract Nash equilibrium is the most commonly­used notion of equi­ librium in game theory. However, it suffers from numerous problems. Some are well known in the game theory commu­ nity; for example, the Nash

  5. the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture Rainer Feldmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavronicolas, Marios

    Facets of the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture Rainer Feldmann Marios Mavronicolas Andreas;Abstract In this work, we continue the study of the many facets of the Fully Mixed Nash Equi- librium. A Nash equilibrium is a stable state where no user can improve her (expected) latency by switching her

  6. Beyond the Nash Equilibrium Barrier Robert Kleinberg1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ligett, Katrina

    Beyond the Nash Equilibrium Barrier Robert Kleinberg1 Katrina Ligett1 Georgios Piliouras2 ´Eva.piliouras@gmail.com Abstract: Nash equilibrium analysis has become the de facto standard for judging the solution quality is comparable to that of Nash equilibria. By assuming that equilibria are representative of the outcomes

  7. SUPERGAMES IN ELECTRICITY MARKETS: BEYOND THE NASH EQUILIBRIUM CONCEPT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUPERGAMES IN ELECTRICITY MARKETS: BEYOND THE NASH EQUILIBRIUM CONCEPT Pedro Correia, Thomas away from the best-response equilibrium strategies provided by Nash so- lutions. Although Nash, and the solutions pre- scribed by this game are Nash equilibria [4], either in pure or in mixed strategies. When

  8. A Nash Equilibrium Analysis for Interference Coupled Wireless Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpcan, Tansu

    A Nash Equilibrium Analysis for Interference Coupled Wireless Systems Siddharth Naik Technical.boche@mk.tu-berlin.de Abstract--This paper studies the properties of Nash equilib- rium for noncooperative games in interference are investigated to establish the existence and uniqueness of a Nash equilibrium solution. These properties play

  9. Energy conservation, counting statistics, and return to equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaksic, Vojkan

    Energy conservation, counting statistics, and return to equilibrium V. Jaksi´c1 , J. Panangaden1 to the joint thermal equilibrium state, we study the Full Counting Statistics (FCS) of the energy transfers , A. Panati1,2 , C-A. Pillet2 1 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University, 805

  10. A lateral optical equilibrium in waveguide-resonator optical force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    A lateral optical equilibrium in waveguide-resonator optical force Varat Intaraprasonk,1@stanford.edu Abstract: We consider the lateral optical force between a resonator and a waveguide, and study the possibility of an equilibrium that occurs solely from the optical force in such system. We prove analytically

  11. Equilibrium surface distributions for constant energy ensembles B. I. Henry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry, Bruce Ian

    Equilibrium surface distributions for constant energy ensembles B. I. Henry Department of Applied distributions are seen [11,12]. In this paper we shall discuss how one calculates the constant energy energy en­ semble are discussed. An equilibrium surface density is introduced and used to calculate

  12. Proton-Rich Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. R. Seitenzahl; F. X. Timmes; A. Marin-Laflèche; E. Brown; G. Magkotsios; J. Truran

    2008-08-14

    Proton-rich material in a state of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is one of the least studied regimes of nucleosynthesis. One reason for this is that after hydrogen burning, stellar evolution proceeds at conditions of equal number of neutrons and protons or at a slight degree of neutron-richness. Proton-rich nucleosynthesis in stars tends to occur only when hydrogen-rich material that accretes onto a white dwarf or neutron star explodes, or when neutrino interactions in the winds from a nascent proto-neutron star or collapsar-disk drive the matter proton-rich prior to or during the nucleosynthesis. In this paper we solve the NSE equations for a range of proton-rich thermodynamic conditions. We show that cold proton-rich NSE is qualitatively different from neutron-rich NSE. Instead of being dominated by the Fe-peak nuclei with the largest binding energy per nucleon that have a proton to nucleon ratio close to the prescribed electron fraction, NSE for proton-rich material near freeze-out temperature is mainly composed of Ni56 and free protons. Previous results of nuclear reaction network calculations rely on this non-intuitive high proton abundance, which this paper will explain. We show how the differences and especially the large fraction of free protons arises from the minimization of the free energy as a result of a delicate competition between the entropy and the nuclear binding energy.

  13. Generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation induced from position-dependent effective mass quantum models and mass-deformed soliton solution through inverse scattering transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, A. E-mail: aganguly@maths.iitkgp.ernet.in; Das, A.

    2014-11-15

    We consider one-dimensional stationary position-dependent effective mass quantum model and derive a generalized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation in (1+1) dimension through Lax pair formulation, one being the effective mass Schrödinger operator and the other being the time-evolution of wave functions. We obtain an infinite number of conserved quantities for the generated nonlinear equation and explicitly show that the new generalized KdV equation is an integrable system. Inverse scattering transform method is applied to obtain general solution of the nonlinear equation, and then N-soliton solution is derived for reflectionless potentials. Finally, a special choice has been made for the variable mass function to get mass-deformed soliton solution. The influence of position and time-dependence of mass and also of the different representations of kinetic energy operator on the nature of such solitons is investigated in detail. The remarkable features of such solitons are demonstrated in several interesting figures and are contrasted with the conventional KdV-soliton associated with constant-mass quantum model.

  14. Bayesian derivation of plasma equilibrium distribution function for tokamak scenarios and the associated Landau collision operator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Troia, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    A class of parametric distribution functions has been proposed in [C.DiTroia, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion,54,2012] as equilibrium distribution functions (EDFs) for charged particles in fusion plasmas, representing supra-thermal particles in anisotropic equilibria for Neutral Beam Injection, Ion Cyclotron Heating scenarios. Moreover, the EDFs can also represent nearly isotropic equilibria for Slowing-Down $alpha$ particles and core thermal plasma populations. These EDFs depend on constants of motion (COMs). Assuming an axisymmetric system with no equilibrium electric field, the EDF depends on the toroidal canonical momentum $P_\\phi$, the kinetic energy $w$ and the magnetic moment \\mu. In the present work, the EDFs are obtained from first principles and general hypothesis. The derivation is probabilistic and makes use of the Bayes' Theorem. The bayesian argument allows us to describe how far from the prior probability distribution function (pdf), e.g. Maxwellian, the plasma is, based on the information...

  15. Non-equilibrium thermodynamic potentials for continuous-time Markov chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gatien Verley

    2015-08-05

    We connect the rare fluctuations of an Equilibrium (EQ) process to the typical fluctuations of a Non-Equilibrium (NE) stationary process. In the framework of large deviation theory, this observation allows us to introduce NE thermodynamic potentials. For continuous-time Markov chains, we identify the relevant pairs of conjugated variables and propose two NE ensembles: one with fixed dynamics and fluctuating time-averaged variables, and another with fixed time-averaged variables, but a fluctuating dynamics. Accordingly, we show that NE processes are equivalent to conditioned EQ processes ensuring that NE potentials are Legendre dual. We find a variational principle satisfied by the NE potentials that reach their maximum in the NE stationary state and whose first derivatives produce the NE equations of state, and second derivatives produce the NE Maxwell relations generalizing the Onsager reciprocity relations.

  16. Big Entropy Fluctuations in Statistical Equilibrium: The Macroscopic Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Chirikov; O. V. Zhirov

    2000-10-31

    Large entropy fluctuations in an equilibrium steady state of classical mechanics were studied in extensive numerical experiments on a simple 2--freedom strongly chaotic Hamiltonian model described by the modified Arnold cat map. The rise and fall of a large separated fluctuation was shown to be described by the (regular and stable) "macroscopic" kinetics both fast (ballistic) and slow (diffusive). We abandoned a vague problem of "appropriate" initial conditions by observing (in a long run)spontaneous birth and death of arbitrarily big fluctuations for any initial state of our dynamical model. Statistics of the infinite chain of fluctuations, reminiscent to the Poincar\\'e recurrences, was shown to be Poissonian. A simple empirical relation for the mean period between the fluctuations (Poincar\\'e "cycle") has been found and confirmed in numerical experiments. A new representation of the entropy via the variance of only a few trajectories ("particles") is proposed which greatly facilitates the computation, being at the same time fairly accurate for big fluctuations. The relation of our results to a long standing debates over statistical "irreversibility" and the "time arrow" is briefly discussed too.

  17. A Case where a Paradox Like Braess's Occurs in the Nash Equilibrium but Does Not Occur in the Wardrop Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Case where a Paradox Like Braess's Occurs in the Nash Equilibrium but Does Not Occur of the other individuals. Another framework in which such a paradox may occur is that of the Nash equilibrium­ negligible eoeect on the other players. It is natural to expect the same type of paradox in the Nash equilib

  18. Relaxation back to equilibrium after cessation of shear for confined colloidal bilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    René Messina; Hartmut Löwen

    2005-06-24

    Crystalline bilayers of charged colloidal suspensions which are confined between two parallel plates and sheared via a relative motion of the two plates are studied by extensive Brownian dynamics computer simulations. The charge-stabilized suspension is modeled by a Yukawa pair potential. The unsheared equilibrium configuration are two crystalline layers with a nested quadratic in-plane structure. For increasing shear rates $\\dot \\gamma$, we find the following steady states: first, there is a static solid which is elastically sheared until a yield-stress limit is reached. Then there are two crystalline layers sliding on top of each other with a registration procedure. Higher shear rates melt the crystalline bilayers and even higher shear rates lead to a reentrant solid stratified in the shear direction. This qualitative scenario is similar to that found in previous bulk simulations. We have then studied the relaxation of the sheared steady state back to equilibrium after an instantaneous cessation of shear and found a nonmonotonic behavior of the typical relaxation time as a function of the shear rate $\\dot \\gamma$. In particular, application of high shear rates accelerates the relaxation back to equilibrium since shear-ordering facilitates the growth of the equilibrium crystal. This mechanism can be used to grow defect-free colloidal crystals from strongly sheared suspensions. Our theoretical predictions can be verified in real-space experiments of strongly confined charged suspensions.

  19. A multi-period equilibrium pricing model of weather derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yongheon; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2010-01-01

    Y. : Valuation and hedging of weather derivatives on monthlyJ. Risk 31. Yoo, S. : Weather derivatives and seasonaleffects and valuation of weather derivatives. Financ. Rev.

  20. Effects of the equilibrium model on impurity transport in tokamaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skyman, Andreas; Tegnered, Daniel; Nordman, Hans; Anderson, Johan; Strand, Pär

    2014-01-01

    Gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient mode and trapped electron mode driven impurity transport in a realistic tokamak geometry are presented and compared with results using simplified geometries. The gyrokinetic results, obtained with the GENE code in both linear and non-linear modes are compared with data and analysis for a dedicated impurity injection discharge at JET. The impact of several factors on heat and particle transport is discussed, lending special focus to tokamak geometry and rotational shear. To this end, results using s-alpha and concentric circular equilibria are compared with results with magnetic geometry from a JET experiment. To further approach experimental conditions, non-linear gyrokinetic simulations are performed with collisions and a carbon background included. The impurity peaking factors, computed by finding local density gradients corresponding to zero particle flux, are discussed. The impurity peaking factors are seen to be reduced by a factor of ~2 in realistic ge...