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1

Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Screenshot References: Computable general equilibrium models1 Abstract "Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) of economic, environmental, and social effects triggered by...

2

Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium (MIRAGE) AgencyCompany Organization: International Food Policy Research Institute, Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations...

3

Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Equilibrium Model (ENVISAGE) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium Model (ENVISAGE)...

4

Applying Engineering and Fleet Detail to Represent Passenger Vehicle Transport in a Computable General Equilibrium Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A well-known challenge in computable general equilibrium (CGE) models is to maintain correspondence between the forecasted economic and physical quantities over time. Maintaining such a correspondence is necessary to ...

Karplus, V.J.

5

Computable General Equilibrium Models for the Analysis of Energy and Climate Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computable General Equilibrium Models for the Analysis of Energy and Climate Policies Ian Sue Wing of energy and environmental policies. Perhaps the most important of these applications is the analysis Change, MIT Prepared for the International Handbook of Energy Economics Abstract This chapter is a simple

Wing, Ian Sue

6

Oilgopoly: a general equilibrium model of the oil-macroeconomy nexus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Saudi Arabia is the largest player in the world oil market. It maintains ample spare capacity, restricts investment in developing reserves, and its output is negatively correlated with other OPEC producers. While this behavior does not …t into the perfect competition paradigm, we show that it can be rationalized as that of a dominant producer with competitive fringe. We build a quantitative general equilibrium model along these lines which is capable of matching the historical volatility of the oil price, competitive and non-competitive oil output, and of generating the observed comovement among the oil price, oil quantities, and U.S. GDP. We use our framework to answer questions on which available models are silent: (1) What are the proximate determinants of the oil price and how do they vary over the cycle? (2) How large are oil pro…ts and what losses do they imply for oil-importers? (3) What do di¤erent fundamental shocks imply for the comovement of oil prices and GDP? (4) What are the general equilibrium e¤ects of taxes on oil consumption or oil production? We …nd, in particular, that the existence of an oil production distortion does not necessarily justify an oil consumption tax di¤erent from zero. 1

Anton Nakov Y; Banco De España; Galo Nuño; Banco De España

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Axisymmetric equilibrium models for magnetized neutron stars in General Relativity under the Conformally Flat Condition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extremely magnetized neutron stars with magnetic fields as strong as $\\sim 10^{15-16}$ G, or magnetars, have received considerable attention in the last decade due to their identification as a plausible source for Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars. Moreover, this class of compact objects has been proposed as a possible engine capable of powering both Long and Short Gamma-Ray Bursts, if the rotation period in their formation stage is short enough (~1 ms). Such strong fields are expected to induce substantial deformations of the star and thus to produce the emission of gravitational waves. Here we investigate, by means of numerical modeling, axisymmetric static equilibria of polytropic and strongly magnetized stars in full general relativity, within the ideal magneto-hydrodynamic regime. The eXtended Conformally Flat Condition (XCFC) for the metric is assumed, allowing us to employ the techniques introduced for the X-ECHO code [Bucciantini & Del Zanna, 2011, Astron. Astrophys. 528, A101], pro...

Pili, A G; Del Zanna, L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Computing the Electricity Market Equilibrium: Uses of market equilibrium models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Computing the Electricity Market Equilibrium: Uses of market equilibrium models Ross Baldick Abstract--In this paper we consider the formulation and uses of electric- ity market equilibrium models. Keywords--Electricity market, Equilibrium models I. INTRODUCTION Electricity market equilibrium modelling

Baldick, Ross

9

Inventories and capacity utilization in general equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary goal of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding, in thecontext of a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium framework, of the role of inventories and capacity utilization (of both capital and labor) and, in particular...

Trupkin, Danilo Rogelio

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing NE equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-NE kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

Zhang, Fan [ORNL; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Parker, Jack C [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Pace, Molly [ORNL; Kim, Young Jin [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Proposals: Application of a Forward-Looking Computable General Equilibrium Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a forward-looking version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and apply it to examine the economic implications of proposals in the U.S. Congress to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) ...

Gurgel, Angelo C.

12

Rotating figures of equilibrium in General Relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A generalization of the notion of surfaces of revolution in the spaces of General Relativity is presented. We apply this definition to the case of Carter's family [A] of solutions and we study the Kerr's metric with respect the above mentioned foliation.

T. Papakostas

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many efforts to address greenhouse gas emissions combine a cap-and-trade system with other measures such as a renewable portfolio standard. In this paper we use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, the MIT Emissions ...

Morris, Jennifer

14

Carbon Leakage in General and Partial Equilibrium August 7, 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intensity in countries without carbon constraints is an export subsidy and creates negative leakage to increase production of carbon-intensive goods. The possibility of "carbon leakage" makes it harder to reachCarbon Leakage in General and Partial Equilibrium Larry Karp August 7, 2012 Abstract The general

Kammen, Daniel M.

15

An Equilibrium Model of Rare Event Premia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we study the asset pricing implication of imprecise knowledge about rare events. Modeling rare events as jumps in the aggregate endowment, we explicitly solve the equilibrium asset prices in a pure-exchange ...

Liu, Jun

2002-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

16

Heterogeneous Beliefs, Collateralization, and Transactions in General Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Leonardo Auernheimer Rajiv Sarin Committee Members, Thomas R. Saving David A. Bessler Amy J. Glass Head of Department, Timothy Gronberg August 2011 Major Subject...: Economics iii ABSTRACT Heterogeneous Beliefs, Collateralization, and Transactions in General Equilibrium. (August 2011) Xu Hu, B.B.A., The University of Science and Technology of China Co{Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Leonardo Auernheimer Dr. Rajiv...

Hu, Xu

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

17

A Two Stage Stochastic Equilibrium Model for Electricity Markets ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ward market and power transaction in the electricity spot market. A stochastic equilibrium program with equilibrium constraints (SEPEC) model is proposed to ...

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

18

A general equilibrium analysis of the effects of carbon emission restrictions on economic growth in a developing country  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general equilibrium approach, in the form of a multisector, intertemporal programming model, is used to analyze the effects on the growth of the Egyptian economy of carbon emissions constraints that differ across sectors ...

Blitzer, Charles R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Multicomponent Equilibrium Models for Testing Geothermometry Approaches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geothermometry is an important tool for estimating deep reservoir temperature from the geochemical composition of shallower and cooler waters. The underlying assumption of geothermometry is that the waters collected from shallow wells and seeps maintain a chemical signature that reflects equilibrium in the deeper reservoir. Many of the geothermometers used in practice are based on correlation between water temperatures and composition or using thermodynamic calculations based a subset (typically silica, cations or cation ratios) of the dissolved constituents. An alternative approach is to use complete water compositions and equilibrium geochemical modeling to calculate the degree of disequilibrium (saturation index) for large number of potential reservoir minerals as a function of temperature. We have constructed several “forward” geochemical models using The Geochemist’s Workbench to simulate the change in chemical composition of reservoir fluids as they migrate toward the surface. These models explicitly account for the formation (mass and composition) of a steam phase and equilibrium partitioning of volatile components (e.g., CO2, H2S, and H2) into the steam as a result of pressure decreases associated with upward fluid migration from depth. We use the synthetic data generated from these simulations to determine the advantages and limitations of various geothermometry and optimization approaches for estimating the likely conditions (e.g., temperature, pCO2) to which the water was exposed in the deep subsurface. We demonstrate the magnitude of errors that can result from boiling, loss of volatiles, and analytical error from sampling and instrumental analysis. The estimated reservoir temperatures for these scenarios are also compared to conventional geothermometers. These results can help improve estimation of geothermal resource temperature during exploration and early development.

Cooper, D. Craig; Carl D. Palmer; Robert W. Smith; Travis L. McLing

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Long-run Implications of a Forest-based Carbon Sequestration Policy on the United States Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Modeling Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The economic impacts of a government-funded, forest-based sequestration program were analyzed under two different payment schemes. The impacts were obtained by developing a regional, static CGE model built to accommodate a modified IMPLAN SAM for a...

Monge, Juan

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Kuramoto model of synchronization: Equilibrium and nonequilibrium aspects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently, there has been considerable interest in the study of spontaneous synchronization, particularly within the framework of the Kuramoto model. The model comprises oscillators with distributed natural frequencies interacting through a mean-field coupling, and serves as a paradigm to study synchronization. In this review, we put forward a general framework in which we discuss in a unified way known results with more recent developments obtained for a generalized Kuramoto model that includes inertial effects and noise. We describe the model from a different perspective, highlighting the long-range nature of the interaction between the oscillators, and emphasizing the equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium aspects of its dynamics from a statistical physics point of view. In the first main section, we introduce the model and discuss for the noiseless and noisy dynamics and unimodal frequency distributions the synchronization transition that occurs in the stationary state. In the second section, we introduce the generalized model, and discuss its synchronization phase diagram for unimodal frequency distributions. In the third section, we describe deviations from the mean-field setting of the Kuramoto model by considering the generalized dynamics on a one-dimensional periodic lattice on the sites of which the oscillators reside and interact with a coupling that decays as an inverse power-law of their separation. For two specific cases, namely, in the absence of noise and inertia, and in the case when the natural frequencies are the same for all the oscillators, we discuss how the long-time transition to synchrony is governed by the dynamics of the mean-field mode (zero Fourier mode) of the spatial distribution of the oscillator phases.

Shamik Gupta; Alessandro Campa; Stefano Ruffo

2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

22

Non-equilibrium Statistical Approach to Friction Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A geometric approach to the friction phenomena is presented. It is based on the holographic view which has recently been popular in the theoretical physics community. We see the system in one-dimension-higher space. The heat-producing phenomena are most widely treated by using the non-equilibrium statistical physics. We take 2 models of the earthquake. The dissipative systems are here formulated from the geometric standpoint. The statistical fluctuation is taken into account by using the (generalized) Feynman's path-integral.

Shoichi Ichinose

2014-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

23

A Two Stage Stochastic Equilibrium Model for Electricity Markets ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feb 6, 2008 ... A Two Stage Stochastic Equilibrium Model for Electricity Markets with Two Way Contracts. Dali Zhang (zhangdl ***at*** soton.ac.uk) Huifu Xu ...

Dali Zhang

2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

24

Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte GmbHMilo, Maine:Energy Information23.Energy Demand

25

77Chapter 7 -General Equilibrium Analysis of Effects of Regional Cooperation in Trade Policy, Transport, and Customs Transit on the Kyrgyz Republic General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Transport, and Customs Transit on the Kyrgyz Republic 7 General Equilibrium Analysis of the Effects of Regional Cooperation in Trade Policy, Transport, and Customs Transit on the Kyrgyz Republic The preceding policy, transport, and customs transit. In particular, Chapter 4 argued that by acceding to the WTO

Kammen, Daniel M.

26

Lithium-ion battery modeling using non-equilibrium thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The focus of this thesis work is the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in lithium-ion battery modeling. As the demand for higher power and longer lasting batteries increases, the search for materials suitable ...

Ferguson, Todd R. (Todd Richard)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting ...

Townsend, Robert

28

Linear Supply Function Equilibrium: Generalizations, Application, and Limitations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reforms in England and Wales (E&W). Green (1996) used a linear version of this model and applied in the electricity industry. Recent reforms of the electricity industry around the world have stimulated numerous

California at Berkeley. University of

29

Electricity market equilibrium models: The effect of parametrization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Green and Newbery [1], takes the develop- ment of supply function equilibrium by Klemperer and Meyer [8] and applies it to a bid-based pool (BBP) model. The BBP model is representative of energy market struc- ture attempts to clarify this issue in the context of a BBP. In modeling the England and Wales BBP, Green

Baldick, Ross

30

Heavy ion collisions and the pre-equilibrium exciton model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a feasible way to apply the pre-equilibrium exciton model in its masterequation formulation to heavy-ion induced reactions including spin variables. Emission of nucleons, {gamma}'s and also light clusters is included in our model.

Betak, E. [Institute of Physics SAS, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian Univ., 74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

31

General equilibrium, electricity generation technologies and the cost of carbon abatement: A structural sensitivity analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

General equilibrium, electricity generation technologies and the cost of carbon abatement, and abatement in this sector is a key determinant of economy-wide regulation costs. The complexity. It follows that assessing abatement potentials and price changes in the electricity sector with a partial

32

Equilibrium model with default and insider's dynamic information Luciano Campi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Danilova§ August 3, 2011 Abstract We consider an equilibrium model `a la Kyle-Back for a defaultable claim, London School of Economics, u.cetin@lse.ac.uk. § Department of Mathematics, London School of Economics, a.danilova

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

33

Energy-exchange stochastic models for non-equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-equilibrium steady states are subject to intense investigations but still poorly understood. For instance, the derivation of Fourier law in Hamiltonian systems is a problem that still poses several obstacles. In order to investigate non-equilibrium systems, stochastic models of energy-exchange have been introduced and they have been used to identify universal properties of non-equilibrium. In these notes, after a brief review of the problem of anomalous transport in 1-dimensional Hamiltonian systems, some boundary-driven interacting random systems are considered and the "duality approach" to their rigorous mathematical treatment is reviewed. Duality theory, of which a brief introduction is given, is a powerful technique to deal with Markov processes and interacting particle systems. The content of these notes is mainly based on the papers [10, 11, 12].

Chiara Franceschini; Cristian Giardina

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

34

Non-perfect-fluid space-times in thermodynamic equilibrium and generalized Friedmann equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assuming homogeneous and parallax-free space-times, in the case of thermodynamic equilibrium, we construct the energy-momentum tensor of non-perfect fluids. To this end we derive the constitutive equations for energy density, isotropic and anisotropic pressure as well as heat-flux from the respective propagation equations. This provides these quantities in closed form, i. e. in terms of the structure constants of the three-dimensional isometry group of homogeneity and, respectively, of the kinematical quantities expansion, rotation and acceleration. Using Einstein's equations, the thereby occurring constants of integration can be determined such that one gets bounds on the kinematical quantities and finds a generalized form of the Friedmann equations. As a consequence, it is shown that, e. g., for a perfect fluid the Friedmann and G\\"odel models can be recovered. All this is derived without assuming any equations of state or other specific thermodynamic conditions, and, in principle, allows one to go beyond the standard phase cosmology to describe the transition from phase to phase dynamically. The constitutive equations deduced for the class of space-times under consideration point in the direction of extended thermodynamics.

Konrad Schatz; Horst-Heino von Borzeszkowski; Thoralf Chrobok

2014-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

35

Model for the free-volume distributions of equilibrium fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce and test via molecular simulation a simple model for predicting the manner in which interparticle interactions and thermodynamic conditions impact the single-particle free-volume distributions of equilibrium fluids. The model suggests a scaling relationship for the density-dependent behavior of the hard-sphere system. It also predicts how the second virial coefficients of fluids with short-range attractions affect their free-volume distributions.

William P. Krekelberg; Venkat Ganesan; Thomas M. Truskett

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Ocean General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

37

Equilibrium and volumetric data and model development of coal fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long term goal of our efforts is to develop accurate predictive methods for description of equilibrium phase properties for a variety of types of mixtures and operating conditions. The specific objectives of the work specified herein include: (1) development of an experimental facility having the capability to provide data on equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) and liquid densities, and doing so with greater accuracy and speed than our previous facility, (2) measurement of equilibrium phase properties for systematically-selected mixtures-specifically those containing important solute gases (such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, carbonyl sulfide, ammonia) in a series of heavy paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic solvents (e.g., n-decane, n-eicosane, n-octacosane, n-hexatriacontane, cyclohexane, Decalin, perhydrophenanthrene, perhydropyrene, benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene), (3) testing/development of correlation frameworks for representing the phase behavior of fluids of the type encountered in coal conversion processes, and (4) generalization of parameters in the correlation frameworks to enable accurate predictions for systems of the type studied, permitting predictions to be made for systems and conditions other than those for which experimental data are available.

Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Park, J.

1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

38

Entropy and equilibrium state of free market models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many recent models of trade dynamics use the simple idea of wealth exchanges among economic agents in order to obtain a stable or equilibrium distribution of wealth among the agents. In particular, a plain analogy compares the wealth in a society with the energy in a physical system, and the trade between agents to the energy exchange between molecules during collisions. In physical systems, the energy exchange among molecules leads to a state of equipartition of the energy and to an equilibrium situation where the entropy is a maximum. On the other hand, in the majority of exchange models, the system converges to a very unequal condensed state, where one or a few agents concentrate all the wealth of the society while the wide majority of agents shares zero or almost zero fraction of the wealth. So, in those economic systems a minimum entropy state is attained. We propose here an analytical model where we investigate the effects of a particular class of economic exchanges that minimize the entropy. By solving...

Iglesias, J R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Time-Depending Parametric Variational Approach for an Economic General Equilibrium Problem of Pure Exchange with Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper considers a qualitative analysis of the solution of a pure exchange general economic equilibrium problem according to two independent parameters. Some recently results obtained by the author in the static and the dynamic case have been collected. Such results have been applied in a particular parametric case: it has been focused the attention on a numerical application for which the existence of the solution of time-depending parametric variational inequality that describes the equilibrium conditions has been proved by means of the direct method. By using MatLab computation after a linear interpolation, the curves of equilibrium have been visualized.

Scaramuzzino, F. [Department of Mathematics, University of Messina (Italy)

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

40

EVALUATION OF INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURES USING A COMPUTABLE GENERAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVALUATION OF INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURES USING A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM of Thesis: Evaluation of International Climate Change Architectures Using a Computable General Equilibrium change architecture; computable general equilibrium model; energy-economy model; cap-and-trade system #12

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

An Equilibrium-Based Model of Gas Reaction and Detonation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During gaseous diffusion plant operations, conditions leading to the formation of flammable gas mixtures may occasionally arise. Currently, these could consist of the evaporative coolant CFC-114 and fluorinating agents such as F2 and ClF3. Replacement of CFC-114 with a non-ozone-depleting substitute is planned. Consequently, in the future, the substitute coolant must also be considered as a potential fuel in flammable gas mixtures. Two questions of practical interest arise: (1) can a particular mixture sustain and propagate a flame if ignited, and (2) what is the maximum pressure that can be generated by the burning (and possibly exploding) gas mixture, should it ignite? Experimental data on these systems, particularly for the newer coolant candidates, are limited. To assist in answering these questions, a mathematical model was developed to serve as a tool for predicting the potential detonation pressures and for estimating the composition limits of flammability for these systems based on empirical correlations between gas mixture thermodynamics and flammability for known systems. The present model uses the thermodynamic equilibrium to determine the reaction endpoint of a reactive gas mixture and uses detonation theory to estimate an upper bound to the pressure that could be generated upon ignition. The model described and documented in this report is an extended version of related models developed in 1992 and 1999.

Trowbridge, L.D.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

A general concept of natural information equilibrium: from the ideal gas law to the K-Trumpler effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Information theory provides shortcuts which allow one to deal with complex systems. The basic idea one uses for this purpose is the maximum entropy principle developed by Jaynes. However, an extension of this maximum entropy principle to systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium or even to non-physical systems is problematic because it requires an adequate choice of constraints. In this paper we discuss a general concept of natural information equilibrium which does not require any choice of adequate constraints. It is, therefore, directly applicable to systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium and to non-physical systems/processes (e.g. biological processes and economical processes). We demonstrate the validity and the applicability of the concept by three well understood physical processes. As an interesting astronomical application we will show that the concept of natural information equilibrium allows one to rationalize and to quantify the K-Trumpler effect.

P. Fielitz; G. Borchardt

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

43

3D-Model view characterization using equilibrium planes Adrien Theetten1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3D-Model view characterization using equilibrium planes Adrien Theetten1 , Tarik Filali Ansary1 to characteristic views. Abstract We propose a new method for 3D-mesh model charac- teristic view selection. It consists in using the views that come from the equilibrium states of a 3D-model: they cor- respond

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Analytical modeling of equilibrium of strongly anisotropic plasma in tokamaks and stellarators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theoretical analysis of equilibrium of anisotropic plasma in tokamaks and stellarators is presented. The anisotropy is assumed strong, which includes the cases with essentially nonuniform distributions of plasma pressure on magnetic surfaces. Such distributions can arise at neutral beam injection or at ion cyclotron resonance heating. Then the known generalizations of the standard theory of plasma equilibrium that treat p{sub ?} and p{sub ?} (parallel and perpendicular plasma pressures) as almost constant on magnetic surfaces are not applicable anymore. Explicit analytical prescriptions of the profiles of p{sub ?} and p{sub ?} are proposed that allow modeling of the anisotropic plasma equilibrium even with large ratios of p{sub ?}/p{sub ?} or p{sub ?}/p{sub ?}. A method for deriving the equation for the Shafranov shift is proposed that does not require introduction of the flux coordinates and calculation of the metric tensor. It is shown that for p{sub ?} with nonuniformity described by a single poloidal harmonic, the equation for the Shafranov shift coincides with a known one derived earlier for almost constant p{sub ?} on a magnetic surface. This does not happen in the other more complex case.

Lepikhin, N. D.; Pustovitov, V. D., E-mail: pustovit@nfi.kiae.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Linking Dynamic Economic and Ecological General Equilibrium Models*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and participants at an AERE workshop, San Diego, at the North Carolina State Camp Resources IX, and at Univ

46

Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact Assessment:  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentratingRenewable Solutions LLC Jump to: navigation,Area (Keith, Et Al., 1992) |1988) |air

47

ENV-Linkages General Equilibrium Model | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The followingDirectLow Carbon TransitionENERGY STAR Jump

48

General Equilibrium Emissions Model (GEEM) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (TheEtelligenceGainSpan Corporation

49

General Equilibrium Modeling Package (GEMPACK) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6TheoreticalFuelCellGemini Solar DevelopmentCompression

50

Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium Model  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump37. It isInformation ContractsCGNPC JVEnvergy JumpAEnvironmental(ENVISAGE)

51

Intersectoral Adjustment and Policy Intervention: the Importance of General Equilibrium Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the distortion – as the First-Best Equilibrium (FBE).The FBE satis?es the same boundary conditions and equationssimplest way to obtain the FBE when ? 6 = is to solve the

Karp, Larry; Paul, Thierry

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Optimal foreign borrowing in a multisector dynamic equilibrium model for Brazil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper shows how a dynamic multisector equilibrium model can be formulated to be able to analyze the optimal borrowing policy of a developing country. It also describes how a non-linear programming model with the ...

Tourinho, Octv?io A. F.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

A circular equilibrium model for local gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient fluctuations in reversed field pinches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple large-aspect-ratio (R{sub 0}/r) circular equilibrium model is developed for low-beta reversed field pinch (RFP) geometry. The model is suitable for treating small scale instability and turbulent transport driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) and related electron drift modes in gyrokinetic simulations. The equilibrium model is an RFP generalization of the common tokamak s-{alpha} model to small safety factor (q), where the poloidal field dominates the toroidal field. The model accommodates the RFP toroidal field reversal (where q vanishes) by generalizing the cylindrical force-free Bessel function model (BFM) [J. B. Taylor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1139 (1974)] to toroidal geometry. The global equilibrium can be described in terms of the RFP field reversal and pinch parameters [F,{Theta}]. This new toroidal Bessel function model (TBFM) has been incorporated into the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J.Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] and used here to explore local electrostatic ITG adiabatic electron instability rates for typical low-q RFP parameters.

Tangri, Varun; Terry, P. W. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706R (United States); Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Multiple temperature kinetic model and gas-kinetic method for hypersonic non-equilibrium flow computations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiple temperature kinetic model and gas-kinetic method for hypersonic non-equilibrium flow. For the non-equilibrium flow computations, i.e., the nozzle flow and hypersonic rarefied flow over flat plate-kinetic method; Hypersonic and rarefied flows 1. Introduction The development of aerospace technology has

Xu, Kun

55

Out of Equilibrium Solutions in the $XY$-Hamiltonian Mean Field model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Out of equilibrium magnetised solutions of the $XY$-Hamiltonian Mean Field ($XY$-HMF) model are build using an ensemble of integrable uncoupled pendula. Using these solutions we display an out-of equilibrium phase transition using a specific reduced set of the magnetised solutions.

Xavier Leoncini; Tineke L. Van Den Berg; Duccio Fanelli

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

Economic Impacts of Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Agro-terrorism in the United States: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus has high agro-terrorism potential because it is contagious, can be easily transmitted via inanimate objects and can be spread by wind. An outbreak of FMD in developed countries results in massive slaughtering of animals (for disease control) and disruptions in meat supply chains and trade, with potentially large economic losses. Although the United States has been FMD-free since 1929, the potential of FMD as a deliberate terrorist weapon calls for estimates of the physical and economic damage that could result from an outbreak. This paper estimates the economic impacts of three alternative scenarios of potential FMD attacks using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy. The three scenarios range from a small outbreak successfully contained within a state to a large multi-state attack resulting in slaughtering of 30 percent of the national livestock. Overall, the value of total output losses in our simulations range between $37 billion (0.15% of 2006 baseline economic output) and $228 billion (0.92%). Major impacts stem from the supply constraint on livestock due to massive animal slaughtering. As expected, the economic losses are heavily concentrated in agriculture and food manufacturing sectors, with losses ranging from $23 billion to $61 billion in the two industries.

Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL] [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles] [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois] [University of Illinois

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC different excess Gibbs free energy models are evaluated: the NRTL, UNIQUAC and electrolyte- NRTL (eNRTL) models. In the case of eNRTL, a new formulation of the model is used, based on a symmetric reference

Stadtherr, Mark A.

58

Plasmoid solutions of the Hahm–Kulsrud–Taylor equilibrium model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hahm–Kulsrud (HK) [T. S. Hahm and R. M. Kulsrud, Phys. Fluids 28, 2412 (1985)] solutions for a magnetically sheared plasma slab driven by a resonant periodic boundary perturbation illustrate fully shielded (current sheet) and fully reconnected (magnetic island) responses. On the global scale, reconnection involves solving a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium problem. In systems with a continuous symmetry, such MHD equilibria are typically found by solving the Grad–Shafranov equation, and in slab geometry the elliptic operator in this equation is the 2-D Laplacian. Thus, assuming appropriate pressure and poloidal current profiles, a conformal mapping method can be used to transform one solution into another with different boundary conditions, giving a continuous sequence of solutions in the form of partially reconnected magnetic islands (plasmoids) separated by Syrovatsky current sheets. The two HK solutions appear as special cases.

Dewar, R. L. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia and Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)] [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia and Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, A.; Kulsrud, R. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Wright, A. M. [The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)] [The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Quantum Cournot equilibrium for the Hotelling-Smithies model of product choice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper demonstrates the quantization of a spatial Cournot duopoly model with product choice, a two stage game focusing on non-cooperation in locations and quantities. With quantization, the players can access a continuous set of strategies, using continuous variable quantum mechanical approach. The presence of quantum entanglement in the initial state identifies a quantity equilibrium for every location pair choice with any transport cost. Also higher profit is obtained by the firms at Nash equilibrium. Adoption of quantum strategies rewards us by the existence of a larger quantum strategic space at equilibrium.

Ramij Rahaman; Priyadarshi Majumdar; B. Basu

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

60

Thermodynamics of the General Diffusion Process: Equilibrium Supercurrent and Nonequilibrium Driven Circulation with Dissipation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unbalanced probability circulation, which yields cyclic motions in phase space, is the defining characteristics of a stationary diffusion process without detailed balance. In over-damped soft matter systems, such behavior is a hallmark of the presence of a sustained external driving force accompanied with dissipations. In an under-damped and strongly correlated system, however, cyclic motions are often the consequences of a conservative dynamics. In the present paper, we give a novel interpretation of a class of diffusion processes with stationary circulation in terms of a Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium in which cyclic motions are on the level set of stationary probability density function thus non-dissipative, e.g., a supercurrent. This implies an orthogonality between stationary circulation $J^{ss}(x)$ and the gradient of stationary probability density $f^{ss}(x)>0$. A sufficient and necessary condition for the orthogonality is a decomposition of the drift $b(x)=j(x)+ D(x)\

Hong Qian

2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Numerical comparison between relaxation and nonlinear equilibrium models. Application to chemical engineering.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes widely used in chemical engineering: distillation and chromatography. Distillation is a wellNumerical comparison between relaxation and nonlinear equilibrium models. Application to chemical engineering. F. James 1 M. Postel 2 M. Sep'ulveda 3 Abstract A model to take into account the finite exchange

d'Orléans, Université

62

Equilibrium and volumetric data and model development for coal fluids. Final report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under continued support from DOE, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for predicting the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with the supercritical solutes hydrogen, methane, ethane, CO, and CO{sub 2}. During the course of this project, solubility data were obtained on twenty-two binary mixtures of CO, hydrogen, or nitrogen in a series of paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic solvents (decane, eicosane, octacosane, hexatriacontane, cyclohexane, decalin, benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene). The measurements were conducted at temperatures from 310 to 433 K, pressures to 22 MPa, and solute mole fraction from 0.01 to 0.30. Estimated errors of the measured gas solubilities in the selected solvents are less than 0.001. Specific accomplishments of this project included (a) upgrading our experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) and phase densities; (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development; (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of coal-fluid mixtures, and the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations.

Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Park, J.; Tong, J.; Shaver, R.D.; Bader, M.S.; Twomey, D.W.

1994-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

63

General Equilibrium, Electricity Generation Technologies and the Cost of Carbon Abatement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity generation is a major contributor to carbon dioxide emissions, and a key determinant of abatement costs. Ex-ante assessments of carbon policies mainly rely on either of two modeling paradigms: (i) partial ...

Lanz, Bruno, 1980-

64

Capacity Constrained Supply Function Equilibrium Models of Electricity Markets: Stability, Non-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PWP-089 Capacity Constrained Supply Function Equilibrium Models of Electricity Markets: Stability of an electricity market where strategic firms have capacity constraints. We show that if firms have heterogeneous of California Energy Institute 2539 Channing Way Berkeley, California 94720-5180 www.ucei.org #12;Capacity

California at Berkeley. University of

65

Analysis of the classical pseudo-3D model for hydraulic fracture with equilibrium height growth across stress barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of the classical pseudo-3D model for hydraulic fracture with equilibrium height growth in revised form 13 February 2010 Accepted 10 March 2010 Keywords: Hydraulic fracture P3D Symmetric stress-called ``pseudo three-dimensional'' (P3D) model for a hydraulic fracture with equilibrium height growth across two

Peirce, Anthony

66

Non-equilibrium phase transition in an exactly solvable driven Ising model with friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A driven Ising model with friction due to magnetic correlations has recently been proposed by Kadau et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 137205 (2008)). The non-equilibrium phase transition present in this system is investigated in detail using analytical methods as well as Monte Carlo simulations. In the limit of high driving velocities $v$ the model shows mean field behavior due to dimensional reduction and can be solved exactly for various geometries. The simulations are performed with three different single spin flip rates: the common Metropolis and Glauber rates as well as a multiplicative rate. Due to the non-equilibrium nature of the model all rates lead to different critical temperatures at $v>0$, while the exact solution matches the multiplicative rate. Finally, the cross-over from Ising to mean field behavior as function of velocity and system size is analysed in one and two dimensions.

Alfred Hucht

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

67

Strongly anisotropic non-equilibrium phase transition in Ising models with friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The non-equilibrium phase transition in driven two-dimensional Ising models with two different geometries is investigated using Monte Carlo methods as well as analytical calculations. The models show dissipation through fluctuation induced friction near the critical point. We first consider high driving velocities and demonstrate that both systems are in the same universality class and undergo a strongly anisotropic non-equilibrium phase transition, with anisotropy exponent \\theta=3. Within a field theoretical ansatz the simulation results are confirmed. The crossover from Ising to mean field behavior in dependency of system size and driving velocity is analyzed using crossover scaling. It turns out that for all finite velocities the phase transition becomes strongly anisotropic in the thermodynamic limit.

Sebastian Angst; Alfred Hucht; Dietrich E. Wolf

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

68

An equilibrium double-twist model for the radial structure of collagen fibrils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mammalian tissues contain networks and ordered arrays of collagen fibrils originating from the periodic self-assembly of helical 300 nm long tropocollagen complexes. The fibril radius is typically between 25 to 250 nm, and tropocollagen at the surface appears to exhibit a characteristic twist-angle with respect to the fibril axis. Similar fibril radii and twist-angles at the surface are observed in vitro, suggesting that these features are controlled by a similar self-assembly process. In this work, we propose a physical mechanism of equilibrium radius control for collagen fibrils based on a radially varying double-twist alignment of tropocollagen within a collagen fibril. The free-energy of alignment is similar to that of liquid crystalline blue phases, and we employ an analytic Euler-Lagrange and numerical free energy minimization to determine the twist-angle between the molecular axis and the fibril axis along the radial direction. Competition between the different elastic energy components, together with a surface energy, determines the equilibrium radius and twist-angle at the fibril surface. A simplified model with a twist-angle that is linear with radius is a reasonable approximation in some parameter regimes, and explains a power-law dependence of radius and twist-angle at the surface as parameters are varied. Fibril radius and twist-angle at the surface corresponding to an equilibrium free-energy minimum are consistent with existing experimental measurements of collagen fibrils. Remarkably, in the experimental regime, all of our model parameters are important for controlling equilibrium structural parameters of collagen fibrils.

Aidan I Brown; Laurent Kreplak; Andrew D Rutenberg

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Equilibrium Response and Transient Dynamics Datasets from VEMAP: Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Users of the VEMAP Portal can access input files of numerical data that include monthly and daily files of geographic data, soil and site files, scenario files, etc. Model results from Phase I, the Equilibrium Response datasets, are available through the NCAR anonymous FTP site at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/vresults.html. Phase II, Transient Dynamics, include climate datasets, models results, and analysis tools. Many supplemental files are also available from the main data page at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/datasets.html.

70

The Influence of Thermal Pressure on Equilibrium Models of Hypermassive Neutron Star Merger Remnants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The merger of two neutron stars leaves behind a rapidly spinning hypermassive object whose survival is believed to depend on the maximum mass supported by the nuclear equation of state, angular momentum redistribution by (magneto-)rotational instabilities, and spindown by gravitational waves. The high temperatures (~5-40 MeV) prevailing in the merger remnant may provide thermal pressure support that could increase its maximum mass and, thus, its life on a neutrino-cooling timescale. We investigate the role of thermal pressure support in hypermassive merger remnants by computing sequences of spherically-symmetric and axisymmetric uniformly and differentially rotating equilibrium solutions to the general-relativistic stellar structure equations. Using a set of finite-temperature nuclear equations of state, we find that hot maximum-mass critically spinning configurations generally do not support larger baryonic masses than their cold counterparts. However, subcritically spinning configurations with mean density of less than a few times nuclear saturation density yield a significantly thermally enhanced mass. Even without decreasing the maximum mass, cooling and other forms of energy loss can drive the remnant to an unstable state. We infer secular instability by identifying approximate energy turning points in equilibrium sequences of constant baryonic mass parametrized by maximum density. Energy loss carries the remnant along the direction of decreasing gravitational mass and higher density until instability triggers collapse. Since configurations with more thermal pressure support are less compact and thus begin their evolution at a lower maximum density, they remain stable for longer periods after merger.

J. D. Kaplan; C. D. Ott; E. P. O'Connor; K. Kiuchi; L. Roberts; M. Duez

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Combustion modeling of mono-carbon fuels using the rate-controlled constrained-equilibrium method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rate-controlled constrained-equilibrium (RCCE) method for simplifying the kinetics of complex reacting systems is reviewed. This method is based on the maximum entropy principle of thermodynamics and involves the assumption that the evolution of a system can be described using a relatively small set of slowly changing constraints imposed by the external and internal dynamics of the system. As a result, the number of differential and algebraic equations required to determine the constrained-equilibrium state of a system can be very much smaller than the number of species in the system. It follows that only reactions which change constraints are required to determine the dynamic evolution of the system and all other reactions are in equilibrium. The accuracy of the method depends on both the character and number of constraints employed and issues involved in the selection and transformation of the constraints are discussed. A method for determining the initial conditions for highly non-equilibrium systems is also presented. The method is illustrated by applying it to the oxidation of methane (CH{sub 4}), methanol (CH{sub 3}OH), and formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O) in a constant volume adiabatic chamber over a wide range of initial temperatures, pressures, and equivalence ratios. The RCCE calculations were carried out using 8-12 constraints and 133 reactions. Good agreement with ''Detailed Kinetic Model'' (DMK) calculations using 29 species and 133 reactions was obtained. The number of reactions in the RCCE calculations could be reduced to 20 for CH{sub 4}, 16 for CH{sub 3}OH, and 12 for CH{sub 2}O without changing the results significantly affecting the agreement. It may be noted that a DKM with 29 species requires a minimum of 29 reactions. (author)

Janbozorgi, Mohammad; Ugarte, Sergio; Metghalchi, Hameed [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Keck, James. C. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

The application of a chemical equilibrium model, SOLTEQ, to predict the chemical speciations in stabilized/solidified waste forms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE APPLICATION OI' A CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL, SOLTEQ, TO PREDICT THK CHEMICAL SPKCIATIONS IN STABILIZED/SOLIDIFIED WASTE FORMS A Thesis by JOO-YANG PARK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1994 Major Subject: Civil Engineering THE APPLICATION OF A CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL, SOLTEQ, TO PREDICT THE CHEMICAL SPECIATIONS IN STABILIZED/SOLIDIFIED WASTE FORMS A Thesis...

Park, Joo-Yang

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Non-equilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin film active gels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the presence of ATP, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modelling can help to quantify the relationship between individual motors plus filaments to organisation and dynamics on molecular and supra-molecular length scales. Here we present results of extensive numerical simulations of active gels where the motors and filaments are confined between two infinite parallel plates. Thermal fluctuations and excluded-volume interactions between filaments are included. A systematic variation of rates for motor motion, attachment and detachment, including a differential detachment rate from filament ends, reveals a range of non-equilibrium behaviour. Strong motor binding produces structured filament aggregates that we refer to as asters, bundles or layers, whose stability depends on motor speed and differential end-detachment. The gross features of the dependence of the observed structures on the motor rate and the filament concentration can be captured by a simple one-filament model. Loosely bound aggregates exhibit super-diffusive mass transport, where filament translocation scales with lag time with non-unique exponents that depend on motor kinetics. An empirical data collapse of filament speed as a function of motor speed and end-detachment is found, suggesting a dimensional reduction of the relevant parameter space. We conclude by discussing the perspectives of microscopic modelling in the field of active gels.

D. A. Head; W. J. Briels; G. Gompper

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

74

Modelling anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic anisotropic fluid sphere, (spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully modelled by suitable linear combinations of quite ordinary classical matter: an isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field, and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model that is used to mimic the anisotropic fluid sphere. Consequently, we can build physically reasonable matter models for almost any spherically symmetric spacetime.

Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Verification of the equilibrium and MHD stability codes within the Integrated Tokamak Modeling Task Force framework.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equilibrium codes CHEASE[1], HELENA[2], SPIDER[3], CAXE[4] and linear MHD stability codes MARS[5], MARS-F[6 and CAXE fixed boundary equilibrium codes is presented in this section. All codes are solving Grad

Vlad, Gregorio

76

THERMAL NON-EQUILIBRIUM REVISITED: A HEATING MODEL FOR CORONAL LOOPS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The location and frequency of events that heat the million-degree corona are still a matter of debate. One potential heating scenario is that the energy release is effectively steady and highly localized at the footpoints of coronal structures. Such an energy deposition drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions in the hydrodynamic equations in longer loops. This heating scenario was considered and discarded by Klimchuk et al. on the basis of their one-dimensional simulations as incapable of reproducing observational characteristics of loops. In this paper, we use three-dimensional simulations to generate synthetic emission images, from which we select and analyze six loops. The main differences between our model and that of Klimchuk et al. concern (1) dimensionality, (2) resolution, (3) geometrical properties of the loops, (4) heating function, and (5) radiative function. We find evidence, in this small set of simulated loops, that the evolution of the light curves, the variation of temperature along the loops, the density profile, and the absence of small-scale structures are compatible with the characteristics of observed loops. We conclude that quasi-steady footpoint heating that drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions cannot yet be ruled out as a viable heating scenario for EUV loops.

Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Rd., Ste. 170, San Diego, CA 92121-2910 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Mok, Yung, E-mail: lionel@predsci.com, E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com, E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov, E-mail: ymok@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 4129 Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

77

The Sulfur-Iodine Cycle: Process Analysis and Design Using Comprehensive Phase Equilibrium Measurements and Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Of the 100+ thermochemical hydrogen cycles that have been proposed, the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) Cycle is a primary target of international interest for the centralized production of hydrogen from nuclear power. However, the cycle involves complex and highly nonideal phase behavior at extreme conditions that is only beginning to be understood and modeled for process simulation. The consequence is that current designs and efficiency projections have large uncertainties, as they are based on incomplete data that must be extrapolated from property models. This situation prevents reliable assessment of the potential viability of the system and, even more, a basis for efficient process design. The goal of this NERI award (05-006) was to generate phase-equilibrium data, property models, and comprehensive process simulations so that an accurate evaluation of the S-I Cycle could be made. Our focus was on Section III of the Cycle, where the hydrogen is produced by decomposition of hydroiodic acid (HI) in the presence of water and iodine (I2) in a reactive distillation (RD) column. The results of this project were to be transferred to the nuclear hydrogen community in the form of reliable flowsheet models for the S-I process. Many of the project objectives were achieved. At Clemson University, a unique, tantalum-based, phase-equilibrium apparatus incorporating a view cell was designed and constructed for measuring fluid-phase equilibria for mixtures of iodine, HI, and water (known as HIx) at temperatures to 350 °C and pressures to 100 bar. Such measurements were of particular interest for developing a working understanding of the expected operation of the RD column in Section III. The view cell allowed for the IR observation and discernment of vapor-liquid (VL), liquid-liquid, and liquid-liquid-vapor (LLVE) equilibria for HIx systems. For the I2-H2O system, liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) was discovered to exist at temperatures up to 310-315 °C, in contrast to the models and predictions of earlier workers. For the I2-HI-H2O ternary, LLE and LLVE were all observed for the first time at temperatures of 160 and 200 °C. Three LLE tie-lines were measured at 160 °C, and preliminary indications are that the underlying phase behavior could result in further improvements in the performance of the S-I Cycle. Unfortunately, these new results were obtained too late in the project to be incorporated into the modeling and simulation work described below. At the University of Virginia, a uniquely complete and reliable model was developed for the thermodynamic properties of HIx, covering the range of conditions expected for the separation of product hydrogen and recycled iodine in the RD column located in Section III. The model was validated with all available property spectroscopy data. The results provide major advances over prior understanding of the chemical speciation involved. The model was implemented in process simulation studies of the S-I Cycle, which showed improvement in energy efficiency to 42%, as well as significantly smaller capital requirements due to lower pressure operation and much smaller equipment sizes. The result is that the S-I Cycle may be much more economically feasible than was previously thought. If both the experimental and modeling work described above were to be continued to ultimate process optimization, both the American public and the global community would benefit from this alternative energy source that does not produce carbon emissions.

Thies, Mark C.; O'Connell, J. P.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.

2010-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

78

Analysis of the classical pseudo-3D model for hydraulic fracture with equilibrium height growth across stress barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of the classical pseudo-3D model for hydraulic fracture with equilibrium height growth t This paper deals with the so-called ``pseudo three-dimensional'' (P3D) model for a hydraulic fracture of the length, height, and aperture of the hydraulic fracture, in contrast to the numerical formulations adopted

Peirce, Anthony

79

Detecting temperature fluctuations at equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gibbs and Boltzmann definitions of temperature agree only in the macroscopic limit. The ambiguity in identifying the equilibrium temperature of a finite sized `small' system exchanging energy with a bath is usually understood as a limitation of conventional statistical mechanics. We interpret this ambiguity as resulting from a stochastically fluctuating temperature coupled with the phase space variables giving rise to a broad temperature distribution. With this ansatz, we develop the equilibrium statistics and dynamics of small systems. Numerical evidence using an analytically tractable model shows that the effects of temperature fluctuations can be detected in equilibrium and dynamical properties of the phase space of the small system. Our theory generalizes statistical mechanics to small systems relevant to biophysics and nanotechnology.

Dixit, Purushottam D

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

System Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts (MESSAGE) (Redirected from Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts) Jump to:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental Finance. MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES REN´E CARMONA , MAX FEHR , JURI HINZ , AND ARNAUD PORCHET to help policy makers and regulators understand the pros and the cons of the emissions markets. We propose

Carmona, Rene

82

A thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model in local thermal non-equilibrium for fractured HDR reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model in local thermal non-equilibrium for fractured HDR of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. Abstract The constitutive thermo-hydro-mechanical equations is next applied to simulate circulation tests at the Fenton Hill HDR reservoir. The finer thermo-hydro

Boyer, Edmond

83

New model for nucleon generalized parton distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a new type of models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E. They are heavily based on the fact nucleon GPDs require to use two forms of double distribution (DD) representations. The outcome of the new treatment is that the usual DD+D-term construction should be amended by an extra term, {xi} E{sub +}{sup 1} (x,{xi}) which has the DD structure {alpha}/{beta} e({beta},{alpha}, with e({beta},{alpha}) being the DD that generates GPD E(x,{xi}). We found that this function, unlike the D-term, has support in the whole -1 <= x <= 1 region. Furthermore, it does not vanish at the border points |x|={xi}.

Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Distributional Impacts of a U.S. Greenhouse Gas Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis of Carbon Pricing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a new model of the U.S., the U.S. Regional Energy Policy (USREP) model that is resolved for large states and regions of the U.S. and by income class and apply the model to investigate a $15 per ton CO2 equivalent ...

Paltsev, Sergey

85

Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States and Japan: A general equilibrium analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States and Japan: A general-in hybrid electric vehicles Environmental policy Emissions a b s t r a c t The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) may offer a potential near term, low-carbon alternative to today's gasoline- and diesel-powered

86

Interacting holographic generalized Chaplygin gas model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we consider a correspondence between the holographic dark energy density and interacting generalized Chaplygin gas energy density in FRW universe. Then we reconstruct the potential of the scalar field which describe the generalized Chaplygin cosmology.

M. R. Setare

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

THE ABUNDANCE OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN AND ITS CORRELATION WITH MIDPLANE PRESSURE IN GALAXIES: NON-EQUILIBRIUM, TURBULENT, CHEMICAL MODELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of spiral galaxies show a strong linear correlation between the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen surface density R{sub mol} and midplane pressure. To explain this, we simulate three-dimensional, magnetized turbulence, including simplified treatments of non-equilibrium chemistry and the propagation of dissociating radiation, to follow the formation of H{sub 2} from cold atomic gas. The formation timescale for H{sub 2} is sufficiently long that equilibrium is not reached within the 20-30 Myr lifetimes of molecular clouds. The equilibrium balance between radiative dissociation and H{sub 2} formation on dust grains fails to predict the time-dependent molecular fractions we find. A simple, time-dependent model of H{sub 2} formation can reproduce the gross behavior, although turbulent density perturbations increase molecular fractions by a factor of few above it. In contradiction to equilibrium models, radiative dissociation of molecules plays little role in our model for diffuse radiation fields with strengths less than 10 times that of the solar neighborhood, because of the effective self-shielding of H{sub 2}. The observed correlation of R{sub mol} with pressure corresponds to a correlation with local gas density if the effective temperature in the cold neutral medium of galactic disks is roughly constant. We indeed find such a correlation of R{sub mol} with density. If we examine the value of R{sub mol} in our local models after a free-fall time at their average density, as expected for models of molecular cloud formation by large-scale gravitational instability, our models reproduce the observed correlation over more than an order-of-magnitude range in density.

Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Glover, Simon C. O., E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: glover@uni-heidelberg.de [Zentrum der Astrophysik der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

88

Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

Michael J Iacono

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Equilibrium and volumetric data and model development of coal fluids. [Quarterly report], January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long term goal of our efforts is to develop accurate predictive methods for description of equilibrium phase properties for a variety of types of mixtures and operating conditions. The specific objectives of the work specified herein include: (1) development of an experimental facility having the capability to provide data on equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) and liquid densities, and doing so with greater accuracy and speed than our previous facility, (2) measurement of equilibrium phase properties for systematically-selected mixtures-specifically those containing important solute gases (such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, carbonyl sulfide, ammonia) in a series of heavy paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic solvents (e.g., n-decane, n-eicosane, n-octacosane, n-hexatriacontane, cyclohexane, Decalin, perhydrophenanthrene, perhydropyrene, benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene), (3) testing/development of correlation frameworks for representing the phase behavior of fluids of the type encountered in coal conversion processes, and (4) generalization of parameters in the correlation frameworks to enable accurate predictions for systems of the type studied, permitting predictions to be made for systems and conditions other than those for which experimental data are available.

Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Park, J.

1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

90

Phase-field models in interfacial pattern formation out of equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The phase-field method is reviewed from the general perspective of converting a free boundary problem into a set of coupled partial differential equations. Its main advantage is that it avoids front tracking by using phase fields to locate the fronts. These fields interpolate between different constant values in each bulk phase through diffuse interfaces of finite thickness. In solidification, the phase fields can be understood as order parameters, and the model is often derived to dynamically minimise a free energy functional. However, this is not a necessary requirement, and both derivations involving a free energy (basic solidification model) and not (first viscous fingering model) are worked out. In any case, the model is required to reproduce the original free boundary problem in the limit of vanishing interface thickness. This limit and its higher order corrections, important to make quantitative contact between simulations and experiments, are discussed for both examples. Applications to fluctuations in solidification, the growth of liquid crystal mesophases, and viscous fingering in Hele-Shaw cells are presented.

R. Gonzalez-Cinca; R. Folch; R. Benitez; L. Ramirez-Piscina; J. Casademunt; A. Hernandez-Machado

2003-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

91

Comparative Evaluation of Generalized River/Reservoir System Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report reviews user-oriented generalized reservoir/river system models. The terms reservoir/river system, reservoir system, reservoir operation, or river basin management "model" or "modeling system" are used synonymously to refer to computer...

Wurbs, Ralph A.

92

Evaluation of a Swiss carbon tax with the Computable General Equilibrium Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

03 Natural Gas Italy ITA 04 Refined Petroleum Spain ESP 0 of indirect taxation [4]. The version of GEMINI-E3 used in this study is formulated as a Mixed Complementarity

Lausanne, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de

93

Computable General Equilibrium Models for Eco-nomic Policy Evaluation and Impact Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the assessment of the economic impacts of policies ranging from tax reforms to the mitigation and adaptation

Wing, Ian Sue

94

The analysis of trade liberalisation in Australia using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Trade liberalisation has a central role in Australia due to its significant contributions to the welfare and economic performance throughout Australia??s history. Despite its high… (more)

Nguyen, Viet Ha

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

General Equilibrium Model for Economy - Energy - Environment (GEM-E3) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, searchGeauga County, Ohio: Energy Resources Jump to:GenabilityAtomicsOpen

96

Bose condensate inb interaction with excitations - a two-component space-dependent model close to equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper considers a model for Bose gases in the so-called 'high-temperature range' below the temperature Tc, where Bose-Einstein condensation sets in.The model is of non-linear two-component type, consisting of a kinetic equation with periodic boundary conditions for the distribution function of a gas of excitations interacting with a Bose condensate, which is described by a Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Results on well-posedness and long time behaviour are proved in a H1-setting close to equilibrium.

L. Arkeryd; A. Nouri

2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

97

Modeling of non-equilibrium phenomena in expanding flows by means of a collisional-radiative model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of non-equilibrium in a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle flow are investigated by means of a collisional-radiative model. The gas undergoing the expansion is an air plasma and consists of atoms, molecules, and free electrons. In the present analysis, the electronic excited states of atomic and molecular species are treated as separate pseudo-species. Rotational and vibrational energy modes are assumed to be populated according to Boltzmann distributions. The coupling between radiation and gas dynamics is accounted for, in simplified manner, by using escape factors. The flow governing equations for the steady quasi-one-dimensional flow are written in conservative form and discretized in space by means of a finite volume method. Steady-state solutions are obtained by using a fully implicit time integration scheme. The analysis of the evolution of the electronic distribution functions reveals a substantial over-population of the high-lying excited levels of atoms and molecules in correspondence of the nozzle exit. The influence of optical thickness is also studied. The results clearly demonstrate that the radiative transitions, within the optically thin approximation, drastically reduce the over-population of high-lying electronic levels.

Munafò, A.; Lani, A. [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, 1640 Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium)] [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, 1640 Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium); Bultel, A. [CORIA, UMR CNRS 6614, Universitè de Rouen, Site universitaire du Madrillet, Avenue de l'Universitè 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France)] [CORIA, UMR CNRS 6614, Universitè de Rouen, Site universitaire du Madrillet, Avenue de l'Universitè 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Panesi, M. [Aerospace Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Lab, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Aerospace Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Lab, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

HOMOGENEOUS MODELS IN GENERAL RELATIVITY AND GAS DYNAMICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HOMOGENEOUS MODELS IN GENERAL RELATIVITY AND GAS DYNAMICS O. I. BOGOYAVLENSKII AND S. P. NOVIKOV analytically) in general relativity and gas dynamics. The investigation of these models is carried out begins with a short survey of results on non-trivial models (that is, those that are not integrable

Novikov, Sergei Petrovich

99

Market Equilibrium with Transaction Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identical products being sold at different prices in different locations is a common phenomenon. Price differences might occur due to various reasons such as shipping costs, trade restrictions and price discrimination. We give a way to model such scenarios by supplementing the classical Fisher model of a market by introducing {\\em transaction costs}. For every buyer $i$ and every good $j$, there is a transaction cost of $\\cij$; if the price of good $j$ is $p_j$, then the cost to the buyer $i$ {\\em per unit} of $j$ is $p_j + \\cij$. This allows the same good to be sold at different (effective) prices to different buyers. We study questions regarding existence, uniqueness and computability of equilibrium in such a model. Our results can be summarized as such: The convex program of \\cite{Dev09} can be generalized to prove existence and uniqueness of equilibrium. We also provide a combinatorial algorithm that computes $\\epsilon$-approximate equilibrium prices and allocations in $O(\\frac{1}{\\epsilon}(n+\\log{m})mn\\l...

Chakraborty, Sourav; Karande, Chinmay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes such as flash pyrolysis [187], but it has not yetreaction model for flash wood pyrolysis,” Fuel 68: 1408–

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Generalized Terminal Modeling of Electromagnetic Interference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Terminal models have been used for various applications. In this paper, a three-terminal model is proposed for electromagnetic-interference (EMI) characterization. The model starts with a power electronic system at a particular operating condition and creates a unique linearized equivalent circuit. Impedances and current/voltage sources define the noise throughout the entire EMI frequency spectrum. All parameters needed to create the model are clearly defined to ensure convergence and maximize accuracy. In addition, the accuracy of the model is confirmed up to 100 MHz for a dc-dc boost converter using both simulation and experimental validation.

Baisden, Andrew Carson [IEEE Industrial Applications Society; Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Wang, Fei [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Modeling of Antarctic sea ice in a general circulation model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model is developed and coupled with the Melbourne University general circulation model to simulate the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic sea ice distributions The model is efficient, rapid to compute, and useful for a range of climate studies. The thermodynamic part of the sea ice model is similar to that developed by Parkinson and Washington, the dynamics contain a simplified ice rheology that resists compression. The thermodynamics is based on energy conservation at the top surface of the ice/snow, the ice/water interface, and the open water area to determine the ice formation, accretion, and ablation. A lead parameterization is introduced with an effective partitioning scheme for freezing between and under the ice floes. The dynamic calculation determines the motion of ice, which is forced with the atmospheric wind, taking account of ice resistance and rafting. The simulated sea ice distribution compares reasonably well with observations. The seasonal cycle of ice extent is well simulated in phase as well as in magnitude. Simulated sea ice thickness and concentration are also in good agreement with observations over most regions and serve to indicate the importance of advection and ocean drift in the determination of the sea ice distribution. 64 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

Wu, Xingren; Budd, W.F. [Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, Tasmania (Australia)] [Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, Tasmania (Australia); Simmonds, I. [School of Earth Sciences, Victoria (Australia)] [School of Earth Sciences, Victoria (Australia)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

model. ?H c is the heat of combustion, and the ratio ?H c /?may have widely varying heats of combustion (CO vs. gaseous

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

A General Model for Epistemic State Revision using Plausibility Measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A General Model for Epistemic State Revision using Plausibility Measures Jianbing Ma 1 and Weiru Liu1 Abstract. In this paper, we present a general revision model on epistemic states based on plausibility measures proposed by Fried- man and Halpern. We propose our revision strategy and give some

Liu, Weiru

105

A single model of interacting dark energy: generalized phantom energy or generalized Chaplygin gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present a model in which dark energy interacts with matter. The former is represented by a variable equation of state. It is shown that the phantom crossing takes place at zero redshift, moreover, stable scaling solution of the Friedmann equations is obtained. I show that dark energy is most probably be either generalized phantom energy or the generalized Chaplygin gas.

Mubasher Jamil

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

106

NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-37 AN EQUILIBRIUM MODEL FOR THE PARTITIONING OF SYNTHETIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. DEFINING THE ECOSYSTEM 5. THE MODEL'S OPERATION 5.1 Model Runs 5.2 The Model Applied to DDT 5.3 The Model of DDT concentrations in fish, biota, and sedi- ments. DDT concentrations. DDT loss rates. Isomeric 10 17 18 20 21 iv #12;TABLES 1. Input parameters for DDT model. 2. Input parameters for PCB model. 3

107

Efficient inference in general semiparametric regression models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conclusions ................. 33 II.5.3.1. Can Semiparametric Methods Improve Upon the Sample Mean? .......... 34 II.5.3.2. How Critical Are Our Assumptions on Z?35 III TESTING IN SEMIPARAMETRIC MODELS WITH IN- TERACTION ............................ 38 III.1... ........................................ 134 x LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1. Significance levels (p-values) of the test for genetic e?ects in a regression model in which Z is years since stopped smoking. ..... 68 2. Mean, empirical standard errors (emp s.e.), root mean squared error (RMSE...

Maity, Arnab

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

INVESTIGATION A General Mechanistic Model for Admixture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

model of admixture that mechanistically accounts for complex historical admixture processes. We consider about the historical admixture processes contributing to the genetic diversity of hybrid populations; Tang et al. 2006; Sankararaman et al. 2008; Bercovici and Geiger 2009; Price et al. 2009). Admixed

Rosenberg, Noah

109

Modeling non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasma using the Flexible Atomic Code data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new code, RCF("Radiative-Collisional code based on FAC"), which is used to simulate steady-state plasmas under non local thermodynamic equilibrium condition, especially photoinization dominated plasmas. RCF takes almost all of the radiative and collisional atomic processes into rate equation to interpret the plasmas systematically. The Flexible Atomic Code (FAC) supplies all the atomic data RCF needed, which insures calculating completeness and consistency of atomic data. With four input parameters relating to the radiation source and target plasma, RCF calculates the population of levels and charge states, as well as potentially emission spectrum. In preliminary application, RCF successfully reproduces the results of a photoionization experiment with reliable atomic data. The effects of the most important atomic processes on the charge state distribution are also discussed.

Han, Bo; Salzmann, David; Zhao, Gang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Generalized models and benchmarks for channel coordination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model.? The vendor orders in bulk and dispatches to the buyer in smaller quantities. Hence, the number of buyer re- plenishments within one replenishment cycle of the vendor is an integer variable. Due to the stepwise structure of the replenishment cost...- patch policy to the buyer significantly effects the profits of the system. In Chapter V, we discuss seven major dispatch policies that have been proposed in the previous literature. Some of these policies exhibit easily implementable structures; others...

Toptal, Aysegul

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

111

Condensation of helium in aerogels as an experimental realization of the out-of-equilibrium Random Field Ising Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensation of helium in aerogels as an experimental realization of the out-of-equilibrium Random-catalysed silica aerogels of large porosity presents a similar out-of-equilibrium behavior when the temperature

112

Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium Green's functions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the operation of an 8.5??m quantum cascade laser based on GaInAs/AlInAs lattice matched to InP using three different simulation models based on density matrix (DM) and non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formulations. The latter advanced scheme serves as a validation for the simpler DM schemes and, at the same time, provides additional insight, such as the temperatures of the sub-band carrier distributions. We find that for the particular quantum cascade laser studied here, the behavior is well described by simple quantum mechanical estimates based on Fermi's golden rule. As a consequence, the DM model, which includes second order currents, agrees well with the NEGF results. Both these simulations are in accordance with previously reported data and a second regrown device.

Lindskog, M., E-mail: martin.lindskog@teorfys.lu.se; Wacker, A. [Mathematical Physics, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Wolf, J. M.; Liverini, V.; Faist, J. [ETH Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH-Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Trinite, V.; Maisons, G.; Carras, M. [III-V Lab, 1 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Aidam, R.; Ostendorf, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Tullastrasse 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

113

Spatial Correlations in General Circulation Models and Observation Reanalysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set CCSM4 Community Climate System Model Version 4 CM3 Climate Model Version 3 Mk3 Mark 3.0 CM5A Climate Model Version 5A ESM Earth System Model OBS Observations REA Reanalysis picontrol Pre-Industrial Control Run GCM General... ESM 1.9? × 1.9? 1000 IPSL CM5A 1.9? × 3.75? 1000 CSIRO MK3 3.2? × 5.6? 1000 NCDC OBS 5? × 5? - NCEP REA 2.5? × 2.5? 65 3.1 General Circulation Models GCMs are useful tools for understanding the roles of the major climate system components. Analyses...

Sansom, Taylor Lee

2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

114

Double Generalized Linear Models: Approximate REML and Diagnostics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

added com­ plication in a generalized linear model setting by adjusting the working vector and working the dispersion will be of direct interest in its own right, to identify the sources of variability

Smyth, Gordon K.

115

Modeling, measurement, and 3-D equilibrium reconstruction of the bootstrap current in the Helically Symmetric Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bootstrap current for three electron cyclotron resonance heated plasma scenarios in a quasihelically symmetric stellarator (the Helically Symmetric Experiment) are analyzed and compared to a neoclassical transport code PENTA. The three conditions correspond to 50?kW input power with a resonance that is off-axis, 50?kW on-axis heating and 100?kW on-axis heating. When the heating location was moved from off-axis to on-axis with 50?kW heating power, the stored energy and the extrapolated steady-state current were both observed to increase. When the on-axis heating power was increased from 50?kW to 100?kW, the stored energy continued to increase while the bootstrap current slightly decreased. This trend is qualitatively in agreement with the calculations which indicate that a large positive electric field for the 100?kW case was driving the current negative in a small region close to the magnetic axis and accounting for the decrease in the total integrated current. This trend in the calculations is only observed to occur when momentum conservation between particle species is included. Without momentum conservation, the calculated bootstrap current increases monotonically. We show that the magnitude of the bootstrap current as calculated by PENTA agrees better with the experiment when momentum conservation between plasma species is included in the calculation. The total current was observed in all cases to flow in a direction to unwind the transform, unlike in a tokamak in which the bootstrap current adds to the transform. The 3-D inductive response of the plasma is simulated to predict the evolution of the current profile during the discharge. The 3-D equilibrium reconstruction code V3FIT is used to reconstruct profiles of the plasma pressure and current constrained by measurements with a set of magnetic diagnostics. The reconstructed profiles are consistent with the measured plasma pressure profile and the simulated current profile when the reconstruction is constrained by the measured data from a diagnostic array that is internal to the vacuum chamber.

Schmitt, J. C.; Talmadge, J. N.; Anderson, D. T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Hanson, J. D. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

The current status of titaniterutile thermobarometry in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks: The in uence of titanite activity models on phase equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The current status of titanite­rutile thermobarometry in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks: The in uence of titanite activity models on phase equilibrium calculations Peter Tropper a,b, , Craig E Article history: Accepted 12 March 2008 Keywords: Titanite Activity model Al+F substitution UHP

Manning, Craig

117

Random Item Modeling: An Extension and Generalization of MIRID models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be seen in both the RF- and the RR-MIRD models and meets ourthe FR- MIRID and the RR-MIRD show the better fit than thestudy shows how various RI-MIRD models fit verbal aggression

Lee, Yongsang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Generalized Chaplygin gas model: Cosmological consequences and statefinder diagnosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model in spatially flat universe is investigated. The cosmological consequences led by GCG model including the evolution of EoS parameter, deceleration parameter and dimensionless Hubble parameter are calculated. We show that the GCG model behaves as a general quintessence model. The GCG model can also represent the pressureless CDM model at the early time and cosmological constant model at the late time. The dependency of transition from decelerated expansion to accelerated expansion on the parameters of model is investigated. The statefinder parameters $r$ and $s$ in this model are derived and the evolutionary trajectories in $s-r$ plane are plotted. Finally, based on current observational data, we plot the evolutionary trajectories in $s-r$ and $q-r$ planes for best fit values of the parameters of GCG model. It has been shown that although, there are similarities between GCG model and other forms of chaplygin gas in statefinder plane, but the distance of this model from the $\\Lambda$CDM fixed point in $s-r$ diagram is shorter compare with standard chaplygin gas model.

M. Malekjani; A. Khodam-Mohammadi; N. Nazari-Pooya

2011-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

119

A grid of MARCS model atmospheres for late-type stars I. Methods and general properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have constructed a grid of about 10,000 spherically symmetric and plane-parallel models with the MARCS program, and make it available for public use. Parameter ranges are: Teff=2500 to 8000 K, log g =log(GM/R2)= -1 to 5 (cgs) with various masses and radii, [Me/H]=-5 to +1, with [Alpha/Fe] = 0.0 and 0.4 and different choices of C and N abundances to also represent stars of types R, S and N, and with microturbulence parameters from 1 to 5 km/s. We also list fluxes in approximately 108,000 wavelength points. Underlying assumptions in addition to 1D stratification include hydrostatic equilibrium, MLT convection and LTE. A number of general properties of the models are discussed, in relation to the effects of changing blanketing and sphericity. Models are compared with other available grids and excellent agreement is found with plane-parallel models of Castelli and Kurucz within the overlapping parameter range. Although there are departures from the spherically symmetric NextGen models, the agreement with more recent PHOENIX models is gratifying. The models of the grid show regularities, but some interesting departures from general patterns occur for the coolest models due to the molecular opacities. We have tested rules of thumb concerning effects of blanketing and sphericity and found them to often be astonishingly accurate. Some interesting new phenomena have been discovered, such as the intricate coupling between blanketing and sphericity, and the strong effects of carbon enhancement on metal-poor models. We give further details of models and comparisons with observations in subsequent papers.

Bengt Gustafsson; Bengt Edvardsson; Kjell Eriksson; Uffe Graae Jorgensen; Aake Nordlund; Bertrand Plez

2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

120

Pre-Equilibrium Cluster Emission with Pickup and Knockout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a generalization of the Iwamoto-Harada-Bisplinghoff pre-equilibrium model of light cluster formation and emission, which is enhanced by allowing for possible admixtures of knockout for strongly coupled ejectiles, like {alpha}'s. The model is able to attain the Weisskopf-Ewing formula for compound-nucleus decay at long-time limit; it keeps the philosophy of pre-equilibrium decay during the equilibration stage and it describes the initial phase of a reaction as direct process(es) expressed using the language of the exciton model.

Betak, E. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Philosophy and Sciences, Silesian University, 74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Hartle's model within the general theory of perturbative matchings: the change in mass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hartle's model provides the most widely used analytic framework to describe isolated compact bodies rotating slowly in equilibrium up to second order in perturbations in the context of General Relativity. Apart from some explicit assumptions, there are some implicit, like the "continuity" of the functions in the perturbed metric across the surface of the body. In this work we sketch the basics for the analysis of the second order problem using the modern theory of perturbed matchings. In particular, the result we present is that when the energy density of the fluid in the static configuration does not vanish at the boundary, one of the functions of the second order perturbation in the setting of the original work by Hartle is not continuous. This discrepancy affects the calculation of the change in mass of the rotating star with respect to the static configuration needed to keep the central energy density unchanged.

Borja Reina; Raül Vera

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

122

Virasoro representations and fusion for general augmented minimal models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we present explicit results for the fusion of irreducible and higher rank representations in two logarithmically conformal models, the augmented c_{2,3} = 0 model as well as the augmented Yang-Lee model at c_{2,5} = -22/5. We analyse their spectrum of representations which is consistent with the symmetry and associativity of the fusion algebra. We also describe the first few higher rank representations in detail. In particular, we present the first examples of consistent rank 3 indecomposable representations and describe their embedding structure. Knowing these two generic models we also conjecture the general representation content and fusion rules for general augmented c_{p,q} models.

Holger Eberle; Michael Flohr

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

123

Generalized holographic dark energy model described at the Hubble length  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We generalize the holographic dark energy model described in Hubble length IR cutoff by assuming a slowly time varying function for holographic parameter $c^2$. We calculate the evolution of EoS parameter and the deceleration parameter as well as the evolution of dark energy density in this generalized model. We show that the phantom line is crossed from quintessence regime to phantom regime which is in agreement with observation. The evolution of deceleration parameter indicates the transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion. Eventually, we show that the GHDE with HIR cutoff can interpret the pressureless dark matter era at the early time and dark energy dominated phase later.

M. Malekjani

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

124

Modeling Smart Grid using Generalized Stochastic Petri Net  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Building smart grid for power system is a major challenge for safe, automated and energy efficient usage of electricity. The full implementation of the smart grid will evolve over time. However, before a new set of infrastructures are invested to build the smart grid, proper modeling and analysis is needed to avoid wastage of resources. Modeling also helps to identify and prioritize appropriate systems parameters. In this paper, an all comprehensive model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The model is used to analyze the constraints and deliverables of the smart power grid of future.

Dey, Amrita; Sanyal, Sugata

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Representing vapor-liquid equilibrium for an aqueous MEA-CO{sub 2} system using the electrolyte nonrandom-two-liquid model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Following the work of Austgen et al., the electrolyte nonrandom-two-liquid (NRTL) model was applied in a thermodynamically consistent manner to represent the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA)-CO{sub 2} system with rigorous chemical equilibrium consideration. Special attention was given to the accurate VLE description of the system at both absorbing and stripping conditions relevant to most aqueous MEA absorption/stripping processes for CO{sub 2} removal. The influence from chemical equilibrium constants, Henry`s constant, experimental data, and data regression on the representation of the VLE of the system was discussed in detail. The equilibrium constant of the carbamate reversion reaction as well as important interaction parameters of the electrolyte NRTL model were carefully fitted to experimental data. A good agreement between the calculated values and the experimental data was achieved. Moreover, the model with newly fitted parameters was successfully applied to simulate three industrial cases for CO{sub 2} removal using a rate-based approach. The results from this work were compared with those using the model by Austgen et al.

Liu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Watanasiri, S. [Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

New agegraphic dark energy model with generalized uncertainty principle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the new agegraphic dark energy models with generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). It turns out that although the GUP affects the early universe, it does not change the current and future dark energy-dominated universe significantly. Furthermore, this model could describe the matter-dominated universe in the past only when the parameter $n$ is chosen to be $n>n_c$, where the critical value determined to be $n_c=2.799531478$.

Yong-Wan Kim; Hyung Won Lee; Yun Soo Myung; Mu-In Park

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

Pseudo supersymmetric partners for the generalized Swanson model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New non Hermitian Hamiltonians are generated, as isospectral partners of the generalized Swanson model, viz., $ H_- = {\\cal{A}}^{\\dagger} {\\cal{A}} + \\alpha {\\cal{A}} ^2 + \\beta {\\cal{A}}^{\\dagger 2} $, where $ \\alpha \\beta $ are real constants, with $ \\alpha \

A. Sinha; P. Roy

2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

128

Separating expansion from contraction in spherically symmetric models with a perfect fluid: Generalization of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff condition and application to models with a cosmological constant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate spherically symmetric perfect-fluid spacetimes and discuss the existence and stability of a dividing shell separating expanding and collapsing regions. We perform a 3+1 splitting and obtain gauge invariant conditions relating the intrinsic spatial curvature of the shells to the Misner-Sharp mass and to a function of the pressure that we introduce and that generalizes the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equilibrium condition. We find that surfaces fulfilling those two conditions fit, locally, the requirements of a dividing shell, and we argue that cosmological initial conditions should allow its global validity. We analyze the particular cases of the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi dust models with a cosmological constant as an example of a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant ({Lambda}-CDM model) and its generalization to contain a central perfect-fluid core. These models provide simple but physically interesting illustrations of our results.

Mimoso, Jose P.; Le Delliou, Morgan; Mena, Filipe C. [Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias, C-XI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Matematica, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Pre-equilibrium plasma dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approaches towards understanding and describing the pre-equilibrium stage of quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. Focus is on a kinetic theory approach to non-equilibrium dynamics, its extension to include the dynamics of color degrees of freedom when applied to the quark-gluon plasma, its quantum field theoretical foundations, and its relationship to both the particle formation stage at the very beginning of the nuclear collision and the hydrodynamic stage at late collision times. The usefulness of this approach to obtain the transport coefficients in the quark-gluon plasma and to derive the collective mode spectrum and damping rates in this phase are discussed. Comments are made on the general difficulty to find appropriated initial conditions to get the kinetic theory started, and a specific model is given that demonstrates that, once given such initial conditions, the system can be followed all the way through into the hydrodynamical regime. 39 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)

Heinz, U.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Holographic entanglement entropy in general holographic superconductor models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the entanglement entropy of general holographic dual models both in AdS soliton and AdS black hole backgrounds with full backreaction. We find that the entanglement entropy is a good probe to explore the properties of the holographic superconductors and provides richer physics in the phase transition. We obtain the effects of the scalar mass, model parameter and backreaction on the entropy, and argue that the jump of the entanglement entropy may be a quite general feature for the first order phase transition. In strong contrast to the insulator/superconductor system, we note that the backreaction coupled with the scalar mass can not be used to trigger the first order phase transition if the model parameter is below its bottom bound in the metal/superconductor system.

Yan Peng; Qiyuan Pan

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

131

A general holographic metal/superconductor phase transition model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the scalar condensation of a general holographic superconductor model in AdS black hole background away from the probe limit. We find the model parameters together with the scalar mass and backreaction can determine the order of phase transitions completely. In addition, we observe two types of discontinuities of the scalar operator in the case of first order phase transitions. We analyze in detail the effects of the scalar mass and backreaction on the formation of discontinuities and arrive at an approximate relation between the threshold model parameters. Furthermore, we obtain superconductor solutions corresponding to higher energy states and examine the stability of these superconductor solutions.

Yan Peng; Yunqi Liu

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

132

A general holographic metal/superconductor phase transition model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the scalar condensation of a general holographic superconductor model in AdS black hole background away from the probe limit. We find the model parameters together with the scalar mass and backreaction can determine the order of phase transitions completely. In addition, we observe two types of discontinuities of the scalar operator in the case of first order phase transitions. We analyze in detail the effects of the scalar mass and backreaction on the formation of discontinuities and arrive at an approximate relation between the threshold model parameters. Furthermore, we obtain superconductor solutions corresponding to higher energy states and examine the stability of these superconductor solutions.

Yan Peng; Yunqi Liu

2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

133

Holographic Dark Energy Model with Modified Generalized Chaplygin Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a holographic dark energy model of the universe considering modified generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG). The modified GCG behaves as an ordinary barotropic fluid in the early epoch when the universe was tiny but behaves subsequently as a $\\Lambda$CDM model at late epoch. An equivalent model with scalar field is obtained here by constructing the corresponding potential. The holographic dark energy is identified with the modified GCG and we determine the corresponding holographic dark energy field and its potential. The stability of the holographic dark energy in this case is also discussed.

B. C. Paul; P. Thakur; A. Saha

2007-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

134

Design of a General Plasma Simulation Model, Fundamental Aspects and Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design of a General Plasma Simulation Model, Fundamental Aspects and Applications PROEFONTWERP ter, Gerard Maria Design of a General Plasma Simulation Model, Fundamental Aspects and Applications

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

135

Thick brane models in generalized theories of gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work deals with thick braneworld models, in an environment where the Ricci scalar is changed to accommodate the addition of two extra terms, one depending on the Ricci scalar itself, and the other, which takes into account the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of the scalar field that sources the braneworld scenario. We suppose that the scalar field engenders standard kinematics, and we show explicitly that the gravity sector of this new braneworld scenario is linearly stable. We illustrate the general results investigating two distinct models, focusing on how the brane profile is changed in the modified theories.

Bazeia, D; Menezes, R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

General properties of cosmological models with an Isotropic Singularity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Much of the published work regarding the Isotropic Singularity is performed under the assumption that the matter source for the cosmological model is a barotropic perfect fluid, or even a perfect fluid with a $\\gamma$-law equation of state. There are, however, some general properties of cosmological models which admit an Isotropic Singularity, irrespective of the matter source. In particular, we show that the Isotropic Singularity is a point-like singularity and that vacuum space-times cannot admit an Isotropic Singularity. The relationships between the Isotropic Singularity, and the energy conditions, and the Hubble parameter is explored. A review of work by the authors, regarding the Isotropic Singularity, is presented.

Geoffery Ericksson; Susan M. Scott

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

137

Intelligent Allocation of Network Bandwidth: A Comparison of Two Generalized Particle Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the allocation is not changed until the price reaches equilibrium. The other one is the economic generalized and further development of the OGPM, which comprises two major components: (1) dynamic allocation of network bandwidth based on GPM; and (2) dynamic modulation of price and demands of network bandwidth. The two

Lau, Francis C.M.

138

Generalized Cosmic Chaplygin Gas Model with or without Interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently developed Generalized Cosmic Chaplygin gas (GCCG) is studied as an unified model of dark matter and dark energy. To explain the recent accelerating phase, the Universe is assumed to have a mixture of radiation and GCCG. The mixture is considered for without or with interaction. Solutions are obtained for various choices of the parameters and trajectories in the plane of the statefinder parameters and presented graphically. For particular choice of interaction parameter, we have shown the role of statefinder parameters in various cases for the evolution of the Universe.

Writambhara Chakraborty; Ujjal Debnath; Subenoy Chakraborty

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Generalized lepton number and dark left-right gauge model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a left-right gauge model of particle interactions, the left-handed fermion doublet ({nu},e){sub L} is connected to its right-handed counterpart (n,e){sub R} through a scalar bidoublet so that e{sub L} pairs with e{sub R}, and {nu}{sub L} with n{sub R} to form mass terms. Suppose the latter link is severed without affecting the former, then n{sub R} is not the mass partner of {nu}{sub L}, and as we show in this paper, becomes a candidate for dark matter which is relevant for the recent PAMELA and ATIC observations. We accomplish this in a specific nonsupersymmetric model, where a generalized lepton number can be defined, so that n{sub R} and W{sub R}{sup {+-}} are odd under R{identical_to}(-1){sup 3B+L+2j}. Fermionic leptoquarks are also predicted.

Khalil, Shaaban [Center for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, Postal No. 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Lee, Hye-Sung; Ma, Ernest [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Electromagnetic Mass Models in General Theory of Relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Electromagnetic mass" where gravitational mass and other physical quantities originate from the electromagnetic field alone has a century long distinguished history. In the introductory chapter we have divided this history into three broad categories -- classical, quantum mechanical and general relativistic. Each of the categories has been described at a length to get the detailed picture of the physical background. Recent developments on Repulsive Electromagnetic Mass Models are of special interest in this introductory part of the thesis. In this context we have also stated motivation of our work. In the subsequent chapters we have presented our results and their physical significances. It is concluded that the electromagnetic mass models which are the sources of purely electromagnetic origin ``have not only heuristic flavor associated with the conjecture of Lorentz but even a physics having unconventional yet novel features characterizing their own contributions independent of the rest of the physics".

Sumana Bhadra

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A general stochastic model for sporophytic self-incompatibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Disentangling the processes leading populations to extinction is a major topic in ecology and conservation biology. The difficulty to find a mate in many species is one of these processes. Here, we investigate the impact, on the extinction probability, of self-incompatibility in flowering plants, where several inter-compatible classes of individuals exist but individuals of the same class cannot mate. We model pollen limitation through different relationships between mate availability and fertilization success. After deriving a general stochastic model, we focus on the simple case of distylous plant species where only two classes of individuals exist. We first investigate the dynamics of such a species in a large population limit and then, we look for an approximation of the extinction probability in small populations. This leads us to consider inhomogeneous random walks on the positive quadrant. We compare the dynamics of distylous species to self-fertile species with and without inbreeding depression, to in...

Billiard, Sylvain

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Modelling the global prospects and impacts of heavy duty liquefied natural gas vehicles in computable general equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural gas vehicles have the prospects of making substantial contributions to transportation needs. The adoption of natural gas vehicles could lead to impacts on energy and environmental systems. An analysis of the main ...

Yip, Arthur Hong Chun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Draft only. This version: July 2011 GPE-VN: A general equilibrium model for the study of globalization,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of economies with global markets, for growth, economic welfare, income distribution and the environment, but the implications of integration with the global economy for income distribution, poverty change of globalization, poverty and the environment in Vietnam1 Ian Coxhead, University

Coxhead, Ian

144

Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb-Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of "nonlinear sound velocities", which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and "generalized sound velocities", which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb-Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.

Benjamin Doyon

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of protons are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) including the proximity effects between nuclei in a neck and the mass and charge asymmetry. The penetrability is calculated with the WKB approximation. The spectroscopic factor has been taken into account in half-life calculation, which is obtained by employing the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory combined with the BCS method with the force NL3. The half-lives within the GLDM are compared with the experimental data and other theoretical values. The GLDM works quite well for spherical proton emitters when the spectroscopic factors are considered, indicating the necessity of introducing the spectroscopic factor and the success of the GLDM for proton emission. Finally, we present two formulas for proton emission half-life calculation similar to the Viola-Seaborg formulas and Royer's formulas of alpha decay.

J. M. Dong; H. F. Zhang; G. Royer

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

146

High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide for Direct Production of Syngas; Equilibrium Model and Single-Cell Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study has been completed to assess the performance of single solid-oxide electrolysis cells operating over a temperature range of 800 to 850ºC in the coelectrolysis mode, simultaneously electrolyzing steam and carbon dioxide for the direct production of syngas. The experiments were performed over a range of inlet flow rates of steam, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and over a range of current densities (-0.1 to 0.25 A/cm2) using single electrolyte-supported button electrolysis cells. Steam and carbon dioxide consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation and a gas chromatograph, respectively. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Measured values of open-cell potential and outlet gas composition are compared to predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium coelectrolysis model. Model predictions of outlet gas composition based on an effective equilibrium temperature are shown to agree well with measurements. Cell area-specific resistance values were similar for steam electrolysis and coelectrolysis.

O'Brien, J. E.; Stoots, C. M.; Herring, J. S.; Hartvigsen, J. J.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of Carbon Dioxide and Steam for the Production of Syngas; Equilibrium Model and Single-Cell Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study has been completed to assess the performance of single solid-oxide electrolysis cells operating over a temperature range of 800 to 850ºC in the coelectrolysis mode, simultaneously electrolyzing steam and carbon dioxide for the direct production of syngas. The experiments were performed over a range of inlet flow rates of steam, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and over a range of current densities (-0.1 to 0.25 A/cm2) using single electrolyte-supported button electrolysis cells. Steam and carbon dioxide consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation and a gas chromatograph, respectively. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Measured values of open-cell potential and outlet gas composition are compared to predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium coelectrolysis model. Model predictions of outlet gas composition based on an effective equilibrium temperature are shown to agree well with measurements. Area-specific resistance values were similar for steam electrolysis and coelectrolysis.

J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; G. L. Hawkes; J. S. Herring; J. J. Hartvigsen

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

their General Environmental Impacts AgencyCompany Organization: International Atomic Energy Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency Topics: Pathways...

149

Week12: Chapter 12 Static Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conditions for Equilibrium The net force equals zero If the object is modeled as a particle, then this is the only condition that must be satisfied The net torque equals zero This is needed if the object cannot is arbitrary If an object is in translational equilibrium and the net torque is zero about one axis

150

Interacting generalized Chaplygin gas model in non-flat universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We employ the generalized Chaplygin gas of interacting dark energy to obtain the equation of state for the generalized Chaplygin gas energy density in non-flat universe. By choosing a negative value for $B$ we see that $w_{\\rm \\Lambda}^{eff}< -1$, that corresponds to a universe dominated by phantom dark energy.

M R Setare

2007-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

151

Generalized model for ultrafast laser induced electron emission from a metal tip  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we will present a brief review of the recently developed non-equilibrium heating and time dependent tunneling model to study the dynamic processes in using an ultrafast laser to induce electron emission from a metallic tip ranging from the multiphoton to the optical tunneling regime. Due to the short time scale of the ultrafast laser pulse, the lattice is found to be in a non-equilibrium condition and a single temperature model is no longer valid. The ultrafast laser heating enhances the electron emission through both the multiphoton and optical tunneling processes rather than over-barrier emission due to thermal heating. The paper is focused on the methodology of how these two effects (non-equilibrium heating and time-dependent tunneling) are combined in a self-consistent model. The model shows a smooth transition of the emitted charge as a function of laser field, ranging from the multiphoton emission regime at low laser field to the optical tunneling regime at high laser field. The paper will conclude with some discussion of future work.

Ang, L. K. [Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore) [Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Pant, M. [Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)] [Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

A single model of traversable wormholes supported by generalized phantom energy or Chaplygin gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses a new variable equation of state parameter leading to exact solutions of the Einstein field equations describing traversable wormholes. In addition to generalizing the notion of phantom energy, the equation of state generates a mathematical model that combines the generalized phantom energy and the generalized Chaplygin gas models.

Peter K. F. Kuhfittig

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

153

A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

Robert G. Ellingson

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

154

The unreasonable effectiveness of equilibrium-like theory for interpreting non-equilibrium experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There has been great interest in applying the results of statistical mechanics to single molecule experiements. Recent work has highlighted so-called non-equilibrium work-energy relations and Fluctuation Theorems which take on an equilibrium-like (time independent) form. Here I give a very simple heuristic example where an equilibrium result (the barometric law for colloidal particles) arises from theory describing the {\\em thermodynamically} non-equilibrium phenomenon of a single colloidal particle falling through solution due to gravity. This simple result arises from the fact that the particle, even while falling, is in {\\em mechanical} equilibrium (gravitational force equal the viscous drag force) at every instant. The results are generalized by appeal to the central limit theorem. The resulting time independent equations that hold for thermodynamically non-equilibrium (and even non-stationary) processes offer great possibilities for rapid determination of thermodynamic parameters from single molecule experiments.

R. Dean Astumian

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A Generalized Notion of Platforms for Model Driven Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany kuehne@informatik.tu-darmstadt.de 1 Introduction Model driven development (MDD

Kühne, Thomas

156

Generalized charge-screening in relativistic Thomas–Fermi model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar objects.

Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 51745-406 Tabriz, Iran and International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Generalizing the running vacuum energy model and comparing with the entropic-force models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We generalize the previously proposed running vacuum energy model by including a term proportional to \\dot{H}, in addition to the existing H^2 term. We show that the added degree of freedom is very constrained if both low redshift and high redshift data are taken into account. Best-fit models are undistinguishable from LCDM at the present time, but could be distinguished in the future with very accurate data at both low and high redshifts. We stress the formal analogy at the phenomenological level of the running vacuum models with recently proposed dark energy models based on the holographic or entropic point of view, where a combination of \\dot{H} and H^2 term is also present. However those particular entropic formulations which do not have a constant term in the Friedmann equations are not viable. The presence of this term is necessary in order to allow for a transition from a decelerated to an accelerated expansion. In contrast, the running vacuum models, both the original and the generalized one introduced here contain this constant term in a more natural way. Finally, important conceptual issues common to all these models are emphasized.

Spyros Basilakos; David Polarski; Joan Sola

2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

158

PERSPECTIVE Patterns and causes of species richness: a general simulation model for macroecology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDEA AND PERSPECTIVE Patterns and causes of species richness: a general simulation model. The output from such a general simulation model (GSM) would, at a minimum, consist of the simulated forces. As an alternative, we propose a mechanistic modelling approach. We describe computer simulation

Arita, Héctor T.

159

Introduction to (Generalized) Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models in Time Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4 ARCH/GARCH models 8 4.1 Sample Application and application of the ARCH/GARCH models proposed in the 1980's by econometricians such as Robert Engle (who won at the time). In particular, we focus on the paper, "GARCH 101: The Use of ARCH/GARCH Models in Applied Econo

Morrow, James A.

160

Abstract--In models of imperfect competition of deregulated electricity markets, the key task is to find the Nash equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Abstract--In models of imperfect competition of deregulated electricity markets, the key task techniques are adopted in this paper. Two example application problems arising from electricity markets Terms-- Bimatrix Game, Complementarity Problem, Deregulation, Dominated Strategy, Electric Power Market

Baldick, Ross

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Generalized Electric Polarizability of the Proton from Skyrme Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the electric polarizability $\\alpha(q^2)$ of the proton in virtual Compton scattering using the Skyrme model. The $q^2$ dependence of the polarizability is comparable with the predictions obtained from the non-relativistic quark model and the linear sigma model. The chiral behaviors of our $\\alpha(0)$ and $d^2\\alpha(0)/d^2q^2$ agree with the results of the chiral perturbation theory. The discrepancy can be traced back to the contribution of the intermediate $\\Delta$ state degenerate with the $N$ which is a characteristic of a large-$N_C$ model.

Myunggyu Kim; Dong-Pil Min

1997-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

162

Phase equilibrium measurements on nine binary mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase equilibrium measurements have been performed on nine binary mixtures. The PTx method was used to obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the following systems at two temperatures each: (aminoethyl)piperazine + diethylenetriamine; 2-butoxyethyl acetate + 2-butoxyethanol; 2-methyl-2-propanol + 2-methylbutane; 2-methyl-2-propanol + 2-methyl-2-butene; methacrylonitrile + methanol; 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen chloride; 2-(hexyloxy)ethanol + ethylene glycol; butane + ammonia; propionaldehyde + butane. Equilibrium vapor and liquid phase compositions were derived form the PTx data using the Soave equation of state to represent the vapor phase and the Wilson or the NRTL activity coefficient model to represent the liquid phase. A large immiscibility region exists in the butane + ammonia system at 0 C. Therefore, separate vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium measurements were performed on this system to more precisely determine the miscibility limits and the composition of the vapor phase in equilibrium with the two liquid phases.

Wilding, W.V. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Giles, N.F.; Wilson, L.C. [Wiltec Research Co. Inc., Provo, UT (United States)] [Wiltec Research Co. Inc., Provo, UT (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Annular mode-like responses to external forcings in a simple atmospheric general circulation model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I investigate the response of a simple atmospheric general circulation model to applied forcings to learn whether the annular mode patterns are a preferred model response to the forcings. The thesis is ...

Ring, Michael J., 1979-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

General model of phospholipid bilayers in fluid phase within the single chain mean field theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coarse-grained model for saturated phospholipids: 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC), 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and unsaturated phospholipids: 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1,2- dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) is introduced within the single chain mean field theory. A single set of parameters adjusted for DMPC bilayers gives an adequate description of equilibrium and mechanical properties of a range of saturated lipid molecules that differ only in length of their hydrophobic tails and unsaturated (POPC, DOPC) phospholipids which have double bonds in the tails. A double bond is modeled with a fixed angle of 120°, while the rest of the parameters are kept the same as saturated lipids. The thickness of the bilayer and its hydrophobic core, the compressibility, and the equilibrium area per lipid correspond to experimentally measured values for each lipid, changing linearly with the length of the tail. The model for unsaturated phospholipids also fetches main thermodynamical properties of the bilayers. This model is used for an accurate estimation of the free energies of the compressed or stretched bilayers in stacks or multilayers and gives reasonable estimates for free energies. The proposed model may further be used for studies of mixtures of lipids, small molecule inclusions, interactions of bilayers with embedded proteins.

Guo, Yachong; Baulin, Vladimir A. [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)] [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Pogodin, Sergey [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia, ICIQ, Av. Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)] [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia, ICIQ, Av. Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

Towards breaking temperature equilibrium in multi-component Eulerian schemes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the effects ofthermal equilibrium on hydrodynamic flows and describe models for breaking the assumption ofa single temperature for a mixture of components in a cell. A computational study comparing pressure-temperature equilibrium simulations of two dimensional implosions with explicit front tracking is described as well as implementation and J-D calculations for non-equilibrium temperature methods.

Grove, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Masser, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Hospital Readmission in General Medicine Patients: A Prediction Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J Med. 1985;313: JGIM Hasan et al. : Hospital ReadmissionA Prediction Model Omar Hasan, MBBS, MPH 1,2 , David O.online December 15, 2009 Hasan et al. : Hospital Readmission

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

STATISTICAL MODELS FOR MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT: UNIFICATIONS AND GENERALIZATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Stanford University; Charles E. Lawrence, NYS­DOH Jun S. Liu, Department of Statistics, Stanford University and our main point of interest. We believe that building explicit statistical model is an important

Liu, Jun

168

Augmented Lagrangian method for generalized TV-Stokes model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reducing stair-case effect. Keyword: TV-Stokes model, Augmented Lagrangian method, Image inpainting, Image and stair-case effect [6­10]. The authors [9] showed that the TV-L2 model never recover the same contrast-010 and MOE (Ministry of Education) Tier II project T207N2202. jyhahn@ntu.edu.sg CLWU@ntu.edu.sg §xctai@ntu

Soatto, Stefano

169

From residue matching patterns to protein folding topographies: General model and bovine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From residue matching patterns to protein folding topographies: General model and bovine pancreatic-grained model for protein-folding dynamics is introduced based on a discretized representation of torsional, pattern recognition, and general characteristics of protein folding kinetics. Topology here implies

Berry, R. Stephen

170

Dark Energy - Dark Matter Unification: Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the main features of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) proposal for unification of dark energy and dark matter and discuss how it admits an unique decomposition into dark energy and dark matter components once phantom-like dark energy is excluded. In the context of this approach we consider structure formation and show that unphysical oscillations or blow-up in the matter power spectrum are not present. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dominance of dark energy occurs about the time when energy density fluctuations start evolving away from the linear regime.

Orfeu Bertolami

2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

171

Separating expansion from contraction in spherically symmetric models with a perfect-fluid: Generalization of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff condition and application to models with a cosmological constant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate spherically symmetric perfect-fluid spacetimes and discuss the existence and stability of a dividing shell separating expanding and collapsing regions. We perform a 3+1 splitting and obtain gauge invariant conditions relating the intrinsic spatial curvature of the shells to the Misner-Sharp mass and to a function of the pressure that we introduce and that generalizes the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equilibrium condition. We find that surfaces fulfilling those two conditions fit, locally, the requirements of a dividing shell and we argue that cosmological initial conditions should allow its global validity. We analyze the particular cases of the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi dust models with a cosmological constant as an example of a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (\\Lambda-CDM) and its generalization to contain a central perfect-fluid core. These models provide simple, but physically interesting illustrations of our results.

José Pedro Mimoso; Morgan Le Delliou; Filipe C. Mena

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

172

Baryonic torii: Toroidal baryons in a generalized Skyrme model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a Skyrme-type model with a potential term motivated by Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), which we call the BEC Skyrme model. We consider two flavors of the model, the first is the Skyrme model and the second has a sixth-order derivative term instead of the Skyrme term; both with the added BEC-motivated potential. The model contains toroidally shaped Skyrmions and they are characterized by two integers P and Q, representing the winding numbers of two complex scalar fields along the toroidal and poloidal cycles of the torus, respectively. The baryon number is B=PQ. We find stable Skyrmion solutions for P=1,2,3,4,5 with Q=1, while for P=6 and Q=1 it is only metastable. We further find that configurations with higher Q>1 are all unstable and split into Q configurations with Q=1. Finally we discover a phase transition, possibly of first order, in the mass parameter of the potential under study.

Sven Bjarke Gudnason; Muneto Nitta

2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

173

Generalized Ginzburg-Landau models for non-conventional superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review some recent extensions of the Ginzburg-Landau model able to describe several properties of non-conventional superconductors. In the first extension, s-wave superconductors endowed with two different critical temperatures are considered, their main thermodynamical and magnetic properties being calculated and discussed. Instead in the second extension we describe spin-triplet superconductivity (with a single critical temperature), studying in detail the main predicted physical properties. A thorough discussion of the peculiar predictions of our models and their physical consequences is as well performed.

S. Esposito; G. Salesi

2009-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

174

System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2013.9.20, released on September 9, 2013. SAM is a computer model that calculates performance and financial metrics of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar water heating, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financial structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). SAM's advanced simulation options facilitate parametric and sensitivity analyses, and statistical analysis capabilities are available for Monte Carlo simulation and weather variability (P50/P90) studies. SAM can also read input variables from Microsoft Excel worksheets. For software developers, the SAM software development kit (SDK) makes it possible to use SAM simulation modules in their applications written in C/C++, C#, Java, Python, and MATLAB. NREL provides both SAM and the SDK as free downloads at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.; Freeman, J.; Neises, T.; Wagner, M.; Ferguson, T.; Gilman, P.; Janzou, S.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2011.12.2, released on December 2, 2011. SAM is software that models the cost and performance of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financing structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). Advanced analysis options facilitate parametric, sensitivity, and statistical analyses, and allow for interfacing SAM with Microsoft Excel or with other computer programs. SAM is available as a free download at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Gamma-ray Burst Models: General Requirements and Predictions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Whatever the ultimate energy source of gamma-ray bursts turns out to be, the resulting sequence of physical events is likely to lead to a fairly generic, almost unavoidable scenario: a relativistic fireball that dissipates its energy after it has become optically thin. This is expected both for cosmological and halo distances. Here we explore the observational motivation of this scenario, and the consequences of the resulting models for the photon production in different wavebands, the energetics and the time structure of classical gamma-ray bursters.

P. Meszaros

1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

177

Novel Geometrical Models of Relativistic Stars. I. The General Scheme  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a series of articles we describe a novel class of geometrical models of relativistic stars. Our approach to the static spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein equations is based on a careful physical analysis of radial gauge conditions. It brings us to a two parameter family of relativistic stars without stiff functional dependence between the stelar radius and stelar mass. It turns out that within this family there do exist relativistic stars with arbitrary large mass, which are to have arbitrary small radius and arbitrary small luminosity. In addition, point particle idealization, as a limiting case of bodies with finite dimension, becomes possible in GR, much like in Newton gravity.

P. P. Fiziev

2004-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

178

Ionization Equilibrium Timescales in Collisional Plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Astrophysical shocks or bursts from a photoionizing source can disturb the typical collisional plasma found in galactic interstellar media or the intergalactic medium. The spectrum emitted by this plasma contains diagnostics that have been used to determine the time since the disturbing event, although this determination becomes uncertain as the elements in the plasma return to ionization equilibrium. A general solution for the equilibrium timescale for each element arises from the elegant eigenvector method of solution to the problem of a non-equilibrium plasma described by Masai (1984) and Hughes & Helfand (1985). In general the ionization evolution of an element Z in a constant electron temperature plasma is given by a coupled set of Z+1 first order differential equations. However, they can be recast as Z uncoupled first order differential equations using an eigenvector basis for the system. The solution is then Z separate exponential functions, with the time constants given by the eigenvalues of the r...

Smith, Randall K

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Generalized models as a universal approach to the analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a universal approach to the investigation of the dynamics in generalized models. In these models the processes that are taken into account are not restricted to specific functional forms. Therefore a single generalized models can describe a class of systems which share a similar structure. Despite this generality, the proposed approach allows us to study the dynamical properties of generalized models efficiently in the framework of local bifurcation theory. The approach is based on a normalization procedure that is used to identify natural parameters of the system. The Jacobian in a steady state is then derived as a function of these parameters. The analytical computation of local bifurcations using computer algebra reveals conditions for the local asymptotic stability of steady states and provides certain insights on the global dynamics of the system. The proposed approach yields a close connection between modelling and nonlinear dynamics. We illustrate the investigation of generalized models by considering examples from three different disciplines of science: a socio-economic model of dynastic cycles in china, a model for a coupled laser system and a general ecological food web.

Thilo Gross; Ulrike Feudel

2006-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

180

The China-in-Global Energy Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The China-in-Global Energy Model (C-GEM) is a global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model that captures the interaction of production, consumption and trade among multiple global regions and sectors – including five ...

Qi, T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Option Pricing for GARCH-type Models with Generalized Hyperbolic Innovations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Option Pricing for GARCH-type Models with Generalized Hyperbolic Innovations Christophe Chorro on equity option books. Given the historical measure, the dynamics of assets are modeled by Garch, Incomplete markets, CAC 40, SP 500, GARCH-type models. JEL classification: G13, C22. The authors

Boyer, Edmond

182

A Stochastic Equilibrium Economy with Irreversible Investment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

their optimal choices and the markets clear. Key words. general equilibrium, capacity expansion, capital asset Value and Market Capitalization 7 Existence 3.1 Capacity Expansion with Irreversible Investment 8 for capacity expansion, (ii) agents who maximize expected total utility of consumption, of money holding

Haussmann, Ulrich

183

Estimation of OTEC Global Resources with an Ocean General Circulation Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) relies on the availability of temperature differencesEstimation of OTEC Global Resources with an Ocean General Circulation Model Krishnakumar Rajagopalan Postdoctoral Fellow Department of Ocean and Resources Engineering University of Hawai'i Abstract

Frandsen, Jannette B.

184

IWWWFB, Plitvice, Croatia 2007 Some aspects of a generalized Wagner model.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

22nd IWWWFB, Plitvice, Croatia 2007 Some aspects of a generalized Wagner model. Malleron N and Floating Bodies, Plitvice : Croatia (2007)" #12; 22nd IWWWFB, Plitvice, Croatia 2007 The last condition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Parallel Simulation for a Fish Schooling Model on a General-Purpose Graphics Processing Unit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model on a General-Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Hong LiThe current generation of graphics processing units is well-we will describe how a Graphics Pro- cessor Unit (GPU) can

Li, Hong; Kolpas, Allison; Petzold, Linda; Moehlis, J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Fourier analysis for generalized cylinders with polar models of cross-sections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOURIER ANALYSIS FOR GENERALIZED CYLINDERS WITH POLAR MODELS OF CROSS-SECTIONS A Thesis by WILLIAM CLARENCE FORSYTHE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Computer Science FOURIER ANALYSIS FOR GENERALIZED CYLINDERS WITH POLAR MODELS OF CROSS-SECTIONS A Thesis by WILLIAM CLARENCE FORSYTHE Approved as to style and content by: Amitabha Mukerjee (Chair...

Forsythe, William Clarence

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

187

A General Relativistic Model for Magnetic Monopole-Infused Compact Objects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emergent concepts from astroparticle physics are incorporated into a classical solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations for a binary magnetohydrodynamic fluid, in order to describe the final equilibrium state of compact objects infused with magnetic monopoles produced by proton-proton collisions within the intense dipolar magnetic fields generated by these objects during their collapse. It is found that the effective mass of such an object's acquired monopolar magnetic field is three times greater than the mass of its native fluid and monopoles combined, necessitating that the interior matter undergo a transition to a state of negative pressure in order to attain equilibrium. Assuming full symmetry between the electric and magnetic Maxwell equations yields expressions for the monopole charge density and magnetic field by direct analogy with their electrostatic equivalents; inserting these into the Einstein equations then leads to an interior metric which is well-behaved from the origin to the surface, where it matches smoothly to an exterior magnetic Reissner-Nordstr\\"om metric free of any coordinate pathologies. The source fields comprising the model are all described by simple, well-behaved polynomial functions of the radial coordinate, and are combined with straightforward regularity conditions to yield expressions delimiting several fundamental physical parameters pertaining to this hypothetical astrophysical object.

Zoran Pazameta

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

188

Higher-order compositional modeling of three-phase flow in 3D fractured porous media based on cross-flow equilibrium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulation of multiphase compositional flow in fractured porous media, when all the species can transfer between the phases, is a real challenge. Despite the broad applications in hydrocarbon reservoir engineering and hydrology, a compositional numerical simulator for three-phase flow in fractured media has not appeared in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. In this work, we present a three-phase fully compositional simulator for fractured media, based on higher-order finite element methods. To achieve computational efficiency, we invoke the cross-flow equilibrium (CFE) concept between discrete fractures and a small neighborhood in the matrix blocks. We adopt the mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to approximate convective Darcy fluxes and the pressure equation. This approach is the most natural choice for flow in fractured media. The mass balance equations are discretized by the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, which is perhaps the most efficient approach to capture physical discontinuities in phase properties at the matrix-fracture interfaces and at phase boundaries. In this work, we account for gravity and Fickian diffusion. The modeling of capillary effects is discussed in a separate paper. We present the mathematical framework, using the implicit-pressure-explicit-composition (IMPEC) scheme, which facilitates rigorous thermodynamic stability analyses and the computation of phase behavior effects to account for transfer of species between the phases. A deceptively simple CFL condition is implemented to improve numerical stability and accuracy. We provide six numerical examples at both small and larger scales and in two and three dimensions, to demonstrate powerful features of the formulation.

Moortgat, Joachim, E-mail: jmoortgat@rerinst.org; Firoozabadi, Abbas, E-mail: abbas.firoozabadi@yale.edu

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Gravity, Dimension, Equilibrium, & Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Is it actually possible to interpret gravitation as space's property in a pure classical way. Then, we note that extended self-gravitating system equilibrium depends directly on the number of dimension of the space in which it evolves. Given those precisions, we review the principal thermodynamical knowledge in the context of classical gravity with arbitrary dimension of space. Stability analyses for bounded 3D systems, namely the Antonov instability paradigm, are then rapproched to some amazing properties of globular clusters and galaxies.

Jerome Perez

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

190

Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation.

Jinwoo, Lee

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

General Relativistic Shock Waves that Extend the Oppenheimer-Snyder Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

General Relativistic Shock Waves that Extend the Oppenheimer-Snyder Model JOELOEL SMOLLERMOLLER. These shock waves extend the celebrated Oppenheimer-Snyder result to the case of non-zero pressure. Our shock of a Friedmann- Robertson-Walker metric (a cosmological model for the expanding universe) to an Oppenheimer

Temple, Blake

192

A generalized 3D inverted pendulum model to represent human normal walking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A generalized 3D inverted pendulum model to represent human normal walking Sophie Sakka IRCCy,lacouture}@univ-poitiers.fr Abstract-- This paper compares different inverted pendulum models to represent the stance phase of human adapted to pathological walking as the walking symmetry hypothesis -needed to build classical inverted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

A General Method for Conserving Energy and Potential Enstrophy in Shallow-Water Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A General Method for Conserving Energy and Potential Enstrophy in Shallow-Water Models RICK SALMON numerical models that conserve analogs of the energy and potential enstrophy; one need only discretize, in the inviscid limit, conserve energy and an arbitrary ad- ditional invariant related to the potential vorticity

Salmon, Rick

194

USING MODEL CHECKING TO DERIVE LOOP BOUNDS OF GENERAL LOOPS WITHIN ANSI-C APPLICATIONS FOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

USING MODEL CHECKING TO DERIVE LOOP BOUNDS OF GENERAL LOOPS WITHIN ANSI-C APPLICATIONS for applications written in ANSI-C. The described method uses a model checker and a binary search algorithm with little pro- gramming effort for applications written in ANSI-C. The performance is probably inferior

195

Kinetic Modeling Of Solid-Gas Reactions At Reactor Scale: A General Approach Loc Favergeon1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the knowledge of the kinetic model for the calculation of the speed of reaction in one part of the reactorKinetic Modeling Of Solid-Gas Reactions At Reactor Scale: A General Approach Loïc Favergeon1 favergeon@emse.fr ABSTRACT A rigorous simulation of industrial reactors in the case of solid-gas reacting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

Generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth model accurately describing the switching processes in pseudo-single ferromagnetic particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth (SW) type model to describe various experimentally observed angular dependencies of the switching field in non-single-domain magnetic particles. Because the nonuniform magnetic states are generally characterized by complicated spin configurations with no simple analytical description, we maintain the macrospin hypothesis and we phenomenologically include the effects of nonuniformities only in the anisotropy energy, preserving as much as possible the elegance of SW model, the concept of critical curve and its geometric interpretation. We compare the results obtained with our model with full micromagnetic simulations in order to evaluate the performance and limits of our approach.

Cimpoesu, Dorin, E-mail: cdorin@uaic.ro; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Stancu, Alexandru [Department of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi 700506 (Romania)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Greenhouse Effect #12;Temperature Equilibrium The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun temperature is about 14C, or 287K. The 40K difference is due to the greenhouse effect. Essentially all

Walter, Frederick M.

198

Potential and flux field landscape theory. II. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of spatially inhomogeneous stochastic dynamical systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have established a general non-equilibrium thermodynamic formalism consistently applicable to both spatially homogeneous and, more importantly, spatially inhomogeneous systems, governed by the Langevin and Fokker-Planck stochastic dynamics with multiple state transition mechanisms, using the potential-flux landscape framework as a bridge connecting stochastic dynamics with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A set of non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations, quantifying the relations of the non-equilibrium entropy, entropy flow, entropy production, and other thermodynamic quantities, together with their specific expressions, is constructed from a set of dynamical decomposition equations associated with the potential-flux landscape framework. The flux velocity plays a pivotal role on both the dynamic and thermodynamic levels. On the dynamic level, it represents a dynamic force breaking detailed balance, entailing the dynamical decomposition equations. On the thermodynamic level, it represents a thermodynamic force generating entropy production, manifested in the non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and more specific examples, the spatial stochastic neuronal model, in particular, are studied to test and illustrate the general theory. This theoretical framework is particularly suitable to study the non-equilibrium (thermo)dynamics of spatially inhomogeneous systems abundant in nature. This paper is the second of a series.

Wu, Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang, Jin, E-mail: jin.wang.1@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130022 Changchun, China and College of Physics, Jilin University, 130021 Changchun (China)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

199

3.12 Competition models, Mutualism or Symbiosis The general n -species competition model is decribed by the following systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: 122 )1( 2 2 xK x =0 (i) Extinction case: species y wins Figure 12.1 In this case ),0( 22 KE())(),((lim 221 Ktxtx t . #12;(ii) Extinction case: species 1x win, Figure 12.2 In this case )0,( 11 KE§3.12 Competition models, Mutualism or Symbiosis The general n -species competition model

Hsu, Sze-Bi

200

Representing energy technologies in top-down economic models using bottom-up information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper uses bottom-up engineering information as a basis for modeling new technologies within the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. ...

McFarland, James R.; Reilly, John M.; Herzog, Howard J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model: Version 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model is the part of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) that represents the human systems. EPPA is a recursive-dynamic multi-regional general equilibrium model ...

Paltsev, Sergey.

202

A Forward Looking Version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper documents a forward looking multi-regional general equilibrium model developed from the latest version of the recursive-dynamic MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model. The model represents ...

Babiker, Mustafa M.H.

203

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we cast damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems into a general framework for non-equilibrium thermodynamics, namely the GENERIC (General Equation for Non-Equilibrium Reversible-Irreversible Coupling) framework. The main ingredients of GENERIC consist of five building blocks: a state space, a Poisson operator, a dissipative operator, an energy functional, and an entropy functional. The GENERIC formulation of damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems brings several benefits. First, it provides alternative ways to derive thermodynamically consistent models of these systems by construct- ing building blocks instead of invoking conservation laws and constitutive relations. Second, it reveals clear physical and geometrical structures of these systems, e.g., the role of the energy and the entropy as the driving forces for the reversible and irreversible dynamics respectively. Third, it allows us to introduce a new GENERIC model for damped Timoshenko systems that is not existing in the literature.

Manh Hong Duong

2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

204

Computation of liquid-liquid equilibrium in multicomponent electrolyte systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational algorithm for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data, based on a generalization of the maximum likelihood method applied to implicit constraints, is presented. The algorithm accepts multicomponent data and binary interaction parameters. A comparative study of the models NRTL and electrolyte-NRTL, used for estimating activity coefficients in a quaternary electrolyte system, is presented and discussed. Results show that both models give accurate predictions and the algorithm presents a good performance without convergence or initialization problems. This suggests that the basic NRTL model can be used for describing phase behavior in weak electrolyte systems and the procedure can be of great use for design and optimization of processes involving multicomponent electrolyte systems. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Vianna, R.F.; d`Avila, S.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

205

b quark Electric Dipole moment in the general two Higgs Doublet and three Higgs Doublet models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Electric Dipole moment of b quark in the general two Higgs Doublet model (model III) and three Higgs Doublet model with O(2) symmetry in the Higgs sector. We analyse the dependency of this quantity to the new phase coming from the complex Yukawa couplings and masses of charged and neutral Higgs bosons. We see that the Electric Dipole moment of b quark is at the order of 10^{-20} e cm, which is an extremely large value compared to one calculated in the SM and also two Higgs Doublet model (model II) with real Yukawa couplings.

E. O. Iltan

2001-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

206

Out-of-equilibrium liquids that form due to dynamics of the molecules that depend on the local density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RNA molecules in living cells form what look like liquid droplets formed by liquid/liquid phase separation. But unlike the molecules in conventional phase separating mixtures, RNA molecules are transported by molecular motors that consume energy and so are out of equilibrium. Motivated by this we study models with out-of-equilibrium dynamics that depend on the local density. Our simulations suggest that density-dependent dynamics in which the motion of a molecule slows down in the presence of nearby molecules, tend to cause condensation into an out-of-equilibrium liquid state. This out-of-equilibrium state behaves like a liquid in the sense that it coexists with a much more dilute phase, droplets coalesce, and the state has a well-defined surface tension --- which we calculate. Liquid/liquid separation appears to be a very general phenomenon that occurs in and out of equilibrium. We also look at the analogous separation of the two blocks of a block copolymer, in which the monomers of one block have dynamics that depend on the local density of monomers of that block. We find that this block condenses and separates from the monomers of the other block. This is a simple model of the out-of-equilibrium domain formation found in the chromatin in the nucleus of cells.

Richard P. Sear

2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

207

A model independent approach towards resource count and precision limits in a general measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A formulation towards quantifying resource count used in a measurement, that is independent of the model of the measurement dynamics(Quantum/Classical), is considered. For any general measurement with $(M+1)$ discrete outcomes, it is found that there is a unique probability distribution that minimizes the measurement error, with the error scaling as $1/M$. For a measurement with a finite resource$(R)$, this absolute bound implies the resource count to be equal to the possible outcomes i.e. $R=M$. This formulation therefore provides a model independent route towards estimating resource count used in any general measurement scheme.

H. M. Bharath; Saikat Ghosh

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

208

Matter Power Spectrum for the Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model: The Newtonian Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We model the cosmic medium as the mixture of a generalized Chaplygin gas and a pressureless matter component. Within a neo-Newtonian approach (in which, different from standard Newtonian cosmology, the pressure enters the homogeneous and isotropic background dynamics) we compute the matter power spectrum. The 2dFGRS data are used to discriminate between unified models of the dark sector (a purely baryonic matter component of roughly 5 percent of the total energy content and roughly 95 percent generalized Chaplygin gas) and different models, for which there is separate dark matter, in addition to that accounted for by the generalized Chaplygin gas. Leaving the corresponding density parameters free, we find that the unified models are strongly disfavored. On the other hand, using unified model priors, the observational data are also well described, in particular for small and large values of the generalized Chaplygin gas parameter $\\alpha$. The latter result is in agreement with a recent, more qualitative but fully relativistic, perturbation analysis in Gorini et al.

J. C. Fabris; S. V. B. Goncalves; H. E. S. Velten; W. Zimdahl

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

209

Reconstructing generalized ghost condensate model with dynamical dark energy parametrizations and observational datasets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observations of high-redshift supernovae indicate that the universe is accelerating at the present stage, and we refer to the cause for this cosmic acceleration as ``dark energy''. In particular, the analysis of current data of type Ia supernovae (SNIa), cosmic large-scale structure (LSS), and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy implies that, with some possibility, the equation-of-state parameter of dark energy may cross the cosmological-constant boundary ($w=-1$) during the recent evolution stage. The model of ``quintom'' has been proposed to describe this $w=-1$ crossing behavior for dark energy. As a single-real-scalar-field model of dark energy, the generalized ghost condensate model provides us with a successful mechanism for realizing the quintom-like behavior. In this paper, we reconstruct the generalized ghost condensate model in the light of three forms of parametrization for dynamical dark energy, with the best-fit results of up-to-date observational data.

Jingfei Zhang; Xin Zhang; Hongya Liu

2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

210

Tree-level unitarity constraints in the most general two Higgs doublet model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We obtain tree-level unitarity constraints for the most general Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) with explicit CP-violation. We briefly discuss correspondence between possible violation of tree-level unitarity limitation and physical content of the theory.

Ginzburg, I.F. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, acad. Koptyug avenue 4, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I.P. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, acad. Koptyug avenue 4, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, Ponte Bucci, 31C, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (Serbia and Montenegro), 87036 (Italy)

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Erratum to "Nonlinear Unmixing of Hyperspectral Images Using a Generalized Bilinear Model"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Erratum to "Nonlinear Unmixing of Hyperspectral Images Using a Generalized Bilinear Model for the four images. TABLE I UNMIXING ALGORITHM PERFORMANCES WITH ACTUAL AND ESTIMATED ENDMEMBERS (1ST AND 2ND SCENARIOS): RE AND SAM. 1st scenario 2nd scenario RE (×10-2 ) SAM (×10-2 ) RE (×10-2 ) SAM (×10-2 ) LMM FM

Dobigeon, Nicolas

212

Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Idealized test cases for the dynamical cores of Atmospheric General Circulation Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Idealized test cases for the dynamical cores of Atmospheric General Circulation Models: A proposal) Ram Nair (NCAR) Mark Taylor (Sandia National Laboratory) May/29/2008 1 Idealized test cases for 3D dynamical cores This document describes the idealized dynamical core test cases that are proposed

Jablonowski, Christiane

214

A general stochastic model for sporophytic self-incompatibility Sylvain Billiard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general stochastic model for sporophytic self-incompatibility Sylvain Billiard and Viet Chi Tran. Here, we investigate the impact of self-incompatibility in flowering plants, where several inter to self-fertile species with and without inbreeding depression, to obtain the conditions under which self-incompatible

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

215

Statistical Fluctuations and Correlations in Hadronic Equilibrium Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis is dedictaed to the study of fluctuation and correlation observables of hadronic equilibrium systems. The statistical hadronization model of high energy physics, in its ideal, i.e. non-interacting, gas approximation will be investigated in different ensemble formulations. The hypothesis of thermal and chemical equilibrium in high energy interaction will be tested against qualitative and quantitative predictions.

Michael Hauer

2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

216

Generalized Jackiw-Rebbi Model and Topological Classification of Free Fermion Insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new perspective to the classification of topological phases in free fermion insulators by generalizing the Jackiw-Rebbi model to arbitrary dimensions. We show that a generalized Jackiw-Rebbi model where the Dirac mass ($m$) satisfies $m(x)=-m(-x)$ is invariant under a parity transformation ($P$) that relates the $x>0$ half to the $xtopological classification of free fermion insulators. Gapless edge states are a natural consequence of our construction and their topological nature can be understood from the fact that all gapless edge states at a given interface transform similarly under $P$ (all odd or all even). A naive non-topological model for states confined to the interface will allow both even and odd states.

O. Nganba Meetei; Archana Anandakrishnan

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

217

Top quark electric and chromo electric dipole moments in the general two Higgs Doublet model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the electric and chromo electric dipole moment of top quark in the general two Higgs Doublet model (model III). We analyse the dependency of this quantity to the new phases coming from the complex Yukawa couplings and masses of charged and neutral Higgs bosons. We observe that the electric and chromo elecric dipole moments of top quark are at the order of 10^{-21} e cm and 10^{-20} g_s cm, which are extremely large values compared to ones calculated in the SM and also two Higgs Doublet model with real Yukawa couplings.

E. O. Iltan

2002-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

218

Solution of lattice gas models in the generalized ensemble on the Bethe lattice Emilia La Nave,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solution of lattice gas models in the generalized ensemble on the Bethe lattice Emilia La Nave,1 for a lattice gas Potts model defined in the generalized ensemble which was previously studied in elucidating, such as geometric aspects via percolation. In this paper, we consider a lattice gas Potts model stud- ied previously

Sciortino, Francesco

219

Equilibrium and transient morphologies of river networks : discriminating among fluvial erosion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the equilibrium and transient morphology of alluvial and bedrock river networks. We apply analytical methods and an iterative model to solve for equilibrium slope-area and texture- area (in alluvial networks) ...

Gasparini, Nicole Marie, 1972-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We consider the problem of determining the three-dimensional folding of a protein given its one-dimensional amino acid sequence. We use the HP model for protein folding proposed by Dill, which models protein as a chain of amino acid residues that are either hydrophobic or polar, and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant initial driving force for the protein folding. Hart and Istrail gave approximation algorithms for folding proteins on the cubic lattice under HP model. In this paper, we examine the choice of a lattice by considering its algorithmic and geometric implications and argue that triangular lattice is a more reasonable choice. We present a set of folding rules for a triangular lattice and analyze the approximation ratio which they achieve. In addition, we introduce a generalization of the HP model to account for residues having different levels of hydrophobicity. After describing the biological foundation for this generalization, we show that in the new model we are able to achieve similar constant factor approximation guarantees on the triangular lattice as were achieved in the standard HP model. While the structures derived from our folding rules are probably still far from biological reality, we hope that having a set of folding rules with different properties will yield more interesting folds when combined.

Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The economics of US greenhouse gas emissions reduction policy : assessing distributional effects across households and the 50 United States using a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The political economy of US climate policy has revolved around state- and district- level distributional economics, and to a lesser extent household-level distribution questions. Many politicians and analysts have suggested ...

Look, Wesley Allen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Model Parameterization, Prior Distributions, and the General Time-Reversible Model in Bayesian Phylogenetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bayesian phylogenetic methods require the selection of prior probability distributions for all parameters of the model of evolution. These distributions allow one to incorporate prior information into a Bayesian analysis, ...

Zwickl, Derrick J.; Holder, Mark T.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Solving Problems with GCMs: General Circulation Models and Their Role in the Climate Modeling Hierarchy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­Southern Oscillation, from the Devil's Staircase to prediction 16 A. ENSO's regularity and irregularity 16 B. The Devil's Staircase across the modeling hierarchy 18 C. Regularity and prediction 22 IV. Interdecadal oscillations

Robertson, Andrew W.

224

Equilibrium Distributions and Superconductivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article two models for charges distributions are discussed. On the basis of our consideration we put different points of view for stationary state. We prove that only finite energy model for charges' distribution and well-known variation principle explain some well-known experimental results. A new model for superconductivity was suggested, too. In frame of that model some characteristic experimental results for superconductors is possible to explain.

Ashot Vagharshakyan

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

225

A generalized multi-dimensional mathematical model for charging and discharging processes in a supercapacitor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A generalized three dimensional computational model based on unied formulation of electrode- electrolyte-electrode system of a electric double layer supercapacitor has been developed. The model accounts for charge transport across the solid-liquid system. This formulation based on volume averaging process is a widely used concept for the multiphase ow equations ([28] [36]) and is analogous to porous media theory typically employed for electrochemical systems [22] [39] [12]. This formulation is extended to the electrochemical equations for a supercapacitor in a consistent fashion, which allows for a single-domain approach with no need for explicit interfacial boundary conditions as previously employed ([38]). In this model it is easy to introduce the spatio-temporal variations, anisotropies of physical properties and it is also conducive for introducing any upscaled parameters from lower length{scale simulations and experiments. Due to the irregular geometric congurations including porous electrode, the charge transport and subsequent performance characteristics of the super-capacitor can be easily captured in higher dimensions. A generalized model of this nature also provides insight into the applicability of 1D models ([38]) and where multidimensional eects need to be considered. In addition, simple sensitivity analysis on key input parameters is performed in order to ascertain the dependence of the charge and discharge processes on these parameters. Finally, we demonstarted how this new formulation can be applied to non-planar supercapacitors

Allu, Srikanth [ORNL] [ORNL; Velamur Asokan, Badri [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering] [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering; Shelton, William A [Louisiana State University] [Louisiana State University; Philip, Bobby [ORNL] [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Is Soret equilibrium a non-equilibrium effect?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent thermophoretic experiments on colloidal suspensions revived an old debate, namely whether the Soret effect is properly described by thermostatics, or necessarily requires non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Based on colloidal transport theory and the entropy production of the related viscous flow, our analysis leads to the conclusion that the equilibrium approach may work for small ions, yet fails for colloidal particles and polymers. Regarding binary molecular mixtures, our results shed some doubt on the validity of thermostatic approaches that derive the Soret coefficient from equilibrium potentials.

Alois Würger

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

227

Phase equilibrium measurements on twelve binary mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase equilibrium measurements have been performed on twelve binary mixtures. The PTx method was used to obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the following binary systems at two temperatures each: ethanethiol + propylene; nitrobenzene + methanol; pyridine + ethyl acetate; octane + tert-amyl methyl ether; diisopropyl ether + butane; 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol + epichlorohydrin; 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol + epichlorohydrin; 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol + epichlorohydrin; 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol + epichlorohydrin; methanol + hydrogen cyanide. For these systems, equilibrium vapor and liquid phase compositions were derived from the PTx data using the Soave equation of state to represent the vapor phase and the Wilson, NRTL, or Redlich-Kister activity coefficient model to represent the liquid phase. The infinite dilution activity coefficient of methylamine in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was determined at three temperatures by performing PTx measurements on the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was determined at three temperatures by performing PTx measurements on the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-rich half of the binary. Liquid-liquid equilibrium studies were made on the triethylene glycol + 1-pentene system at two temperatures by directly analyzing samples taken from each liquid phase.

Giles, N.F. [Wiltec Research Co., Inc., Provo, UT (United States)] [Wiltec Research Co., Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Wilson, H.L.; Wilding, W.V. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Bilevel Direct Search Method for Leader-Follower Equilibrium ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electricity markets [42, 46, 16], Nash equilibrium model in transportation [27] and signal trans- mission in wireless ...... Private market share (DH,DL). (0.62, 0.41) ...

2012-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

229

Ecosystem carbon storage capacity as affected by disturbance regimes: A general theoretical model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disturbances have been recognized as a key factor shaping terrestrial ecosystem states and dynamics. A general model that quantitatively describes the relationship between carbon storage and disturbance regime is critical for better understanding large scale terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics. We developed a model (REGIME) to quantify ecosystem carbon storage capacities (E[x]) under varying disturbance regimes with an analytical solution E[x] = U {center_dot} {tau}{sub E} {center_dot} {lambda}{lambda} + s {tau} 1, where U is ecosystem carbon influx, {tau}{sub E} is ecosystem carbon residence time, and {tau}{sub 1} is the residence time of the carbon pool affected by disturbances (biomass pool in this study). The disturbance regime is characterized by the mean disturbance interval ({lambda}) and the mean disturbance severity (s). It is a Michaelis-Menten-type equation illustrating the saturation of carbon content with mean disturbance interval. This model analytically integrates the deterministic ecosystem carbon processes with stochastic disturbance events to reveal a general pattern of terrestrial carbon dynamics at large scales. The model allows us to get a sense of the sensitivity of ecosystems to future environmental changes just by a few calculations. According to the REGIME model, for example, approximately 1.8 Pg C will be lost in the high-latitude regions of North America (>45{sup o} N) if fire disturbance intensity increases around 5.7 time the current intensity to the end of the twenty-first century, which will require around 12% increases in net primary productivity (NPP) to maintain stable carbon stocks. If the residence time decreased 10% at the same time additional 12.5% increases in NPP are required to keep current C stocks. The REGIME model also lays the foundation for analytically modeling the interactions between deterministic biogeochemical processes and stochastic disturbance events.

Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Wang, Weile [NASA Ames Research Center; Wang, Han [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; McGuire, A. David [University of Alaska; Hastings, Alan [University of California, Davis; Schimel, David [NEON Inc.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Quantifying and Generalizing Hydrologic Responses to Dam Regulation using a Statistical Modeling Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite the ubiquitous existence of dams within riverscapes, much of our knowledge about dams and their environmental effects remains context-specific. Hydrology, more than any other environmental variable, has been studied in great detail with regard to dam regulation. While much progress has been made in generalizing the hydrologic effects of regulation by large dams, many aspects of hydrology show site-specific fidelity to dam operations, small dams (including diversions), and regional hydrologic regimes. A statistical modeling framework is presented to quantify and generalize hydrologic responses to varying degrees of dam regulation. Specifically, the objectives were to 1) compare the effects of local versus cumulative dam regulation, 2) determine the importance of different regional hydrologic regimes in influencing hydrologic responses to dams, and 3) evaluate how different regulation contexts lead to error in predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Overall, model performance was poor in quantifying the magnitude of hydrologic responses, but performance was sufficient in classifying hydrologic responses as negative or positive. Responses of some hydrologic indices to dam regulation were highly dependent upon hydrologic class membership and the purpose of the dam. The opposing coefficients between local and cumulative-dam predictors suggested that hydrologic responses to cumulative dam regulation are complex, and predicting the hydrology downstream of individual dams, as opposed to multiple dams, may be more easy accomplished using statistical approaches. Results also suggested that particular contexts, including multipurpose dams, high cumulative regulation by multiple dams, diversions, close proximity to dams, and certain hydrologic classes are all sources of increased error when predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Statistical models, such as the ones presented herein, show promise in their ability to model the effects of dam regulation effects at large spatial scales as to generalize the directionality of hydrologic responses.

McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Technology and Technical Change in the MIT EPPA Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential technology change has a strong influence on projections of greenhouse gas emissions and costs of control, and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are a common device for studying these phenomena. Using ...

Jacoby, Henry D.

232

Matter power spectrum for the generalized Chaplygin gas model: The relativistic case  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model is the prototype of a unified model of dark energy (DE) and dark matter (DM). It is characterized by equation-of-state (EoS) parameters $A$ and $\\alpha$. We use a statistical analysis of the 2dFGRS data to constrain these parameters. In particular, we find that very small (close to zero) and very large values ($\\alpha\\gg 1$) of the equation-of-state parameter $\\alpha$ are preferred. To test the validity of this type of unification of the dark sector we admit the existence of a separate DM component in addition to the Chaplygin gas and calculate the probability distribution for the fractional contributions of both components to the total energy density. This analysis favors a model for which the Universe is nearly entirely made up of the separate DM component with an almost negligible Chaplygin gas part. This confirms the results of a previous Newtonian analysis.

J. C. Fabris; H. E. S. Velten; W. Zimdahl

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

233

Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative.

Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

234

USE OF AN EQUILIBRIUM MODEL TO FORECAST DISSOLUTION EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY IMPACTS, AND DOWNSTREAM PROCESSABILITY FROM OXALIC ACID AIDED SLUDGE REMOVAL IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS 1-15  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis details a graduate research effort written to fulfill the Magister of Technologiae in Chemical Engineering requirements at the University of South Africa. The research evaluates the ability of equilibrium based software to forecast dissolution, evaluate safety impacts, and determine downstream processability changes associated with using oxalic acid solutions to dissolve sludge heels in Savannah River Site High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks 1-15. First, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Coupled with a model, a material balance determines the fate of hypothetical worst-case sludge in the treatment and neutralization tanks during each chemical adjustment. Although sludge is dissolved, after neutralization more is created within HLW. An energy balance determines overpressurization and overheating to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen may overwhelm the purge ventilation. Limiting the heel volume treated/acid added and processing the solids through vitrification is preferred and should not significantly increase the number of glass canisters.

KETUSKY, EDWARD

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

235

Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.

Li, Xujing [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); Zakharov, Leonid E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, MS-27 P.O. Box 451, New Jersey (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, MS-27 P.O. Box 451, New Jersey (United States); Drozdov, Vladimir V. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Generalized spherically symmetric gravitational model: Hamiltonian dynamics in extended phase space and BRST charge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct Hamiltonian dynamics of the generalized spherically symmetric gravitational model in extended phase space. We start from the Faddeev - Popov effective action with gauge-fixing and ghost terms, making use of gauge conditions in differential form. It enables us to introduce missing velocities into the Lagrangian and then construct a Hamiltonian function according a usual rule which is applied for systems without constraints. The main feature of Hamiltonian dynamics in extended phase space is that it can be proved to be completely equivalent to Lagrangian dynamics derived from the effective action. We find a BRST invariant form of the effective action by adding terms not affecting Lagrangian equations. After all, we construct the BRST charge according to the Noether theorem. Our algorithm differs from that by Batalin, Fradkin and Vilkovisky, but the resulting BRST charge generates correct transformations for all gravitational degrees of freedom including gauge ones. Generalized spherically symmetric model imitates the full gravitational theory much better then models with finite number of degrees of freedom, so that one can expect appropriate results in the case of the full theory.

T. P. Shestakova

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

237

Inference for Clustered Mixed Outcomes from a Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Gueorguieva, 2001). 2.3 Assessing Correlation in Generalized Linear Mixed Model A number of measurements of agreement among multiple measurements taken by several observers or methods have been proposed. Cohen?s kappa statistics (Cohen, 1960) and weighted... gives ?inter,i = Ti? t=1 Ti? t?=1 Cov(?i1t, ?i2t?) ???? [ Ti? t=1 E{?1h1(?i1t)} + Var ( Ti? t=1 ?i1t )] [ Ti? t?=1 E{?2h2(?i2t?)} + Var ( Ti? t?=1 ?i2t? )] . It can be shown that the inter-CC is a ratio of functions of Ti? t=1 E(?i...

Chen, Hsiang-Chun

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Note: Local thermal conductivities from boundary driven non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of heat transport in models of molecular fluids. We show that the “local” thermal conductivities obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations agree within numerical accuracy with equilibrium Green-Kubo computations. Our results support the local equilibrium hypothesis for transport properties. We show how to use the local dependence of the thermal gradients to quantify the thermal conductivity of molecular fluids for a wide range of thermodynamic states using a single simulation.

Bresme, F., E-mail: f.bresme@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Physics Section, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Armstrong, J., E-mail: j.armstrong@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Physics Section, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

239

Interacting dark fluid in the universe bounded by event horizon : A non-equilibrium prescription  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis has been done for the interacting dark fluid in the universe bounded by the event horizon.From observational evidences it is assumed that at present the matter in the universe is dominated by two dark sectors-dark matter and dark energy. The mutual interaction among them results in spontaneous heat flow between the horizon and the fluid system and the thermal equilibrium will no longer hold.In the present work,the dark matter is chosen in the form of dust while the dark energy is chosen as a perfect fluid with constant equation in one case and holographic dark energy model is chosen in the other.Finally,validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics has been examined in both cases.

Subenoy Chakraborty; Atreyee Biswas

2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

240

Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrological cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermal and dynamical structure of the tropical atmosphere which emerged from the numerical integration of our general circulation model with a simple hydrologic cycle is analyzed in detail. According to the results of our analysis, the lapse rate of zonal mean temperature in the model Tropics is supermoist-adiabatic in the lower troposphere, and is sub-moist-adiabatic above the 400-mb. level in qualitative agreement with thc observed features in the actual Tropics. The flow field in the model Tropics also displays interesting features. For example, a zone of strong convergence and a belt of heavy rain develops around the equator. Synoptic-scale disturbances such as weak tropical cyclones and shear lines with strong convergence develop and are reminiscent of disturbances in the actual tropical atmosphere. The humid towers, which result from moist convective adjustment and condensation, develop in the central core of the regions of strong upward motion, sometimes reaching the level of the tropical tropopause and thus heating the upper tropical troposphere. This heating compensates for thc cooling due to radiation and the meridional circulation. According to the analysis of the energy budget of the model Tropics, the release of eddy available potential energy, which is mainly generated by the heat of condensation, constitutes the major source of eddy kinetic energy of disturbances prevailing in the model Tropics.

Syukuro Manabe; Joseph Smagorinsky

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Representing Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for an Aqueous MEA-CO2 System Using the Electrolyte Nonrandom-Two-Liquid Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Massachusetts 02141 Following the work of Austgen et al., the electrolyte nonrandom-two-liquid (NRTL) model reaction as well as important interaction parameters of the electrolyte NRTL model were carefully fitted

Zhang, Luzheng

242

Out-of-equilibrium liquids that form due to dynamics of the molecules that depend on the local density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RNA molecules in living cells form what look like liquid droplets formed by liquid/liquid phase separation. But unlike the molecules in conventional phase separating mixtures, RNA molecules are transported by molecular motors that consume energy and so are out of equilibrium. Motivated by this we study models with out-of-equilibrium dynamics that depend on the local density. Our simulations suggest that density-dependent dynamics in which the motion of a molecule slows down in the presence of nearby molecules, tend to cause condensation into an out-of-equilibrium liquid state. This out-of-equilibrium state behaves like a liquid in the sense that it coexists with a much more dilute phase, droplets coalesce, and the state has a well-defined surface tension --- which we calculate. Liquid/liquid separation appears to be a very general phenomenon that occurs in and out of equilibrium. We also look at the analogous separation of the two blocks of a block copolymer, in which the monomers of one block have dynamics t...

Sear, Richard P

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Parametric resonance as a model for QPO sources -- I. A general approach to multiple scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the resonance model, high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are supposed to be a consequence of nonlinear resonance between modes of oscillations occurring within the innermost parts of an accretion disk. Several models with a prescribed mode--mode interaction were proposed in order to explain the characteristic properties of the resonance in QPO sources. In this paper, we examine nonlinear oscillations of a system having a quadratic nonlinearity and we show that this case is particularly relevant for QPOs. We present a very convenient way how to study internal resonances of a fully general system using the method of multiple scales. Finally, we concentrate to conservative systems and discuss their behavior near the 3:2 resonance.

J. Horak

2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

244

Generalized Chaplygin gas model: constraints from Hubble parameter versus Redshift Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine observational constraints on the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model for dark energy from the 9 Hubble parameter data points, the 115 SNLS Sne Ia data and the size of baryonic acoustic oscillation peak at redshift, $z=0.35$. At a 95.4% confidence level, a combination of three data sets gives $0.67\\leq A_s\\leq 0.83$ and $-0.21\\leq \\alpha\\leq 0.42$, which is within the allowed parameters ranges of the GCG as a candidate of the unified dark matter and dark energy. It is found that the standard Chaplygin gas model ($\\alpha=1$) is ruled out by these data at the 99.7% confidence level.

Puxun Wu; Hongwei Yu

2006-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

245

Dilute gas of ultracold two-level atoms inside a cavity; generalized Dicke model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a gas of ultracold two-level atoms confined in a cavity, taking into account for atomic center-of-mass motion and cavity mode variations. We use the generalized Dicke model, and analyze separately the cases of a Gaussian, and a standing wave mode shape. Owing to the interplay between external motional energies of the atoms and internal atomic and field energies, the phase-diagrams exhibit novel features not encountered in the standard Dicke model, such as the existence of first and second order phase transitions between normal and superradiant phases. Due to the quantum description of atomic motion, internal and external atomic degrees of freedom are highly correlated leading to modified normal and superradiant phases.

Jonas Larson; Maciej Lewenstein

2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

246

Generalized CP symmetries and special regions of parameter space in the two-Higgs-doublet model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We consider the impact of imposing generalized CP symmetries on the Higgs sector of the two-Higgs-doublet model, and identify three classes of symmetries. Two of these classes constrain the scalar potential parameters to an exceptional region of parameter space, which respects either a Z{sub 2} discrete flavor symmetry or a U(1) symmetry. We exhibit a basis-invariant quantity that distinguishes between these two possible symmetries. We also show that the consequences of imposing these two classes of CP symmetry can be achieved by combining Higgs family symmetries, and that this is not possible for the usual CP symmetry. We comment on the vacuum structure and on renormalization in the presence of these symmetries. Finally, we demonstrate that the standard CP symmetry can be used to build all the models we identify, including those based on Higgs family symmetries.

Ferreira, P. M. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1900 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Haber, Howard E. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Silva, Joao P. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1900 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Beta relaxation in the shear mechanics of equilibrium viscous liquids: Phenomenology and network modeling of the alpha-beta merging region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The phenomenology of the beta relaxation process in the shear-mechanical response of glass-forming liquids is summarized and compared to that of the dielectric beta process. Furthermore, we discuss how to model the observations by means of standard viscoelastic modeling elements. Necessary physical requirements to such a model are outlined, and it is argued that physically relevant models must be additive in the shear compliance of the alpha and beta parts. A model based on these considerations is proposed and fitted to data for Polyisobutylene 680.

Bo Jakobsen; Kristine Niss; Claudio Maggi; Niels Boye Olsen; Tage Christensen; Jeppe C. Dyre

2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

248

Short ensembles: An Efficient Method for Discerning Climate-relevant Sensitivities in Atmospheric General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the feasibility of an experimentation strategy for investigating sensitivities in fast components of atmospheric general circulation models. The basic idea is to replace the traditional serial-in-time long-term climate integrations by representative ensembles of shorter simulations. The key advantage of the proposed method lies in its efficiency: since fewer days of simulation are needed, the computational cost is less, and because individual realizations are independent and can be integrated simultaneously, the new dimension of parallelism can dramatically reduce the turnaround time in benchmark tests, sensitivities studies, and model tuning exercises. The strategy is not appropriate for exploring sensitivity of all model features, but it is very effective in many situations. Two examples are presented using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The first example demonstrates that the method is capable of characterizing the model cloud and precipitation sensitivity to time step length. A nudging technique is also applied to an additional set of simulations to help understand the contribution of physics-dynamics interaction to the detected time step sensitivity. In the second example, multiple empirical parameters related to cloud microphysics and aerosol lifecycle are perturbed simultaneously in order to explore which parameters have the largest impact on the simulated global mean top-of-atmosphere radiation balance. Results show that in both examples, short ensembles are able to correctly reproduce the main signals of model sensitivities revealed by traditional long-term climate simulations for fast processes in the climate system. The efficiency of the ensemble method makes it particularly useful for the development of high-resolution, costly and complex climate models.

Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhang, Kai; Qian, Yun; Yan, Huiping; Zhao, Chun

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

249

Degeneracies and scaling relations in general power-law models for gravitational lenses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The time delay in gravitational lenses can be used to derive the Hubble constant in a relatively simple way. The results of this method are less dependent on astrophysical assumptions than in many other methods. The most important uncertainty is related to the mass model used. We discuss a family of models with a separable radial power-law and an arbitrary angular dependence for the potential psi = r^beta * F(theta). Isothermal potentials are a special case of these models with beta=1. An additional external shear is used to take into account perturbations from other galaxies. Using a simple linear formalism for quadruple lenses, we can derive H0 as a function of the observables and the shear. If the latter is fixed, the result depends on the assumed power-law exponent according to H0 proportional to (2-beta)/beta. The effect of external shear is quantified by introducing a `critical shear' gamma_c as a measure for the amount of shear that changes the result significantly. The analysis shows, that in the general case H0 and gamma_c do not depend on the position of the lens galaxy. We discuss these results and compare with numerical models for a number of real lens systems.

Olaf Wucknitz

2002-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

250

One-skeleton galleries, the path model and a generalization of Macdonald's formula for Hall-Littlewood polynomials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One-skeleton galleries, the path model and a generalization of Macdonald's formula for Hall to Macdonald's formula. Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Preliminaries 5 2.1 Schubert varieties in the affine and the associated Weyl group combinatorics [20]. As a consequence, we get a generalization of Macdonald's formula

Boyer, Edmond

251

Hydrological Cycles over the Congo and Upper Blue Nile Basins: Evaluation of General Circulation Model Simulations and Reanalysis Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The simulations and predictions of the hydrological cycle by general circulation models (GCMs) are characterized by a significant degree of uncertainty. This uncertainty is reflected in the range of Intergovernmental Panel ...

Demory, Marie-Estelle

252

Tuning universality far from equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Possible universal dynamics of a many-body system far from thermal equilibrium are explored. A focus is set on meta-stable non-thermal states exhibiting critical properties such as self-similarity and independence of the details of how the respective state has been reached. It is proposed that universal dynamics far from equilibrium can be tuned to exhibit a dynamical phase transition where these critical properties change qualitatively. This is demonstrated for the case of a superfluid two-component Bose gas exhibiting different types of long-lived but non-thermal critical order. Scaling exponents controlled by the ratio of experimentally tuneable coupling parameters offer themselves as natural smoking guns. The results shed light on the wealth of universal phenomena expected to exist in the far-from-equilibrium realm.

Markus Karl; Boris Nowak; Thomas Gasenzer

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

253

DSMC predictions of non-equilibrium reaction rates.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) chemical-reaction models recently proposed by Bird and based solely on the collision energy and the vibrational energy levels of the species involved is applied to calculate nonequilibrium chemical-reaction rates for atmospheric reactions in hypersonic flows. The DSMC non-equilibrium model predictions are in good agreement with theoretical models and experimental measurements. The observed agreement provides strong evidence that modeling chemical reactions using only the collision energy and the vibrational energy levels provides an accurate method for predicting non-equilibrium chemical-reaction rates.

Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5+-0.5 Wm-2. An alternative estimate obtained by scaling the simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic Ta and satellite-retrieved Nd - Ta regression slopes, respectively, yields a global annual mean clear-sky (aerosol direct effect) estimate of -0.4+-0.2 Wm-2 and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7+-0.5 Wm-2, with a total estimate of -1.2+-0.4 Wm-2.

Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

255

A General Relativistic Model for Magnetic Monopole-Infused Compact Objects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emergent concepts from astroparticle physics are incorporated into a classical solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations for a binary magnetohydrodynamic fluid, in order to describe the final equilibrium state of compact objects infused with magnetic monopoles produced by proton-proton collisions within the intense dipolar magnetic fields generated by these objects during their collapse. It is found that the effective mass of such an object's acquired monopolar magnetic field is three times greater than the mass of its native fluid and monopoles combined, necessitating that the interior matter undergo a transition to a state of negative pressure in order to attain equilibrium. Assuming full symmetry between the electric and magnetic Maxwell equations yields expressions for the monopole charge density and magnetic field by direct analogy with their electrostatic equivalents; inserting these into the Einstein equations then leads to an interior metric which is well-behaved from the origin to the surface, where...

Pazameta, Zoran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Analog models of computations \\& Effective Church Turing Thesis: Efficient simulation of Turing machines by the General Purpose Analog Computer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

\\emph{Are analog models of computations more powerful than classical models of computations?} From a series of recent papers, it is now clear that many realistic analog models of computations are provably equivalent to classical digital models of computations from a \\emph{computability} point of view. Take, for example, the probably most realistic model of analog computation, the General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) model from Claude Shannon, a model for Differential Analyzers, which are analog machines used from 1930s to early 1960s to solve various problems. It is now known that functions computable by Turing machines are provably exactly those that are computable by GPAC. This paper is about next step: understanding if this equivalence also holds at the \\emph{complexity} level. In this paper we show that the realistic models of analog computation -- namely the General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) -- can simulate Turing machines in a computationally efficient manner. More concretely we show that, modulo...

Pouly, Amaury; Graça, Daniel S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Generally covariant model of a scalar field with high frequency dispersion and the cosmological horizon problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short distance structure of spacetime may show up in the form of high freqency dispersion. Although such dispersion is not locally Lorentz invariant, we show in a scalar field model how it can nevertheless be incorporated into a generally covariant metric theory of gravity provided the locally preferred frame is dynamical. We evaluate the resulting energy-momentum tensor and compute its expectation value for a quantum field in a thermal state. The equation of state differs at high temperatures from the usual one, but not by enough to impact the problems of a hot big bang cosmology. We show that a superluminal dispersion relation can solve the horizon problem via superluminal equilibration, however it cannot do so while remaining outside the Planck regime unless the dispersion relation is artificially chosen to have a rather steep dependence on wavevector.

Ted Jacobson; David Mattingly

2000-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

258

Effect of atomic spontaneous decay on entanglement in the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some aspects of the irreversible dynamics of a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model are addressed. By working in the dressed-state representation, it is possible to split the dynamics of the entanglement and coherence. The exact solution of the master equation in the case of a high-Q cavity with atomic decay is found. Effects of the atomic spontaneous decay on the temporal evolution of partial entropies of the atom or the field and the total entropy as a quantitative measure entanglement are elucidated. The degree of entanglement, through the sum of the negative eigenvalues of the partially transposed density matrix and the negative mutual information has been studied and compared with other measures.

Hessian, H.A. [Faculty of Science Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: ammar_67@yahoo.com; Obada, A.-S.F. [Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Mohamed, A.-B.A. [Faculty of Science Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Remarks on monopole charge properties within the Generalized Coherent State Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Generalized Coherent State Model, proposed previously for a unified description of magnetic and electric collective properties of nuclear systems, is used to study the ground state band charge density as well as the E0 transitions from $0^+_{\\beta}$ to $0^+_g$. The influence of the nuclear deformation and of angular momentum projection on the charge density is investigated. The monopole transition amplitude has been calculated for ten nuclei. The results are compared with some previous theoretical studies and with the available experimental data. Our results concerning angular momentum projection are consistent with those of previous microscopic calculations for the ground state density. The calculations for the E0 transitions agree quite well with the experimental data. Issues like how the shape transitions or shape coexistence are reflected in the $\\rho(E0)$ behavior are also addressed.

Raduta, A A; de Guerra, E Moya; Sarriguren, P; 10.1088/0954-3899/36/1/015114

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Generalized parton distribution functions and the nucleon spin sum rules in the chiral quark soliton model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The theoretical predictions are given for the forward limit of the unpolarized spin-flip isovector generalized parton distribution function (E{sup u}-E{sup d})(x,{xi},t) within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model, with full inclusion of the polarization of Dirac sea quarks. We observe that [(H{sup u}-H{sup d})+(E{sup u}-E{sup d})](x,0,0) has a sharp peak around x=0, which we interpret as a signal of the importance of the pionic qq excitation with large spatial extension in the transverse direction. Another interesting indication given by the predicted distribution in combination with Ji's angular momentum sum rule is that the d quark carries more angular momentum than the u quark in the proton, which may have some relation with the physics of the violation of the Gottfried sum rule.

Wakamatsu, M.; Tsujimoto, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Nonlinear generalized source method for modeling second-harmonic generation in diffraction gratings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a versatile numerical method for modeling light diffraction in periodically patterned photonic structures containing quadratically nonlinear non-centrosymmetric optical materials. Our approach extends the generalized source method to nonlinear optical interactions by incorporating the contribution of nonlinear polarization sources to the diffracted field in the algorithm. We derive the mathematical formalism underlying the numerical method and introduce the Fourier-factorization suitable for nonlinear calculations. The numerical efficiency and runtime characteristics of the method are investigated in a set of benchmark calculations: the results corresponding to the fundamental frequency are compared to those obtained from a reference method and the beneficial effects of the modified Fourier-factorization rule on the accuracy of the nonlinear computations is demonstrated. In order to illustrate the capabilities of our method, we employ it to demonstrate strong enhancement of second-harmonic genera...

Weismann, Martin; Panoiu, Nicolae C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

PHASE TRANSITION NEAR A LIQUID-GAS COEXISTENCE EQUILIBRIUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, are the states in which gas and liquid can stay in equilibrium. We denote c± = -p (±), the speed of sound) in general in a oscillatory manner with fre- quency determined in part by the speeds of sound in gas, the time needed for the sound wave to travel in liquid from the interface to the tube boundary

Wang, Xiao-Ping

263

KINETIC THEORY OF EQUILIBRIUM AXISYMMETRIC COLLISIONLESS PLASMAS IN OFF-EQUATORIAL TORI AROUND COMPACT OBJECTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possible occurrence of equilibrium off-equatorial tori in the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of astrophysical compact objects has been recently proved based on non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory. These stationary structures can represent plausible candidates for the modeling of coronal plasmas expected to arise in association with accretion disks. However, accretion disk coronae are formed by a highly diluted environment, and so the fluid description may be inappropriate. The question is posed of whether similar off-equatorial solutions can also be determined in the case of collisionless plasmas for which treatment based on kinetic theory, rather than a fluid one, is demanded. In this paper the issue is addressed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for non-relativistic, multi-species axisymmetric plasmas subject to an external dominant spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic field. Equilibrium configurations are investigated and explicit solutions for the species kinetic distribution function are constructed, which are expressed in terms of generalized Maxwellian functions characterized by isotropic temperature and non-uniform fluid fields. The conditions for the existence of off-equatorial tori are investigated. It is proved that these levitating systems are admitted under general conditions when both gravitational and magnetic fields contribute to shaping the spatial profiles of equilibrium plasma fluid fields. Then, specifically, kinetic effects carried by the equilibrium solution are explicitly provided and identified here with diamagnetic energy-correction and electrostatic contributions. It is shown that these kinetic terms characterize the plasma equation of state by introducing non-vanishing deviations from the assumption of thermal pressure.

Cremaschini, Claudio; Ková?, Ji?í; Slaný, Petr; Stuchlík, Zden?k [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nám.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Karas, Vladimír [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Bo?ní II, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lattice QCD allows us to simulate QCD at non-zero temperature and/or densities. Such equilibrium thermodynamics calculations are relevant to the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. I give a brief review of the field with emphasis on our work.

D. K. Sinclair

2007-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

265

LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of equilibrium is the result of a balance among all of the different forces interacting with the object (sections 1-10), chapter 4 (sections 1, 2, 5- 7), the paragraph at equation 6-13, chapter 10 (sections 5 problems before your lecturer addresses this material. So, it is very important that you read the text

Minnesota, University of

266

Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: ?11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: ?7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: ?6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: ?1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: ?11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography images and facilitate improved treatment management.

Yock, Adam D., E-mail: ADYock@mdanderson.org; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Rao, Arvind [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California 92121 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California 92121 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Entanglement Entropy of the Early Universe in Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We provide an explicit calculation of the evolution of the cosmic entanglement entropy in the early universe before the matter dominant era. This is made possible by invoking the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model, which has the advantage of preserving unitarity and providing a smooth transition between the inflation epoch and the radiation dominant era. The dynamics of the universe is described by the quantization in the minisuperspace of the GCG model, following the prescription proposed by Wheeler and DeWitt. Two sources of contribution to the cosmic entanglement entropy are considered: one from the homogeneous background where the observable and the unobservable regions of the universe are entangled and the other from the inhomogeneous cosmological perturbations where different modes are entangled. We find that the homogeneous contribution grows exponentially at the very beginning of the inflation, but decreases during the radiation dominant era. Conversely, that from the cosmological perturbation is found to decrease at first and then increase after reaching a minimum value. The net result is that the total entanglement entropy reaches a minimum at an early stage of the inflation and then increases throughout most of the inflation and the entire radiation dominant era.

Pisin Chen; Yuezhen Niu

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

268

Model-Based Testing with a General Purpose Keyword-Driven Test Automation Tuomas Pajunen, Tommi Takala, and Mika Katara  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The tests are built as sequences of keywords, and keywords are automatically translated into concrete lowModel-Based Testing with a General Purpose Keyword-Driven Test Automation Framework Tuomas Pajunen mika.katara@tut.fi Abstract--Model-based testing (MBT) is a relatively new approach to software testing

Memon, Atif M.

269

A General Equilibrium Analysis of Climate Policy for Aviation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Technology and Policy at the MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY June 2011 c Massachusetts Institute accounting matrix is re-balanced to include aviation, a non-unity income elasticity of demand is introduced.S.). However, the price of aviation and sector output are more responsive. When trading between an aviation

270

The general equilibrium of tax and expenditure limits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wooldridge, Jeffery M. 2002. Econometric Analysis of CrossCausal Relations by Econometric Methods and Cross-Spectralthe most widely used econometric technique for observational

Moule, Ellen Concetta

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

A general equilibrium analysis of climate policy for aviation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regulation of aviation's contribution to the global problem of climate change is increasingly likely in the near term, but the method agreed upon by most economists-a multi-sectoral market-based approach such as a cap and ...

Gillespie, Christopher Whittlesey

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Modular Applied General Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte GmbHMilo,Energy Information Modoc High School Space Heating

273

applied general equilibrium: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

corresponds to the configuration of minimum entropy production condition and the maximum entropy principle. In this limit case, we show that the derived expression of...

274

Equilibrium Theory for a Particle Pulled by a Moving Optical Trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The viscous drag on a colloidal particle pulled through solution by an optical trap is large enough that on experimentally relavant time scales the mechanical force exerted by the trap is equal and op- posite the viscous drag force. The rapid mechanical equilibritation allows the system to be modeled using equilibrium theory, where the effects of the energy dissipation (thermodynamic disequilibrium) show up only in the coordinate transformations that map the system from the laboratory frame of reference, relative to which the particle is moving, to a frame of reference in which the particle is, on average, stationary and on which the stochastic dynamics is governed by a canonical equilib- rium distribution function. The simple equations in the stationary frame can be analyzed using the Onsager-Machlup theory for stochastic systems and provide generalizations of equilibrium and near equilibrium concepts such as detailed balance and fluctuation-dissipation relations applicable to a wide range of systems including molecular motors, pumps, and other nano-scale machines.

R. Dean Astumian

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

275

The generalized non-conservative model of a 1-planet system - revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the long-term dynamics of a planetary system composed of a star and a planet. Both bodies are considered as extended, non-spherical, rotating objects. There are no assumptions made on the relative angles between the orbital angular momentum and the spin vectors of the bodies. Thus, we analyze full, spatial model of the planetary system. Both objects are assumed to be deformed due to their own rotations, as well as due to the mutual tidal interactions. The general relativity corrections are considered in terms of the post-Newtonian approximation. Besides the conservative contributions to the perturbing forces, there are also taken into account non-conservative effects, i.e., the dissipation of the mechanical energy. This dissipation is a result of the tidal perturbation on the velocity field in the internal zones with non-zero turbulent viscosity (convective zones). Our main goal is to derive the equations of the orbital motion as well as the equations governing time-evolution of the spin vectors (ang...

Migaszewski, Cezary

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

A generalized model of active media with a set of interacting pacemakers: Application to the heart beat analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a quite general model of active media by consideration of the interaction between pacemakers via their phase response curves. This model describes a network of pulse oscillators coupled by their response to the internal depolarization of mutual stimulations. First, a macroscopic level corresponding to an arbitrary large number of oscillatory elements coupled globally is considered. As a specific and important case of the proposed model, the bidirectional interaction of two cardiac nodes is described. This case is generalized by means of an additional pacemaker, which can be expounded as an external stimulater. The behavior of such a system is analyzed. Second, the microscopic level corresponding to the representation of cardiac nodes by one-- and two--dimensional lattices of pulse oscillators coupled via the nearest neighbors is described. The model is a universal one in the sense that on its basis one can easily construct discrete distributed media of active elements, which interact via phase response curves.

Sergei Rybalko; Ekaterina Zhuchkova

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

A generalized self consistent model for effective elastic moduli of human dentine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consistent Model for cell model of fiber-reinforced composites is extended to the case of hollow cylinder model and the corresponding cell model is chosen to consist of a circular hollow cylinder filled from other models such as nano-indentation method. Ã? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords

Qin, Qinghua

278

Biophysical Journal Volume 85 August 2003 11351144 1135 A General Model for Amyloid Fibril Assembly Based on Morphological  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to form amyloid fibrils in vitro including acylphosphatase (Chiti et al., 2000), cold-shock proteinBiophysical Journal Volume 85 August 2003 1135­1144 1135 A General Model for Amyloid Fibril of fibrillar species formed during fibrillation of a-synuclein, insulin, and the B1 domain of protein G

Mochrie, Simon

279

Solvation Free Energy of Biomacromolecules: Parameters for a Modified Generalized Born Model Consistent with the AMBER Force Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solvation Free Energy of Biomacromolecules: Parameters for a Modified Generalized Born Model provides rapid estimates of the electrostatic free energies of solvation for diverse molecules of parameters compatible with the AMBER force field is described. The method is used to estimate free energies

Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

280

Enhancing the resolution of sea ice in long-term global ocean general circulation model (gcm) integrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Open water in sea ice, such as leads and polynyas, plays a crucial role in determining the formation of deep- and bottom-water, as well as their long-term global properties and circulation. Ocean general circulation models (GCMs) designed...

Kim, Joong Tae

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of nonuniformities in equilibrium magnetohydrodynamic flows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study of the effects of thermal and velocity nonuniformities is performed in an equilibrium plasma for a range of Hall coefficients. By introducing equally spaced cold blades in the radial flow of an electrodeless magnetohydrodynamic disk deivce, it is possible to create well-defined two-dimensional wake nonuniformities with strong variations of the plasma properties in the direction normal to the magnetic field and the flow. This type of nonuniformity and orientation theoretically provides the strongest reduction of Hall coefficient and effective conductivity for high values of the Hall coefficient. This degradation which reached more than 50% in some cases, is controlled by both the level of nonuniformities and the value of the ideal Hall coefficient. The former is dependent upon the number of blades (root mean square deviation of the conductivity), and the latter is dependent upon the values of the magnetic field intensities. The results provide basic quantitative information about the effects of conductivity and velocity nonuniformities on the performance of equilibrium magnetohydrodynamic generators over a wide range of Hall coefficients. The theoretical predictions are derived from a detailed two-dimensional electrodynamic analysis and a simplified engineering model based on a generalization of Rosa's layer model. These experiments validate the analytical studies and support the use of the theoretical layer nonuniform models in describing the effect of boundary layers on the performance of linear magnetohydrodynamic devices.

Rosenbaum, M.; Shamma, S.E.; Louis, J.F.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of nonuniformities in equilibrium MHD generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study of the effects of thermal and velocity nonuniformities is performed in an equilibrium plasma for a range of Hall parameters. An electrodeless MHD disk generator with radial flow is chosen as the ideal geometry for these experiments. By introducing equally spaced cold blades in the flow, it is possible to create well defined two-dimensional wake nonuniformities with strong variations of the plasma properties in the direction normal to the magnetic field and the flow. This type of nonuniformity is predicted to provide the strongest reduction of Hall coefficient and effective conductivity for high values of Hall parameter. This degradation is controlled by both the level of nonuniformities and the value of the ideal Hall parameter. The former is dependent upon the number of blades (root mean square deviation of the conductivity), and the latter is dependent upon the values of the magnetic field intensities. The results provide basic quantitative information about the effects of conductivity and velocity nonuniformities on the performance of equilibrium MHD generators over a wide range of Hall coefficients, between 2 and 7. Reduction formulae are established between the effective and ideal Hall parameters for different levels of nonuniformities intensities. Theoretical predictions are derived from a detailed two-dimensional electrodynamic analysis and a simplified engineering model based on a generalization of Rosa's layer model. These experiments validate the analytical studies and support the use of the theoretical layer models in describing the effect of boundary layers on the performance of linear generators.

Rosenbaum, M.; Shamma, S.E.; Louis, J.F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Examining the Generalized Waring Model for the Analysis of Traffic Crashes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

external factors that have not been included as covariates in the model. To evaluate these models, GW models were examined using both simulated and empirical crash datasets, and the results were compared to the most commonly used NB model and the recently...

Peng, Yichuan

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

284

A Grid of 3D Stellar Atmosphere Models of Solar Metallicity: I. General Properties, Granulation and Atmospheric Expansion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations, and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late type stars, based on deep, 3D, convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations, and improve stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, asymptotic adiabat, as function of atmospheric parameters. These and other re...

Trampedach, Regner; Collet, Remo; Nordlund, Åke; Stein, Robert F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION FOR THE PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION FOR THE PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM: APPLICATION TO THE NRTL is adequately modeled by the Non­Random Two Liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient expression and the vapor phase property of the Gibbs free energy expression involving the NRTL equation is provided. It is subsequently

Neumaier, Arnold

286

INVARIANT KAPPA DISTRIBUTION IN SPACE PLASMAS OUT OF EQUILIBRIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advances in Space Physics theory have shown the connection between non-extensive Statistical Mechanics and space plasmas by providing a theoretical basis for the empirically derived kappa distributions commonly used to describe the phase-space distribution functions of these systems. The non-equilibrium temperature and the kappa index that govern these distributions are the two independent controlling parameters of non-equilibrium systems. The significance of the kappa index is primarily given by its role in identifying the non-equilibrium stationary states and measuring their 'thermodynamic distance' from thermal equilibrium, while its physical meaning is connected to the correlation between the system's particles. The classical, single stationary state at equilibrium is generalized into a whole set of different non-equilibrium stationary states labeled by the kappa index. This paper addresses certain crucial issues about the physical meaning and role of the kappa index in identifying stationary states. The origin of the emerged inconsistencies is that the kappa index is not an invariant physical quantity, but instead depends on the degrees of freedom of the system's particles. This leads in several misleading conclusions, such as (1) only large kappa index, practically infinite, can characterize the many-particle kappa distribution, and (2) the correlation between particles depends on the total number of the system's particles. Here we show that a modified kappa index, invariant for any number of degrees of freedom, can be naturally defined. Then, we develop and examine the relevant corrected formulation of many-particle multidimensional kappa distribution, and discuss the physical meaning of the invariant kappa index.

Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J., E-mail: glivadiotis@swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX-78238 (United States)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Plasma Equilibrium in a Magnetic Field with Stochastic Regions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nature of plasma equilibrium in a magnetic field with stochastic regions is examined. It is shown that the magnetic differential equation that determines the equilibrium Pfirsch-Schluter currents can be cast in a form similar to various nonlinear equations for a turbulent plasma, allowing application of the mathematical methods of statistical turbulence theory. An analytically tractable model, previously studied in the context of resonance-broadening theory, is applied with particular attention paid to the periodicity constraints required in toroidal configurations. It is shown that even a very weak radial diffusion of the magnetic field lines can have a significant effect on the equilibrium in the neighborhood of the rational surfaces, strongly modifying the near-resonant Pfirsch-Schluter currents. Implications for the numerical calculation of 3D equilibria are discussed

J.A. Krommes and Allan H. Reiman

2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

288

Holographic Dark Energy Models and Higher Order Generalizations in Dynamical Chern-Simons Modified Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dark Energy models are here investigated and studied in the framework of the Chern-Simons modified gravity model. We bring into focus the Holographic Dark Energy (HDE) model with Granda-Oliveros cut-off, the Modified Holographic Ricci Dark Energy (MHRDE) model and, moreover, a model with higher derivatives of the Hubble parameter as well. The relevant expressions of the scale factor a(t) for a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe are derived and studied, and in this context, the evolution of the scale factor is shown to be similar to that one displayed by the modified Chaplygin gas in two of the above models.

Antonio Pasqua; Roldao da Rocha; Surajit Chattopadhyay

2014-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

289

Electrochimica Acta 51 (2006) 20122022 A generalized cycle life model of rechargeable Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­discharge model to simulate the cycle life behavior of rechargeable Li-ion batteries has been developed. The model and Newman [4] made a first attempt to model the parasitic reaction in Li-ion batteries by assuming a solvent and reversible capacity loss due to the growth and dissolution of SEI film in Li-ion batteries. Ramadass et al

Popov, Branko N.

290

Technical report on the General Electric model #1 electrostatic electron microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

screen Vacuum Chamber' Figi 5. Sectionalized View of the Lens System of the General Electric Electron microscope. which is held in place with the micalex insulatoz s is a source of many difficulties. Ii' the combination of the insulators and central..., or if desired to give the beam a diverging angle with the optical axis. The filament of the General Electric Electron Gun is heated with 60 cycle alternating current. This gives rise to an alternat1ng field about the f1lament which will deflect...

Druce, Albert J

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A general formulation of Bead Models applied to flexible fibers and active filaments at low Reynolds number  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This contribution provides a general framework to use Lagrange multipliers for the simulation of low Reynolds number fiber dynamics based on Bead Models (BM). This formalism provides an efficient method to account for kinematic constraints. We illustrate, with several examples, to which extent the proposed formulation offers a flexible and versatile framework for the quantitative modeling of flexible fibers deformation and rotation in shear flow, the dynamics of actuated filaments and the propulsion of active swimmers. Furthermore, a new contact model called Gears Model is proposed and successfully tested. It avoids the use of numerical artifices such as repulsive forces between adjacent beads, a source of numerical difficulties in the temporal integration of previous Bead Models.

Delmotte, Blaise; Plouraboue, Franck

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Improve Claus simulation by integrating kinetic limitations into equilibrium calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since all existing Claus simulators are based on equilibrium calculations, it is not surprising that the simulation results, including the overall sulfur yield, air to acid gas ratio, and stream compositions are somewhat different from the plant data. One method for improving the simulation is to consider the kinetic limitations in the Claus reactions. This has been accomplished in this work by integrating kinetic considerations into equilibrium calculations. Kinetic limitations have been introduced in both the Claus reaction furnace and the catalytic converters. An interactive computer program SULPLT Version 3 was written to implement the proposed modifications. The computer program was used to simulate the Claus furnace, catalytic converters, and the effect of air to acid gas ratio on sulfur recovery to check against literature data. Three Claus plants for which data exist have also been simulated. The results show that the proposed model predicts sulfur recovery, sulfur emission, optimal air to acid gas ratio, and various stream compositions more accurately than the equilibrium model. The proposed model appears to be valid, reliable, and applicable over a wide range of operating conditions (acid gas feeds ranging from 13% to 95% H/sub 2/S with different levels of impurities). The methodology developed in this study should be applicable to any reaction systems where kinetic limitations are important but where equilibrium still prevails.

Wen, T.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Quantifying differences in the impact of variable chemistry on equilibrium uranium(VI) adsorption properties of aquifer sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium adsorption-desorption on sediment samples collected from the Hanford 300-Area, Richland, WA varied extensively over a range of field-relevant chemical conditions, complicating assessment of possible differences in equilibrium adsorption properties. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 500-1000 hours although dissolved uranium concentrations increased over thousands of hours owing to changes in aqueous chemical composition driven by sediment-water reactions. A non-electrostatic surface complexation reaction, >SOH + UO22+ + 2CO32- = >SOUO2(CO3HCO3)2-, provided the best fit to experimental data for each sediment sample resulting in a range of conditional equilibrium constants (logKc) from 21.49 to 21.76. Potential differences in uranium adsorption properties could be assessed in plots based on the generalized mass-action expressions yielding linear trends displaced vertically by differences in logKc values. Using this approach, logKc values for seven sediment samples were not significantly different. However, a significant difference in adsorption properties between one sediment sample and the fines (<0.063 mm) of another could be demonstrated despite the fines requiring a different reaction stoichiometry. Estimates of logKc uncertainty were improved by capturing all data points within experimental errors. The mass-action expression plots demonstrate that applying models outside the range of conditions used in model calibration greatly increases potential errors.

Stoliker, Deborah L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Zachara, John M.

2011-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

294

Stochastic Mathematical Programs with Equilibrium Constraints ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a class of stochastic mathematical programs with variational (equilibrium) constraints. To this end .... A random (or rather pseudo-random) sam- ple ?1,··· ,?N of ...

2005-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

295

The Non-Autonomous Chiral Model and the Ernst Equation of General Relativity in the Bidifferential Calculus Framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The non-autonomous chiral model equation for an $m \\times m$ matrix function on a two-dimensional space appears in particular in general relativity, where for $m=2$ a certain reduction of it determines stationary, axially symmetric solutions of Einstein's vacuum equations, and for $m=3$ solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. Using a very simple and general result of the bidifferential calculus approach to integrable partial differential and difference equations, we generate a large class of exact solutions of this chiral model. The solutions are parametrized by a set of matrices, the size of which can be arbitrarily large. The matrices are subject to a Sylvester equation that has to be solved and generically admits a unique solution. By imposing the aforementioned reductions on the matrix data, we recover the Ernst potentials of multi-Kerr-NUT and multi-Demianski-Newman metrics.

Aristophanes Dimakis; Nils Kanning; Folkert Müller-Hoissen

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

296

Electric and Weak Electric Dipole Form Factors for Heavy Fermions in a General Two Higgs Doublet Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electric and weak electric dipole form factors for heavy fermions are calculated in the context of the most general two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM). We find that the large top mass can produce a significant enhancement of the electric dipole form factor in the case of the b and c quarks. This effect can be used to distinguish between different 2HDM scenarios.

Daniel Gomez-Dumm; G. A. Gonzalez-Sprinberg

1999-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

297

The higher spin generalization of the 6-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions and Macdonald polynomials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The determinantal form of the partition function of the 6-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions was given by Izergin. It is known that for a special value of the crossing parameter the partition function reduces to a Schur polynomial. Caradoc, Foda and Kitanine computed the partition function of the higher spin generalization of the 6-vertex model. In the present work it is shown that for a special value of the crossing parameter, referred to as the combinatorial point, the partition function reduces to a Macdonald polynomial.

Tiago Fonseca; Ferenc Balogh

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

298

Mott Insulator-Superfluid Transition in a Generalized Bose-Hubbard Model with Topologically Non-trivial Flat-Band  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we studied a generalized Bose-Hubbard model on a checkerboard lattice with topologically nontrivial flat-band. We used mean-field method to decouple the model Hamiltonian and obtained phase diagram by Landau theory of second-order phase transition. We further calculate the energy gap and the dispersion of quasi-particle or quasi-hole in Mott insulator state and found that in strong interaction limit the quasi-particles or the quasi-holes also have flat bands.

Xing-Hai Zhang; Su-Peng Kou

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

299

An integrated life cycle quality model for general public market software products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The requirements are built upon existing industry standards, including ISO 9001. The TL 9000 Quality System quality view of TL9000 Handbook and detailed view from ISO/IEC 1926 in the process of defining, measuring by TL9000-ISO complement model as well as by application process walk-through. #12;1. Complement model

Laporte, Claude Y.

300

The martian mesosphere as revealed by CO2 cloud observations and General Circulation Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a rare dataset of mesospheric winds. We compare the mesospheric zonal winds pre- dicted by the model by the model. Ã? 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction While the formation of CO2 clouds observations on board Mars Global Surveyor (Clancy et al., 2004, 2007), and later confirmed by THEMIS-VIS (Mc

Spiga, Aymeric

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL FOR GASEOUS EXOPLANETS WITH DOUBLE-GRAY RADIATIVE TRANSFER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a new version of our code for modeling the atmospheric circulation on gaseous exoplanets, now employing a 'double-gray' radiative transfer scheme, which self-consistently solves for fluxes and heating throughout the atmosphere, including the emerging (observable) infrared flux. We separate the radiation into infrared and optical components, each with its own absorption coefficient, and solve standard two-stream radiative transfer equations. We use a constant optical absorption coefficient, while the infrared coefficient can scale as a power law with pressure; however, for simplicity, the results shown in this paper use a constant infrared coefficient. Here we describe our new code in detail and demonstrate its utility by presenting a generic hot Jupiter model. We discuss issues related to modeling the deepest pressures of the atmosphere and describe our use of the diffusion approximation for radiative fluxes at high optical depths. In addition, we present new models using a simple form for magnetic drag on the atmosphere. We calculate emitted thermal phase curves and find that our drag-free model has the brightest region of the atmosphere offset by {approx}12 Degree-Sign from the substellar point and a minimum flux that is 17% of the maximum, while the model with the strongest magnetic drag has an offset of only {approx}2 Degree-Sign and a ratio of 13%. Finally, we calculate rates of numerical loss of kinetic energy at {approx}15% for every model except for our strong-drag model, where there is no measurable loss; we speculate that this is due to the much decreased wind speeds in that model.

Rauscher, Emily [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

302

Adapting a Beam-Based Rotordynamics Model to Accept a General Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Casing Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dimensional axisymmetric beam-element code. ANSYS is used as a code to build three-dimensional non-axisymmetric solid-element casing models. The work done in this thesis opens the scope to incorporate complex non-axisymmetric casing models with XLTRC2....

James, Stephen M.

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

303

A generalized nutrition model for Odocoileus deer and its application in a natural environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model of protein and energy balance was created for Odocoileus deer [white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (O. hemionus), and black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus, O. h. sitkensis)] capable of predicting changes in body weight...

Applegath, Matthew Thomas

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

A general model of resource production and exchange in systems of interdependent specialists.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrastructures are networks of dynamically interacting systems designed for the flow of information, energy, and materials. Under certain circumstances, disturbances from a targeted attack or natural disasters can cause cascading failures within and between infrastructures that result in significant service losses and long recovery times. Reliable interdependency models that can capture such multi-network cascading do not exist. The research reported here has extended Sandia's infrastructure modeling capabilities by: (1) addressing interdependencies among networks, (2) incorporating adaptive behavioral models into the network models, and (3) providing mechanisms for evaluating vulnerability to targeted attack and unforeseen disruptions. We have applied these capabilities to evaluate the robustness of various systems, and to identify factors that control the scale and duration of disruption. This capability lays the foundation for developing advanced system security solutions that encompass both external shocks and internal dynamics.

Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Breen, Peter; Kuypers, Marshall; Norton, Matthew David; Quach, Tu-Thach; Antognoli, Matthew; Mitchell, Michael David

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Goodness-of-Fit Test Issues in Generalized Linear Mixed Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. However, in the mixed-effects logistic model, the violation of the assumption of normally distributed random effects may result in inconsistency for estimates of some fixed effects and the variance component of random effects when the variance...

Chen, Nai-Wei

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

306

Cosmological Imprints of a Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model for the Early Universe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a phenomenological model for the early universe where there is a smooth transition between an early quintessence phase and a radiation-dominated era. The matter content is modeled by an appropriately modified Chaplygin gas for the early universe. We constrain the model observationally by mapping the primordial power spectrum of the scalar perturbations to the latest data of WMAP7. We compute as well the spectrum of the primordial gravitational waves as would be measured today. We show that the high frequencies region of the spectrum depends on the free parameter of the model and most importantly this region of the spectrum can be within the reach of future gravitational waves detectors.

Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; /Lisbon, CENTRA; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Liu, Yen-Wei; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

307

Spheromak Equilibrium Studies on SSX Cameron Geddes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spheromak Equilibrium Studies on SSX Cameron Geddes Swarthmore College Department of Physics 10 used to study the equilibrium states of magnetized toroidal plasma configurations called spheromaks conditions. 1 Introduction to Spheromak Plasmas A spheromak is a toroid of plasma with toroidal and poloidal

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

308

Testing Lack-of-Fit of Generalized Linear Models via Laplace Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coefficients used in (5.6) to evaluate power to detect the omission of a interaction term. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 12 Performance of the Bayes sum test in detecting an omitted dichoto- mous variable and its interaction... was obtained using a smoothing spline fit. The parametric model was obtained by modeling the log odds with the parametric linear predictor: ?0 + ?3(x ? 12)? I(x > 12) where x denotes the start variable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 4...

Glab, Daniel Laurence

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

309

Cloud/Aerosol Parameterizations: Application and Improvement of General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the biggest uncertainties associated with climate models and climate forcing is the treatment of aerosols and their effects on clouds. The effect of aerosols on clouds can be divided into two components: The first indirect effect is the forcing associated with increases in droplet concentrations; the second indirect effect is the forcing associated with changes in liquid water path, cloud morphology, and cloud lifetime. Both are highly uncertain. This project applied a cloud-resolving model to understand the response of clouds under a variety of conditions to changes in aerosols. These responses are categorized according to the large-scale meteorological conditions that lead to the response. Meteorological conditions were sampled from various fields, which, together with a global aerosol model determination of the change in aerosols from present day to pre-industrial conditions, was used to determine a first order estimate of the response of global cloud fields to changes in aerosols. The response of the clouds in the NCAR CAM3 GCM coupled to our global aerosol model were tested by examining whether the response is similar to that of the cloud resolving model and methods for improving the representation of clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions were examined.

Penner, Joyce

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

310

A general relativistic model for the light propagation in the gravitational field of the Solar System: the dynamical case  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modern astrometry is based on angular measurements at the micro-arcsecond level. At this accuracy a fully general relativistic treatment of the data reduction is required. This paper concludes a series of articles dedicated to the problem of relativistic light propagation, presenting the final microarcsecond version of a relativistic astrometric model which enable us to trace back the light path to its emitting source throughout the non-stationary gravity field of the moving bodies in the Solar System. The previous model is used as test-bed for numerical comparisons to the present one. Here we also test different versions of the computer code implementing the model at different levels of complexity to start exploring the best trade-off between numerical efficiency and the micro-arcsecond accuracy needed to be reached.

Fernando de Felice; Alberto Vecchiato; Maria Teresa Crosta; Mario G. Lattanzi; Beatrice Bucciarelli

2006-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

311

Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A long standing problem in molecular biology is to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein, given its amino acid sequence. A variety of simplifying models have been proposed abstracting only the {open_quotes}essential physical properties{close_quotes} of real proteins. In these models, the three dimensional space is often represented by a lattice. Residues which are adjacent in the primary sequence (i.e. covalently linked) must be placed at adjacent points in the lattice. A conformation of a protein is simply a self-avoiding walk along the lattice. The protein folding problem STRING-FOLD is that of finding a conformation of the protein sequence on the lattice such that the overall energy is minimized, for some reasonable definition of energy. This formulation leaves open the choices of a lattice and an energy function. Once these choices are made, one may then address the algorithmic complexity of optimizing the energy function for the lattice. For a variety of such simple models, this minimization problem is in fact NP-hard. In this paper, we consider the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) Model introduced by Dill. The HP model abstracts the problem by grouping the 20 amino acids into two classes: hydrophobic (or non-polar) residues and hydrophilic (or polar) residues. For concreteness, we will take our input to be a string from (H,P){sup +}, where P represents polar residues, and H represents hydrophobic residues. Dill et.al. survey the literature analyzing this model. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT Lab. for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Description of FLIPSIM V: a General Firm Level Policy Simulation Model.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) determined by a OP which maximizes expected utility~ Expected net returns are ca1culated using a weighted average of past yields and prices, modified for relevant loan rates, target prices, expected disaster or crop insurance payments , and acreage set... in this section of the model are being planned. 5 The farm programs in the model are activated separately by options specified by the analyst. When the net loan rate (price support) for a crop is greater than its market price, the operator's share of the crop...

Richardson, James W.; Nixon, Clair J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Internal noise driven generalized Langevin equation from a nonlocal continuum model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Starting with a micropolar formulation, known to account for nonlocal microstructural effects at the continuum level, a generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for a particle, describing the predominant motion of a localized region through a single displacement degree-of-freedom (DOF), is derived. The GLE features a memory dependent multiplicative or internal noise, which appears upon recognising that the micro-rotation variables possess randomness owing to an uncertainty principle. Unlike its classical version, the new GLE qualitatively reproduces the experimentally measured fluctuations in the steady-state mean square displacement of scattering centers in a polyvinyl alcohol slab. The origin of the fluctuations is traced to nonlocal spatial interactions within the continuum. A constraint equation, similar to a fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT), is shown to statistically relate the internal noise to the other parameters in the GLE.

Saikat Sarkar; Shubhankar Roy Chowdhury; Debasish Roy; Ram Mohan Vasu

2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

314

Multiple sea-ice states and abrupt MOC transitions in a general circulation ocean model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

represent present-day and cold-climate conditions. In each case the ocean model is initiated with both ice of about three degrees in latitude between the different runs is observed. The cold climate runs lead. Mirzayof Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, BIDR, Ben-Gurion University, 84990 Midreshet

Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"

315

An integrated life cycle quality model for general public market software products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The requirements are built upon existing industry standards, including ISO 9001. The TL 9000 Quality System quality view of TL9000 Handbook and detailed view from ISO/IEC 1926 in the process of defining, measuring by TL9000-ISO complement model as well as by application process walk-through. Proceedings of Software

Suryn, Witold

316

A GENERALIZED ARRAY MANIFOLD MODEL FOR LOGAL SCATTERING IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden 'Dept. of Elec. & Comp. Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT the conventional plane wave model. 1. INTRODUCTION The use of antenna arrays as a tool for improving coverage reduce radiated power require- ments, allow for multiple mobile co-channel users, and re- duce signal

Swindlehurst, A. Lee

317

A Generalizing Fuzzy Model for Shallow Cavity Flows Under Different Mach Regimes1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exploiting the fuzzy inference mechanisms. Fuzzy logic is a practical tool for expressing human expertise of the critically essential behavior observed at the cavity floor. I. INTRODUCTION Fuzzy Logic (FL) is a practical shedding model. The fuzzy system in [7] has been used to scale a control signal produced by a PID

Debiasi, Marco

318

Generalisation of Levine's prediction for the distribution of freezing temperatures of droplets: A general singular model for ice nucleation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Models without an explicit time dependence, called singular models, are widely used for fitting the distribution of temperatures at which water droplets freeze. In 1950 Levine developed the original singular model. His key assumption was that each droplet contained many nucleation sites, and that freezing occurred due to the nucleation site with the highest freezing temperature. The fact that freezing occurs due to the maximum value out of large number of nucleation temperatures, means that we can apply the results of what is called extreme-value statistics. This is the statistics of the extreme, i.e., maximum or minimum, value of a large number of random variables. Here we use the results of extreme-value statistics to show that we can generalise Levine's model to produce the most general singular model possible. We show that when a singular model is a good approximation, the distribution of freezing temperatures should always be given by what is called the generalised extreme-value distribution. In addition...

Sear, Richard P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

ISO-SWS calibration and the accurate modelling of cool-star atmospheres - II. General results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fine calibration of the ISO-SWS detectors (Infrared Space Observatory - Short Wavelength Spectrometer) has proven to be a delicate problem. We therefore present a detailed spectroscopic study in the 2.38 -- 12 micron wavelength range of a sample of 16 A0 -- M2 stars used for the calibration of ISO-SWS. By investigating the discrepancies between the ISO-SWS data of these sources, the theoretical predictions of their spectra, the high-resolution FTS-KP (Kitt Peak) spectrum of Alpha Boo and the solar FTS-ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy) spectrum, both calibration problems and problems in computing the theoretical models and the synthetic spectra are revealed. The underlying reasons for these problems are sought for and the impact on the further calibration of ISO-SWS and on the theoretical modelling is discussed extensively.

L. Decin; B. Vandenbussche; C. Waelkens; K. Eriksson; B. Gustafsson; B. Plez; A. J. Sauval; K. Hinkle

2002-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

320

General models of Einstein gravity with a non-Newtonian weak-field limit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate Einstein theories of gravity, coupled to a scalar field \\vphi and point-like matter, which are characterized by a scalar field-dependent matter coupling function e^{H(\\vphi)}. We show that under mild constraints on the form of the potential for the scalar field, there are a broad class of Einstein-like gravity models -characterized by the asymptotic behavior of H- which allow for a non-Newtonian weak-field limit with the gravitational potential behaving for large distances as ln r. The Newtonian term GM/r appears only as sub-leading. We point out that this behavior is also shared by gravity models described by f(R) Lagrangians. The relevance of our results for the building of infrared modified theories of gravity and for modified Newtonian dynamics is also discussed.

M. Cadoni; M. Casula

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Probing Quantum General Relativity Through Exactly Soluble Midi-Superspaces II: Polarized Gowdy Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Canonical quantization of the polarized Gowdy midi-superspace with a 3-torus spatial topology is carried out. As in an earlier work on the Einstein-Rosen cylindrical waves, symmetry reduction is used to cast the original problem in 4-dimensional space-times to a 3-dimensional setting. To our knowledge, this is the first complete, systematic treatment of the Gowdy model in the geometrodynamical setting.

M. Pierri

2001-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

322

The general QCD parametrization and the hierarchy of its parameters. (Why some simple models of hadrons work so well)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

After summarizing the basic points of the general QCD parametrization (GP) we discuss systematically its applications to the properties of the lowest families of baryons and mesons. We show how the hierarchy of the parameters in the GP emerges clearly in the properties of hadrons. Among other things, it explains why simple models can work reasonably well and clarifies the relationship between current and constituent quarks. More details on the hadron properties discussed with the GP appear from the list of secrions at the beginning of the paper.

G. Dillon; G. Morpurgo

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

323

Electric Dipole moments of charged leptons and lepton flavor violating interactions in the general two Higgs Doublet model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the electric dipole moment of electron using the experimental result of muon electric dipole moment and upper limit of the BR(\\mu --> e\\gamma) in the framework of the general two Higgs doublet model. Our prediction is 10^{-32} e-cm, which lies in the experimental current limits. Further, we obtain constraints for the Yukawa couplings \\bar{\\xi}^{D}_{N,\\tau e} and \\bar{\\xi}^{D}_{N,\\tau\\mu}. Finally we present an expression which connects the BR(\\tau\\to \\mu\\gamma) and the electric dipole moment of \\tau-lepton and study the relation between these physical quantities.

E. O. Iltan

2001-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

324

The temperature dependence of equilibrium plasma density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature dependence of an electron-nuclear plasma equilibrium density is considered basing on known approaches, which are given in (1)(2). It is shown that at a very high temperature, which is characteristic for a star interior, the equilibrium plasma density is almost constant and equals approximately to $10^{25}$ particles per $cm^3$. At a relatively low temperature, which is characteristic for star surface, the equilibrium plasma density is in several orders lower and depends on temperature as $T^{3/2}$.

B. V. Vasiliev

2002-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

325

Competing Pairing Symmetries in a Generalized Two-Orbital Model for the Pnictide Superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce and study an extended t-U-J two-orbital model for the pnictides that includes Heisenberg terms deduced from the strong coupling expansion. Including these J terms explicitly allows us to enhance the strength of the %;0 - 0;% spin order which favors the presence of tightly bound pairing states even in the small clusters that are here exactly diagonalized. The A1g and B2g pairing symmetries are found to compete in the realistic spin-ordered and metallic regime. The dynamical pairing susceptibility additionally unveils low-lying B1g states, suggesting that small changes in parameters may render any of the three channels stable.

Nicholson, Andrew D [ORNL; Ge, Weihao [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Zhang, Xiaotian [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Riera, J. A. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario; Daghofer, M. [IFW Dresden; Olés, Andrzej M. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Feskorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany; Martins, G. B. [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Moreo, Adriana [ORNL; Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium in cutting arc plasmas derived from electron and gas density measurements using a two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique that allows inferring the electron and gas densities of axisymmetric arc plasmas without imposing any assumption regarding statistical equilibrium models is reported. This technique was applied to the study of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) departures within the core of a 30 A high-energy density cutting arc. In order to derive the electron and heavy particle temperatures from the inferred density profiles, a generalized two-temperature Saha equation together with the plasma equation of state and the quasineutrality condition were employed. Factors such as arc fluctuations that influence the accuracy of the measurements and the validity of the assumptions used to derive the plasma species temperature were considered. Significant deviations from chemical equilibrium as well as kinetic equilibrium were found at elevated electron temperatures and gas densities toward the arc core edge. An electron temperature profile nearly constant through the arc core with a value of about 14000-15000 K, well decoupled from the heavy particle temperature of about 1500 K at the arc core edge, was inferred.

Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto 2600, Santa Fe (Argentina); Artana, G. [Laboratorio de Fluidodinamica, Departamento Ing. Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria (UBA), Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto 2600, Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA), Instituto de Fisica del Plasma (CONICET), Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Statewide and Electricity-Sector Models for Economic Assessments of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

economic models applied to such diverse fields as climate change policy, alternative- fueled vehicles, fuel Economic Research Organization and Affiliate Faculty with the Public Policy Center UHM. Paul Bernstein, Ph....................................................................................................................... 6 2. The Hawaii Computable General Equilibrium Model (H-CGE)............................ 8 2.a. Data

328

A cell model for homogenization of fiber-reinforced composites: General theory and nonlinear elasticity effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The theoretical basis of the homogenization technique developed by Aboudi is presented and assessed. Given the constitutive relations of the constituents, this technique provides an equivalent, homogeneous, constitutive model of unidirectional, continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. The expressions that comprise the first-order version of the technique are given special attention as this treatment has considerable practical value. Nonlinear elasticity effects are added to it. This extension increases the accuracy of numerical simulations of high strain-rate loadings. It is particularly important for any dynamic loading in which shock waves might be produced, including crash safety, armor, and munitions applications. Examples illustrate that elastic nonlinearity can make substantial contributions at strains of only a few per cent. These contributions are greatest during post-yield inelastic deformation. The micromechanics-based homogenization technique is shown to facilitate use of an efficient approximate treatment of elastic nonlinearity in composites with isotropic matrix materials.

Aidun, J.B.; Addessio, F.L.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Equilibrium Reconstruction on the Large Helical Device  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Equilibrium reconstruction is commonly applied to axisymmetric toroidal devices. Recent advances in computational power and equilibrium codes have allowed for reconstructions of three-dimensional fields in stellarators and heliotrons. We present the first reconstructions of finite beta discharges in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The plasma boundary and magnetic axis are constrained by the pressure profile from Thomson scattering. This results in a calculation of plasma beta without a-priori assumptions of the equipartition of energy between species. Saddle loop arrays place additional constraints on the equilibrium. These reconstruction utilize STELLOPT, which calls VMEC. The VMEC equilibrium code assumes good nested flux surfaces. Reconstructed magnetic fields are fed into the PIES code which relaxes this constraint allowing for the examination of the effect of islands and stochastic regions on the magnetic measurements.

Samuel A. Lazerson, D. Gates, D. Monticello, H. Neilson, N. Pomphrey, A. Reiman S. Sakakibara, and Y. Suzuki

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

330

Edge Equilibrium Code (EEC) For Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids

Li, Xujling

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

331

Thermal equilibrium and statistical thermometers in special relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is an intense debate in the recent literature about the correct generalization of Maxwell's velocity distribution in special relativity. The most frequently discussed candidate distributions include the Juettner function as well as modifications thereof. Here, we report results from fully relativistic one-dimensional (1D) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that resolve the ambiguity. The numerical evidence unequivocally favors the Juettner distribution. Moreover, our simulations illustrate that the concept of 'thermal equilibrium' extends naturally to special relativity only if a many-particle system is spatially confined. They make evident that 'temperature' can be statistically defined and measured in an observer frame independent way.

David Cubero; Jesús Casado-Pascual; Jörn Dunkel; Peter Talkner; Peter Hänggi

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

332

VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(for water: the SPC-, SPC/E-, and TIP4P-potential models; for carbon dioxide: the EPM2 potential model dioxide are calculated. For water, the SPC- and TIP4P-models give superior results for the vapor pressure when compared to the SPC/E-model. The vapor liquid equilibrium of the binary mixture carbon dioxide

333

The generalized parton distribution functions and the nucleon spin sum rules in the chiral quark soliton model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The theoretical predictions are given for the forward limit of the unpolarized spin-flip isovector generalized parton distribution function $(E^u - E^d)(x, \\xi, t)$ within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model, with full inclusion of the polarization of Dirac sea quarks. We observe that $[(H^u - H^d) + (E^u - E^d)](x,0,0)$ has a sharp peak around $x=0$, which we interpret as a signal of the importance of the pionic $q \\bar{q}$ excitation with large spatial extension in the transverse direction. Another interesting indication given by the predicted distribution in combination with Ji's angular momentum sum rule is that the $\\bar{d}$-quark carries more angular momentum than the $\\bar{u}$-quark in the proton, which may have some relation with the physics of the violation of the Gottfried sum rule.

M. Wakamatsu; H. Tsujimoto

2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

334

Non--Equilibrium Blunt Body Flow 1 Analysis of NonEquilibrium, Hypersonic Blunt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non--Equilibrium Blunt Body Flow 1 Analysis of Non­Equilibrium, Hypersonic Blunt Body Flow streamline quantities and the stagnation point heat transfer in hypersonic flows about spheres or cylinders, as two-- dimensional hypersonic flows about spheres or cylinders exhibit an approximate local similarity

335

The Supply Function Equilibrium and its Policy Implications for Wholesale Electricity Auctions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R Abstract The supply function equilibrium and its policy implications for wholesale electricity auctions EPRG Working Paper 1007 Cambridge Working Paper in Economics 1016 Pär... Holmberg and David Newbery The supply function equilibrium provides a game-theoretic model of strategic bidding in oligopolistic wholesale electricity auctions. This paper presents an intuitive account of current understanding and shows how welfare...

Holmberg, P; Newbery, David

336

Habitability of Earth-like planets with high obliquity and eccentric orbits: results from a general circulation model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore the implications of seasonal variability for the habitability of Earth-like planets as determined by the two parameters polar obliquity and orbital eccentricity. Commonly, the outer boundary of the habitable zone (HZ) is set by a completely frozen planet, or snowball state. Using a general circulation model coupled to a thermodynamic sea-ice model, our results show that seasonal variability can extend this outer limit of the HZ from 1.03 AU (no seasonal variability) to a maximum of 1.69 AU. Also the multistability property of planets close to the outer edge of the HZ is influenced by seasonal variability. Cold states extend far into the HZ for non-oblique planets. On highly oblique planets, cold states can also allow for habitable regions, which highlights the sufficient but not necessary condition of a warm climate state for habitability. While the effect of obliquity on the extent of the HZ is comparatively small on circular orbits, it becomes highly relevant on eccentric orbits. Our experiments ...

Linsenmeier, Manuel; Lucarini, Valerio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Neoclassical toroidal viscosity in perturbed equilibria with general tokamak geometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a calculation of neoclassical toroidal viscous torque independent of large-aspect-ratio expansions across kinetic regimes. The Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) code was developed for this purpose, and is compared to previous combined regime models as well as regime specific limits and a drift kinetic ?f guiding center code. It is shown that retaining general expressions, without circular large-aspect-ratio or other orbit approximations, can be important at experimentally relevant aspect ratio and shaping. The superbanana plateau, a kinetic resonance effect recently recognized for its relevance to ITER, is recovered by the PENT calculations and shown to require highly accurate treatment of geometric effects.

Logan, Nikolas C.; Park, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Kimin; Wang, Zhirui [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Berkery, John W. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Radiation transport and density effects in non-equilibrium plasmas Vladimir I. Fisher*, Dimitri V. Fisher, Yitzhak Maron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation transport and density effects in non-equilibrium plasmas Vladimir I. Fisher*, Dimitri V populations and the radiation field in transient non-equilibrium plasmas. In this model, the plasma density to a self-consistent treatment of the radiative transfer. For non-Maxwellian plasmas, the atomic

339

An Equilibrium Balance of the Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An alternative cosmological model is presented, which avoids the requirement of dark energy and dark matter. Based on the proposition that energy conservation should be valid not only locally but also globally, the energy tensor of general relativity has to be corrected, including potential energy of matter explicitly. This leads to the consequence that a homogeneous universe must be static, as potential energy acts as a field with negative pressure. In this static universe cosmological red shift can be understood as energy loss by gravitational radiation. There exists a continuous matter cycle, beginning from hot intergalactic plasma, which is replenished by the jets of quasars, the formation of large web-like structures, the formation of galaxies and stars, to the final collapse into quasars again. The model is confirmed qualitatively by the observed size distribution of cosmic structures. Quantitative confirmation is obtained from the diffuse x-ray background and from observations of supernovas. As the total energy content of the universe (trace of the energy tensor) is zero in this model, creation ex nihilo is possible, but requires changes of our elementary particle models. An idea of a modified model is presented.

Ernst Fischer

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

340

Equilibrium Pricing with Positive Externalities (Extended Abstract)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a product in the presence of historical externalities? A low introductory price may attract early adoptersEquilibrium Pricing with Positive Externalities (Extended Abstract) Nima Anari1 , Shayan Ehsani1 an item to strategic buyers in the pres- ence of positive historical externalities, where the value

Immorlica, Nicole

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Escape from washing out of baryon number in a two-zero-texture general Zee model compatible with the large mixing angle MSW solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a two-zero-texture general Zee model, compatible with the large mixing angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution. The washing out of the baryon number does not occur in this model for an adequate parameter range. We check the consistency of a model with the constraints coming from flavor changing neutral current processes, the recent cosmic microwave background observation, and the Z-burst scenario.

K. Hasegawa; C. S. Lim; K. Ogure

2003-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

342

Hamiltonian dynamics in extended phase space for gravity and its consistency with Lagrangian formalism: a generalized spherically symmetric model as an example  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Among theoretical issues in General Relativity the problem of constructing its Hamiltonian formulation is still of interest. The most of attempts to quantize Gravity are based upon Dirac generalization of Hamiltonian dynamics for system with constraints. At the same time there exists another way to formulate Hamiltonian dynamics for constrained systems guided by the idea of extended phase space. We have already considered some features of this approach in the previous MG12 Meeting by the example of a simple isotropic model. Now we apply the approach to a generalized spherically symmetric model which imitates the structure of General Relativity much better. In particular, making use of a global BRST symmetry and the Noether theorem, we construct the BRST charge that generates correct gauge transformations for all gravitational degrees of freedom.

T. P. Shestakova

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

343

Equilibrium configurations of nematic liquid crystals on a torus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The topology and the geometry of a surface play a fundamental role in determining the equilibrium configurations of thin films of liquid crystals. We propose here a theoretical analysis of a recently introduced surface Frank energy, in the case of two-dimensional nematic liquid crystals coating a toroidal particle. Our aim is to show how a different modeling of the effect of extrinsic curvature acts as a selection principle among equilibria of the classical energy, and how new configurations emerge. In particular, our analysis predicts the existence of new stable equilibria with complex windings.

Antonio Segatti; Michael Snarski; Marco Veneroni

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

344

Pattern of Trade and Economic Development in the Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pattern of Trade and Economic Development in the Model of Monopolistic Competition Jeffrey D. Sachs for International Development at Harvard University #12;CID Working Paper no. 14 Pattern of Trade and Economic, the general equilibrium may discontinuously jump across different patterns of trade and economic development

345

Equilibrium Forward Curves for Commodities BRYAN R. ROUTLEDGE, DUANE J. SEPPI,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* ABSTRACT We develop an equilibrium model of the term structure of forward prices for stor- able commodities prices at different horizons and shows how conditional violations of the "Samuelson effect" occur. We For all of these reasons, there is a widespread interest in models for pricing and hedging commodity

346

Modeling near-field radiative heat transfer from sharp objects using a general 3d numerical scattering technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the non-equilibrium radiative heat transfer between a plate and finite cylinders and cones, making the first accurate theoretical predictions for the total heat transfer and the spatial heat flux profile for three-dimensional compact objects including corners or tips. We find qualitatively different scaling laws for conical shapes at small separations, and in contrast to a flat/slightly-curved object, a sharp cone exhibits a local \\emph{minimum} in the spatially resolved heat flux directly below the tip. The method we develop, in which a scattering-theory formulation of thermal transfer is combined with a boundary-element method for computing scattering matrices, can be applied to three-dimensional objects of arbitrary shape.

McCauley, Alexander P; Krüger, Matthias; Johnson, Steven G

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

On the spatial distribution of thermal energy in equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The equipartition theorem states that in equilibrium thermal energy is equally distributed among uncoupled degrees of freedom which appear quadratically in the system's Hamiltonian. However, for spatially coupled degrees of freedom --- such as interacting particles --- one may speculate that the spatial distribution of thermal energy may differ from the value predicted by equipartition, possibly quite substantially in strongly inhomogeneous/disordered systems. Here we show that in general the averaged thermal energy may indeed be inhomogeneously distributed, but is universally bounded from above by $\\frac{1}{2}k_BT$. In addition, we show that in one-dimensional systems with short-range interactions, the thermal energy is equally partitioned even for coupled degrees of freedom in the thermodynamic limit.

Bar-Sinai, Yohai

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

ON MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FORMATION AND THE MAGNETOHYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM OF SUNSPOTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the problem of sunspot magnetohydrostatic equilibrium with comprehensive IR sunspot magnetic field survey observations of the highly sensitive Fe I lines at 15650 A and nearby OH lines. We have found that some sunspots show isothermal increases in umbral magnetic field strength which cannot be explained by the simplified sunspot model with a single-component ideal gas atmosphere assumed in previous investigations. Large sunspots universally display nonlinear increases in magnetic pressure over temperature, while small sunspots and pores display linear behavior. The formation of molecules provides a mechanism for isothermal concentration of the umbral magnetic field, and we propose that this may explain the observed rapid increase in umbral magnetic field strength relative to temperature. Existing multi-component sunspot atmospheric models predict that a significant amount of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) exists in the sunspot umbra. The formation of H{sub 2} can significantly alter the thermodynamic properties of the sunspot atmosphere and may play a significant role in sunspot evolution. In addition to the survey observations, we have performed detailed chemical equilibrium calculations with full consideration of radiative transfer effects to establish OH as a proxy for H{sub 2}, and demonstrate that a significant population of H{sub 2} exists in the coolest regions of large sunspots.

Jaeggli, S. A.; Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Uitenbroek, H. [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

The rigorous stochastic matrix multiplication scheme for the calculations of reduced equilibrium density matrices of open multilevel quantum systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.

Chen, Xin, E-mail: xin.chen.nj@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

350

The nuclear fusion reaction rate based on relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Coulomb barrier is in general much higher than thermal energy. Nuclear fusion reactions occur only among few protons and nuclei with higher relative energies than Coulomb barrier. It is the equilibrium velocity distribution of these high-energy protons and nuclei that participates in determining the rate of nuclear fusion reactions. In the circumstance it is inappropriate to use the Maxwellian velocity distribution for calculating the nuclear fusion reaction rate. We use the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for this purpose. The rate based on the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution has a reduction factor with respect to that based on the Maxwellian distribution, which factor depends on the temperature, reduced mass and atomic numbers of the studied nuclear fusion reactions. This signifies much to the solar neutrino problem.

Jian-Miin Liu

2002-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

351

Validity of the Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics of the Universe Bounded by the Event Horizon in Holographic Dark Energy Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this letter, we investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics of the universe bounded by the event horizon in the holographic dark energy model. The universe is chosen to be homogeneous and isotropic and the validity of the first law has been assumed here. The matter in the universe is taken in the form of non-interacting two fluid system- one component is the holographic dark energy model and the other component is in the form of dust.

Nairwita Mazumder; Subenoy Chakraborty

2010-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

352

Salt effect on the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium of the methyl acetate + methanol system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of sodium thiocyanate at constant salt mole fraction from 0.01 to 0.05 and at saturation on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of methyl acetate + methanol has been studied at 101.32 kPa using a modified Othmer equilibrium still. The salt exhibited both salting-in and salting-out effects on the methyl acetate, the azeotrope being eliminated at saturation. The results were correlated using the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. and the electrolytic NRTL model of Mock et al.

Iliuta, M.C.; Thyrion, F.C. [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.] [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.; Landauer, O.M. [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)] [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Energy conservation, counting statistics, and return to equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a microscopic Hamiltonian model describing an N-level quantum system S coupled to an infinitely extended thermal reservoir R. Initially, the system S is in an arbitrary state while the reservoir is in thermal equilibrium at temperature T. Assuming that the coupled system S+R is mixing with respect to the joint thermal equilibrium state, we study the Full Counting Statistics (FCS) of the energy transfers S->R and R->S in the process of return to equilibrium. The first FCS describes the increase of the energy of the system S. It is an atomic probability measure, denoted $P_{S,\\lambda,t}$, concentrated on the set of energy differences $\\sigma(H_S)-\\sigma(H_S)$ ($\\sigma(H_S)$ is the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of S, $t$ is the length of the time interval during which the measurement of the energy transfer is performed, and $\\lambda$ is the strength of the interaction between S and R). The second FCS, $P_{R,\\lambda,t}$, describes the decrease of the energy of the reservoir R and is typically a continuous probability measure whose support is the whole real line. We study the large time limit $t\\rightarrow\\infty$ of these two measures followed by the weak coupling limit $\\lambda\\rightarrow 0$ and prove that the limiting measures coincide. This result strengthens the first law of thermodynamics for open quantum systems. The proofs are based on modular theory of operator algebras and on a representation of $P_{R,\\lambda,t}$ by quantum transfer operators.

Vojkan Jaksic; Jane Panangaden; Annalisa Panati; Claude-Alain Pillet

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

354

A definition of thermodynamic entropy valid for non-equilibrium states and few-particle systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From a new rigorous formulation of the general axiomatic foundations of thermodynamics we derive an operational definition of entropy that responds to the emergent need in many technological frameworks to understand and deploy thermodynamic entropy well beyond the traditional realm of equilibrium states of macroscopic systems. The new definition is achieved by avoiding to resort to the traditional concepts of "heat" (which restricts $a$ $priori$ the traditional definitions of entropy to the equilibrium domain) and of "thermal reservoir" (which restricts $in$ $practice$ our previous definitions of non-equilibrium entropy to the many-particle domain). The measurement procedure that defines entropy is free from intrinsic limitations and can be applied, $in$ $principle$, even to non-equilibrium states of few-particle systems, provided they are separable and uncorrelated. The construction starts from a previously developed set of carefully worded operational definitions for all the basic concepts. Then, through a new set of fully spelled-out fundamental hypotheses (four postulates and five assumptions) we derive the definitions of energy and entropy of any state, and of temperature of any stable equilibrium state. Finally, we prove the principle of entropy non-decrease, the additivity of entropy differences, the maximum entropy principle, and the impossibility of existence of a thermal reservoir.

Gian Paolo Beretta; Enzo Zanchini

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

355

A general proof of Landauer-Büttiker formula  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We point out a general argument leading from the formula for currents through an open mesoscopic system given by the theory of non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) to the Landauer-B\\"uttiker formula.

G. Nenciu

2006-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

356

One Dimensional Autonomous Equations Can have only equilibrium attractors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One Dimensional Autonomous Equations ( )x f x Can have only equilibrium attractors: a bounded orbit approaches an equilibrium #12;Two Dimensional Autonomous Equations ( , ) ( , ) x f x y y g x y Can have non-equilibrium attractors: for example, periodic orbits #12;Two Dimensional Autonomous Equations ( , ) ( , ) x f x y y g x y

Saleska, Scott

357

An iterative technique for solving equations of statistical equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Superlevel partitioning is combined with a simple relaxation procedure to construct an iterative technique for solving equations of statistical equilibrium. In treating an $N$-level model atom, the technique avoids the $N^{3}$ scaling in computer time for direct solutions with standard linear equation routines and also does not fail at large $N$ due to the accumulation of round-off errors. In consequence, the technique allows detailed model atoms with $N \\ga 10^{3}$, such as those required for iron peak elements, to be incorporated into diagnostic codes for analysing astronomical spectra. Tests are reported for a 394-level Fe II ion and a 1266-level Ni I--IV atom.

L. B. Lucy

2001-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

358

Non-equilibrium electroweak baryogenesis from preheating after inflation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a novel scenario for baryogenesis in a hybrid inflation model at the electroweak scale, in which the Standard Model Higgs field triggers the end of inflation. One of the conditions for successful baryogenesis, the departure from thermal equilibrium, is naturally achieved at the stage of preheating after inflation. The inflaton oscillations induce large occupation numbers for long-wavelength configurations of Higgs and gauge fields, which leads to a large rate of sphaleron transitions. We estimate this rate during the first stages of reheating and evaluate the amount of baryons produced due to a particular type of higher dimensional CP violating operator. The universe thermalizes through fermion interactions, at a temperature below critical, $T_{rh} < 100$ GeV, preventing the wash-out of the produced baryon asymmetry. Numerical simulations in (1+1) dimensions support our theoretical analysis.

Juan Garcia-Bellido; Dmitri Grigoriev; Alexander Kusenko; Mikhail Shaposhnikov

1999-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

359

Generalized Galilean Genesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by {\\alpha}) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as ...

Nishi, Sakine

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Thermo-chemical dynamics and chemical quasi-equilibrium of plasmas in thermal non-equilibrium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine both processes of ionization by electron and heavy-particle impact in spatially uniform plasmas at rest in the absence of external forces. A singular perturbation analysis is used to study the following physical scenario, in which thermal relaxation becomes much slower than chemical reactions. First, electron-impact ionization is investigated. The dynamics of the system rapidly becomes close to a slow dynamics manifold that allows for defining a unique chemical quasi-equilibrium for two-temperature plasmas and proving that the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied. Then, all ionization reactions are taken into account simultaneously, leading to a surprising conclusion: the inner layer for short time scale (or time boundary layer) directly leads to thermal equilibrium. Global thermo-chemical equilibrium is reached within a short time scale, involving only chemical reactions, even if thermal relaxation through elastic collisions is assumed to be slow.

Massot, Marc [Laboratoire EM2C, UPR 288 CNRS - Ecole Centrale Paris (France); Graille, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Mathematiques d'Orsay, UMR 8628 CNRS - Universite Paris-Sud (France); Magin, Thierry E. [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (Belgium)

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

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361

Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar observations to evaluate model simulations In cooperation with Profs. Bob Houze at University of Washington and Steven Rutledge at Colorado State University, numerical model results were evaluated with observations from W- and C-band radars and CloudSat/TRMM satellites. These studies exhibited some shortcomings of current numerical models, such as too little of thin anvil clouds, directing the future improvement of cloud microphysics parameterization in CRMs. Two papers of Powell et al (2012) and Zeng et al. (2013), summarizing these studies, were published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 4. Analyzed the water budgets of MCSs Using ARM data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP and other field campaigns, the Goddard CRM simulations were carried out to analyze the water budgets of clouds from TWP-ICE and AMMA. The simulations generated a set of datasets on clouds and radiation, which are available http://cloud.gsfc.nasa.gov/. The cloud datasets were available for modelers and other researchers aiming to improve the representation of cloud processes in multi-scale modeling frameworks, GCMs and climate models. Special datasets, such as 3D cloud distributions every six minutes for TWP-ICE, were requested and generated for ARM/ASR investigators. Data server records show that 86,206 datasets were downloaded by 120 users between April of 2010 and January of 2012. 5. MMF simulations The Goddard MMF (multi-scale modeling framework) has been improved by coupling with the Goddard Land Information System (LIS) and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GOES5). It has also been optimized on NASA HEC supercomputers and can be run over 4000 CPUs. The improved MMF with high horizontal resolution (1 x 1 degree) is currently being applied to cases covering 2005 and 2006. The results show that the spatial distribution pattern of precipitation rate is well simulated by the MMF through comparisons with satellite retrievals from the CMOPRH and GPCP data sets. In addition, the MMF results were compared with three reanalyses (MERRA, ERA-Interim and CFSR). Although the MMF tends

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

362

Process for operating equilibrium controlled reactions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cyclic process for operating an equilibrium controlled reaction in a plurality of reactors containing an admixture of an adsorbent and a reaction catalyst suitable for performing the desired reaction which is operated in a predetermined timed sequence wherein the heating and cooling requirements in a moving reaction mass transfer zone within each reactor are provided by indirect heat exchange with a fluid capable of phase change at temperatures maintained in each reactor during sorpreaction, depressurization, purging and pressurization steps during each process cycle.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Carvill, Brian Thomas (Orefield, PA); Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond (Fogelsville, PA); Mayorga, Steven Gerard (Allentown, PA); Gaffney, Thomas Richard (Allentown, PA); Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard (Bethlehem, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

EQuilibrium Solutions Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6 No revision has TypeGeothermalIIONELMARCOJumpEQuilibrium

364

Non-equilibrium many body dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.

Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.

1997-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

365

Non-equilibrium quantum systems: Divergence between global and local descriptions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even photosynthesis -- the most basic natural phenomenon underlying Life on Earth -- involves the non-trivial processing of excitations at the pico- and femtosecond scales during light-harvesting. The desire to understand such natural phenomena, as well as interpret the output from ultrafast experimental probes, creates an urgent need for accurate quantitative theories of open quantum systems. However it is unclear how best to generalize the well-established assumptions of an isolated system, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. Here we compare two popular approaches: a description in terms of a direct product of the states of each individual system (i.e. a local approach) versus the use of new states resulting from diagonalizing the whole Hamiltonian (i.e. a global approach). We show that their equivalence fails when the system is open, in particular under the experimentally ubiquitous condition of a temperature gradient. By solving for the steady-state populations and calculating the heat flux as a test observable, we uncover stark differences between the formulations. This divergence highlights the need to establish rigorous ranges of applicability for such methods in modeling nanoscale transfer phenomena -- including during the light-harvesting process in photosynthesis.

Pedro D. Manrique; Ferney Rodriguez; Luis Quiroga; Neil F. Johnson

2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

366

Comparing the effects of various fuel alcohols on the natural attenuation of Benzene Plumes using a general substrate interaction model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, MS-317, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005, USA a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Article history: Received 30 October 2009 Received in revised form 26 January 2010 generalizations about the level of impact of specific fuel alcohols on benzene plume dynamics. © 2010 Elsevier B

Alvarez, Pedro J.

367

The equilibrium crystal shape of strontium titanate and its relationship to the grain boundary plane distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 The equilibrium crystal shape of strontium titanate and its relationship to the grain crystal shape (ECS) of a model system, strontium titanate, is compared with the grain boundary plane distribution (GBPD) as a function of temperature. Strontium titanate has a pronounced surface energy anisotropy

Rohrer, Gregory S.

368

Quaternary liquid-liquid equilibrium of n-heptane-toluene-o-xylene-propylene carbonate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the system n-heptane/toluene/o-xylene/propylene carbonate were obtained at 25 OC. Experimental tie line data were measured by gas chromatographic analysis. The UNIQUAC and NRTL models were used to predict the quaternary data from the corresponding ternary data. Agreement between the predictions and the experimental data was satisfactory.

Salem, A.B.S.H.; Hamad, E.Z.; Al-Naafa, M.A. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

~.,Slag-Metal Equilibrium During Submerged e-~~ Arc Welding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~~ . ~.·,Slag-Metal Equilibrium During Submerged ·e-~~ Arc Welding C. S. CHAI AND T. W. EAGAR A thermodynamic model of the equilibria existing between the slag and the weld metal during submerged arc welding over forty years ago, submerged arc welding has developed into one of the most efficient, most reliable

Eagar, Thomas W.

370

Solving net constrained hydrothermal Nash-Cournot equilibrium problems via the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solving net constrained hydrothermal Nash-Cournot equilibrium problems via the proximal decades, the electric power industry has experienced deregulation processes in most of the countries markets are presented. Bilevel optimization is proposed in [8, 15] to model a hydrothermal coordination

Solodov, Mikhail V.

371

ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MHD EQUILIBRIUM OPTIONS FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE TOKAMAK POWER PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MHD EQUILIBRIUM OPTIONS FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE TOKAMAK POWER PLANTS D for commercial tokamak power plants. The economic prospects of future designs are compared for several tokamak a simplified economic model and selecting uniform engineering performance parameters, this comparison

Najmabadi, Farrokh

372

The Impact of Imperfect Permit Market on Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Impact of Imperfect Permit Market on Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium Tanachai market in conjunction with a permit market to study such interactions. The concept of conjectural variations is proposed to account for imperfect competition in permit market. The model is then applied

Oren, Shmuel S.

373

Cooperative Equilibrium Nash equilibrium (NE) assumes that players always make a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooperative equilibrium (PCE). PCE may help explain players' behavior in games where cooper- ation is observed in practice. A player's payoff in a PCE is at least as high as in any NE. However, a PCE does not always exist. We thus consider -PCE, where takes into account the degree of cooperation; a PCE is a 0-PCE. Every

Halpern, Joseph Y.

374

Relative role of changes in CO? and climate to equilibrium responses of net primary production and carbon storage of the terrestrial biosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a partial factorial model experiment, we used the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, version 4.0) to assess the relative roles of changes in CO2, temperature, precipitation and cloudiness in equilibrium responses of ...

Xiao, Xiangming.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.

375

Right ventricular ejection fraction from equilibrium and first pass scintigraphic cardiac images  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radioactive 2 x 10 years Fig. 6. Generation and transition of Tc 11 2. Radiopharmaceuticals Radiopharmaceuticals or radioactive tracers generally consist of a radionuclide emit- ting 7-rays. They need to allow maximum information extraction... the contraction phase, is an important indicator of ventricular func- tion. Equilibrium images, in which the radiopharmaceutical is uniformly distributed throughout the blood pool, are routinely used to compute the left ventricular ejec- tion fraction...

Nakamura, Eiji

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance.

Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Stabilization of beam-weibel instability by equilibrium density ripples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present an approach to achieve suppression/complete stabilization of the transverse electromagnetic beam Weibel instability in counter streaming electron beams by modifying the background plasma with an equilibrium density ripple, shorter than the skin depth; this weakening is more pronounced when thermal effects are included. On the basis of a linear two stream fluid model, it is shown that the growth rate of transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be reduced to zero value provided certain threshold values for ripple parameters are exceeded. We point out the relevance of the work to recent experimental investigations on sustained (long length) collimation of fast electron beams and integral beam transport for laser induced fast ignition schemes, where beam divergence is suppressed with the assistance of carbon nano-tubes.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@gmail.com; Kaw, Predhiman; Das, A.; Sengupta, S. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Ravindra Kumar, G. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)] [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

The Principle of Minimal Resistance in Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analytical models describing the motion of colloidal particles in given velocity fields are presented. In addition to local approaches, leading to well known master equations such as the Langevin and the Fokker-Planck equations, a global description based on path integration is reviewed. This shows that under very broad conditions, during its evolution a dissipative system tends to minimize its energy dissipation in such a way to keep constant the Hamiltonian time rate, equal to the difference between the flux-based and the force-based Rayleigh dissipation functions. At steady state, the Hamiltonian time rate is maximized, leading to a minimum resistance principle. In the unsteady case, we consider the relaxation to equilibrium of harmonic oscillators and the motion of a Brownian particle in shear flow, obtaining results that coincide with the solution of the Fokker-Planck and the Langevin equations.

Mauri, Roberto

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution, nuclear fusion reaction rate and the solar neutrino problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In solar interior, it is the equilibrium velocity distribution of few high-energy protons and nuclei that participates in determining nuclear fusion reaction rates. So, it is inappropriate to use the Maxwellian velocity distribution to calculate the rates of solar nuclear fusion reactions. We have to use the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for the purpose. The nuclear fusion reaction rate based on the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution has a reduction factor with respect to that based on the Maxwellian distribution. The reduction factor depends on the temperature, reduced mass and atomic numbers of the studied nuclear fusion reactions, in other words, it varies with the sort of neutrinos. Substituting the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for the Maxwellian distribution is not important for the calculation of solar sound speeds. The relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution, if adopted in standard solar models, will lower solar neutrino fluxes and change solar neutrino energy spectra but maintain solar sound speeds. This velocity distribution is possibly a solution to the solar neutrino problem.

Jian-Miin Liu

2003-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

380

A Dark Energy Model with Generalized Uncertainty Principle in the Emergent, Intermediate and Logamediate Scenarios of the Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work is motivated by the work of Kim et al (2008), which considered the equation of state parameter for the new agegraphic dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle coexisting with dark matter without interaction. In this work, we have considered the same dark energy inter- acting with dark matter in emergent, intermediate and logamediate scenarios of the universe. Also, we have investigated the statefinder, kerk and lerk parameters in all three scenarios under this inter- action. The energy density and pressure for the new agegraphic dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle have been calculated and their behaviors have been investigated. The evolu- tion of the equation of state parameter has been analyzed in the interacting and non-interacting situations in all the three scenarios. The graphical analysis shows that the dark energy behaves like quintessence era for logamediate expansion and phantom era for emergent and intermediate expansions of the universe.

Rahul Ghosh; Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath

2011-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics of Spacetime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has previously been shown that the Einstein equation can be derived from the requirement that the Clausius relation dS = dQ/T hold for all local acceleration horizons through each spacetime point, where dS is one quarter the horizon area change in Planck units, and dQ and T are the energy flux across the horizon and Unruh temperature seen by an accelerating observer just inside the horizon. Here we show that a curvature correction to the entropy that is polynomial in the Ricci scalar requires a non-equilibrium treatment. The corresponding field equation is derived from the entropy balance relation dS =dQ/T+dS_i, where dS_i is a bulk viscosity entropy production term that we determine by imposing energy-momentum conservation. Entropy production can also be included in pure Einstein theory by allowing for shear viscosity of the horizon.

Christopher Eling; Raf Guedens; Ted Jacobson

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Development of a general purpose subgrid wall boiling model from improved physical understanding for use in computational fluid dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advanced modeling capabilities were developed for application to subcooled flow boiling through this work. The target was to introduce, and demonstrate, all necessary mechanisms required to accurately predict the temperature ...

Gilman, Lindsey Anne

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

A general model for estimating the economic and production effects of specified pesticide withdrawals: a cotton application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

available does not have quantitative esti- mates of social costs of present levels of pesticide use. However, the economists have developed several hypothetical models whereby an evaluation could be done. Unfortunately, many of the variables...

Casey, James Elmer

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Space Charge and Equilibrium Emittances in Damping Rings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPACE CHARGE AND EQUILIBRIUM EMITTANCES IN DAMPING RINGS ?for the pos- sible impact of space charge on the equilibriumrings. INTRODUCTION Direct space charge effects have the

Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu; Wolski, Andy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

anesthetics equilibrium measurements: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

etched CR-39 SSNTD Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: .60 Keywords: Radon progeny concentration; Equilibrium factor; CR-39 1. Introduction Inhaled radon (222 Rn...

386

11s EEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. AC-30, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 1985 An Equilibrium Theory for Multiperson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on teams which use a common probability space. Consider a static team decision problem, formulated develops an equilibrium theory for two-person two-criteriastocbastic decisionproblems with static process, the objective functionalsare quadratic, and the decision spaces are general inner-product spaces

Ba?ar, Tamer

387

Chapter 9. Chemical Equilibrium 9.1 The Nature of Chemical Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equation for this process is 2 Cl2(g) + 2 HgO(s) + H2O(l) HgO�HgCl2(s) + 2 HOCl(aq) Write the equilibrium) CO(g) + 0.5 O2(g) CO2(g) #12;Law of Mass Action for Reactions in Solution #12;Example 9.2 · Household laundry bleach is a solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) prepared by adding gaseous Cl2 to a solution

Ihee, Hyotcherl

388

A general purpose Fortran 90 electronic structure program for conjugated systems using Pariser-Parr-Pople model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pariser-Parr-Pople (P-P-P) model Hamiltonian has been used extensively over the years to perform calculations of electronic structure and optical properties of $\\pi$-conjugated systems successfully. In spite of tremendous successes of \\emph{ab initio} theory of electronic structure of large systems, the P-P-P model continues to be a popular one because of a recent resurgence in interest in the physics of $\\pi$-conjugated polymers, fullerenes and other carbon based materials. In this paper, we describe a Fortran 90 computer program developed by us, which uses P-P-P model Hamiltonian to not only solve Hartree-Fock (HF) equation for closed- and open-shell systems, but also for performing correlation calculations at the level of single configuration interactions (SCI) for molecular systems. Moreover, the code is capable of computing linear optical absorption spectrum at various levels, such as, tight binding (TB) Hueckel model, HF, SCI, and also of calculating the band structure using the Hueckel model. The code ...

Sony, Priya

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Electronic structure of the dioxygen to transition metal bond: generalized molecular orbital calculations on models of manganese, iron, and cobalt porphyrins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are reported for FeP where P = porphinato(2-) ~ (NH2)4 , (NHCH2)4 , (N4C2H10) , (N4CBH6) and for Fe(02)PL where P = porphi nato(2-), (NH2)4 , (N4C2H6) and L = imidazole, NH3. The MO calculations indicate that (N4C2H6) is a better model for the porphyri n... ring in metal-dioxygen porphyrin complexes than the model (NH ) . This model was employed in generalized molecular orbital-confi guration interaction calculations of Fe(02)P(NH3), Co(02)P(NH3), and Mn(02)P where P = (N4C2H6) The ozone...

Newton, James Edward

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Energy shift and Casimir-Polder force for an atom out of thermal equilibrium near a dielectric substrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an atom out of thermal equilibrium near the surface of a dielectric substrate. We first generalize, adopting the local source hypothesis, the formalism proposed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc and Cohen-Tannoudji, which separates the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction to the energy shift and allows a distinct treatment to atoms in the ground and excited states, to the case out of thermal equilibrium, and then use the generalized formalism to calculate the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an isotropically polarizable neutral atom. We identify the effects of the thermal fluctuations that originate from the substrate and the environment and discuss in detail how the Casimir-Polder force out of thermal equilibrium behaves in three different distance regions in both the low-temperature limit and the high-temperature limit for both the ground-state and excited-state atoms, with special attention devoted to the new features as opposed to thermal equilibrium. In particular, we recover the new behavior of the atom-wall force out of thermal equilibrium at large distances in the low temperature limit recently found in a different theoretical framework and furthermore we give a concrete region where this behavior holds.

Wenting Zhou; Hongwei Yu

2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

391

Optimization Under Generalized Uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11 Optimization Under Generalized Uncertainty Optimization Modeling Math 4794/5794: Spring 2013 Weldon A. Lodwick Weldon.Lodwick@ucdenver.edu 2/14/2013 Optimization Modeling - Spring 2013 #12 in the context of optimization problems. The theoretical frame-work for these notes is interval analysis. From

Lodwick, Weldon

392

Comparison of mid-Pliocene climate predictions produced by the HadAM3 and GCMAM3 General Circulation Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Circulation Models Alan M. Haywood a, , Mark A. Chandler b , Paul J. Valdes c , Ulrich Salzmann d , Daniel J set of Piacenzian Stage land cover [Salzmann, U., Haywood, A.M., Lunt, D.J., Valdes, P.J., Hill, D intervals in Earth History (e.g. Kutzbach and Otto-Bliesner, 1982; Barron and Washington, 1982; Valdes

393

Generalized Batchelor functions of isotropic turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We generalize Batchelor's parameterization of the autocorrelation functions of isotropic turbulence in a form involving a product expansion with multiple small scales. The richer small scale structure acquired this way, compared to the usual Batchelor function, is necessary so that the associated energy spectrum approximate well actual spectra in the universal equilibrium range. We propose that the generalized function provides an approximation of arbitrary accuracy for actual spectra of isotropic turbulence over the universal equilibrium range. The degree of accuracy depends on the number of higher moments which are determinable and it is reflected in the number of small scales involved. The energy spectrum of the generalized function is derived, and for the case of two small scales is compared with data from high-resolution direct numerical simulations. We show that the compensated spectra (which illustrate the bottleneck effect) and dissipation spectra are encapsulated excellently, in accordance with our p...

Gravanis, Elias

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Solubility of carbon in tetragonal ferrite in equilibrium with austenite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solubility of carbon in tetragonal ferrite in equilibrium with austenite Jae Hoon Jang a H. K. D. H in tetragonal ferrite that is in equilibrium with austenite. It is found that the solubility is dramatically increased relative to the cubic form of ferrite, and the implications of this are discussed briefly. Key

Cambridge, University of

395

Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

forests indi- cates that the model representation of competition between plants and microbes for new mineral nitrogen resources is reasonable. Our results suggest a weaker dependence of net land carbon flux on soil moisture changes in tropical regions... National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335, USA 2Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1543, USA 3Climate and Global Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research...

Thornton, P. E.; Doney, S. C.; Lindsay, Keith; Moore, J. K.; Mahowald, N. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Fung, I.; Lamarque, J. F.; Feddema, Johannes J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Phase-field investigation on the non-equilibrium interface dynamics of rapid alloy solidification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research program reported here is focused on critical issues that represent conspicuous gaps in current understanding of rapid solidification, limiting our ability to predict and control microstructural evolution (i.e. morphological dynamics and microsegregation) at high undercooling, where conditions depart significantly from local equilibrium. More specifically, through careful application of phase-field modeling, using appropriate thin-interface and anti-trapping corrections and addressing important details such as transient effects and a velocity-dependent (i.e. adaptive) numerics, the current analysis provides a reasonable simulation-based picture of non-equilibrium solute partitioning and the corresponding oscillatory dynamics associated with single-phase rapid solidification and show that this method is a suitable means for a self-consistent simulation of transient behavior and operating point selection under rapid growth conditions. Moving beyond the limitations of conventional theoretical/analytical treatments of non-equilibrium solute partitioning, these results serve to substantiate recent experimental findings and analytical treatments for single-phase rapid solidification. The departure from the equilibrium solid concentration at the solid-liquid interface was often observed during rapid solidification, and the energetic associated non-equilibrium solute partitioning has been treated in detail, providing possible ranges of interface concentrations for a given growth condition. Use of these treatments for analytical description of specific single-phase dendritic and cellular operating point selection, however, requires a model for solute partitioning under a given set of growth conditions. Therefore, analytical solute trapping models which describe the chemical partitioning as a function of steady state interface velocities have been developed and widely utilized in most of the theoretical investigations of rapid solidification. However, these solute trapping models are not rigorously verified due to the difficulty in experimentally measuring under rapid growth conditions. Moreover, since these solute trapping models include kinetic parameters which are difficult to directly measure from experiments, application of the solute trapping models or the associated analytic rapid solidification model is limited. These theoretical models for steady state rapid solidification which incorporate the solute trapping models do not describe the interdependency of solute diffusion, interface kinetics, and alloy thermodynamics. The phase-field approach allows calculating, spontaneously, the non-equilibrium growth effects of alloys and the associated time-dependent growth dynamics, without making the assumptions that solute partitioning is an explicit function of velocity, as is the current convention. In the research described here, by utilizing the phase-field model in the thin-interface limit, incorporating the anti-trapping current term, more quantitatively valid interface kinetics and solute diffusion across the interface are calculated. In order to sufficiently resolve the physical length scales (i.e. interface thickness and diffusion boundary length), grid spacings are continually adjusted in calculations. The full trajectories of transient planar growth dynamics under rapid directional solidification conditions with different pulling velocities are described. As a validation of a model, the predicted steady state conditions are consistent with the analytic approach for rapid growth. It was confirmed that rapid interface dynamics exhibits the abrupt acceleration of the planar front when the effect of the non-equilibrium solute partitioning at the interface becomes signi ficant. This is consistent with the previous linear stability analysis for the non-equilibrium interface dynamics. With an appropriate growth condition, the continuous oscillation dynamics was able to be simulated using continually adjusting grid spacings. This oscillatory dynamics including instantaneous jump of interface velocities are consistent

Choi, Jeong

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

General Tables  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor'sshort version) ThelongEmailStatusGeneralGeneral

398

Bayesian derivation of plasma equilibrium distribution function for tokamak scenarios and the associated Landau collision operator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A class of parametric distribution functions has been proposed in [C.DiTroia, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion,54,2012] as equilibrium distribution functions (EDFs) for charged particles in fusion plasmas, representing supra-thermal particles in anisotropic equilibria for Neutral Beam Injection, Ion Cyclotron Heating scenarios. Moreover, the EDFs can also represent nearly isotropic equilibria for Slowing-Down $alpha$ particles and core thermal plasma populations. These EDFs depend on constants of motion (COMs). Assuming an axisymmetric system with no equilibrium electric field, the EDF depends on the toroidal canonical momentum $P_\\phi$, the kinetic energy $w$ and the magnetic moment \\mu. In the present work, the EDFs are obtained from first principles and general hypothesis. The derivation is probabilistic and makes use of the Bayes' Theorem. The bayesian argument allows us to describe how far from the prior probability distribution function (pdf), e.g. Maxwellian, the plasma is, based on the information...

Di Troia, Claudio

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Equilibrium adsorption of multicomponent gas mixtures at elevated pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Equilibrium adsorption of H/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/S (single and mixed gases-two to five species) was measured on activated carbon at pressures up to 400 psia. Temperature-dependent parameters, regressed from single-gas data, were applied to four theoretical models which predict adsorption from gas mixtures. Deviations between theory (IAS) and experiment increased with pressure and with the number of components in the mixture. None of the theories employing only single-gas data could consistently predict multicomponent adsorption. It was found that multicomponent adsorption could be predicted from the extended Langmuir equation by including an interaction parameter calculated from only single and binary data. In the application of mixture adsorption theories, it was shown that from the same model significantly different results can be obtained depending on the selection of the independent set, /T, P, X/sub i// or /T, P, Y/sub i//.

Ritter, J.A.; Yang, R.T.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Liquidity Shortages in a Model with Equilibrium Manoj Atolia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

suggests that the incentive for the entrepreneur to shirk increases during times of economic distress incentives that the economic environment provides to the entrepreneurs to ensure their project's success economic contraction. This result occurs without significant additional cuts in factor employment due

Bowers, Philip L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

An Equilibrium Model of Investment in Restructured Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electricity generation ?rm should invest in the new plant.plant stems from the value of its electricity generation.Electricity generation ?rms make two important sets of decisions: bids in the spot market and power plant

Bushnell, Jim B; Ishii, Jun

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

An Equilibrium Model of Investment in Restructured Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Deregulated Wholesale Electricity Markets,” RAND JournalBehavior in a Competitive Electricity Market,” InternationalMarket Power in Electricity Markets: Beyond Concentration

Bushnell, Jim B; Ishii, Jun

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Justification of Constrained Game Equilibrium Models1 1 Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

13-01-00029a. 2Department of System Analysis and Information Technologies, Kazan Federal Uni- versity, ul. Kremlevskaya, 18, Kazan 420008, Russia. 1 ...

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

404

Heavy quark diffusion in pre-equilibrium stage of heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The drag and diffusion coefficients of the heavy quarks have been evaluated in the pre-equilibrium phase which is expected to be formed in the early stages of the evolving fire ball produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. The interaction of the probe with the gluon in the pre-equilibrium phase has been treated within the framework of perturbative QCD. For the pre-equilibrium gluon distribution function we have used the KLN and Classical Yang Mills(CYM) models. It is observed that the magnitude of both the transport coefficients have significant values in the pre-equilibrium phase and comparable to the magnitudes obtained for kinetically equilibrated gluonic system. However, these values are larger than the value estimated for a chemically equilibrated quark gluon plasma. The results may have significant impact on the experimental observable like the suppression and elliptic flow of single electron spectra originating from the decays of heavy mesons produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC a...

Das, Santosh K; Mazumder, Surasree; Greco, Vincenzo; Alam, Jan-e

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

On testing the significance of atmospheric response to smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires using the Los Alamos general circulation model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The response of the Los Alamos atmospheric general circulation model to the smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires set in 1991 is examined. The model has an interactive soot transport module that uses a Lagrangian tracer particle scheme. The statistical significance of the results is evaluated using a methodology based on the classic Student`s t test. Among various estimated smoke emission rates and associated visible absorption coefficients, the worst- and best-case scenarios are selected. In each of the scenarios, an ensemble of 10, 30-day June simulations are conducted with the smoke, and are compared to the same 10 June simulations without the smoke. The results of the worst-case scenario show that a statistically significant wave train pattern propagates eastward-poleward downstream from the source. The signals favorably compare with the observed climate anomalies in summer 1991, albeit some possible El Nino-Southern Oscillation effects were involved in the actual climate. The results of the best-case (i.e., least-impact) scenario show that the significance is rather small but that its general pattern is quite similar to that in the worst-case scenario. 24 refs., 5 figs.

Chih-Yue Jim Kao; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

406

A general mechanism for producing scale-invariant perturbations and small non-Gaussianity in ekpyrotic models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore a new type of entropic mechanism for generating density perturbations in a contracting phase in which there are two scalar fields, but only one has a steep negative potential. This first field dominates the energy density and is the source of the ekpyrotic equation of state. The second field has a negligible potential, but its kinetic energy density is coupled to the first field with a non-linear sigma-model type interaction. We show that for any ekpyrotic equation of state it is possible to choose the potential and the kinetic coupling such that exactly scale-invariant (or nearly scale-invariant) entropy perturbations are produced. The corresponding background solutions are stable, and the bispectrum of the entropy perturbations vanishes as no non-Gaussianity is produced during the ekpyrotic phase. Hence, the only contribution to non-Gaussianity comes from the non-linearity of the conversion process during which entropic perturbations are turned into adiabatic ones, resulting in a local non-Gaussianity parameter $f_{NL} \\sim 5$.

Anna Ijjas; Jean-Luc Lehners; Paul J. Steinhardt

2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

407

The role of wind generation in European power sector decarbonization : a general equilibrium analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wind generation has been growing fast, with onshore wind having a 27% average annual growth rate over the past decade. Motivated by this growth, a comprehensive analysis of both the economic and engineering implications ...

Karkatsouli, Ioanna

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Distributional Impacts of Carbon Pricing: A General Equilibrium Approach with Micro-Data for Households  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions have at their core efforts to put a price on carbon emissions. Carbon pricing impacts households both by raising the cost of carbon intensive products and by changing factor ...

Rausch, Sebastian

409

Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for internal combustion engine (ICE)-only vehicles. Engineering cost estimates for the PHEV, as well Engineering ABSTRACT The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions, depending on the cost-competitiveness of the vehicle, the relative cost of refined fuels and electricity

410

Analyzing stability of equilibrium points in neural networks: a general approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA Revised 10 July, Cohen, & Grossberg, 1987; Destexhe, 1994; Li, 1994; Li, 1999; Li & Hopfield, 1989; Whittle, 1998; Yao

Rangarajan, Govindan

411

Estimating Carbon Leakage and the Efficiency of Border Adjustments in General Equilibrium -  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions, it is feared that production of carbon-intensive goods will be shifted to countries which have-right rebating schemes or border carbon adjustments (BCAs) - which can include carbon-intensity based tariffs in highly carbon-intensive sectors. Indeed, another strand of literature relying on sector-specific partial

412

End-use electrification in the residential sector : a general equilibrium analysis of technology advancements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The residential sector in the U.S. is responsible for about 20% of the country's primary energy use (EIA, 2011). Studies estimate that efficiency improvements in this sector can reduce household energy consumption by over ...

Madan, Tanvir Singh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the Organization of the Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC) that these concerns have been officially acknowledged transfers raise questions about both their amount and their efficiency for sustaining economic activity. The first question relates to the evaluation of climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

Passenger transport in China under climate constraints : general equilibrium analysis, uncertainty, and policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vehicle sales and road travel volume in China have grown rapidly in recent years, and with them energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollution. Aviation and rail travel have also grown, while ceding a large ...

Kishimoto, Paul N

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Combining a renewable portfolio standard with a cap-and-trade policy : a general equilibrium analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most economists see incentive-based measures such a cap-and-trade system or a carbon tax as cost effective policy instruments for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In actuality, many efforts to address GHG emissions combine ...

Morris Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Electricity generation and emissions reduction decisions under uncertainty : a general equilibrium analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

Morris, Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

The Prospects for Coal-To-Liquid Conversion: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the economics of coal-to-liquid (CTL) conversion, a polygeneration technology that produces liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity by coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch process. CTL is more expensive ...

Chen, Y.-H. Henry

418

Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States : a general equilibrium analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from personal vehicle transportation in the United States over the next century, depending on the ...

Karplus, Valerie Jean

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

Morris, J.

420

An integrated assessment of air pollutant abatement opportunities in a computable general equilibrium framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air pollution and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission reduction policies are desirable to reduce smog, tropospheric concentrations of ozone precursors, acid rain, and other adverse effects on human health, the environment, ...

Waugh, C. (Caleb Joseph)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A General Equilibrium Analysis of Land Use Restrictions and Residential Welfare  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

20:1–20, 1986. John M. Quigley. Current Issues in UrbanPress, 1979. John M. Quigley. The production of housing15(4):555–567, 1984. John M. Quigley and Larry A. Rosenthal.

Quigley, John M.; Swoboda, Aaron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

The Urban Impacts of the Endangered Species Act: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quigley@econ.berkeley.edu (J.M. Quigley), swoboda@pitt.edu (1 (x) ? r 0 (x)) dx. J.M. Quigley, A.M. Swoboda / Journal ofx), S(x), and r(x). J.M. Quigley, A.M. Swoboda / Journal of

Quigley, John M.; Swoboda, Aaron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR DISASTER.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This research focused on some of the major consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and their effect on the Ukrainian economy. Specifically, it focused on… (more)

Konovalchuk, Vladimir

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

The potential for reducing carbon emissions from increased efficiency : a general equilibrium methodology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents a methodology for analyzing the potential for reduction in carbon emissions through increased fuel efficiency and provides an illustration of the method. The methodology employed is a multisectoral, ...

Blitzer, Charles R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Growth and welfare losses from carbon emissions restrictions : a general equilibrium analysis for Egypt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is an assessment for a particular country, Egypt, of the economic effects, under various conditions, of carbon emission restrictions. Like other work, it is an exemplification of some of the economic possibilities. ...

Blitzer, Charles R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Universal far-from-equilibrium Dynamics of a Holographic Superconductor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Symmetry breaking phase transitions are an example of a non-equilibrium process that requires real time treatment, all but impossible in strongly coupled systems with no long-lived quasiparticles. Holographic duality provides such an approach by mapping strongly coupled field theories in D dimensions into weakly coupled quantum gravity in D+1 anti-de Sitter spacetime. We use holographic duality to study formation of topological defects -- nontrivial winding numbers -- in the course of a superconducting transition in a strongly coupled theory in a 1D ring. We observe that when the system undergoes the transition on a quench time \\tau_Q, the condensate builds up with a delay that can be deduced using the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) from the quench time and the universality class of the theory, as determined from the quasinormal mode spectrum of the dual gravity model. Moreover, typical winding numbers deposited in the ring in the course of the transition exhibit a universal fractional power law dependence on the quench time \\tau_Q which is also predicted by KZM.

Julian Sonner; Adolfo del Campo; Wojciech H. Zurek

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

427

General Information  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky Learning Fun withGenepool QuarterlyGeneraland Ernest O.General

428

General Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. TheEPSCIResearch to sponsorGeneral Atomics

429

General Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor'sshort version) ThelongEmailStatusGeneral Publications

430

Phase-equilibrium-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Colloidal dispersion of nanoparticles (CNPs) has interesting properties both in terms of fundamental studies and industrials applications. Particular focus on the phase equilibrium and separation dynamics of CNPs has been ...

Kwon, Seok Joon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Restoring Equilibrium to Natural Gas Markets: Can Renewable Energy Help?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AC03- 76SF00098. The report “Easing the Natural Gas Crisis:Reducing Natural Gas Prices through Increased Deployment ofRestoring Equilibrium to Natural Gas Markets: Can Renewable

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present work on several topics related to land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium: the first two research chapters invoke ideas related to land-atmosphere interaction to better understand ...

Cronin, Timothy (Timothy Wallace)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Thermal equilibrium theory of periodically focused charged-particle beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thermal equilibrium theory of periodically focused charged-particle beams is presented in the framework of both warm-fluid and kinetic descriptions. In particular, the thermal beam equilibria are discussed for paraxial ...

Samokhvalova, Ksenia R

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Energy conservation, counting statistics, and return to equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy conservation, counting statistics, and return to equilibrium V. Jaksi´c1 , J. Panangaden1 lim t QS(, t), QR = lim 0 lim t QR(, t). As a consequence of energy conservation, we expect that QS

Jaksic, Vojkan

435

The Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy for Dilute Gases in Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use the kinetic theory of gases to compute the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy per particle for a dilute gas in equilibrium. For an equilibrium system, the KS entropy, h_KS is the sum of all of the positive Lyapunov exponents characterizing the chaotic behavior of the gas. We compute h_KS/N, where N is the number of particles in the gas. This quantity has a density expansion of the form h_KS/N = a\

H. van Beijeren; J. R. Dorfman; H. A. Posch; Ch. Dellago

1997-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

436

A Core Equilibrium Convergence in a Public Goods Economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A core-equilibrium convergence in a public goods economy? Nizar Allouch Queen Mary University of London School of Economics and Finance n.allouch@qmul.ac.uk April 15, 2010 Abstract This paper shows a core-equilibrium convergence in a public goods... economy where consumers’ preferences display warm glow effects. We demonstrate that if each consumer becomes satiated to other con- sumers’ provision, then as the economy grows large the core shrinks to the set of Edgeworth allocations. Moreover, we show...

Allouch, N

437

Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examined cloud radar data in monsoon climates, using cloud radars at Darwin in the Australian monsoon, on a ship in the Bay of Bengal in the South Asian monsoon, and at Niamey in the West African monsoon. We followed on with a more in-depth study of the continental MCSs over West Africa. We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the observed anvil clouds to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model at high resolution using six different ice-phase microphysical schemes. We carried out further simulations with a cloud-resolving model forced by sounding network budgets over the Niamey region and over the northern Australian region. We have devoted some of the effort of this project to examining how well satellite data can determine the global breadth of the anvil cloud measurements obtained at the ARM ground sites. We next considered whether satellite data could be objectively analyzed to so that their large global measurement sets can be systematically related to the ARM measurements. Further differences were detailed between the land and ocean MCS anvil clouds by examining the interior structure of the anvils with the satellite-detected the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The satellite survey of anvil clouds in the Indo-Pacific region was continued to determine the role of MCSs in producing the cloud pattern associated with the MJO.

Houze, Jr., Robert A. [University of Washington Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

438

DRILLING MACHINES GENERAL INFORMATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TC 9-524 Chapter 4 DRILLING MACHINES GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSE This chapter contains basic information pertaining to drilling machines. A drilling machine comes in many shapes and sizes, from small hand-held power drills to bench mounted and finally floor-mounted models. They can perform operations

Gellman, Andrew J.

439

Mechanism of Interaction Between the General Anesthetic Halothane and a Model Ion Channel Protein, I: Structural Investigations via X-Ray Reflectivity from Langmuir Monolayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We previously reported the synthesis and structural characterization of a model membrane protein comprised of an amphiphilic 4-helix bundle peptide with a hydrophobic domain based on a synthetic ion channel and a hydrophilic domain with designed cavities for binding the general anesthetic halothane. In this work, we synthesized an improved version of this halothane-binding amphiphilic peptide with only a single cavity and an otherwise identical control peptide with no such cavity, and applied x-ray reflectivity to monolayers of these peptides to probe the distribution of halothane along the length of the core of the 4-helix bundle as a function of the concentration of halothane. At the moderate concentrations achieved in this study, approximately three molecules of halothane were found to be localized within a broad symmetric unimodal distribution centered about the designed cavity. At the lowest concentration achieved, of approximately one molecule per bundle, the halothane distribution became narrower and more peaked due to a component of {approx}19Angstroms width centered about the designed cavity. At higher concentrations, approximately six to seven molecules were found to be uniformly distributed along the length of the bundle, corresponding to approximately one molecule per heptad. Monolayers of the control peptide showed only the latter behavior, namely a uniform distribution along the length of the bundle irrespective of the halothane concentration over this range. The results provide insight into the nature of such weak binding when the dissociation constant is in the mM regime, relevant for clinical applications of anesthesia. They also demonstrate the suitability of both the model system and the experimental technique for additional work on the mechanism of general anesthesia, some of it presented in the companion parts II and III under this title.

Strzalka, J.; Liu, J; Tronin, A; Churbanova, I; Johansson, J; Blasie, J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Comparative Study of summer, Winter and Quinox Sky Type of India Using Daylight Coefficient Method and Cie Standard General Sky Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract:- Energy efficiency provided by daylight requires an accurate estimation of the amount of daylight entering a building. The actual daylight illuminance of a room is mainly influenced by the luminance levels and patterns of the sky in the direction of view of the window at that time. The daylight coefficient concept, which considers the changes in the luminance of the sky elements, offers a more effective way of computing indoor daylight illuminances. Recently, Kittler et al. have proposed a new range of 15 standard sky luminance distributions including the CIE (International Commission onIllumination) standard clear sky. Lately, these 15 sky luminance models have been adopted as the CIE Standard General Skies.This paper aims to find out representative CIE (International Commission on Illumination) Standard Clear Sky model(s) for three different seasons-winter solstice, equinox, and summer solstice applicable for prevailing clear sky climatic conditions in India [Roorkee]. Indian measured sky luminance distribution database is available only for Roorkee[29 0 51 ' N; 77 0 53 ' E]. To find out the best match between Indian measured sky luminance distribution and each of five CIE Standard Clear sky models, only sky component of spatial illuminance distribution over the working plane of a room was simulated by MATLABfor three different seasons. Daylight Coefficient method has been applied for the simulation using Indian sky luminance database.The simulation has been done for the room with eight different window orientations ranging from 0 0 to 315 0 with an interval of 45 0 to generate data for the entire sky vault. To find out the

Sutapa Mukherjee M. Tech

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Equilibrium shapes of polycrystalline silicon nanodots  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is concerned with the topography of nanostructures consisting of arrays of polycrystalline nanodots. Guided by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements of crystalline Si (c-Si) nanodots that evolved from a “dewetting” process of an amorphous Si (a-Si) layer from a SiO{sub 2} coated substrate, we investigate appropriate formulations for the surface energy density and transitions of energy density states at grain boundaries. We introduce a new numerical minimization formulation that allows to account for adhesion energy from an underlying substrate. We demonstrate our approach first for the free standing case, where the solutions can be compared to well-known Wulff constructions, before we treat the general case for interfacial energy settings that support “partial wetting” and grain boundaries for the polycrystalline case. We then use our method to predict the morphologies of silicon nanodots.

Korzec, M. D., E-mail: korzec@math.tu-berlin.de; Wagner, B., E-mail: bwagner@math.tu-berlin.de [Department of Mathematics, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 136, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Roczen, M., E-mail: maurizio.roczen@physik.hu-berlin.de [Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schade, M., E-mail: martin.schade@physik.uni-halle.de [Zentrum für Innovationskompetenz SiLi-nano, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Karl-Freiherr-von-Fritsch-Straße 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Rech, B., E-mail: bernd.rech@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Silicon Photovoltaics, Kekuléstraße 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

442

Fluctuation-induced noise in out-of-equilibrium disordered superconducting films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study out-of-equilibrium transport in disordered superconductors close to the superconducting transition. We consider a thin film connected by resistive tunnel interfaces to thermal reservoirs having different chemical potentials and temperatures. The nonequilibrium longitudinal current–current correlation function is calculated within the nonlinear sigma model description and nonlinear dependence on temperatures and chemical potentials is obtained. Different contributions are calculated, originating from the fluctuation-induced suppression of the quasiparticle density of states, Maki–Thompson and Aslamazov–Larkin processes. As a special case of our results, close-to-equilibrium we obtain the longitudinal ac conductivity using the fluctuation–dissipation theorem. -- Highlights: •Contributions to the current noise induced by superconducting fluctuations are calculated. •Nonequilibrium physics is studied. •Nonlinear dependence of the noise on temperatures and chemical potentials of the reservoirs is found.

Petkovi?, Aleksandra, E-mail: alpetkovic@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR 7589, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France) [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR 7589, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique-CNRS, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, IRSAMC, CNRS and Université de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Vinokur, Valerii M. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)] [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Decoherence of spin-deformed bosonic model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The decoherence rate and some parameters affecting it are investigated for the generalized spin-boson model. We consider the spin-bosonic model when the bosonic environment is modeled by the deformed harmonic oscillators. We show that the state of the environment approaches a non-linear coherent state. Then, we obtain the decoherence rate of a two-level system which is in contact with a deformed bosonic environment which is either in thermal equilibrium or in the ground state. By using some recent realization of f-deformed oscillators, we show that some physical parameters strongly affect the decoherence rate of a two-level system. -- Highlights: •Decoherence of the generalized spin-boson model is considered. •In this model the environment consists of f-oscillators. •Via the interaction, the state of the environment approaches non-linear coherent states. •Effective parameters on decoherence are considered.

Dehdashti, Sh., E-mail: shahram.dehdashti@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jerib St., Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdifar, A., E-mail: mahdifar_a@sci.sku.ac.ir [Science Department, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri Harouni, M., E-mail: m-bagheri@phys.ui.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jerib St., Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Quantum Optics Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, HezarJerib St., Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roknizadeh, R., E-mail: rokni@sci.ui.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jerib St., Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Quantum Optics Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, HezarJerib St., Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

Private and Third-Party Randomization in Risk-Sensitive Equilibrium Concepts Mickey Brautbar and Michael Kearns and Umar Syed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Private and Third-Party Randomization in Risk-Sensitive Equilibrium Concepts Mickey Brautbar sources of randomization in Nash (private randomization) and correlated equilibria (third-party randomization). 1 Introduction The game-theoretic approach to modeling multi-agent inter- action assumes

Kearns, Michael

445

Equilibrium ultrastable glasses produced by random pinning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrastable glasses have risen to prominence due to their potentially useful material properties and the tantalizing possibility of a general method of preparation via vapor deposition. Despite the importance of this novel class of amorphous materials, numerical studies have been scarce because achieving ultrastability in atomistic simulations is an enormous challenge. Here we bypass this difficulty and establish that randomly pinning the position of a small fraction of particles inside an equilibrated supercooled liquid generates ultrastable configurations at essentially no numerical cost, while avoiding undesired structural changes due to the preparation protocol. Building on the analogy with vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses, we study the melting kinetics of these configurations following a sudden temperature jump into the liquid phase. In homogeneous geometries, we find that enhanced kinetic stability is accompanied by large scale dynamic heterogeneity, while a competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous melting is observed when a liquid boundary invades the glass at constant velocity. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale, atomistically resolved, and experimentally relevant simulations of the kinetics of ultrastable glasses.

Glen M Hocky; Ludovic Berthier; David R. Reichman

2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

446

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of gravitational screens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Einstein gravity equations projected on a timelike surface, which represents the time evolution of what we call a gravitational screen. We show that such a screen possesses a surface tension and an internal energy, and that the Einstein equations reduce to the thermodynamic equations of a viscous bubble. We also provide a complete dictionary between gravitational and thermodynamical variables. In the non-viscous cases there are three thermodynamic equations which characterise a bubble dynamics: These are the first law, the Marangoni flow equation and the Young-Laplace equation. In all three equations the surface tension plays a central role: In the first law it appears as a work term per unit area, in the Marangoni flow its gradient drives a force, and in the Young-Laplace equation it contributes to a pressure proportional to the surface curvature. The gravity equations appear as a natural generalization of these bubble equations when the bubble itself is viscous and dynamical. In particular, it shows that the mechanism of entropy production for the viscous bubble is mapped onto the production of gravitational waves. We also review the relationship between surface tension and temperature, and discuss the usual black-hole thermodynamics from this point of view.

Laurent Freidel; Yuki Yokokura

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

447

Construction and Refinement of Coarse-Grained Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general scheme, which includes constructions of coarse-grained (CG) models, weighted ensemble dynamics (WED) simulations and cluster analyses (CA) of stable states, is presented to detect dynamical and thermodynamical properties in complex systems. In the scheme, CG models are efficiently and accurately optimized based on a directed distance from original to CG systems, which is estimated from ensemble means of lots of independent observable in two systems. Furthermore, WED independently generates multiple short molecular dynamics trajectories in original systems. The initial conformations of the trajectories are constructed from equilibrium conformations in CG models, and the weights of the trajectories can be estimated from the trajectories themselves in generating complete equilibrium samples in the original systems. CA calculates the directed distances among the trajectories and groups their initial conformations into some clusters, which correspond to stable states in the original systems, so that transition dynamics can be detected without requiring a priori knowledge of the states.

Xin Zhou

2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

448

Beyond Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics: Maximum entropy hyperensembles out of equilibrium Gavin E. Crooks*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beyond Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics: Maximum entropy hyperensembles out of equilibrium Gavin E at equilibrium? Here, we argue the most appropriate additional parameter is the nonequilibrium entropy of ways that the same system can be out of equilibrium. That the equilibrium entropy is maximized given

449

An Equilibrium Approach to the Aggregation of Beliefs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that satis?es Walras law Pz(P) #17; 0; then there is some P such that z(P) #20; 0: (see for example Varian pp321). The uniqueness of the equilibrium aggregation can be obtained by simply applying a theorem in Stella Dafermos (1990) pp396: Lemma 3 (Stella... the agents by varying his probabilities assigned to each state. When the aggregation reaches an equilibrium, all the claims from all agents are mutually covered for every realization of the state, and thus an aggregation 3 of individual beliefs is obtained...

Jin, Yi; Zhang, Jianbo

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Phase equilibrium data for development of correlations for coal fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the authors' work is to develop accurate predictive methods for representations of vapor-liquid equilibria in systems encountered in coal-conversion processes. The objectives pursued in the present project include: (1) Measurements of binary vapor-liquid phase behavior data for selected solute gases (e.g., C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 4}) in a series of paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbon solvents to permit evaluations of interaction parameters in models for phase behavior. Solubilities of the gases in the liquid phase have been determined. (2) Evaluation of existing equations of state and other models for representations of phase behavior in systems of the type studied experimentally; development of new correlation frameworks as needed. (3) Generalization of the interaction parameters for the solutes studied to a wide spectrum of heavy solvents; presentation of final results in formats useful in the design/optimization of coal liquefaction processes.

Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Darwish, N.A.; Raff, A.M.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Towards a Deeper Understanding of Cooperative Equilibrium: Characterization and Complexity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recently that try to capture such cooperation in two- player games: perfect cooperative equilibrium (PCE) (and an extension called maximum PCE (M-PCE)) [8] and the coco value [11]. We show that, despite of the coco value, this follows easily from the definition; in the case of the corresponding M-PCE value

Halpern, Joseph Y.

453

AHR 3/16/06 Equilibrium Flux Surface Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

preserved, with no flattening in edge stochastic region. · Assume zero net current (00 = 0). #12;#12;2 AHR 31 AHR 3/16/06 Equilibrium Flux Surface Calculations for W7AS and NCSX A. Reiman1, M. Zarnstorff1, D resonant magnetic field near plasma edge. Coil calculated to have little effect on rotational transform

Hudson, Stuart

454

Equilibrium pricing bounds on option prices Marie Chazala  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

probability measure that is equivalent to the historical one, and under which the discounted price processesEquilibrium pricing bounds on option prices Marie Chazala and Ely`es Jouinib a CREST, France price at maturity, we derive an upper bound on the call option price by putting two kind of restrictions

Boyer, Edmond

455

REVIEW ARTICLE The equilibrium sensitivity of the Earth's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are expected to increase with warming. To prevent these and limit long-term global surface warming to sensitivity, the global equilibrium surface warming after a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration, can help with the translation of atmospheric CO2 levels to warming. Various observations favour a climate

456

Rationality and equilibrium in perfect-information games  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rationality and equilibrium in perfect-information games Ronen Gradwohl Aviad Heifetz March 2011://www.openu.ac.il/Personal sites/Aviad- Heifetz.html, email: aviadhe@openu.ac.il. I am grateful for the hospitality of Kel- logg

Bustamante, Fabián E.

457

Chemical Equilibrium in Heavy Ion Collisions: Rapidity Dependence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Particle yields in heavy ion collisions show an overwhelming evidence for chemical or relative chemical equilibrium at all beam energies. The rapidity dependence of the thermal parameters $T$ and $\\mu_B$ can now be determined over a wide range of rapidities and show a systematic behavior towards an increase in $\\mu_B$ away from mid-rapidity.

F. Becattini; J. Cleymans

2007-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

458

SUPERGAMES IN ELECTRICITY MARKETS: BEYOND THE NASH EQUILIBRIUM CONCEPT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUPERGAMES IN ELECTRICITY MARKETS: BEYOND THE NASH EQUILIBRIUM CONCEPT Pedro Correia, Thomas Overbye, Ian Hiskens Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, USA correia@students.uiuc.edu, overbye@ece.uiuc.edu, hiskens@ece.uiuc.edu Abstract

459

Auction Equilibrium Strategies for Task Allocation in Uncertain Environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concerning coopera- tive agents aiming for a joint goal are not applicable in such environ- ments, since self, a company, etc., operating in a dynamic environment and lacking the required re- sources to performAuction Equilibrium Strategies for Task Allocation in Uncertain Environments David Sarne1 , Meirav

Kraus, Sarit

460

The approach to equilibrium in a quark-gluon plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic questions to be addressed in this paper are: How does the quark-gluon plasma, once formed in heavy-ion collisions, approach equilibrium. What are the basic equilibrium time scales - how do they compare with the plasma lifetime before hadronization and freeze-out set in. In particular, how do the strong color anisotropies, which are presumably present in the initial formation stage disappear and how fast, if at all, do the color degrees of freedom attain local equilibrium. The approach that I wish to present here involves the following chain of arguments: equilibration is related to dissipation of energy and creation of entropy; it is determined by the dissipative, i.e., imaginary part of certain response functions - for example, to calculate the rate of dissipation for a density perturbation in an equilibrium plasma we need to work out the imaginary part of the retarded density-density correlation function; this imaginary part of the response function is dominated by its poles which signal collective modes - for example, phonons in the density-density correlation function, (colored) plasmons in the electric and magnetic response functions, etc.; from the imaginary part one can calculate a damping rate ..gamma.. for these collective modes which in turn yields an estimate for the equilibration time scale tau/sub equ/ approx. h-bar/..gamma... In this contribution I will concentrate on color equilibration and thus focus on color electric and magnetic plasma oscillations and their damping rates. 21 refs.

Heinz, U.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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461

Steady quantum coherence in non-equilibrium environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the steady state of a three-level system in contact with a non-equilibrium environment, which is composed of two independent heat baths at different temperatures. We derive a master equation to describe the non-equilibrium process of the system. For the three level systems with two dipole transitions, i.e., the $\\Lambda$-type and V-type, we find that the interferences of two transitions in a non-equilibrium environment can give rise to non-vanishing steady quantum coherence, namely, there exist non-zero off-diagonal terms in the steady state density matrix (in the energy representation). Moreover, the non-vanishing off-diagonal terms increase with the temperature difference of the two heat baths. Such interferences of the transitions were usually omitted by secular approximation, for it was usually believed that they only take effect in short time behavior and do not affect the steady state. Here we show that, in non-equilibrium systems, such omission would lead to the neglect of the steady quantum coherence.

Sheng-Wen Li; C. Y. Cai; C. P. Sun

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

462

Far-from-equilibrium dynamics of a strongly coupled non-Abelian plasma with non-zero charge density or external magnetic field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using holography, we study the evolution of a spatially homogeneous, far from equilibrium, strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma with a non-zero charge density or a background magnetic field. This gauge theory problem corresponds, in the dual gravity description, to an initial value problem in Einstein-Maxwell theory with homogeneous but anisotropic initial conditions. We explore the dependence of the equilibration process on different aspects of the initial departure from equilibrium and, while controlling for these dependencies, examine how the equilibration dynamics are affected by the presence of a non-vanishing charge density or an external magnetic field. The equilibration dynamics are remarkably insensitive to the addition of even large chemical potentials or magnetic fields; the equilibration time is set primarily by the form of the initial departure from equilibrium. For initial deviations from equilibrium which are well localized in scale, we formulate a simple model for equilibratio...

Fuini, John F

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Far-from-equilibrium dynamics of a strongly coupled non-Abelian plasma with non-zero charge density or external magnetic field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using holography, we study the evolution of a spatially homogeneous, far from equilibrium, strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma with a non-zero charge density or a background magnetic field. This gauge theory problem corresponds, in the dual gravity description, to an initial value problem in Einstein-Maxwell theory with homogeneous but anisotropic initial conditions. We explore the dependence of the equilibration process on different aspects of the initial departure from equilibrium and, while controlling for these dependencies, examine how the equilibration dynamics are affected by the presence of a non-vanishing charge density or an external magnetic field. The equilibration dynamics are remarkably insensitive to the addition of even large chemical potentials or magnetic fields; the equilibration time is set primarily by the form of the initial departure from equilibrium. For initial deviations from equilibrium which are well localized in scale, we formulate a simple model for equilibration times which agrees quite well with our results.

John F. Fuini III; Laurence G. Yaffe

2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

464

Fundamental Properties of Non-equilibrium Laser-Supported Detonation Wave  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For developing laser propulsion, it is very important to analyze the mechanism of Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), because it can generate high pressure and high temperature to be used by laser propulsion can be categorized as one type of hypersonic reacting flows, where exothermicity is supplied not by chemical reaction but by radiation absorption. I have numerically simulated the 1-D and Quasi-1-D LSD waves propagating through an inert gas, which absorbs CO2 gasdynamic laser, using a 2-temperature model. Calculated results show the fundamental properties of the non-equilibrium LSD Waves.

Shiraishi, Hiroyuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Daido Institute of Technology, 10-3 Taki-haru-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

465

Liquid-liquid equilibrium of cyclohexane-n-hexane-methanol mixtures; Effect of water content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system cyclohexane-n-hexane-methanol and for the binary systems n-hexane-methanol and cyclohexane-methanol are presented over a temperature range from 284 to 298{Kappa} at pressure of 0.1 MPa. Attention is given to the effect of the purity of methanol as far as the water content is concerned. The data are correlated by means of excess Gibbs energy models (NRTL and UNIQUAC), and the binary interaction parameters are reported.

Alessi, P.; Fermeglia, M.; Kikic, I. (Istituto di Chimica Applicata e Industriale, University of Trieste, via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (IT))

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

NON-EQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES: SPACE PLASMAS AND THE INNER HELIOSHEATH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, empirical kappa distribution, commonly used to describe non-equilibrium systems like space plasmas, has been connected with non-extensive statistical mechanics. Here we show how a consistent definition of the temperature and pressure is developed for stationary states out of thermal equilibrium, so that the familiar ideal gas state equation still holds. In addition to the classical triplet of temperature, pressure, and density, this generalization requires the kappa index as a fourth independent thermodynamic variable that characterizes the non-equilibrium stationary states. All four of these thermodynamic variables have key roles in describing the governing thermodynamical processes and transitions in space plasmas. We introduce a novel characterization of isothermal and isobaric processes that describe a system's transition into different stationary states by varying the kappa index. In addition, we show how the variation of temperature or/and pressure can occur through an 'iso-q' process, in which the system remains in a fixed stationary state (fixed kappa index). These processes have been detected in the proton plasma in the inner heliosheath via specialized data analysis of energetic neutral atom (ENA) observations from Interstellar Boundary Explorer. In particular, we find that the temperature is highly correlated with (1) kappa, asymptotically related to isothermal ({approx}1,000,000 K) and iso-q ({kappa} {approx} 1.7) processes; and (2) density, related to an isobaric process, which separates the 'Ribbon', P Almost-Equal-To 3.2 pdyn cm{sup -2}, from the globally distributed ENA flux, P Almost-Equal-To 2 pdyn cm{sup -2}.

Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J., E-mail: glivadiotis@swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

467

Degradation and healing in a generalized neo-Hookean solid due to infusion of a fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mechanical response and load bearing capacity of high performance polymer composites changes due to diffusion of a fluid, temperature, oxidation or the extent of the deformation. Hence, there is a need to study the response of bodies under such degradation mechanisms. In this paper, we study the effect of degradation and healing due to the diffusion of a fluid on the response of a solid which prior to the diffusion can be described by the generalized neo-Hookean model. We show that a generalized neo-Hookean solid - which behaves like an elastic body (i.e., it does not produce entropy) within a purely mechanical context - creeps and stress relaxes when infused with a fluid and behaves like a body whose material properties are time dependent. We specifically investigate the torsion of a generalized neo-Hookean circular cylindrical annulus infused with a fluid. The equations of equilibrium for a generalized neo-Hookean solid are solved together with the convection-diffusion equation for the fluid concentration. Different boundary conditions for the fluid concentration are also considered. We also solve the problem for the case when the diffusivity of the fluid depends on the deformation of the generalized neo-Hookean solid.

Satish Karra; K. R. Rajagopal

2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

468

Equilibrium Tropical Cyclone Size in an Idealized State of Axisymmetric Radiative–Convective Equilibrium*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tropical cyclone size remains an unsolved problem in tropical meteorology, yet size plays a significant role in modulating damage. This work employs the Bryan cloud model (CM1) to systematically explore the sensitivity of ...

Chavas, Daniel R.

469

Calculation of Design Parameters for an Equilibrium LEU Core in the NBSR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A plan is being developed for the conversion of the NIST research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Previously, the design of the LEU fuel had been determined in order to provide the users of the NBSR with the same cycle length as exists for the current HEU fueled reactor. The fuel composition at different points within an equilibrium fuel cycle had also been determined. In the present study, neutronics parameters have been calculated for these times in the fuel cycle for both the existing HEU and the proposed LEU equilibrium cores. The results showed differences between the HEU and LEU cores that would not lead to any significant changes in the safety analysis for the converted core. In general the changes were reasonable except that the figure-of-merit for neutrons that can be used by experimentalists shows there will be a 10% reduction in performance. The calculations included kinetics parameters, reactivity coefficients, reactivity worths of control elements and abnormal configurations, and power distributions.

Hanson, A.L.; Diamond, D.

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

470

NON-EQUILIBRIUM DYNAMICS OF MANY-BODY QUANTUM SYSTEMS: FUNDAMENTALS AND NEW FRONTIER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rapid progress in nanotechnology and naofabrication techniques has ushered in a new era of quantum transport experiments. This has in turn heightened the interest in theoretical understanding of nonequilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated quantum systems. This project has advanced the frontiers of understanding in this area along several fronts. For example, we showed that under certain conditions, quantum impurities out of equilibrium can be reformulated in terms of an effective equilibrium theory; this makes it possible to use the gamut of tools available for quantum systems in equilibrium. On a different front, we demonstrated that the elastic power of a transmitted microwave photon in circuit QED systems can exhibit a many-body Kondo resonance. We also showed that under many circumstances, bipartite fluctuations of particle number provide an effective tool for studying many-body physics—particularly the entanglement properties of a many-body system. This implies that it should be possible to measure many-body entanglement in relatively simple and tractable quantum systems. In addition, we studied charge relaxation in quantum RC circuits with a large number of conducting channels, and elucidated its relation to Kondo models in various regimes. We also extended our earlier work on the dynamics of driven and dissipative quantum spin-boson impurity systems, deriving a new formalism that makes it possible to compute the full spin density matrix and spin-spin correlation functions beyond the weak coupling limit. Finally, we provided a comprehensive analysis of the nonequilibrium transport near a quantum phase transition in the case of a spinless dissipative resonant-level model. This project supported the research of two Ph.D. students and two postdoctoral researchers, whose training will allow them to further advance the field in coming years.

DeMille, David; LeHur, Karyn

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

471

Electromagnetic Energy, Absorption, and Casimir Forces. I. Uniform Dielectric Media in Thermal Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The derivation of Casimir forces between dielectrics can be simplified by ignoring absorption, calculating energy changes due to displacements of the dielectrics, and only then admitting absorption by allowing permittivities to be complex. As a first step towards a better understanding of this situation we consider in this paper the model of a dielectric as a collection of oscillators, each of which is coupled to a reservoir giving rise to damping and Langevin forces on the oscillators and a noise polarization acting as a source of a fluctuating electromagnetic (EM) field in the dielectric. The model leads naturally to expressions for the quantized EM fields that are consistent with those obtained by different approaches, and also results in a fluctuation-dissipation relation between the noise polarization and the imaginary part of the permittivity; comparison with the Rytov fluctuation-dissipation relation employed in the well-known Lifshitz theory for the van der Waals (or Casimir) force shows that the Lifshitz theory is actually a classical stochastic electrodynamical theory. The approximate classical expression for the energy density in a band of frequencies at which absorption in a dielectric is negligible is shown to be exact as a spectral thermal equilibrium expectation value in the quantum-electrodynamical theory. Our main result is the derivation of an expression for the QED energy density of a uniform dispersive, absorbing media in thermal equilibrium. The spectral density of the energy is found to have the same form with or without absorption. We also show how the fluctuation-dissipation theorem ensures a detailed balance of energy exchange between the (absorbing) medium, the reservoir and the EM field in thermal equilibrium.

F. S. S. Rosa; D. A. R. Dalvit; P. W. Milonni

2009-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

472

Role of electric charge in shaping equilibrium configurations of fluid tori encircling black holes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Astrophysical fluids may acquire nonzero electrical charge because of strong irradiation or charge separation in a magnetic field. In this case, electromagnetic and gravitational forces may act together and produce new equilibrium configurations, which are different from the uncharged ones. Following our previous studies of charged test particles and uncharged perfect fluid tori encircling compact objects, we introduce here a simple test model of a charged perfect fluid torus in strong gravitational and electromagnetic fields. In contrast to ideal magnetohydrodynamic models, we consider here the opposite limit of negligible conductivity, where the charges are tied completely to the moving matter. This is an extreme limiting case which can provide a useful reference against which to compare subsequent more complicated astrophysically motivated calculations. To clearly demonstrate the features of our model, we construct three-dimensional axisymmetric charged toroidal configurations around Reissner-Nordstroem black holes and compare them with equivalent configurations of electrically neutral tori.

Kovar, Jiri; Slany, Petr; Stuchlik, Zdenek; Karas, Vladimir; Cremaschini, Claudio; Miller, John C. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava Bezrucovo nam. 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Bocni II, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); SISSA and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); SISSA and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy and Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

Renewal convergence rates and correlation decay for homogeneous pinning models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A class of discrete renewal processes with super-exponentially decaying inter-arrival distributions coincides with the infinite volume limit of general homogeneous pinning models in their localized phase. Pinning models are statistical mechanics systems to which a lot of attention has been devoted both for their relevance for applications and because they are solvable models exhibiting a non-trivial phase transition. The spatial decay of correlations in these systems is directly mapped to the speed of convergence to equilibrium for the associated renewal processes. We show that close to criticality, under general assumptions, the correlation decay rate, or the renewal convergence rate, coincides with the inter-arrival decay rate. We also show that, in general, this is false away from criticality. Under a stronger assumption on the inter-arrival distribution we establish a local limit theorem, capturing thus the sharp asymptotic behavior of correlations.

Giambattista Giacomin

2007-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

474

Interacting new generalized Chaplygin gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have presented a model in which the new generalized Chaplygin gas interacts with matter. We find that there exists a stable scaling solution at late times in the evolution of the universe. Moreover, the phantom crossing scenario is observed in this model.

Mubasher Jamil

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

475

First-principles simulation of molecular dissociation-recombination equilibrium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the first time, the equilibrium composition of chemical dissociation-recombination reaction is simulated from first-principles, only. Furthermore, beyond the conventional ab initio Born-Oppenheimer quantum chemistry the effects from the thermal and quantum equilibrium dynamics of nuclei are consistently included, as well as, the nonadiabatic coupling between the electrons and the nuclei. This has been accomplished by the path integral Monte Carlo simulations for full NVT quantum statistics of the H{sub 3}{sup +} ion. The molecular total energy, partition function, free energy, entropy, and heat capacity are evaluated in a large temperature range: from below room temperature to temperatures relevant for planetary atmospheric physics. Temperature and density dependent reaction balance of the molecular ion and its fragments above 4000 K is presented, and also the density dependence of thermal ionization above 10 000 K is demonstrated.

Kylaenpaeae, Ilkka; Rantala, Tapio T. [Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

476

Non-equilibrium Condensation Process in a Holographic Superconductor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the non-equilibrium condensation process in a holographic superconductor. When the temperature T is smaller than a critical temperature T_c, there are two black hole solutions, the Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black hole and a black hole with a scalar hair. In the boundary theory, they can be regarded as the supercooled normal phase and the superconducting phase, respectively. We consider perturbations on supercooled Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes and study their non-linear time evolution to know about physical phenomena associated with rapidly-cooled superconductors. We find that, for Tsuperconducting order parameter. Finally, we study the time evolution of event and apparent horizons and discuss their correspondence with the entropy of the boundary theory. Our result gives a first step toward the holographic understanding of the non-equilibrium process in superconductors.

Keiju Murata; Shunichiro Kinoshita; Norihiro Tanahashi

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

477

Quark Gluon Plasma Diagnostics in a Successive Equilibrium Scenario  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The relativistic Fokker Planck equation has been used to study the evolution of the quark distribution in the quark gluon phase expected to be formed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The effect of thermal masses for quarks and gluons is incorporated to take account of the in-medium properties. We find that the kinetic equilibrium is achieved before the system reaches the critical temperature of quark hadron phase transition. We find that chemical equilibrium is not achieved during this time. We have evaluated the electromagnetic probes of quark gluon plasma from the non-equilibrated quark gluon phase and compared them with those in completely equilibrated scenario. The hard QCD production rates for the electromagnetic ejectiles as well as the heavy quark production rates are also calculated.

Pradip Roy; Jane Alam; Sourav Sarkar; Bikash Sinha; Sibaji Raha

1997-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

478

WHICH HYDRAULIC MODEL TO USE IN VERTICAL FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WHICH HYDRAULIC MODEL TO USE IN VERTICAL FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS? Ania Morvannoua , Nicolas-equilibrium model, preferential flow path, vertical flow constructed wetlands INTRODUCTION Constructed wetlands (CWs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

479

Fusion Rules in Turbulent Systems with Flux Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fusion rules in turbulence specify the analytic structure of many-point correlation functions of the turbulent field when a group of coordinates coalesce. We show that the existence of flux equilibrium in fully developed turbulent systems combined with a direct cascade induces universal fusion rules. In certain examples these fusion rules suffice to compute the multiscaling exponents exactly, and in other examples they give rise to an infinite number of scaling relations that constrain enormously the structure of the allowed theory.

Victor L'vov; Itamar Procaccia

1995-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

480

E-Print Network 3.0 - approach nash equilibrium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Pure Nash Equilibrium is a state s P1, ..., Pn... a Pure Nash Equilibrium. In a load game the input is a set of n users, a set E of m resources... , starting from any...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "general equilibrium model" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Rigorous and General Definition of Thermodynamic Entropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physical foundations of a variety of emerging technologies --- ranging from the applications of quantum entanglement in quantum information to the applications of nonequilibrium bulk and interface phenomena in microfluidics, biology, materials science, energy engineering, etc. --- require understanding thermodynamic entropy beyond the equilibrium realm of its traditional definition. This paper presents a rigorous logical scheme that provides a generalized definition of entropy free of the usual unnecessary assumptions which constrain the theory to the equilibrium domain. The scheme is based on carefully worded operative definitions for all the fundamental concepts employed, including those of system, property, state, isolated system, environment, process, separable system, system uncorrelated from its environment, and parameters of a system. The treatment considers also systems with movable internal walls and/or semipermeable walls, with chemical reactions and/or external force fields, and with small numbers of particles. The definition of reversible process is revised by introducing the new concept of scenario. The definition of entropy involves neither the concept of heat nor that of quasistatic process; it applies to both equilibrium and nonequilibrium states. The role of correlations on the domain of definition and on the additivity of energy and entropy is discussed: it is proved that energy is defined and additive for all separable systems, while entropy is defined and additive only for separable systems uncorrelated from their environment; decorrelation entropy is defined. The definitions of energy and entropy are extended rigorously to open systems. Finally, to complete the discussion, the existence of the fundamental relation for stable equilibrium states is proved, in our context, for both closed and open systems.

Gian Paolo Beretta; Enzo Zanchini

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

482

Characterizing particle-scale equilibrium adsorption and kinetics of uranium(VI) desorption from U-contaminated sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rates of contaminant U(VI) release from individual size fractions of a composite sediment from the seasonally saturated lower vadose zone of the Hanford 300-Area were examined in flow-through batch reactors to maintain quasi-constant chemical conditions. Variability in equilibrium adsorption among the various size fractions was determined in static batch reactors and analyzed using the surface complexation modeling approach. The estimated stoichiometric coefficients of U(VI) surface complexation reactions with respect to pH and carbonate concentrations varied with size fractions. This source of variability significantly increased the uncertainty in U(VI) conditional equilibrium constants over that estimated from experimental errors alone. A minimum difference between conditional equilibrium constants was established in order to evaluate statistically significant differences between sediment adsorption properties. A set of equilibrium and kinetic expressions for cation exchange, calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration, and silica dissolution were incorporated in a reaction-rate model to describe the temporal evolution of solute concentrations observed during the flow-through batch experiments. Parameters in the reaction-rate model, calibrated using experimental data for select size fractions, predicted the changes in solute concentrations for the bulk, <2 mm, sediment sample. Kinetic U(VI) desorption was well described using a multi-rate surface complexation model with an assumed lognormal distribution for the rate constants. The estimated mean and standard deviation were the same for all < 2mm size fractions, but differed in the 2-8mm size fraction. Micropore volumes in the varied size fractions were also similar as assessed using t-plots to analyze N2 desorption data. These findings provide further support for the link between microporosity and particle-scale mass transfer rates controlling kinetic U(VI) adsorption/desorption and for the utility of N2 desorption isotherms for characterizing pore networks that influence mass transfer rates.

Stoliker, Deborah L.; Liu, Chongxuan; Kent, Douglas B.; Zachara, John M.

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

483

E-Print Network 3.0 - accurate chemical equilibrium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Green's function Continuum Non- Equilibrium ... Source: Walker, D. Greg - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University Collection: Engineering 72 Experimental...

484

Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Title: Stepping stones for biological invasion: A bioeconomic model of transferable risk Authors: Travis Warziniacka  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equilibrium estimates. If ecosystem services and market goods are substitutes the partial equilibrium bias #12;2 1. Introduction We investigate three sources of bias in valuation methods for invasive species), failure to consider nonseparability of ecosystem services with market goods (general equilibrium

Toledo, University of

486

Equilibrium free energies from path sampling of nonequilibrium trajectories Sean X. Suna)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Equilibrium free energies from path sampling of nonequilibrium trajectories Sean X. Suna equilibrium free energy and nonequilibrium work is rewritten as an average of work with respect to a work nonequilibrium trajectories yields good estimates of the equilibrium free energy change. The procedure can

Sun, Sean

487

Degradation and healing in a generalized neo-Hookean solid due to infusion of a fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mechanical response and load bearing capacity of high performance polymer composites changes due to diffusion of a fluid, temperature, oxidation or the extent of the deformation. Hence, there is a need to study the response of bodies under such degradation mechanisms. In this paper, we study the effect of degradation and healing due to the diffusion of a fluid on the response of a solid which prior to the diffusion can be described by the generalized neo-Hookean model. We show that a generalized neo-Hookean solid - which behaves like an elastic body (i.e., it does not produce entropy) within a purely mechanical context - creeps and stress relaxes when infused with a fluid and behaves like a body whose material properties are time dependent. We specifically investigate the torsion of a generalized neo-Hookean circular cylindrical annulus infused with a fluid. The equations of equilibrium for a generalized neo-Hookean solid are solved together with the convection-diffusion equation for the fluid concentrati...

Karra, Satish

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Equilibrium configurations for quark-diquark stars and the problem of Her X-1 mass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report new calculations of the physical properties of a quark-diquark plasma. A vacuum contribution is taken into account and is responsible for the appearance of a stable state at zero pressure and at a baryon density of about 2.2 times the nuclear matter density in this model. The resulting equation of state was used to integrate numerically the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations. The mass-radius relationship has been derived from a series of equilibrium configurations constituted by a mixture of quarks and diquarks. These stellar models, which are representative of a whole class, may be helpful to understand the possible compactness of the X-ray source Her X-1 and related objects.

J. E. Horvath; J. A. de Freitas Pacheco

1996-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

489

RHP: HOW CLIMATE MODELS GAIN AND EXERCISE How Climate Models Gain and Exercise Authority  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dimensional models, intermediate complexity models, general circulation models, and Earth system models. 2 www

Hulme, Mike

490

Discrimination of unitary transformations in the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm: Implications for thermal-equilibrium-ensemble implementations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A general framework for regarding oracle-assisted quantum algorithms as tools for discriminating among unitary transformations is described. This framework is applied to the Deutsch-Jozsa problem and all possible quantum algorithms which solve the problem with certainty using oracle unitaries in a particular form are derived. It is also used to show that any quantum algorithm that solves the Deutsch-Jozsa problem starting with a quantum system in a particular class of initial, thermal equilibrium-based states of the type encountered in solution-state NMR can only succeed with greater probability than a classical algorithm when the problem size n exceeds {approx}10{sup 5}.

Collins, David [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, Mesa State College, 1100 North Avenue, Grand Junction, Colorado 81501 (United States)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

491