Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact...
and prospects Screenshot References: Computable general equilibrium models1 Abstract "Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) of economic, environmental, and social effects...
General Equilibrium Modeling Package (GEMPACK) | Open Energy Information
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Computable General Equilibrium Models for the Analysis of Energy and Climate Policies
Wing, Ian Sue
(i) how a model may be cali- brated using the economic data in a social accounting matrix, (ii) how of their size or apparent complexity), the 2 #12;key features of their data base and the calibration methodsComputable General Equilibrium Models for the Analysis of Energy and Climate Policies Ian Sue Wing
Energy and agriculture in the Haitian economy: A computable general equilibrium model
Jones, D.W.; Wu, M.T.C.; Das, S.; Cohn, S.M.
1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report documents a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the economy of Haiti, emphasizing energy use in agriculture. CGE models compare favorably with econometric models for developing countries in terms of their ability to take advantage of available data. The model of Haiti contains ten production sectors: manufacturing, services, transportation, electricity, rice, coffee, sugar cane, sugar refining, general agriculture, and fuelwood and charcoal. All production functions use functional forms which permit factor substitution. Consumption is specified for three income categories of consumers and a government sector with a linear expenditure system (LES) of demand equations. The economy exports four categories of products and imports six. Balanced trade and capital accounts are required for equilibrium. Total sectoral allocations of land, labor and capital are constrained to equal the quantities of these inputs in the Haitian economy as of the early 1980s. The model can be used to study the consequences of fiscal and trade policies and sectorally oriented productivity improvement policies. Guidance is offered regarding how to use the model to study economic growth and technological change. Limitations of the mode are also pointed out as well as user strategies which can lessen or work around some of those limitations. 19 refs.
Essays in dynamic general equilibrium
Cao, Dân (Dân Vu?)
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis consists of three chapters studying dynamic economies in general equilibrium. The first chapter considers an economy in business cycles with potentially imperfect financial markets. The second chapter investigates ...
RELAXATION METHODS FOR GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS
Kanzow, Christian
RELAXATION METHODS FOR GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS WITH INEXACT LINE SEARCH Anna von@mathematik.uni-wuerzburg.de February 21, 2008 #12;Abstract. The generalized Nash equilibrium problem (GNEP) is an extension of the stan- dard Nash game where both the utility functions and the strategy spaces of each player also depend
Plant Heterogeneity and Applied General Equilibrium Models of Trade: Lessons from
Stoiciu, Mihai
sector. I introduce these features by adapting a Hopenhayn (1992) model of plant entry and exit and embed a Hopenhayn (1992) model of firm entry and exit and embed this in a static multisector trade model with monop) develops a model with plant dynamics to match entry and exit rates in US manufacturing. I do
Inventories and capacity utilization in general equilibrium
Trupkin, Danilo Rogelio
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The primary goal of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding, in thecontext of a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium framework, of the role of inventories and capacity utilization (of both capital and labor) and, in particular...
General Equilibrium Model for Economy - Energy - Environment (GEM-E3) |
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Computing the Electricity Market Equilibrium: Uses of market equilibrium models
Baldick, Ross
on power system operation greatly complicate the application of economic analysis to electricity markets1 Computing the Electricity Market Equilibrium: Uses of market equilibrium models Ross Baldick Abstract--In this paper we consider the formulation and uses of electric- ity market equilibrium models
PENALTY METHODS FOR THE SOLUTION OF GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS
Kanzow, Christian
PENALTY METHODS FOR THE SOLUTION OF GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS (WITH COMPLETE TEST@mathematik.uni-wuerzburg.de February 11, 2009 Abstract The generalized Nash equilibrium problem (GNEP) is an extension of the classical Nash equilibrium problem where both the objective functions and the constraints of each player may
OPTIMIZATION REFORMULATIONS OF THE GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM
Kanzow, Christian
OPTIMIZATION REFORMULATIONS OF THE GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM USING NIKAIDO@mathematik.uni-wuerzburg.de July 17, 2006 #12;Abstract. We consider the generalized Nash equilibrium problem which, in contrast to the standard Nash equilibrium problem, allows joint constraints of all players involved in the game. Using
Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis
renewable sources such as wind, solar, and biomass. I use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) modelCombining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy
Gurgel, Angelo C.
We develop a forward-looking version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and apply it to examine the economic implications of proposals in the U.S. Congress to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) ...
Rotating figures of equilibrium in General Relativity
T. Papakostas
2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
A generalization of the notion of surfaces of revolution in the spaces of General Relativity is presented. We apply this definition to the case of Carter's family [A] of solutions and we study the Kerr's metric with respect the above mentioned foliation.
Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis
Morris, Jennifer
Many efforts to address greenhouse gas emissions combine a cap-and-trade system with other measures such as a renewable portfolio standard. In this paper we use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, the MIT Emissions ...
Modelling the Electricity Market: from Equilibrium Models to Simulation
Lavaei, Javad
Modelling the Electricity Market: from Equilibrium Models to Simulation Yoann Poirier Abstract - This paper aims at providing an overview of the different models used in order to describe the Electricity the Electricity Market: Cournot Equilibrium, Bertrand Equilibrium and Supply Function Equilibrium. I will make
Carbon Leakage in General and Partial Equilibrium August 7, 2012
Kammen, Daniel M.
Carbon Leakage in General and Partial Equilibrium Larry Karp August 7, 2012 Abstract The general of leakage, and the magnitude of border tax adjustments (BTAs) needed to offset it. A BTA based on carbon intensity in countries without carbon constraints is an export subsidy and creates negative leakage
Valerio Lucarini
2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the general response theory proposed by Ruelle for describing the impact of small perturbations to the non-equilibrium steady states resulting from Axiom A dynamical systems. We show that the causality of the response functions allows for writing a set of Kramers-Kronig relations for the corresponding susceptibilities at all orders of nonlinearity. Nonetheless, only a special class of observable susceptibilities obey Kramers-Kronig relations. Specific results are provided for arbitrary order harmonic response, which allows for a very comprehensive Kramers-Kronig analysis and the establishment of sum rules connecting the asymptotic behavior of the susceptibility to the short-time response of the system. These results generalize previous findings on optical Hamiltonian systems and simple mechanical models, and shed light on the general impact of considering the principle of causality for testing self-consistency: the described dispersion relations constitute unavoidable benchmarks for any experimental and model generated dataset. In order to connect the response theory for equilibrium and non equilibrium systems, we rewrite the classical results by Kubo so that response functions formally identical to those proposed by Ruelle, apart from the measure involved in the phase space integration, are obtained. We briefly discuss how these results, taking into account the chaotic hypothesis, might be relevant for climate research. In particular, whereas the fluctuation-dissipation theorem does not work for non-equilibrium systems, because of the non-equivalence between internal and external fluctuations, Kramers-Kronig relations might be more robust tools for the definition of a self-consistent theory of climate change.
NEWTON'S METHOD FOR COMPUTING A NORMALIZED EQUILIBRIUM IN THE GENERALIZED NASH GAME
Kanzow, Christian
NEWTON'S METHOD FOR COMPUTING A NORMALIZED EQUILIBRIUM IN THE GENERALIZED NASH GAME THROUGH FIXED Society for the Promotion of Science. 1 #12;Abstract. We consider the generalized Nash equilibrium problem: Generalized Nash equilibrium problem; Normalized equilib- rium; Fixed point characterization; Nonsmooth Newton
Blitzer, Charles R.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A general equilibrium approach, in the form of a multisector, intertemporal programming model, is used to analyze the effects on the growth of the Egyptian economy of carbon emissions constraints that differ across sectors ...
On characterization of robust feedback Nash equilibrium for generalized multi-channel systems
Antsaklis, Panos
1 On characterization of robust feedback Nash equilibrium for generalized multi-channel systems) On characterization of robust feedback Nash equilibrium for generalized multi-channel systems Getachew K. Befekadu. Specifically, we pro- vide a sufficient condition for the existence of a robust feedback Nash equilibrium when
Multicomponent Equilibrium Models for Testing Geothermometry Approaches
Cooper, D. Craig; Carl D. Palmer; Robert W. Smith; Travis L. McLing
2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Geothermometry is an important tool for estimating deep reservoir temperature from the geochemical composition of shallower and cooler waters. The underlying assumption of geothermometry is that the waters collected from shallow wells and seeps maintain a chemical signature that reflects equilibrium in the deeper reservoir. Many of the geothermometers used in practice are based on correlation between water temperatures and composition or using thermodynamic calculations based a subset (typically silica, cations or cation ratios) of the dissolved constituents. An alternative approach is to use complete water compositions and equilibrium geochemical modeling to calculate the degree of disequilibrium (saturation index) for large number of potential reservoir minerals as a function of temperature. We have constructed several “forward” geochemical models using The Geochemist’s Workbench to simulate the change in chemical composition of reservoir fluids as they migrate toward the surface. These models explicitly account for the formation (mass and composition) of a steam phase and equilibrium partitioning of volatile components (e.g., CO2, H2S, and H2) into the steam as a result of pressure decreases associated with upward fluid migration from depth. We use the synthetic data generated from these simulations to determine the advantages and limitations of various geothermometry and optimization approaches for estimating the likely conditions (e.g., temperature, pCO2) to which the water was exposed in the deep subsurface. We demonstrate the magnitude of errors that can result from boiling, loss of volatiles, and analytical error from sampling and instrumental analysis. The estimated reservoir temperatures for these scenarios are also compared to conventional geothermometers. These results can help improve estimation of geothermal resource temperature during exploration and early development.
Goudon, Thierry
A Coupled Model for Radiative Transfer: Doppler Effects, Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Diffusion. The interaction terms take into account both scattering and absorption/emission phenomena, as well as Doppler-diffusion equations. Key words. Hydrodynamic limits. Diffusion approximation. Radiative transfer. Doppler correction
Monge, Juan
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
The economic impacts of a government-funded, forest-based sequestration program were analyzed under two different payment schemes. The impacts were obtained by developing a regional, static CGE model built to accommodate a modified IMPLAN SAM for a...
Monge, Juan
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
The economic impacts of a government-funded, forest-based sequestration program were analyzed under two different payment schemes. The impacts were obtained by developing a regional, static CGE model built to accommodate a modified IMPLAN SAM for a...
Equilibrium Statistical-Thermal Models in High-Energy Physics
Abdel Nasser Tawfik
2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
We review some recent highlights from the applications of statistical-thermal models to different experimental measurements and lattice QCD thermodynamics, that have been made during the last decade. We start with a short review of the historical milestones on the path of constructing statistical-thermal models for heavy-ion physics. We discovered that Heinz Koppe formulated in 1948 an almost complete recipe for the statistical-thermal models. In 1950, Enrico Fermi generalized this statistical approach, in which he started with a general cross-section formula and inserted into it simplifying assumptions about the matrix element of the interaction process that likely reflects many features of the high-energy reactions dominated by density in the phase space of final states. In 1964, Hagedorn systematically analysed the high-energy phenomena using all tools of statistical physics and introduced the concept of limiting temperature based on the statistical bootstrap model. It turns to be quite often that many-particle systems can be studied with the help of statistical-thermal methods. The analysis of yield multiplicities in high-energy collisions gives an overwhelming evidence for the chemical equilibrium in the final state. The strange particles might be an exception, as they are suppressed at lower beam energies. However, their relative yields fulfill statistical equilibrium, as well. We review the equilibrium statistical-thermal models for particle production, fluctuations and collective flow in heavy-ion experiments. We also review their reproduction of the lattice QCD thermodynamics at vanishing and finite chemical potential. During the last decade, five conditions have been suggested to describe the universal behavior of the chemical freeze out parameters.
Non-equilibrium Statistical Approach to Friction Models
Shoichi Ichinose
2015-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
A geometric approach to the friction phenomena is presented. It is based on the holographic view which has recently been popular in the theoretical physics community. We see the system in one-dimension-higher space. The heat-producing phenomena are most widely treated by using the non-equilibrium statistical physics. We take 2 models of the earthquake. The dissipative systems are here formulated from the geometric standpoint. The statistical fluctuation is taken into account by using the (generalized) Feynman's path-integral.
A Two Stage Stochastic Equilibrium Model for Electricity Markets ...
Dali Zhang
2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z
Feb 6, 2008 ... A Two Stage Stochastic Equilibrium Model for Electricity Markets with Two Way Contracts. Dali Zhang (zhangdl ***at*** soton.ac.uk) Huifu Xu ...
Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium...
uses, real wages, value added by sector, real gross domestic product, real income, exports, imports, terms of trade. How to Use This Tool Training Available None provided;...
Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium
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On characterization of robust feedback Nash equilibrium for generalized multi-channel systems
Gupta, Vijay
On characterization of robust feedback Nash equilibrium for generalized multi-channel systems condition for the existence of a robust feedback Nash equilibrium when every agent aims to optimize the structure of the game. For such a case, we characterize the robust feedback Nash equilibria via a set
Equilibrium Distribution of Mutators in the Single Fitness Peak Model
Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Deeds, Eric J.; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.
2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
This Letter develops an analytically tractable model for determining the equilibrium distribution of mismatch repair deficient strains in unicellular populations. The approach is based on the single fitness peak model, ...
Lithium-ion battery modeling using non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Ferguson, Todd R. (Todd Richard)
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The focus of this thesis work is the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in lithium-ion battery modeling. As the demand for higher power and longer lasting batteries increases, the search for materials suitable ...
Linear Supply Function Equilibrium: Generalizations, Application, and Limitations
California at Berkeley. University of
reforms in England and Wales (E&W). Green (1996) used a linear version of this model and applied in the electricity industry. Recent reforms of the electricity industry around the world have stimulated numerous
Verification of the Equilibrium and MHD Stability Codes within the Integrated Tokamak Modeling Task Force
Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis
Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States Engineering ABSTRACT The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions
Sustainability impacts of car road pricing: A computable general equilibrium analysis for Austria
Keeling, Stephen L.
reserved. Keywords: Sustainable transport Road pricing Transport emission reduction Passenger transport and for a comparable share of CO2 emissions (Berechman, 2002). While initial responses to the environmental challengeANALYSIS Sustainability impacts of car road pricing: A computable general equilibrium analysis
CSEM WP 164 An Equilibrium Model of Investment in
Kammen, Daniel M.
incentives is also influenced by the firms' con- tractual or retail obligations in the market. Just as long-term contracts or retail obligations change a firm's incentives in the short-term markets, so do they influ- enceCSEM WP 164 An Equilibrium Model of Investment in Restructured Electricity Markets James Bushnell
1 SIDE CONSTRAINED TRAFFIC EQUILIBRIUM MODELS---TRAFFIC
Patriksson, Michael
i #12; #12; 1 SIDE CONSTRAINED TRAFFIC EQUILIBRIUM MODELS---TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT THROUGH LINK TOLLS in the inelastic demand case; this fact enables the traffic manager to choose a toll scheme which satisfies flow restrictions as side constraints. The set of toll prices obtained is not necessarily unique
A Geometric Study of Ringed Ribosome Flow Model Equilibrium
Yirmeyahu J. Kaminski
2015-09-25T23:59:59.000Z
We perform a geometric study of the equilibrium locus of the Ribosome Flow Model on a Ring. We prove that the for the set of all possible values of the parameters, the equilibrium locus is a smooth manifold with boundaries, while for a given value of the parameters, it is an embedded smooth and connected curve. For different values of the parameters, the curves are all isomorphic. Moreover, we show how to build a homotopy between different curves obtained for different values of the parameter set. This procedure allows the efficient computation of the equilibrium point for each value of some first integral of the system. This point would have been otherwise difficult to be computed for higher dimensions. We illustrate this construction by some numerical experiments.
Entropy Production and Equilibrium Conditions of General-Covariant Spin Systems
Wolfgang Muschik; Horst-Heino von Borzeszkowski
2015-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
In generalizing the special-relativistic one-component version of Eckart's continuum thermodynamics to general-relativistic space-times with Riemannian or post-Riemannian geometry, we consider the entropy production and other themodynamical quantities such as the entropy flux and the Gibbs fundamental equation. We discuss equilibrium conditions in gravitational theories which are based on such geometries. In particular, thermodynamic implications of the non-symmetry of the energy-momentum tensor and the related spin balance equations are investigated, also for the special case of General Relativity.
Entropy Production and Equilibrium Conditions in General-Covariant Continuum Physics
Wolfgang Muschik; Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski
2015-01-03T23:59:59.000Z
Starting out with an entropy identity, the entropy flux, the entropy production and the corresponding Gibbs and Gibbs-Duhem equations of general-covariant conti\\-nuum thermodynamics are established. Non-dissipative materials and equilibria are investigated. It is proved that equilibrium conditions only put on material properties cannot generate equilibria, rather additionally, the Killing property of the 4-temperature is a necessary condition for space-times in which equilibria are possible.
Ocean General Circulation Models
Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun
2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.
Equilibrium and volumetric data and model development of coal fluids
Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Park, J.
1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
The long term goal of our efforts is to develop accurate predictive methods for description of equilibrium phase properties for a variety of types of mixtures and operating conditions. The specific objectives of the work specified herein include: (1) development of an experimental facility having the capability to provide data on equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) and liquid densities, and doing so with greater accuracy and speed than our previous facility, (2) measurement of equilibrium phase properties for systematically-selected mixtures-specifically those containing important solute gases (such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, carbonyl sulfide, ammonia) in a series of heavy paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic solvents (e.g., n-decane, n-eicosane, n-octacosane, n-hexatriacontane, cyclohexane, Decalin, perhydrophenanthrene, perhydropyrene, benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene), (3) testing/development of correlation frameworks for representing the phase behavior of fluids of the type encountered in coal conversion processes, and (4) generalization of parameters in the correlation frameworks to enable accurate predictions for systems of the type studied, permitting predictions to be made for systems and conditions other than those for which experimental data are available.
Complex Dynamics in Equilibrium Asset Pricing Models with Boundedly Rational, Heterogeneous
their optimal portfolio and the market equilibrium, investors must compute future aggregate demands for assets] for critiques of equilibrium models and the response [4] by Robert Lucas. 3The Lucas [5] paper is one one
Nonlocal transport model in equilibrium two-component plasmas
Zheng Zhen; Rozmus, W. [Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2J1 (Canada); Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Brantov, A. V. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Capjack, C. E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2V4 (Canada)
2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
The full set of linearized Fokker-Planck kinetic equations with Landau collision terms have been solved as an initial-value problem for equilibrium electron-ion plasmas. This work is a generalization of the nonlocal transport theory by Bychenkov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4405 (1995)] to both electron and ion components with frequency-dependent responses. Transport closure relations have been obtained for the complete set of electron and ion fluid equations which are valid over the full range of particle collisionality and for an arbitrary ionic charge. The well-known limits of collisionless and strongly collisional plasma transport theory have been recovered. Practical fits based on the numerical calculations have been introduced for nonlocal and frequency-dependent ion transport coefficients.
Local thermal equilibrium for certain stochastic models of heat transport
Yao Li; Peter Nandori; Lai-Sang Young
2015-05-08T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is about nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) of a class of stochastic models in which particles exchange energy with their "local environments" rather than directly with one another. The physical domain of the system can be a bounded region of $\\mathbb R^d$ for any $d \\ge 1$. We assume that the temperature at the boundary of the domain is prescribed and is nonconstant, so that the system is forced out of equilibrium. Our main result is local thermal equilibrium in the infinite volume limit. In the Hamiltonian context, this would mean that at any location $x$ in the domain, local marginal distributions of NESS tend to a probability with density $\\frac{1}{Z} e^{-\\beta (x) H}$, permitting one to define the local temperature at $x$ to be $\\beta(x)^{-1}$. We prove also that in the infinite volume limit, the mean energy profile of NESS satisfies Laplace's equation for the prescribed boundary condition. Our method of proof is duality: by reversing the sample paths of particle movements, we convert the problem of studying local marginal energy distributions at $x$ to that of joint hitting distributions of certain random walks starting from $x$, and prove that the walks in question become increasingly independent as system size tends to infinity.
Modeling and Computing Two-settlement Oligopolistic Equilibrium in a Congested Electricity Network
Modeling and Computing Two-settlement Oligopolistic Equilibrium in a Congested Electricity Network with equilibrium con- straints (EPEC), in which each firm solves a mathematical program with equilibrium-problems and on parametric LCP pivoting. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the MPEC and EPEC algorithms
An Equilibrium-Based Model of Gas Reaction and Detonation
Trowbridge, L.D.
2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
During gaseous diffusion plant operations, conditions leading to the formation of flammable gas mixtures may occasionally arise. Currently, these could consist of the evaporative coolant CFC-114 and fluorinating agents such as F2 and ClF3. Replacement of CFC-114 with a non-ozone-depleting substitute is planned. Consequently, in the future, the substitute coolant must also be considered as a potential fuel in flammable gas mixtures. Two questions of practical interest arise: (1) can a particular mixture sustain and propagate a flame if ignited, and (2) what is the maximum pressure that can be generated by the burning (and possibly exploding) gas mixture, should it ignite? Experimental data on these systems, particularly for the newer coolant candidates, are limited. To assist in answering these questions, a mathematical model was developed to serve as a tool for predicting the potential detonation pressures and for estimating the composition limits of flammability for these systems based on empirical correlations between gas mixture thermodynamics and flammability for known systems. The present model uses the thermodynamic equilibrium to determine the reaction endpoint of a reactive gas mixture and uses detonation theory to estimate an upper bound to the pressure that could be generated upon ignition. The model described and documented in this report is an extended version of related models developed in 1992 and 1999.
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium effects in the collapse of a model polypeptide
Natalia A. Denesyuk; John D. Weeks
2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z
We present results of molecular simulations of a model protein whose hydrophobic collapse proceeds as a cascade of downhill transitions between distinct intermediate states. Different intermediates are stabilized by means of appropriate harmonic constraints, allowing explicit calculation of the equilibrium free energy landscape. Nonequilibrium collapse trajectories are simulated independently and compared to diffusion on the calculated free energy surface. We find that collapse generally adheres to this surface, but quantitative agreement is complicated by nonequilibrium effects and by dependence of the diffusion coefficient on position on the surface.
P. Fielitz; G. Borchardt
2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z
Information theory provides shortcuts which allow one to deal with complex systems. The basic idea one uses for this purpose is the maximum entropy principle developed by Jaynes. However, an extension of this maximum entropy principle to systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium or even to non-physical systems is problematic because it requires an adequate choice of constraints. In this paper we discuss a general concept of natural information equilibrium which does not require any choice of adequate constraints. It is, therefore, directly applicable to systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium and to non-physical systems/processes (e.g. biological processes and economical processes). We demonstrate the validity and the applicability of the concept by three well understood physical processes. As an interesting astronomical application we will show that the concept of natural information equilibrium allows one to rationalize and to quantify the K-Trumpler effect.
The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Approach to Far-From-Local-Equilibrium Thermodynamics
Beretta, Gian Paolo
The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE) method for the description of the time-dependent behavior of dynamical systems in non-equilibrium states is a general, effective, physically based method for model order ...
Nagurney, Anna
A Network Equilibrium Framework for Internet Advertising: Models, Qualitative Analysis engaged in Internet advertising among multiple websites. The model allows for the determination of both the equilibrium online advertising budget as well as the advertising expenditures on the different websites. We
Specie resumption as viewed through the general equilibrium model
Foley, Jack Lee
1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
178 182 168 170 160 160 143 140 141 137 139 139 138 146 Degree of Unskilled 187 181 173 160 150 148 139 134 125 127 123 122 122 122 127 skill skilled 175 169 169 160 160 150 150 144 140 141 137 138 135 136... 140 SOURCE: Ralph Andreano, The Economic ~Im act of the American civil (Cambridge: Schenkman Publishing Co. , 1962), p. 179. war, 30 Interest Rates: 1865-1868 Probably one of the most difficult things to discuss about the fourteen years...
Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium Model
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General Equilibrium Emissions Model (GEEM) | Open Energy Information
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ENV-Linkages General Equilibrium Model | Open Energy Information
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Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact Assessment:
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A Nash equilibrium macroscopic closure for kinetic models coupled with Mean-Field Games
Pierre Degond; Jian-Guo Liu; Christian Ringhofer
2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce a new mean field kinetic model for systems of rational agents interacting in a game theoretical framework. This model is inspired from non-cooperative anonymous games with a continuum of players and Mean-Field Games. The large time behavior of the system is given by a macroscopic closure with a Nash equilibrium serving as the local thermodynamic equilibrium. An application of the presented theory to a social model (herding behavior) is discussed.
Unique Equilibrium in the Eaton-Gersovitz Model of Sovereign Debt
Auclert, Adrien
2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z
We provide a proof that Markov Perfect equilibrium is unique in the standard infinitehorizon incomplete-market model with a default option which, following Eaton and Gersovitz (1981), has become a benchmark for quantitative ...
Plasmoid solutions of the Hahm–Kulsrud–Taylor equilibrium model
Dewar, R. L. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia and Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)] [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia and Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, A.; Kulsrud, R. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Wright, A. M. [The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)] [The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)
2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The Hahm–Kulsrud (HK) [T. S. Hahm and R. M. Kulsrud, Phys. Fluids 28, 2412 (1985)] solutions for a magnetically sheared plasma slab driven by a resonant periodic boundary perturbation illustrate fully shielded (current sheet) and fully reconnected (magnetic island) responses. On the global scale, reconnection involves solving a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium problem. In systems with a continuous symmetry, such MHD equilibria are typically found by solving the Grad–Shafranov equation, and in slab geometry the elliptic operator in this equation is the 2-D Laplacian. Thus, assuming appropriate pressure and poloidal current profiles, a conformal mapping method can be used to transform one solution into another with different boundary conditions, giving a continuous sequence of solutions in the form of partially reconnected magnetic islands (plasmoids) separated by Syrovatsky current sheets. The two HK solutions appear as special cases.
A Multi-period Equilibrium Pricing Model of Weather Derivatives
Lee, Yongheon; Oren, Shmuel S.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2002). On modelling and pricing weather derivatives. Applied2003). Arbitrage-fee pricing of weather derivatives based onfects and valuation of weather derivatives. The Financial
A Model of Vertical Restriction and Equilibrium in Retailing
Bittlingmayer, George
1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This model of distribution provides a rationale for restrictions placed on retailers by manufacturers. The manufacturer's customers are located uniformly along a road, and retailing operations are subject to increasing ...
Modeling Timed Concurrent Systems using Generalized Ultrametrics
Modeling Timed Concurrent Systems using Generalized Ultrametrics Xiaojun Liu Eleftherios Matsikoudis Edward A. Lee Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley to lists, requires prior specific permission. #12;Modeling Timed Concurrent Systems using Generalized
Equilibrium statistical mechanics and energy partition for the shallow water model
Renaud, Antoine; Bouchet, Freddy
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The aim of this paper is to use large deviation theory in order to compute the entropy of macrostates for the microcanonical measure of the shallow water system. The main prediction of this full statistical mechanics computation is the energy partition between a large scale vortical flow and small scale fluctuations related to inertia-gravity waves. We introduce for that purpose a discretized model of the continuous shallow water system, and compute the corresponding statistical equilibria. We argue that microcanonical equilibrium states of the discretized model in the continuous limit are equilibrium states of the actual shallow water system. We show that the presence of small scale fluctuations selects a subclass of equilibria among the states that were previously computed by phenomenological approaches that were neglecting such fluctuations. In the limit of weak height fluctuations, the equilibrium state can be interpreted as two subsystems in thermal contact: one subsystem corresponds to the large scale v...
An Equilibrium Point based Model Unifying Movement Control in Humanoids
Texas at Austin, University of
the dynamics methods effectively used in robotics control, few tackle the intricacies of the human the virtual model and real humans. One of the central questions of studying human movements is how the Central in robot systems as complicated as humans in dynamic environments. The inverse dynamics calculation
Bruce Turkington; Petr Plechac
2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
A new method of deriving reduced models of Hamiltonian dynamical systems is developed using techniques from optimization and statistical estimation. Given a set of resolved variables that define a model reduction, the quasi-equilibrium ensembles associated with the resolved variables are employed as a family of trial probability densities on phase space. The residual that results from submitting these trial densities to the Liouville equation is quantified by an ensemble-averaged cost function related to the information loss rate of the reduction. From an initial nonequilibrium state, the statistical state of the system at any later time is estimated by minimizing the time integral of the cost function over paths of trial densities. Statistical closure of the underresolved dynamics is obtained at the level of the value function, which equals the optimal cost of reduction with respect to the resolved variables, and the evolution of the estimated statistical state is deduced from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation satisfied by the value function. In the near-equilibrium regime, or under a local quadratic approximation in the far-from-equilibrium regime, this best-fit closure is governed by a differential equation for the estimated state vector coupled to a Riccati differential equation for the Hessian matrix of the value function. Since memory effects are not explicitly included in the trial densities, a single adjustable parameter is introduced into the cost function to capture a time-scale ratio between resolved and unresolved motions. Apart from this parameter, the closed equations for the resolved variables are completely determined by the underlying deterministic dynamics.
Title of dissertation: A CONTINUUM MODEL FOR FLOCKING: OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE, EQUILIBRIUM,
Anlage, Steven
ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: A CONTINUUM MODEL FOR FLOCKING: OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE, EQUILIBRIUM, AND STABILITY Nicholas Alexander Mecholsky, Doctor of Philosophy, 2010 Dissertation directed by: Professor of animal groups is a subject of growing attention. In this dissertation, we present a partial- differential
Laura Schaefer; Bruce Fegley Jr
2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
We modeled equilibrium vaporization of chondritic and achondritic materials using the MAGMA code. We calculated both instantaneous and integrated element abundances of Na, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe, Si, Ti, and K in chondritic and achondritic meteors. Our results are qualitatively consistent with observations of meteor spectra.
: C61 C68 D58 Q43 Keywords: Carbon policy Energy modeling Electric power sector Bottom-up Top of generation technologies and the overall electricity system. By construction, these models are partial equilib of an integrated representation of economic and electricity systems makes simplifying assumptions appealing
Gan, Yanbiao; Zhang, Guangcai; Succi, Sauro
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) is developed to investigate the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic non-equilibrium (TNE) effects in phase separation process. The interparticle forces drive changes and the gradient force, induced by gradients of macroscopic quantities, oppose them. In this paper we investigate the interplay between them by providing detailed inspection of various non-equilibrium observables. Based on the TNE features, we define a TNE strength which roughly estimates the deviation amplitude from the thermodynamic equilibrium. The time evolution of the TNE intensity provides a convenient and efficient physical criterion to separate the stages of the spinodal decomposition and domain growth. Via the DBM simulation and this criterion, we quantitatively study the effects of latent heat and surface tension on phase separation. It is found that, the TNE strength attains its maximum at the end of the spinodal decomposition stage, and it decreases when the latent heat increases from zero. The surface tens...
General Equilibrium, Electricity Generation Technologies and the Cost of Carbon Abatement
Lanz, Bruno, 1980-
Electricity generation is a major contributor to carbon dioxide emissions, and a key determinant of abatement costs. Ex-ante assessments of carbon policies mainly rely on either of two modeling paradigms: (i) partial ...
Comparison of kinetic and equilibrium reaction models insimulating the behavior of porous media
Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.
2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z
In this study we compare the use of kinetic and equilibriumreaction models in the simulation of gas (methane) hydrate behavior inporous media. Our objective is to evaluate through numerical simulationthe importance of employing kinetic versus equilibrium reaction modelsfor predicting the response of hydrate-bearing systems to externalstimuli, such as changes in pressure and temperature. Specifically, we(1) analyze and compare the responses simulated using both reactionmodels for natural gas production from hydrates in various settings andfor the case of depressurization in a hydrate-bearing core duringextraction; and (2) examine the sensitivity to factors such as initialhydrate saturation, hydrate reaction surface area, and numericaldiscretization. We find that for large-scale systems undergoing thermalstimulation and depressurization, the calculated responses for bothreaction models are remarkably similar, though some differences areobserved at early times. However, for modeling short-term processes, suchas the rapid recovery of a hydrate-bearing core, kinetic limitations canbe important, and neglecting them may lead to significantunder-prediction of recoverable hydrate. Assuming validity of the mostaccurate kinetic reaction model that is currently available, the use ofthe equilibrium reaction model often appears to be justified andpreferred for simulating the behavior of gas hydrates, given that thecomputational demands for the kinetic reaction model far exceed those forthe equilibrium reaction model.
Generalized Nash Equilibrium and Market Coupling in the European Power System
Smeers, Yves; Oggioni, Giorgia; Allevi, Elisabetta; Schaible, Siegfried
an inter-connector with limited transfer capacity. Each zone is controlled by a PX and a TSO. We assume that PXs are coordinated and then operate as if they were a sole entity; while TSOs can be coordinated or uncoordinated. We first model the case where...
Non-equilibrium phase transition in an exactly solvable driven Ising model with friction
Alfred Hucht
2009-11-04T23:59:59.000Z
A driven Ising model with friction due to magnetic correlations has recently been proposed by Kadau et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 137205 (2008)). The non-equilibrium phase transition present in this system is investigated in detail using analytical methods as well as Monte Carlo simulations. In the limit of high driving velocities $v$ the model shows mean field behavior due to dimensional reduction and can be solved exactly for various geometries. The simulations are performed with three different single spin flip rates: the common Metropolis and Glauber rates as well as a multiplicative rate. Due to the non-equilibrium nature of the model all rates lead to different critical temperatures at $v>0$, while the exact solution matches the multiplicative rate. Finally, the cross-over from Ising to mean field behavior as function of velocity and system size is analysed in one and two dimensions.
Strongly anisotropic non-equilibrium phase transition in Ising models with friction
Sebastian Angst; Alfred Hucht; Dietrich E. Wolf
2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z
The non-equilibrium phase transition in driven two-dimensional Ising models with two different geometries is investigated using Monte Carlo methods as well as analytical calculations. The models show dissipation through fluctuation induced friction near the critical point. We first consider high driving velocities and demonstrate that both systems are in the same universality class and undergo a strongly anisotropic non-equilibrium phase transition, with anisotropy exponent \\theta=3. Within a field theoretical ansatz the simulation results are confirmed. The crossover from Ising to mean field behavior in dependency of system size and driving velocity is analyzed using crossover scaling. It turns out that for all finite velocities the phase transition becomes strongly anisotropic in the thermodynamic limit.
A Multiphase First Order Model for Non-Equilibrium Sand Erosion, Transport and Sedimentation
Preziosi, Luigi; Bruno, Luca
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three phenomena are involved in sand movement: erosion, wind transport, and sedimentation. This paper presents a comprehensive easy-to-use multiphase model that include all three aspects with a particular attention to situations in which erosion due to wind shear and sedimentation due to gravity are not in equilibrium. The interest is related to the fact that these are the situations leading to a change of profile of the sand bed.
Multilinearity of two-point correlation functions in one-dimensional models out of equilibrium
Frank Redig; Wioletta Ruszel
2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z
In this note we consider non-equilibrium steady states of one-dimensional models of heat conduction (wealth exchange) which are coupled to some reservoirs creating currents. In particular we will give sufficient and necessary conditions which will depend only on the first two moments of the reservoir measures and the redistribution parameter under which the two-point functions are multilinear. This presents the first example of multilinear two-point functions in the absence of product stationary measures.
A radiative-convective equilibrium model to study young giant exoplanets by direct imaging
Baudino, J -L; Boccaletti, A; Bonnefoy, M; Lagrange, A M; Galicher, R
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We developed a model for young giant exoplanets (Exoplanet Radiative-convective Equilibrium Model or Exo-REM). Input parameters are planet's surface gravity (g), effective temperature (Teff ) and elemental composition. Under the additional assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, the model predicts the equilibrium temperature profile and mixing ratio profiles of the most important gases. Opacity sources include the H$_2$-He collision-induced absorption and molecular lines from H$_2$O, CO, CH$_4$ (updated with the Exomol linelist), NH$_3$, VO, TiO, Na and K. Absorption by iron and silicate cloud particles is added above the expected condensation levels with a fixed scale height and a given optical depth at some reference wavelength. Scattering was not included at this stage. We applied Exo-REM to photometric and spectral observations of the planet beta Pictoris b obtained in a series of near IR filters. We derived Teff = 1550 $\\pm$ 150 K, log(g) = 3.5 $\\pm$ 1, and a radius R = 1.76 $\\pm$ 0.24 R Jup (2-$\\sigma...
Bankruptcy in general equilibrium
Sabarwal, Tarun
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
????Ť{???????,?§?p?a? ?jG© #2;s? ???2?%??? ?JŤs??ŤŹ? ?[?«ť??5?s????Ź? ???%Ť#17;?2???2???=? ?j?? ˘0Ť{?Ź?j?=??ŤL?j?;??=?JŤŹ?????j? 5?7???j??????%Ť?? ŤŹť??j?ĺ?U?2?j?#23;ŤŹˇ(?j??¤0© ®s=?JŤŹ?????j? 5?7? 1ł?#19;˘.???%?Q??? ? ?#19;˘=? ???«?7?n...
An equilibrium double-twist model for the radial structure of collagen fibrils
Aidan I Brown; Laurent Kreplak; Andrew D Rutenberg
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Mammalian tissues contain networks and ordered arrays of collagen fibrils originating from the periodic self-assembly of helical 300 nm long tropocollagen complexes. The fibril radius is typically between 25 to 250 nm, and tropocollagen at the surface appears to exhibit a characteristic twist-angle with respect to the fibril axis. Similar fibril radii and twist-angles at the surface are observed in vitro, suggesting that these features are controlled by a similar self-assembly process. In this work, we propose a physical mechanism of equilibrium radius control for collagen fibrils based on a radially varying double-twist alignment of tropocollagen within a collagen fibril. The free-energy of alignment is similar to that of liquid crystalline blue phases, and we employ an analytic Euler-Lagrange and numerical free energy minimization to determine the twist-angle between the molecular axis and the fibril axis along the radial direction. Competition between the different elastic energy components, together with a surface energy, determines the equilibrium radius and twist-angle at the fibril surface. A simplified model with a twist-angle that is linear with radius is a reasonable approximation in some parameter regimes, and explains a power-law dependence of radius and twist-angle at the surface as parameters are varied. Fibril radius and twist-angle at the surface corresponding to an equilibrium free-energy minimum are consistent with existing experimental measurements of collagen fibrils. Remarkably, in the experimental regime, all of our model parameters are important for controlling equilibrium structural parameters of collagen fibrils.
Ezequiel R. Soule; Cristina E. Hoppe; Julio Borrajo; Roberto J. J. Williams
2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z
A thermodynamic model for a mixture of alkanethiol-coated nanoparticles (NPs) and low molecular weight (non-polymeric) solvent is developed, and calculations of liquid-liquid phase equilibrium for different values of NP core radius, alkanethiol chain length, solvent molar volume and alkanethiol-solvent interaction parameter, are presented. The model takes into account the swelling of the organic coronas and the dispersion of particles with swollen coronas in the solvent. The energetic interaction between alkyl chains and solvent is considered, both within the corona and between the outer alkyl segments and free solvent. Swelling involves mixing of alkanethiol chains and solvent in the corona and stretching of the organic chains. Dispersion considers an entropic contribution based on Carnahan Starling equation of state and an enthalpic term calculated considering the surface contacts between alkyl segments placed in the external boundary of the corona and the molecules of free solvent. Two different kinds of phase equilibrium are found. One of them, observed at high values of the interaction parameter, is the typical liquid-liquid equilibrium for compact NPs in a poor solvent where a complete phase separation is observed when cooling (increasing the interaction parameter). The second liquid-liquid equilibrium is observed at low values of the interaction parameter, where swelling of coronas is favored. In this region two different phases co-exist, one more concentrated in NPs that exhibit relatively compact coronas and the other one more diluted in NPs with extended coronas. In diluted solutions of NPs the deswelling of the fully extended coronas takes place abruptly in a very small temperature range, leading to a solution of compact NPs. This critical transition might find practical applications similar to those found for the abrupt shrinkage of hydrogels at a critical temperature.
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Users of the VEMAP Portal can access input files of numerical data that include monthly and daily files of geographic data, soil and site files, scenario files, etc. Model results from Phase I, the Equilibrium Response datasets, are available through the NCAR anonymous FTP site at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/vresults.html. Phase II, Transient Dynamics, include climate datasets, models results, and analysis tools. Many supplemental files are also available from the main data page at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/datasets.html.
Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.
2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z
In this study we compare the use of kinetic and equilibriumreaction models in the simulation of gas (methane) hydrate behavior inporous media. Our objective is to evaluate through numerical simulationthe importance of employing kinetic versus equilibrium reaction modelsfor predicting the response of hydrate-bearing systems to externalstimuli, such as changes in pressure and temperature. Specifically, we(1) analyze and compare the responses simulated using both reactionmodels for natural gas production from hydrates in various settings andfor the case of depressurization in a hydrate-bearing core duringextraction; and (2) examine the sensitivity to factors such as initialhydrate saturation, hydrate reaction surface area, and numericaldiscretization. We find that for large-scale systems undergoing thermalstimulation and depressurization, the calculated responses for bothreaction models are remarkably similar, though some differences areobserved at early times. However, for modeling short-term processes, suchas the rapid recovery of a hydrate-bearing core, kinetic limitations canbe important, and neglecting them may lead to significantunder-prediction of recoverable hydrate. The use of the equilibriumreaction model often appears to be justified and preferred for simulatingthe behavior of gas hydrates, given that the computational demands forthe kinetic reaction model far exceed those for the equilibrium reactionmodel.
Yanbiao Gan; Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Sauro Succi
2015-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
A discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) is developed to investigate the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic non-equilibrium (TNE) effects in phase separation processes. The interparticle force drives changes and the gradient force, induced by gradients of macroscopic quantities, opposes them. In this paper, we investigate the interplay between them by providing detailed inspection of various non-equilibrium observables. Based on the TNE features, we define a TNE strength which roughly estimates the deviation amplitude from the thermodynamic equilibrium. The time evolution of the TNE intensity provides a convenient and efficient physical criterion to discriminate the stages of the spinodal decomposition and domain growth. Via the DBM simulation and this criterion, we quantitatively study the effects of latent heat and surface tension on phase separation. It is found that, the TNE strength attains its maximum at the end of the spinodal decomposition stage, and it decreases when the latent heat increases from zero. The surface tension effects are threefold, to prolong the duration of the spinodal decomposition stage, decrease the maximum TNE intensity, and accelerate the speed of the domain growth stage.
Laser induced plasma on copper target, a non-equilibrium model
Oumeziane, Amina Ait, E-mail: a.aitoumeziane@gmail.com; Liani, Bachir [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University, Tlemcen (Algeria)] [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University, Tlemcen (Algeria); Parisse, Jean-Denis [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)] [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive numerical model for the UV laser ablation of metal targets, it focuses mainly on the prediction of laser induced plasma thresholds, the effect of the laser-plasma interaction, and the importance of the electronic non-equilibrium in the laser induced plume and its expansion in the background gas. This paper describes a set of numerical models for laser-matter interaction between 193-248 and 355?nm lasers and a copper target. Along with the thermal effects inside the material resulting from the irradiation of the latter with the pulsed laser, the laser-evaporated matter interaction and the plasma formation are thoroughly modelled. In the laser induced plume, the electronic nonequilibrium and the laser beam absorption have been investigated. Our calculations of the plasmas ignition thresholds on copper targets have been validated and compared to experimental as well as theoretical results. Comparison with experiment data indicates that our results are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, the inclusion of electronic non-equilibrium in our work indicated that this important process must be included in models of laser ablation and plasma plume formation.
A non-equilibrium model for fixed-bed multi-component adiabatic adsorption
Harwell, Jeffrey Harry
1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, 1970, 1972b). The objectives ares 1, To develop a non-equilibrium model for multicomponent adiabatic adsorption and show the dynamic behavior of the dependent' variables Cia qi ~ Tg and Ts, 2. Examine the validity of the assumption of local... mass of. solid, respec- tively, Qi is the saturation value of qi for component i, It depends on the surface ares occupied by one molecule of i and:W -hence independent of temperature. Ki is the zeciprocai of Ci when half the suz'face is oc- cupied...
Simple implementation of general dark energy models
Bloomfield, Jolyon K. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave #37241, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Pearson, Jonathan A., E-mail: jolyon@mit.edu, E-mail: jonathan.pearson@durham.ac.uk [Centre for Particle Theory, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a formalism for the numerical implementation of general theories of dark energy, combining the computational simplicity of the equation of state for perturbations approach with the generality of the effective field theory approach. An effective fluid description is employed, based on a general action describing single-scalar field models. The formalism is developed from first principles, and constructed keeping the goal of a simple implementation into CAMB in mind. Benefits of this approach include its straightforward implementation, the generality of the underlying theory, the fact that the evolved variables are physical quantities, and that model-independent phenomenological descriptions may be straightforwardly investigated. We hope this formulation will provide a powerful tool for the comparison of theoretical models of dark energy with observational data.
Superconformal generalizations of the Starobinsky model
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei, E-mail: kallosh@stanford.edu, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
We find a way to represent the Starobinsky model in terms of a simple conformally invariant theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking. We also present a superconformal theory, which, upon spontaneous breaking of the superconformal symmetry, provides a consistent supergravity generalization of the Starobinsky model.
Newtonian Aspects of General Relativistic Galaxy Models
Aleksandar Rakic; Dominik J. Schwarz
2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z
Many cosmological observations call for the existence of dark matter. The most direct evidence for dark matter is inferred from the measured flatness of galactic rotation curves. The latter is based on Newtonian gravity. Alternative approaches to the rotation curve problem by means of general relativity have recently been put forward. The class of models of interest is a subset of the axially symmetric and stationary solutions of Einstein's equations with rotating dust. As a step toward the understanding of general relativistic galaxy models, we analyse rigidly as well as non-rigidly rotating (Post-)Newtonian spacetimes. We find that the Newtonian limit of the considered general relativistic galaxy model leads to Post-Newtonian terms in the metric.
Modelling anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity
Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic anisotropic fluid sphere, (spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully modelled by suitable linear combinations of quite ordinary classical matter: an isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field, and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model that is used to mimic the anisotropic fluid sphere. Consequently, we can build physically reasonable matter models for almost any spherically symmetric spacetime.
Modelling anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity
Petarpa Boonserm; Tritos Ngampitipan; Matt Visser
2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic anisotropic fluid sphere, (spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully modelled by suitable linear combinations of quite ordinary classical matter: an isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field, and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model that is used to mimic the anisotropic fluid sphere. Consequently, we can build physically reasonable matter models for almost any spherically symmetric spacetime.
Dynamical models with a general anisotropy profile
M. Baes; E. Van Hese
2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
Both numerical simulations and observational evidence indicate that the outer regions of galaxies and dark matter haloes are typically mildly to significantly radially anisotropic. The inner regions can be significantly non-isotropic, depending on the dynamical formation and evolution processes. In an attempt to break the lack of simple dynamical models that can reproduce this behaviour, we explore a technique to construct dynamical models with an arbitrary density and an arbitrary anisotropy profile. We outline a general construction method and propose a more practical approach based on a parameterized anisotropy profile. This approach consists of fitting the density of the model with a set of dynamical components, each of which have the same anisotropy profile. Using this approach we avoid the delicate fine-tuning difficulties other fitting techniques typically encounter when constructing radially anisotropic models. We present a model anisotropy profile that generalizes the Osipkov-Merritt profile, and that can represent any smooth monotonic anisotropy profile. Based on this model anisotropy profile, we construct a very general seven-parameter set of dynamical components for which the most important dynamical properties can be calculated analytically. We use the results to look for simple one-component dynamical models that generate simple potential-density pairs while still supporting a flexible anisotropy profile. We present families of Plummer and Hernquist models in which the anisotropy at small and large radii can be chosen as free parameters. We also generalize these two families to a three-parameter family that self-consistently generates the set of Veltmann potential-density pairs. (Abridged...)
GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELS WITH REGULARIZATION A DISSERTATION
Hastie, Trevor
GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELS WITH REGULARIZATION A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT Park 2006 All Rights Reserved ii #12;I certify that I have read this dissertation and that, in my opinion, it is fully adequate in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
Abstract polymer models with general pair interactions
Aldo Procacci
2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z
A convergence criterion of cluster expansion is presented in the case of an abstract polymer system with general pair interactions (i.e. not necessarily hard core or repulsive). As a concrete example, the low temperature disordered phase of the BEG model with infinite range interactions, decaying polynomially as $1/r^{d+\\lambda}$ with $\\lambda>0$, is studied.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Zhang, Le; Luo, Feng; Xu, Ruina; Jiang, Peixue; Liu, Huihai
2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The heat transfer and fluid transport of supercritical CO2 in enhanced geothermal system (EGS) is studied numerically with local thermal non-equilibrium model, which accounts for the temperature difference between solid matrix and fluid components in porous media and uses two energy equations to describe heat transfer in the solid matrix and in the fluid, respectively. As compared with the previous results of our research group, the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium mainly depends on the volumetric heat transfer coefficient ah, which has a significant effect on the production temperature at reservoir outlet and thermal breakthrough time. The uniformity of volumetricmore »heat transfer coefficient ah has little influence on the thermal breakthrough time, but the temperature difference become more obvious with time after thermal breakthrough with this simulation model. The thermal breakthrough time reduces and the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium becomes significant with decreasing ah.« less
Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...
(Redirected from Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts)...
Carmona, Rene
Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental Finance. MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES REN´E CARMONA , MAX FEHR , JURI HINZ , AND ARNAUD PORCHET to help policy makers and regulators understand the pros and the cons of the emissions markets. We propose
A thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model in local thermal non-equilibrium for fractured HDR reservoir
Boyer, Edmond
artificially fractured hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs requires three main ingredients: (1) a proper thermoA thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model in local thermal non-equilibrium for fractured HDR reservoir Rachel Geleta,b , Benjamin Loreta, , Nasser Khalilib aLaboratoire Sols, Solides, Structures, B
Efficient inference in general semiparametric regression models
Maity, Arnab
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
. Note that (2.17) means that the non-zero Y-data within an indi- vidual marginally have the same mean R T i ? 2 + ?(Z i ), variance ? 2 + ? 2 u2 and common covariance ? 2 u2 . II.4.2.3. Likelihood Function The collection of parameters is B, consisting... .............................. 4 II.1. Introduction ......................... 4 II.2. Semiparametric Models with a Single Component ..... 8 II.2.1. Main Results .................... 8 II.2.2. General Functions of the Response and Double- Robustness ..................... 11 II.3...
A Model for the Dynamic User-Equilibrium Problem Using a Hydrodynamic Theory Approach
Perakis, Georgia
In this paper we study the dynamic user-equilibrium problem. The development of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) has made this problem very popular in the recent years. In this paper we take a hydrodynamic theory ...
An Equilibrium Pricing Model for Weather Derivatives in a Multi-commodity Setting
Lee, Yongheon; Oren, Shmuel S.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
e?ects and valuation of weather derivatives. The FinancialWei, J. (1999). Pricing weather derivative: an equilibrium2005). An introduction to cme weather products. www.cme.com/
MODELING THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET BAND OF GK STARS. I. LOCAL THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM MODELS
Short, C. Ian [Department of Astronomy and Physics and Institute for Computational Astrophysics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada); Hauschildt, P. H., E-mail: ishort@ap.smu.c, E-mail: yeti@hs.uni-hamburg.d [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany)
2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a grid of LTE atmospheric models and synthetic spectra that covers the spectral class range from mid-G to mid-K, and luminosity classes from V to III, that is dense in T{sub eff} sampling ({Delta}T {sub eff} = 62.5 K), for stars of solar metallicity and moderately metal-poor scaled solar abundance ([A/H]=0.0 and -0.5). All models have been computed with two choices of atomic line list: (1) the 'big' line lists of Kurucz that best reproduce the broadband solar blue and near-UV f{sub {lambda}} level, and (2) the 'small' lists of Kurucz and Peytremann that provide the best fit to the high-resolution solar blue and near-UV spectrum. We compare our model spectral energy distributions to a sample of stars carefully selected from the large catalog of uniformly re-calibrated spectrophotometry of Burnashev with the goal of determining how the quality of fit varies with stellar parameters, especially in the historically troublesome blue and near-UV bands. We confirm that our models computed with the 'big' line list recover the derived T {sub eff} values of the PHOENIX NextGen grid, but find that the models computed with the 'small' line list provide greater internal self-consistency among different spectral bands, and closer agreement with the empirical T{sub eff} scale of Ramirez and Melendez, but not to the interferometrically derived T{sub eff} values of Baines et al. We find no evidence that the near-UV band discrepancy between models and observations for Arcturus ({alpha} Boo) reported in two works by Short and Hauschildt is pervasive, and that Arcturus may be peculiar in this regard.
Paltsev, Sergey
We develop a new model of the U.S., the U.S. Regional Energy Policy (USREP) model that is resolved for large states and regions of the U.S. and by income class and apply the model to investigate a $15 per ton CO2 equivalent ...
Testing Generalized Linear Models Using Smoothing Spline Methods
Wang, Yuedong
the hypothesis of Generalized Linear Models (GLM) versus general smoothing spline models for data from exponential families. The tests developed are based on the connection between the smoothing spline models and residual plots are less informative for discrete data. Therefore general diagnostic and model building
Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States and Japan: A general Received in revised form 19 March 2010 Accepted 24 April 2010 Keywords: Alternative fuel vehicles Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Environmental policy Emissions a b s t r a c t The plug-in hybrid electric
Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...
Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts (MESSAGE) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Model for Energy Supply...
EXTENSIONS OF GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELING APPROACH TO STOCHASTIC WEATHER GENERATORS
Katz, Richard
weather) -- Software R open source statistical programming language: Function glm "Family;(2) Generalized Linear Models Statistical Framework -- Multiple Regression Analysis (Linear model or LM) Response
General single phase wellbore flow model
Ouyang, Liang-Biao; Arbabi, S.; Aziz, K.
1997-02-05T23:59:59.000Z
A general wellbore flow model, which incorporates not only frictional, accelerational and gravitational pressure drops, but also the pressure drop caused by inflow, is presented in this report. The new wellbore model is readily applicable to any wellbore perforation patterns and well completions, and can be easily incorporated in reservoir simulators or analytical reservoir inflow models. Three dimensionless numbers, the accelerational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub af}, the gravitational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub gf}, and the inflow-directional to accelerational pressure gradient ratio R{sub da}, have been introduced to quantitatively describe the relative importance of different pressure gradient components. For fluid flow in a production well, it is expected that there may exist up to three different regions of the wellbore: the laminar flow region, the partially-developed turbulent flow region, and the fully-developed turbulent flow region. The laminar flow region is located near the well toe, the partially-turbulent flow region lies in the middle of the wellbore, while the fully-developed turbulent flow region is at the downstream end or the heel of the wellbore. Length of each region depends on fluid properties, wellbore geometry and flow rate. As the distance from the well toe increases, flow rate in the wellbore increases and the ratios R{sub af} and R{sub da} decrease. Consequently accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops have the greatest impact in the toe region of the wellbore. Near the well heel the local wellbore flow rate becomes large and close to the total well production rate, here R{sub af} and R{sub da} are small, therefore, both the accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops can be neglected.
Kinetic equilibrium and relativistic thermodynamics
P. Ván
2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Relativistic thermodynamics is treated from the point of view of kinetic theory. It is shown that the generalized J\\"uttner distribution suggested in [1] is compatible with kinetic equilibrium. The requirement of compatibility of kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium reveals several generalizations of the Gibbs relation where the velocity field is an independent thermodynamic variable.
Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Park, J.
1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
The long term goal of our efforts is to develop accurate predictive methods for description of equilibrium phase properties for a variety of types of mixtures and operating conditions. The specific objectives of the work specified herein include: (1) development of an experimental facility having the capability to provide data on equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) and liquid densities, and doing so with greater accuracy and speed than our previous facility, (2) measurement of equilibrium phase properties for systematically-selected mixtures-specifically those containing important solute gases (such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, carbonyl sulfide, ammonia) in a series of heavy paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic solvents (e.g., n-decane, n-eicosane, n-octacosane, n-hexatriacontane, cyclohexane, Decalin, perhydrophenanthrene, perhydropyrene, benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene), (3) testing/development of correlation frameworks for representing the phase behavior of fluids of the type encountered in coal conversion processes, and (4) generalization of parameters in the correlation frameworks to enable accurate predictions for systems of the type studied, permitting predictions to be made for systems and conditions other than those for which experimental data are available.
Dauphas, N; Alp, E E; Golden, D C; Sio, C K; Tissot, F L H; Hu, M; Zhao, J; Gao, L; Morris, R V
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We measured the reduced partition function ratios for iron isotopes in goethite FeO(OH), potassium-jarosite KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6, and hydronium-jarosite (H3O)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6, by Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering (NRIXS, also known as Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy -NRVS- or Nuclear Inelastic Scattering -NIS) at the Advanced Photon Source. These measurements were made on synthetic minerals enriched in 57Fe. A new method (i.e., the general moment approach) is presented to calculate {\\beta}-factors from the moments of the NRIXS spectrum S(E). The first term in the moment expansion controls iron isotopic fractionation at high temperature and corresponds to the mean force constant of the iron bonds, a quantity that is readily measured and often reported in NRIXS studies.
Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models
Michael J Iacono
2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z
This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.
General coarse-grained red blood cell models: I. Mechanics
Fedosov, Dmitry A; Karniadakis, George E
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a rigorous procedure to derive coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) models, which lead to accurate mechanical properties of realistic RBCs. Based on a semi-analytic theory linear and non-linear elastic properties of the RBC membrane can be matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. In addition, we develop a nearly stress-free model which avoids a number of pitfalls of existing RBC models, such as non-biconcave equilibrium shape and dependence of RBC mechanical properties on the triangulation quality. The proposed RBC model is suitable for use in many existing numerical methods, such as Lattice Boltzmann, Multiparticle Collision Dynamics, Immersed Boundary, etc.
General coarse-grained red blood cell models: I. Mechanics
Dmitry A. Fedosov; Bruce Caswell; George E. Karniadakis
2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a rigorous procedure to derive coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) models, which lead to accurate mechanical properties of realistic RBCs. Based on a semi-analytic theory linear and non-linear elastic properties of the RBC membrane can be matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. In addition, we develop a nearly stress-free model which avoids a number of pitfalls of existing RBC models, such as non-biconcave equilibrium shape and dependence of RBC mechanical properties on the triangulation quality. The proposed RBC model is suitable for use in many existing numerical methods, such as Lattice Boltzmann, Multiparticle Collision Dynamics, Immersed Boundary, etc.
Paolo Muratore-Ginanneschi
2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the relevance of geometric concepts in the theory of stochastic differential equations for applications to the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of small systems. In particular, we show how the Eells-Elworthy-Malliavin covariant construction of the Wiener process on a Riemann manifold provides a physically transparent formulation of optimal control problems of finite-time thermodynamic transitions. Based on this formulation, we turn to an evaluative discussion of recent results on optimal thermodynamic control and their interpretation.
Computable General Equilibrium Models for Eco-nomic Policy Evaluation and Impact Analysis
Wing, Ian Sue
to the assessment of the economic impacts of policies ranging from tax reforms to the mitigation and adaptation
Comparative Evaluation of Generalized River/Reservoir System Models
Wurbs, Ralph A.
This report reviews user-oriented generalized reservoir/river system models. The terms reservoir/river system, reservoir system, reservoir operation, or river basin management "model" or "modeling system" are used synonymously to refer to computer...
Park, Joo-Yang
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?. .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 10 Prediction of porewater pH . 11 Effects of pH on predictions of various species . . . 12 Prediction of Al concentration 13 Prediction of Fe concentration 14 Prediction of SO4 concentration . 15 Prediction of Ca concentration . 16...A hydration (16). However, Reardon (9) indicated that equilibrium models using current K, ?values of these minerals tend to predict the thermodynamic stability of ettringite over monosulfate. Because the hydration of C4AF is analogous to that of CsA, C4AF...
Adaptive Grids for Atmospheric General Circulation Models
Jablonowski, Christiane
the wind speed OMEGA model Courtesy of A. Sarma (SAIC, NC, USA) #12;Two Adaptive Shallow Water Models AMR the vertical resolutions adds another factor of 2 We need to increase our computational power by a factor
Hospital Readmission in General Medicine Patients: A Prediction Model
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
to the department of medicine as a screening tool forquality of care problems. Medicine. 2008;87:294–300. 3.Readmission in General Medicine Patients: A Prediction Model
How good are supply function equilibrium models: an empirical analysis of the ERCOT balancing market
Sioshansi, Ramteen; Oren, Shmuel
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Tenaska Gateway Partners Cogeneration Lyondell BastropTenaska Gateway Partners Cogeneration Lyondell BastropPower Cooperative Sweeny Cogeneration General Hays Energy
How Good are Supply Function Equilibrium Models: An Empirical Analysis of the ERCOT Balancing Market
Sioshansi, Ramteen; Oren, Shmuel S
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Power Cooperative Sweeny Cogeneration General Hays EnergyTenaska Gateway Partners Cogeneration Lyondell BastropBES. Furthermore, since cogeneration is a byproduct of their
A GENERAL EMPIRICALLY BASED MICROINSTABILITY TRANSPORT MODEL
Vlad, Gregorio
by turbulent processes. At present, no definitive transport model (i.e. a closed expression for energygyro-Bohm, shear dependent thermal diffusion coefficient to model the anomalous thermal transport in tokamaks processes generated by small scale, collisionless, electro- static microinstabilities (Romanelli, F., Zonca
Condensation of helium in aerogels as an experimental realization of the out-of-equilibrium Random-catalysed silica aerogels of large porosity presents a similar out-of-equilibrium behavior when the temperature
Vieira, Veronica M.; Weinberg, Janice M.; Webster, Thomas F.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
data using generalized additive modeling. BMC Public HealthTibshirani R: Generalized Additive Models. London: Chapmanapplication using generalized additive models. Int J Health
Generalized matrix models and AGT correspondence at all genera
Giulio Bonelli; Kazunobu Maruyoshi; Alessandro Tanzini; Futoshi Yagi
2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z
We study generalized matrix models corresponding to n-point Virasoro conformal blocks on Riemann surfaces with arbitrary genus g. Upon AGT correspondence, these describe four dimensional N=2 SU(2)^{n+3g-3} gauge theories with generalized quiver diagrams. We obtain the generalized matrix models from the perturbative evaluation of the Liouville correlation functions and verify the consistency of the description with respect to degenerations of the Riemann surface. Moreover, we derive the Seiberg-Witten curve for the N=2 gauge theory as the spectral curve of the generalized matrix model, thus providing a check of AGT correspondence at all genera.
Droidel: A General Approach to Android Framework Modeling Sam Blackshear
Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan
Droidel: A General Approach to Android Framework Modeling Sam Blackshear University of Colorado.chang@colorado.edu Abstract We present an approach and tool for general-purpose modeling of Android for static analysis. Our approach is to explicate the reflective bridge between the Android framework and an application to make
Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium
Limpaitoon, Tanachai
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
constraints, and unit commitment. With all these complextypically considered in unit-commitment models. This impliesare typically considered in unit-commitment models. 10 The
Baldick, Ross
is to find the Nash equilibrium (NE). The approaches for finding the NE have had two major bottlenecks, Game Theory, Mixed Strategy, Nash Equilibrium, Payoff Matrix I. INTRODUCTION ompetition among electric to find a Nash equilibrium [1]-[3]. Particular characteristics of electricity markets, such as continuous
Generalized Conceptual Models Wetlands Regional Monitoring Program
to the selection of indicators and data collection, based upon conceptual models for how the target systems work. The data are interpreted as answers to the management questions, which then inform management actions #12;2 1. MANAGEMENT QUESTIONS DRIVE INDICATOR DEVELOPMENT The overarching wetland management questions
Intermediate-Generalized Chaplygin Gas inflationary universe model
Herrera, Ramon; Videla, Nelson
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An intermediate inflationary universe model in the context of a generalized Chaplygin gas is considered. For the matter we consider two different energy densities; a standard scalar field and a tachyon field, respectively. In general, we discuss the conditions of an inflationary epoch for these models. We also, use recent astronomical observations from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe seven year data for constraining the parameters appearing in our models.
Lattice ellipsoidal statistical BGK model for thermal non-equilibrium flows
Meng, Jianping
A thermal lattice Boltzmann model is constructed on the basis of the ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (ES-BGK) collision operator via the Hermite moment representation. The resulting lattice ES-BGK model uses ...
Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium
Limpaitoon, Tanachai
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
model where electric power flows on transmission lines arelocation. Electric power flows on the transmission lines are
Generalized models and benchmarks for channel coordination
Toptal, Aysegul
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
Models and Benchmarks for Channel Coordination. (August 2003) Ay¸ ¨ Toptal, B.S., Bilkent University, Turkey; M.S., Bilkent University, Turkey Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Sőla Cetinkaya This dissertation takes into account the latest industrial... of the Idea Behind Algorithm 3 . . . . . . . . . . . 58 12 Illustration of the Cost and Material Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 13 Illustration of Piv(Q) when (c -p)Pv > Rv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 14 Different illustrations of Piv...
Generalized models and benchmarks for channel coordination
Toptal, Aysegul
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
such as Vendor Managed Inventory ap- plications. With such new initiatives, substantial savings are realizable by carefully coordinating the operational decisions, such as procurement, transportation, inven- tory, and production decisions, for different... on buyer-vendor coordination problems. Recognizing a need for analytical research in the field, the dissertation then develops and solves centralized and decen- tralized models for complex buyer-vendor coordination problems with applications in supply...
Tassis, Konstantinos; Willacy, Karen; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
We combine dynamical and non-equilibrium chemical modeling of evolving prestellar molecular cloud cores and investigate the evolution of molecular abundances in the contracting core. We model both magnetic cores, with varying degrees of initial magnetic support, and non-magnetic cores, with varying collapse delay times. We explore, through a parameter study, the competing effects of various model parameters in the evolving molecular abundances, including the elemental C/O ratio, the temperature, and the cosmic-ray ionization rate. We find that different models show their largest quantitative differences at the center of the core, whereas the outer layers, which evolve slower, have abundances which are severely degenerate among different dynamical models. There is a large range of possible abundance values for different models at a fixed evolutionary stage (central density), which demonstrates the large potential of chemical differentiation in prestellar cores. However, degeneracies among different models, compounded with uncertainties induced by other model parameters, make it difficult to discriminate among dynamical models. To address these difficulties, we identify abundance ratios between particular molecules, the measurement of which would have maximal potential for discrimination among the different models examined here. In particular, we find that the ratios between NH{sub 3} and CO, NH{sub 2} and CO, and NH{sub 3} and HCO{sup +} are sensitive to the evolutionary timescale, and that the ratio between HCN and OH is sensitive to the C/O ratio. Finally, we demonstrate that measurements of the central deviation (central depletion or enhancement) of abundances of certain molecules are good indicators of the dynamics of the core.
Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium
Limpaitoon, Tanachai
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The case of wholesale power trading in Germany Power andY. (2011). Market power in emissions trading: strategicallyto model market power in permit trading. The conjectural
Orthogonal Forward Regression based on Directly Maximizing Model Generalization Capability
Chen, Sheng
for costly model evaluation. Index Terms -- orthogonal forward regression, structure identification, cross struc- ture construction process as a cost function in order to op- timize the model generalization introduces a construction algorithm for sparse kernel modelling using the leave-one-out test score also known
Schmitt, J. C.; Talmadge, J. N.; Anderson, D. T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Hanson, J. D. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
The bootstrap current for three electron cyclotron resonance heated plasma scenarios in a quasihelically symmetric stellarator (the Helically Symmetric Experiment) are analyzed and compared to a neoclassical transport code PENTA. The three conditions correspond to 50?kW input power with a resonance that is off-axis, 50?kW on-axis heating and 100?kW on-axis heating. When the heating location was moved from off-axis to on-axis with 50?kW heating power, the stored energy and the extrapolated steady-state current were both observed to increase. When the on-axis heating power was increased from 50?kW to 100?kW, the stored energy continued to increase while the bootstrap current slightly decreased. This trend is qualitatively in agreement with the calculations which indicate that a large positive electric field for the 100?kW case was driving the current negative in a small region close to the magnetic axis and accounting for the decrease in the total integrated current. This trend in the calculations is only observed to occur when momentum conservation between particle species is included. Without momentum conservation, the calculated bootstrap current increases monotonically. We show that the magnitude of the bootstrap current as calculated by PENTA agrees better with the experiment when momentum conservation between plasma species is included in the calculation. The total current was observed in all cases to flow in a direction to unwind the transform, unlike in a tokamak in which the bootstrap current adds to the transform. The 3-D inductive response of the plasma is simulated to predict the evolution of the current profile during the discharge. The 3-D equilibrium reconstruction code V3FIT is used to reconstruct profiles of the plasma pressure and current constrained by measurements with a set of magnetic diagnostics. The reconstructed profiles are consistent with the measured plasma pressure profile and the simulated current profile when the reconstruction is constrained by the measured data from a diagnostic array that is internal to the vacuum chamber.
A non-equilibrium model for fixed-bed multi-component adiabatic adsorption
Harwell, Jeffrey Harry
1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
1 3. 3. 2 3e3e3 3. 3. 4 3. 3. 5 Solution of the multi-component adiabatic adsorption equation, . ~ ~ ~ Fluid phase equations. Fixed-bed solid phase equations. , ~ Construction of the solution surface by stepwise integra- tion... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ 31 4. 1 4, 2 4, 3 4. 4 4. 6 General remarkse ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Nave progagation and wave- wave interaction in binary adiabatic fixed-bed adsorption, Effects of changing influent and initial bed temperature. . . ~ Effects...
A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model for investigating atmospheric
(s) into the building blocks of climate models seems necessary. The Earth system as a whole is virtually driven system 1. INTRODUCTION Climate models built on the principles of energy, momentum and mass balances have and maintained by the radiation exchange between the Earth system and space (e.g. Lesins 1990; Stephens & O
Commodity Money Equilibrium in a Walrasian Trading Post Model: An Elementary Example
STARR, ROSS M
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
that the existence of money poses to the theorist is this:This pattern of trade poses a problem. It is not anin a Walrasian Trading Post Model: An Elementary Example
Commodity Money Equilibrium in a Walrasian Trading Post Model: An Example
Starr, Ross M.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
that the existence of money poses to the theorist is this:This pattern of trade poses a problem. It is not anin a Walrasian Trading Post Model: An Elementary Example BY
Seiberg-Witten curve via generalized matrix model
Kazunobu Maruyoshi; Futoshi Yagi
2010-12-27T23:59:59.000Z
We study the generalized matrix model which corresponds to the n-point toric Virasoro conformal block. This describes four-dimensional N=2 SU(2)^n gauge theory with circular quiver diagram by the AGT relation. We first verify that it is obtained from the perturbative calculation of the Liouville correlation function. We derive the Seiberg-Witten curve for N=2 gauge theory as a spectral curve of the generalized matrix model.
Ham, C. J., E-mail: christopher.ham@ccfe.ac.uk; Chapman, I. T.; Kirk, A.; Saarelma, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)
2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
It is known that magnetic perturbations can mitigate edge localized modes (ELMs) in experiments, for example, MAST [Kirk et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 043007 (2013)]. One hypothesis is that the magnetic perturbations cause a three dimensional corrugation of the plasma and this corrugated plasma has different stability properties to peeling-ballooning modes compared to an axisymmetric plasma. It has been shown in an up-down symmetric plasma that magnetic perturbations in tokamaks will break the usual axisymmetry of the plasma causing three dimensional displacements [Chapman et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 105013 (2012)]. We produce a free boundary three-dimensional equilibrium of a lower single null MAST relevant plasma using VMEC [S. P. Hirshman and J. C. Whitson, Phys. Fluids 26, 3553 (1983)]. The safety factor and pressure profiles used for the modelling are similar to those deduced from axisymmetric analysis of experimental data with ELMs. We focus on the effect of applying n?=?3 and n?=?6 magnetic perturbations using the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) coils. A midplane displacement of over ±1?cm is seen when the full current is applied. The current in the coils is scanned and a linear relationship between coil current and midplane displacement is found. The pressure gradient in real space in different toroidal locations is shown to change when RMPs are applied. This effect should be taken into account when diagnosing plasmas with RMPs applied. The helical Pfirsch-Schlüter currents which arise as a result of the assumption of nested flux surfaces are estimated for this equilibrium. The effect of this non-axisymmetric equilibrium on infinite n ballooning stability is investigated using COBRA [Sanchez et al., J. Comput. Phys. 161, 576–588 (2000)]. The infinite n ballooning stability is analysed for two reasons; it may give an indication of the effect of non-axisymmetry on finite n peeling-ballooning modes, responsible for ELMs; and infinite n ballooning modes are correlated to kinetic ballooning modes which are thought to limit the pressure gradient of the pedestal [Snyder et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056118 (2009)]. The ballooning mode growth rate gains a variation in toroidal angle. The equilibria with midplane displacements due to RMP coils have a higher ballooning mode growth rate than the axisymmetric case and the possible implications are discussed.
Typicality of thermal equilibrium and thermalization in isolated macroscopic quantum systems
Hal Tasaki
2015-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the view that thermal equilibrium should be characterized through macroscopic observations, we develop a general theory about typicality of thermal equilibrium and the approach to thermal equilibrium in macroscopic quantum systems. We first formulate the notion that a pure state in an isolated quantum system represents thermal equilibrium. Then by assuming, or proving in certain classes of nontrivial models (including that of two bodies in thermal contact), large-deviation type bounds (which we call thermodynamic bounds) for the microcanonical ensemble, we prove that to represent thermal equilibrium is a typical property for pure states in the microcanonical energy shell. We also establish the approach to thermal equilibrium under two different assumptions; one is that the initial state has a moderate energy distribution, and the other is the energy eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. We also discuss three easily solvable models in which these assumptions can be verified.
Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton
2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A status is presented of the development during FY2002 of a database for physical properties models for the simulation of the treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An activity coefficient model is needed for concentrated, aqueous, multi-electrolyte solutions that can be used by process design practitioners. Reasonable first-order estimates of activity coefficients in the relevant media are needed rather than an incremental improvement in theoretical approaches which are not usable by practitioners. A comparison of the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (ENRTL) and Pitzer ion-interaction models for the thermodynamic representation of SBW is presented. It is concluded that Pitzer's model is superior to ENRTL in modeling treatment processes for SBW. The applicability of the Pitzer treatment to high concentrations of pertinent species and to the determination of solubilities and chemical equilibria is addressed. Alternate values of Pitzer parameters for HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 are proposed, applicable up to 16m, and 12m, respectively. Partial validation of the implementation of Pitzer's treatment within the commercial process simulator ASPEN Plus was performed.
Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.
2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z
A status is presented of the development during FY2002 of a database for physical properties models for the simulation of the treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An activity coefficient model is needed for concentrated, aqueous, multi-electrolyte solutions that can be used by process design practitioners. Reasonable first-order estimates of activity coefficients in the relevant media are needed rather than an incremental improvement in theoretical approaches which are not usable by practitioners. A comparison of the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (ENRTL) and Pitzer ion-interaction models for the thermodynamic representation of SBW is presented. It is concluded that Pitzer's model is superior to ENRTL in modeling treatment processes for SBW. The applicability of the Pitzer treatment to high concentrations of pertinent species and to the determination of solubilities and chemical equilibria is addressed. Alternate values of Pitzer parameters for HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 are proposed, applicable up to 16m, and 12m, respectively. Partial validation of the implementation of Pitzer's treatment within the commercial process simulator ASPEN Plus was performed.
Robertson, Andrew W.
Solving Problems with GCMs: General Circulation Models and Their Role in the Climate Modeling of a hierarchy of models for solving problems in climate dynamics. General circulation models (GCMs) occupy, capture all the phenomena, and solve all the problems. Hence the concept of a hierarchy of climate models
Hydrodynamic multi-phase model for simulation of laser-induced non-equilibrium phase transformations
Zhigilei, Leonid V.
atomistic simulations of the complete sequence of melting liquid flow resolidification are not practical-gas coexistence, as well as for explicit tracking of interfaces between the phases. The model accounts for both propagation of the liquid-crystal interface in recrystallization. Computational results are in a good
Lisal, Martin
Molecular-level simulations of chemical reaction equilibrium and diffusion in slit and cylindrical study of the effects of confinement on chemical reaction equilibrium and diffusion in both slit nanopores 1. Introduction The behaviour of chemical reactions confined in nanopores is of extensive
Equilibrium calculation of transport coefficients for a fluid-particle model
Thomas Ihle; Erkan Tuzel; Daniel M. Kroll
2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
A recently introduced particle-based model for fluid flow, called Stochastic Rotation Dynamics, can be made Galilean invariant by introducing a random shift of the computational grid before collisions. In this paper, it is shown how the Green-Kubo relations derived previously can be resummed to obtain exact expressions for the collisional contributions to the transport coefficients. It is also shown that the collisional contribution to the microscopic stress tensor is not symmetric, and that this leads to an additional viscosity. The resulting identification of the transport coefficients for the hydrodynamic modes is discussed in detail, and it is shown that this does not impose restrictions on the applicability of the model. The collisional contribution to the thermal conductivity, which becomes important for small mean free path and small average particle number per cell, is also derived.
Early Warning Signals for Critical Transitions: A Generalized Modeling Approach
for early warning signals that integrates multiple sources of information and data about the system throughEarly Warning Signals for Critical Transitions: A Generalized Modeling Approach Steven J. Lade a previously published fisheries model. We regard our method as complementary to existing early warning signals
Hartle's model within the general theory of perturbative matchings: the change in mass
Borja Reina; Raül Vera
2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
Hartle's model provides the most widely used analytic framework to describe isolated compact bodies rotating slowly in equilibrium up to second order in perturbations in the context of General Relativity. Apart from some explicit assumptions, there are some implicit, like the "continuity" of the functions in the perturbed metric across the surface of the body. In this work we sketch the basics for the analysis of the second order problem using the modern theory of perturbed matchings. In particular, the result we present is that when the energy density of the fluid in the static configuration does not vanish at the boundary, one of the functions of the second order perturbation in the setting of the original work by Hartle is not continuous. This discrepancy affects the calculation of the change in mass of the rotating star with respect to the static configuration needed to keep the central energy density unchanged.
Bose-Hubbard Model: Relation Between Driven-Dissipative Steady-States and Equilibrium Quantum Phases
Alexandre Le Boité; Giuliano Orso; Cristiano Ciuti
2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z
We present analytical solutions for the mean-field master equation of the driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model for cavity photons, in the limit of both weak pumping and weak dissipation. Instead of pure Mott insulator states, we find statistical mixtures with the same second-order coherence as a Fock state with n photons, but a mean photon number of n/2. These mixed states occur when n pump photons have the same energy as n interacting photons inside the nonlinear cavity and survive up to a critical tunneling coupling strength, above which a crossover to classical coherent state takes place. We also explain the origin of both antibunching and superbunching predicted by P-representation mean-field theory at higher pumping and dissipation. In particular, we show that the strongly correlated region of the associated phase diagram cannot be described within the semiclassical Gross-Pitaevski approach.
Generalization of neuron network model with delay feedback
Sanjeet Maisnam; R. K. Brojen Singh
2015-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
We present generalized delayed neural network (DNN) model with positive delay feedback and neuron history. The local stability analysis around trivial local equilibria of delayed neural networks has applied and determine the conditions for the existence of zero root. We develop few innovative delayed neural network models in different dimensions through transformation and extension of some existing models. We found that zero root can have multiplicity two under certain conditions. We further show how the characteristic equation can have zero root and its multiplicity is dependent on the conditions undertaken. Finally, we generalize the neural network of $N$ neurons through which we determine the general form of Jacobian of the linear form and corresponding characteristic equation of the system.
General Treatment of All 2d Covariant Models
W. Kummer
1996-12-06T23:59:59.000Z
General matterless models of gravity include dilaton gravity, arbitrary powers in curvature, but also dynamical torsion. They are a special class of "Poisson-sigma-models" whose solutions are known completely, together with their general global structure. Beside the ordinary black hole, arbitrary singularity structures can be studied. It is also possible to derive an action "backwards", starting from a given manifold. The role of conservation laws, Noether charge and the quantization have been investigated. Scalar and fermionic matter fields may be included as well.
Modeling Smart Grid using Generalized Stochastic Petri Net
Dey, Amrita; Sanyal, Sugata
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Building smart grid for power system is a major challenge for safe, automated and energy efficient usage of electricity. The full implementation of the smart grid will evolve over time. However, before a new set of infrastructures are invested to build the smart grid, proper modeling and analysis is needed to avoid wastage of resources. Modeling also helps to identify and prioritize appropriate systems parameters. In this paper, an all comprehensive model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The model is used to analyze the constraints and deliverables of the smart power grid of future.
Interacting holographic dark energy models: A general approach
S. Som; A. Sil
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density $\\rho_d=3(\\alpha H^2+\\beta\\dot{H})$. Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy(RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for $\\beta>0.5$ irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of $\\alpha=1$ and $\\beta=2/3$ leads to a varying $\\Lambda$-like model introducing an IR cutoff length $\\Lambda^{-1/2}$. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form $Q\\propto H\\rho_m$ suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.
A-model and generalized Chern-Simons theory
A. Schwarz
2005-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
The relation between open topological strings and Chern-Simons theory was discovered by E. Witten. He proved that A-model on T*M where M is a three-dimensional manifold is equivalent to Chern-Simons theory on M and that A-model on arbitrary Calabi-Yau 3-fold is related to Chern-Simons theory with instanton corrections. In present paper we discuss multidimensional generalization of these results.
New agegraphic dark energy model with generalized uncertainty principle
Yong-Wan Kim; Hyung Won Lee; Yun Soo Myung; Mu-In Park
2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the new agegraphic dark energy models with generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). It turns out that although the GUP affects the early universe, it does not change the current and future dark energy-dominated universe significantly. Furthermore, this model could describe the matter-dominated universe in the past only when the parameter $n$ is chosen to be $n>n_c$, where the critical value determined to be $n_c=2.799531478$.
GENERALIZED STIRLING PERMUTATIONS, FAMILIES OF INCREASING TREES AND URN MODELS
Janson, Svante
GENERALIZED STIRLING PERMUTATIONS, FAMILIES OF INCREASING TREES AND URN MODELS SVANTE JANSON and descents in the class of Stirling permutations, introduced by Gessel and Stanley [14]. Recently, Janson [18] showed the connection between Stirling permutations and plane recursive trees and proved a joint nor- mal
GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELING APPROACH TO STOCHASTIC WEATHER GENERATORS
Katz, Richard
) Multisites (Spatial dependence of daily weather) -- Software R open source statistical programming language (Capable of "reproducing" any desired statistic) -- Disadvantages Synthetic weather looks too much like") Not amenable to uncertainty analysis #12;#12;#12;(2) Generalized Linear Models · Statistical Framework
A General Method for Feature Matching and Model Extraction
Olson, Clark F.
A General Method for Feature Matching and Model Extraction Clark F. Olson Jet Propulsion Laboratory is extracted from or #12;t to data that draws bene#12;ts from both generate-and-test methods and those based that are ecient and robust. We apply this method to object recognition, geometric primitive extraction, robust
Abstract polymer models with general pair interactions Aldo Procacci
Procacci, Aldo
Abstract polymer models with general pair interactions Aldo Procacci Dep. MatemÂ´atica-ICEx, UFMG (i.e. not necessarily hard core or repulsive). A concrete example is given in which polymers are r0 (possibly attractive), of the type 1/rd+ with > 0. 1. Introduction The abstract polymer gas is an important
General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network
Heinzelman, Wendi
General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network Deployment Strategies Zhao Cheng, Mark Perillo, and Wendi B. Heinzelman, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--In multihop wireless sensor to energy imbalance among sensors often appear. Sensors closer to a data sink are usually required
Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Calvin, Katherine V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Mao, Jiafu; Patel, Pralit L.; Shi, Xiaoying; Thomson, Allison M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Zhou, Yuyu
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Human activities are significantly altering biogeochemical cycles at the global scale, posing a significant problem for earth system models (ESMs), which may incorporate static land-use change inputs but do not actively simulate policy or economic forces. One option to address this problem is a to couple an ESM with an economically oriented integrated assessment model. Here we have implemented and tested a coupling mechanism between the carbon cycles of an ESM (CLM) and an integrated assessment (GCAM) model, examining the best proxy variables to share between the models, and quantifying our ability to distinguish climate- and land-use-driven flux changes. CLM’s net primary production and heterotrophic respiration outputs were found to be the most robust proxy variables by which to manipulate GCAM’s assumptions of long-term ecosystem steady state carbon, with short-term forest production strongly correlated with long-term biomass changes in climate-change model runs. By leveraging the fact that carbon-cycle effects of anthropogenic land-use change are short-term and spatially limited relative to widely distributed climate effects, we were able to distinguish these effects successfully in the model coupling, passing only the latter to GCAM. By allowing climate effects from a full earth system model to dynamically modulate the economic and policy decisions of an integrated assessment model, this work provides a foundation for linking these models in a robust and flexible framework capable of examining two-way interactions between human and earth system processes.
Dynamical Topological Order Parameters far from Equilibrium
Jan Carl Budich; Markus Heyl
2015-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
We report the discovery of a novel topological quantum number, represented by a momentum space winding number of the Pancharatnam geometric phase, that is dynamically defined and can change its integer value at discrete times where so called dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) occur. By contrast, straightforward non-equilibrium generalizations of conventional topological invariants are well known to be constants of motion under coherent time evolution. DQPTs have been recently introduced as a non-equilibrium analog in quantum real-time evolution of conventional phase transitions, where increasing time replaces the notion of conventional control parameters such as temperature. Here, studying quantum quenches in two-banded Bogoliubov de Gennes models, we identify for the first time a quantity that can be seen as the dynamical analog of an order parameter which changes its topologically quantized value at DQPTs.
A general holographic metal/superconductor phase transition model
Yan Peng; Yunqi Liu
2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
We study the scalar condensation of a general holographic superconductor model in AdS black hole background away from the probe limit. We find the model parameters together with the scalar mass and backreaction can determine the order of phase transitions completely. In addition, we observe two types of discontinuities of the scalar operator in the case of first order phase transitions. We analyze in detail the effects of the scalar mass and backreaction on the formation of discontinuities and arrive at an approximate relation between the threshold model parameters. Furthermore, we obtain superconductor solutions corresponding to higher energy states and examine the stability of these superconductor solutions.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a generalized orbital compass model
Lukasz Cincio; Jacek Dziarmaga; Andrzej M. Oles
2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce a generalized two-dimensional orbital compass model, which interpolates continuously from the classical Ising model to the orbital compass model with frustrated quantum interactions, and investigate it using the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA). The results demonstrate that increasing frustration of exchange interactions triggers a second order quantum phase transition to a degenerate symmetry broken state which minimizes one of the interactions in the orbital compass model. Using boson expansion within the spin-wave theory we unravel the physical mechanism of the symmetry breaking transition as promoted by weak quantum fluctuations and explain why this transition occurs only surprisingly close to the maximally frustrated interactions of the orbital compass model. The spin waves remain gapful at the critical point, and both the boson expansion and MERA do not find any algebraically decaying spin-spin correlations in the critical ground state.
B Decays in a General Left-Right Symmetric Model
Frank, Mariana; Turan, Ismail
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Motivated by recently observed disagreements with the SM predictions in B decays, we study $b \\to d, s$ transitions in a general class of $SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)_{B-L}$ models, with a simple one-parameter structure of the right handed mixing matrix for the quarks, which obeys the constraints from kaon physics. We use experimental constraints on the branching ratios of $b \\to s \\gamma$, $b \\to c e {\\bar \
Exceptional and regular spectra of a generalized Rabi model
Michael Tomka; Omar El Araby; Mikhail Pletyukhov; Vladimir Gritsev
2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z
We study the spectrum of the generalized Rabi model in which co- and counter-rotating terms have different coupling strengths. It is also equivalent to the model of a two-dimensional electron gas in a magnetic field with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. Like in case of the Rabi model, the spectrum of the generalized Rabi model consists of the regular and the exceptional parts. The latter is represented by the energy levels which cross at certain parameters' values which we determine explicitly. The wave functions of these exceptional states are given by finite order polynomials in the Bargmann representation. The roots of these polynomials satisfy a Bethe ansatz equation of the Gaudin type. At the exceptional points the model is therefore quasi-exactly solvable. An analytical approximation is derived for the regular part of the spectrum in the weak- and strong-coupling limits. In particular, in the strong-coupling limit the spectrum consists of two quasi-degenerate equidistant ladders.
A dark energy model alternative to generalized Chaplygin gas
Hoavo Hova; Huanxiong Yang
2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a new fluid model of dark energy for $-1 \\leq \\omega_{\\text{eff}} \\leq 0$ as an alternative to the generalized Chaplygin gas models. The energy density of dark energy fluid is severely suppressed during barotropic matter dominant epochs, and it dominates the universe evolution only for eras of small redshift. From the perspective of fundamental physics, the fluid is a tachyon field with a scalar potential flatter than that of power-law decelerated expansion. Different from the standard $\\Lambda\\text{CDM}$ model, the suggested dark energy model claims that the cosmic acceleration at present epoch can not continue forever but will cease in the near future and a decelerated cosmic expansion will recover afterwards.
A dark energy model alternative to generalized Chaplygin gas
Hova, Hoavo
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a new fluid model of dark energy for $-1 \\leq \\omega_{\\text{eff}} \\leq 0$ as an alternative to the generalized Chaplygin gas models. The energy density of dark energy fluid is severely suppressed during barotropic matter dominant epochs, and it dominates the universe evolution only for eras of small redshift. From the perspective of fundamental physics, the fluid is a tachyon field with a scalar potential flatter than that of power-law decelerated expansion. Different from the standard $\\Lambda\\text{CDM}$ model, the suggested dark energy model claims that the cosmic acceleration at present epoch can not continue forever but will cease in the near future and a decelerated cosmic expansion will recover afterwards.
$so(N)_1$ criticality in generalized cluster models
Ville Lahtinen; Eddy Ardonne
2015-04-27T23:59:59.000Z
We show that $so(N)_1$ universality class quantum criticality emerges when one-dimensional generalized cluster models -- the N-cluster models -- are perturbed with Ising or Zeeman terms. Each critical point is described by a low-energy theory of N linearly dispersing fermions, whose spectrum we show to precisely match the prediction by $so(N)_1$ conformal field theory. Furthermore, by an explicit construction we show that the N-cluster models are dual to N non-locally coupled transverse field Ising chains, which enables to identify local representations for the primary fields and shows that the N-cluster models provide the simplest representation of the recently introduced hierarchy of $so(N)_1$ critical spin models. For the experimentally most realistic case of N=3, that corresponds to the original one-dimensional cluster model, our results show that $su(2)_2 \\simeq so(3)_1$ Wess-Zumino-Witten model can emerge in a local, translationally invariant and Jordan-Wigner solvable spin-1/2 model.
Reshocks, rarefactions, and the generalized Layzer model for hydrodynamic instabilities
Mikaelian, K O
2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
We report numerical simulations and analytic modeling of shock tube experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. We examine single interfaces of the type A/B where the incident shock is initiated in A and the transmitted shock proceeds into B. Examples are He/air and air/He. In addition, we study finite-thickness or double-interface A/B/A configurations like air/SF{sub 6}/air gas-curtain experiments. We first consider conventional shock tubes that have a 'fixed' boundary: A solid endwall which reflects the transmitted shock and reshocks the interface(s). Then we focus on new experiments with a 'free' boundary--a membrane disrupted mechanically or by the transmitted shock, sending back a rarefaction towards the interface(s). Complex acceleration histories are achieved, relevant for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. We compare our simulation results with a generalized Layzer model for two fluids with time-dependent densities, and derive a new freeze-out condition whereby accelerating and compressive forces cancel each other out. Except for the recently reported failures of the Layzer model, the generalized Layzer model and hydrocode simulations for reshocks and rarefactions agree well with each other, and remain to be verified experimentally.
A General Approach to the Modelling of Trophic Chains
Rui Dilao; Tiago Domingos
1999-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the law of mass action (and its microscopic foundation) and mass conservation, we present here a method to derive consistent dynamic models for the time evolution of systems with an arbitrary number of species. Equations are derived through a mechanistic description, ensuring that all parameters have ecological meaning. After discussing the biological mechanisms associated to the logistic and Lotka-Volterra equations, we show how to derive general models for trophic chains, including the effects of internal states at fast time scales. We show that conformity with the mass action law leads to different functional forms for the Lotka-Volterra and trophic chain models. We use mass conservation to recover the concept of carrying capacity for an arbitrary food chain.
Perturbations in Bouncing and Cyclic Models, a General Study
Biswas, Tirthabir; Lattyak, Colleen
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Being able to reliably track perturbations across bounces and turnarounds in cyclic and bouncing cosmology lies at the heart of being able to compare the predictions of these models with the Cosmic Microwave Background observations. This has been a challenging task due to the unknown nature of the physics involved during the bounce as well as the technical challenge of matching perturbations precisely between the expansion and contraction phases. In this paper, we will present general techniques (analytical and numerical) that can be applied to understand the physics of the fluctuations, especially those with "long" wavelengths, and test its validity in some simple bouncing/cyclic toy models where the physics is well understood. We will then apply our techniques to more interesting cosmological models such as the bounce inflation and cyclic inflation.
Perturbations in Bouncing and Cyclic Models, a General Study
Tirthabir Biswas; Riley Mayes; Colleen Lattyak
2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
Being able to reliably track perturbations across bounces and turnarounds in cyclic and bouncing cosmology lies at the heart of being able to compare the predictions of these models with the Cosmic Microwave Background observations. This has been a challenging task due to the unknown nature of the physics involved during the bounce as well as the technical challenge of matching perturbations precisely between the expansion and contraction phases. In this paper, we will present general techniques (analytical and numerical) that can be applied to understand the physics of the fluctuations, especially those with "long" wavelengths, and test its validity in some simple bouncing/cyclic toy models where the physics is well understood. We will then apply our techniques to more interesting cosmological models such as the bounce inflation and cyclic inflation.
Characterising equilibrium logic and nested logic programs: Reductions and complexity
Pearce, David; Woltran, Stefan
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Equilibrium logic is an approach to nonmonotonic reasoning that extends the stable-model and answer-set semantics for logic programs. In particular, it includes the general case of nested logic programs, where arbitrary Boolean combinations are permitted in heads and bodies of rules, as special kinds of theories. In this paper, we present polynomial reductions of the main reasoning tasks associated with equilibrium logic and nested logic programs into quantified propositional logic, an extension of classical propositional logic where quantifications over atomic formulas are permitted. We provide reductions not only for decision problems, but also for the central semantical concepts of equilibrium logic and nested logic programs. In particular, our encodings map a given decision problem into some formula such that the latter is valid precisely in case the former holds. The basic tasks we deal with here are the consistency problem, brave reasoning, and skeptical reasoning. Additionally, we also provide encoding...
Negative specific heat in out-of-equilibrium nonextensive systems
A. Rapisarda; V. Latora
2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the occurrence of negative specific heat in a nonextensive system which has an equilibrium second-order phase transition.The specific heat is negative only in a transient regime before equilibration, in correspondence to long-lasting metastable states. For these states standard equilibrium Bolzmann-Gibbs thermodynamics does not apply and the system shows non-Gaussian velocity distributions, anomalous diffusion and correlation in phase space. Similar results have recently been found also in several other nonextensive systems, supporting the general validity of this scenario. These models seem also to support the conjecture that a nonexstensive statistical formalism, like the one proposed by Tsallis, should be applied in such cases. The theoretical scenario is not completely clear yet, but there are already many strong theoretical indications suggesting that, it can be wrong to consider the observation of an experimental negative specific heat as an unique and unambiguous signature of a standard equilibrium first-order phase transition.
Goodness-of-Fit Test Issues in Generalized Linear Mixed Models
Chen, Nai-Wei
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
Linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models are random-effects models widely applied to analyze clustered or hierarchical data. Generally, random effects are often assumed to be normally distributed in the ...
Electromagnetic Mass Models in General Theory of Relativity
Sumana Bhadra
2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
"Electromagnetic mass" where gravitational mass and other physical quantities originate from the electromagnetic field alone has a century long distinguished history. In the introductory chapter we have divided this history into three broad categories -- classical, quantum mechanical and general relativistic. Each of the categories has been described at a length to get the detailed picture of the physical background. Recent developments on Repulsive Electromagnetic Mass Models are of special interest in this introductory part of the thesis. In this context we have also stated motivation of our work. In the subsequent chapters we have presented our results and their physical significances. It is concluded that the electromagnetic mass models which are the sources of purely electromagnetic origin ``have not only heuristic flavor associated with the conjecture of Lorentz but even a physics having unconventional yet novel features characterizing their own contributions independent of the rest of the physics".
Yip, Arthur Hong Chun
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Natural gas vehicles have the prospects of making substantial contributions to transportation needs. The adoption of natural gas vehicles could lead to impacts on energy and environmental systems. An analysis of the main ...
Two stage stochastic equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints
2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z
Aug 12, 2010 ... Monte Carlo sampling method is applied to solve the SEPEC. ... EPEC models, has a number of potential applications in a wide domain in engineering design, ... mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC), and introduced a ...... past data or computer simulation, and a particular numerical ...
Kinematic wave model for transient bed profiles in alluvial channels under nonequilibrium conditions
Tayfur, Gokmen; Singh, Vijay P.
2007-12-27T23:59:59.000Z
Transient bed profiles in alluvial channels are generally modeled using diffusion (or dynamic) waves and assuming equilibrium between detachment and deposition rates. Equilibrium sediment transport can be considerably affected by an excess (or...
''Nuclear Winter'': A diagnosis of atmospheric general circulation model simulations
Covey, C.; Thompson, S.L.; Schneider, S.H.
1985-06-20T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the adiabatic and diabatic thermal balance of an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) under two conditions: the control case, representing today's atmosphere, and a ''nuclear winter'' scenario in which virtually all sunlight in northern hemisphere and mid-latitudes is absorbed in the upper troposphere by prescribed dense smoke clouds hypothesized to result from the burning of many cities in a nuclear war. We also examine the changes in moisture and cloudiness simulated by the model. Our object is to examine the reliability of existing simulations of the climatic response to assumed dense, widespread, high-altitude smoke and to identify improvements needed in model parameterizations. We find that in the smoke-perturbed case our model simulation of land surface temperature is particularly influenced (i.e., warmed) by parameterized diffusion of heat downward from the lower troposphere. In turn the lower troposphere over land is supplied with heat transported from the relatively warm oceans. Thermal balance in the perturbed atmosphere as a whole is dominated by intense solar heating of the upper troposphere smoke layer in mid-latitudes balanced by parameterized dry convection and large-scale dynamical heat transport. Clouds largely disappear in the mid to upper troposphere in smoke-affected regions as a consequence of a decrease in local relative humidity that results from temperature increases and, to a smaller extent, from a reduction of vertical moisture transport. The computation of substantial downward vertical heat diffusion into the lowest model layer is almost certainly an overestimate for the smoke-perturbed conditions of high vertical stability.
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors
Walter F. Wreszinski
2015-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
We review some rigorous results on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors.
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors
Walter F. Wreszinski
2015-07-05T23:59:59.000Z
We review some rigorous results on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors.
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors
Walter F. Wreszinski
2015-06-19T23:59:59.000Z
We review some rigorous results on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors.
Generalized Modeling of Enrichment Cascades That Include Minor Isotopes
Weber, Charles F [ORNL
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The monitoring of enrichment operations may require innovative analysis to allow for imperfect or missing data. The presence of minor isotopes may help or hurt - they can complicate a calculation or provide additional data to corroborate a calculation. However, they must be considered in a rigorous analysis, especially in cases involving reuse. This study considers matched-abundanceratio cascades that involve at least three isotopes and allows generalized input that does not require all feed assays or the enrichment factor to be specified. Calculations are based on the equations developed for the MSTAR code but are generalized to allow input of various combinations of assays, flows, and other cascade properties. Traditional cascade models have required specification of the enrichment factor, all feed assays, and the product and waste assays of the primary enriched component. The calculation would then produce the numbers of stages in the enriching and stripping sections and the remaining assays in waste and product streams. In cases where the enrichment factor or feed assays were not known, analysis was difficult or impossible. However, if other quantities are known (e.g., additional assays in waste or product streams), a reliable calculation is still possible with the new code, but such nonstandard input may introduce additional numerical difficulties into the calculation. Thus, the minimum input requirements for a stable solution are discussed, and a sample problem with a non-unique solution is described. Both heuristic and mathematically required guidelines are given to assist the application of cascade modeling to situations involving such non-standard input. As a result, this work provides both a calculational tool and specific guidance for evaluation of enrichment cascades in which traditional input data are either flawed or unknown. It is useful for cases involving minor isotopes, especially if the minor isotope assays are desired (or required) to be important contributors to the overall analysis.
Nash Equilibrium Design and Optimization Tansu Alpcan and Lacra Pavel
Pavel, Lacra
Nash Equilibrium Design and Optimization Tansu Alpcan and Lacra Pavel Abstract-- The general problem of Nash equilibrium design is investigated from an optimization perspective. Within this con- text. The Nash equilibrium design problem is analyzed under various knowledge assumptions (full versus limited
Some Properties of Correlations of Quantum Lattice Systems in Thermal Equilibrium
Juerg Froehlich; Daniel Ueltschi
2015-05-27T23:59:59.000Z
Simple proofs of uniqueness of the thermodynamic limit of KMS states and of the decay of equilibrium correlations are presented for a large class of quantum lattice systems at high temperatures. New quantum correlation inequalities for general Heisenberg models are described. Finally, a simplified derivation of a general result on power-law decay of correlations in 2D quantum lattice systems with continuous symmetries is given, extending results of Mc Bryan and Spencer for the 2D classical XY model.
Week12: Chapter 12 Static Equilibrium
Conditions for Equilibrium The net force equals zero If the object is modeled as a particle, then this is the only condition that must be satisfied The net torque equals zero This is needed if the object cannot is arbitrary If an object is in translational equilibrium and the net torque is zero about one axis
R. Dean Astumian
2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
There has been great interest in applying the results of statistical mechanics to single molecule experiements. Recent work has highlighted so-called non-equilibrium work-energy relations and Fluctuation Theorems which take on an equilibrium-like (time independent) form. Here I give a very simple heuristic example where an equilibrium result (the barometric law for colloidal particles) arises from theory describing the {\\em thermodynamically} non-equilibrium phenomenon of a single colloidal particle falling through solution due to gravity. This simple result arises from the fact that the particle, even while falling, is in {\\em mechanical} equilibrium (gravitational force equal the viscous drag force) at every instant. The results are generalized by appeal to the central limit theorem. The resulting time independent equations that hold for thermodynamically non-equilibrium (and even non-stationary) processes offer great possibilities for rapid determination of thermodynamic parameters from single molecule experiments.
Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model
J. M. Dong; H. F. Zhang; G. Royer
2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of protons are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) including the proximity effects between nuclei in a neck and the mass and charge asymmetry. The penetrability is calculated with the WKB approximation. The spectroscopic factor has been taken into account in half-life calculation, which is obtained by employing the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory combined with the BCS method with the force NL3. The half-lives within the GLDM are compared with the experimental data and other theoretical values. The GLDM works quite well for spherical proton emitters when the spectroscopic factors are considered, indicating the necessity of introducing the spectroscopic factor and the success of the GLDM for proton emission. Finally, we present two formulas for proton emission half-life calculation similar to the Viola-Seaborg formulas and Royer's formulas of alpha decay.
Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium...
a variety of issues related to the economics of climate change, including baseline of CO2 and greenhouse gases, impact of climate change on economy, adaptation to climate...
Robert G. Ellingson
2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z
One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.
Interacting generalized Chaplygin gas model in non-flat universe
M R Setare
2007-11-04T23:59:59.000Z
We employ the generalized Chaplygin gas of interacting dark energy to obtain the equation of state for the generalized Chaplygin gas energy density in non-flat universe. By choosing a negative value for $B$ we see that $w_{\\rm \\Lambda}^{eff}universe dominated by phantom dark energy.
Generalized charge-screening in relativistic Thomas–Fermi model
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 51745-406 Tabriz, Iran and International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar objects.
EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION FROM DISCRETE MAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS IN A TOKAMAK
Faugeras, Blaise
EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION FROM DISCRETE MAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS IN A TOKAMAK Blaise Faugeras (joint of the equilibrium in a Tokamak from discrete magnetic mea- surements. In order to solve this inverse problem we of a plasma in a Tokamak [1]. The state variable of interest in the modelization of such an equilibrium under
Towards breaking temperature equilibrium in multi-component Eulerian schemes
Grove, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Masser, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the effects ofthermal equilibrium on hydrodynamic flows and describe models for breaking the assumption ofa single temperature for a mixture of components in a cell. A computational study comparing pressure-temperature equilibrium simulations of two dimensional implosions with explicit front tracking is described as well as implementation and J-D calculations for non-equilibrium temperature methods.
Kliem, Bernhard; Titov, Viacheslav S; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A; Liu, Rui; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Force-free equilibria containing two vertically arranged magnetic flux ropes of like chirality and current direction are considered as a model for split filaments/prominences and filament-sigmoid systems. Such equilibria are constructed analytically through an extension of the methods developed in Titov & D\\'emoulin (1999) and numerically through an evolutionary sequence including shear flows, flux emergence, and flux cancellation in the photospheric boundary. It is demonstrated that the analytical equilibria are stable if an external toroidal (shear) field component exceeding a threshold value is included. If this component decreases sufficiently, then both flux ropes turn unstable for conditions typical of solar active regions, with the lower rope typically being unstable first. Either both flux ropes erupt upward, or only the upper rope erupts while the lower rope reconnects with the ambient flux low in the corona and is destroyed. However, for shear field strengths staying somewhat above the threshold...
General Methodology for developing UML models from UI
Reddy, Ch Ram Mohan; Srinivasa, K G; Kumar, T V Suresh; Kanth, K Rajani
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In recent past every discipline and every industry have their own methods of developing products. It may be software development, mechanics, construction, psychology and so on. These demarcations work fine as long as the requirements are within one discipline. However, if the project extends over several disciplines, interfaces have to be created and coordinated between the methods of these disciplines. Performance is an important quality aspect of Web Services because of their distributed nature. Predicting the performance of web services during early stages of software development is significant. In Industry, Prototype of these applications is developed during analysis phase of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). However, Performance models are generated from UML models. Methodologies for predicting the performance from UML models is available. Hence, In this paper, a methodology for developing Use Case model and Activity model from User Interface is presented. The methodology is illustrated with a case...
Ionization Equilibrium Timescales in Collisional Plasmas
Smith, Randall K
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Astrophysical shocks or bursts from a photoionizing source can disturb the typical collisional plasma found in galactic interstellar media or the intergalactic medium. The spectrum emitted by this plasma contains diagnostics that have been used to determine the time since the disturbing event, although this determination becomes uncertain as the elements in the plasma return to ionization equilibrium. A general solution for the equilibrium timescale for each element arises from the elegant eigenvector method of solution to the problem of a non-equilibrium plasma described by Masai (1984) and Hughes & Helfand (1985). In general the ionization evolution of an element Z in a constant electron temperature plasma is given by a coupled set of Z+1 first order differential equations. However, they can be recast as Z uncoupled first order differential equations using an eigenvector basis for the system. The solution is then Z separate exponential functions, with the time constants given by the eigenvalues of the r...
From residue matching patterns to protein folding topographies: General model and bovine
Berry, R. Stephen
From residue matching patterns to protein folding topographies: General model and bovine pancreatic-grained model for protein-folding dynamics is introduced based on a discretized representation of torsional, pattern recognition, and general characteristics of protein folding kinetics. Topology here implies
A generalized logistic model of individual tree mortality for aspen, white spruce, and lodgepole
Macdonald, Ellen
A generalized logistic model of individual tree mortality for aspen, white spruce, and lodgepole: A generalized logistic model of individual tree mortality was developed for trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), and lodgepole pine (Pinus
Dark Energy - Dark Matter Unification: Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model
Orfeu Bertolami
2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z
We review the main features of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) proposal for unification of dark energy and dark matter and discuss how it admits an unique decomposition into dark energy and dark matter components once phantom-like dark energy is excluded. In the context of this approach we consider structure formation and show that unphysical oscillations or blow-up in the matter power spectrum are not present. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dominance of dark energy occurs about the time when energy density fluctuations start evolving away from the linear regime.
The China-in-Global Energy Model
Qi, T.
The China-in-Global Energy Model (C-GEM) is a global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model that captures the interaction of production, consumption and trade among multiple global regions and sectors – including five ...
Generalized Ginzburg-Landau models for non-conventional superconductors
S. Esposito; G. Salesi
2009-06-20T23:59:59.000Z
We review some recent extensions of the Ginzburg-Landau model able to describe several properties of non-conventional superconductors. In the first extension, s-wave superconductors endowed with two different critical temperatures are considered, their main thermodynamical and magnetic properties being calculated and discussed. Instead in the second extension we describe spin-triplet superconductivity (with a single critical temperature), studying in detail the main predicted physical properties. A thorough discussion of the peculiar predictions of our models and their physical consequences is as well performed.
Modelling general relativistic perfect fluids in field theoretic language
Nikolai V. Mitskievich
1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z
Skew-symmetric massless fields, their potentials being $r$-forms, are close analogues of Maxwell's field (though the non-linear cases also should be considered). We observe that only two of them ($r=$2 and 3) automatically yield stress-energy tensors characteristic to normal perfect fluids. It is shown that they naturally describe both non-rotating ($r=2$) and rotating (then a combination of $r=2$ and $r=3$ fields is indispensable) general relativistic perfect fluids possessing every type of equations of state. Meanwile, a free $r=3$ field is completely equivalent to appearance of the cosmological term in Einstein's equations. Sound waves represent perturbations propagating on the background of the $r=2$ field. Some exotic properties of these two fields are outlined.
Tatsuo Shibata; Shin-ichi Sasa
1997-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
An equilibrium reversible cycle with a certain engine to transduce the energy of any chemical reaction into mechanical energy is proposed. The efficiency for chemical energy transduction is also defined so as to be compared with Carnot efficiency. Relevance to the study of protein motors is discussed. KEYWORDS: Chemical thermodynamics, Engine, Efficiency, Molecular machine.
A new eight vertex model and higher dimensional, multiparameter generalizations
B. Abdesselam; A. Chakrabarti
2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z
We study statistical models, specifically transfer matrices corresponding to a multiparameter hierarchy of braid matrices of $(2n)^2\\times(2n)^2$ dimensions with $2n^2$ free parameters $(n=1,2,3,...)$. The simplest, $4\\times 4$ case is treated in detail. Powerful recursion relations are constructed giving the dependence on the spectral parameter $\\theta$ of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix explicitly at each level of coproduct sequence. A brief study of higher dimensional cases ($n\\geq 2$) is presented pointing out features of particular interest. Spin chain Hamiltonians are also briefly presented for the hierarchy. In a long final section basic results are recapitulated with systematic analysis of their contents. Our eight vertex $4\\times 4$ case is compared to standard six vertex and eight vertex models.
System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description
Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.; Freeman, J.; Neises, T.; Wagner, M.; Ferguson, T.; Gilman, P.; Janzou, S.
2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2013.9.20, released on September 9, 2013. SAM is a computer model that calculates performance and financial metrics of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar water heating, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financial structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). SAM's advanced simulation options facilitate parametric and sensitivity analyses, and statistical analysis capabilities are available for Monte Carlo simulation and weather variability (P50/P90) studies. SAM can also read input variables from Microsoft Excel worksheets. For software developers, the SAM software development kit (SDK) makes it possible to use SAM simulation modules in their applications written in C/C++, C#, Java, Python, and MATLAB. NREL provides both SAM and the SDK as free downloads at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.
System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description
Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.
2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2011.12.2, released on December 2, 2011. SAM is software that models the cost and performance of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financing structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). Advanced analysis options facilitate parametric, sensitivity, and statistical analyses, and allow for interfacing SAM with Microsoft Excel or with other computer programs. SAM is available as a free download at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.
Karl Svozil
2001-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
Three extensions and reinterpretations of nonclassical probabilities are reviewed. (i) We propose to generalize the probability axiom of quantum mechanics to self-adjoint positive operators of trace one. Furthermore, we discuss the Cartesian and polar decomposition of arbitrary normal operators and the possibility to operationalize the corresponding observables. Thereby we review and emphasize the use of observables which maximally represent the context. (ii) In the second part, we discuss Pitowsky polytopes for automaton logic as well as for generalized urn models and evaluate methods to find the resulting Boole-Bell type (in)equalities. (iii) Finally, so-called ``parameter cheats'' are introduced, whereby parameters are transformed bijectively and nonlinearly in such a way that classical systems mimic quantum correlations and vice versa. It is even possible to introduce parameter cheats which violate the Boole-Bell type inequalities stronger than quantum ones, thereby trespassing the Tsirelson limit. The price to be paid is nonuniformity.
Inference for Clustered Mixed Outcomes from a Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Model
Chen, Hsiang-Chun
2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
) and E(?i2t?) with their marginal expectations over X, ??1 = EX {E(?i1t)} and ??2 = EX {E(?i2t)}, which are shown in the previous subsections. In other words, the overall total-CC is ?total = KtotalN,1,2 (??1, ??2) KtotalD,1,2 (??1, ??2) . 3.2.4....2 Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 Assessing Correlation in Generalized Linear Mixed Model . . . . . . . 8 2.4 Bayesian Method for the Generalized Linear Mixed Model . . . . . . 10 3. ASSESSING CORRELATION...
Generalized models as a universal approach to the analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems
Thilo Gross; Ulrike Feudel
2006-01-29T23:59:59.000Z
We present a universal approach to the investigation of the dynamics in generalized models. In these models the processes that are taken into account are not restricted to specific functional forms. Therefore a single generalized models can describe a class of systems which share a similar structure. Despite this generality, the proposed approach allows us to study the dynamical properties of generalized models efficiently in the framework of local bifurcation theory. The approach is based on a normalization procedure that is used to identify natural parameters of the system. The Jacobian in a steady state is then derived as a function of these parameters. The analytical computation of local bifurcations using computer algebra reveals conditions for the local asymptotic stability of steady states and provides certain insights on the global dynamics of the system. The proposed approach yields a close connection between modelling and nonlinear dynamics. We illustrate the investigation of generalized models by considering examples from three different disciplines of science: a socio-economic model of dynastic cycles in china, a model for a coupled laser system and a general ecological food web.
Blei, David M.
a linear transformation of co- variates through a possibly non-linear link function to generate a response of generalized linear models (DP-GLMs), a Bayesian nonparametric regression model that combines the advantages of gen- eralized linear models with the flexibility of nonpara- metric regression. A DP-GLM produces
THE BETA-JACOBI MATRIX MODEL, THE CS DECOMPOSITION, AND GENERALIZED SINGULAR
Sutton, Brian
THE BETA-JACOBI MATRIX MODEL, THE CS DECOMPOSITION, AND GENERALIZED SINGULAR VALUE PROBLEMS ALAN EDELMAN AND BRIAN D. SUTTON Abstract. We provide a solution to the -Jacobi matrix model problem posed the algorithm on a Haar-distributed random matrix to produce the -Jacobi matrix model. The Jacobi ensemble on Rn
Mohri, Mehryar
applications or for adaptation purposes, one often needs to construct a language model based on the out put has been incorporated in a general software library for language modeling, the GRM Library, information extraction, machine translation, or document classification. In all cases, a language model
Wu, Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang, Jin, E-mail: jin.wang.1@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130022 Changchun, China and College of Physics, Jilin University, 130021 Changchun (China)
2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z
We have established a general non-equilibrium thermodynamic formalism consistently applicable to both spatially homogeneous and, more importantly, spatially inhomogeneous systems, governed by the Langevin and Fokker-Planck stochastic dynamics with multiple state transition mechanisms, using the potential-flux landscape framework as a bridge connecting stochastic dynamics with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A set of non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations, quantifying the relations of the non-equilibrium entropy, entropy flow, entropy production, and other thermodynamic quantities, together with their specific expressions, is constructed from a set of dynamical decomposition equations associated with the potential-flux landscape framework. The flux velocity plays a pivotal role on both the dynamic and thermodynamic levels. On the dynamic level, it represents a dynamic force breaking detailed balance, entailing the dynamical decomposition equations. On the thermodynamic level, it represents a thermodynamic force generating entropy production, manifested in the non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and more specific examples, the spatial stochastic neuronal model, in particular, are studied to test and illustrate the general theory. This theoretical framework is particularly suitable to study the non-equilibrium (thermo)dynamics of spatially inhomogeneous systems abundant in nature. This paper is the second of a series.
Efficient Learning of Generalized Linear and Single Index Models with Isotonic Regression
Efficient Learning of Generalized Linear and Single Index Models with Isotonic Regression Sham M) provide powerful generalizations of linear regression, where the target variable is assumed to be a (possibly unknown) 1-dimensional function of a linear predictor. In gen- eral, these problems entail non
Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines
Rober Alicki; David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky
2015-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system ("working fluid") coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) called sometimes work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines operating under their influences is limited by a generalized Carnot bound.
Gravity, Dimension, Equilibrium, & Thermodynamics
Jerome Perez
2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z
Is it actually possible to interpret gravitation as space's property in a pure classical way. Then, we note that extended self-gravitating system equilibrium depends directly on the number of dimension of the space in which it evolves. Given those precisions, we review the principal thermodynamical knowledge in the context of classical gravity with arbitrary dimension of space. Stability analyses for bounded 3D systems, namely the Antonov instability paradigm, are then rapproched to some amazing properties of globular clusters and galaxies.
Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Jinwoo, Lee
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation.
Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Lee Jinwoo; Hajime Tanaka
2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation.
Russell, Lynn
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model investigation of the indirect Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA V. Ramaswamy, Paul A. Ginoux, and Larry W. Horowitz Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New
Recurrence and non-ergodicity in generalized wind-tree models
Krzysztof Fr?czek; Pascal Hubert
2015-06-19T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we consider generalized wind-tree models and $\\Z^d$-covers over compact translation surfaces. Under suitable hypothesis, we prove recurrence of the linear flow in a generic direction and non-ergodicity of Lebesgue measure.
A Forward Looking Version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model
Babiker, Mustafa M.H.
This paper documents a forward looking multi-regional general equilibrium model developed from the latest version of the recursive-dynamic MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model. The model represents ...
Representing energy technologies in top-down economic models using bottom-up information
McFarland, James R.; Reilly, John M.; Herzog, Howard J.
This paper uses bottom-up engineering information as a basis for modeling new technologies within the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. ...
The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model: Version 4
Paltsev, Sergey.
The Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model is the part of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) that represents the human systems. EPPA is a recursive-dynamic multi-regional general equilibrium model ...
AIAA 2003-3549 Numerical Prediction of Non-equilibrium
D'Ambrosio, Domenic
models with respect to the macroscopic thermochemical non-equilibrium models that are usually used i (per unit mass) ev,eq i specific equilibrium vibrational energy of species i h mixture enthalpy hf i formation enthalpy of species i hi species enthalpy (per unit mass) ho stagnation enthalpy K time
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems
Manh Hong Duong
2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we cast damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems into a general framework for non-equilibrium thermodynamics, namely the GENERIC (General Equation for Non-Equilibrium Reversible-Irreversible Coupling) framework. The main ingredients of GENERIC consist of five building blocks: a state space, a Poisson operator, a dissipative operator, an energy functional, and an entropy functional. The GENERIC formulation of damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems brings several benefits. First, it provides alternative ways to derive thermodynamically consistent models of these systems by construct- ing building blocks instead of invoking conservation laws and constitutive relations. Second, it reveals clear physical and geometrical structures of these systems, e.g., the role of the energy and the entropy as the driving forces for the reversible and irreversible dynamics respectively. Third, it allows us to introduce a new GENERIC model for damped Timoshenko systems that is not existing in the literature.
A General Relativistic Model for Magnetic Monopole-Infused Compact Objects
Zoran Pazameta
2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
Emergent concepts from astroparticle physics are incorporated into a classical solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations for a binary magnetohydrodynamic fluid, in order to describe the final equilibrium state of compact objects infused with magnetic monopoles produced by proton-proton collisions within the intense dipolar magnetic fields generated by these objects during their collapse. It is found that the effective mass of such an object's acquired monopolar magnetic field is three times greater than the mass of its native fluid and monopoles combined, necessitating that the interior matter undergo a transition to a state of negative pressure in order to attain equilibrium. Assuming full symmetry between the electric and magnetic Maxwell equations yields expressions for the monopole charge density and magnetic field by direct analogy with their electrostatic equivalents; inserting these into the Einstein equations then leads to an interior metric which is well-behaved from the origin to the surface, where it matches smoothly to an exterior magnetic Reissner-Nordstr\\"om metric free of any coordinate pathologies. The source fields comprising the model are all described by simple, well-behaved polynomial functions of the radial coordinate, and are combined with straightforward regularity conditions to yield expressions delimiting several fundamental physical parameters pertaining to this hypothetical astrophysical object.
Non-meanfield deterministic limits in chemical reaction kinetics far from equilibrium
R. E. Lee DeVille; Cyrill B. Muratov; Eric Vanden-Eijnden
2005-12-25T23:59:59.000Z
A general mechanism is proposed by which small intrinsic fluctuations in a system far from equilibrium can result in nearly deterministic dynamical behaviors which are markedly distinct from those realized in the meanfield limit. The mechanism is demonstrated for the kinetic Monte-Carlo version of the Schnakenberg reaction where we identified a scaling limit in which the global deterministic bifurcation picture is fundamentally altered by fluctuations. Numerical simulations of the model are found to be in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions.
General Behavioral Thermal Modeling and Characterization for Multi-core Microprocessor Design
Tan, Sheldon X.-D.
General Behavioral Thermal Modeling and Characterization for Multi-core Microprocessor Design Thom-performance multi-core microprocessor design. The new approach builds the thermal behavioral models from ability. Experimental results on a real quad-core microprocessor show that ThermSID is more accurate than
The Effect of Topography on Storm-Track Intensity in a Relatively Simple General Circulation Model
Son, Seok-Woo
The Effect of Topography on Storm-Track Intensity in a Relatively Simple General Circulation Model The effect of topography on storm-track intensity is examined with a set of primitive equation model flow impinging on the topography. If the background flow consists of a weak double jet, higher
Wexler, Anthony Stein [UC Davis] [UC Davis; Clegg, Simon Leslie [UC Davis] [UC Davis
2013-10-26T23:59:59.000Z
Our work addressed the following elements of the Call for Proposals: (i) “to improve the theoretical representation of aerosol processes studied in ASP laboratory or field studies”, (ii) “to enhance the incorporation of aerosol process information into modules suitable for large-scale or global atmospheric models”, and (iii) “provide systematic experimental validation of process model predictions ... using data from targeted laboratory and field experiments”. Achievements to the end of 2012 are described in four previous reports, and include: new models of densities and surface tensions of pure (single solute) and mixed aqueous solutions of typical aerosol composition under all atmospheric conditions (0 to 100% RH and T > 150 K); inclusion of these models into the widely used Extended Aerosol Inorganics model (E-AIM, http://www.aim.env.uea.ac.uk/aim/aim.php); the addition of vapor pressure calculators for organic compounds to the E-AIM website; the ability of include user-defined organic compounds and/or lumped surrogates in gas/aerosol partitioning calculations; the development of new equations to represent the properties of soluble aerosols over the entire concentration range (using methods based upon adsorption isotherms, and derived using statistical mechanics), including systems at close to zero RH. These results are described in publications 1-6 at the end of this report, and on the “News” page of the E-AIM website (http://www.aim.env.uea.ac.uk/aim/info/news.html). During 2012 and 2013 we have collaborated in a combined observation and lab-based study of the water uptake of the organic component of atmospheric aerosols (PI Gannet Hallar, of the Desert Research Institute). The aerosol samples were analyzed using several complementary techniques (GC/MS, FT-ICR MS, and ion chromatography) to produce a very complete organic “speciation” including both polar and non-polar compounds. Hygroscopic growth factors of the samples were measured, and we have just completed comparisons of the data with our process model predictions based upon the inorganic and organic composition of the samples.
Nash Equilibrium Based Fairness Hisao Kameda, Eitan Altman, Corinne Touati and Arnaud Legrand
Nash Equilibrium Based Fairness Hisao Kameda, Eitan Altman, Corinne Touati and Arnaud Legrand is then the Nash equilibrium. Nash equilibria are generally Pareto inefficient. On the other hand, we consider a Nash equilibrium to be fair as it is defined in a context of fair competition without coalitions (such
Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...
Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...
A new nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium radiative transfer method for cool stars
Lambert, Julien; Ryde, Nils; Faure, Alexandre
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Context: The solution of the nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer equation usually relies on stationary iterative methods, which may falsely converge in some cases. Furthermore, these methods are often unable to handle large-scale systems, such as molecular spectra emerging from, for example, cool stellar atmospheres. Aims: Our objective is to develop a new method, which aims to circumvent these problems, using nonstationary numerical techniques and taking advantage of parallel computers. Methods: The technique we develop may be seen as a generalization of the coupled escape probability method. It solves the statistical equilibrium equations in all layers of a discretized model simultaneously. The numerical scheme adopted is based on the generalized minimum residual method. Result:. The code has already been applied to the special case of the water spectrum in a red supergiant stellar atmosphere. This demonstrates the fast convergence of this method, and opens the way to a wide va...
Exclusive $B \\to PV $ Decays and CP Violation in the General two-Higgs-doublet Model
Y. L. Wu; C. Zhuang
2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate all the branching ratios and direct CP violations of $B \\to PV$ decays in a most general two-Higgs-doublet model with spontaneous CP violation. As the model has rich CP-violating sources, it is shown that the new physics effects to direct CP violations and branching ratios in some channels can be significant when adopting the generalized factorization approach to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements, which provides good signals for probing new physics beyond the SM in the future B experiments.
Entropy production in non-equilibrium fluctuating hydrodynamics
Giacomo Gradenigo; Andrea Puglisi; Alessandro Sarracino
2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z
Fluctuating entropy production is studied for a set of linearly coupled complex fields. The general result is applied to non-equilibrium fluctuating hydrodynamic equations for coarse-grained fields (density, temperature and velocity), in the framework of model granular fluids. We find that the average entropy production, obtained from the microscopic stochastic description, can be expressed in terms of macroscopic quantities, in analogy with linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We consider the specific cases of driven granular fluids with two different kinds of thermostat and the homogeneous cooling regime. In all cases, the average entropy production turns out to be the product of a thermodynamic force and a current: the former depends on the specific energy injection mechanism, the latter takes always the form of a static correlation between fluctuations of density and temperature time-derivative. Both vanish in the elastic limit. The behavior of the entropy production is studied at different length scales and the qualitative differences arising for the different granular models are discussed.
A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures
Meier, E T; Shumlak, U
2012-04-06T23:59:59.000Z
A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.
Fluctuation Spectra Underlie the Behaviour of Non-equilibrium Systems
Alpha A Lee; Dominic Vella; John S Wettlaufer
2015-05-26T23:59:59.000Z
A diverse set of important physical phenomena, ranging from hydrodynamic turbulence to the collective behaviour of bacteria, are intrinsically far from equilibrium and hence cannot be described by equilibrium statistical physics. The defining feature of such systems is the presence of a constant energy source that drives them into their respective steady states. Despite their ubiquity, there are few general theoretical results that describe these non-equilibrium steady states. Here we argue that a generic signature of non-equilibrium systems is nontrivial fluctuation spectra. Based on this observation, we derive a general relation for the force exerted by a non-equilibrium system on two embedded walls. We find that for a narrow, unimodal spectrum, the force depends solely on the width and the position of the peak in the fluctuation spectrum, and will, in general, oscillate between repulsion and attraction. We demonstrate the generality of our framework by examining two apparently disparate examples. In the first we study the spectrum of wind-water interactions on the ocean surface to reveal force oscillations underlying the Maritime Casimir effect. In the second, we demonstrate quantitative agreement with force generation in recent simulations of active Brownian particles. A key implication of our work is that important non-equilibrium interactions are encoded in the fluctuation spectrum. In this sense the noise becomes the signal.
Fesen, C.G. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)); Roble, R.G.; Ridley, E.C. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States))
1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The authors use the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermosphere/ionosphere general circulation model (TIGCM) to model tides and dynamics in the thermosphere. This model incorporates the latest advances in the thermosphere general circulation model. Model results emphasized the 70[degree] W longitude region to overlap a series of incoherent radar scatter installations. Data and the model are available on data bases. The results of this theoretical modeling are compared with available data, and with prediction of more empirical models. In general there is broad agreement within the comparisons.
Davydov, E A
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nowadays it is widely accepted that the evolution of the universe was driven by some scalar degrees of freedom both on its early stage and at present. The corresponding cosmological models often involve some scalar fields introduced ad hoc. In this paper we cultivate a different approach, which is based on a derivation of new scalar degrees of freedom from fundamental modifications of Einstein's gravity. In elaboration of our previous work, we here investigate properties of the dilaton-scalar gravity obtained by dimensional reductions of a recently proposed affine generalized gravity theory. We show that these models possess the same symmetries as related models of GR with ordinary scalar fields. As a result, for a rather general class of dilaton-scalar gravity models we construct additional first integrals and formulate an integral equation well suited for solving by iterations.
Phase synchronization of coupled bursting neurons and the generalized Kuramoto model
Fabiano A. S. Ferrari; Ricardo L. Viana; Sérgio R. Lopes; Ruedi Stoop
2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z
Bursting neurons fire rapid sequences of action potential spikes followed by a quiescent period. The basic dynamical mechanism of bursting is the slow currents that modulate a fast spiking activity caused by rapid ionic currents. Minimal models of bursting neurons must include both effects. We considered one of these models and its relation with a generalized Kuramoto model, thanks to the definition of a geometrical phase for bursting and a corresponding frequency. We considered neuronal networks with different connection topologies and investigated the transition from a non-synchronized to a partially phase-synchronized state as the coupling strength is varied. The numerically determined critical coupling strength value for this transition to occur is compared with theoretical results valid for the generalized Kuramoto model.
Equilibrium and transient morphologies of river networks : discriminating among fluvial erosion
Gasparini, Nicole Marie, 1972-
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We examine the equilibrium and transient morphology of alluvial and bedrock river networks. We apply analytical methods and an iterative model to solve for equilibrium slope-area and texture- area (in alluvial networks) ...
Towards a Generalized Regression Model for On-body Energy Prediction from Treadmill Walking
Sukhatme, Gaurav S.
Towards a Generalized Regression Model for On-body Energy Prediction from Treadmill Walking sensor data to energy expenditure is the ques- tion of normalizating across physiological parameters. Common approaches such as weight scaling require validation for each new population. An alternative
Jia, Yan-Bin
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 26, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2010 837 Modeling Deformations of General Parametric Shells Grasped by a Robot Hand Jiang Tian and Yan-Bin Jia, Member, IEEE Abstract--The robot hand and normal of the contact area. Design and analysis of a manipulation strategy thus depend on reliable
Generalized Disjunctive Programming as a Systematic Modeling Framework to Derive Scheduling
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
variables and constraints, but it may compromise computational performance. On the other hand, the convex hull reformulation is tighter, which generally helps to speed up the search procedure. GDP formulations. The best performer is, however, a multiple time grid model which can be derived from the convex hull
Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)
1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.
USE OF GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL OUTPUT IN THE CREATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS
Robock, Alan
, Sub-Saharan Africa and Venezuela, for use in biological effects models. By combining the general, and possible solar variations, and all agree that surface air temperatures will rise, pre- cipitation patterns will change, and sea level will rise. Even though such projections of the future are relatively crude
Calibration of CDO Tranches with the Dynamical Generalized-Poisson Loss Model
Brigo, Damiano
Calibration of CDO Tranches with the Dynamical Generalized-Poisson Loss Model (updated shortened, and consistent calibration to quoted index CDO tranches and tranchelets for several maturities is feasible, as we dynamics, investigating calibration improve- ments and stability. JEL classification code: G13. AMS
Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model J. M. Dong,1
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de
Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model J. M. Dong,1 H. F. Zhang,1 and G. Royer) The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of proton are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within
Tighter Relaxations for Higher-Order Models based on Generalized Roof Duality
Lunds Universitet
Tighter Relaxations for Higher-Order Models based on Generalized Roof Duality Johan Fredriksson one of the most successful approaches, namely roof duality, for approximately solving such problems cone. In the sec- ond method, it is shown that the roof dual bound can be applied in an iterated way
Electrodynamic effects of thermospheric winds from the NCAR thermospheric general circulation model
Richmond, A.D.; Roble, R.G.
1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The ionospheric electric fields and currents and the associated ground magnetic variations, generated by the dynamo action of winds simulated with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. (NCAR) Thermospheric General Circulation Model (TGCM), are modelled and compared with observations for equinox solar minimum conditions. The dynamo model uses a tilted dipole geomagnetic field and allows for field-aligned current flow between conjugate points, but no magnetospheric dynamo effects are included. Two TGCM wind simulations are used, one of which is driven only by in situ solar ultraviolet heating and the other of which includes lower boundary forcing that mimics the effects of upward propagating semidiurnal tides, as described by Fesen et al. (1986). Without tidal forcing, the TGCM winds produce ground magnetic variations that have the general pattern of observed Sq variations but are only about half as strong.
Well-posedness and generalized plane waves simulations of a 2D mode conversion model
Lise-Marie Imbert-Gérard
2015-04-27T23:59:59.000Z
Certain types of electro-magnetic waves propagating in a plasma can undergo a mode conversion process. In magnetic confinement fusion, this phenomenon is very useful to heat the plasma, since it permits to transfer the heat at or near the plasma center. This work focuses on a mathematical model of wave propagation around the mode conversion region, from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It aims at developing, for a well-posed equation, specific basis functions to study a wave mode conversion process. These basis functions, called generalized plane waves, are intrinsically based on variable coefficients. As such, they are particularly adapted to the mode conversion problem. The design of generalized plane waves for the proposed model is described in detail. Their implementation within a discontinuous Galerkin method then provides numerical simulations of the process. These first 2D simulations for this model agree with qualitative aspects studied in previous works.
Well-posedness and generalized plane waves simulations of a 2D mode conversion model
Imbert-Gérard, Lise-Marie
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Certain types of electro-magnetic waves propagating in a plasma can undergo a mode conversion process. In magnetic confinement fusion, this phenomenon is very useful to heat the plasma, since it permits to transfer the heat at or near the plasma center. This work focuses on a mathematical model of wave propagation around the mode conversion region, from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It aims at developing, for a well-posed equation, specific basis functions to study a wave mode conversion process. These basis functions, called generalized plane waves, are intrinsically based on variable coefficients. As such, they are particularly adapted to the mode conversion problem. The design of generalized plane waves for the proposed model is described in detail. Their implementation within a discontinuous Galerkin method then provides numerical simulations of the process. These first 2D simulations for this model agree with qualitative aspects studied in previous works.
Examining the Generalized Waring Model for the Analysis of Traffic Crashes
Peng, Yichuan
2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
characterized by heavy long tail (Guo and Trivedi, 2002). Third, many empirical crash data exhibit more zero observations than would be allowed by a NB regression model, which causes the low mean issue of traffic crash datasets. It is often difficult.... This kind of model has been extensively used in many areas (e.g. Ramaswamy et al., 1994; Wang et al., 1998; Guo & Trivedi, 2002)and has been proposed and applied in the traffic safety context recently (Park & Lord, 2010). The general model structure of a...
Equilibrium Distributions and Superconductivity
Ashot Vagharshakyan
2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
In this article two models for charges distributions are discussed. On the basis of our consideration we put different points of view for stationary state. We prove that only finite energy model for charges' distribution and well-known variation principle explain some well-known experimental results. A new model for superconductivity was suggested, too. In frame of that model some characteristic experimental results for superconductors is possible to explain.
Look, Wesley Allen
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The political economy of US climate policy has revolved around state- and district- level distributional economics, and to a lesser extent household-level distribution questions. Many politicians and analysts have suggested ...
Moortgat, Joachim
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Numerical simulation of multiphase compositional flow in fractured porous media, when all the species can transfer between the phases, is a real challenge. Despite the broad applications in hydrocarbon reservoir engineering and hydrology, a compositional numerical simulator for three-phase flow in fractured media has not appeared in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. In this work, we present a three-phase fully compositional simulator for fractured media, based on higher-order finite element methods. To achieve computational efficiency, we invoke the cross-flow equilibrium (CFE) concept between discrete fractures and a small neighborhood in the matrix blocks. We adopt the mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to approximate convective Darcy fluxes and the pressure equation. This approach is the most natural choice for flow in fractured media. The mass balance equations are discretized by the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, which is perhaps the most efficient approach to capture physical dis...
Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others
1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the problem of determining the three-dimensional folding of a protein given its one-dimensional amino acid sequence. We use the HP model for protein folding proposed by Dill, which models protein as a chain of amino acid residues that are either hydrophobic or polar, and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant initial driving force for the protein folding. Hart and Istrail gave approximation algorithms for folding proteins on the cubic lattice under HP model. In this paper, we examine the choice of a lattice by considering its algorithmic and geometric implications and argue that triangular lattice is a more reasonable choice. We present a set of folding rules for a triangular lattice and analyze the approximation ratio which they achieve. In addition, we introduce a generalization of the HP model to account for residues having different levels of hydrophobicity. After describing the biological foundation for this generalization, we show that in the new model we are able to achieve similar constant factor approximation guarantees on the triangular lattice as were achieved in the standard HP model. While the structures derived from our folding rules are probably still far from biological reality, we hope that having a set of folding rules with different properties will yield more interesting folds when combined.
Technology and Technical Change in the MIT EPPA Model
Jacoby, Henry D.
Potential technology change has a strong influence on projections of greenhouse gas emissions and costs of control, and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are a common device for studying these phenomena. Using ...
Power-law tailed spectra from equilibrium
T. S. Biro; G. Purcsel; G. Gyorgyi; A. Jakovac; Zs. Schram
2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
We propose that power-law tailed hadron spectra may be viewed as stemming from a matter in an unconventional equilibrium state typical for non-extensive thermodynamics. A non-extensive Boltzmann equation, which is able to form such spectra as a stationary solution, is utilized as a rough model of quark matter hadronization. Basic ideas about non-extensive simulation of the QCD equation of state on the lattice are presented.
N. Itagaki; H. Matsuno; T. Suhara
2015-07-09T23:59:59.000Z
The antisymmetrized quasi-cluster model (AQCM) is a method to describe a transition from the alpha-cluster wave function to the jj-coupling shell model wave function. In this model, the cluster-shell transition is characterized by only two parameters; R representing the distance between alpha clusters and Lambda describing the breaking of alpha clusters, and the contribution of the spin-orbit interaction, very important in the jj-coupling shell model, can be taken into account starting with the alpha cluster model wave function. In this article we show the generality of AQCM by extending the application to heavier region; various 4N nuclei from 4He to 52Fe. We show and compare the energy curves for the alpha+40Ca cluster configuration calculated with and without alpha breaking effect in 44Ti.
Energy-Momentum of the Friedmann Models in General Relativity and Teleparallel Theory of Gravity
M. Sharif; M. Jamil Amir
2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the energy-momentum density components for the Friedmann models. For this purpose, we have used M${\\o}$ller's pseudotensor prescription in General Relativity and a certain energy-momentum density developed from his teleparallel formulation. It is shown that the energy density of the closed Friedmann universe vanishes on the spherical shell at the radius $\\rho=2\\sqrt{3}$. This coincides with the earlier results available in the literature. We also discuss the energy of the flat and open models. A comparison shows a partial consistency between the M${\\o}$ller's pseudotensor for General Relativity and teleparallel theory. Further, it is shown that the results are independent of the free dimensionless coupling constant of the teleparallel gravity.
A General Hippocampal Computational Model Combining Episodic and Spatial Memory in a Spiking Model
Aguiar, Paulo de Castro
The hippocampus, in humans and rats, plays crucial roles in spatial tasks and nonspatial tasks involving episodic-type memory. This thesis presents a novel computational model of the hippocampus (CA1, CA3 and dentate ...
Regret Testing: A Simple Payoff-Based Procedure for Learning Nash Equilibrium
George, Edward I.
Regret Testing: A Simple Payoff-Based Procedure for Learning Nash Equilibrium DEAN P. FOSTER aspiration learning models, whose period-by- period behavior comes arbitrarily close to Nash equilibrium employ a rule from this class their period-by-period strategic behavior approximates Nash equilibrium
Nonlinear dynamics of system oscillations modeled by a forced Van der Pol generalized oscillator
L. A. Hinvi; C. H. Miwadinou; A. V. Monwanou; J. B. Chabi Orou
2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
This paper considers the oscillations modeled by a forced Van der Pol generalized oscillator. These oscillations are described by a nonlinear differential equation of the form $ \\ddot{x}+x-\\varepsilon\\left(1-ax^2-b\\dot{x}^2\\right)\\dot{x}=E\\sin{{\\Omega}t}.$ The amplitudes of the forced harmonic, primary resonance superharmonic and subharmonic oscillatory states are obtained using the harmonic balance technique and the multiple time scales methods. We obtain also the hysteresis and jump phenomena in the system oscillations. Bifurcation sequences displayed by the model for each type of oscillatory states are performed numerically through the fourth-order Runge- Kutta scheme.
Fourier analysis for generalized cylinders with polar models of cross-sections
Forsythe, William Clarence
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. Background 1. 2. Modeling Criteria 1. 3. Modeling Methods 1. 3. 1. Voxel Methods 1. 3. 2. Constructive Solid Geometry 1. 3. 3. Boundary Representation 1. 3. 4. Superquadrics 1. 4. Generalized Cylinder 1. 4. 1. GC Definition 1. 4. 2. GC Research 1. 4. 3. GC... such as spheres, cuboids, and tetrahedrons. This method works well with man-made objects. For instance, a table may be represented with five cuboids, using one cuboid for the top of the table, and one cuboid each, positioned appropriately, for the four legs...
Equilibrium Electro-osmotic Instability
Rubinstein, Isaak
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Since its prediction fifteen years ago, electro-osmotic instability has been attributed to non-equilibrium electro-osmosis related to the extended space charge which develops at the limiting current in the course of concentration polarization at a charge-selective interface. This attribution had a double basis. Firstly, it has been recognized that equilibrium electro-osmosis cannot yield instability for a perfectly charge-selective solid. Secondly, it has been shown that non-equilibrium electro-osmosis can. First theoretical studies in which electro-osmotic instability was predicted and analyzed employed the assumption of perfect charge-selectivity for the sake of simplicity and so did the subsequent numerical studies of various time-dependent and nonlinear features of electro-osmotic instability. In this letter, we show that relaxing the assumption of perfect charge-selectivity (tantamount to fixing the electrochemical potential in the solid) allows for equilibrium electro-osmotic instability. Moreover, we s...
KETUSKY, EDWARD
2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis details a graduate research effort written to fulfill the Magister of Technologiae in Chemical Engineering requirements at the University of South Africa. The research evaluates the ability of equilibrium based software to forecast dissolution, evaluate safety impacts, and determine downstream processability changes associated with using oxalic acid solutions to dissolve sludge heels in Savannah River Site High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks 1-15. First, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Coupled with a model, a material balance determines the fate of hypothetical worst-case sludge in the treatment and neutralization tanks during each chemical adjustment. Although sludge is dissolved, after neutralization more is created within HLW. An energy balance determines overpressurization and overheating to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen may overwhelm the purge ventilation. Limiting the heel volume treated/acid added and processing the solids through vitrification is preferred and should not significantly increase the number of glass canisters.
Equilibrium Electro-osmotic Instability
Isaak Rubinstein; Boris Zaltzman
2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z
Since its prediction fifteen years ago, electro-osmotic instability has been attributed to non-equilibrium electro-osmosis related to the extended space charge which develops at the limiting current in the course of concentration polarization at a charge-selective interface. This attribution had a double basis. Firstly, it has been recognized that equilibrium electro-osmosis cannot yield instability for a perfectly charge-selective solid. Secondly, it has been shown that non-equilibrium electro-osmosis can. First theoretical studies in which electro-osmotic instability was predicted and analyzed employed the assumption of perfect charge-selectivity for the sake of simplicity and so did the subsequent numerical studies of various time-dependent and nonlinear features of electro-osmotic instability. In this letter, we show that relaxing the assumption of perfect charge-selectivity (tantamount to fixing the electrochemical potential in the solid) allows for equilibrium electro-osmotic instability. Moreover, we suggest a simple experimental test for determining the true, either equilibrium or non-equilibrium, origin of electro-osmotic instability.
Minimum Description Length Model Selection Criteria for Generalized Linear Models Mark Hansen
Yu, Bin
of simulations for logistic regression illustrate that mixture MDL can ``bridge'' AIC and BIC in the sense. By viewing statistical modeling as a means of generating descriptions of observed data, the MDL framework (cf for a probability distribution Q on A. An integervalued function L corresponds to the code length of a binary
Generalized Uncertainty Relations and Long Time Limits for Quantum Brownian Motion Models
C. Anastopoulos; J. J. Halliwell
1994-07-27T23:59:59.000Z
We study the time evolution of the reduced Wigner function for a class of quantum Brownian motion models. We derive two generalized uncertainty relations. The first consists of a sharp lower bound on the uncertainty function, $U = (\\Delta p)^2 (\\Delta q)^2 $, after evolution for time $t$ in the presence of an environment. The second, a stronger and simpler result, consists of a lower bound at time $t$ on a modified uncertainty function, essentially the area enclosed by the $1-\\sigma$ contour of the Wigner function. In both cases the minimizing initial state is a non-minimal Gaussian pure state. These generalized uncertainty relations supply a measure of the comparative size of quantum and thermal fluctuations. We prove two simple inequalites, relating uncertainty to von Neumann entropy, and the von Neumann entropy to linear entropy. We also prove some results on the long-time limit of the Wigner function for arbitrary initial states. For the harmonic oscillator the Wigner function for all initial states becomes a Gaussian at large times (often, but not always, a thermal state). We derive the explicit forms of the long-time limit for the free particle (which does not in general go to a Gaussian), and also for more general potentials in the approximation of high temperature.
General model selection estimation of a periodic regression with a Gaussian noise
Konev, Victor; 10.1007/s10463-008-0193-1
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper considers the problem of estimating a periodic function in a continuous time regression model with an additive stationary gaussian noise having unknown correlation function. A general model selection procedure on the basis of arbitrary projective estimates, which does not need the knowledge of the noise correlation function, is proposed. A non-asymptotic upper bound for quadratic risk (oracle inequality) has been derived under mild conditions on the noise. For the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise the risk upper bound is shown to be uniform in the nuisance parameter. In the case of gaussian white noise the constructed procedure has some advantages as compared with the procedure based on the least squares estimates (LSE). The asymptotic minimaxity of the estimates has been proved. The proposed model selection scheme is extended also to the estimation problem based on the discrete data applicably to the situation when high frequency sampling can not be provided.
Jeon, Y M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A free-boundary Tokamak Equilibrium Solver (TES), developed for advanced study of tokamak equilibra, is described with two distinctive features. One is a generalized method to resolve the intrinsic axisymmetric instability, which is encountered after all in equilibrium calculation with a free-boundary condition. The other is an extension to deal with a new divertor geometry such as snowflake or X divertors. For validations, the uniqueness of a solution is confirmed by the independence on variations of computational domain, the mathematical correctness and accuracy of equilibrium profiles are checked by a direct comparison with an analytic equilibrium known as a generalized Solovev equilibrium, and the governing force balance relation is tested by examining the intrinsic axisymmetric instabilities. As a valuable application, a snowflake equilibrium that requires a second order zero of the poloidal magnetic field is discussed in the circumstance of KSTAR coil system.
Non-equilibrium fluctuations and mechanochemical couplings of a molecular motor
A. W. C. Lau; D. Lacoste; K. Mallick
2007-07-30T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate theoretically the violations of Einstein and Onsager relations, and the efficiency for a single processive motor operating far from equilibrium using an extension of the two-state model introduced by Kafri {\\em et al.} [Biophys. J. {\\bf 86}, 3373 (2004)]. With the aid of the Fluctuation Theorem, we analyze the general features of these violations and this efficiency and link them to mechanochemical couplings of motors. In particular, an analysis of the experimental data of kinesin using our framework leads to interesting predictions that may serve as a guide for future experiments.
Cintra, Rosangela S
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents an approach for employing artificial neural networks (NN) to emulate an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) as a method of data assimilation. The assimilation methods are tested in the Simplified Parameterizations PrimitivE-Equation Dynamics (SPEEDY) model, an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), using synthetic observational data simulating localization of balloon soundings. For the data assimilation scheme, the supervised NN, the multilayer perceptrons (MLP-NN), is applied. The MLP-NN are able to emulate the analysis from the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF). After the training process, the method using the MLP-NN is seen as a function of data assimilation. The NN were trained with data from first three months of 1982, 1983, and 1984. A hind-casting experiment for the 1985 data assimilation cycle using MLP-NN were performed with synthetic observations for January 1985. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the NN technique for atmospheric data assimilati...
Lee, Shiu-Hang; Nagataki, Shigehiro
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
To better model the efficient production of cosmic rays (CRs) in supernova remnants (SNRs) with the associated coupling between CR production and SNR dynamics, we have generalized an existing cr-hydro-NEI code (i.e., Ellison et al. 2012) to include the following processes: (1) an explicit calculation of the upstream precursor structure including the position dependent flow speed, density, temperature, and magnetic field strength; (2) a momentum and space dependent CR diffusion coefficient; (3) an explicit calculation of magnetic field amplification (MFA); (4) calculation of the maximum CR momentum using the amplified magnetic field; (5) a finite Alfven speed for the particle scattering centers; and (6) the ability to accelerate a superthermal seed population of CRs as well as the ambient thermal plasma. While a great deal of work has been done modeling SNRs, most work has concentrated on either the continuum emission from relativistic electrons or ions, or the thermal emission from the shock heated plasma. Ou...
Ozgur Akarsu; Tekin Dereli; Nihan Katirci; Mikhail B. Sheftel
2015-05-04T23:59:59.000Z
In a recent study Akarsu and Dereli (Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 45:1211, 2013) discussed the dynamical reduction of a higher dimensional cosmological model which is augmented by a kinematical constraint characterized by a single real parameter, correlating and controlling the expansion of both the external (physical) and internal spaces. In that paper explicit solutions were found only for the case of three dimensional internal space ($n=3$). Here we derive a general solution of the system using Lie group symmetry properties, in parametric form for arbitrary number $n=1,2,3,\\dots$ of internal dimensions. We also investigate the dynamical reduction of the model as a function of cosmic time $t$ for various values of $n$ and generate parametric plots to discuss cosmologically relevant results.
Contributions to Intertemporal Models in Financial Economics
Gopalan, Ramu
2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 The absence of arbitrage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.4 General nancial equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 The model 10 2.1 Time and uncertainty..., introducing more assets may lead to equilibrium that is 2 pareto superior, is false. Similar results were also obtained by Bhattacharya [8] in a two date model. Two possible ways emerged, to avoid such discontinuities in the demand functions. The rst...
Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhang, Kai; Qian, Yun; Yan, Huiping; Zhao, Chun
2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z
This paper explores the feasibility of an experimentation strategy for investigating sensitivities in fast components of atmospheric general circulation models. The basic idea is to replace the traditional serial-in-time long-term climate integrations by representative ensembles of shorter simulations. The key advantage of the proposed method lies in its efficiency: since fewer days of simulation are needed, the computational cost is less, and because individual realizations are independent and can be integrated simultaneously, the new dimension of parallelism can dramatically reduce the turnaround time in benchmark tests, sensitivities studies, and model tuning exercises. The strategy is not appropriate for exploring sensitivity of all model features, but it is very effective in many situations. Two examples are presented using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The first example demonstrates that the method is capable of characterizing the model cloud and precipitation sensitivity to time step length. A nudging technique is also applied to an additional set of simulations to help understand the contribution of physics-dynamics interaction to the detected time step sensitivity. In the second example, multiple empirical parameters related to cloud microphysics and aerosol lifecycle are perturbed simultaneously in order to explore which parameters have the largest impact on the simulated global mean top-of-atmosphere radiation balance. Results show that in both examples, short ensembles are able to correctly reproduce the main signals of model sensitivities revealed by traditional long-term climate simulations for fast processes in the climate system. The efficiency of the ensemble method makes it particularly useful for the development of high-resolution, costly and complex climate models.
Quantum Analogical Modeling: A General Quantum Computing Algorithm for Predicting Language Behavior
Royal Skousen
2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z
This paper proposes a general quantum algorithm that can be applied to any classical computer program. Each computational step is written using reversible operators, but the operators remain classical in that the qubits take on values of only zero and one. This classical restriction on the quantum states allows the copying of qubits, a necessary requirement for doing general classical computation. Parallel processing of the quantum algorithm proceeds because of the superpositioning of qubits, the only aspect of the algorithm that is strictly quantum mechanical. Measurement of the system collapses the superposition, leaving only one state that can be observed. In most instances, the loss of information as a result of measurement would be unacceptable. But the linguistically motivated theory of Analogical Modeling (AM) proposes that the probabilistic nature of language behavior can be accurately modeled in terms of the simultaneous analysis of all possible contexts (referred to as supracontexts) providing one selects a single supracontext from those supracontexts that are homogeneous in behavior (namely, supracontexts that allow no increase in uncertainty). The amplitude for each homogeneous supracontext is proportional to its frequency of occurrence, with the result that the probability of selecting one particular supracontext to predict the behavior of the system is proportional to the square of its frequency.
Degeneracies and scaling relations in general power-law models for gravitational lenses
Olaf Wucknitz
2002-02-20T23:59:59.000Z
The time delay in gravitational lenses can be used to derive the Hubble constant in a relatively simple way. The results of this method are less dependent on astrophysical assumptions than in many other methods. The most important uncertainty is related to the mass model used. We discuss a family of models with a separable radial power-law and an arbitrary angular dependence for the potential psi = r^beta * F(theta). Isothermal potentials are a special case of these models with beta=1. An additional external shear is used to take into account perturbations from other galaxies. Using a simple linear formalism for quadruple lenses, we can derive H0 as a function of the observables and the shear. If the latter is fixed, the result depends on the assumed power-law exponent according to H0 proportional to (2-beta)/beta. The effect of external shear is quantified by introducing a `critical shear' gamma_c as a measure for the amount of shear that changes the result significantly. The analysis shows, that in the general case H0 and gamma_c do not depend on the position of the lens galaxy. We discuss these results and compare with numerical models for a number of real lens systems.
Nagurney, Anna
networks; Environment; Waste management; Reverse logistics; Variational inequali- ties; Network equilibriumReverse Supply Chain Management and Electronic Waste Recycling: A Multitiered Network Equilibrium for the modeling of reverse supply chain management of electronic waste, which includes recycling. We describe
LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM
Minnesota, University of
LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM Lab I -1 In biological systems, most objects of interest system. OBJECTIVES: After successfully completing this laboratory, you should be able to: · Determine and 6), and chapter 15 (section 4). It is likely that you will be doing some of these laboratory
Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Lattice QCD
D. K. Sinclair
2007-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
Lattice QCD allows us to simulate QCD at non-zero temperature and/or densities. Such equilibrium thermodynamics calculations are relevant to the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. I give a brief review of the field with emphasis on our work.
A non-equilibrium quantum Landauer principle
John Goold; Mauro Paternostro; Kavan Modi
2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z
Using the operational framework of completely positive, trace preserving operations and thermodynamic fluctuation relations, we derive a lower bound for the heat exchange in a Landauer erasure process on a quantum system. Our bound comes from a non-phenomenological derivation of the Landauer principle which holds for generic non-equilibrium dynamics. Furthermore the bound depends on the non-unitality of dynamics, giving it a physical significance that differs from other derivations. We apply our framework to the model of a spin-1/2 system coupled to an interacting spin chain at finite temperature.
Covey, C.; Ghan, S.J.; Walton, J.J.; Weissman, P.R.
1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Interception of sunlight by the high altitude worldwide dust cloud generated by impact of a large asteroid or comet would lead to substantial land surface cooling, according to our three-dimensional atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). This result is qualitatively similar to conclusions drawn from an earlier study that employed a one-dimensional atmospheric model, but in the GCM simulation the heat capacity of the oceans substantially mitigates land surface cooling, an effect that one-dimensional models cannot quantify. On the other hand, the low heat capacity of the GCM's land surface allows temperatures to drop more rapidly in the initial stage of cooling than in the one-dimensional model study. These two differences between three-dimensional and one-dimensional model simulations were noted previously in studies of ''nuclear winter; '' GCM-simulated climatic changes in the Alvarez-inspired scenario of ''asteroid/comet winter,'' however, are more severe than in ''nuclear winter'' because the assumed aerosol amount is large enough to intercept all sunlight falling on earth. Impacts of smaller objects -- which would occur much more frequently than the Cretaceous/Tertiary event deduced by Alvarez and coworkers -- could also lead to dramatic, though less severe, climatic changes, according to our GCM. Our conclusion is that it is difficult to imagine an asteroid or comet impact leading to anything approaching complete global freezing, but quite reasonable to assume that impacts at the Alvarez level, or even smaller, dramatically alter the climate in at least a ''patchy'' sense. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Non-equilibrium Theory of Arrested Spinodal Decomposition
José Manuel Olais-Govea; Leticia López-Flores; Magdaleno Medina-Noyola
2015-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
The Non-equilibrium Self-consistent Generalized Langevin Equation theory of irreversible relax- ation [Phys. Rev. E (2010) 82, 061503; ibid. 061504] is applied to the description of the non- equilibrium processes involved in the spinodal decomposition of suddenly and deeply quenched simple liquids. For model liquids with hard-sphere plus attractive (Yukawa or square well) pair potential, the theory predicts that the spinodal curve, besides being the threshold of the thermo- dynamic stability of homogeneous states, is also the borderline between the regions of ergodic and non-ergodic homogeneous states. It also predicts that the high-density liquid-glass transition line, whose high-temperature limit corresponds to the well-known hard-sphere glass transition, intersects the spinodal curve at lower temperatures and densities, and continues inside the spinodal region as a glass-glass transition line. Within the region bounded from below by this low-temperature glass-glass transition and from above by the spinodal dynamic arrest line we can recognize two distinct domains with qualitatively different temperature dependence of the localization length. In the shallow-quench domain the localization length diverges as a power law as the tempera- ture T approaches the spinodal temperature Ts, whereas in the deep-quench domain, immediately above the glass-glass line, the localization length increases exponentially with T. We conjecture that the upper domain might correspond to full gas-liquid phase separation conditions, whereas the deep-quench domain might correspond to the formation of physical gels by arrested spinodal decomposition.
A General Relativistic Model for Magnetic Monopole-Infused Compact Objects
Pazameta, Zoran
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Emergent concepts from astroparticle physics are incorporated into a classical solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations for a binary magnetohydrodynamic fluid, in order to describe the final equilibrium state of compact objects infused with magnetic monopoles produced by proton-proton collisions within the intense dipolar magnetic fields generated by these objects during their collapse. It is found that the effective mass of such an object's acquired monopolar magnetic field is three times greater than the mass of its native fluid and monopoles combined, necessitating that the interior matter undergo a transition to a state of negative pressure in order to attain equilibrium. Assuming full symmetry between the electric and magnetic Maxwell equations yields expressions for the monopole charge density and magnetic field by direct analogy with their electrostatic equivalents; inserting these into the Einstein equations then leads to an interior metric which is well-behaved from the origin to the surface, where...
A general approach to statistical modeling of physical laws: nonparametric regression
I. Grabec
2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Statistical modeling of experimental physical laws is based on the probability density function of measured variables. It is expressed by experimental data via a kernel estimator. The kernel is determined objectively by the scattering of data during calibration of experimental setup. A physical law, which relates measured variables, is optimally extracted from experimental data by the conditional average estimator. It is derived directly from the kernel estimator and corresponds to a general nonparametric regression. The proposed method is demonstrated by the modeling of a return map of noisy chaotic data. In this example, the nonparametric regression is used to predict a future value of chaotic time series from the present one. The mean predictor error is used in the definition of predictor quality, while the redundancy is expressed by the mean square distance between data points. Both statistics are used in a new definition of predictor cost function. From the minimum of the predictor cost function, a proper number of data in the model is estimated.
Wakamatsu, M.; Tsujimoto, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)
2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
The theoretical predictions are given for the forward limit of the unpolarized spin-flip isovector generalized parton distribution function (E{sup u}-E{sup d})(x,{xi},t) within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model, with full inclusion of the polarization of Dirac sea quarks. We observe that [(H{sup u}-H{sup d})+(E{sup u}-E{sup d})](x,0,0) has a sharp peak around x=0, which we interpret as a signal of the importance of the pionic qq excitation with large spatial extension in the transverse direction. Another interesting indication given by the predicted distribution in combination with Ji's angular momentum sum rule is that the d quark carries more angular momentum than the u quark in the proton, which may have some relation with the physics of the violation of the Gottfried sum rule.
Yock, Adam D., E-mail: ADYock@mdanderson.org; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Rao, Arvind [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California 92121 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California 92121 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: ?11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: ?7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: ?6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: ?1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: ?11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography images and facilitate improved treatment management.
Diluted Equilibrium Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter
Patwardhan, Amol V; Kishimoto, Chad T; Kusenko, Alexander
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a model where sterile neutrinos with rest masses in the range ~ keV to ~ MeV can be the dark matter and be consistent with all laboratory, cosmological, large scale structure, and X-ray constraints. These sterile neutrinos are assumed to freeze out of thermal and chemical equilibrium with matter and radiation in the very early universe, prior to an epoch of prodigious entropy generation ("dilution") from out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy particles. In this work, we consider heavy, entropy-producing particles in the ~ TeV to ~ EeV rest mass range, possibly associated with new physics at high energy scales. The process of dilution can give the sterile neutrinos the appropriate relic densities, but it also alters their energy spectra so that they could act like cold dark matter, despite relatively low rest masses as compared to conventional dark matter candidates. Moreover, since the model does not rely on active-sterile mixing for producing the relic density, the mixing angles can be small enough to ...
A general equilibrium analysis of climate policy for aviation
Gillespie, Christopher Whittlesey
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Regulation of aviation's contribution to the global problem of climate change is increasingly likely in the near term, but the method agreed upon by most economists-a multi-sectoral market-based approach such as a cap and ...
The general equilibrium of tax and expenditure limits
Moule, Ellen Concetta
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
this prediction is that if a taxpayer knows how a TEL shouldfrom year to year, that taxpayer would easily be able toMassachusetts from 1982-2000. Taxpayer A is from San Diego,
Modular Applied General Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET) | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaPLawrence County,1980) | Open Energy InformationGeorgia:(Blackwell, EtModesto
A General Equilibrium Analysis of Climate Policy for Aviation
in Technology and Policy at the MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY June 2011 c Massachusetts Institute Regulation of aviation's contribution to the global problem of climate change is in- creasingly likely
Heterogeneous Beliefs, Collateralization, and Transactions in General Equilibrium
Hu, Xu
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
requirements endogenously determined, along with interest rates and loan quantities. The theme of the first work is to study private transactions in currency crises. I assume that domestic residents have different beliefs on how resilient the central bank...
On static equilibrium and balance puzzler
Samrat Dey; Ashish Paul; Dipankar Saikia; Deepjyoti Kalita; Anamika Debbarma; Shaheen Akhtar Wahab; Saurabh Sarma
2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
The principles of static equilibrium are of special interest to civil engineers. For a rigid body to be in static equilibrium the condition is that net force and net torque acting on the body should be zero. That clearly signifies that if equal weights are placed on either sides of a balance, the balance should be in equilibrium, even if its beam is not horizontal (we have considered the beam to be straight and have no thickness, an ideal case). Thus, although the weights are equal, they will appear different which is puzzling. This also shows that the concept of equilibrium is confusing, especially neutral equilibrium is confused to be stable equilibrium. The study not only throws more light on the concept of static equilibrium, but also clarifies that a structure need not be firm and steady even if it is in static equilibrium.
Reflective equilibrium and the 'moral conservatism' objection
Chandler, James Robert
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Reflective equilibrium is widely accepted as a method of justifying ethical beliefs. Narrow reflective equilibrium justifies moral beliefs by achieving coherence between moral principles and moral judgments. However, this theory has been accused...
Phillips, T J; Potter, G L; Williamson, D L; Cederwall, R T; Boyle, J S; Fiorino, M; Hnilo, J J; Olson, J G; Xie, S; Yio, J J
2004-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
To significantly improve the simulation of climate by general circulation models (GCMs), systematic errors in representations of relevant processes must first be identified, and then reduced. This endeavor demands that the GCM parameterizations of unresolved processes, in particular, should be tested over a wide range of time scales, not just in climate simulations. Thus, a numerical weather prediction (NWP) methodology for evaluating model parameterizations and gaining insights into their behavior may prove useful, provided that suitable adaptations are made for implementation in climate GCMs. This method entails the generation of short-range weather forecasts by a realistically initialized climate GCM, and the application of six-hourly NWP analyses and observations of parameterized variables to evaluate these forecasts. The behavior of the parameterizations in such a weather-forecasting framework can provide insights on how these schemes might be improved, and modified parameterizations then can be tested in the same framework. In order to further this method for evaluating and analyzing parameterizations in climate GCMs, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding a joint venture of its Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT). This article elaborates the scientific rationale for CAPT, discusses technical aspects of its methodology, and presents examples of its implementation in a representative climate GCM.
Crauel, Hans
A General Asset-Liability Management Model for the Efficient Simulation of Portfolios of Life and a stronger competition have increased the importance of stochastic asset-liability management (ALM) models development of life insurance products. Keywords: asset-liability management, participating policies
The virtues and vices of equilibrium and the future of financial economics
The virtues and vices of equilibrium and the future of financial economics J. Doyne Farmer and John Geanakoplos March 20, 2008 Abstract The use of equilibrium models in economics springs from the desire for parsimonious models of economic phenomena that take human rea- soning into account. This approach has been
Shackley, Simon.; Risbey, James; Stone, Peter H.; Wynne, Brian
This paper surveys and interprets the attitudes of scientists to the use of flux adjustments in climate projections with coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Models. The survey is based largely on the responses of ...
Forced and free variations of the surface temperature field in a general circulation model
North, G.R.; Yip, K.J.J.; Laiyung Leung (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States)); Chervin, R.M. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States))
1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The concept of forced' and free' variations of large-scale surface temperature is examined by analyzing several long runs of the Community Climate Model (CCM0) with idealized boundary conditions and forcing. (1) The planet is all land with uniform sea-level topography and fixed soil moisture. (2) The planetary surface and prescribed ozone are reflection symmetric across the equator and there is no generation of snow. (3) The obliquity is set to zero so that the climate is for a perpetual equinox solar insolation (i.e., sun fixed over the equator). After examining some relevant aspects of the undisturbed climate (surface temperature field) such as temporal and spatial autocorrelations and the corresponding spectra, two types of changes in external forcing are imposed to study the model response: (1) sinusoidal changes of the solar constant (5%, 10%, 20%, and 40% amplitudes) at periods of 15 and 30 days (the latter is the autocorrelation time for the global average surface temperature) and 20% at 60 days and (2) insertion of steady heat sources (points and zonal bands) of variable strength at the surface. Then the temporal spectra of large scales for the periodically forced climate and the ensemble-averaged influence functions are examined for the point source disturbed climates. In each class of experiments the response of ensemble-averaged amplitudes was found to be proportional to the amplitude of the forcing. These results suggest that the lowest moments of the surface temperature field have a particularly simple dependence on forcing. Furthermore, the apparent finiteness of the variance spectrum at low frequencies suggest that estimates of long-term statistics are stable in this type of atmospheric general circulation model. 31 refs., 17 figs.
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98 28 28 60 96 31 7 23 LOT L General Permit Parking LOT A General Permit Parking LOT C General Permit Parking LOT R Reserved Parking LOT D Faculty/Staff Parking LOT K General Permit Parking LOT J Reserved Parking PV LOT General Parking after 3 p.m. WEST CAMPUS PARKING LOT O General Permit Parking LOT M General
NonEquilibrium Thermodynamics Explains Semiotic Shapes
Kreinovich, Vladik
NonEquilibrium Thermodynamics Explains Semiotic Shapes: Applications to Astronomy and to Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, nondestructive testing, aerospace structures 1. SEMIOTIC SHAPES IN ASTRONOMY: FORMULATION by using the fundamental physical ideas of symmetry and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. 2. MAIN PHYSICAL
Oblivious Router Policies and Nash Equilibrium
Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad
Oblivious Router Policies and Nash Equilibrium Juan A. Almendral, Luis L. Fern´andez, Vicent Cholvi. In such a scenario, having a Nash equilibrium guarantees that no selfish user has incentive to unilaterally deviate users). However, here we formally prove that an efficient Nash equilibrium can not be reached
Nash Equilibrium and Dynamics Sergiu Hart
Hart, Sergiu
Nash Equilibrium and Dynamics Sergiu Hart June 2008 Conference in Honor of John Nash's 80th Birthday Opening Panel SERGIU HART c 2008 p. #12;NASH EQUILIBRIUM AND DYNAMICS Sergiu Hart Center@huji.ac.il http://www.ma.huji.ac.il/hart SERGIU HART c 2008 p. #12;Nash equilibrium SERGIU HART c 2008 p. #12
Non-equilibrium condensation process in holographic superconductor with nonlinear electrodynamics
Yunqi Liu; Yungui Gong; Bin Wang
2015-05-14T23:59:59.000Z
We study the non-equilibrium condensation process in a holographic superconductor with nonlinear corrections to the U(1) gauge field. We start with an asymptotic Anti-de-Sitter(AdS) black hole against a complex scalar perturbation at the initial time, and solve the dynamics of the gravitational systems in the bulk. When the black hole temperature T is smaller than a critical value Tc, the scalar perturbation grows exponentially till saturation, the final state of spacetime approaches to a hairy black hole. In the bulk theory, we find the clue of the influence of nonlinear corrections in the gauge field on the process of the scalar field condensation. We show that the bulk dynamics in the non-equilibrium process is completely consistent with the observations on the boundary order parameter. Furthermore we examine the time evolution of horizons in the bulk non-equilibrium transformation process from the bald AdS black hole to the AdS hairy hole. Both the evolution of apparent and event horizons show that the original AdS black hole configuration requires more time to finish the transformation to become a hairy black hole if there is nonlinear correction to the electromagnetic field. We generalize our non-equilibrium discussions to the holographic entanglement entropy and find that the holographic entanglement entropy can give us further understanding of the influence of the nonlinearity in the gauge field on the scalar condensation. In our analysis, we also compare the effect of different models on the corrections to the gauge field on the formation of holographic superconductor.
General relativistic neutron stars with twisted magnetosphere
A. G. Pili; N. Bucciantini; L. Del Zanna
2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars are extreme manifestations of the most magnetized neutron stars: magnetars. The phenomenology of their emission and spectral properties strongly support the idea that the magnetospheres of these astrophysical objects are tightly twisted in the vicinity of the star. Previous studies on equilibrium configurations have so far focused on either the internal or the external magnetic field configuration, without considering a real coupling between the two fields. Here we investigate numerical equilibrium models of magnetized neutron stars endowed with a confined twisted magnetosphere, solving the general relativistic Grad-Shafranov equation both in the interior and in the exterior of the compact object. A comprehensive study of the parameters space is provided to investigate the effects of different current distributions on the overall magnetic field structure.
The effects of small perturbations in climate models
Bell, Robert Eugene
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An energy balance model . II. 2 Equilibrium statistics 5 12 III A GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL . . III. 1 Terra Blimda . III. 2 Equilibrium statistics 15 18 IV THE EFFECTS OF SMALL PERTURBATIONS . . 21 IV. 1 Response to a, Dirac delta, function IV. 2... standard deviations from the mean. , Relaxation time for different modes as a function of Legendre index n (North and Cahalan, 1981). 13 Illustration of a, rhomboidal truncation at degree 5 (R5). 17 The global mean surface temperature of Terra Blanda...
Thompson, S.L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Covey, C.
1987-09-20T23:59:59.000Z
A global atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) is modified to include radiative transfer parameterizations for the absorption and scattering of solar radiation and the absorption of thermal infrared (IR) radiation by smoke aerosols. The solar scattering modifications include a parameterization for diagnosing smoke optical properties as a function of the time- and space-dependent smoke particle radii. The aerosol IR modifications allow for both the ''grey'' absorber approximation and a broadband approximation that resolves the aerosol absorption in four spectral intervals. We examine the sensitivity of some GCM-simulated atmospheric and climatic effects to the optical properties and radiative transfer parameterizations used in studies of massive injections of smoke. Specifically, we test the model response to solar scattering versus nonscattering smoke, variations in prescribed smoke single scattering albedo and IR specific absorption, and interactive versus fixed smoke optical properties. Hypothetical nuclear war created smoke scenarios assume the July injection of 60 or 180 Tg of smoke over portions of the mid-latitude land areas of the northern hemisphere. Atmospheric transport and scavenging of the smoke are included. Nonscattering smoke cases produce roughly 40 Wm/sup -2/ more Earth-atmosphere solar irradiance absorption over the northern hemisphere, when compared to scattering smoke cases having equivalent specific absorption efficiencies. Varying the elemental carbon content of smoke over a plausible range produces a 4/sup 0/--6 /sup 0/C change in average mid-latitude land surface temperature, and a variation of about 0.1 in zonally averaged planetary albedo in the northern hemisphere.
Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Matveev, L.; Pruess, K.
2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this study, new elements were developed to generalize the dual-porosity model for moisture infiltration on and solute transport in unsaturated rocks, taking into account fractal aspects of the percolation process. Random advection was considered as a basic mechanism of solute transport in self-similar fracture systems. In addition to spatial variations in the infiltration velocity field, temporal fluctuations were also taken into account. The rock matrix, a low-permeability component of the heterogeneous geologic medium, acts as a trap for solute particles and moisture. Scaling relations were derived for the moisture infiltration flux, the velocity correlation length, the average velocity of infiltration, and the velocity correlation function. The effect of temporal variations in precipitation intensity on the infiltration processes was analyzed. It showed that the mode of solute transport is determined by the power exponent in the advection velocity correlation function and the dimensionality of the trapping system, both of which may change with time. Therefore, depending on time, various transport regimes may be realized: superdiffusion, subdiffusion, or classical diffusion. The complex structure of breakthrough curves from changes in the transport regimes was also examined. A renormalization of the solute source strength due to characteristic fluctuations of highly disordered media was established.
Validation of Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry at Four Geothermal Power Plants
Ghanashyam Neupane; Jeffrey S Baum; Earl D Mattson; Gregory L Mines; Carl D Palmer; Robert W Smith
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper evaluates our ability to predict geothermal reservoir temperatures using water compositions measured from surface hot springs or shallow subsurface wells at four geothermal sites prior to the startup of geothermal energy production using RTEst, a multicomponent equilibrium geothermometer we have developed and are testing. The estimated reservoir temperatures of these thermal expressions are compared to measured bottom-hole temperatures of production wells at Raft River, ID; Neal Hot Springs, OR; Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT; and Steamboat Springs, NV geothermal sites. In general, temperatures of the producing reservoir estimated from the composition of water from surface expressions/shallow wells using RTEst are similar to the measured bottom-hole temperatures. For example, estimates for the Neal Hot Springs system are within ±10 şC of the production temperatures. However, some caution must be exercised in evaluating RTEst predictions. Estimated temperature for a shallow Raft River well (Frazier well) is found to be slightly lower (ca. 15 şC) than the bottom-hole temperatures from the geothermal plant production wells. For the Raft River system, local geology and fluid mixing model indicate that the fluid source for this shallow well may not have originated from the production reservoir. Similarly, RTEst results for Roosevelt Hot springs and Steamboat Springs geothermal areas were found consistent with the reservoir temperatures obtained from deep wells. These results suggest that the RTEst could be a valuable tool for estimating temperatures and evaluation geothermal resources.
Fluid transport properties by equilibrium molecular dynamics. II. Multicomponent systems
Dysthe, Dag Kristian
Fluid transport properties by equilibrium molecular dynamics. II. Multicomponent systems D. K than 25 years molecular dynamics has been used to study fluid transport properties. Such MD studies and multicenter molecular models.816 d The study of transport properties of certain fluids and classes of fluids
Scaling Behavior and Equilibrium Lengths of Knotted Polymers
California at Santa Barbara, University of
Scaling Behavior and Equilibrium Lengths of Knotted Polymers Eric Rawdon Akos Dobay John C. Kern numerical simulations to investigate how the chain length and topology of freely fluctuating knotted polymer of a characteristic changes with the chain size and how this change depends on the topology of the modeled polymers
Non-equilibrium chemistry in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs
D. Saumon; M. S. Marley; K. Lodders; R. S. Freedman
2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z
Carbon monoxide and ammonia have been detected in the spectrum of Gl 229B at abundances that differ substantially from those obtained from chemical equilibrium. Vertical mixing in the atmosphere is a mechanism that can drive slowly reacting species out of chemical equilibrium. We explore the effects of vertical mixing as a function of mixing efficiency and effective temperature on the chemical abundances in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and on their spectra. The models compare favorably with the observational evidence and indicate that vertical mixing plays an important role in brown dwarf atmospheres.
Self-graviting Gas Spheres in Equilibrium State
Andrei Smirnov; Ricardo Max Menezes Oliveira
2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z
In the paper we discuss equilibrium states of stars, using a simplified analytic model. A star is considered as self-graviting body of gas. We use a condition for the equilibrium state of the body in the form of a differential equation, which relates the pressure distribution and mass density in the body. The density distributions of constant, potential, gaussian, and exponential forms are discussed. Exact expressions for the distribution of mass and pressure along the radial direction, and the central pressure were obtained.
Nash equilibrium quantum states and optimal quantum data classification
Faisal Shah Khan
2015-07-27T23:59:59.000Z
This letter reports a novel application of game theory to quantum informational processes which can be used to optimally classify data generated by these processes. To this end, the notion of simultaneously distinguishing a pure quantum state, generated by a quantum informational process, from its constituent observable states optimally - given the constraint of these observables being orthogonal to each other, is first introduced. This problem is solved via a non-cooperative game model and the affiliated solution concept of Nash equilibrium. The notion of Nash equilibrium quantum states is introduced and used to classify quantum data optimally.
Plasma Equilibrium in a Magnetic Field with Stochastic Regions
J.A. Krommes and Allan H. Reiman
2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z
The nature of plasma equilibrium in a magnetic field with stochastic regions is examined. It is shown that the magnetic differential equation that determines the equilibrium Pfirsch-Schluter currents can be cast in a form similar to various nonlinear equations for a turbulent plasma, allowing application of the mathematical methods of statistical turbulence theory. An analytically tractable model, previously studied in the context of resonance-broadening theory, is applied with particular attention paid to the periodicity constraints required in toroidal configurations. It is shown that even a very weak radial diffusion of the magnetic field lines can have a significant effect on the equilibrium in the neighborhood of the rational surfaces, strongly modifying the near-resonant Pfirsch-Schluter currents. Implications for the numerical calculation of 3D equilibria are discussed
Near-equilibrium measurements of nonequilibrium free energy
Crooks, Gavin
2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z
A central endeavor of thermodynamics is the measurement of free energy changes. Regrettably, although we can measure the free energy of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium, typically all we can say about the free energy of a nonequilibrium ensemble is that it is larger than that of the same system at equilibrium. Herein, we derive a formally exact expression for the probability distribution of a driven system, which involves path ensemble averages of the work over trajectories of the time-reversed system. From this we find a simple near-equilibrium approximation for the free energy in terms of an excess mean time-reversed work, which can be experimentally measured on real systems. With analysis and computer simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our approximations for several simple models.
TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances
Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...
Janson, Svante
Analyzing generalized Stirling permutations via relations to families of increasing trees and urn-mail: kuba@geometrie.tuwien.ac.at, Alois.Panholzer@tuwien.ac.at) Abstract. Stirling permutations are a class of multipermutations introduced by Gessel and Stanley. We consider Stirling permutations and generalizations
Gnanadesikan, Anand
shortwave penetration in the high-latitude Southern Ocean causes an increase in the formation of mode waterOcean Water Clarity and the Ocean General Circulation in a Coupled Climate Model ANAND GNANADESIKAN Jersey (Manuscript received 11 October 2007, in final form 17 July 2008) ABSTRACT Ocean water clarity
Wisconsin at Madison, University of
Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) on Riemannian Manifolds with Applications to Statistical range of such methods by deriv- ing schemes for multivariate multiple linear regression -- a manifold ] , ^ = Ży - ^Żx. (2) If x and y are multivariates, one can easily replace the mul- tiplication and division
Kim, Joong Tae
2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
Open water in sea ice, such as leads and polynyas, plays a crucial role in determining the formation of deep- and bottom-water, as well as their long-term global properties and circulation. Ocean general circulation models (GCMs) designed...
Jayaram, Bhyravabotla
Solvation Free Energy of Biomacromolecules: Parameters for a Modified Generalized Born Model provides rapid estimates of the electrostatic free energies of solvation for diverse molecules of parameters compatible with the AMBER force field is described. The method is used to estimate free energies
Sokolov, Andrei P.
Conducting probabilistic climate projections with a particular climate model requires the ability to vary the model’s characteristics, such as its climate sensitivity. In this study, the authors implement and validate a ...
Theory and Application of Linear Supply Function Equilibrium in Electricity Markets
Baldick, Ross
Theory and Application of Linear Supply Function Equilibrium in Electricity Markets Ross Baldick Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C equilibrium (SFE) model of interaction in an electricity market. We assume a linear demand function
Trampedach, Regner; Collet, Remo; Nordlund, Ĺke; Stein, Robert F
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations, and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late type stars, based on deep, 3D, convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations, and improve stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, asymptotic adiabat, as function of atmospheric parameters. These and other re...
Multiple Nash-equilibrium in Quantum Game
Georgy Parfionov
2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z
Methods of exploring Nash equilibrium in quantum games are studied. Analytical conditions of the existence, the uniqueness or the multiplicity of the equilibria are found.
Thermodynamical description of modified generalized Chaplygin gas model of dark energy
H. Ebadi; H. Moradpour
2015-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a universe filled by a modified generalized Chaplygin gas together with a pressureless dark matter component. We get a thermodynamical interpretation for the modified generalized Chaplygin gas confined to the apparent horizon of FRW universe, whiles dark sectors do not interact with each other. Thereinafter, by taking into account a mutual interaction between the dark sectors of the cosmos, we find a thermodynamical interpretation for interacting modified generalized Chaplygin gas. Additionally, probable relation between the thermal fluctuations of the system and the assumed mutual interaction is investigated. Finally, we show that if one wants to solve the coincidence problem by using this mutual interaction, then the coupling constants of the interaction will be constrained. The corresponding constraint is also addressed. Moreover, the thermodynamic interpretation of using either a generalized Chaplygin gas or a Chaplygin gas to describe dark energy is also addressed throughout the paper.
A General Model of Concurrency and its Implementation as Many-core Dynamic RISC
Jesshope, Chris
scaling, good energy efficiency and tolerance to large latencies in asynchronous operations. This is true. This paper describes general-purpose solutions and builds on the premise that what is missing is a coherent
Arumugam, Sankar
Improving Groundwater Predictions Utilizing Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts from General. The research reported in this paper evaluates the potential in developing 6-month-ahead groundwater Surface Temperature forecasts. Ten groundwater wells and nine streamgauges from the USGS Groundwater
Menke, William
trivially. 4. The damped least squares generalized inverse has the form Note that since is symmetric, its least squares generalized inverse % GMG = (G'*G + epsi*eye(M,M)) \\ G' epsi = 0.1; A = (G'*G + epsi data kernel s=0.1; G=random('Normal',0, s, N, M ) + eye(N,M); % stddev of data sigmad = 1; % use damped
Improved Indoor Tracking Based on Generalized t-Distribution Noise Model
Shuo, Liu; Le, Yin; Khuen, Ho Weng; Voon, Ling Keck
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
objective function. Industrial & engineering chemistryfunction approac. Industrial & Engineering Chem- istrynoise model. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research,
On Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Space-Time and Quantum Gravity
Joakim Munkhammar
2015-07-02T23:59:59.000Z
Based on recent results from general relativistic statistical mechanics and black hole information transfer limits a space-time entropy-action equivalence is proposed as a generalization of the holographic principle. With this conjecture, the action principle can be replaced by the second law of thermodynamics, and for the Einstein-Hilbert action the Einstein field equations are conceptually the result of thermodynamic equilibrium. For non-equilibrium situations Jaynes' information-theoretic approach to maximum entropy production is adopted instead of the second law of thermodynamics. As it turns out, for appropriate choices of constants quantum gravity is obtained. For the special case of a free particle the Bekenstein-Verlinde entropy-to-displacement relation of holographic gravity, and thus the traditional holographic principle, emerges. Although Jacobson's original thermodynamic equilibrium approach proposed that gravity might not necessarily be quantized, this particular non-equilibrium treatment might require it.
Testing Lack-of-Fit of Generalized Linear Models via Laplace Approximation
Glab, Daniel Laurence
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
In this study we develop a new method for testing the null hypothesis that the predictor function in a canonical link regression model has a prescribed linear form. The class of models, which we will refer to as canonical ...
Wolberg, George
evaluation. 10.More complex modeling: EnergyPlus. EnergyPlus interface tools. 11.Linking energy models to other tools, BIM. EnergyPlus, setting up from Revit or Sketch-up. 12.Daylighting. RADIANCE demo. Project
Petascale Atmospheric General Circulation Models R. D. Nair and H. M. Tufo#
Nair, Ramachandran D.
) into an Earth system model will require a highly scalable and accurate flux-form formulation of the dynamics
Allauzen, Cyril
applications or for adaptation purposes, one often needs to construct a language model based on the out- put library for language modeling, the GRM Library, that includes many other text and grammar processing classification. In all cases, a language model is used in combination with other in- formation sources to rank
Heisenberg XXX Model with General Boundaries: Eigenvectors from Algebraic Bethe Ansatz
Samuel Belliard; Nicolas Crampé
2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvectors of the Heisenberg spin chain with general boundaries associated to the eigenvalues and the Bethe equations found recently by Cao et al. The ansatz takes the usual form of a product of operators acting on a particular vector except that the number of operators is equal to the length of the chain. We prove this result for the chains with small length. We obtain also an off-shell equation (i.e. satisfied without the Bethe equations) formally similar to the ones obtained in the periodic case or with diagonal boundaries.
Heisenberg XXX model with general boundaries: Eigenvectors from Algebraic Bethe ansatz
Belliard, S
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvectors of the Heisenberg spin chain with general boundaries associated to the eigenvalues and the Bethe equations found recently by Cao et al. The ansatz takes the usual form of a product of operators acting on a particular vector except that the number of operators is equal to the length of the chain. We prove this result for the chains with small length. We obtain also an off-shell equation (i.e. satisfied without the Bethe equations) formally similar to the ones obtained in the periodic case or with diagonal boundaries.
The Stability of the NonEquilibrium
nonÂequilibrium steady state (NESS) far from equilibrium has atÂ tracted considerable interests. The NESS is introduced as a state asymptotically realized from an inhomogeneous initial state [11]Â[12]. A question rises naturally here; is the NESS macroscopically stable? As an analogy of return to equilibÂ rium
Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering
Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.
2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z
Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.
Ocean mixed layer processes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in coupled general circulation models
Qiu, Bo
Ocean mixed layer processes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in coupled general circulation to be larger for CGCMs with a larger ocean heat transport in the region. Keywords Pacific Decadal Oscillation Á. 1994a, b; Zhanget al. 1996), ocean-atmosphere interactions over the North Pacific (e.g., Latif
Laura Sampson; Neil Cornish; Nicolas Yunes
2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z
We study generic tests of strong-field General Relativity using gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral of compact binaries. Previous studies have considered simple extensions to the standard post-Newtonian waveforms that differ by a single term in the phase. Here we improve on these studies by (i) increasing the realism of injections and (ii) determining the optimal waveform families for detecting and characterizing such signals. We construct waveforms that deviate from those in General Relativity through a series of post-Newtonian terms, and find that these higher-order terms can affect our ability to test General Relativity, in some cases by making it easier to detect a deviation, and in some cases by making it more difficult. We find that simple single-phase post-Einsteinian waveforms are sufficient for detecting deviations from General Relativity, and there is little to be gained from using more complicated models with multiple phase terms. The results found here will help guide future attempts to test General Relativity with advanced ground-based detectors.
Thornton, P. E.; Doney, S. C.; Lindsay, Keith; Moore, J. K.; Mahowald, N. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Fung, I.; Lamarque, J. F.; Feddema, Johannes J.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Biogeosciences, 6, 2099–2120, 2009 www.biogeosciences.net/6/2099/2009/ © Author(s) 2009. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Biogeosciences Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks.... Inclusion of fundamental ecological interactions between carbon and nitrogen cycles in the land component of an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) leads to decreased carbon uptake associated with CO2 fertil- ization, and increased carbon...
Spectroscopy of Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Charge Transfer in Semiconductor Quantum Structures
Clemens Rössler; Simon Burkhard; Tobias Krähenmann; Marc Röösli; Peter Märki; Julien Basset; Thomas Ihn; Klaus Ensslin; Christian Reichl; Werner Wegscheider
2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-transfer processes by performing high-resolution transport spectroscopy. Using electrostatically defined quantum dots for energy-selective emission and detection, we achieved unprecedented spectral resolution and a high degree of tunability of relevant experimental parameters. Most importantly, we observe that the spectral width of elastically transferred electrons can be substantially smaller than the linewidth of a thermally broadened Coulomb peak. This finding indicates that the charge-transfer process is fast compared to the electron--phonon interaction time. By drawing an analogy to double quantum dots, we argue that the spectral width of the elastic resonance is determined by the lifetime broadening $h\\it{\\Gamma}$ of the emitter and detector states. Good agreement with the model is found also in an experiment in which the charge transfer is in the regime $h\\it{\\Gamma}\\gg k_{\\rm{B}}T$. By performing spectroscopy below the Fermi energy, we furthermore observe elastic and inelastic transfer of holes.
Improved Indoor Tracking Based on Generalized t-Distribution Noise Model
Shuo, Liu; Le, Yin; Khuen, Ho Weng; Voon, Ling Keck
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
log-distance path loss model (PLM) is commonly used [20]. Itclustered near the fitted PLM curve. B. Tracking of A Moving
Vassilis S. Geroyannis; Vasileios G. Karageorgopoulos
2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a "hybrid approximative scheme" in the framework of the post-Newtonian approximation for computing general-relativistic polytropic models simulating neutron stars in critical rigid rotation. We treat the differential equations governing such a model as a "complex initial value problem", and we solve it by using the so-called "complex-plane strategy". We incorporate into the computations the complete solution for the relativistic effects, this issue representing a significant improvement with regard to the classical post-Newtonian approximation, as verified by extended comparisons of the numerical results.
Ramon Herrera; Nelson Videla; Marco Olivares
2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z
A warm inflationary universe scenario on a warped Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati brane during intermediate inflation is studied. We consider a general form for the dissipative coefficient $\\Gamma(T,\\phi)\\propto T^{m}/\\phi^{m-1}$, and also study this model in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. We analyze the evolution of the universe in the slow-roll approximation, and find the exact solutions to the equations of motion. In both regimes, we utilize recent data from the BICEP2 experiment and also from the Planck satellite to constrain the parameters in our model in accordance with the theory of cosmological perturbations.
Chandan Mondal; Dipankar Chakrabarti
2015-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
We present a study of the generalized parton distributions for the quarks in a proton in both momentum and position spaces using the light-front wave functions of a quark-diquark model for the nucleon predicted by the soft-wall model of AdS/QCD. The results are compared with the soft-wall AdS/QCD model of proton GPDs for zero skewness. We also calculate the GPDs for nonzero skewness. We observe that the GPDs have a diffraction pattern in longitudinal position space, as seen before in other models. Then we present a comparitive study of the nucleon charge and anomalous magnetization densities in the transverse plane. Flavor decompositions of the form factors and transverse densities are also discussed.
V. R. Gavrilov; V. N. Melnikov
1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z
The D-dimensional cosmological model on the manifold $M = R \\times M_{1} \\times M_{2}$ describing the evolution of 2 Einsteinian factor spaces, $M_1$ and $M_2$, in the presence of multicomponent perfect fluid source is considered. The barotropic equation of state for mass-energy densities and the pressures of the components is assumed in each space. When the number of the non Ricci-flat factor spaces and the number of the perfect fluid components are both equal to 2, the Einstein equations for the model are reduced to the generalized Emden-Fowler (second-order ordinary differential) equation, which has been recently investigated by Zaitsev and Polyanin within discrete-group analysis. Using the integrable classes of this equation one generates the integrable cosmological models. The corresponding metrics are presented. The method is demonstrated for the special model with Ricci-flat spaces $M_1,M_2$ and the 2-component perfect fluid source.
de Souza, R S; Buelens, B; Riggs, J D; Cameron, E; Ishida, E E O; Chies-Santos, A L; Killedar, M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, the third in a series illustrating the power of generalized linear models (GLMs) for the astronomical community, we elucidate the potential of the class of GLMs which handles count data. The size of a galaxy's globular cluster population $N_{\\rm GC}$ is a prolonged puzzle in the astronomical literature. It falls in the category of count data analysis, yet it is usually modelled as if it were a continuous response variable. We have developed a Bayesian negative binomial regression model to study the connection between $N_{\\rm GC}$ and the following galaxy properties: central black hole mass, dynamical bulge mass, bulge velocity dispersion, and absolute visual magnitude. The methodology introduced herein naturally accounts for heteroscedasticity, intrinsic scatter, errors in measurements in both axes (either discrete or continuous), and allows modelling the population of globular clusters on their natural scale as a non-negative integer variable. Prediction intervals of 99% around the trend for e...
Non-equilibrium thermo-hydrodynamic effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in compressible flows
Huilin Lai; Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Yanbiao Gan; Yangjun Ying; Sauro Succi
2015-07-04T23:59:59.000Z
A discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) is developed to investigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in compressible flows. Compressibility effects are investigated by inspecting the interplay between thermodynamic and hydrodynamic non-equilibrium manifestations (TNE, HNE, respectively) and their impact on the dynamics of the bubble and the spike at the interface between the heavy and the light fluid. To this purpose, two effective approaches are presented, one tracking the \\emph{local} TNE manifestations and the other focussing on the mean temperature of the flow. Both compressibility effect and the \\emph{global} TNE intensity show different trends in the initial and the later stages of the instability. Compressibility is found to retard the initial stage of the RTI and accelerate the later one. It is also found that TNE effects are generally enhanced by compressibility, especially in the later stage of the instability.
Bledsoe, Brian
The Nature Conservancy, Fort Collins, Colorado USA ABSTRACT Dams and water diversions can dramatically alter the hydraulic habitats of stream ecosystems. Predicting how water depth and velocity respond to flow alteration is possible using hydraulic models, such as Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM); however, such models
A new general model with non-spherical interactions for dense polymer systems and a
Heermann, Dieter W.
parametrization for Bisphenol-A-Polycarbonate Klaus M. Zimmer, Andreas Linke and Dieter W. Heermann Institut fur modeling of the monomer units. We apply the model to the special case of Bisphenol-A-Polycarbonate BPA on the thermodynamic properties of polycarbonate systems. We will also present properties and e ciency considerations
Wind waves in shallow microtidal basins and the dynamic equilibrium of tidal flats
Fagherazzi, Sergio
resuspension by wind waves and is applied to the Venice lagoon, Italy. Model results show that the equilibrium becomes emergent, the inundation period decreases, so that less sediment deposits leading to a reduction
Lisal, Martin
Mesoscale simulation of polymer reaction equilibrium: Combining dissipative particle dynamics a mesoscale simulation technique, called the reaction ensemble dissipative particle dynamics RxDPD method. Coarse-grained, particle- based mesoscale models that retain only the most essential features
Equilibrium and Media of Exchange in a Convex Trading Post Economy With Transaction Costs
Starr, Ross M.
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
that the existence of money poses to the theorist is this:equilibrium. The trading post model endogenously generates aExchange in a Convex Trading Post Economy with Transaction
Competing mechanisms of chiral symmetry breaking in a generalized Gross-Neveu model
Boehmer, Christian; Thies, Michael [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)
2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Chiral symmetry of the 2-dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model is broken explicitly by a bare mass term as well as a splitting of scalar and pseudoscalar coupling constants. The vacuum and light hadrons--mesons and baryons which become massless in the chiral limit--are explored analytically in leading order of the derivative expansion by means of a double sine-Gordon equation. Depending on the parameters, this model features new phenomena as compared to previously investigated 4-fermion models: spontaneous breaking of parity, a nontrivial chiral vacuum angle, twisted kinklike baryons whose baryon number reflects the vacuum angle, crystals with alternating baryons, and appearance of a false vacuum.
Superconformal generalization of the chaotic inflation model ?/4?{sup 4} - ?/2?{sup 2}R
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei, E-mail: kallosh@stanford.edu, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
A model of chaotic inflation based on the theory of a scalar field with potential ??{sup 4} perfectly matches the observational data if one adds to it a tiny non-minimal coupling to gravity -?/2?{sup 2} R with ??>0.002. We describe embedding of this model into the superconformal theory with spontaneous breaking of superconformal symmetry, and into supergravity. A model with small ? is technically natural: setting the small parameter ? to zero leads to a point of enhanced symmetry in the underlying superconformal theory.
AMMONIA AS A TRACER OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM IN THE T7.5 DWARF GLIESE 570D D. Saumon,1
AMMONIA AS A TRACER OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM IN THE T7.5 DWARF GLIESE 570D D. Saumon,1 M. S. Marley March 15; accepted 2006 April 25 ABSTRACT We present the first analysis of an optical to mid order of magnitude from the value obtained with chemical-equilibrium models. We model departures from
A generalized nutrition model for Odocoileus deer and its application in a natural environment
Applegath, Matthew Thomas
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A model of protein and energy balance was created for Odocoileus deer [white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (O. hemionus), and black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus, O. h. sitkensis)] capable of predicting changes in body weight...
OLAF _ A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air
Fliege, Jörg
........................17 3.1.1The Standard Model ....................17 3.1.2Metabolism.1.2The Objective Function ..................40 5.1.3The Gradient of the Objective Function
Self-repelling fractional Brownian motion - a generalized Edwards model for chain polymers
Jinky Bornales; Maria Joăo Oliveira; Ludwig Streit
2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present an extension of the Edwards model for conformations of individual chain molecules in solvents in terms of fractional Brownian motion, and discuss the excluded volume effect on the end-to-end length of such trajectories or molecules.
Re-analysis of deep excavation collapse using a generalized effective stress soil model
Corral Jofré, Gonzalo Andrés
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis re-analyzes the well-documented failure of a 30m deep braced excavation underconsolidated marine clay. Prior analyses of the collapse of the Nicoll Highway have relied on simplified soil models with undrained ...
A general model of resource production and exchange in systems of interdependent specialists.
Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Breen, Peter; Kuypers, Marshall; Norton, Matthew David; Quach, Tu-Thach; Antognoli, Matthew; Mitchell, Michael David
2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Infrastructures are networks of dynamically interacting systems designed for the flow of information, energy, and materials. Under certain circumstances, disturbances from a targeted attack or natural disasters can cause cascading failures within and between infrastructures that result in significant service losses and long recovery times. Reliable interdependency models that can capture such multi-network cascading do not exist. The research reported here has extended Sandia's infrastructure modeling capabilities by: (1) addressing interdependencies among networks, (2) incorporating adaptive behavioral models into the network models, and (3) providing mechanisms for evaluating vulnerability to targeted attack and unforeseen disruptions. We have applied these capabilities to evaluate the robustness of various systems, and to identify factors that control the scale and duration of disruption. This capability lays the foundation for developing advanced system security solutions that encompass both external shocks and internal dynamics.
Enabling Differentiated Services Using Generalized Power Control Model in Optical Networks
Zhu, Quanyan
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper considers a generalized framework to study OSNR optimization-based end-to-end link level power control problems in optical networks. We combine favorable features of game-theoretical approach and central cost approach to allow different service groups within the network. We develop solutions concepts for both cases of empty and nonempty feasible sets. In addition, we derive and prove the convergence of a distributed iterative algorithm for different classes of users. In the end, we use numerical examples to illustrate the novel framework.
General calculation model for reflection and transmission matrices of nanowire end facets
Svendsen, Guro K; Skaar, Johannes
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nanowires show a large potential for various electrooptical devices, such as light emitting diodes, solar cells and nanowire lasers. We present a direct method developed to calculate the modal reflection and transmission matrix at the end facets of a waveguide of arbitrary cross section, resulting in a generalized version of the Fresnel equations. The reflection can be conveniently computed using Fast Fourier Transforms. We demonstrate that the reflection is qualitatively described by two main parameters, the modal field confinement and the average Fresnel reflection of the plane waves constituting the waveguide mode.
Pasta Nucleosynthesis: Molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear statistical equilibrium
M. E. Caplan; A. S. Schneider; C. J. Horowitz; D. K. Berry
2014-12-29T23:59:59.000Z
Background: Exotic non-spherical nuclear pasta shapes are expected in nuclear matter at just below saturation density because of competition between short range nuclear attraction and long range Coulomb repulsion. Purpose: We explore the impact of nuclear pasta on nucleosynthesis, during neutron star mergers, as cold dense nuclear matter is ejected and decompressed. Methods: We perform classical molecular dynamics simulations with 51200 and 409600 nucleons, that are run on GPUs. We expand our simulation region to decompress systems from an initial density of 0.080 fm^{-3} down to 0.00125 fm^{-3}. We study proton fractions of Y_P=0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40 at T =0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 MeV. We calculate the composition of the resulting systems using a cluster algorithm. Results: We find final compositions that are in good agreement with nuclear statistical equilibrium models for temperatures of 0.75 and 1 MeV. However, for proton fractions greater than Y_P=0.2 at a temperature of T = 0.5 MeV, the MD simulations produce non-equilibrium results with large rod-like nuclei. Conclusions: Our MD model is valid at higher densities than simple nuclear statistical equilibrium models and may help determine the initial temperatures and proton fractions of matter ejected in mergers.
Cloud/Aerosol Parameterizations: Application and Improvement of General Circulation Models
Penner, Joyce
2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
One of the biggest uncertainties associated with climate models and climate forcing is the treatment of aerosols and their effects on clouds. The effect of aerosols on clouds can be divided into two components: The first indirect effect is the forcing associated with increases in droplet concentrations; the second indirect effect is the forcing associated with changes in liquid water path, cloud morphology, and cloud lifetime. Both are highly uncertain. This project applied a cloud-resolving model to understand the response of clouds under a variety of conditions to changes in aerosols. These responses are categorized according to the large-scale meteorological conditions that lead to the response. Meteorological conditions were sampled from various fields, which, together with a global aerosol model determination of the change in aerosols from present day to pre-industrial conditions, was used to determine a first order estimate of the response of global cloud fields to changes in aerosols. The response of the clouds in the NCAR CAM3 GCM coupled to our global aerosol model were tested by examining whether the response is similar to that of the cloud resolving model and methods for improving the representation of clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions were examined.
Razzaghi, N
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a phenomenological model of the Dirac neutrino mass matrix based on the Fridberg-Lee neutrino mass model at a special point. In this case, the Fridberg-Lee model reduces to the Democratic mass matrix with the $S_3$ permutation family symmetry. The Democratic mass matrix has an experimentally unfavored degenerate mass spectrum on the base of tribimaximal mixing matrix. We rescue the model to find a nondegenerate mass spectrum by adding the breaking mass term as preserving the twisted Fridberg-Lee symmetry. The tribimaximal mixing matrix can be also realized. Exact tribimaximal mixing leads to $\\theta_{13}=0$. However, the results from Daya Bay and RENO experiments have established a nonzero value for $\\theta_{13}$. Keeping the leading behavior of $U$ as tribimaximal, we use Broken Democratic neutrino mass model. We characterize a perturbation mass matrix which is responsible for a nonzero $\\theta_{13}$ along with CP violation, besides the solar neutrino mass splitting has been resulted from it. We c...
A general approach to develop reduced order models for simulation of solid oxide fuel cell stacks
Pan, Wenxiao; Bao, Jie; Lo, Chaomei; Lai, Canhai; Agarwal, Khushbu; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.
2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
A reduced order modeling approach based on response surface techniques was developed for solid oxide fuel cell stacks. This approach creates a numerical model that can quickly compute desired performance variables of interest for a stack based on its input parameter set. The approach carefully samples the multidimensional design space based on the input parameter ranges, evaluates a detailed stack model at each of the sampled points, and performs regression for selected performance variables of interest to determine the responsive surfaces. After error analysis to ensure that sufficient accuracy is established for the response surfaces, they are then implemented in a calculator module for system-level studies. The benefit of this modeling approach is that it is sufficiently fast for integration with system modeling software and simulation of fuel cell-based power systems while still providing high fidelity information about the internal distributions of key variables. This paper describes the sampling, regression, sensitivity, error, and principal component analyses to identify the applicable methods for simulating a planar fuel cell stack.
Problems on Non-Equilibrium Statistical Physics
Kim, Moochan
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
Four problems in non-equilibrium statistical physics are investigated: 1. The thermodynamics of single-photon gas; 2. Energy of the ground state in Multi-electron atoms; 3. Energy state of the H2 molecule; and 4. The ...
EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION ITERATION FLOW-CHART
EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION ITERATION FLOW-CHART SUME AND 0 n GET 1 AND C0 j GET J1 AND 1 n GET 2 the total stored (kinetic + magnetic) energy density #12;TYPICAL FIELD CONFIGURATIONS acuum Field Low Beta
Punctuated Equilibrium Theory: Methodological and Theoretical Extensions
Flink, Carla Michelle
2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this dissertation is to add to the understanding of budgetary processes and changes in public organizations. Work in this field has relied upon the theory of incrementalism and punctuated equilibrium theory as explanations...
Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT Lab. for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others
1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
A long standing problem in molecular biology is to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein, given its amino acid sequence. A variety of simplifying models have been proposed abstracting only the {open_quotes}essential physical properties{close_quotes} of real proteins. In these models, the three dimensional space is often represented by a lattice. Residues which are adjacent in the primary sequence (i.e. covalently linked) must be placed at adjacent points in the lattice. A conformation of a protein is simply a self-avoiding walk along the lattice. The protein folding problem STRING-FOLD is that of finding a conformation of the protein sequence on the lattice such that the overall energy is minimized, for some reasonable definition of energy. This formulation leaves open the choices of a lattice and an energy function. Once these choices are made, one may then address the algorithmic complexity of optimizing the energy function for the lattice. For a variety of such simple models, this minimization problem is in fact NP-hard. In this paper, we consider the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) Model introduced by Dill. The HP model abstracts the problem by grouping the 20 amino acids into two classes: hydrophobic (or non-polar) residues and hydrophilic (or polar) residues. For concreteness, we will take our input to be a string from (H,P){sup +}, where P represents polar residues, and H represents hydrophobic residues. Dill et.al. survey the literature analyzing this model. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Equilibrium Value Method for the Proof of QIP=PSPACE
Xiaodi Wu
2011-03-12T23:59:59.000Z
We provide an alternative proof of \\class{QIP}=\\class{PSPACE} to the recent breakthrough result. Unlike solving some semidefinite programs that captures the computational power of quantum interactive proofs, our method starts with one \\class{QIP}-Complete problem which computes the diamond norm between two admissible quantum channels. The key observation is that we can convert the computation of the diamond norm into the computation of some equilibrium value. The later problem, different from the former semidefinite programs, is of better form, easier to solve and could be interesting for its own sake. The multiplicative weight update method is also applied to solve the equilibrium value problem, however, in a relatively simpler way than the one in the original proof. As a direct byproduct, we also provide a NC algorithm to compute the diamond norm of a class of quantum channels. Furthermore, we provide a generalized form of equilibrium value problems that can be solved in the same way as well as comparisons to semidefinite programs.
Factored Language Models and Generalized Parallel Backoff Jeff A. Bilmes Katrin Kirchhoff
Washington at Seattle, University of
model, a word is viewed as a vec- tor of k factors, so that wt {f1 t , f2 t , . . . , fK t }. Fac- tors. An FLM is a model over factors, i.e., p(f1:K t |f1:K t-1:t-n), that can be factored as a product of probabilities of the form p(f|f1, f2, . . . , fN ). Our task is twofold: 1) find an appropriate set of factors
Richard P. Sear
2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
Models without an explicit time dependence, called singular models, are widely used for fitting the distribution of temperatures at which water droplets freeze. In 1950 Levine developed the original singular model. His key assumption was that each droplet contained many nucleation sites, and that freezing occurred due to the nucleation site with the highest freezing temperature. The fact that freezing occurs due to the maximum value out of large number of nucleation temperatures, means that we can apply the results of what is called extreme-value statistics. This is the statistics of the extreme, i.e., maximum or minimum, value of a large number of random variables. Here we use the results of extreme-value statistics to show that we can generalise Levine's model to produce the most general singular model possible. We show that when a singular model is a good approximation, the distribution of freezing temperatures should always be given by what is called the generalised extreme-value distribution. In addition, we also show that the distribution of freezing temperatures for droplets of onesize, can be used to make predictions for the scaling of the median nucleation temperature with droplet size, and vice versa.
NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-16 A GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL FOR LAKES
Stability 4.5 Energy Conservation PRELIMINARY RESULTS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES of prognostic variables. Vertically integrated transport function under the south- westerly wind. Time evolution of the kinetic energy in the Lake Ontario model; (a) Total kinetic energy, (b) Kinetic energy of the barorropic
Sanandaji, Borhan M.
Ancillary Service He Hao, Borhan M. Sanandaji, Kameshwar Poolla, and Tyrone L. Vincent Abstract for providing various ancillary services to the grid. In this work, we study aggregate modeling, and uncontrollability of renewable resources. To ensure the func- tionality and reliability of the grid, more ancillary
Negative specific heat in a quasi-2D generalized vorticity model T. D. Andersen
Lim, Chjan C.
) model for the unbounded plane under strong magnetic confinement. We derive the specific heat using, this results in a runaway reaction leading to a collapse of the cluster. In a magnetic fusion system or other- found implications for fusion where extreme confinement is critical to a sustained reaction
A Generalized Cohesive Zone Model of Peel Test for Pressure Sensitive Adhesives
Zhang, Liang
2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
study, the mechanics of the peel test is analyzed based on a cohesive zone model. Cohesive failure is assumed to prevail in the vicinity of the peel front, that is, the adhesive fails not by debonding from the adherends but by splitting of the adhesive...
Separating expansion from contraction: generalized TOV condition, LTB models with pressure and CDM
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de
, we adopt the Generalised PainlevĂ©-Gullstrand (hereafter GPG) formalism used in Lasky & Lun [6], which TO LTB MODELS IN GPG SYSTEM We consider a spherically symmetric Generalised LemaĂ®tre-Tolman-Bondi metric to include pressure. Performing an ADM 3+1 splitting in the GPG coordinates [6] , the metric reads ds2 = -(t
Finite-temperature properties of the generalized Falicov-Kimball model S. El Shawish,1
Bonča, Janez
Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA Received 4 July 2003; published 18 November 2003 in intermediate valence com- pounds. A renewed interest in this model started when Por- tengen et al.2 suggested an important role in defining the nature of the low energy spectrum of the ferroelectric state.4 For simplicity
Description of FLIPSIM V: a General Firm Level Policy Simulation Model.
Richardson, James W.; Nixon, Clair J.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
................................................ 25 Subroutine FINAN .. .. ............................ . ................ 26 Subroutine LANDVL ............................................... 26 Subroutine DEPREC .............. . ................................. 27 Subroutine LEASE... the flexibility to lease farm machinery, and (g) adding a quadratic programming algorithm to determine crop mix. The model was .developed to allow analysis of the probable consequences of' alternative farm policies and income tax developments on typical...
Equilibrium temperature anisotropy and black-hole analogues
Daniel K. L. Oi; Jonathan Oppenheim
2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
When long-range interactions are present the usual definition of temperature implies that two systems in thermal equilibrium can be at different temperatures. This local temperature has physical significance, if the sub-systems cease to interact, each system will be at their different local temperatures. This is formally related to redshifting of temperature in general relativity. We propose experiments to test this effect which are feasible using current microfabrication techniques. It is also possible to display thermodynamical analogues to black-hole space-time.
Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime
Razieh Pourhasan
2015-09-03T23:59:59.000Z
We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P = P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.
Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime
Pourhasan, Razieh
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P = P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.
Three-state majority-vote model on square lattice
Lima, F W S
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Here, the model of non-equilibrium model with two states ($-1,+1$) and a noise $q$ on simple square lattices proposed for M.J. Oliveira (1992) following the conjecture of up-down symmetry of Grinstein and colleagues (1985) is studied and generalized. This model is well-known, today, as Majority-Vote Model. They showed, through Monte Carlo simulations, that their obtained results fall into the universality class of the equilibrium Ising model on a square lattice. In this work, we generalize the Majority-Vote Model for a version with three states, now including the zero state, ($-1,0,+1$) in two dimensions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we showed that our model falls into the universality class of the spin-1 ($-1,0,+1$) and spin-1/2 Ising model and also agree with Majority-Vote Model proposed for M.J. Oliveira (1992) . The exponents ratio obtained for our model was $\\gamma/\
James, Stephen M.
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
? Bearings used in component-mode-synthesis model [ ]C ? System damping matrix in Guyan reduction model [ ]cscC ? Transformed casing damping matrix due to seal force on casing [ ]csrC ? Transformed casing damping matrix due to seal force on rotor... ; 1: , 1:ijc i m j n= = ? Damping matrix element [FTL-1] c ; 1:j j = n ? jth casing station CMS ? Component Mode Synthesis rscc ? Damping element entry in rotor due to seal force on casing [FTL-1] [ ]rscC ? Transformed rotor damping...
Quantum systems in a stationary environment out of thermal equilibrium
Bruno Bellomo; Riccardo Messina; Didier Felbacq; Mauro Antezza
2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss how the thermalization of an elementary quantum system is modified when the system is placed in an environment out of thermal equilibrium. To this aim we provide a detailed investigation of the dynamics of an atomic system placed close to a body of arbitrary geometry and dielectric permittivity, whose temperature $T_M$ is different from that of the surrounding walls $T_W$. A suitable master equation for the general case of an $N$-level atom is first derived and then specialized to the cases of a two- and three-level atom. Transition rates and steady states are explicitly expressed as a function of the scattering matrices of the body and become both qualitatively and quantitatively different from the case of radiation at thermal equilibrium. Out of equilibrium, the system steady state depends on the system-body distance, on the geometry of the body and on the interplay of all such parameters with the body optical resonances. While a two-level atom tends toward a thermal state, this is not the case already in the presence of three atomic levels. This peculiar behavior can be exploited, for example, to invert the populations ordering and to provide an efficient cooling mechanism for the internal state of the quantum system. We finally provide numerical studies and asymptotic expressions when the body is a slab of finite thickness. Our predictions can be relevant for a wide class of experimental configurations out of thermal equilibrium involving different physical realizations of two or three-level systems.
Apoferritin-based nanomedicine platform for drug delivery: equilibrium...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
nanomedicine platform for drug delivery: equilibrium binding study of daunomycin with DNA. Apoferritin-based nanomedicine platform for drug delivery: equilibrium binding study...
ISO-SWS calibration and the accurate modelling of cool-star atmospheres - II. General results
L. Decin; B. Vandenbussche; C. Waelkens; K. Eriksson; B. Gustafsson; B. Plez; A. J. Sauval; K. Hinkle
2002-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
The fine calibration of the ISO-SWS detectors (Infrared Space Observatory - Short Wavelength Spectrometer) has proven to be a delicate problem. We therefore present a detailed spectroscopic study in the 2.38 -- 12 micron wavelength range of a sample of 16 A0 -- M2 stars used for the calibration of ISO-SWS. By investigating the discrepancies between the ISO-SWS data of these sources, the theoretical predictions of their spectra, the high-resolution FTS-KP (Kitt Peak) spectrum of Alpha Boo and the solar FTS-ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy) spectrum, both calibration problems and problems in computing the theoretical models and the synthetic spectra are revealed. The underlying reasons for these problems are sought for and the impact on the further calibration of ISO-SWS and on the theoretical modelling is discussed extensively.
Description of FLIPSIM V: a General Firm Level Policy Simulation Model.
Richardson, James W.; Nixon, Clair J.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
-basis taxpayer for federal income purposes, depreciation is calculated for each item in the machinery complement, as well as purchased breeding stock, milk cows, and buildings. For depreciable items purchased before 1981, the model calculates depreciation... using the analyst's specified method. either the double declining balance or the straight line method. Depreciable items placed into service after 1980 and before 1986, are cost recovered using either an accelerated (double declining balance...
Examining the Generalized Waring Model for the Analysis of Traffic Crashes
Peng, Yichuan
2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
Figure 5.19 Sensitivity analysis of covariate ADT for Michigan data ........................ 95 Figure 6.1 Comparison of rankings between NB and GW models ............................. 99 x LIST OF TABLES... sites based on the available information, such as traffic flow and other road geometric variables. They also can be used to investigate specific or significant effects of the variables on the risk of the collision. In addition, the number of 2...
Towards a general analysis of LHC data within two-Higgs-doublet models
Celis, Alejandro; Pich, Antonio
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The data accumulated so far confirm the Higgs-like nature of the new boson discovered at the LHC. The Standard Model Higgs hypothesis is compatible with the collider results and no significant deviations from the Standard Model have been observed neither in the flavour sector nor in electroweak precision observables. We update the LHC and Tevatron constraints on CP-conserving two-Higgs-doublet models without tree-level flavour-changing neutral currents. While the relative sign between the top Yukawa and the gauge coupling of the $126$ GeV Higgs is found be the same as in the SM, at $90%$ CL, there is a sign degeneracy in the determination of its bottom and tau Yukawa couplings. This results in several disjoint allowed regions in the parameter space. We show how generic sum rules governing the scalar couplings determine the properties of the additional Higgs bosons in the different allowed regions. The role of electroweak precision observables, low-energy flavour constraints and LHC searches for additional sca...
Effective Temperature of Non-equilibrium Dense Matter in Holography
Hironori Hoshino; Shin Nakamura
2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
We study properties of effective temperature of non-equilibrium steady states by using the anti-de Sitter spacetime/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. We consider non-equilibrium systems with a constant flow of current along an electric field, in which the current is carried by both the doped charges and those pair created by the electric field. We find that the effective temperature agrees with that of the Langevin systems if we take the limit where the pair creation is negligible. The effect of pair creation raises the effective temperature whereas the current by the doped charges contributes to lower the effective temperature in a wide range of the holographic models.
Goodness-of-Fit Test Issues in Generalized Linear Mixed Models
Chen, Nai-Wei
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
checking of Case 1 for (1)ZSm and (2)cS tran m . . . 58 13 Results of the type I error rate of Sm by using local polynomial smoothed residuals are computed based on the scaled chi-squared distribution cSm...-cluster interaction term of fixed effects between two con- tinuous covariates when the alternative model (4.6) is assumed. . . . 64 17 Results of controlling type I error rate of Sm by using local poly- nomial smoothed residuals are computed based on cSm when...
An Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox...
The REACT speciation model was coupled with the multidimensional nonisothermal multiphase flow and mass transport code TOUGH2, resulting in the general purpose reactive...
Renormalization of lattice-regularized quantum gravity models I. General considerations
Joshua H. Cooperman
2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
Lattice regularization is a standard technique for the nonperturbative definition of a quantum theory of fields. Several approaches to the construction of a quantum theory of gravity adopt this technique either explicitly or implicitly. A crucial complement to lattice regularization is the process of renormalization through which a continuous description of the quantum theory arises. I provide a comprehensive conceptual discussion of the renormalization of lattice-regularized quantum gravity models. I begin with a presentation of the renormalization group from the Wilsonian perspective. I then consider the application of the renormalization group in four contexts: quantum field theory on a continuous nondynamical spacetime, quantum field theory on a lattice-regularized nondynamical spacetime, quantum field theory of continuous dynamical spacetime, and quantum field theory of lattice-regularized dynamical spacetime. The first three contexts serve to identify successively the particular issues that arise in the fourth context. These issues originate in the inescability of establishing all scales solely on the basis of the dynamics. While most of this discussion rehearses established knowledge, the attention that I pay to these issues, especially the previously underappreciated role of standard units of measure, is largely novel. I conclude by briefly reviewing past studies of renormalization of lattice-regularized quantum gravity models. In the second paper of this two-part series, I illustrate the ideas presented here by proposing a renormalization group scheme for causal dynamical triangulations.
Walter Del Pozzo; John Veitch; Alberto Vecchio
2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
Second generation interferometric gravitational wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, are expected to begin operation by 2015. Such instruments plan to reach sensitivities that will offer the unique possibility to test General Relativity in the dynamical, strong field regime and investigate departures from its predictions, in particular using the signal from coalescing binary systems. We introduce a statistical framework based on Bayesian model selection in which the Bayes factor between two competing hypotheses measures which theory is favored by the data. Probability density functions of the model parameters are then used to quantify the inference on individual parameters. We also develop a method to combine the information coming from multiple independent observations of gravitational waves, and show how much stronger inference could be. As an introduction and illustration of this framework - and a practical numerical implementation through the Monte Carlo integration technique of nested sampling - we apply it to gravitational waves from the inspiral phase of coalescing binary systems as predicted by General Relativity and a very simple alternative theory in which the graviton has a non-zero mass. This method can trivially (and should) be extended to more realistic and physically motivated theories.
Truong, Thanh N.
A general methodology for quantum modeling of free-energy profile of reactions in solution methodology for calculating free-energy profile of reaction in solution using quantum mechanical methods screening model GCOSMO was employed in this study, though any continuum model with existing free-energy
A non-equilibrium potential function to study competition in neural systems
Mejias, Jorge F. [Department of Physics and Centre for Neural Dynamics, University of Ottawa, K1N 6N5 Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)
2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, I overview some novel results concerning the theoretical calculation of a non-equilibrium potential function for a biologically motivated model of a neural network. Such model displays competition between different populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, which is known to originate synchronous dynamics, fast activity oscillations, and other nontrivial behavior in more sophisticated models of neural media.
TMED-4 INTERIM REPORT PURE ZR EQUILIBRIUM TEST RESULTS
Korinko, P.; Morgan, G.
2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
Due to higher than expected permeation rates in the production of tritium in the TVA, a development and testing program was implemented to develop the understanding of why the higher rates were occurring. In addition, improved data are needed for both the design as well as the predictive models. One part of the program was to determine the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen and tritium over NPZ (1). During the course of this testing, some curious results were discovered (2) compared to the published literature data (3). Due to these apparently results, a follow-on task was undertaken to determine the equilibrium pressure of protium and deuterium over pure zirconium. A series of experiments were conducted to determine equilibrium pressures and isotherm data for the zirconium - protium and zirconium - deuterium systems. The data match the published literature data reasonably well with the plateau extending to loadings of about 1.4. There is a significant pressure rise for loadings greater than 1.7.
Isodynamic axisymmetric equilibrium near the magnetic axis
Arsenin, V. V., E-mail: arsenin@nfi.kiae.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Plasma equilibrium near the magnetic axis of an axisymmetric toroidal magnetic confinement system is described in orthogonal flux coordinates. For the case of a constant current density in the vicinity of the axis and magnetic surfaces with nearly circular cross sections, expressions for the poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components are obtained in these coordinates by using expansion in the reciprocal of the aspect ratio. These expressions allow one to easily derive relationships between quantities in an isodynamic equilibrium, in which the absolute value of the magnetic field is constant along the magnetic surface (Palumbo’s configuration)
M. Wakamatsu; H. Tsujimoto
2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z
The theoretical predictions are given for the forward limit of the unpolarized spin-flip isovector generalized parton distribution function $(E^u - E^d)(x, \\xi, t)$ within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model, with full inclusion of the polarization of Dirac sea quarks. We observe that $[(H^u - H^d) + (E^u - E^d)](x,0,0)$ has a sharp peak around $x=0$, which we interpret as a signal of the importance of the pionic $q \\bar{q}$ excitation with large spatial extension in the transverse direction. Another interesting indication given by the predicted distribution in combination with Ji's angular momentum sum rule is that the $\\bar{d}$-quark carries more angular momentum than the $\\bar{u}$-quark in the proton, which may have some relation with the physics of the violation of the Gottfried sum rule.
Neoclassical toroidal viscosity in perturbed equilibria with general tokamak geometry
Logan, Nikolas C.; Park, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Kimin; Wang, Zhirui [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Berkery, John W. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a calculation of neoclassical toroidal viscous torque independent of large-aspect-ratio expansions across kinetic regimes. The Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) code was developed for this purpose, and is compared to previous combined regime models as well as regime specific limits and a drift kinetic ?f guiding center code. It is shown that retaining general expressions, without circular large-aspect-ratio or other orbit approximations, can be important at experimentally relevant aspect ratio and shaping. The superbanana plateau, a kinetic resonance effect recently recognized for its relevance to ITER, is recovered by the PENT calculations and shown to require highly accurate treatment of geometric effects.
An Equilibrium Balance of the Universe
Ernst Fischer
2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z
An alternative cosmological model is presented, which avoids the requirement of dark energy and dark matter. Based on the proposition that energy conservation should be valid not only locally but also globally, the energy tensor of general relativity has to be corrected, including potential energy of matter explicitly. This leads to the consequence that a homogeneous universe must be static, as potential energy acts as a field with negative pressure. In this static universe cosmological red shift can be understood as energy loss by gravitational radiation. There exists a continuous matter cycle, beginning from hot intergalactic plasma, which is replenished by the jets of quasars, the formation of large web-like structures, the formation of galaxies and stars, to the final collapse into quasars again. The model is confirmed qualitatively by the observed size distribution of cosmic structures. Quantitative confirmation is obtained from the diffuse x-ray background and from observations of supernovas. As the total energy content of the universe (trace of the energy tensor) is zero in this model, creation ex nihilo is possible, but requires changes of our elementary particle models. An idea of a modified model is presented.
Holanda, R.F.L.; Lima, J.A.S. [Departamento de Astronomia (IAGUSP), Universidade de Săo Paulo, Rua do Matăo 1226, 05508-900, Săo Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cunha, J.V. [Centro de Cięncias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adélia 166, 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Marassi, L., E-mail: holanda@astro.iag.usp.br, E-mail: jvcunha@ufpa.br, E-mail: luciomarassi@ect.ufrn.br, E-mail: limajas@astro.iag.usp.br [Escola de Cięncia e Tecnologia, UFRN, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil)
2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
In accelerating dark energy models, the estimates of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0}, from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and X-ray surface brightness of galaxy clusters may depend on the matter content (?{sub M}), the curvature (?{sub K}) and the equation of state parameter (?). In this article, by using a sample of 25 angular diameter distances of galaxy clusters described by the elliptical ? model obtained through the SZE/X-ray technique, we constrain H{sub 0} in the framework of a general ?CDM model (arbitrary curvature) and a flat XCDM model with a constant equation of state parameter ? = p{sub x}/?{sub x}. In order to avoid the use of priors in the cosmological parameters, we apply a joint analysis involving the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the CMB Shift Parameter signature. By taking into account the statistical and systematic errors of the SZE/X-ray technique we obtain for nonflat ?CDM model H{sub 0} = 74{sup +5.0}{sub ?4.0} km s{sup ?1} Mpc{sup ?1}(1?) whereas for a flat universe with constant equation of state parameter we find H{sub 0} = 72{sup +5.5}{sub ?4.0} km s{sup ?1} Mpc{sup ?1}(1?). By assuming that galaxy clusters are described by a spherical ? model these results change to H{sub 0} = 62{sup +8.0}{sub ?7.0} and H{sub 0} = 59{sup +9.0}{sub ?6.0} km s{sup ?1} Mpc{sup ?1}(1?), respectively. The results from elliptical description are in good agreement with independent studies from the Hubble Space Telescope key project and recent estimates based on the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, thereby suggesting that the combination of these three independent phenomena provides an interesting method to constrain the Hubble constant. As an extra bonus, the adoption of the elliptical description is revealed to be a quite realistic assumption. Finally, by comparing these results with a recent determination for a flat ?CDM model using only the SZE/X-ray technique and BAO, we see that the geometry has a very weak influence on H{sub 0} estimates for this combination of data.
Chapter 8. Spontaneous Processes and Thermodynamic Equilibrium
Ihee, Hyotcherl
to drive that cycle · Carnot's conclusion: There is no device that can transfer heat from a colder of Thermodynamics · The efficiency: the ratio of work accomplished by the engine in a cycle to the heat invested equilibrium states i and j. 2. Select any convenient reversible path between them along which dqrev
Chantal Valeriani; Rosalind J. Allen; Marco J. Morelli; Daan Frenkel; Pieter Rein ten Wolde
2009-07-03T23:59:59.000Z
We present a method for computing stationary distributions for activated processes in equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems using Forward Flux Sampling (FFS). In this method, the stationary distributions are obtained directly from the rate constant calculations for the forward and backward reactions; there is no need to perform separate calculations for the stationary distribution and the rate constant. We apply the method to the non-equilibrium rare event problem proposed by Maier and Stein, to nucleation in a 2-dimensional Ising system, and to the flipping of a genetic switch.
Relation of classical non-equilibrium dynamics and quantum annealing
Hidetosni Nishimori
2015-03-07T23:59:59.000Z
Non-equilibrium dynamics of the Ising model is a classical stochastic process whereas quantum mechanics has no stochastic elements in the classical sense. Nevertheless, it has been known that there exists a close formal relationship between these two processes. We reformulate this relationship and use it to compare the efficiency of simulated annealing that uses classical stochastic processes and quantum annealing to solve combinatorial optimization problems. It is shown that classical dynamics can be efficiently simulated by quantum-mechanical processes whereas the converse is not necessarily true. This may imply that quantum annealing may be regarded as a more powerful tool than simulated annealing for optimization problems.
Non-equilibrium sedimentation of colloids on the particle scale
C. Patrick Royall; Joachim Dzubiella; Matthias Schmidt; Alfons van Blaaderen
2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate sedimentation of model hard sphere-like colloidal dispersions confined in horizontal capillaries using laser scanning confocal microscopy, dynamical density functional theory, and Brownian dynamics computer simulations. For homogenized initial states we obtain quantitative agreement of the results from the respective approaches for the time evolution of the one-body density distribution and the osmotic pressure on the walls. We demonstrate that single particle information can be obtained experimentally in systems that were initialized further out-of-equilibrium such that complex lateral patterns form.
Behavior of fluidized beds similar to equilibrium states
Kengo Ichiki; Hisao Hayakawa
1997-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
Systematic simulations are carried out based on the model of fluidized beds proposed by the present authors [K.Ichiki and H.Hayakawa, Phys. Rev. E vol.52, 658 (1995)]. From our simulation, we confirm that fluidization is a continuous transition. We also confirm the existence of two types of fluidized phases, the channeling phase and the bubbling phase. We find the close relations between the averaged behaviors in fluidized beds and quasi equilibrium states in dense liquids. In fluidized beds, (i) the flow rate plays the role of the effective temperature, and (ii) the existence of a kind of the fluctuation-dissipation relation is suggested.
Boltzmann-Shannon Entropy: Generalization and Application
C. G. Chakrabarti; Indranil Chakrabarty
2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
The paper deals with the generalization of both Boltzmann entropy and distribution in the light of most-probable interpretation of statistical equilibrium. The statistical analysis of the generalized entropy and distribution leads to some new interesting results of significant physical importance.
Zalucha, Angela
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a 3D general circulation model of Pluto and Triton's atmospheres, which uses radiative-conductive-convective forcing. In both the Pluto and Triton models, an easterly (prograde) jet is present at the equator with a maximum magnitude of 10-12 m/s and 4 m/s, respectively. Neither atmosphere shows any significant overturning circulation in the meridional and vertical directions. Rather, it is horizontal motions (mean circulation and transient waves) that transport heat meridionally at a magnitude of 1 and 3 x 10^7 W at Pluto's autumn equinox and winter solstice, respectively (seasons referenced to the Northern Hemisphere). The meridional and dayside-nightside temperature contrast is small (<5 K). We find that the lack of vertical motion can be explained on Pluto by the strong temperature inversion in the lower atmosphere. The height of the Voyager 2 plumes on Triton can be explained by the dynamical properties of the lower atmosphere alone (i.e., strong wind shear) and does not require a thermally ...
Heinemann, Detlev
IDENTIFICATION OF A GENERAL MODEL FOR THE MPP PERFORMANCE OF PV-MODULES FOR THE APPLICATION. ABSTRACT: To assure the maximal energy yield of grid connected PV systems, system faults have of this model for the application to grid connected PV systems using cSi, aSi and CIS modules is demonstrated. 1
José Alfredo Cańizo
2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
Under the condition of detailed balance and some additional restrictions on the size of the coefficients, we identify the equilibrium distribution to which solutions of the discrete coagulation-fragmentation system of equations converge for large times, thus showing that there is a critical mass which marks a change in the behavior of the solutions. This was previously known only for particular cases as the generalized Becker-D\\"oring equations. Our proof is based on an inequality between the entropy and the entropy production which also gives some information on the rate of convergence to equilibrium for solutions under the critical mass.
Nash equilibrium and evolutionary dynamics in semifinalists' dilemma
Baek, Seung Ki; Jeong, Hyeong-Chai
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a tournament among four equally strong semifinalists. The players have to decide how much stamina to use in the semifinals, provided that the rest is available in the final and the third-place playoff. We investigate optimal strategies for allocating stamina to the successive matches when players' prizes (payoffs) are given according to the tournament results. From the basic assumption that the probability to win a match follows a nondecreasing function of stamina difference, we present symmetric Nash equilibria for general payoff structures. We find three different phases of the Nash equilibria in the payoff space. First, when the champion wins a much bigger payoff than the others, any pure strategy can constitute a Nash equilibrium as long as all four players adopt it in common. Second, when the first two places are much more valuable than the other two, the only Nash equilibrium is such that everyone uses a pure strategy investing all stamina in the semifinal. Third, when the payoff for last pl...
Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol
Batista, E.; Monnerat, S.; Stragevitch, L.; Pina, C.G.; Goncalves, C.B.; Meirelles, A.J.A.
1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Group interaction parameters for the UNIFAC and ASOG models were specially adjusted for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20 to 45 C. Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for systems of triolein, oleic acid, and ethanol and of triolein, stearic acid, and ethanol were measured and utilized in the adjustment. The average percent deviation between experimental and calculated compositions was 0.79% and 0.52% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol was quite successful, with an average deviation of 1.31% and 1.32% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively.
T. P. Shestakova
2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
Among theoretical issues in General Relativity the problem of constructing its Hamiltonian formulation is still of interest. The most of attempts to quantize Gravity are based upon Dirac generalization of Hamiltonian dynamics for system with constraints. At the same time there exists another way to formulate Hamiltonian dynamics for constrained systems guided by the idea of extended phase space. We have already considered some features of this approach in the previous MG12 Meeting by the example of a simple isotropic model. Now we apply the approach to a generalized spherically symmetric model which imitates the structure of General Relativity much better. In particular, making use of a global BRST symmetry and the Noether theorem, we construct the BRST charge that generates correct gauge transformations for all gravitational degrees of freedom.
Atomic loss and gain as a resource for non-equilibrium phase transitions in optical lattices
Everest, Ben; Lesanovsky, Igor
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recent breakthroughs in the experimental manipulation of strongly interacting atomic Rydberg gases in lattice potentials have opened a new avenue for the study of many-body phenomena. Considerable efforts are currently being undertaken to achieve clean experimental settings that show a minimal amount of noise and disorder and are close to zero temperature. A complementary direction investigates the interplay between coherent and dissipative processes. Recent experiments have revealed a first glimpse into the emergence of a rich non-equilibrium behavior stemming from the competition of laser excitation, strong interactions and radiative decay of Rydberg atoms. The aim of the present theoretical work is to show that local incoherent loss and gain of atoms can in fact be the source of interesting out-of-equilibrium dynamics. This perspective opens new paths for the exploration of non-equilibrium critical phenomena and, more generally, phase transitions, some of which so far have been rather difficult to study. T...
The nuclear fusion reaction rate based on relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution
Jian-Miin Liu
2002-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
The Coulomb barrier is in general much higher than thermal energy. Nuclear fusion reactions occur only among few protons and nuclei with higher relative energies than Coulomb barrier. It is the equilibrium velocity distribution of these high-energy protons and nuclei that participates in determining the rate of nuclear fusion reactions. In the circumstance it is inappropriate to use the Maxwellian velocity distribution for calculating the nuclear fusion reaction rate. We use the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for this purpose. The rate based on the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution has a reduction factor with respect to that based on the Maxwellian distribution, which factor depends on the temperature, reduced mass and atomic numbers of the studied nuclear fusion reactions. This signifies much to the solar neutrino problem.
Mériaux, François; Lasaulce, Samson; Kieffer, Michel
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Frequency non-selective time-selective multiple access channels in which transmitters can freely choose their power control policy are considered. The individual objective of the transmitters is to maximize their averaged energy-efficiency. For this purpose, a transmitter has to choose a power control policy that is, a sequence of power levels adapted to the channel variations. This problem can be formulated as a stochastic game with discounting for which there exists a theorem characterizing all the equilibrium utilities (equilibrium utility region). As in its general formulation, this theorem relies on global channel state information (CSI), it is shown that some points of the utility region can be reached with individual CSI. Interestingly, time-sharing based solutions, which are usually considered for centralized policies, appear to be part of the equilibrium solutions. This analysis is illustrated by numerical results providing further insights to the problem under investigation.
ON MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FORMATION AND THE MAGNETOHYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM OF SUNSPOTS
Jaeggli, S. A.; Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Uitenbroek, H. [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)
2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
We have investigated the problem of sunspot magnetohydrostatic equilibrium with comprehensive IR sunspot magnetic field survey observations of the highly sensitive Fe I lines at 15650 A and nearby OH lines. We have found that some sunspots show isothermal increases in umbral magnetic field strength which cannot be explained by the simplified sunspot model with a single-component ideal gas atmosphere assumed in previous investigations. Large sunspots universally display nonlinear increases in magnetic pressure over temperature, while small sunspots and pores display linear behavior. The formation of molecules provides a mechanism for isothermal concentration of the umbral magnetic field, and we propose that this may explain the observed rapid increase in umbral magnetic field strength relative to temperature. Existing multi-component sunspot atmospheric models predict that a significant amount of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) exists in the sunspot umbra. The formation of H{sub 2} can significantly alter the thermodynamic properties of the sunspot atmosphere and may play a significant role in sunspot evolution. In addition to the survey observations, we have performed detailed chemical equilibrium calculations with full consideration of radiative transfer effects to establish OH as a proxy for H{sub 2}, and demonstrate that a significant population of H{sub 2} exists in the coolest regions of large sunspots.
A probability theory for non-equilibrium gravitational systems
Peńarrubia, Jorge
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper uses dynamical invariants to describe the evolution of collisionless systems subject to time-dependent gravitational forces without resorting to maximum-entropy probabilities. We show that collisionless relaxation can be viewed as a special type of diffusion process in the integral-of-motion space. In time-varying potentials with a fixed spatial symmetry the diffusion coefficients are closely related to virial quantities, such as the specific moment of inertia, the virial factor and the mean kinetic and potential energy of microcanonical particle ensembles. The non-equilibrium distribution function (DF) is found by convolving the initial DF with the Green function that solves Einstein's equation for freely diffusing particles. Such a convolution also yields a natural solution to the Fokker-Planck equations in the energy space. Our mathematical formalism can be generalized to potentials with a time-varying symmetry, where diffusion extends over multiple dimensions of the integral-of-motion space. Th...
Communicated by Michael Jordan Learning Virtual Equilibrium Trajectories for Control
Shadmehr, Reza
Communicated by Michael Jordan Learning Virtual Equilibrium Trajectories for Control of a Robot Arm Institute of Technology #12;Equilibrium Trajectories to Control a Robot Arm 437 the desired state
A definition of thermodynamic entropy valid for non-equilibrium states and few-particle systems
Gian Paolo Beretta; Enzo Zanchini
2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
From a new rigorous formulation of the general axiomatic foundations of thermodynamics we derive an operational definition of entropy that responds to the emergent need in many technological frameworks to understand and deploy thermodynamic entropy well beyond the traditional realm of equilibrium states of macroscopic systems. The new definition is achieved by avoiding to resort to the traditional concepts of "heat" (which restricts $a$ $priori$ the traditional definitions of entropy to the equilibrium domain) and of "thermal reservoir" (which restricts $in$ $practice$ our previous definitions of non-equilibrium entropy to the many-particle domain). The measurement procedure that defines entropy is free from intrinsic limitations and can be applied, $in$ $principle$, even to non-equilibrium states of few-particle systems, provided they are separable and uncorrelated. The construction starts from a previously developed set of carefully worded operational definitions for all the basic concepts. Then, through a new set of fully spelled-out fundamental hypotheses (four postulates and five assumptions) we derive the definitions of energy and entropy of any state, and of temperature of any stable equilibrium state. Finally, we prove the principle of entropy non-decrease, the additivity of entropy differences, the maximum entropy principle, and the impossibility of existence of a thermal reservoir.
Design principles for non-equilibrium self-assembly
Suriyanarayanan Vaikuntanathan
2015-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
We consider an important class of self-assembly problems and using the formalism of stochastic thermodynamics, we derive a set of design principles for growing controlled assemblies far from equilibrium. The design principles constrain the set of structures that can be obtained under non-equilibrium conditions. Our central result provides intuition for how equilibrium self-assembly landscapes are modified under finite non-equilibrium drive.
Energy conservation, counting statistics, and return to equilibrium
Vojkan Jaksic; Jane Panangaden; Annalisa Panati; Claude-Alain Pillet
2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
We study a microscopic Hamiltonian model describing an N-level quantum system S coupled to an infinitely extended thermal reservoir R. Initially, the system S is in an arbitrary state while the reservoir is in thermal equilibrium at temperature T. Assuming that the coupled system S+R is mixing with respect to the joint thermal equilibrium state, we study the Full Counting Statistics (FCS) of the energy transfers S->R and R->S in the process of return to equilibrium. The first FCS describes the increase of the energy of the system S. It is an atomic probability measure, denoted $P_{S,\\lambda,t}$, concentrated on the set of energy differences $\\sigma(H_S)-\\sigma(H_S)$ ($\\sigma(H_S)$ is the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of S, $t$ is the length of the time interval during which the measurement of the energy transfer is performed, and $\\lambda$ is the strength of the interaction between S and R). The second FCS, $P_{R,\\lambda,t}$, describes the decrease of the energy of the reservoir R and is typically a continuous probability measure whose support is the whole real line. We study the large time limit $t\\rightarrow\\infty$ of these two measures followed by the weak coupling limit $\\lambda\\rightarrow 0$ and prove that the limiting measures coincide. This result strengthens the first law of thermodynamics for open quantum systems. The proofs are based on modular theory of operator algebras and on a representation of $P_{R,\\lambda,t}$ by quantum transfer operators.
Stimulated emission with a non-equilibrium state of radiation
L. Accardi; K. Imafuku; S. V. Kozyrev
2001-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
The stimulated emission from an atom interacting with radiation in non-equilibrium state is considered. The stochastic limit, applied to the non-relativistic Hamiltonian describing the interaction, shows that the state of atoms, driven by some non-equilibrium state of the field approaches a stationary state which can continuously emit photon, unlike the case with an equilibrium state.
Non-equilibrium Chemistry in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres
Metchev, Stanimir
Non-equilibrium Chemistry in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres PHY688 Aaron Jackson April 27, 2009 #12 and convection #12;Non-equilibrium Chemistry In the context of Brown Dwarf Atmospheres, the relevant chemical;Outline What is non-equilibrium chemistry in the context of Brown Dwarfs? What is the observational
Non-equilibrium processes in modern semiconductor devices. Spring 2008.
Levi, Anthony F. J.
EE 606 Non-equilibrium processes in modern semiconductor devices. Spring 2008. A. F. J. Levi TTh 11 still use equilibrium or near equilibrium concepts to describe device operation. The purpose of this course is to introduce a more realistic approach to understanding device operation in modern sub
REAL-TIME EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION IN A TOKAMAK
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
REAL-TIME EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION IN A TOKAMAK J. Blum, C. Boulbe and B. Faugeras Laboratoire J reconstruction of the plasma current density in a Tokamak and of its equilibrium. The problem consists equilibrium of a plasma in a Tokamak. The experimental measurements that enable this identification
Facets of the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture Rainer Feldmann
Mavronicolas, Marios
Facets of the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture Rainer Feldmann Marios Mavronicolas Andreas Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture, henceforth abbreviated as the FMNE Conjecture, in selfish routing it Quadratic Maximum Social Cost. A Nash equilibrium is a stable state where no user can improve her (expected
NASH-STAMPACCHIA EQUILIBRIUM POINTS ON MANIFOLDS ALEXANDRU KRISTALY
NASH-STAMPACCHIA EQUILIBRIUM POINTS ON MANIFOLDS ALEXANDRU KRIST´ALY Abstract. Motivated by Nash equilibrium problems on 'curved' strategy sets, the concept of Nash-Stampacchia equilibrium points Riemannian manifolds. Characterization, existence, and stability of Nash- Stampacchia equilibria are studied
A polynomialtime Nash equilibrium algorithm for repeated games #
Littman, Michael L.
A polynomialÂtime Nash equilibrium algorithm for repeated games # Michael L. Littman Dept theoretical and practical interest. The computational complexity of finding a Nash equilibrium for a one a Nash equilibrium for an averageÂpayo# repeated bimatrix game, and presents a polynomialÂtime algorithm
Generalized interaction in multigravity
Duplij, Steven
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A general approach to description of multigravity models in D-dimensional space-time is presented. Different possibilities of generalization of the invariant volume are given. Then a most general form of the interaction potential is constructed, which for bigravity coincides with the Pauli-Fierz model. A thorough analysis of the model along the 3+1 expansion formalism is done. It is shown that the absence of ghosts the considered bigravity model is equivalent in the weak field limit to the massive gravity (the Pauli-Fierz model). Thus, on the concrete example it is shown, that the interaction between metrics leads to nonvanishing mass of graviton.
Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.
NASA's new modeling framework for integrating cloud processes explicitly within each grid column, AND SIMPSON--Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; CHERN--Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, and Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center
Non-equilibrium evolution of a "Tsunami" Dynamical Symmetry Breaking
Boyanovsky, D; Holman, R; Kumar, S P; Pisarski, R D; Boyanovsky, Daniel; Vega, Hector J. de; Holman, Richard; Pisarski, Robert D.
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose to study the non-equilibrium features of heavy-ion collisions by following the evolution of an initial state with a large number of quanta with a distribution around a momentum |\\vec k_0| corresponding to a thin spherical shell in momentum space, a `tsunami'. An O(N); ({\\vec \\Phi}^2)^2 model field theory in the large N limit is used as a framework to study the non-perturbative aspects of the non-equilibrium dynamics including a resummation of the effects of the medium (the initial particle distribution). In a theory where the symmetry is spontaneously broken in the absence of the medium, when the initial number of particles per correlation volume is chosen to be larger than a critical value the medium effects can restore the symmetry of the initial state. We show that if one begins with such a symmetry-restored, non-thermal, initial state, non-perturbative effects automatically induce spinodal instabilities leading to a dynamical breaking of the symmetry. As a result there is explosive particle pro...
Non-equilibrium evolution of a `Tsunami': Dynamical Symmetry Breaking
Daniel Boyanovsky; Hector J. de Vega; Richard Holman; S. Prem Kumar; Robert D. Pisarski
1997-11-06T23:59:59.000Z
We propose to study the non-equilibrium features of heavy-ion collisions by following the evolution of an initial state with a large number of quanta with a distribution around a momentum |\\vec k_0| corresponding to a thin spherical shell in momentum space, a `tsunami'. An O(N); ({\\vec \\Phi}^2)^2 model field theory in the large N limit is used as a framework to study the non-perturbative aspects of the non-equilibrium dynamics including a resummation of the effects of the medium (the initial particle distribution). In a theory where the symmetry is spontaneously broken in the absence of the medium, when the initial number of particles per correlation volume is chosen to be larger than a critical value the medium effects can restore the symmetry of the initial state. We show that if one begins with such a symmetry-restored, non-thermal, initial state, non-perturbative effects automatically induce spinodal instabilities leading to a dynamical breaking of the symmetry. As a result there is explosive particle production and a redistribution of the particles towards low momentum due to the nonlinearity of the dynamics. The asymptotic behavior displays the onset of Bose condensation of pions and the equation of state at long times is that of an ultrarelativistic gas although the momentum distribution is non-thermal.
Adaptive Implicit Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion
Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Wang, Zhen [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel [ORNL; Pernice, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We describe methods for accurate and efficient long term time integra- tion of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion systems: implicit time integration for effi- cient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while control- ling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.
Process for operating equilibrium controlled reactions
Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Carvill, Brian Thomas (Orefield, PA); Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond (Fogelsville, PA); Mayorga, Steven Gerard (Allentown, PA); Gaffney, Thomas Richard (Allentown, PA); Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard (Bethlehem, PA)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A cyclic process for operating an equilibrium controlled reaction in a plurality of reactors containing an admixture of an adsorbent and a reaction catalyst suitable for performing the desired reaction which is operated in a predetermined timed sequence wherein the heating and cooling requirements in a moving reaction mass transfer zone within each reactor are provided by indirect heat exchange with a fluid capable of phase change at temperatures maintained in each reactor during sorpreaction, depressurization, purging and pressurization steps during each process cycle.
Equilibrium-like behavior in far-from-equilibrium chemical reaction networks
David K. Lubensky
2008-07-04T23:59:59.000Z
In an equilibrium chemical reaction mixture, the number of molecules present obeys a Poisson distribution. We ask when the same is true of the steady state of a nonequilibrium reaction network and obtain an essentially complete answer. In particular, we show that networks with certain topological features must have a Poisson distribution, whatever the reaction rates. Such driven systems also obey an analog of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Our results may be relevant to biological systems and to the larger question of how equilibrium concepts might apply to nonequilibrium systems.
A. KHassanova; B. A. Wolf
2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z
Vapor pressures were measured for the system chloroform/polyethylene oxide (peo, weight average molar mass = 1000 kg/mol) at 25 degrees centigrade as a function of the weight fraction w of the polymer by means of a combination of head space sampling and gas chromatography. The establishment of thermodynamic equilibria was assisted by employing thin polymer films. The degrees of crystallinity alpha of the pure peo and of the solid polymer contained in the mixtures were determined via dsc. An analogous degree of polymer insolubility, beta, was calculated from the vapor pressures measured in this composition range. The experiments demonstrate that both quantities and their concentration dependence are markedly affected by the particular mode of film preparation. These non-equilibrium phenomena are discussed in terms of frozen local and temporal equilibria, where differences between alpha and beta are attributed to the occlusion of amorphous material within crystalline domains. Equilibrium information was obtained from two sources, namely from the vapor pressures in the absence of crystalline material (gas/liquid) and from the saturation concentration of peo (liquid/solid). The thermodynamic consistency of these data is demonstrated using a new approach that enables the modeling of composition dependent interaction parameters by means of two adjustable parameters only.
Thermal Dynamics in General Relativity
C. S. Lopez-Monsalvo; N. Andersson
2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss a relativistic model for heat conduction, building on a convective variational approach to multi-fluid systems where the entropy is treated as a distinct dynamical entity. We demonstrate how this approach leads to a relativistic version of the Cattaneo equation, encoding the finite thermal relaxation time that is required to satisfy causality. We also show that the model naturally includes the non-equilibrium Gibbs relation that is a key ingredient in most approaches to extended thermodynamics. Focussing on the pure heat conduction problem, we compare the variational results to the second-order model developed by Israel and Stewart. The comparison shows that, despite the very different philosophies behind the two approaches, the two models are equivalent at first order deviations from thermal equilibrium. Finally, we complete the picture by working out the non-relativistic limit of our results, making contact with recent work in that regime.
Non-equilibrium quantum systems: Divergence between global and local descriptions
Pedro D. Manrique; Ferney Rodriguez; Luis Quiroga; Neil F. Johnson
2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z
Even photosynthesis -- the most basic natural phenomenon underlying Life on Earth -- involves the non-trivial processing of excitations at the pico- and femtosecond scales during light-harvesting. The desire to understand such natural phenomena, as well as interpret the output from ultrafast experimental probes, creates an urgent need for accurate quantitative theories of open quantum systems. However it is unclear how best to generalize the well-established assumptions of an isolated system, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. Here we compare two popular approaches: a description in terms of a direct product of the states of each individual system (i.e. a local approach) versus the use of new states resulting from diagonalizing the whole Hamiltonian (i.e. a global approach). We show that their equivalence fails when the system is open, in particular under the experimentally ubiquitous condition of a temperature gradient. By solving for the steady-state populations and calculating the heat flux as a test observable, we uncover stark differences between the formulations. This divergence highlights the need to establish rigorous ranges of applicability for such methods in modeling nanoscale transfer phenomena -- including during the light-harvesting process in photosynthesis.
Shear viscosity and out of equilibrium dynamics
Andrej El; Zhe Xu; Carsten Greiner; Azwinndini Muronga
2009-06-18T23:59:59.000Z
Using Grad's method, we calculate the entropy production and derive a formula for the second-order shear viscosity coefficient in a one-dimensionally expanding particle system, which can also be considered out of chemical equilibrium. For a one-dimensional expansion of gluon matter with Bjorken boost invariance, the shear tensor and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio $\\eta/s$ are numerically calculated by an iterative and self-consistent prescription within the second-order Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics and by a microscopic parton cascade transport theory. Compared with $\\eta/s$ obtained using the Navier-Stokes approximation, the present result is about 20% larger at a QCD coupling $\\alpha_s \\sim 0.3$(with $\\eta/s\\approx 0.18$) and is a factor of 2-3 larger at a small coupling $\\alpha_s \\sim 0.01$. We demonstrate an agreement between the viscous hydrodynamic calculations and the microscopic transport results on $\\eta/s$, except when employing a small $\\alpha_s$. On the other hand, we demonstrate that for such small $\\alpha_s$, the gluon system is far from kinetic and chemical equilibrium, which indicates the break down of second-order hydrodynamics because of the strong noneqilibrium evolution. In addition, for large $\\alpha_s$ ($0.3-0.6$), the Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics formally breaks down at large momentum $p_T\\gtrsim 3$ GeV but is still a reasonably good approximation.
Title of dissertation: A MACROSCALE PERSPECTIVE OF NEAR-EQUILIBRIUM RELAXATION
Rubloff, Gary W.
ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: A MACROSCALE PERSPECTIVE OF NEAR-EQUILIBRIUM RELAXATION OF STEPPED CRYSTAL SURFACES John Quah, 2009 Dissertation directed by: Professor Dionisios Margetis Department the observed behavior. This dissertation takes a few of the nanoscale models and sys- tematically derives
Coles, Cynthia
and sediments Cynthia A. Coles a,, Raymond N. Yong b,1 a Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial Available online 27 March 2006 Abstract Batch equilibrium test results of Pb and Cd retention by kaolinite; Initial metal concentration; Transport prediciton models; Goodness of fit 1. Introduction Heavy metal
Kjelstrup, Signe
Molecular dynamics simulations of a chemical reaction; conditions for local equilibrium have examined a simple chemical reaction in a temperature gradient; 2F $ F2. A mechanical model molecular dynamics simulations showed that the chemical reaction is in local thermodynamic as well
~.,Slag-Metal Equilibrium During Submerged e-~~ Arc Welding
Eagar, Thomas W.
~~ . ~.·,Slag-Metal Equilibrium During Submerged ·e-~~ Arc Welding C. S. CHAI AND T. W. EAGAR A thermodynamic model of the equilibria existing between the slag and the weld metal during submerged arc welding over forty years ago, submerged arc welding has developed into one of the most efficient, most reliable
Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen
Cohen, Doron
Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Htotal implies a glassy NESS We can define NESS effective temperature D() exhibit LRT to SLRT crossover Quantum (s=0.01) T B #12;Quantum NESS for toy model with n.n. transitions d dt = -i[H, ] - 2 2 [V, [V,
Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen
Cohen, Doron
Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Daniel (s=0.85) Quantum (s=0.01) Stochastic (s=0.01) T B #12;Quantum NESS for toy model with n.n. transitions d dt = -i[H, ] - 2 2 [V, [V,
The non-equilibrium steady state of sparse systems with non trivial topology
Cohen, Doron
, the system will reach a Non-Equilibrium Steady State (NESS). #12;The model system System + Bath + Driving of cooling = DB TB - DB Tsystem Driving System Work (W)Heat (Q) Bath SB() SA() Hence at the NESS: Tsystem = 1 to the sparsity of the perturbation matrix, the NESS is of glassy nature [1]. 2. An extension of the Fluctuation
Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen
Cohen, Doron
Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Daniel + D() DB Â« TB Sparsity implies a glassy NESS We can define NESS effective temperature D() exhibit LRT (s=0.85) Quantum (s=0.01) Stochastic (s=0.01) T B #12;Quantum NESS for toy model with n
Multiphase Equilibrium of Fluids Confined in Fisher-Tropsch Catalytic Systems
Warrag, Samah
2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z
Equation of state model extended to confined fluid (PR-C) has been utilized in multiphase equilibrium algorithm using FORTRAN. The simulation results provide the composition and the condition of each bulk phase and pore phase for a given initial mixture...
Xiao, Xiangming.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.
In a partial factorial model experiment, we used the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, version 4.0) to assess the relative roles of changes in CO2, temperature, precipitation and cloudiness in equilibrium responses of ...
Felice, Antonio De [TPTP and NEP, The Institute for Fundamental Study, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Tsujikawa, Shinji, E-mail: antoniod@nu.ac.th, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)
2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the Horndeski's most general scalar-tensor theories with second-order field equations, we derive the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities associated with scalar, tensor, and vector perturbations in the presence of two perfect fluids on the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background. Our general results are useful for the construction of theoretically consistent models of dark energy. We apply our formulas to extended Galileon models in which a tracker solution with an equation of state smaller than -1 is present. We clarify the allowed parameter space in which the ghosts and Laplacian instabilities are absent and we numerically confirm that such models are indeed cosmologically viable.
Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.
1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
DOE has launched a major initiative -- the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program -- directed at improving the parameterization of the physics governing cloud and radiative processes in general circulation models (GCMs). One specific goal of ARM is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in GCMs under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. In 1990, the authors proposed to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems connected with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem -- longwave radiation. In particular, their long-term research goals are to: develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations, assess the impact of the longwave radiative forcing in a GCM, determine the sensitivity of a GCM to the radiative model used in it, and determine how the longwave radiative forcing contributes relatively when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and expansion.
Jian-Miin Liu
2003-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
In solar interior, it is the equilibrium velocity distribution of few high-energy protons and nuclei that participates in determining nuclear fusion reaction rates. So, it is inappropriate to use the Maxwellian velocity distribution to calculate the rates of solar nuclear fusion reactions. We have to use the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for the purpose. The nuclear fusion reaction rate based on the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution has a reduction factor with respect to that based on the Maxwellian distribution. The reduction factor depends on the temperature, reduced mass and atomic numbers of the studied nuclear fusion reactions, in other words, it varies with the sort of neutrinos. Substituting the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for the Maxwellian distribution is not important for the calculation of solar sound speeds. The relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution, if adopted in standard solar models, will lower solar neutrino fluxes and change solar neutrino energy spectra but maintain solar sound speeds. This velocity distribution is possibly a solution to the solar neutrino problem.
Right ventricular ejection fraction from equilibrium and first pass scintigraphic cardiac images
Nakamura, Eiji
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Radioactive 2 x 10 years Fig. 6. Generation and transition of Tc 11 2. Radiopharmaceuticals Radiopharmaceuticals or radioactive tracers generally consist of a radionuclide emit- ting 7-rays. They need to allow maximum information extraction... the contraction phase, is an important indicator of ventricular func- tion. Equilibrium images, in which the radiopharmaceutical is uniformly distributed throughout the blood pool, are routinely used to compute the left ventricular ejec- tion fraction...
Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping
2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z
This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar observations to evaluate model simulations In cooperation with Profs. Bob Houze at University of Washington and Steven Rutledge at Colorado State University, numerical model results were evaluated with observations from W- and C-band radars and CloudSat/TRMM satellites. These studies exhibited some shortcomings of current numerical models, such as too little of thin anvil clouds, directing the future improvement of cloud microphysics parameterization in CRMs. Two papers of Powell et al (2012) and Zeng et al. (2013), summarizing these studies, were published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 4. Analyzed the water budgets of MCSs Using ARM data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP and other field campaigns, the Goddard CRM simulations were carried out to analyze the water budgets of clouds from TWP-ICE and AMMA. The simulations generated a set of datasets on clouds and radiation, which are available http://cloud.gsfc.nasa.gov/. The cloud datasets were available for modelers and other researchers aiming to improve the representation of cloud processes in multi-scale modeling frameworks, GCMs and climate models. Special datasets, such as 3D cloud distributions every six minutes for TWP-ICE, were requested and generated for ARM/ASR investigators. Data server records show that 86,206 datasets were downloaded by 120 users between April of 2010 and January of 2012. 5. MMF simulations The Goddard MMF (multi-scale modeling framework) has been improved by coupling with the Goddard Land Information System (LIS) and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GOES5). It has also been optimized on NASA HEC supercomputers and can be run over 4000 CPUs. The improved MMF with high horizontal resolution (1 x 1 degree) is currently being applied to cases covering 2005 and 2006. The results show that the spatial distribution pattern of precipitation rate is well simulated by the MMF through comparisons with satellite retrievals from the CMOPRH and GPCP data sets. In addition, the MMF results were compared with three reanalyses (MERRA, ERA-Interim and CFSR). Although the MMF tends
Stabilization of beam-weibel instability by equilibrium density ripples
Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@gmail.com; Kaw, Predhiman; Das, A.; Sengupta, S. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Ravindra Kumar, G. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)] [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we present an approach to achieve suppression/complete stabilization of the transverse electromagnetic beam Weibel instability in counter streaming electron beams by modifying the background plasma with an equilibrium density ripple, shorter than the skin depth; this weakening is more pronounced when thermal effects are included. On the basis of a linear two stream fluid model, it is shown that the growth rate of transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be reduced to zero value provided certain threshold values for ripple parameters are exceeded. We point out the relevance of the work to recent experimental investigations on sustained (long length) collimation of fast electron beams and integral beam transport for laser induced fast ignition schemes, where beam divergence is suppressed with the assistance of carbon nano-tubes.
Universal far-from-equilibrium Dynamics of a Holographic Superconductor
Julian Sonner; Adolfo del Campo; Wojciech H. Zurek
2015-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
Symmetry breaking phase transitions are an example of non-equilibrium processes that require real time treatment, a major challenge in strongly coupled systems without long-lived quasiparticles. Holographic duality provides such an approach by mapping strongly coupled field theories in D dimensions into weakly coupled quantum gravity in D+1 anti-de Sitter spacetime. Here, we use holographic duality to study formation of topological defects -- winding numbers -- in the course of a superconducting transition in a strongly coupled theory in a 1D ring. When the system undergoes the transition on a given quench time, the condensate builds up with a delay that can be deduced using the Kibble-Zurek mechanism from the quench time and the universality class of the theory, as determined from the quasinormal mode spectrum of the dual model. Typical winding numbers deposited in the ring exhibit a universal fractional power law dependence on the quench time, also predicted by the Kibble-Zurek Mechanism.
Van Gorder, Robert A., E-mail: rav@knights.ucf.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816-1364 (United States)
2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
In R. A. Van Gorder, “General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation,” Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014) I discussed properties of generalized vortex filaments exhibiting purely rotational motion under the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation. Such solutions are stationary in terms of translational motion. In the Comment [N. Hietala, “Comment on ‘General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation’ [Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)],” Phys. Fluids 26, 119101 (2014)], the author criticizes my paper for not including translational motion (although it was clearly stated that the filament motion was assumed rotational). As it turns out, if one is interested in studying the geometric structure of solutions (which was the point of my paper), one obtains the needed qualitative results on the structure of such solutions by studying the purely rotational case. Nevertheless, in this Response I shall discuss the vortex filaments that have both rotational and translational motions. I then briefly discuss why one might want to study such generalized rotating filament solutions, in contrast to simple the standard helical or planar examples (which are really special cases). I also discuss how one can study the time evolution of filaments which exhibit more complicated dynamics than pure translation and rotation. Doing this, one can study non-stationary solutions which initially appear purely rotational and gradually display other dynamics as the filaments evolve.
Bill Jackson; Aldo Procacci; Alan D. Sokal
2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z
We find zero-free regions in the complex plane at large |q| for the multivariate Tutte polynomial (also known in statistical mechanics as the Potts-model partition function) Z_G(q,w) of a graph G with general complex edge weights w = {w_e}. This generalizes a result of Sokal (cond-mat/9904146) that applies only within the complex antiferromagnetic regime |1+w_e| \\le 1. Our proof uses the polymer-gas representation of the multivariate Tutte polynomial together with the Penrose identity.
Nash equilibrium seeking in noncooperative games and multi -agent deployment to planar curves
Frihauf, Paul A.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
1.1 Nash Equilibrium Seeking in Noncooperative Games . . .Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NashNash Equilibrium Seeking with Non-Quadratic Payoffs . . .
Non-equilibrium CO chemistry in the solar atmosphere
A. Asensio Ramos; J. Trujillo Bueno; M. Carlsson; J. Cernicharo
2003-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
Investigating the reliability of the assumption of instantaneous chemical equilibrium (ICE) for calculating the CO number density in the solar atmosphere is of crucial importance for the resolution of the long-standing controversy over the existence of `cool clouds' in the chromosphere, and for determining whether the cool gas owes its existence to CO radiative cooling or to a hydrodynamical process. Here we report the first results of such an investigation in which we have carried out time-dependent gas-phase chemistry calculations in radiation hydrodynamical simulations of solar chromospheric dynamics. We show that while the ICE approximation turns out to be suitable for modeling the observed infrared CO lines at the solar disk center, it may substantially overestimate the `heights of formation' of strong CO lines synthesized close to the edge of the solar disk, especially concerning vigorous dynamic cases resulting from relatively strong photospheric disturbances. This happens because during the cool phases of the hydrodynamical simulations the CO number density in the outer atmospheric regions is smaller than what is stipulated by the ICE approximation, resulting in decreased CO opacity in the solar chromosphere. As a result, the cool CO-bearing gas which produces the observed molecular lines must be located at atmospheric heights not greater than 700 km, approximately. We conclude that taking into account the non-equilibrium chemistry improves the agreement with the available on-disk and off-limb observations, but that the hydrodynamical simulation model has to be even cooler than anticipated by the ICE approximation, and this has to be the case at the `new' (i.e. deeper) formation regions of the rovibrational CO lines.
Roles of energy dissipation in a liquid-solid transition of out-of-equilibrium systems
Yuta Komatsu; Hajime Tanaka
2015-09-11T23:59:59.000Z
Self-organization of active matter as well as driven granular matter in non-equilibrium dynamical states has attracted considerable attention not only from the fundamental and application viewpoints but also as a model to understand the occurrence of such phenomena in nature. These systems share common features originating from their intrinsically out-of-equilibrium nature. It remains elusive how energy dissipation affects the state selection in such non-equilibrium states. As a simple model system, we consider a non-equilibrium stationary state maintained by continuous energy input, relevant to industrial processing of granular materials by vibration and/or flow. More specifically, we experimentally study roles of dissipation in self-organization of a driven granular particle monolayer. We find that the introduction of strong inelasticity entirely changes the nature of the liquid-solid transition from two-step (nearly) continuous transitions (liquid-hexatic-solid) to a strongly discontinuous first-order-like one (liquid-solid), where the two phases with different effective temperatures can coexist, unlike thermal systems, under a balance between energy input and dissipation. Our finding indicates a pivotal role of energy dissipation and suggests a novel principle in the self-organization of systems far from equilibrium. A similar principle may apply to active matter, which is another important class of out-of-equilibrium systems. On noting that interaction forces in active matter, and particularly in living systems, are often non-conservative and dissipative, our finding may also shed new light on the state selection in these systems.
Monazam, E., Shadle, L., Pennline, H., Miller, D., Fauth, D., Hoffman, J., Gray, M.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The equilibrium and conversion-time data on the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with amine-based solid sorbent were analyzed over the range of 303–373 K. Data on CO{sub 2} loading on amine based solid sorbent at these temperatures and CO{sub 2} partial pressure between 10 and 760 mm Hg obtained from volumetric adsorption apparatus were fitted to a simple equilibrium model to generate the different parameters (including equilibrium constant) in the model. Using these constants, a correlation was obtained to define equilibrium constant and maximum CO{sub 2} loading as a function of temperature. In this study, a shrinking core model (SCM) was applied to elucidate the relative importance of pore diffusion and surface chemical reaction in controlling the rate of reaction. Application of SCM to the data suggested a surface reaction-controlled mechanism for the temperature of up to 40°C and pore-diffusion mechanism at higher temperature.
Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads
Milan Batista
2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z
The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.
Quantum gambling based on Nash-equilibrium
Pei Zhang; Xiao-Qi Zhou; Yun-Long Wang; Peter J. Shadbolt; Yong-Sheng Zhang; Hong Gao; Fu-Li Li; Jeremy L. O'Brien
2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z
A fair gambling is hard to be made between two spatially separated parties without introducing a trusted third party. Here we propose a novel gambling protocol, which enables fair gambling between two distant parties without the help of a third party. By incorporating the key concepts and methods of game theory, our protocol will force the two parties to move their strategies to a Nash-equilibrium point which guarantees the fairness through the physical laws of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, we show that our protocol can be easily adapted to a biased version, which would find applications in lottery, casino, etc. A proof-of-principle optical demonstration of this protocol is reported as well.
Confined colloidal crystals in and out of equilibrium
A. Reinmüller; E. C. O?uz; R. Messina; H. Löwen; H. J. Schöpe; T. Palberg
2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z
Recent studies on confined crystals of charged colloidal particles are reviewed, both in equilibrium and out of equilibrium. We focus in particular on direct comparisons of experiments (light scattering and microscopy) with lattice sum calculations and computer simulations. In equilibrium we address buckling and crystalline multilayering of charged systems in hard and soft slit confinement. We discuss also recent crystalline structures obtained for charged mixtures. Moreover, we put forward possibilities to apply external perturbations, in order to drive the system out of equilibrium. These include electrolyte gradients as well as the application of shear and electric fields.
Ferguson, Jim Michael
2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z
.3 Supercritical radiating shocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 IV.2 Analytic work of Drake, and McClarren and Drake . . . . . . . . . . 74 IV.2.1 The three-layer model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 IV.2.2 Anti-diffusive radiative shocks...]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 xi Page Figure IV.6 The three-layer model as described by Drake [5, 6] for a supercrit- ical radiative shock. The first layer defines the precursor region, and contains the upstream equilibrium state, the transmissive precursor and the diffusive...
Tsventoukh, M. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
A study is made of the convective (interchange, or flute) plasma stability consistent with equilibrium in magnetic confinement systems with a magnetic field decreasing outward and large curvature of magnetic field lines. Algorithms are developed which calculate convective plasma stability from the Kruskal-Oberman kinetic criterion and in which the convective stability is iteratively consistent with MHD equilibrium for a given pressure and a given type of anisotropy in actual magnetic geometry. Vacuum and equilibrium convectively stable configurations in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field are calculated. It is shown that, in convectively stable equilibrium, the possibility of achieving high plasma pressures in the central region is restricted either by the expansion of the separatrix (when there are large regions of a weak magnetic field) or by the filamentation of the gradient plasma current (when there are small regions of a weak magnetic field, in which case the pressure drops mainly near the separatrix). It is found that, from the standpoint of equilibrium and of the onset of nonpotential ballooning modes, a kinetic description of convective stability yields better plasma confinement parameters in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than a simpler MHD model and makes it possible to substantially improve the confinement parameters for a given type of anisotropy. For the Magnetor experimental compact device, the maximum central pressure consistent with equilibrium and stability is calculated to be as high as {beta} {approx} 30%. It is shown that, for the anisotropy of the distribution function that is typical of a background ECR plasma, the limiting pressure gradient is about two times steeper than that for an isotropic plasma. From a practical point of view, the possibility is demonstrated of achieving better confinement parameters of a hot collisionless plasma in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than those obtained with the simplest MHD description.
Bosak, K; Joffrin, E; Bosak, Krzysztof; Blum, Jacques; Joffrin, Emmanuel
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recent development of real-time equilibrium code Equinox [1] using a fixed-point algorithm [2] allow major plasma magnetic parameters to be identified in real-time, using rigorous analytical method. The code relies on the boundary flux code providing flux values on the first wall of vacuum vessel. By means of least-square minimization of differences between magnetic field obtained from previous solution and the next measurements the code identifies the source term of the non-linear Grad-Shafranov equation [3]. The strict use of analytical equations together with a flexible algorithm offers an opportunity to include new measurements into stable magnetic equilibrium code and compare the results directly between several tokamaks while maintaining the same physical model (i.e. no iron model is necessary inside the equilibrium code). The successful implementation of this equilibrium code for JET and Tore Supra have been already published [1], in this paper, we show the preliminary results of predictive runs of the...
Evangelista, Dennis
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
models constructed from styrofoam gliders, to test thebetween lead and styrofoam. Our predicted equilibrium glide
Compact objects from gravitational collapse: an analytical toy model
Joshi, Pankaj S
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We develop here a procedure to obtain regular static configurations as resulting from dynamical gravitational collapse of a massive matter cloud in general relativity. Under certain general physical assumptions for the collapsing cloud, we find the class of dynamical models that lead to an equilibrium configuration. To illustrate this, we provide a class of perfect fluid collapse models that lead to a static constant density object as limit. We suggest that similar models might possibly constitute the basis for the description of formation of compact objects in nature.
Equilibrium surface distributions for constant energy ensembles B. I. Henry
Henry, Bruce Ian
Equilibrium surface distributions for constant energy ensembles B. I. Henry Department of Applied distributions are seen [11,12]. In this paper we shall discuss how one calculates the constant energy energy en semble are discussed. An equilibrium surface density is introduced and used to calculate
A lateral optical equilibrium in waveguide-resonator optical force
Fan, Shanhui
A lateral optical equilibrium in waveguide-resonator optical force Varat Intaraprasonk,1@stanford.edu Abstract: We consider the lateral optical force between a resonator and a waveguide, and study the possibility of an equilibrium that occurs solely from the optical force in such system. We prove analytically
Energy conservation, counting statistics, and return to equilibrium
Jaksic, Vojkan
Energy conservation, counting statistics, and return to equilibrium V. JaksiÂ´c1 , J. Panangaden1 to the joint thermal equilibrium state, we study the Full Counting Statistics (FCS) of the energy transfers , A. Panati1,2 , C-A. Pillet2 1 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University, 805
Beyond Nash Equilibrium: Solution Concepts for the 21st Century #
Halpern, Joseph Y.
Beyond Nash Equilibrium: Solution Concepts for the 21st Century # Joseph Y. Halpern Cornell://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/halpern Abstract Nash equilibrium is the most commonlyÂused notion of equiÂ librium in game theory. However, it suffers from numerous problems. Some are well known in the game theory commuÂ nity; for example, the Nash
the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture Rainer Feldmann
Mavronicolas, Marios
Facets of the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture Rainer Feldmann Marios Mavronicolas Andreas;Abstract In this work, we continue the study of the many facets of the Fully Mixed Nash Equi- librium. A Nash equilibrium is a stable state where no user can improve her (expected) latency by switching her
Beyond the Nash Equilibrium Barrier Robert Kleinberg1
Ligett, Katrina
Beyond the Nash Equilibrium Barrier Robert Kleinberg1 Katrina Ligett1 Georgios Piliouras2 ´Eva.piliouras@gmail.com Abstract: Nash equilibrium analysis has become the de facto standard for judging the solution quality is comparable to that of Nash equilibria. By assuming that equilibria are representative of the outcomes