Karplus, V.J.
A well-known challenge in computable general equilibrium (CGE) models is to maintain correspondence between the forecasted economic and physical quantities over time. Maintaining such a correspondence is necessary to ...
General Equilibrium Modeling Package (GEMPACK) | Open Energy Information
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Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium Model
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Computable General Equilibrium Models for the Analysis of Energy and Climate Policies
Wing, Ian Sue
Computable General Equilibrium Models for the Analysis of Energy and Climate Policies Ian Sue Wing of energy and environmental policies. Perhaps the most important of these applications is the analysis Change, MIT Prepared for the International Handbook of Energy Economics Abstract This chapter is a simple
Energy and agriculture in the Haitian economy: A computable general equilibrium model
Jones, D.W.; Wu, M.T.C.; Das, S.; Cohn, S.M.
1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report documents a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the economy of Haiti, emphasizing energy use in agriculture. CGE models compare favorably with econometric models for developing countries in terms of their ability to take advantage of available data. The model of Haiti contains ten production sectors: manufacturing, services, transportation, electricity, rice, coffee, sugar cane, sugar refining, general agriculture, and fuelwood and charcoal. All production functions use functional forms which permit factor substitution. Consumption is specified for three income categories of consumers and a government sector with a linear expenditure system (LES) of demand equations. The economy exports four categories of products and imports six. Balanced trade and capital accounts are required for equilibrium. Total sectoral allocations of land, labor and capital are constrained to equal the quantities of these inputs in the Haitian economy as of the early 1980s. The model can be used to study the consequences of fiscal and trade policies and sectorally oriented productivity improvement policies. Guidance is offered regarding how to use the model to study economic growth and technological change. Limitations of the mode are also pointed out as well as user strategies which can lessen or work around some of those limitations. 19 refs.
Plant Heterogeneity and Applied General Equilibrium Models of Trade: Lessons from
Stoiciu, Mihai
sector. I introduce these features by adapting a Hopenhayn (1992) model of plant entry and exit and embed a Hopenhayn (1992) model of firm entry and exit and embed this in a static multisector trade model with monop) develops a model with plant dynamics to match entry and exit rates in US manufacturing. I do
Computing the Electricity Market Equilibrium: Uses of market equilibrium models
Baldick, Ross
1 Computing the Electricity Market Equilibrium: Uses of market equilibrium models Ross Baldick Abstract--In this paper we consider the formulation and uses of electric- ity market equilibrium models. Keywords--Electricity market, Equilibrium models I. INTRODUCTION Electricity market equilibrium modelling
Inventories and capacity utilization in general equilibrium
Trupkin, Danilo Rogelio
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The primary goal of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding, in thecontext of a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium framework, of the role of inventories and capacity utilization (of both capital and labor) and, in particular...
Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis
renewable sources such as wind, solar, and biomass. I use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) modelCombining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy
Gurgel, Angelo C.
We develop a forward-looking version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and apply it to examine the economic implications of proposals in the U.S. Congress to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) ...
Rotating figures of equilibrium in General Relativity
T. Papakostas
2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
A generalization of the notion of surfaces of revolution in the spaces of General Relativity is presented. We apply this definition to the case of Carter's family [A] of solutions and we study the Kerr's metric with respect the above mentioned foliation.
Combining a Renewable Portfolio Standard with a Cap-and-Trade Policy: A General Equilibrium Analysis
Morris, Jennifer
Many efforts to address greenhouse gas emissions combine a cap-and-trade system with other measures such as a renewable portfolio standard. In this paper we use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, the MIT Emissions ...
Carbon Leakage in General and Partial Equilibrium August 7, 2012
Kammen, Daniel M.
Carbon Leakage in General and Partial Equilibrium Larry Karp August 7, 2012 Abstract The general of leakage, and the magnitude of border tax adjustments (BTAs) needed to offset it. A BTA based on carbon intensity in countries without carbon constraints is an export subsidy and creates negative leakage
Heterogeneous Beliefs, Collateralization, and Transactions in General Equilibrium
Hu, Xu
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Leonardo Auernheimer Rajiv Sarin Committee Members, Thomas R. Saving David A. Bessler Amy J. Glass Head of Department, Timothy Gronberg August 2011 Major Subject...: Economics iii ABSTRACT Heterogeneous Beliefs, Collateralization, and Transactions in General Equilibrium. (August 2011) Xu Hu, B.B.A., The University of Science and Technology of China Co{Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Leonardo Auernheimer Dr. Rajiv...
Valerio Lucarini
2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the general response theory proposed by Ruelle for describing the impact of small perturbations to the non-equilibrium steady states resulting from Axiom A dynamical systems. We show that the causality of the response functions allows for writing a set of Kramers-Kronig relations for the corresponding susceptibilities at all orders of nonlinearity. Nonetheless, only a special class of observable susceptibilities obey Kramers-Kronig relations. Specific results are provided for arbitrary order harmonic response, which allows for a very comprehensive Kramers-Kronig analysis and the establishment of sum rules connecting the asymptotic behavior of the susceptibility to the short-time response of the system. These results generalize previous findings on optical Hamiltonian systems and simple mechanical models, and shed light on the general impact of considering the principle of causality for testing self-consistency: the described dispersion relations constitute unavoidable benchmarks for any experimental and model generated dataset. In order to connect the response theory for equilibrium and non equilibrium systems, we rewrite the classical results by Kubo so that response functions formally identical to those proposed by Ruelle, apart from the measure involved in the phase space integration, are obtained. We briefly discuss how these results, taking into account the chaotic hypothesis, might be relevant for climate research. In particular, whereas the fluctuation-dissipation theorem does not work for non-equilibrium systems, because of the non-equivalence between internal and external fluctuations, Kramers-Kronig relations might be more robust tools for the definition of a self-consistent theory of climate change.
Blitzer, Charles R.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A general equilibrium approach, in the form of a multisector, intertemporal programming model, is used to analyze the effects on the growth of the Egyptian economy of carbon emissions constraints that differ across sectors ...
Multicomponent Equilibrium Models for Testing Geothermometry Approaches
Cooper, D. Craig; Carl D. Palmer; Robert W. Smith; Travis L. McLing
2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Geothermometry is an important tool for estimating deep reservoir temperature from the geochemical composition of shallower and cooler waters. The underlying assumption of geothermometry is that the waters collected from shallow wells and seeps maintain a chemical signature that reflects equilibrium in the deeper reservoir. Many of the geothermometers used in practice are based on correlation between water temperatures and composition or using thermodynamic calculations based a subset (typically silica, cations or cation ratios) of the dissolved constituents. An alternative approach is to use complete water compositions and equilibrium geochemical modeling to calculate the degree of disequilibrium (saturation index) for large number of potential reservoir minerals as a function of temperature. We have constructed several “forward” geochemical models using The Geochemist’s Workbench to simulate the change in chemical composition of reservoir fluids as they migrate toward the surface. These models explicitly account for the formation (mass and composition) of a steam phase and equilibrium partitioning of volatile components (e.g., CO2, H2S, and H2) into the steam as a result of pressure decreases associated with upward fluid migration from depth. We use the synthetic data generated from these simulations to determine the advantages and limitations of various geothermometry and optimization approaches for estimating the likely conditions (e.g., temperature, pCO2) to which the water was exposed in the deep subsurface. We demonstrate the magnitude of errors that can result from boiling, loss of volatiles, and analytical error from sampling and instrumental analysis. The estimated reservoir temperatures for these scenarios are also compared to conventional geothermometers. These results can help improve estimation of geothermal resource temperature during exploration and early development.
Monge, Juan
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
The economic impacts of a government-funded, forest-based sequestration program were analyzed under two different payment schemes. The impacts were obtained by developing a regional, static CGE model built to accommodate a modified IMPLAN SAM for a...
Monge, Juan
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
The economic impacts of a government-funded, forest-based sequestration program were analyzed under two different payment schemes. The impacts were obtained by developing a regional, static CGE model built to accommodate a modified IMPLAN SAM for a...
Goudon, Thierry
A Coupled Model for Radiative Transfer: Doppler Effects, Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Diffusion. The interaction terms take into account both scattering and absorption/emission phenomena, as well as Doppler-diffusion equations. Key words. Hydrodynamic limits. Diffusion approximation. Radiative transfer. Doppler correction
Equilibrium Statistical-Thermal Models in High-Energy Physics
Abdel Nasser Tawfik
2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
We review some recent highlights from the applications of statistical-thermal models to different experimental measurements and lattice QCD thermodynamics, that have been made during the last decade. We start with a short review of the historical milestones on the path of constructing statistical-thermal models for heavy-ion physics. We discovered that Heinz Koppe formulated in 1948 an almost complete recipe for the statistical-thermal models. In 1950, Enrico Fermi generalized this statistical approach, in which he started with a general cross-section formula and inserted into it simplifying assumptions about the matrix element of the interaction process that likely reflects many features of the high-energy reactions dominated by density in the phase space of final states. In 1964, Hagedorn systematically analysed the high-energy phenomena using all tools of statistical physics and introduced the concept of limiting temperature based on the statistical bootstrap model. It turns to be quite often that many-particle systems can be studied with the help of statistical-thermal methods. The analysis of yield multiplicities in high-energy collisions gives an overwhelming evidence for the chemical equilibrium in the final state. The strange particles might be an exception, as they are suppressed at lower beam energies. However, their relative yields fulfill statistical equilibrium, as well. We review the equilibrium statistical-thermal models for particle production, fluctuations and collective flow in heavy-ion experiments. We also review their reproduction of the lattice QCD thermodynamics at vanishing and finite chemical potential. During the last decade, five conditions have been suggested to describe the universal behavior of the chemical freeze out parameters.
Non-equilibrium Statistical Approach to Friction Models
Shoichi Ichinose
2015-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
A geometric approach to the friction phenomena is presented. It is based on the holographic view which has recently been popular in the theoretical physics community. We see the system in one-dimension-higher space. The heat-producing phenomena are most widely treated by using the non-equilibrium statistical physics. We take 2 models of the earthquake. The dissipative systems are here formulated from the geometric standpoint. The statistical fluctuation is taken into account by using the (generalized) Feynman's path-integral.
A Two Stage Stochastic Equilibrium Model for Electricity Markets ...
Dali Zhang
2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z
Feb 6, 2008 ... A Two Stage Stochastic Equilibrium Model for Electricity Markets with Two Way Contracts. Dali Zhang (zhangdl ***at*** soton.ac.uk) Huifu Xu ...
Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium...
uses, real wages, value added by sector, real gross domestic product, real income, exports, imports, terms of trade. How to Use This Tool Training Available None provided;...
Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact...
assess systematically the interference of complex interacting forces that affect economic performance, environmental quality, and social conditions. This paper investigates the use...
Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville,Missoula, Montana: EnergyAnalysis of Energy Demand (MAED-2) Jump
Kammen, Daniel M.
, Transport, and Customs Transit on the Kyrgyz Republic 7 General Equilibrium Analysis of the Effects of Regional Cooperation in Trade Policy, Transport, and Customs Transit on the Kyrgyz Republic The preceding policy, transport, and customs transit. In particular, Chapter 4 argued that by acceding to the WTO
Lithium-ion battery modeling using non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Ferguson, Todd R. (Todd Richard)
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The focus of this thesis work is the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in lithium-ion battery modeling. As the demand for higher power and longer lasting batteries increases, the search for materials suitable ...
Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics
Townsend, Robert
This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting ...
Linear Supply Function Equilibrium: Generalizations, Application, and Limitations
California at Berkeley. University of
reforms in England and Wales (E&W). Green (1996) used a linear version of this model and applied in the electricity industry. Recent reforms of the electricity industry around the world have stimulated numerous
Electricity market equilibrium models: The effect of parametrization
Baldick, Ross
by Green and Newbery [1], takes the develop- ment of supply function equilibrium by Klemperer and Meyer [8] and applies it to a bid-based pool (BBP) model. The BBP model is representative of energy market struc- ture attempts to clarify this issue in the context of a BBP. In modeling the England and Wales BBP, Green
Heavy ion collisions and the pre-equilibrium exciton model
Betak, E. [Institute of Physics SAS, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian Univ., 74601 Opava (Czech Republic)
2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
We present a feasible way to apply the pre-equilibrium exciton model in its masterequation formulation to heavy-ion induced reactions including spin variables. Emission of nucleons, {gamma}'s and also light clusters is included in our model.
Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis
Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States Engineering ABSTRACT The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions
Verification of the Equilibrium and MHD Stability Codes within the Integrated Tokamak Modeling Task Force
Equilibrium model with default and insider's dynamic information Luciano Campi
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
DanilovaÂ§ August 3, 2011 Abstract We consider an equilibrium model `a la Kyle-Back for a defaultable claim, London School of Economics, u.cetin@lse.ac.uk. Â§ Department of Mathematics, London School of Economics, a.danilova
Entropy Production and Equilibrium Conditions in General-Covariant Continuum Physics
Wolfgang Muschik; Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski
2015-01-03T23:59:59.000Z
Starting out with an entropy identity, the entropy flux, the entropy production and the corresponding Gibbs and Gibbs-Duhem equations of general-covariant conti\\-nuum thermodynamics are established. Non-dissipative materials and equilibria are investigated. It is proved that equilibrium conditions only put on material properties cannot generate equilibria, rather additionally, the Killing property of the 4-temperature is a necessary condition for space-times in which equilibria are possible.
Ocean General Circulation Models
Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun
2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.
Equilibrium and volumetric data and model development of coal fluids
Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Park, J.
1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
The long term goal of our efforts is to develop accurate predictive methods for description of equilibrium phase properties for a variety of types of mixtures and operating conditions. The specific objectives of the work specified herein include: (1) development of an experimental facility having the capability to provide data on equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) and liquid densities, and doing so with greater accuracy and speed than our previous facility, (2) measurement of equilibrium phase properties for systematically-selected mixtures-specifically those containing important solute gases (such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, carbonyl sulfide, ammonia) in a series of heavy paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic solvents (e.g., n-decane, n-eicosane, n-octacosane, n-hexatriacontane, cyclohexane, Decalin, perhydrophenanthrene, perhydropyrene, benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene), (3) testing/development of correlation frameworks for representing the phase behavior of fluids of the type encountered in coal conversion processes, and (4) generalization of parameters in the correlation frameworks to enable accurate predictions for systems of the type studied, permitting predictions to be made for systems and conditions other than those for which experimental data are available.
Complex Dynamics in Equilibrium Asset Pricing Models with Boundedly Rational, Heterogeneous
their optimal portfolio and the market equilibrium, investors must compute future aggregate demands for assets] for critiques of equilibrium models and the response [4] by Robert Lucas. 3The Lucas [5] paper is one one
An Equilibrium-Based Model of Gas Reaction and Detonation
Trowbridge, L.D.
2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
During gaseous diffusion plant operations, conditions leading to the formation of flammable gas mixtures may occasionally arise. Currently, these could consist of the evaporative coolant CFC-114 and fluorinating agents such as F2 and ClF3. Replacement of CFC-114 with a non-ozone-depleting substitute is planned. Consequently, in the future, the substitute coolant must also be considered as a potential fuel in flammable gas mixtures. Two questions of practical interest arise: (1) can a particular mixture sustain and propagate a flame if ignited, and (2) what is the maximum pressure that can be generated by the burning (and possibly exploding) gas mixture, should it ignite? Experimental data on these systems, particularly for the newer coolant candidates, are limited. To assist in answering these questions, a mathematical model was developed to serve as a tool for predicting the potential detonation pressures and for estimating the composition limits of flammability for these systems based on empirical correlations between gas mixture thermodynamics and flammability for known systems. The present model uses the thermodynamic equilibrium to determine the reaction endpoint of a reactive gas mixture and uses detonation theory to estimate an upper bound to the pressure that could be generated upon ignition. The model described and documented in this report is an extended version of related models developed in 1992 and 1999.
P. Fielitz; G. Borchardt
2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z
Information theory provides shortcuts which allow one to deal with complex systems. The basic idea one uses for this purpose is the maximum entropy principle developed by Jaynes. However, an extension of this maximum entropy principle to systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium or even to non-physical systems is problematic because it requires an adequate choice of constraints. In this paper we discuss a general concept of natural information equilibrium which does not require any choice of adequate constraints. It is, therefore, directly applicable to systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium and to non-physical systems/processes (e.g. biological processes and economical processes). We demonstrate the validity and the applicability of the concept by three well understood physical processes. As an interesting astronomical application we will show that the concept of natural information equilibrium allows one to rationalize and to quantify the K-Trumpler effect.
Analytical modeling of equilibrium of strongly anisotropic plasma in tokamaks and stellarators
Lepikhin, N. D.; Pustovitov, V. D., E-mail: pustovit@nfi.kiae.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Theoretical analysis of equilibrium of anisotropic plasma in tokamaks and stellarators is presented. The anisotropy is assumed strong, which includes the cases with essentially nonuniform distributions of plasma pressure on magnetic surfaces. Such distributions can arise at neutral beam injection or at ion cyclotron resonance heating. Then the known generalizations of the standard theory of plasma equilibrium that treat p{sub ?} and p{sub ?} (parallel and perpendicular plasma pressures) as almost constant on magnetic surfaces are not applicable anymore. Explicit analytical prescriptions of the profiles of p{sub ?} and p{sub ?} are proposed that allow modeling of the anisotropic plasma equilibrium even with large ratios of p{sub ?}/p{sub ?} or p{sub ?}/p{sub ?}. A method for deriving the equation for the Shafranov shift is proposed that does not require introduction of the flux coordinates and calculation of the metric tensor. It is shown that for p{sub ?} with nonuniformity described by a single poloidal harmonic, the equation for the Shafranov shift coincides with a known one derived earlier for almost constant p{sub ?} on a magnetic surface. This does not happen in the other more complex case.
ENV-Linkages General Equilibrium Model | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrict ofDongjinDynetek42 EIAELOEMeterENV-Linkages
General Equilibrium Emissions Model (GEEM) | Open Energy Information
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Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact Assessment:
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia,2005) | Open(Thompson,2006)air Jump to:Status
Intersectoral Adjustment and Policy Intervention: the Importance of General Equilibrium Effects
Karp, Larry; Paul, Thierry
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the distortion – as the First-Best Equilibrium (FBE).The FBE satis?es the same boundary conditions and equationssimplest way to obtain the FBE when ? 6 = is to solve the
Optimal foreign borrowing in a multisector dynamic equilibrium model for Brazil
Tourinho, Octv?io A. F.
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper shows how a dynamic multisector equilibrium model can be formulated to be able to analyze the optimal borrowing policy of a developing country. It also describes how a non-linear programming model with the ...
Tangri, Varun; Terry, P. W. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706R (United States); Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)
2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
A simple large-aspect-ratio (R{sub 0}/r) circular equilibrium model is developed for low-beta reversed field pinch (RFP) geometry. The model is suitable for treating small scale instability and turbulent transport driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) and related electron drift modes in gyrokinetic simulations. The equilibrium model is an RFP generalization of the common tokamak s-{alpha} model to small safety factor (q), where the poloidal field dominates the toroidal field. The model accommodates the RFP toroidal field reversal (where q vanishes) by generalizing the cylindrical force-free Bessel function model (BFM) [J. B. Taylor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1139 (1974)] to toroidal geometry. The global equilibrium can be described in terms of the RFP field reversal and pinch parameters [F,{Theta}]. This new toroidal Bessel function model (TBFM) has been incorporated into the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J.Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] and used here to explore local electrostatic ITG adiabatic electron instability rates for typical low-q RFP parameters.
Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL] [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles] [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois] [University of Illinois
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus has high agro-terrorism potential because it is contagious, can be easily transmitted via inanimate objects and can be spread by wind. An outbreak of FMD in developed countries results in massive slaughtering of animals (for disease control) and disruptions in meat supply chains and trade, with potentially large economic losses. Although the United States has been FMD-free since 1929, the potential of FMD as a deliberate terrorist weapon calls for estimates of the physical and economic damage that could result from an outbreak. This paper estimates the economic impacts of three alternative scenarios of potential FMD attacks using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy. The three scenarios range from a small outbreak successfully contained within a state to a large multi-state attack resulting in slaughtering of 30 percent of the national livestock. Overall, the value of total output losses in our simulations range between $37 billion (0.15% of 2006 baseline economic output) and $228 billion (0.92%). Major impacts stem from the supply constraint on livestock due to massive animal slaughtering. As expected, the economic losses are heavily concentrated in agriculture and food manufacturing sectors, with losses ranging from $23 billion to $61 billion in the two industries.
Unique Equilibrium in the Eaton-Gersovitz Model of Sovereign Debt
Auclert, Adrien
2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z
We provide a proof that Markov Perfect equilibrium is unique in the standard infinitehorizon incomplete-market model with a default option which, following Eaton and Gersovitz (1981), has become a benchmark for quantitative ...
Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC
Stadtherr, Mark A.
Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC different excess Gibbs free energy models are evaluated: the NRTL, UNIQUAC and electrolyte- NRTL (eNRTL) models. In the case of eNRTL, a new formulation of the model is used, based on a symmetric reference
Quantum Cournot equilibrium for the Hotelling-Smithies model of product choice
Ramij Rahaman; Priyadarshi Majumdar; B. Basu
2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
This paper demonstrates the quantization of a spatial Cournot duopoly model with product choice, a two stage game focusing on non-cooperation in locations and quantities. With quantization, the players can access a continuous set of strategies, using continuous variable quantum mechanical approach. The presence of quantum entanglement in the initial state identifies a quantity equilibrium for every location pair choice with any transport cost. Also higher profit is obtained by the firms at Nash equilibrium. Adoption of quantum strategies rewards us by the existence of a larger quantum strategic space at equilibrium.
Plasmoid solutions of the Hahm–Kulsrud–Taylor equilibrium model
Dewar, R. L. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia and Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)] [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia and Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, A.; Kulsrud, R. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Wright, A. M. [The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)] [The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)
2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The Hahm–Kulsrud (HK) [T. S. Hahm and R. M. Kulsrud, Phys. Fluids 28, 2412 (1985)] solutions for a magnetically sheared plasma slab driven by a resonant periodic boundary perturbation illustrate fully shielded (current sheet) and fully reconnected (magnetic island) responses. On the global scale, reconnection involves solving a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium problem. In systems with a continuous symmetry, such MHD equilibria are typically found by solving the Grad–Shafranov equation, and in slab geometry the elliptic operator in this equation is the 2-D Laplacian. Thus, assuming appropriate pressure and poloidal current profiles, a conformal mapping method can be used to transform one solution into another with different boundary conditions, giving a continuous sequence of solutions in the form of partially reconnected magnetic islands (plasmoids) separated by Syrovatsky current sheets. The two HK solutions appear as special cases.
Modeling Timed Concurrent Systems using Generalized Ultrametrics
Modeling Timed Concurrent Systems using Generalized Ultrametrics Xiaojun Liu Eleftherios Matsikoudis Edward A. Lee Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley to lists, requires prior specific permission. #12;Modeling Timed Concurrent Systems using Generalized
d'OrlÃ©ans, UniversitÃ©
processes widely used in chemical engineering: distillation and chromatography. Distillation is a wellNumerical comparison between relaxation and nonlinear equilibrium models. Application to chemical engineering. F. James 1 M. Postel 2 M. Sep'ulveda 3 Abstract A model to take into account the finite exchange
A Multi-period Equilibrium Pricing Model of Weather Derivatives
Lee, Yongheon; Oren, Shmuel S.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2002). On modelling and pricing weather derivatives. Applied2003). Arbitrage-fee pricing of weather derivatives based onfects and valuation of weather derivatives. The Financial
A Model of Vertical Restriction and Equilibrium in Retailing
Bittlingmayer, George
1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This model of distribution provides a rationale for restrictions placed on retailers by manufacturers. The manufacturer's customers are located uniformly along a road, and retailing operations are subject to increasing ...
Equilibrium statistical mechanics and energy partition for the shallow water model
Renaud, Antoine; Bouchet, Freddy
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The aim of this paper is to use large deviation theory in order to compute the entropy of macrostates for the microcanonical measure of the shallow water system. The main prediction of this full statistical mechanics computation is the energy partition between a large scale vortical flow and small scale fluctuations related to inertia-gravity waves. We introduce for that purpose a discretized model of the continuous shallow water system, and compute the corresponding statistical equilibria. We argue that microcanonical equilibrium states of the discretized model in the continuous limit are equilibrium states of the actual shallow water system. We show that the presence of small scale fluctuations selects a subclass of equilibria among the states that were previously computed by phenomenological approaches that were neglecting such fluctuations. In the limit of weak height fluctuations, the equilibrium state can be interpreted as two subsystems in thermal contact: one subsystem corresponds to the large scale v...
An Equilibrium Point based Model Unifying Movement Control in Humanoids
Texas at Austin, University of
the dynamics methods effectively used in robotics control, few tackle the intricacies of the human the virtual model and real humans. One of the central questions of studying human movements is how the Central in robot systems as complicated as humans in dynamic environments. The inverse dynamics calculation
Bruce Turkington; Petr Plechac
2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
A new method of deriving reduced models of Hamiltonian dynamical systems is developed using techniques from optimization and statistical estimation. Given a set of resolved variables that define a model reduction, the quasi-equilibrium ensembles associated with the resolved variables are employed as a family of trial probability densities on phase space. The residual that results from submitting these trial densities to the Liouville equation is quantified by an ensemble-averaged cost function related to the information loss rate of the reduction. From an initial nonequilibrium state, the statistical state of the system at any later time is estimated by minimizing the time integral of the cost function over paths of trial densities. Statistical closure of the underresolved dynamics is obtained at the level of the value function, which equals the optimal cost of reduction with respect to the resolved variables, and the evolution of the estimated statistical state is deduced from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation satisfied by the value function. In the near-equilibrium regime, or under a local quadratic approximation in the far-from-equilibrium regime, this best-fit closure is governed by a differential equation for the estimated state vector coupled to a Riccati differential equation for the Hessian matrix of the value function. Since memory effects are not explicitly included in the trial densities, a single adjustable parameter is introduced into the cost function to capture a time-scale ratio between resolved and unresolved motions. Apart from this parameter, the closed equations for the resolved variables are completely determined by the underlying deterministic dynamics.
: C61 C68 D58 Q43 Keywords: Carbon policy Energy modeling Electric power sector Bottom-up Top of generation technologies and the overall electricity system. By construction, these models are partial equilib of an integrated representation of economic and electricity systems makes simplifying assumptions appealing
Title of dissertation: A CONTINUUM MODEL FOR FLOCKING: OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE, EQUILIBRIUM,
Anlage, Steven
ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: A CONTINUUM MODEL FOR FLOCKING: OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE, EQUILIBRIUM, AND STABILITY Nicholas Alexander Mecholsky, Doctor of Philosophy, 2010 Dissertation directed by: Professor of animal groups is a subject of growing attention. In this dissertation, we present a partial- differential
General Equilibrium, Electricity Generation Technologies and the Cost of Carbon Abatement
Lanz, Bruno, 1980-
Electricity generation is a major contributor to carbon dioxide emissions, and a key determinant of abatement costs. Ex-ante assessments of carbon policies mainly rely on either of two modeling paradigms: (i) partial ...
Comparison of kinetic and equilibrium reaction models insimulating the behavior of porous media
Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.
2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z
In this study we compare the use of kinetic and equilibriumreaction models in the simulation of gas (methane) hydrate behavior inporous media. Our objective is to evaluate through numerical simulationthe importance of employing kinetic versus equilibrium reaction modelsfor predicting the response of hydrate-bearing systems to externalstimuli, such as changes in pressure and temperature. Specifically, we(1) analyze and compare the responses simulated using both reactionmodels for natural gas production from hydrates in various settings andfor the case of depressurization in a hydrate-bearing core duringextraction; and (2) examine the sensitivity to factors such as initialhydrate saturation, hydrate reaction surface area, and numericaldiscretization. We find that for large-scale systems undergoing thermalstimulation and depressurization, the calculated responses for bothreaction models are remarkably similar, though some differences areobserved at early times. However, for modeling short-term processes, suchas the rapid recovery of a hydrate-bearing core, kinetic limitations canbe important, and neglecting them may lead to significantunder-prediction of recoverable hydrate. Assuming validity of the mostaccurate kinetic reaction model that is currently available, the use ofthe equilibrium reaction model often appears to be justified andpreferred for simulating the behavior of gas hydrates, given that thecomputational demands for the kinetic reaction model far exceed those forthe equilibrium reaction model.
Peirce, Anthony
Analysis of the classical pseudo-3D model for hydraulic fracture with equilibrium height growth in revised form 13 February 2010 Accepted 10 March 2010 Keywords: Hydraulic fracture P3D Symmetric stress-called ``pseudo three-dimensional'' (P3D) model for a hydraulic fracture with equilibrium height growth across two
Non-equilibrium phase transition in an exactly solvable driven Ising model with friction
Alfred Hucht
2009-11-04T23:59:59.000Z
A driven Ising model with friction due to magnetic correlations has recently been proposed by Kadau et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 137205 (2008)). The non-equilibrium phase transition present in this system is investigated in detail using analytical methods as well as Monte Carlo simulations. In the limit of high driving velocities $v$ the model shows mean field behavior due to dimensional reduction and can be solved exactly for various geometries. The simulations are performed with three different single spin flip rates: the common Metropolis and Glauber rates as well as a multiplicative rate. Due to the non-equilibrium nature of the model all rates lead to different critical temperatures at $v>0$, while the exact solution matches the multiplicative rate. Finally, the cross-over from Ising to mean field behavior as function of velocity and system size is analysed in one and two dimensions.
Strongly anisotropic non-equilibrium phase transition in Ising models with friction
Sebastian Angst; Alfred Hucht; Dietrich E. Wolf
2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z
The non-equilibrium phase transition in driven two-dimensional Ising models with two different geometries is investigated using Monte Carlo methods as well as analytical calculations. The models show dissipation through fluctuation induced friction near the critical point. We first consider high driving velocities and demonstrate that both systems are in the same universality class and undergo a strongly anisotropic non-equilibrium phase transition, with anisotropy exponent \\theta=3. Within a field theoretical ansatz the simulation results are confirmed. The crossover from Ising to mean field behavior in dependency of system size and driving velocity is analyzed using crossover scaling. It turns out that for all finite velocities the phase transition becomes strongly anisotropic in the thermodynamic limit.
A radiative-convective equilibrium model to study young giant exoplanets by direct imaging
Baudino, J -L; Boccaletti, A; Bonnefoy, M; Lagrange, A M; Galicher, R
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We developed a model for young giant exoplanets (Exoplanet Radiative-convective Equilibrium Model or Exo-REM). Input parameters are planet's surface gravity (g), effective temperature (Teff ) and elemental composition. Under the additional assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, the model predicts the equilibrium temperature profile and mixing ratio profiles of the most important gases. Opacity sources include the H$_2$-He collision-induced absorption and molecular lines from H$_2$O, CO, CH$_4$ (updated with the Exomol linelist), NH$_3$, VO, TiO, Na and K. Absorption by iron and silicate cloud particles is added above the expected condensation levels with a fixed scale height and a given optical depth at some reference wavelength. Scattering was not included at this stage. We applied Exo-REM to photometric and spectral observations of the planet beta Pictoris b obtained in a series of near IR filters. We derived Teff = 1550 $\\pm$ 150 K, log(g) = 3.5 $\\pm$ 1, and a radius R = 1.76 $\\pm$ 0.24 R Jup (2-$\\sigma...
An equilibrium double-twist model for the radial structure of collagen fibrils
Aidan I Brown; Laurent Kreplak; Andrew D Rutenberg
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Mammalian tissues contain networks and ordered arrays of collagen fibrils originating from the periodic self-assembly of helical 300 nm long tropocollagen complexes. The fibril radius is typically between 25 to 250 nm, and tropocollagen at the surface appears to exhibit a characteristic twist-angle with respect to the fibril axis. Similar fibril radii and twist-angles at the surface are observed in vitro, suggesting that these features are controlled by a similar self-assembly process. In this work, we propose a physical mechanism of equilibrium radius control for collagen fibrils based on a radially varying double-twist alignment of tropocollagen within a collagen fibril. The free-energy of alignment is similar to that of liquid crystalline blue phases, and we employ an analytic Euler-Lagrange and numerical free energy minimization to determine the twist-angle between the molecular axis and the fibril axis along the radial direction. Competition between the different elastic energy components, together with a surface energy, determines the equilibrium radius and twist-angle at the fibril surface. A simplified model with a twist-angle that is linear with radius is a reasonable approximation in some parameter regimes, and explains a power-law dependence of radius and twist-angle at the surface as parameters are varied. Fibril radius and twist-angle at the surface corresponding to an equilibrium free-energy minimum are consistent with existing experimental measurements of collagen fibrils. Remarkably, in the experimental regime, all of our model parameters are important for controlling equilibrium structural parameters of collagen fibrils.
Ezequiel R. Soule; Cristina E. Hoppe; Julio Borrajo; Roberto J. J. Williams
2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z
A thermodynamic model for a mixture of alkanethiol-coated nanoparticles (NPs) and low molecular weight (non-polymeric) solvent is developed, and calculations of liquid-liquid phase equilibrium for different values of NP core radius, alkanethiol chain length, solvent molar volume and alkanethiol-solvent interaction parameter, are presented. The model takes into account the swelling of the organic coronas and the dispersion of particles with swollen coronas in the solvent. The energetic interaction between alkyl chains and solvent is considered, both within the corona and between the outer alkyl segments and free solvent. Swelling involves mixing of alkanethiol chains and solvent in the corona and stretching of the organic chains. Dispersion considers an entropic contribution based on Carnahan Starling equation of state and an enthalpic term calculated considering the surface contacts between alkyl segments placed in the external boundary of the corona and the molecules of free solvent. Two different kinds of phase equilibrium are found. One of them, observed at high values of the interaction parameter, is the typical liquid-liquid equilibrium for compact NPs in a poor solvent where a complete phase separation is observed when cooling (increasing the interaction parameter). The second liquid-liquid equilibrium is observed at low values of the interaction parameter, where swelling of coronas is favored. In this region two different phases co-exist, one more concentrated in NPs that exhibit relatively compact coronas and the other one more diluted in NPs with extended coronas. In diluted solutions of NPs the deswelling of the fully extended coronas takes place abruptly in a very small temperature range, leading to a solution of compact NPs. This critical transition might find practical applications similar to those found for the abrupt shrinkage of hydrogels at a critical temperature.
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Users of the VEMAP Portal can access input files of numerical data that include monthly and daily files of geographic data, soil and site files, scenario files, etc. Model results from Phase I, the Equilibrium Response datasets, are available through the NCAR anonymous FTP site at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/vresults.html. Phase II, Transient Dynamics, include climate datasets, models results, and analysis tools. Many supplemental files are also available from the main data page at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/datasets.html.
The Influence of Thermal Pressure on Equilibrium Models of Hypermassive Neutron Star Merger Remnants
J. D. Kaplan; C. D. Ott; E. P. O'Connor; K. Kiuchi; L. Roberts; M. Duez
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The merger of two neutron stars leaves behind a rapidly spinning hypermassive object whose survival is believed to depend on the maximum mass supported by the nuclear equation of state, angular momentum redistribution by (magneto-)rotational instabilities, and spindown by gravitational waves. The high temperatures (~5-40 MeV) prevailing in the merger remnant may provide thermal pressure support that could increase its maximum mass and, thus, its life on a neutrino-cooling timescale. We investigate the role of thermal pressure support in hypermassive merger remnants by computing sequences of spherically-symmetric and axisymmetric uniformly and differentially rotating equilibrium solutions to the general-relativistic stellar structure equations. Using a set of finite-temperature nuclear equations of state, we find that hot maximum-mass critically spinning configurations generally do not support larger baryonic masses than their cold counterparts. However, subcritically spinning configurations with mean density of less than a few times nuclear saturation density yield a significantly thermally enhanced mass. Even without decreasing the maximum mass, cooling and other forms of energy loss can drive the remnant to an unstable state. We infer secular instability by identifying approximate energy turning points in equilibrium sequences of constant baryonic mass parametrized by maximum density. Energy loss carries the remnant along the direction of decreasing gravitational mass and higher density until instability triggers collapse. Since configurations with more thermal pressure support are less compact and thus begin their evolution at a lower maximum density, they remain stable for longer periods after merger.
Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.
2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z
In this study we compare the use of kinetic and equilibriumreaction models in the simulation of gas (methane) hydrate behavior inporous media. Our objective is to evaluate through numerical simulationthe importance of employing kinetic versus equilibrium reaction modelsfor predicting the response of hydrate-bearing systems to externalstimuli, such as changes in pressure and temperature. Specifically, we(1) analyze and compare the responses simulated using both reactionmodels for natural gas production from hydrates in various settings andfor the case of depressurization in a hydrate-bearing core duringextraction; and (2) examine the sensitivity to factors such as initialhydrate saturation, hydrate reaction surface area, and numericaldiscretization. We find that for large-scale systems undergoing thermalstimulation and depressurization, the calculated responses for bothreaction models are remarkably similar, though some differences areobserved at early times. However, for modeling short-term processes, suchas the rapid recovery of a hydrate-bearing core, kinetic limitations canbe important, and neglecting them may lead to significantunder-prediction of recoverable hydrate. The use of the equilibriumreaction model often appears to be justified and preferred for simulatingthe behavior of gas hydrates, given that the computational demands forthe kinetic reaction model far exceed those for the equilibrium reactionmodel.
Yanbiao Gan; Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Sauro Succi
2015-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
A discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) is developed to investigate the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic non-equilibrium (TNE) effects in phase separation processes. The interparticle force drives changes and the gradient force, induced by gradients of macroscopic quantities, opposes them. In this paper, we investigate the interplay between them by providing detailed inspection of various non-equilibrium observables. Based on the TNE features, we define a TNE strength which roughly estimates the deviation amplitude from the thermodynamic equilibrium. The time evolution of the TNE intensity provides a convenient and efficient physical criterion to discriminate the stages of the spinodal decomposition and domain growth. Via the DBM simulation and this criterion, we quantitatively study the effects of latent heat and surface tension on phase separation. It is found that, the TNE strength attains its maximum at the end of the spinodal decomposition stage, and it decreases when the latent heat increases from zero. The surface tension effects are threefold, to prolong the duration of the spinodal decomposition stage, decrease the maximum TNE intensity, and accelerate the speed of the domain growth stage.
Combustion modeling of mono-carbon fuels using the rate-controlled constrained-equilibrium method
Janbozorgi, Mohammad; Ugarte, Sergio; Metghalchi, Hameed [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Keck, James. C. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
The rate-controlled constrained-equilibrium (RCCE) method for simplifying the kinetics of complex reacting systems is reviewed. This method is based on the maximum entropy principle of thermodynamics and involves the assumption that the evolution of a system can be described using a relatively small set of slowly changing constraints imposed by the external and internal dynamics of the system. As a result, the number of differential and algebraic equations required to determine the constrained-equilibrium state of a system can be very much smaller than the number of species in the system. It follows that only reactions which change constraints are required to determine the dynamic evolution of the system and all other reactions are in equilibrium. The accuracy of the method depends on both the character and number of constraints employed and issues involved in the selection and transformation of the constraints are discussed. A method for determining the initial conditions for highly non-equilibrium systems is also presented. The method is illustrated by applying it to the oxidation of methane (CH{sub 4}), methanol (CH{sub 3}OH), and formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O) in a constant volume adiabatic chamber over a wide range of initial temperatures, pressures, and equivalence ratios. The RCCE calculations were carried out using 8-12 constraints and 133 reactions. Good agreement with ''Detailed Kinetic Model'' (DMK) calculations using 29 species and 133 reactions was obtained. The number of reactions in the RCCE calculations could be reduced to 20 for CH{sub 4}, 16 for CH{sub 3}OH, and 12 for CH{sub 2}O without changing the results significantly affecting the agreement. It may be noted that a DKM with 29 species requires a minimum of 29 reactions. (author)
Laser induced plasma on copper target, a non-equilibrium model
Oumeziane, Amina Ait, E-mail: a.aitoumeziane@gmail.com; Liani, Bachir [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University, Tlemcen (Algeria)] [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University, Tlemcen (Algeria); Parisse, Jean-Denis [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)] [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive numerical model for the UV laser ablation of metal targets, it focuses mainly on the prediction of laser induced plasma thresholds, the effect of the laser-plasma interaction, and the importance of the electronic non-equilibrium in the laser induced plume and its expansion in the background gas. This paper describes a set of numerical models for laser-matter interaction between 193-248 and 355?nm lasers and a copper target. Along with the thermal effects inside the material resulting from the irradiation of the latter with the pulsed laser, the laser-evaporated matter interaction and the plasma formation are thoroughly modelled. In the laser induced plume, the electronic nonequilibrium and the laser beam absorption have been investigated. Our calculations of the plasmas ignition thresholds on copper targets have been validated and compared to experimental as well as theoretical results. Comparison with experiment data indicates that our results are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, the inclusion of electronic non-equilibrium in our work indicated that this important process must be included in models of laser ablation and plasma plume formation.
Superconformal generalizations of the Starobinsky model
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei, E-mail: kallosh@stanford.edu, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
We find a way to represent the Starobinsky model in terms of a simple conformally invariant theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking. We also present a superconformal theory, which, upon spontaneous breaking of the superconformal symmetry, provides a consistent supergravity generalization of the Starobinsky model.
Non-equilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin film active gels
D. A. Head; W. J. Briels; G. Gompper
2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z
In the presence of ATP, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modelling can help to quantify the relationship between individual motors plus filaments to organisation and dynamics on molecular and supra-molecular length scales. Here we present results of extensive numerical simulations of active gels where the motors and filaments are confined between two infinite parallel plates. Thermal fluctuations and excluded-volume interactions between filaments are included. A systematic variation of rates for motor motion, attachment and detachment, including a differential detachment rate from filament ends, reveals a range of non-equilibrium behaviour. Strong motor binding produces structured filament aggregates that we refer to as asters, bundles or layers, whose stability depends on motor speed and differential end-detachment. The gross features of the dependence of the observed structures on the motor rate and the filament concentration can be captured by a simple one-filament model. Loosely bound aggregates exhibit super-diffusive mass transport, where filament translocation scales with lag time with non-unique exponents that depend on motor kinetics. An empirical data collapse of filament speed as a function of motor speed and end-detachment is found, suggesting a dimensional reduction of the relevant parameter space. We conclude by discussing the perspectives of microscopic modelling in the field of active gels.
Dynamical models with a general anisotropy profile
M. Baes; E. Van Hese
2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
Both numerical simulations and observational evidence indicate that the outer regions of galaxies and dark matter haloes are typically mildly to significantly radially anisotropic. The inner regions can be significantly non-isotropic, depending on the dynamical formation and evolution processes. In an attempt to break the lack of simple dynamical models that can reproduce this behaviour, we explore a technique to construct dynamical models with an arbitrary density and an arbitrary anisotropy profile. We outline a general construction method and propose a more practical approach based on a parameterized anisotropy profile. This approach consists of fitting the density of the model with a set of dynamical components, each of which have the same anisotropy profile. Using this approach we avoid the delicate fine-tuning difficulties other fitting techniques typically encounter when constructing radially anisotropic models. We present a model anisotropy profile that generalizes the Osipkov-Merritt profile, and that can represent any smooth monotonic anisotropy profile. Based on this model anisotropy profile, we construct a very general seven-parameter set of dynamical components for which the most important dynamical properties can be calculated analytically. We use the results to look for simple one-component dynamical models that generate simple potential-density pairs while still supporting a flexible anisotropy profile. We present families of Plummer and Hernquist models in which the anisotropy at small and large radii can be chosen as free parameters. We also generalize these two families to a three-parameter family that self-consistently generates the set of Veltmann potential-density pairs. (Abridged...)
Abstract polymer models with general pair interactions
Aldo Procacci
2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z
A convergence criterion of cluster expansion is presented in the case of an abstract polymer system with general pair interactions (i.e. not necessarily hard core or repulsive). As a concrete example, the low temperature disordered phase of the BEG model with infinite range interactions, decaying polynomially as $1/r^{d+\\lambda}$ with $\\lambda>0$, is studied.
GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELS WITH REGULARIZATION A DISSERTATION
Hastie, Trevor
GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELS WITH REGULARIZATION A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT Park 2006 All Rights Reserved ii #12;I certify that I have read this dissertation and that, in my opinion, it is fully adequate in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
Thies, Mark C.; O'Connell, J. P.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.
2010-01-10T23:59:59.000Z
Of the 100+ thermochemical hydrogen cycles that have been proposed, the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) Cycle is a primary target of international interest for the centralized production of hydrogen from nuclear power. However, the cycle involves complex and highly nonideal phase behavior at extreme conditions that is only beginning to be understood and modeled for process simulation. The consequence is that current designs and efficiency projections have large uncertainties, as they are based on incomplete data that must be extrapolated from property models. This situation prevents reliable assessment of the potential viability of the system and, even more, a basis for efficient process design. The goal of this NERI award (05-006) was to generate phase-equilibrium data, property models, and comprehensive process simulations so that an accurate evaluation of the S-I Cycle could be made. Our focus was on Section III of the Cycle, where the hydrogen is produced by decomposition of hydroiodic acid (HI) in the presence of water and iodine (I2) in a reactive distillation (RD) column. The results of this project were to be transferred to the nuclear hydrogen community in the form of reliable flowsheet models for the S-I process. Many of the project objectives were achieved. At Clemson University, a unique, tantalum-based, phase-equilibrium apparatus incorporating a view cell was designed and constructed for measuring fluid-phase equilibria for mixtures of iodine, HI, and water (known as HIx) at temperatures to 350 °C and pressures to 100 bar. Such measurements were of particular interest for developing a working understanding of the expected operation of the RD column in Section III. The view cell allowed for the IR observation and discernment of vapor-liquid (VL), liquid-liquid, and liquid-liquid-vapor (LLVE) equilibria for HIx systems. For the I2-H2O system, liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) was discovered to exist at temperatures up to 310-315 °C, in contrast to the models and predictions of earlier workers. For the I2-HI-H2O ternary, LLE and LLVE were all observed for the first time at temperatures of 160 and 200 °C. Three LLE tie-lines were measured at 160 °C, and preliminary indications are that the underlying phase behavior could result in further improvements in the performance of the S-I Cycle. Unfortunately, these new results were obtained too late in the project to be incorporated into the modeling and simulation work described below. At the University of Virginia, a uniquely complete and reliable model was developed for the thermodynamic properties of HIx, covering the range of conditions expected for the separation of product hydrogen and recycled iodine in the RD column located in Section III. The model was validated with all available property spectroscopy data. The results provide major advances over prior understanding of the chemical speciation involved. The model was implemented in process simulation studies of the S-I Cycle, which showed improvement in energy efficiency to 42%, as well as significantly smaller capital requirements due to lower pressure operation and much smaller equipment sizes. The result is that the S-I Cycle may be much more economically feasible than was previously thought. If both the experimental and modeling work described above were to be continued to ultimate process optimization, both the American public and the global community would benefit from this alternative energy source that does not produce carbon emissions.
Peirce, Anthony
Analysis of the classical pseudo-3D model for hydraulic fracture with equilibrium height growth t This paper deals with the so-called ``pseudo three-dimensional'' (P3D) model for a hydraulic fracture of the length, height, and aperture of the hydraulic fracture, in contrast to the numerical formulations adopted
Detecting temperature fluctuations at equilibrium
Dixit, Purushottam D
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Gibbs and Boltzmann definitions of temperature agree only in the macroscopic limit. The ambiguity in identifying the equilibrium temperature of a finite sized `small' system exchanging energy with a bath is usually understood as a limitation of conventional statistical mechanics. We interpret this ambiguity as resulting from a stochastically fluctuating temperature coupled with the phase space variables giving rise to a broad temperature distribution. With this ansatz, we develop the equilibrium statistics and dynamics of small systems. Numerical evidence using an analytically tractable model shows that the effects of temperature fluctuations can be detected in equilibrium and dynamical properties of the phase space of the small system. Our theory generalizes statistical mechanics to small systems relevant to biophysics and nanotechnology.
A thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model in local thermal non-equilibrium for fractured HDR reservoir
Boyer, Edmond
artificially fractured hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs requires three main ingredients: (1) a proper thermoA thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model in local thermal non-equilibrium for fractured HDR reservoir Rachel Geleta,b , Benjamin Loreta, , Nasser Khalilib aLaboratoire Sols, Solides, Structures, B
Carmona, Rene
Key words. Emissions markets, Cap-and-trade schemes, Equilibrium models, Environmental Finance. MARKET DESIGN FOR EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES REN´E CARMONA , MAX FEHR , JURI HINZ , AND ARNAUD PORCHET to help policy makers and regulators understand the pros and the cons of the emissions markets. We propose
Efficient inference in general semiparametric regression models
Maity, Arnab
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
. Note that (2.17) means that the non-zero Y-data within an indi- vidual marginally have the same mean R T i ? 2 + ?(Z i ), variance ? 2 + ? 2 u2 and common covariance ? 2 u2 . II.4.2.3. Likelihood Function The collection of parameters is B, consisting... .............................. 4 II.1. Introduction ......................... 4 II.2. Semiparametric Models with a Single Component ..... 8 II.2.1. Main Results .................... 8 II.2.2. General Functions of the Response and Double- Robustness ..................... 11 II.3...
Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...
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A Model for the Dynamic User-Equilibrium Problem Using a Hydrodynamic Theory Approach
Perakis, Georgia
In this paper we study the dynamic user-equilibrium problem. The development of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) has made this problem very popular in the recent years. In this paper we take a hydrodynamic theory ...
An Equilibrium Pricing Model for Weather Derivatives in a Multi-commodity Setting
Lee, Yongheon; Oren, Shmuel S.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
e?ects and valuation of weather derivatives. The FinancialWei, J. (1999). Pricing weather derivative: an equilibrium2005). An introduction to cme weather products. www.cme.com/
Paltsev, Sergey
We develop a new model of the U.S., the U.S. Regional Energy Policy (USREP) model that is resolved for large states and regions of the U.S. and by income class and apply the model to investigate a $15 per ton CO2 equivalent ...
New model for nucleon generalized parton distributions
Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We describe a new type of models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E. They are heavily based on the fact nucleon GPDs require to use two forms of double distribution (DD) representations. The outcome of the new treatment is that the usual DD+D-term construction should be amended by an extra term, {xi} E{sub +}{sup 1} (x,{xi}) which has the DD structure {alpha}/{beta} e({beta},{alpha}, with e({beta},{alpha}) being the DD that generates GPD E(x,{xi}). We found that this function, unlike the D-term, has support in the whole -1 <= x <= 1 region. Furthermore, it does not vanish at the border points |x|={xi}.
Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Glover, Simon C. O., E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: glover@uni-heidelberg.de [Zentrum der Astrophysik der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z
Observations of spiral galaxies show a strong linear correlation between the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen surface density R{sub mol} and midplane pressure. To explain this, we simulate three-dimensional, magnetized turbulence, including simplified treatments of non-equilibrium chemistry and the propagation of dissociating radiation, to follow the formation of H{sub 2} from cold atomic gas. The formation timescale for H{sub 2} is sufficiently long that equilibrium is not reached within the 20-30 Myr lifetimes of molecular clouds. The equilibrium balance between radiative dissociation and H{sub 2} formation on dust grains fails to predict the time-dependent molecular fractions we find. A simple, time-dependent model of H{sub 2} formation can reproduce the gross behavior, although turbulent density perturbations increase molecular fractions by a factor of few above it. In contradiction to equilibrium models, radiative dissociation of molecules plays little role in our model for diffuse radiation fields with strengths less than 10 times that of the solar neighborhood, because of the effective self-shielding of H{sub 2}. The observed correlation of R{sub mol} with pressure corresponds to a correlation with local gas density if the effective temperature in the cold neutral medium of galactic disks is roughly constant. We indeed find such a correlation of R{sub mol} with density. If we examine the value of R{sub mol} in our local models after a free-fall time at their average density, as expected for models of molecular cloud formation by large-scale gravitational instability, our models reproduce the observed correlation over more than an order-of-magnitude range in density.
EXTENSIONS OF GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELING APPROACH TO STOCHASTIC WEATHER GENERATORS
Katz, Richard
weather) -- Software R open source statistical programming language: Function glm "Family;(2) Generalized Linear Models Statistical Framework -- Multiple Regression Analysis (Linear model or LM) Response
Kinetic equilibrium and relativistic thermodynamics
P. Ván
2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Relativistic thermodynamics is treated from the point of view of kinetic theory. It is shown that the generalized J\\"uttner distribution suggested in [1] is compatible with kinetic equilibrium. The requirement of compatibility of kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium reveals several generalizations of the Gibbs relation where the velocity field is an independent thermodynamic variable.
Dauphas, N; Alp, E E; Golden, D C; Sio, C K; Tissot, F L H; Hu, M; Zhao, J; Gao, L; Morris, R V
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We measured the reduced partition function ratios for iron isotopes in goethite FeO(OH), potassium-jarosite KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6, and hydronium-jarosite (H3O)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6, by Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering (NRIXS, also known as Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy -NRVS- or Nuclear Inelastic Scattering -NIS) at the Advanced Photon Source. These measurements were made on synthetic minerals enriched in 57Fe. A new method (i.e., the general moment approach) is presented to calculate {\\beta}-factors from the moments of the NRIXS spectrum S(E). The first term in the moment expansion controls iron isotopic fractionation at high temperature and corresponds to the mean force constant of the iron bonds, a quantity that is readily measured and often reported in NRIXS studies.
Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models
Michael J Iacono
2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z
This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.
Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Park, J.
1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
The long term goal of our efforts is to develop accurate predictive methods for description of equilibrium phase properties for a variety of types of mixtures and operating conditions. The specific objectives of the work specified herein include: (1) development of an experimental facility having the capability to provide data on equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) and liquid densities, and doing so with greater accuracy and speed than our previous facility, (2) measurement of equilibrium phase properties for systematically-selected mixtures-specifically those containing important solute gases (such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, carbonyl sulfide, ammonia) in a series of heavy paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic solvents (e.g., n-decane, n-eicosane, n-octacosane, n-hexatriacontane, cyclohexane, Decalin, perhydrophenanthrene, perhydropyrene, benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene), (3) testing/development of correlation frameworks for representing the phase behavior of fluids of the type encountered in coal conversion processes, and (4) generalization of parameters in the correlation frameworks to enable accurate predictions for systems of the type studied, permitting predictions to be made for systems and conditions other than those for which experimental data are available.
General coarse-grained red blood cell models: I. Mechanics
Fedosov, Dmitry A; Karniadakis, George E
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a rigorous procedure to derive coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) models, which lead to accurate mechanical properties of realistic RBCs. Based on a semi-analytic theory linear and non-linear elastic properties of the RBC membrane can be matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. In addition, we develop a nearly stress-free model which avoids a number of pitfalls of existing RBC models, such as non-biconcave equilibrium shape and dependence of RBC mechanical properties on the triangulation quality. The proposed RBC model is suitable for use in many existing numerical methods, such as Lattice Boltzmann, Multiparticle Collision Dynamics, Immersed Boundary, etc.
General coarse-grained red blood cell models: I. Mechanics
Dmitry A. Fedosov; Bruce Caswell; George E. Karniadakis
2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a rigorous procedure to derive coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) models, which lead to accurate mechanical properties of realistic RBCs. Based on a semi-analytic theory linear and non-linear elastic properties of the RBC membrane can be matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. In addition, we develop a nearly stress-free model which avoids a number of pitfalls of existing RBC models, such as non-biconcave equilibrium shape and dependence of RBC mechanical properties on the triangulation quality. The proposed RBC model is suitable for use in many existing numerical methods, such as Lattice Boltzmann, Multiparticle Collision Dynamics, Immersed Boundary, etc.
Phase-field models in interfacial pattern formation out of equilibrium
R. Gonzalez-Cinca; R. Folch; R. Benitez; L. Ramirez-Piscina; J. Casademunt; A. Hernandez-Machado
2003-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
The phase-field method is reviewed from the general perspective of converting a free boundary problem into a set of coupled partial differential equations. Its main advantage is that it avoids front tracking by using phase fields to locate the fronts. These fields interpolate between different constant values in each bulk phase through diffuse interfaces of finite thickness. In solidification, the phase fields can be understood as order parameters, and the model is often derived to dynamically minimise a free energy functional. However, this is not a necessary requirement, and both derivations involving a free energy (basic solidification model) and not (first viscous fingering model) are worked out. In any case, the model is required to reproduce the original free boundary problem in the limit of vanishing interface thickness. This limit and its higher order corrections, important to make quantitative contact between simulations and experiments, are discussed for both examples. Applications to fluctuations in solidification, the growth of liquid crystal mesophases, and viscous fingering in Hele-Shaw cells are presented.
Comparative Evaluation of Generalized River/Reservoir System Models
Wurbs, Ralph A.
This report reviews user-oriented generalized reservoir/river system models. The terms reservoir/river system, reservoir system, reservoir operation, or river basin management "model" or "modeling system" are used synonymously to refer to computer...
Evaluation of a Swiss carbon tax with the Computable General Equilibrium Model
Lausanne, Ecole Polytechnique FÃ©dÃ©rale de
03 Natural Gas Italy ITA 04 Refined Petroleum Spain ESP 0 of indirect taxation [4]. The version of GEMINI-E3 used in this study is formulated as a Mixed Complementarity
Computable General Equilibrium Models for Eco-nomic Policy Evaluation and Impact Analysis
Wing, Ian Sue
to the assessment of the economic impacts of policies ranging from tax reforms to the mitigation and adaptation
General Equilibrium Model for Economy - Energy - Environment (GEM-E3) |
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865Â°,Park, Texas:Webinars/Puesta enOpen Energy Information
L. Arkeryd; A. Nouri
2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z
The paper considers a model for Bose gases in the so-called 'high-temperature range' below the temperature Tc, where Bose-Einstein condensation sets in.The model is of non-linear two-component type, consisting of a kinetic equation with periodic boundary conditions for the distribution function of a gas of excitations interacting with a Bose condensate, which is described by a Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Results on well-posedness and long time behaviour are proved in a H1-setting close to equilibrium.
Generalized models and benchmarks for channel coordination
Toptal, Aysegul
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 III INTEGRATED PURE INVENTORY PROBLEM WITH DE- TERMINISTIC AND CONSTANT DEMAND . . . . . . . . . . 41 III.1. Notation and Problem Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 III.2. Model I: A Model with Explicit Inbound Costs . . . . . . 45 III.3. Model... WITH DETERMINISTIC AND CONSTANT DEMAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 IV.1. A Comparative Analysis of Centralized and Decentral- ized Models in Goyal (1976) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 IV.2. Decentralized Solutions for Model I and Model II...
Paolo Muratore-Ginanneschi
2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the relevance of geometric concepts in the theory of stochastic differential equations for applications to the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of small systems. In particular, we show how the Eells-Elworthy-Malliavin covariant construction of the Wiener process on a Riemann manifold provides a physically transparent formulation of optimal control problems of finite-time thermodynamic transitions. Based on this formulation, we turn to an evaluative discussion of recent results on optimal thermodynamic control and their interpretation.
Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...
for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts (MESSAGE) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Model for Energy Supply System...
Hospital Readmission in General Medicine Patients: A Prediction Model
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
to the department of medicine as a screening tool forquality of care problems. Medicine. 2008;87:294–300. 3.Readmission in General Medicine Patients: A Prediction Model
Modeling of Antarctic sea ice in a general circulation model
Wu, Xingren; Budd, W.F. [Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, Tasmania (Australia)] [Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, Tasmania (Australia); Simmonds, I. [School of Earth Sciences, Victoria (Australia)] [School of Earth Sciences, Victoria (Australia)
1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
A dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model is developed and coupled with the Melbourne University general circulation model to simulate the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic sea ice distributions The model is efficient, rapid to compute, and useful for a range of climate studies. The thermodynamic part of the sea ice model is similar to that developed by Parkinson and Washington, the dynamics contain a simplified ice rheology that resists compression. The thermodynamics is based on energy conservation at the top surface of the ice/snow, the ice/water interface, and the open water area to determine the ice formation, accretion, and ablation. A lead parameterization is introduced with an effective partitioning scheme for freezing between and under the ice floes. The dynamic calculation determines the motion of ice, which is forced with the atmospheric wind, taking account of ice resistance and rafting. The simulated sea ice distribution compares reasonably well with observations. The seasonal cycle of ice extent is well simulated in phase as well as in magnitude. Simulated sea ice thickness and concentration are also in good agreement with observations over most regions and serve to indicate the importance of advection and ocean drift in the determination of the sea ice distribution. 64 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.
Park, Joo-Yang
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?. .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 10 Prediction of porewater pH . 11 Effects of pH on predictions of various species . . . 12 Prediction of Al concentration 13 Prediction of Fe concentration 14 Prediction of SO4 concentration . 15 Prediction of Ca concentration . 16...A hydration (16). However, Reardon (9) indicated that equilibrium models using current K, ?values of these minerals tend to predict the thermodynamic stability of ettringite over monosulfate. Because the hydration of C4AF is analogous to that of CsA, C4AF...
Vieira, Veronica M.; Weinberg, Janice M.; Webster, Thomas F.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
data using generalized additive modeling. BMC Public HealthTibshirani R: Generalized Additive Models. London: Chapmanapplication using generalized additive models. Int J Health
A General Model for Epistemic State Revision using Plausibility Measures
Liu, Weiru
A General Model for Epistemic State Revision using Plausibility Measures Jianbing Ma 1 and Weiru Liu1 Abstract. In this paper, we present a general revision model on epistemic states based on plausibility measures proposed by Fried- man and Halpern. We propose our revision strategy and give some
NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-37 AN EQUILIBRIUM MODEL FOR THE PARTITIONING OF SYNTHETIC
. DEFINING THE ECOSYSTEM 5. THE MODEL'S OPERATION 5.1 Model Runs 5.2 The Model Applied to DDT 5.3 The Model of DDT concentrations in fish, biota, and sedi- ments. DDT concentrations. DDT loss rates. Isomeric 10 17 18 20 21 iv #12;TABLES 1. Input parameters for DDT model. 2. Input parameters for PCB model. 3
Modeling non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasma using the Flexible Atomic Code data
Han, Bo; Salzmann, David; Zhao, Gang
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new code, RCF("Radiative-Collisional code based on FAC"), which is used to simulate steady-state plasmas under non local thermodynamic equilibrium condition, especially photoinization dominated plasmas. RCF takes almost all of the radiative and collisional atomic processes into rate equation to interpret the plasmas systematically. The Flexible Atomic Code (FAC) supplies all the atomic data RCF needed, which insures calculating completeness and consistency of atomic data. With four input parameters relating to the radiation source and target plasma, RCF calculates the population of levels and charge states, as well as potentially emission spectrum. In preliminary application, RCF successfully reproduces the results of a photoionization experiment with reliable atomic data. The effects of the most important atomic processes on the charge state distribution are also discussed.
Condensation of helium in aerogels as an experimental realization of the out-of-equilibrium Random-catalysed silica aerogels of large porosity presents a similar out-of-equilibrium behavior when the temperature
Intermediate-Generalized Chaplygin Gas inflationary universe model
Herrera, Ramon; Videla, Nelson
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An intermediate inflationary universe model in the context of a generalized Chaplygin gas is considered. For the matter we consider two different energy densities; a standard scalar field and a tachyon field, respectively. In general, we discuss the conditions of an inflationary epoch for these models. We also, use recent astronomical observations from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe seven year data for constraining the parameters appearing in our models.
Lindskog, M., E-mail: martin.lindskog@teorfys.lu.se; Wacker, A. [Mathematical Physics, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Wolf, J. M.; Liverini, V.; Faist, J. [ETH Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH-Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Trinite, V.; Maisons, G.; Carras, M. [III-V Lab, 1 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Aidam, R.; Ostendorf, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Tullastrasse 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)
2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z
We study the operation of an 8.5??m quantum cascade laser based on GaInAs/AlInAs lattice matched to InP using three different simulation models based on density matrix (DM) and non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formulations. The latter advanced scheme serves as a validation for the simpler DM schemes and, at the same time, provides additional insight, such as the temperatures of the sub-band carrier distributions. We find that for the particular quantum cascade laser studied here, the behavior is well described by simple quantum mechanical estimates based on Fermi's golden rule. As a consequence, the DM model, which includes second order currents, agrees well with the NEGF results. Both these simulations are in accordance with previously reported data and a second regrown device.
Orthogonal Forward Regression based on Directly Maximizing Model Generalization Capability
Chen, Sheng
for costly model evaluation. Index Terms -- orthogonal forward regression, structure identification, cross struc- ture construction process as a cost function in order to op- timize the model generalization introduces a construction algorithm for sparse kernel modelling using the leave-one-out test score also known
Lattice ellipsoidal statistical BGK model for thermal non-equilibrium flows
Meng, Jianping
A thermal lattice Boltzmann model is constructed on the basis of the ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (ES-BGK) collision operator via the Hermite moment representation. The resulting lattice ES-BGK model uses ...
Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium
Limpaitoon, Tanachai
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
model where electric power flows on transmission lines arelocation. Electric power flows on the transmission lines are
Double Generalized Linear Models: Approximate REML and Diagnostics
Smyth, Gordon K.
added com plication in a generalized linear model setting by adjusting the working vector and working the dispersion will be of direct interest in its own right, to identify the sources of variability
Tassis, Konstantinos; Willacy, Karen; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
We combine dynamical and non-equilibrium chemical modeling of evolving prestellar molecular cloud cores and investigate the evolution of molecular abundances in the contracting core. We model both magnetic cores, with varying degrees of initial magnetic support, and non-magnetic cores, with varying collapse delay times. We explore, through a parameter study, the competing effects of various model parameters in the evolving molecular abundances, including the elemental C/O ratio, the temperature, and the cosmic-ray ionization rate. We find that different models show their largest quantitative differences at the center of the core, whereas the outer layers, which evolve slower, have abundances which are severely degenerate among different dynamical models. There is a large range of possible abundance values for different models at a fixed evolutionary stage (central density), which demonstrates the large potential of chemical differentiation in prestellar cores. However, degeneracies among different models, compounded with uncertainties induced by other model parameters, make it difficult to discriminate among dynamical models. To address these difficulties, we identify abundance ratios between particular molecules, the measurement of which would have maximal potential for discrimination among the different models examined here. In particular, we find that the ratios between NH{sub 3} and CO, NH{sub 2} and CO, and NH{sub 3} and HCO{sup +} are sensitive to the evolutionary timescale, and that the ratio between HCN and OH is sensitive to the C/O ratio. Finally, we demonstrate that measurements of the central deviation (central depletion or enhancement) of abundances of certain molecules are good indicators of the dynamics of the core.
Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium
Limpaitoon, Tanachai
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The case of wholesale power trading in Germany Power andY. (2011). Market power in emissions trading: strategicallyto model market power in permit trading. The conjectural
Schmitt, J. C.; Talmadge, J. N.; Anderson, D. T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Hanson, J. D. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
The bootstrap current for three electron cyclotron resonance heated plasma scenarios in a quasihelically symmetric stellarator (the Helically Symmetric Experiment) are analyzed and compared to a neoclassical transport code PENTA. The three conditions correspond to 50?kW input power with a resonance that is off-axis, 50?kW on-axis heating and 100?kW on-axis heating. When the heating location was moved from off-axis to on-axis with 50?kW heating power, the stored energy and the extrapolated steady-state current were both observed to increase. When the on-axis heating power was increased from 50?kW to 100?kW, the stored energy continued to increase while the bootstrap current slightly decreased. This trend is qualitatively in agreement with the calculations which indicate that a large positive electric field for the 100?kW case was driving the current negative in a small region close to the magnetic axis and accounting for the decrease in the total integrated current. This trend in the calculations is only observed to occur when momentum conservation between particle species is included. Without momentum conservation, the calculated bootstrap current increases monotonically. We show that the magnitude of the bootstrap current as calculated by PENTA agrees better with the experiment when momentum conservation between plasma species is included in the calculation. The total current was observed in all cases to flow in a direction to unwind the transform, unlike in a tokamak in which the bootstrap current adds to the transform. The 3-D inductive response of the plasma is simulated to predict the evolution of the current profile during the discharge. The 3-D equilibrium reconstruction code V3FIT is used to reconstruct profiles of the plasma pressure and current constrained by measurements with a set of magnetic diagnostics. The reconstructed profiles are consistent with the measured plasma pressure profile and the simulated current profile when the reconstruction is constrained by the measured data from a diagnostic array that is internal to the vacuum chamber.
Early Warning Signals for Critical Transitions: A Generalized Modeling Approach
for early warning signals that integrates multiple sources of information and data about the system throughEarly Warning Signals for Critical Transitions: A Generalized Modeling Approach Steven J. Lade a previously published fisheries model. We regard our method as complementary to existing early warning signals
A grid of MARCS model atmospheres for late-type stars I. Methods and general properties
Bengt Gustafsson; Bengt Edvardsson; Kjell Eriksson; Uffe Graae Jorgensen; Aake Nordlund; Bertrand Plez
2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z
We have constructed a grid of about 10,000 spherically symmetric and plane-parallel models with the MARCS program, and make it available for public use. Parameter ranges are: Teff=2500 to 8000 K, log g =log(GM/R2)= -1 to 5 (cgs) with various masses and radii, [Me/H]=-5 to +1, with [Alpha/Fe] = 0.0 and 0.4 and different choices of C and N abundances to also represent stars of types R, S and N, and with microturbulence parameters from 1 to 5 km/s. We also list fluxes in approximately 108,000 wavelength points. Underlying assumptions in addition to 1D stratification include hydrostatic equilibrium, MLT convection and LTE. A number of general properties of the models are discussed, in relation to the effects of changing blanketing and sphericity. Models are compared with other available grids and excellent agreement is found with plane-parallel models of Castelli and Kurucz within the overlapping parameter range. Although there are departures from the spherically symmetric NextGen models, the agreement with more recent PHOENIX models is gratifying. The models of the grid show regularities, but some interesting departures from general patterns occur for the coolest models due to the molecular opacities. We have tested rules of thumb concerning effects of blanketing and sphericity and found them to often be astonishingly accurate. Some interesting new phenomena have been discovered, such as the intricate coupling between blanketing and sphericity, and the strong effects of carbon enhancement on metal-poor models. We give further details of models and comparisons with observations in subsequent papers.
Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton
2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A status is presented of the development during FY2002 of a database for physical properties models for the simulation of the treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An activity coefficient model is needed for concentrated, aqueous, multi-electrolyte solutions that can be used by process design practitioners. Reasonable first-order estimates of activity coefficients in the relevant media are needed rather than an incremental improvement in theoretical approaches which are not usable by practitioners. A comparison of the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (ENRTL) and Pitzer ion-interaction models for the thermodynamic representation of SBW is presented. It is concluded that Pitzer's model is superior to ENRTL in modeling treatment processes for SBW. The applicability of the Pitzer treatment to high concentrations of pertinent species and to the determination of solubilities and chemical equilibria is addressed. Alternate values of Pitzer parameters for HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 are proposed, applicable up to 16m, and 12m, respectively. Partial validation of the implementation of Pitzer's treatment within the commercial process simulator ASPEN Plus was performed.
Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.
2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z
A status is presented of the development during FY2002 of a database for physical properties models for the simulation of the treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An activity coefficient model is needed for concentrated, aqueous, multi-electrolyte solutions that can be used by process design practitioners. Reasonable first-order estimates of activity coefficients in the relevant media are needed rather than an incremental improvement in theoretical approaches which are not usable by practitioners. A comparison of the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (ENRTL) and Pitzer ion-interaction models for the thermodynamic representation of SBW is presented. It is concluded that Pitzer's model is superior to ENRTL in modeling treatment processes for SBW. The applicability of the Pitzer treatment to high concentrations of pertinent species and to the determination of solubilities and chemical equilibria is addressed. Alternate values of Pitzer parameters for HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 are proposed, applicable up to 16m, and 12m, respectively. Partial validation of the implementation of Pitzer's treatment within the commercial process simulator ASPEN Plus was performed.
Hydrodynamic multi-phase model for simulation of laser-induced non-equilibrium phase transformations
Zhigilei, Leonid V.
atomistic simulations of the complete sequence of melting liquid flow resolidification are not practical-gas coexistence, as well as for explicit tracking of interfaces between the phases. The model accounts for both propagation of the liquid-crystal interface in recrystallization. Computational results are in a good
Generalization of neuron network model with delay feedback
Sanjeet Maisnam; R. K. Brojen Singh
2015-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
We present generalized delayed neural network (DNN) model with positive delay feedback and neuron history. The local stability analysis around trivial local equilibria of delayed neural networks has applied and determine the conditions for the existence of zero root. We develop few innovative delayed neural network models in different dimensions through transformation and extension of some existing models. We found that zero root can have multiplicity two under certain conditions. We further show how the characteristic equation can have zero root and its multiplicity is dependent on the conditions undertaken. Finally, we generalize the neural network of $N$ neurons through which we determine the general form of Jacobian of the linear form and corresponding characteristic equation of the system.
Virasoro representations and fusion for general augmented minimal models
Holger Eberle; Michael Flohr
2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we present explicit results for the fusion of irreducible and higher rank representations in two logarithmically conformal models, the augmented c_{2,3} = 0 model as well as the augmented Yang-Lee model at c_{2,5} = -22/5. We analyse their spectrum of representations which is consistent with the symmetry and associativity of the fusion algebra. We also describe the first few higher rank representations in detail. In particular, we present the first examples of consistent rank 3 indecomposable representations and describe their embedding structure. Knowing these two generic models we also conjecture the general representation content and fusion rules for general augmented c_{p,q} models.
Liu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Watanasiri, S. [Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)
1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Following the work of Austgen et al., the electrolyte nonrandom-two-liquid (NRTL) model was applied in a thermodynamically consistent manner to represent the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA)-CO{sub 2} system with rigorous chemical equilibrium consideration. Special attention was given to the accurate VLE description of the system at both absorbing and stripping conditions relevant to most aqueous MEA absorption/stripping processes for CO{sub 2} removal. The influence from chemical equilibrium constants, Henry`s constant, experimental data, and data regression on the representation of the VLE of the system was discussed in detail. The equilibrium constant of the carbamate reversion reaction as well as important interaction parameters of the electrolyte NRTL model were carefully fitted to experimental data. A good agreement between the calculated values and the experimental data was achieved. Moreover, the model with newly fitted parameters was successfully applied to simulate three industrial cases for CO{sub 2} removal using a rate-based approach. The results from this work were compared with those using the model by Austgen et al.
General Treatment of All 2d Covariant Models
W. Kummer
1996-12-06T23:59:59.000Z
General matterless models of gravity include dilaton gravity, arbitrary powers in curvature, but also dynamical torsion. They are a special class of "Poisson-sigma-models" whose solutions are known completely, together with their general global structure. Beside the ordinary black hole, arbitrary singularity structures can be studied. It is also possible to derive an action "backwards", starting from a given manifold. The role of conservation laws, Noether charge and the quantization have been investigated. Scalar and fermionic matter fields may be included as well.
Bose-Hubbard Model: Relation Between Driven-Dissipative Steady-States and Equilibrium Quantum Phases
Alexandre Le Boité; Giuliano Orso; Cristiano Ciuti
2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z
We present analytical solutions for the mean-field master equation of the driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model for cavity photons, in the limit of both weak pumping and weak dissipation. Instead of pure Mott insulator states, we find statistical mixtures with the same second-order coherence as a Fock state with n photons, but a mean photon number of n/2. These mixed states occur when n pump photons have the same energy as n interacting photons inside the nonlinear cavity and survive up to a critical tunneling coupling strength, above which a crossover to classical coherent state takes place. We also explain the origin of both antibunching and superbunching predicted by P-representation mean-field theory at higher pumping and dissipation. In particular, we show that the strongly correlated region of the associated phase diagram cannot be described within the semiclassical Gross-Pitaevski approach.
Modeling Smart Grid using Generalized Stochastic Petri Net
Dey, Amrita; Sanyal, Sugata
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Building smart grid for power system is a major challenge for safe, automated and energy efficient usage of electricity. The full implementation of the smart grid will evolve over time. However, before a new set of infrastructures are invested to build the smart grid, proper modeling and analysis is needed to avoid wastage of resources. Modeling also helps to identify and prioritize appropriate systems parameters. In this paper, an all comprehensive model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The model is used to analyze the constraints and deliverables of the smart power grid of future.
Interacting holographic dark energy models: A general approach
S. Som; A. Sil
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density $\\rho_d=3(\\alpha H^2+\\beta\\dot{H})$. Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy(RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for $\\beta>0.5$ irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of $\\alpha=1$ and $\\beta=2/3$ leads to a varying $\\Lambda$-like model introducing an IR cutoff length $\\Lambda^{-1/2}$. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form $Q\\propto H\\rho_m$ suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.
New agegraphic dark energy model with generalized uncertainty principle
Yong-Wan Kim; Hyung Won Lee; Yun Soo Myung; Mu-In Park
2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the new agegraphic dark energy models with generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). It turns out that although the GUP affects the early universe, it does not change the current and future dark energy-dominated universe significantly. Furthermore, this model could describe the matter-dominated universe in the past only when the parameter $n$ is chosen to be $n>n_c$, where the critical value determined to be $n_c=2.799531478$.
General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network
Heinzelman, Wendi
General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network Deployment Strategies Zhao Cheng, Mark Perillo, and Wendi B. Heinzelman, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--In multihop wireless sensor to energy imbalance among sensors often appear. Sensors closer to a data sink are usually required
Abstract polymer models with general pair interactions Aldo Procacci
Procacci, Aldo
Abstract polymer models with general pair interactions Aldo Procacci Dep. MatemÂ´atica-ICEx, UFMG (i.e. not necessarily hard core or repulsive). A concrete example is given in which polymers are r0 (possibly attractive), of the type 1/rd+ with > 0. 1. Introduction The abstract polymer gas is an important
GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELING APPROACH TO STOCHASTIC WEATHER GENERATORS
Katz, Richard
) Multisites (Spatial dependence of daily weather) -- Software R open source statistical programming language (Capable of "reproducing" any desired statistic) -- Disadvantages Synthetic weather looks too much like") Not amenable to uncertainty analysis #12;#12;#12;(2) Generalized Linear Models · Statistical Framework
Pseudo supersymmetric partners for the generalized Swanson model
A. Sinha; P. Roy
2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z
New non Hermitian Hamiltonians are generated, as isospectral partners of the generalized Swanson model, viz., $ H_- = {\\cal{A}}^{\\dagger} {\\cal{A}} + \\alpha {\\cal{A}} ^2 + \\beta {\\cal{A}}^{\\dagger 2} $, where $ \\alpha \\beta $ are real constants, with $ \\alpha \
GENERALIZED STIRLING PERMUTATIONS, FAMILIES OF INCREASING TREES AND URN MODELS
Janson, Svante
GENERALIZED STIRLING PERMUTATIONS, FAMILIES OF INCREASING TREES AND URN MODELS SVANTE JANSON and descents in the class of Stirling permutations, introduced by Gessel and Stanley [14]. Recently, Janson [18] showed the connection between Stirling permutations and plane recursive trees and proved a joint nor- mal
Holographic entanglement entropy in general holographic superconductor models
Yan Peng; Qiyuan Pan
2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z
We study the entanglement entropy of general holographic dual models both in AdS soliton and AdS black hole backgrounds with full backreaction. We find that the entanglement entropy is a good probe to explore the properties of the holographic superconductors and provides richer physics in the phase transition. We obtain the effects of the scalar mass, model parameter and backreaction on the entropy, and argue that the jump of the entanglement entropy may be a quite general feature for the first order phase transition. In strong contrast to the insulator/superconductor system, we note that the backreaction coupled with the scalar mass can not be used to trigger the first order phase transition if the model parameter is below its bottom bound in the metal/superconductor system.
A general holographic metal/superconductor phase transition model
Yan Peng; Yunqi Liu
2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z
We study the scalar condensation of a general holographic superconductor model in AdS black hole background away from the probe limit. We find the model parameters together with the scalar mass and backreaction can determine the order of phase transitions completely. In addition, we observe two types of discontinuities of the scalar operator in the case of first order phase transitions. We analyze in detail the effects of the scalar mass and backreaction on the formation of discontinuities and arrive at an approximate relation between the threshold model parameters. Furthermore, we obtain superconductor solutions corresponding to higher energy states and examine the stability of these superconductor solutions.
A general holographic metal/superconductor phase transition model
Yan Peng; Yunqi Liu
2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
We study the scalar condensation of a general holographic superconductor model in AdS black hole background away from the probe limit. We find the model parameters together with the scalar mass and backreaction can determine the order of phase transitions completely. In addition, we observe two types of discontinuities of the scalar operator in the case of first order phase transitions. We analyze in detail the effects of the scalar mass and backreaction on the formation of discontinuities and arrive at an approximate relation between the threshold model parameters. Furthermore, we obtain superconductor solutions corresponding to higher energy states and examine the stability of these superconductor solutions.
Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Calvin, Katherine V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Mao, Jiafu; Patel, Pralit L.; Shi, Xiaoying; Thomson, Allison M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Zhou, Yuyu
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Human activities are significantly altering biogeochemical cycles at the global scale, posing a significant problem for earth system models (ESMs), which may incorporate static land-use change inputs but do not actively simulate policy or economic forces. One option to address this problem is a to couple an ESM with an economically oriented integrated assessment model. Here we have implemented and tested a coupling mechanism between the carbon cycles of an ESM (CLM) and an integrated assessment (GCAM) model, examining the best proxy variables to share between the models, and quantifying our ability to distinguish climate- and land-use-driven flux changes. CLM’s net primary production and heterotrophic respiration outputs were found to be the most robust proxy variables by which to manipulate GCAM’s assumptions of long-term ecosystem steady state carbon, with short-term forest production strongly correlated with long-term biomass changes in climate-change model runs. By leveraging the fact that carbon-cycle effects of anthropogenic land-use change are short-term and spatially limited relative to widely distributed climate effects, we were able to distinguish these effects successfully in the model coupling, passing only the latter to GCAM. By allowing climate effects from a full earth system model to dynamically modulate the economic and policy decisions of an integrated assessment model, this work provides a foundation for linking these models in a robust and flexible framework capable of examining two-way interactions between human and earth system processes.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a generalized orbital compass model
Lukasz Cincio; Jacek Dziarmaga; Andrzej M. Oles
2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce a generalized two-dimensional orbital compass model, which interpolates continuously from the classical Ising model to the orbital compass model with frustrated quantum interactions, and investigate it using the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA). The results demonstrate that increasing frustration of exchange interactions triggers a second order quantum phase transition to a degenerate symmetry broken state which minimizes one of the interactions in the orbital compass model. Using boson expansion within the spin-wave theory we unravel the physical mechanism of the symmetry breaking transition as promoted by weak quantum fluctuations and explain why this transition occurs only surprisingly close to the maximally frustrated interactions of the orbital compass model. The spin waves remain gapful at the critical point, and both the boson expansion and MERA do not find any algebraically decaying spin-spin correlations in the critical ground state.
Intelligent Allocation of Network Bandwidth: A Comparison of Two Generalized Particle Models
Lau, Francis C.M.
the allocation is not changed until the price reaches equilibrium. The other one is the economic generalized and further development of the OGPM, which comprises two major components: (1) dynamic allocation of network bandwidth based on GPM; and (2) dynamic modulation of price and demands of network bandwidth. The two
B Decays in a General Left-Right Symmetric Model
Frank, Mariana; Turan, Ismail
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Motivated by recently observed disagreements with the SM predictions in B decays, we study $b \\to d, s$ transitions in a general class of $SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)_{B-L}$ models, with a simple one-parameter structure of the right handed mixing matrix for the quarks, which obeys the constraints from kaon physics. We use experimental constraints on the branching ratios of $b \\to s \\gamma$, $b \\to c e {\\bar \
Exceptional and regular spectra of a generalized Rabi model
Michael Tomka; Omar El Araby; Mikhail Pletyukhov; Vladimir Gritsev
2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z
We study the spectrum of the generalized Rabi model in which co- and counter-rotating terms have different coupling strengths. It is also equivalent to the model of a two-dimensional electron gas in a magnetic field with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. Like in case of the Rabi model, the spectrum of the generalized Rabi model consists of the regular and the exceptional parts. The latter is represented by the energy levels which cross at certain parameters' values which we determine explicitly. The wave functions of these exceptional states are given by finite order polynomials in the Bargmann representation. The roots of these polynomials satisfy a Bethe ansatz equation of the Gaudin type. At the exceptional points the model is therefore quasi-exactly solvable. An analytical approximation is derived for the regular part of the spectrum in the weak- and strong-coupling limits. In particular, in the strong-coupling limit the spectrum consists of two quasi-degenerate equidistant ladders.
A dark energy model alternative to generalized Chaplygin gas
Hoavo Hova; Huanxiong Yang
2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a new fluid model of dark energy for $-1 \\leq \\omega_{\\text{eff}} \\leq 0$ as an alternative to the generalized Chaplygin gas models. The energy density of dark energy fluid is severely suppressed during barotropic matter dominant epochs, and it dominates the universe evolution only for eras of small redshift. From the perspective of fundamental physics, the fluid is a tachyon field with a scalar potential flatter than that of power-law decelerated expansion. Different from the standard $\\Lambda\\text{CDM}$ model, the suggested dark energy model claims that the cosmic acceleration at present epoch can not continue forever but will cease in the near future and a decelerated cosmic expansion will recover afterwards.
A dark energy model alternative to generalized Chaplygin gas
Hova, Hoavo
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a new fluid model of dark energy for $-1 \\leq \\omega_{\\text{eff}} \\leq 0$ as an alternative to the generalized Chaplygin gas models. The energy density of dark energy fluid is severely suppressed during barotropic matter dominant epochs, and it dominates the universe evolution only for eras of small redshift. From the perspective of fundamental physics, the fluid is a tachyon field with a scalar potential flatter than that of power-law decelerated expansion. Different from the standard $\\Lambda\\text{CDM}$ model, the suggested dark energy model claims that the cosmic acceleration at present epoch can not continue forever but will cease in the near future and a decelerated cosmic expansion will recover afterwards.
$so(N)_1$ criticality in generalized cluster models
Ville Lahtinen; Eddy Ardonne
2015-04-27T23:59:59.000Z
We show that $so(N)_1$ universality class quantum criticality emerges when one-dimensional generalized cluster models -- the N-cluster models -- are perturbed with Ising or Zeeman terms. Each critical point is described by a low-energy theory of N linearly dispersing fermions, whose spectrum we show to precisely match the prediction by $so(N)_1$ conformal field theory. Furthermore, by an explicit construction we show that the N-cluster models are dual to N non-locally coupled transverse field Ising chains, which enables to identify local representations for the primary fields and shows that the N-cluster models provide the simplest representation of the recently introduced hierarchy of $so(N)_1$ critical spin models. For the experimentally most realistic case of N=3, that corresponds to the original one-dimensional cluster model, our results show that $su(2)_2 \\simeq so(3)_1$ Wess-Zumino-Witten model can emerge in a local, translationally invariant and Jordan-Wigner solvable spin-1/2 model.
Reshocks, rarefactions, and the generalized Layzer model for hydrodynamic instabilities
Mikaelian, K O
2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
We report numerical simulations and analytic modeling of shock tube experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. We examine single interfaces of the type A/B where the incident shock is initiated in A and the transmitted shock proceeds into B. Examples are He/air and air/He. In addition, we study finite-thickness or double-interface A/B/A configurations like air/SF{sub 6}/air gas-curtain experiments. We first consider conventional shock tubes that have a 'fixed' boundary: A solid endwall which reflects the transmitted shock and reshocks the interface(s). Then we focus on new experiments with a 'free' boundary--a membrane disrupted mechanically or by the transmitted shock, sending back a rarefaction towards the interface(s). Complex acceleration histories are achieved, relevant for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. We compare our simulation results with a generalized Layzer model for two fluids with time-dependent densities, and derive a new freeze-out condition whereby accelerating and compressive forces cancel each other out. Except for the recently reported failures of the Layzer model, the generalized Layzer model and hydrocode simulations for reshocks and rarefactions agree well with each other, and remain to be verified experimentally.
Perturbations in Bouncing and Cyclic Models, a General Study
Biswas, Tirthabir; Lattyak, Colleen
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Being able to reliably track perturbations across bounces and turnarounds in cyclic and bouncing cosmology lies at the heart of being able to compare the predictions of these models with the Cosmic Microwave Background observations. This has been a challenging task due to the unknown nature of the physics involved during the bounce as well as the technical challenge of matching perturbations precisely between the expansion and contraction phases. In this paper, we will present general techniques (analytical and numerical) that can be applied to understand the physics of the fluctuations, especially those with "long" wavelengths, and test its validity in some simple bouncing/cyclic toy models where the physics is well understood. We will then apply our techniques to more interesting cosmological models such as the bounce inflation and cyclic inflation.
Perturbations in Bouncing and Cyclic Models, a General Study
Tirthabir Biswas; Riley Mayes; Colleen Lattyak
2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
Being able to reliably track perturbations across bounces and turnarounds in cyclic and bouncing cosmology lies at the heart of being able to compare the predictions of these models with the Cosmic Microwave Background observations. This has been a challenging task due to the unknown nature of the physics involved during the bounce as well as the technical challenge of matching perturbations precisely between the expansion and contraction phases. In this paper, we will present general techniques (analytical and numerical) that can be applied to understand the physics of the fluctuations, especially those with "long" wavelengths, and test its validity in some simple bouncing/cyclic toy models where the physics is well understood. We will then apply our techniques to more interesting cosmological models such as the bounce inflation and cyclic inflation.
Characterising equilibrium logic and nested logic programs: Reductions and complexity
Pearce, David; Woltran, Stefan
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Equilibrium logic is an approach to nonmonotonic reasoning that extends the stable-model and answer-set semantics for logic programs. In particular, it includes the general case of nested logic programs, where arbitrary Boolean combinations are permitted in heads and bodies of rules, as special kinds of theories. In this paper, we present polynomial reductions of the main reasoning tasks associated with equilibrium logic and nested logic programs into quantified propositional logic, an extension of classical propositional logic where quantifications over atomic formulas are permitted. We provide reductions not only for decision problems, but also for the central semantical concepts of equilibrium logic and nested logic programs. In particular, our encodings map a given decision problem into some formula such that the latter is valid precisely in case the former holds. The basic tasks we deal with here are the consistency problem, brave reasoning, and skeptical reasoning. Additionally, we also provide encoding...
Generalized lepton number and dark left-right gauge model
Khalil, Shaaban [Center for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, Postal No. 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Lee, Hye-Sung; Ma, Ernest [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)
2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
In a left-right gauge model of particle interactions, the left-handed fermion doublet ({nu},e){sub L} is connected to its right-handed counterpart (n,e){sub R} through a scalar bidoublet so that e{sub L} pairs with e{sub R}, and {nu}{sub L} with n{sub R} to form mass terms. Suppose the latter link is severed without affecting the former, then n{sub R} is not the mass partner of {nu}{sub L}, and as we show in this paper, becomes a candidate for dark matter which is relevant for the recent PAMELA and ATIC observations. We accomplish this in a specific nonsupersymmetric model, where a generalized lepton number can be defined, so that n{sub R} and W{sub R}{sup {+-}} are odd under R{identical_to}(-1){sup 3B+L+2j}. Fermionic leptoquarks are also predicted.
Coxhead, Ian
of economies with global markets, for growth, economic welfare, income distribution and the environment, but the implications of integration with the global economy for income distribution, poverty change of globalization, poverty and the environment in Vietnam1 Ian Coxhead, University
Yip, Arthur Hong Chun
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Natural gas vehicles have the prospects of making substantial contributions to transportation needs. The adoption of natural gas vehicles could lead to impacts on energy and environmental systems. An analysis of the main ...
''Nuclear Winter'': A diagnosis of atmospheric general circulation model simulations
Covey, C.; Thompson, S.L.; Schneider, S.H.
1985-06-20T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the adiabatic and diabatic thermal balance of an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) under two conditions: the control case, representing today's atmosphere, and a ''nuclear winter'' scenario in which virtually all sunlight in northern hemisphere and mid-latitudes is absorbed in the upper troposphere by prescribed dense smoke clouds hypothesized to result from the burning of many cities in a nuclear war. We also examine the changes in moisture and cloudiness simulated by the model. Our object is to examine the reliability of existing simulations of the climatic response to assumed dense, widespread, high-altitude smoke and to identify improvements needed in model parameterizations. We find that in the smoke-perturbed case our model simulation of land surface temperature is particularly influenced (i.e., warmed) by parameterized diffusion of heat downward from the lower troposphere. In turn the lower troposphere over land is supplied with heat transported from the relatively warm oceans. Thermal balance in the perturbed atmosphere as a whole is dominated by intense solar heating of the upper troposphere smoke layer in mid-latitudes balanced by parameterized dry convection and large-scale dynamical heat transport. Clouds largely disappear in the mid to upper troposphere in smoke-affected regions as a consequence of a decrease in local relative humidity that results from temperature increases and, to a smaller extent, from a reduction of vertical moisture transport. The computation of substantial downward vertical heat diffusion into the lowest model layer is almost certainly an overestimate for the smoke-perturbed conditions of high vertical stability.
Two stage stochastic equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints
2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z
Aug 12, 2010 ... Monte Carlo sampling method is applied to solve the SEPEC. ... EPEC models, has a number of potential applications in a wide domain in engineering design, ... mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC), and introduced a ...... past data or computer simulation, and a particular numerical ...
Generalized Modeling of Enrichment Cascades That Include Minor Isotopes
Weber, Charles F [ORNL
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The monitoring of enrichment operations may require innovative analysis to allow for imperfect or missing data. The presence of minor isotopes may help or hurt - they can complicate a calculation or provide additional data to corroborate a calculation. However, they must be considered in a rigorous analysis, especially in cases involving reuse. This study considers matched-abundanceratio cascades that involve at least three isotopes and allows generalized input that does not require all feed assays or the enrichment factor to be specified. Calculations are based on the equations developed for the MSTAR code but are generalized to allow input of various combinations of assays, flows, and other cascade properties. Traditional cascade models have required specification of the enrichment factor, all feed assays, and the product and waste assays of the primary enriched component. The calculation would then produce the numbers of stages in the enriching and stripping sections and the remaining assays in waste and product streams. In cases where the enrichment factor or feed assays were not known, analysis was difficult or impossible. However, if other quantities are known (e.g., additional assays in waste or product streams), a reliable calculation is still possible with the new code, but such nonstandard input may introduce additional numerical difficulties into the calculation. Thus, the minimum input requirements for a stable solution are discussed, and a sample problem with a non-unique solution is described. Both heuristic and mathematically required guidelines are given to assist the application of cascade modeling to situations involving such non-standard input. As a result, this work provides both a calculational tool and specific guidance for evaluation of enrichment cascades in which traditional input data are either flawed or unknown. It is useful for cases involving minor isotopes, especially if the minor isotope assays are desired (or required) to be important contributors to the overall analysis.
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states
Benjamin Doyon
2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb-Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of "nonlinear sound velocities", which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and "generalized sound velocities", which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb-Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors
Walter F. Wreszinski
2015-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
We review some rigorous results on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors.
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors
Walter F. Wreszinski
2015-07-05T23:59:59.000Z
We review some rigorous results on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors.
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors
Walter F. Wreszinski
2015-06-19T23:59:59.000Z
We review some rigorous results on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of superfluids and superconductors.
O'Brien, J. E.; Stoots, C. M.; Herring, J. S.; Hartvigsen, J. J.
2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
An experimental study has been completed to assess the performance of single solid-oxide electrolysis cells operating over a temperature range of 800 to 850ºC in the coelectrolysis mode, simultaneously electrolyzing steam and carbon dioxide for the direct production of syngas. The experiments were performed over a range of inlet flow rates of steam, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and over a range of current densities (-0.1 to 0.25 A/cm2) using single electrolyte-supported button electrolysis cells. Steam and carbon dioxide consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation and a gas chromatograph, respectively. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Measured values of open-cell potential and outlet gas composition are compared to predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium coelectrolysis model. Model predictions of outlet gas composition based on an effective equilibrium temperature are shown to agree well with measurements. Cell area-specific resistance values were similar for steam electrolysis and coelectrolysis.
J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; G. L. Hawkes; J. S. Herring; J. J. Hartvigsen
2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
An experimental study has been completed to assess the performance of single solid-oxide electrolysis cells operating over a temperature range of 800 to 850ºC in the coelectrolysis mode, simultaneously electrolyzing steam and carbon dioxide for the direct production of syngas. The experiments were performed over a range of inlet flow rates of steam, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and over a range of current densities (-0.1 to 0.25 A/cm2) using single electrolyte-supported button electrolysis cells. Steam and carbon dioxide consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation and a gas chromatograph, respectively. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Measured values of open-cell potential and outlet gas composition are compared to predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium coelectrolysis model. Model predictions of outlet gas composition based on an effective equilibrium temperature are shown to agree well with measurements. Area-specific resistance values were similar for steam electrolysis and coelectrolysis.
Week12: Chapter 12 Static Equilibrium
Conditions for Equilibrium The net force equals zero If the object is modeled as a particle, then this is the only condition that must be satisfied The net torque equals zero This is needed if the object cannot is arbitrary If an object is in translational equilibrium and the net torque is zero about one axis
Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model
J. M. Dong; H. F. Zhang; G. Royer
2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of protons are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) including the proximity effects between nuclei in a neck and the mass and charge asymmetry. The penetrability is calculated with the WKB approximation. The spectroscopic factor has been taken into account in half-life calculation, which is obtained by employing the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory combined with the BCS method with the force NL3. The half-lives within the GLDM are compared with the experimental data and other theoretical values. The GLDM works quite well for spherical proton emitters when the spectroscopic factors are considered, indicating the necessity of introducing the spectroscopic factor and the success of the GLDM for proton emission. Finally, we present two formulas for proton emission half-life calculation similar to the Viola-Seaborg formulas and Royer's formulas of alpha decay.
R. Dean Astumian
2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
There has been great interest in applying the results of statistical mechanics to single molecule experiements. Recent work has highlighted so-called non-equilibrium work-energy relations and Fluctuation Theorems which take on an equilibrium-like (time independent) form. Here I give a very simple heuristic example where an equilibrium result (the barometric law for colloidal particles) arises from theory describing the {\\em thermodynamically} non-equilibrium phenomenon of a single colloidal particle falling through solution due to gravity. This simple result arises from the fact that the particle, even while falling, is in {\\em mechanical} equilibrium (gravitational force equal the viscous drag force) at every instant. The results are generalized by appeal to the central limit theorem. The resulting time independent equations that hold for thermodynamically non-equilibrium (and even non-stationary) processes offer great possibilities for rapid determination of thermodynamic parameters from single molecule experiments.
Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium...
a variety of issues related to the economics of climate change, including baseline of CO2 and greenhouse gases, impact of climate change on economy, adaptation to climate...
A Generalized Notion of Platforms for Model Driven Development
KÃ¼hne, Thomas
, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany kuehne@informatik.tu-darmstadt.de 1 Introduction Model driven development (MDD
Generalized charge-screening in relativistic Thomas–Fermi model
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 51745-406 Tabriz, Iran and International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar objects.
Phase equilibrium measurements on nine binary mixtures
Wilding, W.V. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Giles, N.F.; Wilson, L.C. [Wiltec Research Co. Inc., Provo, UT (United States)] [Wiltec Research Co. Inc., Provo, UT (United States)
1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Phase equilibrium measurements have been performed on nine binary mixtures. The PTx method was used to obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the following systems at two temperatures each: (aminoethyl)piperazine + diethylenetriamine; 2-butoxyethyl acetate + 2-butoxyethanol; 2-methyl-2-propanol + 2-methylbutane; 2-methyl-2-propanol + 2-methyl-2-butene; methacrylonitrile + methanol; 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen chloride; 2-(hexyloxy)ethanol + ethylene glycol; butane + ammonia; propionaldehyde + butane. Equilibrium vapor and liquid phase compositions were derived form the PTx data using the Soave equation of state to represent the vapor phase and the Wilson or the NRTL activity coefficient model to represent the liquid phase. A large immiscibility region exists in the butane + ammonia system at 0 C. Therefore, separate vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium measurements were performed on this system to more precisely determine the miscibility limits and the composition of the vapor phase in equilibrium with the two liquid phases.
EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION FROM DISCRETE MAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS IN A TOKAMAK
Faugeras, Blaise
EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION FROM DISCRETE MAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS IN A TOKAMAK Blaise Faugeras (joint of the equilibrium in a Tokamak from discrete magnetic mea- surements. In order to solve this inverse problem we of a plasma in a Tokamak [1]. The state variable of interest in the modelization of such an equilibrium under
Baldick, Ross
1 Abstract--In models of imperfect competition of deregulated electricity markets, the key task techniques are adopted in this paper. Two example application problems arising from electricity markets Terms-- Bimatrix Game, Complementarity Problem, Deregulation, Dominated Strategy, Electric Power Market
Introduction to (Generalized) Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models in Time Series
Morrow, James A.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4 ARCH/GARCH models 8 4.1 Sample Application and application of the ARCH/GARCH models proposed in the 1980's by econometricians such as Robert Engle (who won at the time). In particular, we focus on the paper, "GARCH 101: The Use of ARCH/GARCH Models in Applied Econo
Annular mode-like responses to external forcings in a simple atmospheric general circulation model
Ring, Michael J., 1979-
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, I investigate the response of a simple atmospheric general circulation model to applied forcings to learn whether the annular mode patterns are a preferred model response to the forcings. The thesis is ...
General model of phospholipid bilayers in fluid phase within the single chain mean field theory
Guo, Yachong; Baulin, Vladimir A. [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)] [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Pogodin, Sergey [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia, ICIQ, Av. Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)] [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia, ICIQ, Av. Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)
2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
Coarse-grained model for saturated phospholipids: 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC), 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and unsaturated phospholipids: 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1,2- dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) is introduced within the single chain mean field theory. A single set of parameters adjusted for DMPC bilayers gives an adequate description of equilibrium and mechanical properties of a range of saturated lipid molecules that differ only in length of their hydrophobic tails and unsaturated (POPC, DOPC) phospholipids which have double bonds in the tails. A double bond is modeled with a fixed angle of 120°, while the rest of the parameters are kept the same as saturated lipids. The thickness of the bilayer and its hydrophobic core, the compressibility, and the equilibrium area per lipid correspond to experimentally measured values for each lipid, changing linearly with the length of the tail. The model for unsaturated phospholipids also fetches main thermodynamical properties of the bilayers. This model is used for an accurate estimation of the free energies of the compressed or stretched bilayers in stacks or multilayers and gives reasonable estimates for free energies. The proposed model may further be used for studies of mixtures of lipids, small molecule inclusions, interactions of bilayers with embedded proteins.
Generalized Electric Polarizability of the Proton from Skyrme Model
Myunggyu Kim; Dong-Pil Min
1997-04-23T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate the electric polarizability $\\alpha(q^2)$ of the proton in virtual Compton scattering using the Skyrme model. The $q^2$ dependence of the polarizability is comparable with the predictions obtained from the non-relativistic quark model and the linear sigma model. The chiral behaviors of our $\\alpha(0)$ and $d^2\\alpha(0)/d^2q^2$ agree with the results of the chiral perturbation theory. The discrepancy can be traced back to the contribution of the intermediate $\\Delta$ state degenerate with the $N$ which is a characteristic of a large-$N_C$ model.
A GENERALIZED SURVEILLANCE MODEL WITH APPLICATIONS TO SYSTEMS SAFETY
Xie, Minge
performing satisfactorily. For example, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) [3] is the regulatory a development of this model is an FAA project, where we were asked to develop a surveillance model to better agency for aviation safety in the Unites States. Their aviation safety inspectors need to quickly
General Methodology for developing UML models from UI
Reddy, Ch Ram Mohan; Srinivasa, K G; Kumar, T V Suresh; Kanth, K Rajani
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In recent past every discipline and every industry have their own methods of developing products. It may be software development, mechanics, construction, psychology and so on. These demarcations work fine as long as the requirements are within one discipline. However, if the project extends over several disciplines, interfaces have to be created and coordinated between the methods of these disciplines. Performance is an important quality aspect of Web Services because of their distributed nature. Predicting the performance of web services during early stages of software development is significant. In Industry, Prototype of these applications is developed during analysis phase of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). However, Performance models are generated from UML models. Methodologies for predicting the performance from UML models is available. Hence, In this paper, a methodology for developing Use Case model and Activity model from User Interface is presented. The methodology is illustrated with a case...
A generalized logistic model of individual tree mortality for aspen, white spruce, and lodgepole
Macdonald, Ellen
A generalized logistic model of individual tree mortality for aspen, white spruce, and lodgepole: A generalized logistic model of individual tree mortality was developed for trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), and lodgepole pine (Pinus
From residue matching patterns to protein folding topographies: General model and bovine
Berry, R. Stephen
From residue matching patterns to protein folding topographies: General model and bovine pancreatic-grained model for protein-folding dynamics is introduced based on a discretized representation of torsional, pattern recognition, and general characteristics of protein folding kinetics. Topology here implies
STATISTICAL MODELS FOR MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT: UNIFICATIONS AND GENERALIZATIONS
Liu, Jun
, Stanford University; Charles E. Lawrence, NYSDOH Jun S. Liu, Department of Statistics, Stanford University and our main point of interest. We believe that building explicit statistical model is an important
Dark Energy - Dark Matter Unification: Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model
Orfeu Bertolami
2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z
We review the main features of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) proposal for unification of dark energy and dark matter and discuss how it admits an unique decomposition into dark energy and dark matter components once phantom-like dark energy is excluded. In the context of this approach we consider structure formation and show that unphysical oscillations or blow-up in the matter power spectrum are not present. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dominance of dark energy occurs about the time when energy density fluctuations start evolving away from the linear regime.
The China-in-Global Energy Model
Qi, T.
The China-in-Global Energy Model (C-GEM) is a global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model that captures the interaction of production, consumption and trade among multiple global regions and sectors – including five ...
Ionization Equilibrium Timescales in Collisional Plasmas
Smith, Randall K
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Astrophysical shocks or bursts from a photoionizing source can disturb the typical collisional plasma found in galactic interstellar media or the intergalactic medium. The spectrum emitted by this plasma contains diagnostics that have been used to determine the time since the disturbing event, although this determination becomes uncertain as the elements in the plasma return to ionization equilibrium. A general solution for the equilibrium timescale for each element arises from the elegant eigenvector method of solution to the problem of a non-equilibrium plasma described by Masai (1984) and Hughes & Helfand (1985). In general the ionization evolution of an element Z in a constant electron temperature plasma is given by a coupled set of Z+1 first order differential equations. However, they can be recast as Z uncoupled first order differential equations using an eigenvector basis for the system. The solution is then Z separate exponential functions, with the time constants given by the eigenvalues of the r...
Baryonic torii: Toroidal baryons in a generalized Skyrme model
Sven Bjarke Gudnason; Muneto Nitta
2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
We study a Skyrme-type model with a potential term motivated by Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), which we call the BEC Skyrme model. We consider two flavors of the model, the first is the Skyrme model and the second has a sixth-order derivative term instead of the Skyrme term; both with the added BEC-motivated potential. The model contains toroidally shaped Skyrmions and they are characterized by two integers P and Q, representing the winding numbers of two complex scalar fields along the toroidal and poloidal cycles of the torus, respectively. The baryon number is B=PQ. We find stable Skyrmion solutions for P=1,2,3,4,5 with Q=1, while for P=6 and Q=1 it is only metastable. We further find that configurations with higher Q>1 are all unstable and split into Q configurations with Q=1. Finally we discover a phase transition, possibly of first order, in the mass parameter of the potential under study.
Generalized Ginzburg-Landau models for non-conventional superconductors
S. Esposito; G. Salesi
2009-06-20T23:59:59.000Z
We review some recent extensions of the Ginzburg-Landau model able to describe several properties of non-conventional superconductors. In the first extension, s-wave superconductors endowed with two different critical temperatures are considered, their main thermodynamical and magnetic properties being calculated and discussed. Instead in the second extension we describe spin-triplet superconductivity (with a single critical temperature), studying in detail the main predicted physical properties. A thorough discussion of the peculiar predictions of our models and their physical consequences is as well performed.
Modelling general relativistic perfect fluids in field theoretic language
Nikolai V. Mitskievich
1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z
Skew-symmetric massless fields, their potentials being $r$-forms, are close analogues of Maxwell's field (though the non-linear cases also should be considered). We observe that only two of them ($r=$2 and 3) automatically yield stress-energy tensors characteristic to normal perfect fluids. It is shown that they naturally describe both non-rotating ($r=2$) and rotating (then a combination of $r=2$ and $r=3$ fields is indispensable) general relativistic perfect fluids possessing every type of equations of state. Meanwile, a free $r=3$ field is completely equivalent to appearance of the cosmological term in Einstein's equations. Sound waves represent perturbations propagating on the background of the $r=2$ field. Some exotic properties of these two fields are outlined.
Karl Svozil
2001-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
Three extensions and reinterpretations of nonclassical probabilities are reviewed. (i) We propose to generalize the probability axiom of quantum mechanics to self-adjoint positive operators of trace one. Furthermore, we discuss the Cartesian and polar decomposition of arbitrary normal operators and the possibility to operationalize the corresponding observables. Thereby we review and emphasize the use of observables which maximally represent the context. (ii) In the second part, we discuss Pitowsky polytopes for automaton logic as well as for generalized urn models and evaluate methods to find the resulting Boole-Bell type (in)equalities. (iii) Finally, so-called ``parameter cheats'' are introduced, whereby parameters are transformed bijectively and nonlinearly in such a way that classical systems mimic quantum correlations and vice versa. It is even possible to introduce parameter cheats which violate the Boole-Bell type inequalities stronger than quantum ones, thereby trespassing the Tsirelson limit. The price to be paid is nonuniformity.
System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description
Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.; Freeman, J.; Neises, T.; Wagner, M.; Ferguson, T.; Gilman, P.; Janzou, S.
2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2013.9.20, released on September 9, 2013. SAM is a computer model that calculates performance and financial metrics of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar water heating, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financial structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). SAM's advanced simulation options facilitate parametric and sensitivity analyses, and statistical analysis capabilities are available for Monte Carlo simulation and weather variability (P50/P90) studies. SAM can also read input variables from Microsoft Excel worksheets. For software developers, the SAM software development kit (SDK) makes it possible to use SAM simulation modules in their applications written in C/C++, C#, Java, Python, and MATLAB. NREL provides both SAM and the SDK as free downloads at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.
System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description
Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.
2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2011.12.2, released on December 2, 2011. SAM is software that models the cost and performance of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financing structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). Advanced analysis options facilitate parametric, sensitivity, and statistical analyses, and allow for interfacing SAM with Microsoft Excel or with other computer programs. SAM is available as a free download at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.
Gamma-ray Burst Models: General Requirements and Predictions
P. Meszaros
1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
Whatever the ultimate energy source of gamma-ray bursts turns out to be, the resulting sequence of physical events is likely to lead to a fairly generic, almost unavoidable scenario: a relativistic fireball that dissipates its energy after it has become optically thin. This is expected both for cosmological and halo distances. Here we explore the observational motivation of this scenario, and the consequences of the resulting models for the photon production in different wavebands, the energetics and the time structure of classical gamma-ray bursters.
Novel Geometrical Models of Relativistic Stars. I. The General Scheme
P. P. Fiziev
2004-09-19T23:59:59.000Z
In a series of articles we describe a novel class of geometrical models of relativistic stars. Our approach to the static spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein equations is based on a careful physical analysis of radial gauge conditions. It brings us to a two parameter family of relativistic stars without stiff functional dependence between the stelar radius and stelar mass. It turns out that within this family there do exist relativistic stars with arbitrary large mass, which are to have arbitrary small radius and arbitrary small luminosity. In addition, point particle idealization, as a limiting case of bodies with finite dimension, becomes possible in GR, much like in Newton gravity.
Inference for Clustered Mixed Outcomes from a Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Model
Chen, Hsiang-Chun
2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
) and E(?i2t?) with their marginal expectations over X, ??1 = EX {E(?i1t)} and ??2 = EX {E(?i2t)}, which are shown in the previous subsections. In other words, the overall total-CC is ?total = KtotalN,1,2 (??1, ??2) KtotalD,1,2 (??1, ??2) . 3.2.4....2 Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 Assessing Correlation in Generalized Linear Mixed Model . . . . . . . 8 2.4 Bayesian Method for the Generalized Linear Mixed Model . . . . . . 10 3. ASSESSING CORRELATION...
Generalized models as a universal approach to the analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems
Thilo Gross; Ulrike Feudel
2006-01-29T23:59:59.000Z
We present a universal approach to the investigation of the dynamics in generalized models. In these models the processes that are taken into account are not restricted to specific functional forms. Therefore a single generalized models can describe a class of systems which share a similar structure. Despite this generality, the proposed approach allows us to study the dynamical properties of generalized models efficiently in the framework of local bifurcation theory. The approach is based on a normalization procedure that is used to identify natural parameters of the system. The Jacobian in a steady state is then derived as a function of these parameters. The analytical computation of local bifurcations using computer algebra reveals conditions for the local asymptotic stability of steady states and provides certain insights on the global dynamics of the system. The proposed approach yields a close connection between modelling and nonlinear dynamics. We illustrate the investigation of generalized models by considering examples from three different disciplines of science: a socio-economic model of dynastic cycles in china, a model for a coupled laser system and a general ecological food web.
Tatsuo Shibata; Shin-ichi Sasa
1997-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
An equilibrium reversible cycle with a certain engine to transduce the energy of any chemical reaction into mechanical energy is proposed. The efficiency for chemical energy transduction is also defined so as to be compared with Carnot efficiency. Relevance to the study of protein motors is discussed. KEYWORDS: Chemical thermodynamics, Engine, Efficiency, Molecular machine.
Blei, David M.
a linear transformation of co- variates through a possibly non-linear link function to generate a response of generalized linear models (DP-GLMs), a Bayesian nonparametric regression model that combines the advantages of gen- eralized linear models with the flexibility of nonpara- metric regression. A DP-GLM produces
Option Pricing for GARCH-type Models with Generalized Hyperbolic Innovations
Boyer, Edmond
Option Pricing for GARCH-type Models with Generalized Hyperbolic Innovations Christophe Chorro on equity option books. Given the historical measure, the dynamics of assets are modeled by Garch, Incomplete markets, CAC 40, SP 500, GARCH-type models. JEL classification: G13, C22. The authors
Incorporating carbon capture and storage technologies in integrated assessment models
and storage of CO2 from electric power plants. The electric power sector accounts for a substant a methodology for incorporating technologies into computable general equilibrium economic models and demonstrate; Climate; Technology; General equilibrium; Diffusion 1. Introduction Over the past century, technological
Efficient Learning of Generalized Linear and Single Index Models with Isotonic Regression
Efficient Learning of Generalized Linear and Single Index Models with Isotonic Regression Sham M) provide powerful generalizations of linear regression, where the target variable is assumed to be a (possibly unknown) 1-dimensional function of a linear predictor. In gen- eral, these problems entail non
IWWWFB, Plitvice, Croatia 2007 Some aspects of a generalized Wagner model.
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
22nd IWWWFB, Plitvice, Croatia 2007 Some aspects of a generalized Wagner model. Malleron N and Floating Bodies, Plitvice : Croatia (2007)" #12; 22nd IWWWFB, Plitvice, Croatia 2007 The last condition
Recurrence and non-ergodicity in generalized wind-tree models
Krzysztof Fr?czek; Pascal Hubert
2015-06-19T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we consider generalized wind-tree models and $\\Z^d$-covers over compact translation surfaces. Under suitable hypothesis, we prove recurrence of the linear flow in a generic direction and non-ergodicity of Lebesgue measure.
Russell, Lynn
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model investigation of the indirect Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA V. Ramaswamy, Paul A. Ginoux, and Larry W. Horowitz Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New
Parallel Simulation for a Fish Schooling Model on a General-Purpose Graphics Processing Unit
Li, Hong; Kolpas, Allison; Petzold, Linda; Moehlis, J
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Model on a General-Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Hong LiThe current generation of graphics processing units is well-we will describe how a Graphics Pro- cessor Unit (GPU) can
Estimation of OTEC Global Resources with an Ocean General Circulation Model
Frandsen, Jannette B.
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) relies on the availability of temperature differencesEstimation of OTEC Global Resources with an Ocean General Circulation Model Krishnakumar Rajagopalan Postdoctoral Fellow Department of Ocean and Resources Engineering University of Hawai'i Abstract
Wu, Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang, Jin, E-mail: jin.wang.1@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130022 Changchun, China and College of Physics, Jilin University, 130021 Changchun (China)
2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z
We have established a general non-equilibrium thermodynamic formalism consistently applicable to both spatially homogeneous and, more importantly, spatially inhomogeneous systems, governed by the Langevin and Fokker-Planck stochastic dynamics with multiple state transition mechanisms, using the potential-flux landscape framework as a bridge connecting stochastic dynamics with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A set of non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations, quantifying the relations of the non-equilibrium entropy, entropy flow, entropy production, and other thermodynamic quantities, together with their specific expressions, is constructed from a set of dynamical decomposition equations associated with the potential-flux landscape framework. The flux velocity plays a pivotal role on both the dynamic and thermodynamic levels. On the dynamic level, it represents a dynamic force breaking detailed balance, entailing the dynamical decomposition equations. On the thermodynamic level, it represents a thermodynamic force generating entropy production, manifested in the non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and more specific examples, the spatial stochastic neuronal model, in particular, are studied to test and illustrate the general theory. This theoretical framework is particularly suitable to study the non-equilibrium (thermo)dynamics of spatially inhomogeneous systems abundant in nature. This paper is the second of a series.
A Forward Looking Version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model
Babiker, Mustafa M.H.
This paper documents a forward looking multi-regional general equilibrium model developed from the latest version of the recursive-dynamic MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model. The model represents ...
The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model: Version 4
Paltsev, Sergey.
The Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model is the part of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) that represents the human systems. EPPA is a recursive-dynamic multi-regional general equilibrium model ...
Representing energy technologies in top-down economic models using bottom-up information
McFarland, James R.; Reilly, John M.; Herzog, Howard J.
This paper uses bottom-up engineering information as a basis for modeling new technologies within the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. ...
A General Relativistic Model for Magnetic Monopole-Infused Compact Objects
Zoran Pazameta
2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
Emergent concepts from astroparticle physics are incorporated into a classical solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations for a binary magnetohydrodynamic fluid, in order to describe the final equilibrium state of compact objects infused with magnetic monopoles produced by proton-proton collisions within the intense dipolar magnetic fields generated by these objects during their collapse. It is found that the effective mass of such an object's acquired monopolar magnetic field is three times greater than the mass of its native fluid and monopoles combined, necessitating that the interior matter undergo a transition to a state of negative pressure in order to attain equilibrium. Assuming full symmetry between the electric and magnetic Maxwell equations yields expressions for the monopole charge density and magnetic field by direct analogy with their electrostatic equivalents; inserting these into the Einstein equations then leads to an interior metric which is well-behaved from the origin to the surface, where it matches smoothly to an exterior magnetic Reissner-Nordstr\\"om metric free of any coordinate pathologies. The source fields comprising the model are all described by simple, well-behaved polynomial functions of the radial coordinate, and are combined with straightforward regularity conditions to yield expressions delimiting several fundamental physical parameters pertaining to this hypothetical astrophysical object.
Moortgat, Joachim, E-mail: jmoortgat@rerinst.org; Firoozabadi, Abbas, E-mail: abbas.firoozabadi@yale.edu
2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Numerical simulation of multiphase compositional flow in fractured porous media, when all the species can transfer between the phases, is a real challenge. Despite the broad applications in hydrocarbon reservoir engineering and hydrology, a compositional numerical simulator for three-phase flow in fractured media has not appeared in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. In this work, we present a three-phase fully compositional simulator for fractured media, based on higher-order finite element methods. To achieve computational efficiency, we invoke the cross-flow equilibrium (CFE) concept between discrete fractures and a small neighborhood in the matrix blocks. We adopt the mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to approximate convective Darcy fluxes and the pressure equation. This approach is the most natural choice for flow in fractured media. The mass balance equations are discretized by the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, which is perhaps the most efficient approach to capture physical discontinuities in phase properties at the matrix-fracture interfaces and at phase boundaries. In this work, we account for gravity and Fickian diffusion. The modeling of capillary effects is discussed in a separate paper. We present the mathematical framework, using the implicit-pressure-explicit-composition (IMPEC) scheme, which facilitates rigorous thermodynamic stability analyses and the computation of phase behavior effects to account for transfer of species between the phases. A deceptively simple CFL condition is implemented to improve numerical stability and accuracy. We provide six numerical examples at both small and larger scales and in two and three dimensions, to demonstrate powerful features of the formulation.
Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Jinwoo, Lee
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation.
Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Lee Jinwoo; Hajime Tanaka
2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems
Manh Hong Duong
2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we cast damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems into a general framework for non-equilibrium thermodynamics, namely the GENERIC (General Equation for Non-Equilibrium Reversible-Irreversible Coupling) framework. The main ingredients of GENERIC consist of five building blocks: a state space, a Poisson operator, a dissipative operator, an energy functional, and an entropy functional. The GENERIC formulation of damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems brings several benefits. First, it provides alternative ways to derive thermodynamically consistent models of these systems by construct- ing building blocks instead of invoking conservation laws and constitutive relations. Second, it reveals clear physical and geometrical structures of these systems, e.g., the role of the energy and the entropy as the driving forces for the reversible and irreversible dynamics respectively. Third, it allows us to introduce a new GENERIC model for damped Timoshenko systems that is not existing in the literature.
Gravity, Dimension, Equilibrium, & Thermodynamics
Jerome Perez
2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z
Is it actually possible to interpret gravitation as space's property in a pure classical way. Then, we note that extended self-gravitating system equilibrium depends directly on the number of dimension of the space in which it evolves. Given those precisions, we review the principal thermodynamical knowledge in the context of classical gravity with arbitrary dimension of space. Stability analyses for bounded 3D systems, namely the Antonov instability paradigm, are then rapproched to some amazing properties of globular clusters and galaxies.
The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium
Walter, Frederick M.
The Greenhouse Effect #12;Temperature Equilibrium The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun temperature is about 14C, or 287K. The 40K difference is due to the greenhouse effect. Essentially all
Computation of liquid-liquid equilibrium in multicomponent electrolyte systems
Vianna, R.F.; d`Avila, S.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
A computational algorithm for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data, based on a generalization of the maximum likelihood method applied to implicit constraints, is presented. The algorithm accepts multicomponent data and binary interaction parameters. A comparative study of the models NRTL and electrolyte-NRTL, used for estimating activity coefficients in a quaternary electrolyte system, is presented and discussed. Results show that both models give accurate predictions and the algorithm presents a good performance without convergence or initialization problems. This suggests that the basic NRTL model can be used for describing phase behavior in weak electrolyte systems and the procedure can be of great use for design and optimization of processes involving multicomponent electrolyte systems. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Kinetic Modeling Of Solid-Gas Reactions At Reactor Scale: A General Approach Loc Favergeon1
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
the knowledge of the kinetic model for the calculation of the speed of reaction in one part of the reactorKinetic Modeling Of Solid-Gas Reactions At Reactor Scale: A General Approach LoÃ¯c Favergeon1 favergeon@emse.fr ABSTRACT A rigorous simulation of industrial reactors in the case of solid-gas reacting
General Behavioral Thermal Modeling and Characterization for Multi-core Microprocessor Design
Tan, Sheldon X.-D.
General Behavioral Thermal Modeling and Characterization for Multi-core Microprocessor Design Thom-performance multi-core microprocessor design. The new approach builds the thermal behavioral models from ability. Experimental results on a real quad-core microprocessor show that ThermSID is more accurate than
Modeling benzene plume elongation mechanisms exerted by ethanol using RT3D with a general
Alvarez, Pedro J.
Modeling benzene plume elongation mechanisms exerted by ethanol using RT3D with a general substrate ethanol on benzene fate and transport in fuel-contaminated groundwater and to discern the most influential benzene plume elongation mechanisms. The model, developed as a module for the Reactive Transport in 3
Richard P. Sear
2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z
RNA molecules in living cells form what look like liquid droplets formed by liquid/liquid phase separation. But unlike the molecules in conventional phase separating mixtures, RNA molecules are transported by molecular motors that consume energy and so are out of equilibrium. Motivated by this we study models with out-of-equilibrium dynamics that depend on the local density. Our simulations suggest that density-dependent dynamics in which the motion of a molecule slows down in the presence of nearby molecules, tend to cause condensation into an out-of-equilibrium liquid state. This out-of-equilibrium state behaves like a liquid in the sense that it coexists with a much more dilute phase, droplets coalesce, and the state has a well-defined surface tension --- which we calculate. Liquid/liquid separation appears to be a very general phenomenon that occurs in and out of equilibrium. We also look at the analogous separation of the two blocks of a block copolymer, in which the monomers of one block have dynamics that depend on the local density of monomers of that block. We find that this block condenses and separates from the monomers of the other block. This is a simple model of the out-of-equilibrium domain formation found in the chromatin in the nucleus of cells.
Hsu, Sze-Bi
: 122 )1( 2 2 xK x =0 (i) Extinction case: species y wins Figure 12.1 In this case ),0( 22 KE())(),((lim 221 Ktxtx t . #12;(ii) Extinction case: species 1x win, Figure 12.2 In this case )0,( 11 KE§3.12 Competition models, Mutualism or Symbiosis The general n -species competition model
Zhang, Luzheng
: (a) It has a high reaction heat with CO2 that leads to higher stripping energy consumption. (b equilibrium constants, Henry's constant, experimental data, and data regression on the representation to experimental data. A good agreement between the calculated values and the experimental data was achieved
b quark Electric Dipole moment in the general two Higgs Doublet and three Higgs Doublet models
E. O. Iltan
2001-05-17T23:59:59.000Z
We study the Electric Dipole moment of b quark in the general two Higgs Doublet model (model III) and three Higgs Doublet model with O(2) symmetry in the Higgs sector. We analyse the dependency of this quantity to the new phase coming from the complex Yukawa couplings and masses of charged and neutral Higgs bosons. We see that the Electric Dipole moment of b quark is at the order of 10^{-20} e cm, which is an extremely large value compared to one calculated in the SM and also two Higgs Doublet model (model II) with real Yukawa couplings.
Exclusive $B \\to PV $ Decays and CP Violation in the General two-Higgs-doublet Model
Y. L. Wu; C. Zhuang
2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate all the branching ratios and direct CP violations of $B \\to PV$ decays in a most general two-Higgs-doublet model with spontaneous CP violation. As the model has rich CP-violating sources, it is shown that the new physics effects to direct CP violations and branching ratios in some channels can be significant when adopting the generalized factorization approach to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements, which provides good signals for probing new physics beyond the SM in the future B experiments.
Wexler, Anthony Stein [UC Davis] [UC Davis; Clegg, Simon Leslie [UC Davis] [UC Davis
2013-10-26T23:59:59.000Z
Our work addressed the following elements of the Call for Proposals: (i) “to improve the theoretical representation of aerosol processes studied in ASP laboratory or field studies”, (ii) “to enhance the incorporation of aerosol process information into modules suitable for large-scale or global atmospheric models”, and (iii) “provide systematic experimental validation of process model predictions ... using data from targeted laboratory and field experiments”. Achievements to the end of 2012 are described in four previous reports, and include: new models of densities and surface tensions of pure (single solute) and mixed aqueous solutions of typical aerosol composition under all atmospheric conditions (0 to 100% RH and T > 150 K); inclusion of these models into the widely used Extended Aerosol Inorganics model (E-AIM, http://www.aim.env.uea.ac.uk/aim/aim.php); the addition of vapor pressure calculators for organic compounds to the E-AIM website; the ability of include user-defined organic compounds and/or lumped surrogates in gas/aerosol partitioning calculations; the development of new equations to represent the properties of soluble aerosols over the entire concentration range (using methods based upon adsorption isotherms, and derived using statistical mechanics), including systems at close to zero RH. These results are described in publications 1-6 at the end of this report, and on the “News” page of the E-AIM website (http://www.aim.env.uea.ac.uk/aim/info/news.html). During 2012 and 2013 we have collaborated in a combined observation and lab-based study of the water uptake of the organic component of atmospheric aerosols (PI Gannet Hallar, of the Desert Research Institute). The aerosol samples were analyzed using several complementary techniques (GC/MS, FT-ICR MS, and ion chromatography) to produce a very complete organic “speciation” including both polar and non-polar compounds. Hygroscopic growth factors of the samples were measured, and we have just completed comparisons of the data with our process model predictions based upon the inorganic and organic composition of the samples.
A new nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium radiative transfer method for cool stars
Lambert, Julien; Ryde, Nils; Faure, Alexandre
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Context: The solution of the nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer equation usually relies on stationary iterative methods, which may falsely converge in some cases. Furthermore, these methods are often unable to handle large-scale systems, such as molecular spectra emerging from, for example, cool stellar atmospheres. Aims: Our objective is to develop a new method, which aims to circumvent these problems, using nonstationary numerical techniques and taking advantage of parallel computers. Methods: The technique we develop may be seen as a generalization of the coupled escape probability method. It solves the statistical equilibrium equations in all layers of a discretized model simultaneously. The numerical scheme adopted is based on the generalized minimum residual method. Result:. The code has already been applied to the special case of the water spectrum in a red supergiant stellar atmosphere. This demonstrates the fast convergence of this method, and opens the way to a wide va...
Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...
A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures
Meier, E T; Shumlak, U
2012-04-06T23:59:59.000Z
A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.
Davydov, E A
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nowadays it is widely accepted that the evolution of the universe was driven by some scalar degrees of freedom both on its early stage and at present. The corresponding cosmological models often involve some scalar fields introduced ad hoc. In this paper we cultivate a different approach, which is based on a derivation of new scalar degrees of freedom from fundamental modifications of Einstein's gravity. In elaboration of our previous work, we here investigate properties of the dilaton-scalar gravity obtained by dimensional reductions of a recently proposed affine generalized gravity theory. We show that these models possess the same symmetries as related models of GR with ordinary scalar fields. As a result, for a rather general class of dilaton-scalar gravity models we construct additional first integrals and formulate an integral equation well suited for solving by iterations.
Phase synchronization of coupled bursting neurons and the generalized Kuramoto model
Fabiano A. S. Ferrari; Ricardo L. Viana; Sérgio R. Lopes; Ruedi Stoop
2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z
Bursting neurons fire rapid sequences of action potential spikes followed by a quiescent period. The basic dynamical mechanism of bursting is the slow currents that modulate a fast spiking activity caused by rapid ionic currents. Minimal models of bursting neurons must include both effects. We considered one of these models and its relation with a generalized Kuramoto model, thanks to the definition of a geometrical phase for bursting and a corresponding frequency. We considered neuronal networks with different connection topologies and investigated the transition from a non-synchronized to a partially phase-synchronized state as the coupling strength is varied. The numerically determined critical coupling strength value for this transition to occur is compared with theoretical results valid for the generalized Kuramoto model.
Fluctuation Spectra Underlie the Behaviour of Non-equilibrium Systems
Alpha A Lee; Dominic Vella; John S Wettlaufer
2015-05-26T23:59:59.000Z
A diverse set of important physical phenomena, ranging from hydrodynamic turbulence to the collective behaviour of bacteria, are intrinsically far from equilibrium and hence cannot be described by equilibrium statistical physics. The defining feature of such systems is the presence of a constant energy source that drives them into their respective steady states. Despite their ubiquity, there are few general theoretical results that describe these non-equilibrium steady states. Here we argue that a generic signature of non-equilibrium systems is nontrivial fluctuation spectra. Based on this observation, we derive a general relation for the force exerted by a non-equilibrium system on two embedded walls. We find that for a narrow, unimodal spectrum, the force depends solely on the width and the position of the peak in the fluctuation spectrum, and will, in general, oscillate between repulsion and attraction. We demonstrate the generality of our framework by examining two apparently disparate examples. In the first we study the spectrum of wind-water interactions on the ocean surface to reveal force oscillations underlying the Maritime Casimir effect. In the second, we demonstrate quantitative agreement with force generation in recent simulations of active Brownian particles. A key implication of our work is that important non-equilibrium interactions are encoded in the fluctuation spectrum. In this sense the noise becomes the signal.
Jia, Yan-Bin
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS, VOL. 26, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2010 837 Modeling Deformations of General Parametric Shells Grasped by a Robot Hand Jiang Tian and Yan-Bin Jia, Member, IEEE Abstract--The robot hand and normal of the contact area. Design and analysis of a manipulation strategy thus depend on reliable
Generalized Disjunctive Programming as a Systematic Modeling Framework to Derive Scheduling
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
variables and constraints, but it may compromise computational performance. On the other hand, the convex hull reformulation is tighter, which generally helps to speed up the search procedure. GDP formulations. The best performer is, however, a multiple time grid model which can be derived from the convex hull
Idealized test cases for the dynamical cores of Atmospheric General Circulation Models
Jablonowski, Christiane
Idealized test cases for the dynamical cores of Atmospheric General Circulation Models: A proposal) Ram Nair (NCAR) Mark Taylor (Sandia National Laboratory) May/29/2008 1 Idealized test cases for 3D dynamical cores This document describes the idealized dynamical core test cases that are proposed
Towards a Generalized Regression Model for On-body Energy Prediction from Treadmill Walking
Sukhatme, Gaurav S.
Towards a Generalized Regression Model for On-body Energy Prediction from Treadmill Walking sensor data to energy expenditure is the ques- tion of normalizating across physiological parameters. Common approaches such as weight scaling require validation for each new population. An alternative
Calibration of CDO Tranches with the Dynamical Generalized-Poisson Loss Model
Brigo, Damiano
Calibration of CDO Tranches with the Dynamical Generalized-Poisson Loss Model (updated shortened, and consistent calibration to quoted index CDO tranches and tranchelets for several maturities is feasible, as we dynamics, investigating calibration improve- ments and stability. JEL classification code: G13. AMS
Impact Assessment of Satellite-Derived Leaf Area Index Datasets Using a General Circulation Model
Xue, Yongkang
source (i.e., Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer measurements) on a general circulation model: 10.1175/JCLI4054.1 Â© 2007 American Meteorological Society #12;Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR radiative energy into latent and sensible heat fluxes, which results in discernable warming and decrease
Tree-level unitarity constraints in the most general two Higgs doublet model
Ginzburg, I.F. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, acad. Koptyug avenue 4, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I.P. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, acad. Koptyug avenue 4, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, Ponte Bucci, 31C, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (Serbia and Montenegro), 87036 (Italy)
2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We obtain tree-level unitarity constraints for the most general Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) with explicit CP-violation. We briefly discuss correspondence between possible violation of tree-level unitarity limitation and physical content of the theory.
Erratum to "Nonlinear Unmixing of Hyperspectral Images Using a Generalized Bilinear Model"
Dobigeon, Nicolas
1 Erratum to "Nonlinear Unmixing of Hyperspectral Images Using a Generalized Bilinear Model for the four images. TABLE I UNMIXING ALGORITHM PERFORMANCES WITH ACTUAL AND ESTIMATED ENDMEMBERS (1ST AND 2ND SCENARIOS): RE AND SAM. 1st scenario 2nd scenario RE (×10-2 ) SAM (×10-2 ) RE (×10-2 ) SAM (×10-2 ) LMM FM
Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model J. M. Dong,1
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model J. M. Dong,1 H. F. Zhang,1 and G. Royer) The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of proton are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within
Tighter Relaxations for Higher-Order Models based on Generalized Roof Duality
Lunds Universitet
Tighter Relaxations for Higher-Order Models based on Generalized Roof Duality Johan Fredriksson one of the most successful approaches, namely roof duality, for approximately solving such problems cone. In the sec- ond method, it is shown that the roof dual bound can be applied in an iterated way
Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)
1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.
Equilibrium and transient morphologies of river networks : discriminating among fluvial erosion
Gasparini, Nicole Marie, 1972-
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We examine the equilibrium and transient morphology of alluvial and bedrock river networks. We apply analytical methods and an iterative model to solve for equilibrium slope-area and texture- area (in alluvial networks) ...
Generalized Jackiw-Rebbi Model and Topological Classification of Free Fermion Insulators
O. Nganba Meetei; Archana Anandakrishnan
2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new perspective to the classification of topological phases in free fermion insulators by generalizing the Jackiw-Rebbi model to arbitrary dimensions. We show that a generalized Jackiw-Rebbi model where the Dirac mass ($m$) satisfies $m(x)=-m(-x)$ is invariant under a parity transformation ($P$) that relates the $x>0$ half to the $xtopological classification of free fermion insulators. Gapless edge states are a natural consequence of our construction and their topological nature can be understood from the fact that all gapless edge states at a given interface transform similarly under $P$ (all odd or all even). A naive non-topological model for states confined to the interface will allow both even and odd states.
Examining the Generalized Waring Model for the Analysis of Traffic Crashes
Peng, Yichuan
2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
characterized by heavy long tail (Guo and Trivedi, 2002). Third, many empirical crash data exhibit more zero observations than would be allowed by a NB regression model, which causes the low mean issue of traffic crash datasets. It is often difficult.... This kind of model has been extensively used in many areas (e.g. Ramaswamy et al., 1994; Wang et al., 1998; Guo & Trivedi, 2002)and has been proposed and applied in the traffic safety context recently (Park & Lord, 2010). The general model structure of a...
Top quark electric and chromo electric dipole moments in the general two Higgs Doublet model
E. O. Iltan
2002-02-11T23:59:59.000Z
We study the electric and chromo electric dipole moment of top quark in the general two Higgs Doublet model (model III). We analyse the dependency of this quantity to the new phases coming from the complex Yukawa couplings and masses of charged and neutral Higgs bosons. We observe that the electric and chromo elecric dipole moments of top quark are at the order of 10^{-21} e cm and 10^{-20} g_s cm, which are extremely large values compared to ones calculated in the SM and also two Higgs Doublet model with real Yukawa couplings.
Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others
1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the problem of determining the three-dimensional folding of a protein given its one-dimensional amino acid sequence. We use the HP model for protein folding proposed by Dill, which models protein as a chain of amino acid residues that are either hydrophobic or polar, and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant initial driving force for the protein folding. Hart and Istrail gave approximation algorithms for folding proteins on the cubic lattice under HP model. In this paper, we examine the choice of a lattice by considering its algorithmic and geometric implications and argue that triangular lattice is a more reasonable choice. We present a set of folding rules for a triangular lattice and analyze the approximation ratio which they achieve. In addition, we introduce a generalization of the HP model to account for residues having different levels of hydrophobicity. After describing the biological foundation for this generalization, we show that in the new model we are able to achieve similar constant factor approximation guarantees on the triangular lattice as were achieved in the standard HP model. While the structures derived from our folding rules are probably still far from biological reality, we hope that having a set of folding rules with different properties will yield more interesting folds when combined.
Technology and Technical Change in the MIT EPPA Model
Jacoby, Henry D.
Potential technology change has a strong influence on projections of greenhouse gas emissions and costs of control, and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are a common device for studying these phenomena. Using ...
Is Soret equilibrium a non-equilibrium effect?
Alois Würger
2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z
Recent thermophoretic experiments on colloidal suspensions revived an old debate, namely whether the Soret effect is properly described by thermostatics, or necessarily requires non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Based on colloidal transport theory and the entropy production of the related viscous flow, our analysis leads to the conclusion that the equilibrium approach may work for small ions, yet fails for colloidal particles and polymers. Regarding binary molecular mixtures, our results shed some doubt on the validity of thermostatic approaches that derive the Soret coefficient from equilibrium potentials.
Look, Wesley Allen
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The political economy of US climate policy has revolved around state- and district- level distributional economics, and to a lesser extent household-level distribution questions. Many politicians and analysts have suggested ...
Equilibrium Distributions and Superconductivity
Ashot Vagharshakyan
2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
In this article two models for charges distributions are discussed. On the basis of our consideration we put different points of view for stationary state. We prove that only finite energy model for charges' distribution and well-known variation principle explain some well-known experimental results. A new model for superconductivity was suggested, too. In frame of that model some characteristic experimental results for superconductors is possible to explain.
Phase equilibrium measurements on twelve binary mixtures
Giles, N.F. [Wiltec Research Co., Inc., Provo, UT (United States)] [Wiltec Research Co., Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Wilson, H.L.; Wilding, W.V. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.
1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Phase equilibrium measurements have been performed on twelve binary mixtures. The PTx method was used to obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the following binary systems at two temperatures each: ethanethiol + propylene; nitrobenzene + methanol; pyridine + ethyl acetate; octane + tert-amyl methyl ether; diisopropyl ether + butane; 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol + epichlorohydrin; 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol + epichlorohydrin; 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol + epichlorohydrin; 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol + epichlorohydrin; methanol + hydrogen cyanide. For these systems, equilibrium vapor and liquid phase compositions were derived from the PTx data using the Soave equation of state to represent the vapor phase and the Wilson, NRTL, or Redlich-Kister activity coefficient model to represent the liquid phase. The infinite dilution activity coefficient of methylamine in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was determined at three temperatures by performing PTx measurements on the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was determined at three temperatures by performing PTx measurements on the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-rich half of the binary. Liquid-liquid equilibrium studies were made on the triethylene glycol + 1-pentene system at two temperatures by directly analyzing samples taken from each liquid phase.
Energy-Momentum of the Friedmann Models in General Relativity and Teleparallel Theory of Gravity
M. Sharif; M. Jamil Amir
2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the energy-momentum density components for the Friedmann models. For this purpose, we have used M${\\o}$ller's pseudotensor prescription in General Relativity and a certain energy-momentum density developed from his teleparallel formulation. It is shown that the energy density of the closed Friedmann universe vanishes on the spherical shell at the radius $\\rho=2\\sqrt{3}$. This coincides with the earlier results available in the literature. We also discuss the energy of the flat and open models. A comparison shows a partial consistency between the M${\\o}$ller's pseudotensor for General Relativity and teleparallel theory. Further, it is shown that the results are independent of the free dimensionless coupling constant of the teleparallel gravity.
Fourier analysis for generalized cylinders with polar models of cross-sections
Forsythe, William Clarence
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. Background 1. 2. Modeling Criteria 1. 3. Modeling Methods 1. 3. 1. Voxel Methods 1. 3. 2. Constructive Solid Geometry 1. 3. 3. Boundary Representation 1. 3. 4. Superquadrics 1. 4. Generalized Cylinder 1. 4. 1. GC Definition 1. 4. 2. GC Research 1. 4. 3. GC... such as spheres, cuboids, and tetrahedrons. This method works well with man-made objects. For instance, a table may be represented with five cuboids, using one cuboid for the top of the table, and one cuboid each, positioned appropriately, for the four legs...
Allu, Srikanth [ORNL] [ORNL; Velamur Asokan, Badri [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering] [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering; Shelton, William A [Louisiana State University] [Louisiana State University; Philip, Bobby [ORNL] [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL] [ORNL
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A generalized three dimensional computational model based on unied formulation of electrode- electrolyte-electrode system of a electric double layer supercapacitor has been developed. The model accounts for charge transport across the solid-liquid system. This formulation based on volume averaging process is a widely used concept for the multiphase ow equations ([28] [36]) and is analogous to porous media theory typically employed for electrochemical systems [22] [39] [12]. This formulation is extended to the electrochemical equations for a supercapacitor in a consistent fashion, which allows for a single-domain approach with no need for explicit interfacial boundary conditions as previously employed ([38]). In this model it is easy to introduce the spatio-temporal variations, anisotropies of physical properties and it is also conducive for introducing any upscaled parameters from lower length{scale simulations and experiments. Due to the irregular geometric congurations including porous electrode, the charge transport and subsequent performance characteristics of the super-capacitor can be easily captured in higher dimensions. A generalized model of this nature also provides insight into the applicability of 1D models ([38]) and where multidimensional eects need to be considered. In addition, simple sensitivity analysis on key input parameters is performed in order to ascertain the dependence of the charge and discharge processes on these parameters. Finally, we demonstarted how this new formulation can be applied to non-planar supercapacitors
Moortgat, Joachim
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Numerical simulation of multiphase compositional flow in fractured porous media, when all the species can transfer between the phases, is a real challenge. Despite the broad applications in hydrocarbon reservoir engineering and hydrology, a compositional numerical simulator for three-phase flow in fractured media has not appeared in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. In this work, we present a three-phase fully compositional simulator for fractured media, based on higher-order finite element methods. To achieve computational efficiency, we invoke the cross-flow equilibrium (CFE) concept between discrete fractures and a small neighborhood in the matrix blocks. We adopt the mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to approximate convective Darcy fluxes and the pressure equation. This approach is the most natural choice for flow in fractured media. The mass balance equations are discretized by the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, which is perhaps the most efficient approach to capture physical dis...
Power-law tailed spectra from equilibrium
T. S. Biro; G. Purcsel; G. Gyorgyi; A. Jakovac; Zs. Schram
2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
We propose that power-law tailed hadron spectra may be viewed as stemming from a matter in an unconventional equilibrium state typical for non-extensive thermodynamics. A non-extensive Boltzmann equation, which is able to form such spectra as a stationary solution, is utilized as a rough model of quark matter hadronization. Basic ideas about non-extensive simulation of the QCD equation of state on the lattice are presented.
Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules
Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.
1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative.
Generalized Uncertainty Relations and Long Time Limits for Quantum Brownian Motion Models
C. Anastopoulos; J. J. Halliwell
1994-07-27T23:59:59.000Z
We study the time evolution of the reduced Wigner function for a class of quantum Brownian motion models. We derive two generalized uncertainty relations. The first consists of a sharp lower bound on the uncertainty function, $U = (\\Delta p)^2 (\\Delta q)^2 $, after evolution for time $t$ in the presence of an environment. The second, a stronger and simpler result, consists of a lower bound at time $t$ on a modified uncertainty function, essentially the area enclosed by the $1-\\sigma$ contour of the Wigner function. In both cases the minimizing initial state is a non-minimal Gaussian pure state. These generalized uncertainty relations supply a measure of the comparative size of quantum and thermal fluctuations. We prove two simple inequalites, relating uncertainty to von Neumann entropy, and the von Neumann entropy to linear entropy. We also prove some results on the long-time limit of the Wigner function for arbitrary initial states. For the harmonic oscillator the Wigner function for all initial states becomes a Gaussian at large times (often, but not always, a thermal state). We derive the explicit forms of the long-time limit for the free particle (which does not in general go to a Gaussian), and also for more general potentials in the approximation of high temperature.
Sear, Richard P
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
RNA molecules in living cells form what look like liquid droplets formed by liquid/liquid phase separation. But unlike the molecules in conventional phase separating mixtures, RNA molecules are transported by molecular motors that consume energy and so are out of equilibrium. Motivated by this we study models with out-of-equilibrium dynamics that depend on the local density. Our simulations suggest that density-dependent dynamics in which the motion of a molecule slows down in the presence of nearby molecules, tend to cause condensation into an out-of-equilibrium liquid state. This out-of-equilibrium state behaves like a liquid in the sense that it coexists with a much more dilute phase, droplets coalesce, and the state has a well-defined surface tension --- which we calculate. Liquid/liquid separation appears to be a very general phenomenon that occurs in and out of equilibrium. We also look at the analogous separation of the two blocks of a block copolymer, in which the monomers of one block have dynamics t...
Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks
Li, Xujing [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); Zakharov, Leonid E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, MS-27 P.O. Box 451, New Jersey (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, MS-27 P.O. Box 451, New Jersey (United States); Drozdov, Vladimir V. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.
KETUSKY, EDWARD
2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis details a graduate research effort written to fulfill the Magister of Technologiae in Chemical Engineering requirements at the University of South Africa. The research evaluates the ability of equilibrium based software to forecast dissolution, evaluate safety impacts, and determine downstream processability changes associated with using oxalic acid solutions to dissolve sludge heels in Savannah River Site High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks 1-15. First, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Coupled with a model, a material balance determines the fate of hypothetical worst-case sludge in the treatment and neutralization tanks during each chemical adjustment. Although sludge is dissolved, after neutralization more is created within HLW. An energy balance determines overpressurization and overheating to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen may overwhelm the purge ventilation. Limiting the heel volume treated/acid added and processing the solids through vitrification is preferred and should not significantly increase the number of glass canisters.
A Generalized Linear Transport Model for Spatially-Correlated Stochastic Media
Anthony B. Davis; Feng Xu
2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z
We formulate a new model for transport in stochastic media with long-range spatial correlations where exponential attenuation (controlling the propagation part of the transport) becomes power law. Direct transmission over optical distance $\\tau(s)$, for fixed physical distance $s$, thus becomes $(1+\\tau(s)/a)^{-a}$, with standard exponential decay recovered when $a\\to\\infty$. Atmospheric turbulence phenomenology for fluctuating optical properties rationalizes this switch. Foundational equations for this generalized transport model are stated in integral form for $d=1,2,3$ spatial dimensions. A deterministic numerical solution is developed in $d=1$ using Markov Chain formalism, verified with Monte Carlo, and used to investigate internal radiation fields. Standard two-stream theory, where diffusion is exact, is recovered when $a=\\infty$. Differential diffusion equations are not presently known when $a<\\infty$, nor is the integro-differential form of the generalized transport equation. Monte Carlo simulations are performed in $d=2$, as a model for transport on random surfaces, to explore scaling behavior of transmittance $T$ when transport optical thickness $\\tau_\\text{t} \\gg 1$. Random walk theory correctly predicts $T \\propto \\tau_\\text{t}^{-\\min\\{1,a/2\\}}$ in the absence of absorption. Finally, single scattering theory in $d=3$ highlights the model's violation of angular reciprocity when $a<\\infty$, a desirable property at least in atmospheric applications. This violation is traced back to a key trait of generalized transport theory, namely, that we must distinguish more carefully between two kinds of propagation: one that ends in a virtual or actual detection, the other in a transition from one position to another in the medium.
McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Despite the ubiquitous existence of dams within riverscapes, much of our knowledge about dams and their environmental effects remains context-specific. Hydrology, more than any other environmental variable, has been studied in great detail with regard to dam regulation. While much progress has been made in generalizing the hydrologic effects of regulation by large dams, many aspects of hydrology show site-specific fidelity to dam operations, small dams (including diversions), and regional hydrologic regimes. A statistical modeling framework is presented to quantify and generalize hydrologic responses to varying degrees of dam regulation. Specifically, the objectives were to 1) compare the effects of local versus cumulative dam regulation, 2) determine the importance of different regional hydrologic regimes in influencing hydrologic responses to dams, and 3) evaluate how different regulation contexts lead to error in predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Overall, model performance was poor in quantifying the magnitude of hydrologic responses, but performance was sufficient in classifying hydrologic responses as negative or positive. Responses of some hydrologic indices to dam regulation were highly dependent upon hydrologic class membership and the purpose of the dam. The opposing coefficients between local and cumulative-dam predictors suggested that hydrologic responses to cumulative dam regulation are complex, and predicting the hydrology downstream of individual dams, as opposed to multiple dams, may be more easy accomplished using statistical approaches. Results also suggested that particular contexts, including multipurpose dams, high cumulative regulation by multiple dams, diversions, close proximity to dams, and certain hydrologic classes are all sources of increased error when predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Statistical models, such as the ones presented herein, show promise in their ability to model the effects of dam regulation effects at large spatial scales as to generalize the directionality of hydrologic responses.
General model selection estimation of a periodic regression with a Gaussian noise
Konev, Victor; 10.1007/s10463-008-0193-1
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper considers the problem of estimating a periodic function in a continuous time regression model with an additive stationary gaussian noise having unknown correlation function. A general model selection procedure on the basis of arbitrary projective estimates, which does not need the knowledge of the noise correlation function, is proposed. A non-asymptotic upper bound for quadratic risk (oracle inequality) has been derived under mild conditions on the noise. For the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise the risk upper bound is shown to be uniform in the nuisance parameter. In the case of gaussian white noise the constructed procedure has some advantages as compared with the procedure based on the least squares estimates (LSE). The asymptotic minimaxity of the estimates has been proved. The proposed model selection scheme is extended also to the estimation problem based on the discrete data applicably to the situation when high frequency sampling can not be provided.
Quantum Statistical Mechanics. III. Equilibrium Probability
Phil Attard
2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
Given are a first principles derivation and formulation of the probabilistic concepts that underly equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. The transition to non-equilibrium probability is traversed briefly.
T. P. Shestakova
2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z
We construct Hamiltonian dynamics of the generalized spherically symmetric gravitational model in extended phase space. We start from the Faddeev - Popov effective action with gauge-fixing and ghost terms, making use of gauge conditions in differential form. It enables us to introduce missing velocities into the Lagrangian and then construct a Hamiltonian function according a usual rule which is applied for systems without constraints. The main feature of Hamiltonian dynamics in extended phase space is that it can be proved to be completely equivalent to Lagrangian dynamics derived from the effective action. We find a BRST invariant form of the effective action by adding terms not affecting Lagrangian equations. After all, we construct the BRST charge according to the Noether theorem. Our algorithm differs from that by Batalin, Fradkin and Vilkovisky, but the resulting BRST charge generates correct transformations for all gravitational degrees of freedom including gauge ones. Generalized spherically symmetric model imitates the full gravitational theory much better then models with finite number of degrees of freedom, so that one can expect appropriate results in the case of the full theory.
Bo Jakobsen; Kristine Niss; Claudio Maggi; Niels Boye Olsen; Tage Christensen; Jeppe C. Dyre
2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z
The phenomenology of the beta relaxation process in the shear-mechanical response of glass-forming liquids is summarized and compared to that of the dielectric beta process. Furthermore, we discuss how to model the observations by means of standard viscoelastic modeling elements. Necessary physical requirements to such a model are outlined, and it is argued that physically relevant models must be additive in the shear compliance of the alpha and beta parts. A model based on these considerations is proposed and fitted to data for Polyisobutylene 680.
Lee, Shiu-Hang; Nagataki, Shigehiro
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
To better model the efficient production of cosmic rays (CRs) in supernova remnants (SNRs) with the associated coupling between CR production and SNR dynamics, we have generalized an existing cr-hydro-NEI code (i.e., Ellison et al. 2012) to include the following processes: (1) an explicit calculation of the upstream precursor structure including the position dependent flow speed, density, temperature, and magnetic field strength; (2) a momentum and space dependent CR diffusion coefficient; (3) an explicit calculation of magnetic field amplification (MFA); (4) calculation of the maximum CR momentum using the amplified magnetic field; (5) a finite Alfven speed for the particle scattering centers; and (6) the ability to accelerate a superthermal seed population of CRs as well as the ambient thermal plasma. While a great deal of work has been done modeling SNRs, most work has concentrated on either the continuum emission from relativistic electrons or ions, or the thermal emission from the shock heated plasma. Ou...
Ozgur Akarsu; Tekin Dereli; Nihan Katirci; Mikhail B. Sheftel
2015-05-04T23:59:59.000Z
In a recent study Akarsu and Dereli (Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 45:1211, 2013) discussed the dynamical reduction of a higher dimensional cosmological model which is augmented by a kinematical constraint characterized by a single real parameter, correlating and controlling the expansion of both the external (physical) and internal spaces. In that paper explicit solutions were found only for the case of three dimensional internal space ($n=3$). Here we derive a general solution of the system using Lie group symmetry properties, in parametric form for arbitrary number $n=1,2,3,\\dots$ of internal dimensions. We also investigate the dynamical reduction of the model as a function of cosmic time $t$ for various values of $n$ and generate parametric plots to discuss cosmologically relevant results.
Cintra, Rosangela S
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents an approach for employing artificial neural networks (NN) to emulate an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) as a method of data assimilation. The assimilation methods are tested in the Simplified Parameterizations PrimitivE-Equation Dynamics (SPEEDY) model, an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), using synthetic observational data simulating localization of balloon soundings. For the data assimilation scheme, the supervised NN, the multilayer perceptrons (MLP-NN), is applied. The MLP-NN are able to emulate the analysis from the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF). After the training process, the method using the MLP-NN is seen as a function of data assimilation. The NN were trained with data from first three months of 1982, 1983, and 1984. A hind-casting experiment for the 1985 data assimilation cycle using MLP-NN were performed with synthetic observations for January 1985. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the NN technique for atmospheric data assimilati...
Jeon, Y M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A free-boundary Tokamak Equilibrium Solver (TES), developed for advanced study of tokamak equilibra, is described with two distinctive features. One is a generalized method to resolve the intrinsic axisymmetric instability, which is encountered after all in equilibrium calculation with a free-boundary condition. The other is an extension to deal with a new divertor geometry such as snowflake or X divertors. For validations, the uniqueness of a solution is confirmed by the independence on variations of computational domain, the mathematical correctness and accuracy of equilibrium profiles are checked by a direct comparison with an analytic equilibrium known as a generalized Solovev equilibrium, and the governing force balance relation is tested by examining the intrinsic axisymmetric instabilities. As a valuable application, a snowflake equilibrium that requires a second order zero of the poloidal magnetic field is discussed in the circumstance of KSTAR coil system.
Non-equilibrium fluctuations and mechanochemical couplings of a molecular motor
A. W. C. Lau; D. Lacoste; K. Mallick
2007-07-30T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate theoretically the violations of Einstein and Onsager relations, and the efficiency for a single processive motor operating far from equilibrium using an extension of the two-state model introduced by Kafri {\\em et al.} [Biophys. J. {\\bf 86}, 3373 (2004)]. With the aid of the Fluctuation Theorem, we analyze the general features of these violations and this efficiency and link them to mechanochemical couplings of motors. In particular, an analysis of the experimental data of kinesin using our framework leads to interesting predictions that may serve as a guide for future experiments.
Quantum Analogical Modeling: A General Quantum Computing Algorithm for Predicting Language Behavior
Royal Skousen
2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z
This paper proposes a general quantum algorithm that can be applied to any classical computer program. Each computational step is written using reversible operators, but the operators remain classical in that the qubits take on values of only zero and one. This classical restriction on the quantum states allows the copying of qubits, a necessary requirement for doing general classical computation. Parallel processing of the quantum algorithm proceeds because of the superpositioning of qubits, the only aspect of the algorithm that is strictly quantum mechanical. Measurement of the system collapses the superposition, leaving only one state that can be observed. In most instances, the loss of information as a result of measurement would be unacceptable. But the linguistically motivated theory of Analogical Modeling (AM) proposes that the probabilistic nature of language behavior can be accurately modeled in terms of the simultaneous analysis of all possible contexts (referred to as supracontexts) providing one selects a single supracontext from those supracontexts that are homogeneous in behavior (namely, supracontexts that allow no increase in uncertainty). The amplitude for each homogeneous supracontext is proportional to its frequency of occurrence, with the result that the probability of selecting one particular supracontext to predict the behavior of the system is proportional to the square of its frequency.
Contributions to Intertemporal Models in Financial Economics
Gopalan, Ramu
2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 The absence of arbitrage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.4 General nancial equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 The model 10 2.1 Time and uncertainty..., introducing more assets may lead to equilibrium that is 2 pareto superior, is false. Similar results were also obtained by Bhattacharya [8] in a two date model. Two possible ways emerged, to avoid such discontinuities in the demand functions. The rst...
Degeneracies and scaling relations in general power-law models for gravitational lenses
Olaf Wucknitz
2002-02-20T23:59:59.000Z
The time delay in gravitational lenses can be used to derive the Hubble constant in a relatively simple way. The results of this method are less dependent on astrophysical assumptions than in many other methods. The most important uncertainty is related to the mass model used. We discuss a family of models with a separable radial power-law and an arbitrary angular dependence for the potential psi = r^beta * F(theta). Isothermal potentials are a special case of these models with beta=1. An additional external shear is used to take into account perturbations from other galaxies. Using a simple linear formalism for quadruple lenses, we can derive H0 as a function of the observables and the shear. If the latter is fixed, the result depends on the assumed power-law exponent according to H0 proportional to (2-beta)/beta. The effect of external shear is quantified by introducing a `critical shear' gamma_c as a measure for the amount of shear that changes the result significantly. The analysis shows, that in the general case H0 and gamma_c do not depend on the position of the lens galaxy. We discuss these results and compare with numerical models for a number of real lens systems.
PHASE TRANSITION NEAR A LIQUID-GAS COEXISTENCE EQUILIBRIUM
Wang, Xiao-Ping
, are the states in which gas and liquid can stay in equilibrium. We denote cÂ± = -p (Â±), the speed of sound) in general in a oscillatory manner with fre- quency determined in part by the speeds of sound in gas, the time needed for the sound wave to travel in liquid from the interface to the tube boundary
Covey, C.; Ghan, S.J.; Walton, J.J.; Weissman, P.R.
1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Interception of sunlight by the high altitude worldwide dust cloud generated by impact of a large asteroid or comet would lead to substantial land surface cooling, according to our three-dimensional atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). This result is qualitatively similar to conclusions drawn from an earlier study that employed a one-dimensional atmospheric model, but in the GCM simulation the heat capacity of the oceans substantially mitigates land surface cooling, an effect that one-dimensional models cannot quantify. On the other hand, the low heat capacity of the GCM's land surface allows temperatures to drop more rapidly in the initial stage of cooling than in the one-dimensional model study. These two differences between three-dimensional and one-dimensional model simulations were noted previously in studies of ''nuclear winter; '' GCM-simulated climatic changes in the Alvarez-inspired scenario of ''asteroid/comet winter,'' however, are more severe than in ''nuclear winter'' because the assumed aerosol amount is large enough to intercept all sunlight falling on earth. Impacts of smaller objects -- which would occur much more frequently than the Cretaceous/Tertiary event deduced by Alvarez and coworkers -- could also lead to dramatic, though less severe, climatic changes, according to our GCM. Our conclusion is that it is difficult to imagine an asteroid or comet impact leading to anything approaching complete global freezing, but quite reasonable to assume that impacts at the Alvarez level, or even smaller, dramatically alter the climate in at least a ''patchy'' sense. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Pouly, Amaury; Graça, Daniel S
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
\\emph{Are analog models of computations more powerful than classical models of computations?} From a series of recent papers, it is now clear that many realistic analog models of computations are provably equivalent to classical digital models of computations from a \\emph{computability} point of view. Take, for example, the probably most realistic model of analog computation, the General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) model from Claude Shannon, a model for Differential Analyzers, which are analog machines used from 1930s to early 1960s to solve various problems. It is now known that functions computable by Turing machines are provably exactly those that are computable by GPAC. This paper is about next step: understanding if this equivalence also holds at the \\emph{complexity} level. In this paper we show that the realistic models of analog computation -- namely the General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) -- can simulate Turing machines in a computationally efficient manner. More concretely we show that, modulo...
A General Relativistic Model for Magnetic Monopole-Infused Compact Objects
Pazameta, Zoran
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Emergent concepts from astroparticle physics are incorporated into a classical solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations for a binary magnetohydrodynamic fluid, in order to describe the final equilibrium state of compact objects infused with magnetic monopoles produced by proton-proton collisions within the intense dipolar magnetic fields generated by these objects during their collapse. It is found that the effective mass of such an object's acquired monopolar magnetic field is three times greater than the mass of its native fluid and monopoles combined, necessitating that the interior matter undergo a transition to a state of negative pressure in order to attain equilibrium. Assuming full symmetry between the electric and magnetic Maxwell equations yields expressions for the monopole charge density and magnetic field by direct analogy with their electrostatic equivalents; inserting these into the Einstein equations then leads to an interior metric which is well-behaved from the origin to the surface, where...
Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Lattice QCD
D. K. Sinclair
2007-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
Lattice QCD allows us to simulate QCD at non-zero temperature and/or densities. Such equilibrium thermodynamics calculations are relevant to the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. I give a brief review of the field with emphasis on our work.
LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM
Minnesota, University of
of equilibrium is the result of a balance among all of the different forces interacting with the object (sections 1-10), chapter 4 (sections 1, 2, 5- 7), the paragraph at equation 6-13, chapter 10 (sections 5 problems before your lecturer addresses this material. So, it is very important that you read the text
Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael
2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5+-0.5 Wm-2. An alternative estimate obtained by scaling the simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic Ta and satellite-retrieved Nd - Ta regression slopes, respectively, yields a global annual mean clear-sky (aerosol direct effect) estimate of -0.4+-0.2 Wm-2 and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7+-0.5 Wm-2, with a total estimate of -1.2+-0.4 Wm-2.
Wakamatsu, M.; Tsujimoto, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)
2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
The theoretical predictions are given for the forward limit of the unpolarized spin-flip isovector generalized parton distribution function (E{sup u}-E{sup d})(x,{xi},t) within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model, with full inclusion of the polarization of Dirac sea quarks. We observe that [(H{sup u}-H{sup d})+(E{sup u}-E{sup d})](x,0,0) has a sharp peak around x=0, which we interpret as a signal of the importance of the pionic qq excitation with large spatial extension in the transverse direction. Another interesting indication given by the predicted distribution in combination with Ji's angular momentum sum rule is that the d quark carries more angular momentum than the u quark in the proton, which may have some relation with the physics of the violation of the Gottfried sum rule.
Effect of atomic spontaneous decay on entanglement in the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model
Hessian, H.A. [Faculty of Science Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: ammar_67@yahoo.com; Obada, A.-S.F. [Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Mohamed, A.-B.A. [Faculty of Science Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)
2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
Some aspects of the irreversible dynamics of a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model are addressed. By working in the dressed-state representation, it is possible to split the dynamics of the entanglement and coherence. The exact solution of the master equation in the case of a high-Q cavity with atomic decay is found. Effects of the atomic spontaneous decay on the temporal evolution of partial entropies of the atom or the field and the total entropy as a quantitative measure entanglement are elucidated. The degree of entanglement, through the sum of the negative eigenvalues of the partially transposed density matrix and the negative mutual information has been studied and compared with other measures.
Non-equilibrium Theory of Arrested Spinodal Decomposition
José Manuel Olais-Govea; Leticia López-Flores; Magdaleno Medina-Noyola
2015-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
The Non-equilibrium Self-consistent Generalized Langevin Equation theory of irreversible relax- ation [Phys. Rev. E (2010) 82, 061503; ibid. 061504] is applied to the description of the non- equilibrium processes involved in the spinodal decomposition of suddenly and deeply quenched simple liquids. For model liquids with hard-sphere plus attractive (Yukawa or square well) pair potential, the theory predicts that the spinodal curve, besides being the threshold of the thermo- dynamic stability of homogeneous states, is also the borderline between the regions of ergodic and non-ergodic homogeneous states. It also predicts that the high-density liquid-glass transition line, whose high-temperature limit corresponds to the well-known hard-sphere glass transition, intersects the spinodal curve at lower temperatures and densities, and continues inside the spinodal region as a glass-glass transition line. Within the region bounded from below by this low-temperature glass-glass transition and from above by the spinodal dynamic arrest line we can recognize two distinct domains with qualitatively different temperature dependence of the localization length. In the shallow-quench domain the localization length diverges as a power law as the tempera- ture T approaches the spinodal temperature Ts, whereas in the deep-quench domain, immediately above the glass-glass line, the localization length increases exponentially with T. We conjecture that the upper domain might correspond to full gas-liquid phase separation conditions, whereas the deep-quench domain might correspond to the formation of physical gels by arrested spinodal decomposition.
Yock, Adam D., E-mail: ADYock@mdanderson.org; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Rao, Arvind [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California 92121 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California 92121 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: ?11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: ?7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: ?6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: ?1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: ?11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography images and facilitate improved treatment management.
Equilibrium Theory for a Particle Pulled by a Moving Optical Trap
R. Dean Astumian
2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z
The viscous drag on a colloidal particle pulled through solution by an optical trap is large enough that on experimentally relavant time scales the mechanical force exerted by the trap is equal and op- posite the viscous drag force. The rapid mechanical equilibritation allows the system to be modeled using equilibrium theory, where the effects of the energy dissipation (thermodynamic disequilibrium) show up only in the coordinate transformations that map the system from the laboratory frame of reference, relative to which the particle is moving, to a frame of reference in which the particle is, on average, stationary and on which the stochastic dynamics is governed by a canonical equilib- rium distribution function. The simple equations in the stationary frame can be analyzed using the Onsager-Machlup theory for stochastic systems and provide generalizations of equilibrium and near equilibrium concepts such as detailed balance and fluctuation-dissipation relations applicable to a wide range of systems including molecular motors, pumps, and other nano-scale machines.
Memon, Atif M.
. The tests are built as sequences of keywords, and keywords are automatically translated into concrete lowModel-Based Testing with a General Purpose Keyword-Driven Test Automation Framework Tuomas Pajunen mika.katara@tut.fi Abstract--Model-based testing (MBT) is a relatively new approach to software testing
A general equilibrium analysis of climate policy for aviation
Gillespie, Christopher Whittlesey
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Regulation of aviation's contribution to the global problem of climate change is increasingly likely in the near term, but the method agreed upon by most economists-a multi-sectoral market-based approach such as a cap and ...
A General Equilibrium Analysis of Climate Policy for Aviation
in Technology and Policy at the MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY June 2011 c Massachusetts Institute Regulation of aviation's contribution to the global problem of climate change is in- creasingly likely
The general equilibrium of tax and expenditure limits
Moule, Ellen Concetta
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Wooldridge, Jeffery M. 2002. Econometric Analysis of CrossCausal Relations by Econometric Methods and Cross-Spectralthe most widely used econometric technique for observational
applied general equilibrium: Topics by E-print Network
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corresponds to the configuration of minimum entropy production condition and the maximum entropy principle. In this limit case, we show that the derived expression of...
Modular Applied General Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET) | Open Energy Information
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Reflective equilibrium and the 'moral conservatism' objection
Chandler, James Robert
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Reflective equilibrium is widely accepted as a method of justifying ethical beliefs. Narrow reflective equilibrium justifies moral beliefs by achieving coherence between moral principles and moral judgments. However, this theory has been accused...
The effects of small perturbations in climate models
Bell, Robert Eugene
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An energy balance model . II. 2 Equilibrium statistics 5 12 III A GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL . . III. 1 Terra Blimda . III. 2 Equilibrium statistics 15 18 IV THE EFFECTS OF SMALL PERTURBATIONS . . 21 IV. 1 Response to a, Dirac delta, function IV. 2... standard deviations from the mean. , Relaxation time for different modes as a function of Legendre index n (North and Cahalan, 1981). 13 Illustration of a, rhomboidal truncation at degree 5 (R5). 17 The global mean surface temperature of Terra Blanda...
Thompson, S.L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Covey, C.
1987-09-20T23:59:59.000Z
A global atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) is modified to include radiative transfer parameterizations for the absorption and scattering of solar radiation and the absorption of thermal infrared (IR) radiation by smoke aerosols. The solar scattering modifications include a parameterization for diagnosing smoke optical properties as a function of the time- and space-dependent smoke particle radii. The aerosol IR modifications allow for both the ''grey'' absorber approximation and a broadband approximation that resolves the aerosol absorption in four spectral intervals. We examine the sensitivity of some GCM-simulated atmospheric and climatic effects to the optical properties and radiative transfer parameterizations used in studies of massive injections of smoke. Specifically, we test the model response to solar scattering versus nonscattering smoke, variations in prescribed smoke single scattering albedo and IR specific absorption, and interactive versus fixed smoke optical properties. Hypothetical nuclear war created smoke scenarios assume the July injection of 60 or 180 Tg of smoke over portions of the mid-latitude land areas of the northern hemisphere. Atmospheric transport and scavenging of the smoke are included. Nonscattering smoke cases produce roughly 40 Wm/sup -2/ more Earth-atmosphere solar irradiance absorption over the northern hemisphere, when compared to scattering smoke cases having equivalent specific absorption efficiencies. Varying the elemental carbon content of smoke over a plausible range produces a 4/sup 0/--6 /sup 0/C change in average mid-latitude land surface temperature, and a variation of about 0.1 in zonally averaged planetary albedo in the northern hemisphere.
The generalized non-conservative model of a 1-planet system - revisited
Migaszewski, Cezary
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the long-term dynamics of a planetary system composed of a star and a planet. Both bodies are considered as extended, non-spherical, rotating objects. There are no assumptions made on the relative angles between the orbital angular momentum and the spin vectors of the bodies. Thus, we analyze full, spatial model of the planetary system. Both objects are assumed to be deformed due to their own rotations, as well as due to the mutual tidal interactions. The general relativity corrections are considered in terms of the post-Newtonian approximation. Besides the conservative contributions to the perturbing forces, there are also taken into account non-conservative effects, i.e., the dissipation of the mechanical energy. This dissipation is a result of the tidal perturbation on the velocity field in the internal zones with non-zero turbulent viscosity (convective zones). Our main goal is to derive the equations of the orbital motion as well as the equations governing time-evolution of the spin vectors (ang...
Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Matveev, L.; Pruess, K.
2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this study, new elements were developed to generalize the dual-porosity model for moisture infiltration on and solute transport in unsaturated rocks, taking into account fractal aspects of the percolation process. Random advection was considered as a basic mechanism of solute transport in self-similar fracture systems. In addition to spatial variations in the infiltration velocity field, temporal fluctuations were also taken into account. The rock matrix, a low-permeability component of the heterogeneous geologic medium, acts as a trap for solute particles and moisture. Scaling relations were derived for the moisture infiltration flux, the velocity correlation length, the average velocity of infiltration, and the velocity correlation function. The effect of temporal variations in precipitation intensity on the infiltration processes was analyzed. It showed that the mode of solute transport is determined by the power exponent in the advection velocity correlation function and the dimensionality of the trapping system, both of which may change with time. Therefore, depending on time, various transport regimes may be realized: superdiffusion, subdiffusion, or classical diffusion. The complex structure of breakthrough curves from changes in the transport regimes was also examined. A renormalization of the solute source strength due to characteristic fluctuations of highly disordered media was established.
Rosenbaum, M.; Shamma, S.E.; Louis, J.F.
1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
An experimental study of the effects of thermal and velocity nonuniformities is performed in an equilibrium plasma for a range of Hall coefficients. By introducing equally spaced cold blades in the radial flow of an electrodeless magnetohydrodynamic disk deivce, it is possible to create well-defined two-dimensional wake nonuniformities with strong variations of the plasma properties in the direction normal to the magnetic field and the flow. This type of nonuniformity and orientation theoretically provides the strongest reduction of Hall coefficient and effective conductivity for high values of the Hall coefficient. This degradation which reached more than 50% in some cases, is controlled by both the level of nonuniformities and the value of the ideal Hall coefficient. The former is dependent upon the number of blades (root mean square deviation of the conductivity), and the latter is dependent upon the values of the magnetic field intensities. The results provide basic quantitative information about the effects of conductivity and velocity nonuniformities on the performance of equilibrium magnetohydrodynamic generators over a wide range of Hall coefficients. The theoretical predictions are derived from a detailed two-dimensional electrodynamic analysis and a simplified engineering model based on a generalization of Rosa's layer model. These experiments validate the analytical studies and support the use of the theoretical layer nonuniform models in describing the effect of boundary layers on the performance of linear magnetohydrodynamic devices.
Experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of nonuniformities in equilibrium MHD generators
Rosenbaum, M.; Shamma, S.E.; Louis, J.F.
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An experimental study of the effects of thermal and velocity nonuniformities is performed in an equilibrium plasma for a range of Hall parameters. An electrodeless MHD disk generator with radial flow is chosen as the ideal geometry for these experiments. By introducing equally spaced cold blades in the flow, it is possible to create well defined two-dimensional wake nonuniformities with strong variations of the plasma properties in the direction normal to the magnetic field and the flow. This type of nonuniformity is predicted to provide the strongest reduction of Hall coefficient and effective conductivity for high values of Hall parameter. This degradation is controlled by both the level of nonuniformities and the value of the ideal Hall parameter. The former is dependent upon the number of blades (root mean square deviation of the conductivity), and the latter is dependent upon the values of the magnetic field intensities. The results provide basic quantitative information about the effects of conductivity and velocity nonuniformities on the performance of equilibrium MHD generators over a wide range of Hall coefficients, between 2 and 7. Reduction formulae are established between the effective and ideal Hall parameters for different levels of nonuniformities intensities. Theoretical predictions are derived from a detailed two-dimensional electrodynamic analysis and a simplified engineering model based on a generalization of Rosa's layer model. These experiments validate the analytical studies and support the use of the theoretical layer models in describing the effect of boundary layers on the performance of linear generators.
Validation of Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry at Four Geothermal Power Plants
Ghanashyam Neupane; Jeffrey S Baum; Earl D Mattson; Gregory L Mines; Carl D Palmer; Robert W Smith
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper evaluates our ability to predict geothermal reservoir temperatures using water compositions measured from surface hot springs or shallow subsurface wells at four geothermal sites prior to the startup of geothermal energy production using RTEst, a multicomponent equilibrium geothermometer we have developed and are testing. The estimated reservoir temperatures of these thermal expressions are compared to measured bottom-hole temperatures of production wells at Raft River, ID; Neal Hot Springs, OR; Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT; and Steamboat Springs, NV geothermal sites. In general, temperatures of the producing reservoir estimated from the composition of water from surface expressions/shallow wells using RTEst are similar to the measured bottom-hole temperatures. For example, estimates for the Neal Hot Springs system are within ±10 ºC of the production temperatures. However, some caution must be exercised in evaluating RTEst predictions. Estimated temperature for a shallow Raft River well (Frazier well) is found to be slightly lower (ca. 15 ºC) than the bottom-hole temperatures from the geothermal plant production wells. For the Raft River system, local geology and fluid mixing model indicate that the fluid source for this shallow well may not have originated from the production reservoir. Similarly, RTEst results for Roosevelt Hot springs and Steamboat Springs geothermal areas were found consistent with the reservoir temperatures obtained from deep wells. These results suggest that the RTEst could be a valuable tool for estimating temperatures and evaluation geothermal resources.
Sergei Rybalko; Ekaterina Zhuchkova
2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a quite general model of active media by consideration of the interaction between pacemakers via their phase response curves. This model describes a network of pulse oscillators coupled by their response to the internal depolarization of mutual stimulations. First, a macroscopic level corresponding to an arbitrary large number of oscillatory elements coupled globally is considered. As a specific and important case of the proposed model, the bidirectional interaction of two cardiac nodes is described. This case is generalized by means of an additional pacemaker, which can be expounded as an external stimulater. The behavior of such a system is analyzed. Second, the microscopic level corresponding to the representation of cardiac nodes by one-- and two--dimensional lattices of pulse oscillators coupled via the nearest neighbors is described. The model is a universal one in the sense that on its basis one can easily construct discrete distributed media of active elements, which interact via phase response curves.
Janson, Svante
Analyzing generalized Stirling permutations via relations to families of increasing trees and urn-mail: kuba@geometrie.tuwien.ac.at, Alois.Panholzer@tuwien.ac.at) Abstract. Stirling permutations are a class of multipermutations introduced by Gessel and Stanley. We consider Stirling permutations and generalizations
GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION FOR THE PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM
Neumaier, Arnold
GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION FOR THE PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM: APPLICATION TO THE NRTL is adequately modeled by the NonRandom Two Liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient expression and the vapor phase property of the Gibbs free energy expression involving the NRTL equation is provided. It is subsequently
Scaling Behavior and Equilibrium Lengths of Knotted Polymers
Bigelow, Stephen
Scaling Behavior and Equilibrium Lengths of Knotted Polymers Eric Rawdon Akos Dobay John C. Kern numerical simulations to investigate how the chain length and topology of freely fluctuating knotted polymer of a characteristic changes with the chain size and how this change depends on the topology of the modeled polymers
Self-graviting Gas Spheres in Equilibrium State
Andrei Smirnov; Ricardo Max Menezes Oliveira
2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z
In the paper we discuss equilibrium states of stars, using a simplified analytic model. A star is considered as self-graviting body of gas. We use a condition for the equilibrium state of the body in the form of a differential equation, which relates the pressure distribution and mass density in the body. The density distributions of constant, potential, gaussian, and exponential forms are discussed. Exact expressions for the distribution of mass and pressure along the radial direction, and the central pressure were obtained.
A generalized self consistent model for effective elastic moduli of human dentine
Qin, Qinghua
Consistent Model for cell model of fiber-reinforced composites is extended to the case of hollow cylinder model and the corresponding cell model is chosen to consist of a circular hollow cylinder filled from other models such as nano-indentation method. Ã? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords
Kim, Joong Tae
2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
Open water in sea ice, such as leads and polynyas, plays a crucial role in determining the formation of deep- and bottom-water, as well as their long-term global properties and circulation. Ocean general circulation models (GCMs) designed...
Jayaram, Bhyravabotla
Solvation Free Energy of Biomacromolecules: Parameters for a Modified Generalized Born Model provides rapid estimates of the electrostatic free energies of solvation for diverse molecules of parameters compatible with the AMBER force field is described. The method is used to estimate free energies
Mochrie, Simon
to form amyloid fibrils in vitro including acylphosphatase (Chiti et al., 2000), cold-shock proteinBiophysical Journal Volume 85 August 2003 11351144 1135 A General Model for Amyloid Fibril of fibrillar species formed during fibrillation of a-synuclein, insulin, and the B1 domain of protein G
Gnanadesikan, Anand
shortwave penetration in the high-latitude Southern Ocean causes an increase in the formation of mode waterOcean Water Clarity and the Ocean General Circulation in a Coupled Climate Model ANAND GNANADESIKAN Jersey (Manuscript received 11 October 2007, in final form 17 July 2008) ABSTRACT Ocean water clarity
Near-equilibrium measurements of nonequilibrium free energy
Crooks, Gavin
2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z
A central endeavor of thermodynamics is the measurement of free energy changes. Regrettably, although we can measure the free energy of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium, typically all we can say about the free energy of a nonequilibrium ensemble is that it is larger than that of the same system at equilibrium. Herein, we derive a formally exact expression for the probability distribution of a driven system, which involves path ensemble averages of the work over trajectories of the time-reversed system. From this we find a simple near-equilibrium approximation for the free energy in terms of an excess mean time-reversed work, which can be experimentally measured on real systems. With analysis and computer simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our approximations for several simple models.
Plasma Equilibrium in a Magnetic Field with Stochastic Regions
J.A. Krommes and Allan H. Reiman
2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z
The nature of plasma equilibrium in a magnetic field with stochastic regions is examined. It is shown that the magnetic differential equation that determines the equilibrium Pfirsch-Schluter currents can be cast in a form similar to various nonlinear equations for a turbulent plasma, allowing application of the mathematical methods of statistical turbulence theory. An analytically tractable model, previously studied in the context of resonance-broadening theory, is applied with particular attention paid to the periodicity constraints required in toroidal configurations. It is shown that even a very weak radial diffusion of the magnetic field lines can have a significant effect on the equilibrium in the neighborhood of the rational surfaces, strongly modifying the near-resonant Pfirsch-Schluter currents. Implications for the numerical calculation of 3D equilibria are discussed
Trampedach, Regner; Collet, Remo; Nordlund, Åke; Stein, Robert F
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations, and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late type stars, based on deep, 3D, convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations, and improve stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, asymptotic adiabat, as function of atmospheric parameters. These and other re...
Thermodynamical description of modified generalized Chaplygin gas model of dark energy
H. Ebadi; H. Moradpour
2015-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a universe filled by a modified generalized Chaplygin gas together with a pressureless dark matter component. We get a thermodynamical interpretation for the modified generalized Chaplygin gas confined to the apparent horizon of FRW universe, whiles dark sectors do not interact with each other. Thereinafter, by taking into account a mutual interaction between the dark sectors of the cosmos, we find a thermodynamical interpretation for interacting modified generalized Chaplygin gas. Additionally, probable relation between the thermal fluctuations of the system and the assumed mutual interaction is investigated. Finally, we show that if one wants to solve the coincidence problem by using this mutual interaction, then the coupling constants of the interaction will be constrained. The corresponding constraint is also addressed. Moreover, the thermodynamic interpretation of using either a generalized Chaplygin gas or a Chaplygin gas to describe dark energy is also addressed throughout the paper.
Arumugam, Sankar
Improving Groundwater Predictions Utilizing Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts from General. The research reported in this paper evaluates the potential in developing 6-month-ahead groundwater Surface Temperature forecasts. Ten groundwater wells and nine streamgauges from the USGS Groundwater
A General Model of Concurrency and its Implementation as Many-core Dynamic RISC
Jesshope, Chris
scaling, good energy efficiency and tolerance to large latencies in asynchronous operations. This is true. This paper describes general-purpose solutions and builds on the premise that what is missing is a coherent
Improve Claus simulation by integrating kinetic limitations into equilibrium calculations
Wen, T.C.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Since all existing Claus simulators are based on equilibrium calculations, it is not surprising that the simulation results, including the overall sulfur yield, air to acid gas ratio, and stream compositions are somewhat different from the plant data. One method for improving the simulation is to consider the kinetic limitations in the Claus reactions. This has been accomplished in this work by integrating kinetic considerations into equilibrium calculations. Kinetic limitations have been introduced in both the Claus reaction furnace and the catalytic converters. An interactive computer program SULPLT Version 3 was written to implement the proposed modifications. The computer program was used to simulate the Claus furnace, catalytic converters, and the effect of air to acid gas ratio on sulfur recovery to check against literature data. Three Claus plants for which data exist have also been simulated. The results show that the proposed model predicts sulfur recovery, sulfur emission, optimal air to acid gas ratio, and various stream compositions more accurately than the equilibrium model. The proposed model appears to be valid, reliable, and applicable over a wide range of operating conditions (acid gas feeds ranging from 13% to 95% H/sub 2/S with different levels of impurities). The methodology developed in this study should be applicable to any reaction systems where kinetic limitations are important but where equilibrium still prevails.
Improved Indoor Tracking Based on Generalized t-Distribution Noise Model
Shuo, Liu; Le, Yin; Khuen, Ho Weng; Voon, Ling Keck
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
objective function. Industrial & engineering chemistryfunction approac. Industrial & Engineering Chem- istrynoise model. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research,
Petascale Atmospheric General Circulation Models R. D. Nair and H. M. Tufo#
Nair, Ramachandran D.
) into an Earth system model will require a highly scalable and accurate flux-form formulation of the dynamics
Heisenberg XXX Model with General Boundaries: Eigenvectors from Algebraic Bethe Ansatz
Samuel Belliard; Nicolas Crampé
2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvectors of the Heisenberg spin chain with general boundaries associated to the eigenvalues and the Bethe equations found recently by Cao et al. The ansatz takes the usual form of a product of operators acting on a particular vector except that the number of operators is equal to the length of the chain. We prove this result for the chains with small length. We obtain also an off-shell equation (i.e. satisfied without the Bethe equations) formally similar to the ones obtained in the periodic case or with diagonal boundaries.
Heisenberg XXX model with general boundaries: Eigenvectors from Algebraic Bethe ansatz
Belliard, S
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvectors of the Heisenberg spin chain with general boundaries associated to the eigenvalues and the Bethe equations found recently by Cao et al. The ansatz takes the usual form of a product of operators acting on a particular vector except that the number of operators is equal to the length of the chain. We prove this result for the chains with small length. We obtain also an off-shell equation (i.e. satisfied without the Bethe equations) formally similar to the ones obtained in the periodic case or with diagonal boundaries.
Technical report on the General Electric model #1 electrostatic electron microscope
Druce, Albert J
1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
screen Vacuum Chamber' Figi 5. Sectionalized View of the Lens System of the General Electric Electron microscope. which is held in place with the micalex insulatoz s is a source of many difficulties. Ii' the combination of the insulators and central..., or if desired to give the beam a diverging angle with the optical axis. The filament of the General Electric Electron Gun is heated with 60 cycle alternating current. This gives rise to an alternat1ng field about the f1lament which will deflect...
Daniel Gomez-Dumm; G. A. Gonzalez-Sprinberg
1999-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
The electric and weak electric dipole form factors for heavy fermions are calculated in the context of the most general two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM). We find that the large top mass can produce a significant enhancement of the electric dipole form factor in the case of the b and c quarks. This effect can be used to distinguish between different 2HDM scenarios.
Thornton, P. E.; Doney, S. C.; Lindsay, Keith; Moore, J. K.; Mahowald, N. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Fung, I.; Lamarque, J. F.; Feddema, Johannes J.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Biogeosciences, 6, 2099–2120, 2009 www.biogeosciences.net/6/2099/2009/ © Author(s) 2009. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Biogeosciences Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks.... Inclusion of fundamental ecological interactions between carbon and nitrogen cycles in the land component of an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) leads to decreased carbon uptake associated with CO2 fertil- ization, and increased carbon...
Xing-Hai Zhang; Su-Peng Kou
2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we studied a generalized Bose-Hubbard model on a checkerboard lattice with topologically nontrivial flat-band. We used mean-field method to decouple the model Hamiltonian and obtained phase diagram by Landau theory of second-order phase transition. We further calculate the energy gap and the dispersion of quasi-particle or quasi-hole in Mott insulator state and found that in strong interaction limit the quasi-particles or the quasi-holes also have flat bands.
Ramon Herrera; Nelson Videla; Marco Olivares
2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z
A warm inflationary universe scenario on a warped Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati brane during intermediate inflation is studied. We consider a general form for the dissipative coefficient $\\Gamma(T,\\phi)\\propto T^{m}/\\phi^{m-1}$, and also study this model in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. We analyze the evolution of the universe in the slow-roll approximation, and find the exact solutions to the equations of motion. In both regimes, we utilize recent data from the BICEP2 experiment and also from the Planck satellite to constrain the parameters in our model in accordance with the theory of cosmological perturbations.
Improved Indoor Tracking Based on Generalized t-Distribution Noise Model
Shuo, Liu; Le, Yin; Khuen, Ho Weng; Voon, Ling Keck
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
log-distance path loss model (PLM) is commonly used [20]. Itclustered near the fitted PLM curve. B. Tracking of A Moving
Calibration and Nash Equilibrium Dean Foster
Foster, Dean P.
Calibration and Nash Equilibrium Dean Foster University of Pennsylvania and Sham Kakade TTI for all players in a game. Â· Equilibrium of what process? #12;Calibration: A form of unbiasedness "Suppose be termed well calibrated." Dawid [1982] A minimal condition for performance Â· On sequence: 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
Spheromak Equilibrium Studies on SSX Cameron Geddes
Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson
Spheromak Equilibrium Studies on SSX Cameron Geddes Swarthmore College Department of Physics 10 used to study the equilibrium states of magnetized toroidal plasma configurations called spheromaks conditions. 1 Introduction to Spheromak Plasmas A spheromak is a toroid of plasma with toroidal and poloidal
Program performs vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations
Rice, V.L.
1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z
A program designed for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV or 41C calculators solves basic vapor-liquid equilibrium problems, including figuring the dewpoint, bubblepoint, and equilibrium flash. The algorithm uses W.C. Edmister's method for predicting ideal-solution K values.
V. R. Gavrilov; V. N. Melnikov
1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z
The D-dimensional cosmological model on the manifold $M = R \\times M_{1} \\times M_{2}$ describing the evolution of 2 Einsteinian factor spaces, $M_1$ and $M_2$, in the presence of multicomponent perfect fluid source is considered. The barotropic equation of state for mass-energy densities and the pressures of the components is assumed in each space. When the number of the non Ricci-flat factor spaces and the number of the perfect fluid components are both equal to 2, the Einstein equations for the model are reduced to the generalized Emden-Fowler (second-order ordinary differential) equation, which has been recently investigated by Zaitsev and Polyanin within discrete-group analysis. Using the integrable classes of this equation one generates the integrable cosmological models. The corresponding metrics are presented. The method is demonstrated for the special model with Ricci-flat spaces $M_1,M_2$ and the 2-component perfect fluid source.
A new general model with non-spherical interactions for dense polymer systems and a
Heermann, Dieter W.
parametrization for Bisphenol-A-Polycarbonate Klaus M. Zimmer, Andreas Linke and Dieter W. Heermann Institut fur modeling of the monomer units. We apply the model to the special case of Bisphenol-A-Polycarbonate BPA on the thermodynamic properties of polycarbonate systems. We will also present properties and e ciency considerations
The martian mesosphere as revealed by CO2 cloud observations and General Circulation Modeling
Spiga, Aymeric
a rare dataset of mesospheric winds. We compare the mesospheric zonal winds pre- dicted by the model by the model. Ã? 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction While the formation of CO2 clouds observations on board Mars Global Surveyor (Clancy et al., 2004, 2007), and later confirmed by THEMIS-VIS (Mc
A GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL FOR GASEOUS EXOPLANETS WITH DOUBLE-GRAY RADIATIVE TRANSFER
Rauscher, Emily [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)
2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new version of our code for modeling the atmospheric circulation on gaseous exoplanets, now employing a 'double-gray' radiative transfer scheme, which self-consistently solves for fluxes and heating throughout the atmosphere, including the emerging (observable) infrared flux. We separate the radiation into infrared and optical components, each with its own absorption coefficient, and solve standard two-stream radiative transfer equations. We use a constant optical absorption coefficient, while the infrared coefficient can scale as a power law with pressure; however, for simplicity, the results shown in this paper use a constant infrared coefficient. Here we describe our new code in detail and demonstrate its utility by presenting a generic hot Jupiter model. We discuss issues related to modeling the deepest pressures of the atmosphere and describe our use of the diffusion approximation for radiative fluxes at high optical depths. In addition, we present new models using a simple form for magnetic drag on the atmosphere. We calculate emitted thermal phase curves and find that our drag-free model has the brightest region of the atmosphere offset by {approx}12 Degree-Sign from the substellar point and a minimum flux that is 17% of the maximum, while the model with the strongest magnetic drag has an offset of only {approx}2 Degree-Sign and a ratio of 13%. Finally, we calculate rates of numerical loss of kinetic energy at {approx}15% for every model except for our strong-drag model, where there is no measurable loss; we speculate that this is due to the much decreased wind speeds in that model.
Superconformal generalization of the chaotic inflation model ?/4?{sup 4} - ?/2?{sup 2}R
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei, E-mail: kallosh@stanford.edu, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
A model of chaotic inflation based on the theory of a scalar field with potential ??{sup 4} perfectly matches the observational data if one adds to it a tiny non-minimal coupling to gravity -?/2?{sup 2} R with ??>0.002. We describe embedding of this model into the superconformal theory with spontaneous breaking of superconformal symmetry, and into supergravity. A model with small ? is technically natural: setting the small parameter ? to zero leads to a point of enhanced symmetry in the underlying superconformal theory.
Competing mechanisms of chiral symmetry breaking in a generalized Gross-Neveu model
Boehmer, Christian; Thies, Michael [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)
2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Chiral symmetry of the 2-dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model is broken explicitly by a bare mass term as well as a splitting of scalar and pseudoscalar coupling constants. The vacuum and light hadrons--mesons and baryons which become massless in the chiral limit--are explored analytically in leading order of the derivative expansion by means of a double sine-Gordon equation. Depending on the parameters, this model features new phenomena as compared to previously investigated 4-fermion models: spontaneous breaking of parity, a nontrivial chiral vacuum angle, twisted kinklike baryons whose baryon number reflects the vacuum angle, crystals with alternating baryons, and appearance of a false vacuum.
James, Stephen M.
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
-dimensional axisymmetric beam-element code. ANSYS is used as a code to build three-dimensional non-axisymmetric solid-element casing models. The work done in this thesis opens the scope to incorporate complex non-axisymmetric casing models with XLTRC2....
James, Stephen M.
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
The subject of this thesis is an extension of a two-dimensional, axisymmetric, Timoshenko-beam finite-element rotordynamic code to include a three-dimensional non-axisymmetric solid-element casing model. Axisymmetric beams are sufficient to model...
Wind waves in shallow microtidal basins and the dynamic equilibrium of tidal flats
Fagherazzi, Sergio
resuspension by wind waves and is applied to the Venice lagoon, Italy. Model results show that the equilibrium becomes emergent, the inundation period decreases, so that less sediment deposits leading to a reduction
Lisal, Martin
Mesoscale simulation of polymer reaction equilibrium: Combining dissipative particle dynamics a mesoscale simulation technique, called the reaction ensemble dissipative particle dynamics RxDPD method. Coarse-grained, particle- based mesoscale models that retain only the most essential features
Cosmological Imprints of a Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model for the Early Universe
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; /Lisbon, CENTRA; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Liu, Yen-Wei; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.
2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a phenomenological model for the early universe where there is a smooth transition between an early quintessence phase and a radiation-dominated era. The matter content is modeled by an appropriately modified Chaplygin gas for the early universe. We constrain the model observationally by mapping the primordial power spectrum of the scalar perturbations to the latest data of WMAP7. We compute as well the spectrum of the primordial gravitational waves as would be measured today. We show that the high frequencies region of the spectrum depends on the free parameter of the model and most importantly this region of the spectrum can be within the reach of future gravitational waves detectors.
OLAF _ A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air
Fliege, Jörg
........................17 3.1.1The Standard Model ....................17 3.1.2Metabolism.1.2The Objective Function ..................40 5.1.3The Gradient of the Objective Function
A general model of resource production and exchange in systems of interdependent specialists.
Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Breen, Peter; Kuypers, Marshall; Norton, Matthew David; Quach, Tu-Thach; Antognoli, Matthew; Mitchell, Michael David
2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Infrastructures are networks of dynamically interacting systems designed for the flow of information, energy, and materials. Under certain circumstances, disturbances from a targeted attack or natural disasters can cause cascading failures within and between infrastructures that result in significant service losses and long recovery times. Reliable interdependency models that can capture such multi-network cascading do not exist. The research reported here has extended Sandia's infrastructure modeling capabilities by: (1) addressing interdependencies among networks, (2) incorporating adaptive behavioral models into the network models, and (3) providing mechanisms for evaluating vulnerability to targeted attack and unforeseen disruptions. We have applied these capabilities to evaluate the robustness of various systems, and to identify factors that control the scale and duration of disruption. This capability lays the foundation for developing advanced system security solutions that encompass both external shocks and internal dynamics.
Self-repelling fractional Brownian motion - a generalized Edwards model for chain polymers
Jinky Bornales; Maria João Oliveira; Ludwig Streit
2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present an extension of the Edwards model for conformations of individual chain molecules in solvents in terms of fractional Brownian motion, and discuss the excluded volume effect on the end-to-end length of such trajectories or molecules.
General calculation model for reflection and transmission matrices of nanowire end facets
Svendsen, Guro K; Skaar, Johannes
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nanowires show a large potential for various electrooptical devices, such as light emitting diodes, solar cells and nanowire lasers. We present a direct method developed to calculate the modal reflection and transmission matrix at the end facets of a waveguide of arbitrary cross section, resulting in a generalized version of the Fresnel equations. The reflection can be conveniently computed using Fast Fourier Transforms. We demonstrate that the reflection is qualitatively described by two main parameters, the modal field confinement and the average Fresnel reflection of the plane waves constituting the waveguide mode.
Enabling Differentiated Services Using Generalized Power Control Model in Optical Networks
Zhu, Quanyan
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper considers a generalized framework to study OSNR optimization-based end-to-end link level power control problems in optical networks. We combine favorable features of game-theoretical approach and central cost approach to allow different service groups within the network. We develop solutions concepts for both cases of empty and nonempty feasible sets. In addition, we derive and prove the convergence of a distributed iterative algorithm for different classes of users. In the end, we use numerical examples to illustrate the novel framework.
Razzaghi, N
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a phenomenological model of the Dirac neutrino mass matrix based on the Fridberg-Lee neutrino mass model at a special point. In this case, the Fridberg-Lee model reduces to the Democratic mass matrix with the $S_3$ permutation family symmetry. The Democratic mass matrix has an experimentally unfavored degenerate mass spectrum on the base of tribimaximal mixing matrix. We rescue the model to find a nondegenerate mass spectrum by adding the breaking mass term as preserving the twisted Fridberg-Lee symmetry. The tribimaximal mixing matrix can be also realized. Exact tribimaximal mixing leads to $\\theta_{13}=0$. However, the results from Daya Bay and RENO experiments have established a nonzero value for $\\theta_{13}$. Keeping the leading behavior of $U$ as tribimaximal, we use Broken Democratic neutrino mass model. We characterize a perturbation mass matrix which is responsible for a nonzero $\\theta_{13}$ along with CP violation, besides the solar neutrino mass splitting has been resulted from it. We c...
Cloud/Aerosol Parameterizations: Application and Improvement of General Circulation Models
Penner, Joyce
2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
One of the biggest uncertainties associated with climate models and climate forcing is the treatment of aerosols and their effects on clouds. The effect of aerosols on clouds can be divided into two components: The first indirect effect is the forcing associated with increases in droplet concentrations; the second indirect effect is the forcing associated with changes in liquid water path, cloud morphology, and cloud lifetime. Both are highly uncertain. This project applied a cloud-resolving model to understand the response of clouds under a variety of conditions to changes in aerosols. These responses are categorized according to the large-scale meteorological conditions that lead to the response. Meteorological conditions were sampled from various fields, which, together with a global aerosol model determination of the change in aerosols from present day to pre-industrial conditions, was used to determine a first order estimate of the response of global cloud fields to changes in aerosols. The response of the clouds in the NCAR CAM3 GCM coupled to our global aerosol model were tested by examining whether the response is similar to that of the cloud resolving model and methods for improving the representation of clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions were examined.
Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT Lab. for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others
1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
A long standing problem in molecular biology is to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein, given its amino acid sequence. A variety of simplifying models have been proposed abstracting only the {open_quotes}essential physical properties{close_quotes} of real proteins. In these models, the three dimensional space is often represented by a lattice. Residues which are adjacent in the primary sequence (i.e. covalently linked) must be placed at adjacent points in the lattice. A conformation of a protein is simply a self-avoiding walk along the lattice. The protein folding problem STRING-FOLD is that of finding a conformation of the protein sequence on the lattice such that the overall energy is minimized, for some reasonable definition of energy. This formulation leaves open the choices of a lattice and an energy function. Once these choices are made, one may then address the algorithmic complexity of optimizing the energy function for the lattice. For a variety of such simple models, this minimization problem is in fact NP-hard. In this paper, we consider the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) Model introduced by Dill. The HP model abstracts the problem by grouping the 20 amino acids into two classes: hydrophobic (or non-polar) residues and hydrophilic (or polar) residues. For concreteness, we will take our input to be a string from (H,P){sup +}, where P represents polar residues, and H represents hydrophobic residues. Dill et.al. survey the literature analyzing this model. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
The temperature dependence of equilibrium plasma density
B. V. Vasiliev
2002-03-17T23:59:59.000Z
Temperature dependence of an electron-nuclear plasma equilibrium density is considered basing on known approaches, which are given in (1)(2). It is shown that at a very high temperature, which is characteristic for a star interior, the equilibrium plasma density is almost constant and equals approximately to $10^{25}$ particles per $cm^3$. At a relatively low temperature, which is characteristic for star surface, the equilibrium plasma density is in several orders lower and depends on temperature as $T^{3/2}$.
Internal noise driven generalized Langevin equation from a nonlocal continuum model
Saikat Sarkar; Shubhankar Roy Chowdhury; Debasish Roy; Ram Mohan Vasu
2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
Starting with a micropolar formulation, known to account for nonlocal microstructural effects at the continuum level, a generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for a particle, describing the predominant motion of a localized region through a single displacement degree-of-freedom (DOF), is derived. The GLE features a memory dependent multiplicative or internal noise, which appears upon recognising that the micro-rotation variables possess randomness owing to an uncertainty principle. Unlike its classical version, the new GLE qualitatively reproduces the experimentally measured fluctuations in the steady-state mean square displacement of scattering centers in a polyvinyl alcohol slab. The origin of the fluctuations is traced to nonlocal spatial interactions within the continuum. A constraint equation, similar to a fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT), is shown to statistically relate the internal noise to the other parameters in the GLE.
Pasta Nucleosynthesis: Molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear statistical equilibrium
M. E. Caplan; A. S. Schneider; C. J. Horowitz; D. K. Berry
2014-12-29T23:59:59.000Z
Background: Exotic non-spherical nuclear pasta shapes are expected in nuclear matter at just below saturation density because of competition between short range nuclear attraction and long range Coulomb repulsion. Purpose: We explore the impact of nuclear pasta on nucleosynthesis, during neutron star mergers, as cold dense nuclear matter is ejected and decompressed. Methods: We perform classical molecular dynamics simulations with 51200 and 409600 nucleons, that are run on GPUs. We expand our simulation region to decompress systems from an initial density of 0.080 fm^{-3} down to 0.00125 fm^{-3}. We study proton fractions of Y_P=0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40 at T =0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 MeV. We calculate the composition of the resulting systems using a cluster algorithm. Results: We find final compositions that are in good agreement with nuclear statistical equilibrium models for temperatures of 0.75 and 1 MeV. However, for proton fractions greater than Y_P=0.2 at a temperature of T = 0.5 MeV, the MD simulations produce non-equilibrium results with large rod-like nuclei. Conclusions: Our MD model is valid at higher densities than simple nuclear statistical equilibrium models and may help determine the initial temperatures and proton fractions of matter ejected in mergers.
Separating expansion from contraction: generalized TOV condition, LTB models with pressure and CDM
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
, we adopt the Generalised PainlevÃ©-Gullstrand (hereafter GPG) formalism used in Lasky & Lun [6], which TO LTB MODELS IN GPG SYSTEM We consider a spherically symmetric Generalised LemaÃ®tre-Tolman-Bondi metric to include pressure. Performing an ADM 3+1 splitting in the GPG coordinates [6] , the metric reads ds2 = -(t
Description of FLIPSIM V: a General Firm Level Policy Simulation Model.
Richardson, James W.; Nixon, Clair J.
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
................................................ 25 Subroutine FINAN .. .. ............................ . ................ 26 Subroutine LANDVL ............................................... 26 Subroutine DEPREC .............. . ................................. 27 Subroutine LEASE... the flexibility to lease farm machinery, and (g) adding a quadratic programming algorithm to determine crop mix. The model was .developed to allow analysis of the probable consequences of' alternative farm policies and income tax developments on typical...
Multiple sea-ice states and abrupt MOC transitions in a general circulation ocean model
Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"
represent present-day and cold-climate conditions. In each case the ocean model is initiated with both ice of about three degrees in latitude between the different runs is observed. The cold climate runs lead. Mirzayof Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, BIDR, Ben-Gurion University, 84990 Midreshet
A Generalized Cohesive Zone Model of Peel Test for Pressure Sensitive Adhesives
Zhang, Liang
2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
study, the mechanics of the peel test is analyzed based on a cohesive zone model. Cohesive failure is assumed to prevail in the vicinity of the peel front, that is, the adhesive fails not by debonding from the adherends but by splitting of the adhesive...
Three-state majority-vote model on square lattice
Lima, F W S
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Here, the model of non-equilibrium model with two states ($-1,+1$) and a noise $q$ on simple square lattices proposed for M.J. Oliveira (1992) following the conjecture of up-down symmetry of Grinstein and colleagues (1985) is studied and generalized. This model is well-known, today, as Majority-Vote Model. They showed, through Monte Carlo simulations, that their obtained results fall into the universality class of the equilibrium Ising model on a square lattice. In this work, we generalize the Majority-Vote Model for a version with three states, now including the zero state, ($-1,0,+1$) in two dimensions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we showed that our model falls into the universality class of the spin-1 ($-1,0,+1$) and spin-1/2 Ising model and also agree with Majority-Vote Model proposed for M.J. Oliveira (1992) . The exponents ratio obtained for our model was $\\gamma/\
Equilibrium Value Method for the Proof of QIP=PSPACE
Xiaodi Wu
2011-03-12T23:59:59.000Z
We provide an alternative proof of \\class{QIP}=\\class{PSPACE} to the recent breakthrough result. Unlike solving some semidefinite programs that captures the computational power of quantum interactive proofs, our method starts with one \\class{QIP}-Complete problem which computes the diamond norm between two admissible quantum channels. The key observation is that we can convert the computation of the diamond norm into the computation of some equilibrium value. The later problem, different from the former semidefinite programs, is of better form, easier to solve and could be interesting for its own sake. The multiplicative weight update method is also applied to solve the equilibrium value problem, however, in a relatively simpler way than the one in the original proof. As a direct byproduct, we also provide a NC algorithm to compute the diamond norm of a class of quantum channels. Furthermore, we provide a generalized form of equilibrium value problems that can be solved in the same way as well as comparisons to semidefinite programs.
G. Dillon; G. Morpurgo
2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z
After summarizing the basic points of the general QCD parametrization (GP) we discuss systematically its applications to the properties of the lowest families of baryons and mesons. We show how the hierarchy of the parameters in the GP emerges clearly in the properties of hadrons. Among other things, it explains why simple models can work reasonably well and clarifies the relationship between current and constituent quarks. More details on the hadron properties discussed with the GP appear from the list of secrions at the beginning of the paper.
E. O. Iltan
2001-05-17T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate the electric dipole moment of electron using the experimental result of muon electric dipole moment and upper limit of the BR(\\mu --> e\\gamma) in the framework of the general two Higgs doublet model. Our prediction is 10^{-32} e-cm, which lies in the experimental current limits. Further, we obtain constraints for the Yukawa couplings \\bar{\\xi}^{D}_{N,\\tau e} and \\bar{\\xi}^{D}_{N,\\tau\\mu}. Finally we present an expression which connects the BR(\\tau\\to \\mu\\gamma) and the electric dipole moment of \\tau-lepton and study the relation between these physical quantities.
ISO-SWS calibration and the accurate modelling of cool-star atmospheres - II. General results
L. Decin; B. Vandenbussche; C. Waelkens; K. Eriksson; B. Gustafsson; B. Plez; A. J. Sauval; K. Hinkle
2002-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
The fine calibration of the ISO-SWS detectors (Infrared Space Observatory - Short Wavelength Spectrometer) has proven to be a delicate problem. We therefore present a detailed spectroscopic study in the 2.38 -- 12 micron wavelength range of a sample of 16 A0 -- M2 stars used for the calibration of ISO-SWS. By investigating the discrepancies between the ISO-SWS data of these sources, the theoretical predictions of their spectra, the high-resolution FTS-KP (Kitt Peak) spectrum of Alpha Boo and the solar FTS-ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy) spectrum, both calibration problems and problems in computing the theoretical models and the synthetic spectra are revealed. The underlying reasons for these problems are sought for and the impact on the further calibration of ISO-SWS and on the theoretical modelling is discussed extensively.
Testing Lack-of-Fit of Generalized Linear Models via Laplace Approximation
Glab, Daniel Laurence
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
, the use of noninformative priors produces a new omnibus lack-of-fit statistic. iv We present a thorough numerical study of the proposed test and the various exist- ing orthogonal series-based tests in the context of the logistic regression model. Simula... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.1 The Lack-of-Fit Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4.2 Smoothing-based Tests of Fit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.5 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 II TESTS OF FIT FOR LOGISTIC...
EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION ITERATION FLOW-CHART
EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION ITERATION FLOW-CHART SUME AND 0 n GET 1 AND C0 j GET J1 AND 1 n GET 2 the total stored (kinetic + magnetic) energy density #12;TYPICAL FIELD CONFIGURATIONS acuum Field Low Beta
Punctuated Equilibrium Theory: Methodological and Theoretical Extensions
Flink, Carla Michelle
2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this dissertation is to add to the understanding of budgetary processes and changes in public organizations. Work in this field has relied upon the theory of incrementalism and punctuated equilibrium theory as explanations...
Towards a general analysis of LHC data within two-Higgs-doublet models
Celis, Alejandro; Pich, Antonio
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The data accumulated so far confirm the Higgs-like nature of the new boson discovered at the LHC. The Standard Model Higgs hypothesis is compatible with the collider results and no significant deviations from the Standard Model have been observed neither in the flavour sector nor in electroweak precision observables. We update the LHC and Tevatron constraints on CP-conserving two-Higgs-doublet models without tree-level flavour-changing neutral currents. While the relative sign between the top Yukawa and the gauge coupling of the $126$ GeV Higgs is found be the same as in the SM, at $90%$ CL, there is a sign degeneracy in the determination of its bottom and tau Yukawa couplings. This results in several disjoint allowed regions in the parameter space. We show how generic sum rules governing the scalar couplings determine the properties of the additional Higgs bosons in the different allowed regions. The role of electroweak precision observables, low-energy flavour constraints and LHC searches for additional sca...
Equilibrium temperature anisotropy and black-hole analogues
Daniel K. L. Oi; Jonathan Oppenheim
2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
When long-range interactions are present the usual definition of temperature implies that two systems in thermal equilibrium can be at different temperatures. This local temperature has physical significance, if the sub-systems cease to interact, each system will be at their different local temperatures. This is formally related to redshifting of temperature in general relativity. We propose experiments to test this effect which are feasible using current microfabrication techniques. It is also possible to display thermodynamical analogues to black-hole space-time.
Dynamically defined measures and equilibrium states
Ivan Werner
2014-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
A technique of dynamically defined measures is developed and its relation to the theory of equilibrium states is shown. The technique uses Caratheodory's method and the outer measure introduced in (I. Werner, Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 140 (2) (2006) 333-347). As an application, equilibrium states for contractive Markov systems (I. Werner, J. London Math. Soc. 71 (2005), no. 1, 236-258) are obtained.
Apoferritin-based nanomedicine platform for drug delivery: equilibrium...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
nanomedicine platform for drug delivery: equilibrium binding study of daunomycin with DNA. Apoferritin-based nanomedicine platform for drug delivery: equilibrium binding study...
Competing Pairing Symmetries in a Generalized Two-Orbital Model for the Pnictide Superconductors
Nicholson, Andrew D [ORNL; Ge, Weihao [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Zhang, Xiaotian [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Riera, J. A. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario; Daghofer, M. [IFW Dresden; Olés, Andrzej M. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Feskorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany; Martins, G. B. [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Moreo, Adriana [ORNL; Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce and study an extended t-U-J two-orbital model for the pnictides that includes Heisenberg terms deduced from the strong coupling expansion. Including these J terms explicitly allows us to enhance the strength of the %;0 - 0;% spin order which favors the presence of tightly bound pairing states even in the small clusters that are here exactly diagonalized. The A1g and B2g pairing symmetries are found to compete in the realistic spin-ordered and metallic regime. The dynamical pairing susceptibility additionally unveils low-lying B1g states, suggesting that small changes in parameters may render any of the three channels stable.
Goodness-of-Fit Test Issues in Generalized Linear Mixed Models
Chen, Nai-Wei
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
checking of Case 1 for (1)ZSm and (2)cS tran m . . . 58 13 Results of the type I error rate of Sm by using local polynomial smoothed residuals are computed based on the scaled chi-squared distribution cSm...-cluster interaction term of fixed effects between two con- tinuous covariates when the alternative model (4.6) is assumed. . . . 64 17 Results of controlling type I error rate of Sm by using local poly- nomial smoothed residuals are computed based on cSm when...
Effective Temperature of Non-equilibrium Dense Matter in Holography
Hironori Hoshino; Shin Nakamura
2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
We study properties of effective temperature of non-equilibrium steady states by using the anti-de Sitter spacetime/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. We consider non-equilibrium systems with a constant flow of current along an electric field, in which the current is carried by both the doped charges and those pair created by the electric field. We find that the effective temperature agrees with that of the Langevin systems if we take the limit where the pair creation is negligible. The effect of pair creation raises the effective temperature whereas the current by the doped charges contributes to lower the effective temperature in a wide range of the holographic models.
Truong, Thanh N.
A general methodology for quantum modeling of free-energy profile of reactions in solution methodology for calculating free-energy profile of reaction in solution using quantum mechanical methods screening model GCOSMO was employed in this study, though any continuum model with existing free-energy
Aidun, J.B.; Addessio, F.L.
1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The theoretical basis of the homogenization technique developed by Aboudi is presented and assessed. Given the constitutive relations of the constituents, this technique provides an equivalent, homogeneous, constitutive model of unidirectional, continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. The expressions that comprise the first-order version of the technique are given special attention as this treatment has considerable practical value. Nonlinear elasticity effects are added to it. This extension increases the accuracy of numerical simulations of high strain-rate loadings. It is particularly important for any dynamic loading in which shock waves might be produced, including crash safety, armor, and munitions applications. Examples illustrate that elastic nonlinearity can make substantial contributions at strains of only a few per cent. These contributions are greatest during post-yield inelastic deformation. The micromechanics-based homogenization technique is shown to facilitate use of an efficient approximate treatment of elastic nonlinearity in composites with isotropic matrix materials.
An Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox...
The REACT speciation model was coupled with the multidimensional nonisothermal multiphase flow and mass transport code TOUGH2, resulting in the general purpose reactive...
The Supply Function Equilibrium and its Policy Implications for Wholesale Electricity Auctions
Holmberg, P; Newbery, David
www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R Abstract The supply function equilibrium and its policy implications for wholesale electricity auctions EPRG Working Paper 1007 Cambridge Working Paper in Economics 1016 Pär... Holmberg and David Newbery The supply function equilibrium provides a game-theoretic model of strategic bidding in oligopolistic wholesale electricity auctions. This paper presents an intuitive account of current understanding and shows how welfare...
Neoclassical toroidal viscosity in perturbed equilibria with general tokamak geometry
Logan, Nikolas C.; Park, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Kimin; Wang, Zhirui [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Berkery, John W. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a calculation of neoclassical toroidal viscous torque independent of large-aspect-ratio expansions across kinetic regimes. The Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) code was developed for this purpose, and is compared to previous combined regime models as well as regime specific limits and a drift kinetic ?f guiding center code. It is shown that retaining general expressions, without circular large-aspect-ratio or other orbit approximations, can be important at experimentally relevant aspect ratio and shaping. The superbanana plateau, a kinetic resonance effect recently recognized for its relevance to ITER, is recovered by the PENT calculations and shown to require highly accurate treatment of geometric effects.
M. Wakamatsu; H. Tsujimoto
2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z
The theoretical predictions are given for the forward limit of the unpolarized spin-flip isovector generalized parton distribution function $(E^u - E^d)(x, \\xi, t)$ within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model, with full inclusion of the polarization of Dirac sea quarks. We observe that $[(H^u - H^d) + (E^u - E^d)](x,0,0)$ has a sharp peak around $x=0$, which we interpret as a signal of the importance of the pionic $q \\bar{q}$ excitation with large spatial extension in the transverse direction. Another interesting indication given by the predicted distribution in combination with Ji's angular momentum sum rule is that the $\\bar{d}$-quark carries more angular momentum than the $\\bar{u}$-quark in the proton, which may have some relation with the physics of the violation of the Gottfried sum rule.
Holanda, R.F.L.; Lima, J.A.S. [Departamento de Astronomia (IAGUSP), Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, 05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cunha, J.V. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adélia 166, 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Marassi, L., E-mail: holanda@astro.iag.usp.br, E-mail: jvcunha@ufpa.br, E-mail: luciomarassi@ect.ufrn.br, E-mail: limajas@astro.iag.usp.br [Escola de Ciência e Tecnologia, UFRN, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil)
2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
In accelerating dark energy models, the estimates of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0}, from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and X-ray surface brightness of galaxy clusters may depend on the matter content (?{sub M}), the curvature (?{sub K}) and the equation of state parameter (?). In this article, by using a sample of 25 angular diameter distances of galaxy clusters described by the elliptical ? model obtained through the SZE/X-ray technique, we constrain H{sub 0} in the framework of a general ?CDM model (arbitrary curvature) and a flat XCDM model with a constant equation of state parameter ? = p{sub x}/?{sub x}. In order to avoid the use of priors in the cosmological parameters, we apply a joint analysis involving the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the CMB Shift Parameter signature. By taking into account the statistical and systematic errors of the SZE/X-ray technique we obtain for nonflat ?CDM model H{sub 0} = 74{sup +5.0}{sub ?4.0} km s{sup ?1} Mpc{sup ?1}(1?) whereas for a flat universe with constant equation of state parameter we find H{sub 0} = 72{sup +5.5}{sub ?4.0} km s{sup ?1} Mpc{sup ?1}(1?). By assuming that galaxy clusters are described by a spherical ? model these results change to H{sub 0} = 62{sup +8.0}{sub ?7.0} and H{sub 0} = 59{sup +9.0}{sub ?6.0} km s{sup ?1} Mpc{sup ?1}(1?), respectively. The results from elliptical description are in good agreement with independent studies from the Hubble Space Telescope key project and recent estimates based on the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, thereby suggesting that the combination of these three independent phenomena provides an interesting method to constrain the Hubble constant. As an extra bonus, the adoption of the elliptical description is revealed to be a quite realistic assumption. Finally, by comparing these results with a recent determination for a flat ?CDM model using only the SZE/X-ray technique and BAO, we see that the geometry has a very weak influence on H{sub 0} estimates for this combination of data.
Linsenmeier, Manuel; Lucarini, Valerio
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We explore the implications of seasonal variability for the habitability of Earth-like planets as determined by the two parameters polar obliquity and orbital eccentricity. Commonly, the outer boundary of the habitable zone (HZ) is set by a completely frozen planet, or snowball state. Using a general circulation model coupled to a thermodynamic sea-ice model, our results show that seasonal variability can extend this outer limit of the HZ from 1.03 AU (no seasonal variability) to a maximum of 1.69 AU. Also the multistability property of planets close to the outer edge of the HZ is influenced by seasonal variability. Cold states extend far into the HZ for non-oblique planets. On highly oblique planets, cold states can also allow for habitable regions, which highlights the sufficient but not necessary condition of a warm climate state for habitability. While the effect of obliquity on the extent of the HZ is comparatively small on circular orbits, it becomes highly relevant on eccentric orbits. Our experiments ...
Equilibrium configurations of nematic liquid crystals on a torus
Antonio Segatti; Michael Snarski; Marco Veneroni
2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z
The topology and the geometry of a surface play a fundamental role in determining the equilibrium configurations of thin films of liquid crystals. We propose here a theoretical analysis of a recently introduced surface Frank energy, in the case of two-dimensional nematic liquid crystals coating a toroidal particle. Our aim is to show how a different modeling of the effect of extrinsic curvature acts as a selection principle among equilibria of the classical energy, and how new configurations emerge. In particular, our analysis predicts the existence of new stable equilibria with complex windings.
Relation of classical non-equilibrium dynamics and quantum annealing
Hidetosni Nishimori
2015-03-07T23:59:59.000Z
Non-equilibrium dynamics of the Ising model is a classical stochastic process whereas quantum mechanics has no stochastic elements in the classical sense. Nevertheless, it has been known that there exists a close formal relationship between these two processes. We reformulate this relationship and use it to compare the efficiency of simulated annealing that uses classical stochastic processes and quantum annealing to solve combinatorial optimization problems. It is shown that classical dynamics can be efficiently simulated by quantum-mechanical processes whereas the converse is not necessarily true. This may imply that quantum annealing may be regarded as a more powerful tool than simulated annealing for optimization problems.
Non-equilibrium sedimentation of colloids on the particle scale
C. Patrick Royall; Joachim Dzubiella; Matthias Schmidt; Alfons van Blaaderen
2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate sedimentation of model hard sphere-like colloidal dispersions confined in horizontal capillaries using laser scanning confocal microscopy, dynamical density functional theory, and Brownian dynamics computer simulations. For homogenized initial states we obtain quantitative agreement of the results from the respective approaches for the time evolution of the one-body density distribution and the osmotic pressure on the walls. We demonstrate that single particle information can be obtained experimentally in systems that were initialized further out-of-equilibrium such that complex lateral patterns form.
T. P. Shestakova
2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
Among theoretical issues in General Relativity the problem of constructing its Hamiltonian formulation is still of interest. The most of attempts to quantize Gravity are based upon Dirac generalization of Hamiltonian dynamics for system with constraints. At the same time there exists another way to formulate Hamiltonian dynamics for constrained systems guided by the idea of extended phase space. We have already considered some features of this approach in the previous MG12 Meeting by the example of a simple isotropic model. Now we apply the approach to a generalized spherically symmetric model which imitates the structure of General Relativity much better. In particular, making use of a global BRST symmetry and the Noether theorem, we construct the BRST charge that generates correct gauge transformations for all gravitational degrees of freedom.
Equilibrium Forward Curves for Commodities BRYAN R. ROUTLEDGE, DUANE J. SEPPI,
* ABSTRACT We develop an equilibrium model of the term structure of forward prices for stor- able commodities prices at different horizons and shows how conditional violations of the "Samuelson effect" occur. We For all of these reasons, there is a widespread interest in models for pricing and hedging commodity
Chen, Xin, E-mail: xin.chen.nj@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.
Generalized interaction in multigravity
Duplij, Steven
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A general approach to description of multigravity models in D-dimensional space-time is presented. Different possibilities of generalization of the invariant volume are given. Then a most general form of the interaction potential is constructed, which for bigravity coincides with the Pauli-Fierz model. A thorough analysis of the model along the 3+1 expansion formalism is done. It is shown that the absence of ghosts the considered bigravity model is equivalent in the weak field limit to the massive gravity (the Pauli-Fierz model). Thus, on the concrete example it is shown, that the interaction between metrics leads to nonvanishing mass of graviton.
Mériaux, François; Lasaulce, Samson; Kieffer, Michel
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Frequency non-selective time-selective multiple access channels in which transmitters can freely choose their power control policy are considered. The individual objective of the transmitters is to maximize their averaged energy-efficiency. For this purpose, a transmitter has to choose a power control policy that is, a sequence of power levels adapted to the channel variations. This problem can be formulated as a stochastic game with discounting for which there exists a theorem characterizing all the equilibrium utilities (equilibrium utility region). As in its general formulation, this theorem relies on global channel state information (CSI), it is shown that some points of the utility region can be reached with individual CSI. Interestingly, time-sharing based solutions, which are usually considered for centralized policies, appear to be part of the equilibrium solutions. This analysis is illustrated by numerical results providing further insights to the problem under investigation.
The nuclear fusion reaction rate based on relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution
Jian-Miin Liu
2002-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
The Coulomb barrier is in general much higher than thermal energy. Nuclear fusion reactions occur only among few protons and nuclei with higher relative energies than Coulomb barrier. It is the equilibrium velocity distribution of these high-energy protons and nuclei that participates in determining the rate of nuclear fusion reactions. In the circumstance it is inappropriate to use the Maxwellian velocity distribution for calculating the nuclear fusion reaction rate. We use the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for this purpose. The rate based on the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution has a reduction factor with respect to that based on the Maxwellian distribution, which factor depends on the temperature, reduced mass and atomic numbers of the studied nuclear fusion reactions. This signifies much to the solar neutrino problem.
On the spatial distribution of thermal energy in equilibrium
Bar-Sinai, Yohai
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The equipartition theorem states that in equilibrium thermal energy is equally distributed among uncoupled degrees of freedom which appear quadratically in the system's Hamiltonian. However, for spatially coupled degrees of freedom --- such as interacting particles --- one may speculate that the spatial distribution of thermal energy may differ from the value predicted by equipartition, possibly quite substantially in strongly inhomogeneous/disordered systems. Here we show that in general the averaged thermal energy may indeed be inhomogeneously distributed, but is universally bounded from above by $\\frac{1}{2}k_BT$. In addition, we show that in one-dimensional systems with short-range interactions, the thermal energy is equally partitioned even for coupled degrees of freedom in the thermodynamic limit.
ON MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FORMATION AND THE MAGNETOHYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM OF SUNSPOTS
Jaeggli, S. A.; Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Uitenbroek, H. [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)
2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
We have investigated the problem of sunspot magnetohydrostatic equilibrium with comprehensive IR sunspot magnetic field survey observations of the highly sensitive Fe I lines at 15650 A and nearby OH lines. We have found that some sunspots show isothermal increases in umbral magnetic field strength which cannot be explained by the simplified sunspot model with a single-component ideal gas atmosphere assumed in previous investigations. Large sunspots universally display nonlinear increases in magnetic pressure over temperature, while small sunspots and pores display linear behavior. The formation of molecules provides a mechanism for isothermal concentration of the umbral magnetic field, and we propose that this may explain the observed rapid increase in umbral magnetic field strength relative to temperature. Existing multi-component sunspot atmospheric models predict that a significant amount of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) exists in the sunspot umbra. The formation of H{sub 2} can significantly alter the thermodynamic properties of the sunspot atmosphere and may play a significant role in sunspot evolution. In addition to the survey observations, we have performed detailed chemical equilibrium calculations with full consideration of radiative transfer effects to establish OH as a proxy for H{sub 2}, and demonstrate that a significant population of H{sub 2} exists in the coolest regions of large sunspots.
Salt effect on the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium of the methyl acetate + methanol system
Iliuta, M.C.; Thyrion, F.C. [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.] [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.; Landauer, O.M. [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)] [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)
1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The effect of sodium thiocyanate at constant salt mole fraction from 0.01 to 0.05 and at saturation on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of methyl acetate + methanol has been studied at 101.32 kPa using a modified Othmer equilibrium still. The salt exhibited both salting-in and salting-out effects on the methyl acetate, the azeotrope being eliminated at saturation. The results were correlated using the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. and the electrolytic NRTL model of Mock et al.
Communicated by Michael Jordan Learning Virtual Equilibrium Trajectories for Control
Shadmehr, Reza
Communicated by Michael Jordan Learning Virtual Equilibrium Trajectories for Control of a Robot Arm Institute of Technology #12;Equilibrium Trajectories to Control a Robot Arm 437 the desired state
A definition of thermodynamic entropy valid for non-equilibrium states and few-particle systems
Gian Paolo Beretta; Enzo Zanchini
2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
From a new rigorous formulation of the general axiomatic foundations of thermodynamics we derive an operational definition of entropy that responds to the emergent need in many technological frameworks to understand and deploy thermodynamic entropy well beyond the traditional realm of equilibrium states of macroscopic systems. The new definition is achieved by avoiding to resort to the traditional concepts of "heat" (which restricts $a$ $priori$ the traditional definitions of entropy to the equilibrium domain) and of "thermal reservoir" (which restricts $in$ $practice$ our previous definitions of non-equilibrium entropy to the many-particle domain). The measurement procedure that defines entropy is free from intrinsic limitations and can be applied, $in$ $principle$, even to non-equilibrium states of few-particle systems, provided they are separable and uncorrelated. The construction starts from a previously developed set of carefully worded operational definitions for all the basic concepts. Then, through a new set of fully spelled-out fundamental hypotheses (four postulates and five assumptions) we derive the definitions of energy and entropy of any state, and of temperature of any stable equilibrium state. Finally, we prove the principle of entropy non-decrease, the additivity of entropy differences, the maximum entropy principle, and the impossibility of existence of a thermal reservoir.
A general proof of Landauer-Büttiker formula
G. Nenciu
2006-04-09T23:59:59.000Z
We point out a general argument leading from the formula for currents through an open mesoscopic system given by the theory of non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) to the Landauer-B\\"uttiker formula.
Energy conservation, counting statistics, and return to equilibrium
Vojkan Jaksic; Jane Panangaden; Annalisa Panati; Claude-Alain Pillet
2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
We study a microscopic Hamiltonian model describing an N-level quantum system S coupled to an infinitely extended thermal reservoir R. Initially, the system S is in an arbitrary state while the reservoir is in thermal equilibrium at temperature T. Assuming that the coupled system S+R is mixing with respect to the joint thermal equilibrium state, we study the Full Counting Statistics (FCS) of the energy transfers S->R and R->S in the process of return to equilibrium. The first FCS describes the increase of the energy of the system S. It is an atomic probability measure, denoted $P_{S,\\lambda,t}$, concentrated on the set of energy differences $\\sigma(H_S)-\\sigma(H_S)$ ($\\sigma(H_S)$ is the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of S, $t$ is the length of the time interval during which the measurement of the energy transfer is performed, and $\\lambda$ is the strength of the interaction between S and R). The second FCS, $P_{R,\\lambda,t}$, describes the decrease of the energy of the reservoir R and is typically a continuous probability measure whose support is the whole real line. We study the large time limit $t\\rightarrow\\infty$ of these two measures followed by the weak coupling limit $\\lambda\\rightarrow 0$ and prove that the limiting measures coincide. This result strengthens the first law of thermodynamics for open quantum systems. The proofs are based on modular theory of operator algebras and on a representation of $P_{R,\\lambda,t}$ by quantum transfer operators.
McCauley, Alexander P; Krüger, Matthias; Johnson, Steven G
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We examine the non-equilibrium radiative heat transfer between a plate and finite cylinders and cones, making the first accurate theoretical predictions for the total heat transfer and the spatial heat flux profile for three-dimensional compact objects including corners or tips. We find qualitatively different scaling laws for conical shapes at small separations, and in contrast to a flat/slightly-curved object, a sharp cone exhibits a local \\emph{minimum} in the spatially resolved heat flux directly below the tip. The method we develop, in which a scattering-theory formulation of thermal transfer is combined with a boundary-element method for computing scattering matrices, can be applied to three-dimensional objects of arbitrary shape.
Stimulated emission with a non-equilibrium state of radiation
L. Accardi; K. Imafuku; S. V. Kozyrev
2001-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
The stimulated emission from an atom interacting with radiation in non-equilibrium state is considered. The stochastic limit, applied to the non-relativistic Hamiltonian describing the interaction, shows that the state of atoms, driven by some non-equilibrium state of the field approaches a stationary state which can continuously emit photon, unlike the case with an equilibrium state.
REAL-TIME EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION IN A TOKAMAK
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
REAL-TIME EQUILIBRIUM RECONSTRUCTION IN A TOKAMAK J. Blum, C. Boulbe and B. Faugeras Laboratoire J reconstruction of the plasma current density in a Tokamak and of its equilibrium. The problem consists equilibrium of a plasma in a Tokamak. The experimental measurements that enable this identification
An iterative technique for solving equations of statistical equilibrium
L. B. Lucy
2001-03-21T23:59:59.000Z
Superlevel partitioning is combined with a simple relaxation procedure to construct an iterative technique for solving equations of statistical equilibrium. In treating an $N$-level model atom, the technique avoids the $N^{3}$ scaling in computer time for direct solutions with standard linear equation routines and also does not fail at large $N$ due to the accumulation of round-off errors. In consequence, the technique allows detailed model atoms with $N \\ga 10^{3}$, such as those required for iron peak elements, to be incorporated into diagnostic codes for analysing astronomical spectra. Tests are reported for a 394-level Fe II ion and a 1266-level Ni I--IV atom.
Non-equilibrium evolution of a "Tsunami" Dynamical Symmetry Breaking
Boyanovsky, D; Holman, R; Kumar, S P; Pisarski, R D; Boyanovsky, Daniel; Vega, Hector J. de; Holman, Richard; Pisarski, Robert D.
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose to study the non-equilibrium features of heavy-ion collisions by following the evolution of an initial state with a large number of quanta with a distribution around a momentum |\\vec k_0| corresponding to a thin spherical shell in momentum space, a `tsunami'. An O(N); ({\\vec \\Phi}^2)^2 model field theory in the large N limit is used as a framework to study the non-perturbative aspects of the non-equilibrium dynamics including a resummation of the effects of the medium (the initial particle distribution). In a theory where the symmetry is spontaneously broken in the absence of the medium, when the initial number of particles per correlation volume is chosen to be larger than a critical value the medium effects can restore the symmetry of the initial state. We show that if one begins with such a symmetry-restored, non-thermal, initial state, non-perturbative effects automatically induce spinodal instabilities leading to a dynamical breaking of the symmetry. As a result there is explosive particle pro...
Non-equilibrium evolution of a `Tsunami': Dynamical Symmetry Breaking
Daniel Boyanovsky; Hector J. de Vega; Richard Holman; S. Prem Kumar; Robert D. Pisarski
1997-11-06T23:59:59.000Z
We propose to study the non-equilibrium features of heavy-ion collisions by following the evolution of an initial state with a large number of quanta with a distribution around a momentum |\\vec k_0| corresponding to a thin spherical shell in momentum space, a `tsunami'. An O(N); ({\\vec \\Phi}^2)^2 model field theory in the large N limit is used as a framework to study the non-perturbative aspects of the non-equilibrium dynamics including a resummation of the effects of the medium (the initial particle distribution). In a theory where the symmetry is spontaneously broken in the absence of the medium, when the initial number of particles per correlation volume is chosen to be larger than a critical value the medium effects can restore the symmetry of the initial state. We show that if one begins with such a symmetry-restored, non-thermal, initial state, non-perturbative effects automatically induce spinodal instabilities leading to a dynamical breaking of the symmetry. As a result there is explosive particle production and a redistribution of the particles towards low momentum due to the nonlinearity of the dynamics. The asymptotic behavior displays the onset of Bose condensation of pions and the equation of state at long times is that of an ultrarelativistic gas although the momentum distribution is non-thermal.
Nishi, Sakine
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by {\\alpha}) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as ...
Adaptive Implicit Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion
Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Wang, Zhen [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel [ORNL; Pernice, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We describe methods for accurate and efficient long term time integra- tion of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion systems: implicit time integration for effi- cient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while control- ling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.
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Van Gorder, Robert A., E-mail: rav@knights.ucf.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816-1364 (United States)
2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
In R. A. Van Gorder, “General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation,” Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014) I discussed properties of generalized vortex filaments exhibiting purely rotational motion under the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation. Such solutions are stationary in terms of translational motion. In the Comment [N. Hietala, “Comment on ‘General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation’ [Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)],” Phys. Fluids 26, 119101 (2014)], the author criticizes my paper for not including translational motion (although it was clearly stated that the filament motion was assumed rotational). As it turns out, if one is interested in studying the geometric structure of solutions (which was the point of my paper), one obtains the needed qualitative results on the structure of such solutions by studying the purely rotational case. Nevertheless, in this Response I shall discuss the vortex filaments that have both rotational and translational motions. I then briefly discuss why one might want to study such generalized rotating filament solutions, in contrast to simple the standard helical or planar examples (which are really special cases). I also discuss how one can study the time evolution of filaments which exhibit more complicated dynamics than pure translation and rotation. Doing this, one can study non-stationary solutions which initially appear purely rotational and gradually display other dynamics as the filaments evolve.
The Impact of Imperfect Permit Market on Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium
Oren, Shmuel S.
The Impact of Imperfect Permit Market on Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium Tanachai market in conjunction with a permit market to study such interactions. The concept of conjectural variations is proposed to account for imperfect competition in permit market. The model is then applied
ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MHD EQUILIBRIUM OPTIONS FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE TOKAMAK POWER PLANTS
Najmabadi, Farrokh
ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MHD EQUILIBRIUM OPTIONS FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE TOKAMAK POWER PLANTS D for commercial tokamak power plants. The economic prospects of future designs are compared for several tokamak a simplified economic model and selecting uniform engineering performance parameters, this comparison
Title of dissertation: A MACROSCALE PERSPECTIVE OF NEAR-EQUILIBRIUM RELAXATION
Rubloff, Gary W.
ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: A MACROSCALE PERSPECTIVE OF NEAR-EQUILIBRIUM RELAXATION OF STEPPED CRYSTAL SURFACES John Quah, 2009 Dissertation directed by: Professor Dionisios Margetis Department the observed behavior. This dissertation takes a few of the nanoscale models and sys- tematically derives
~.,Slag-Metal Equilibrium During Submerged e-~~ Arc Welding
Eagar, Thomas W.
~~ . ~.·,Slag-Metal Equilibrium During Submerged ·e-~~ Arc Welding C. S. CHAI AND T. W. EAGAR A thermodynamic model of the equilibria existing between the slag and the weld metal during submerged arc welding over forty years ago, submerged arc welding has developed into one of the most efficient, most reliable
Quaternary liquid-liquid equilibrium of n-heptane-toluene-o-xylene-propylene carbonate
Salem, A.B.S.H.; Hamad, E.Z.; Al-Naafa, M.A. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Chemical Engineering Dept.)
1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the system n-heptane/toluene/o-xylene/propylene carbonate were obtained at 25 OC. Experimental tie line data were measured by gas chromatographic analysis. The UNIQUAC and NRTL models were used to predict the quaternary data from the corresponding ternary data. Agreement between the predictions and the experimental data was satisfactory.
Multiphase Equilibrium of Fluids Confined in Fisher-Tropsch Catalytic Systems
Warrag, Samah
2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z
Equation of state model extended to confined fluid (PR-C) has been utilized in multiphase equilibrium algorithm using FORTRAN. The simulation results provide the composition and the condition of each bulk phase and pore phase for a given initial mixture...
Shear viscosity and out of equilibrium dynamics
Andrej El; Zhe Xu; Carsten Greiner; Azwinndini Muronga
2009-06-18T23:59:59.000Z
Using Grad's method, we calculate the entropy production and derive a formula for the second-order shear viscosity coefficient in a one-dimensionally expanding particle system, which can also be considered out of chemical equilibrium. For a one-dimensional expansion of gluon matter with Bjorken boost invariance, the shear tensor and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio $\\eta/s$ are numerically calculated by an iterative and self-consistent prescription within the second-order Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics and by a microscopic parton cascade transport theory. Compared with $\\eta/s$ obtained using the Navier-Stokes approximation, the present result is about 20% larger at a QCD coupling $\\alpha_s \\sim 0.3$(with $\\eta/s\\approx 0.18$) and is a factor of 2-3 larger at a small coupling $\\alpha_s \\sim 0.01$. We demonstrate an agreement between the viscous hydrodynamic calculations and the microscopic transport results on $\\eta/s$, except when employing a small $\\alpha_s$. On the other hand, we demonstrate that for such small $\\alpha_s$, the gluon system is far from kinetic and chemical equilibrium, which indicates the break down of second-order hydrodynamics because of the strong noneqilibrium evolution. In addition, for large $\\alpha_s$ ($0.3-0.6$), the Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics formally breaks down at large momentum $p_T\\gtrsim 3$ GeV but is still a reasonably good approximation.
Phil Attard
2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
The probability operator for a generic non-equilibrium quantum system is derived. The corresponding stochastic, dissipative Schr\\"odinger equation is also given. The dissipative and stochastic propagators are linked by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem that is derived from the unitary condition on the time propagator. The dissipative propagator is derived from thermodynamic force and entropy fluctuation operators that are in general non-linear.
Right ventricular ejection fraction from equilibrium and first pass scintigraphic cardiac images
Nakamura, Eiji
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Radioactive 2 x 10 years Fig. 6. Generation and transition of Tc 11 2. Radiopharmaceuticals Radiopharmaceuticals or radioactive tracers generally consist of a radionuclide emit- ting 7-rays. They need to allow maximum information extraction... the contraction phase, is an important indicator of ventricular func- tion. Equilibrium images, in which the radiopharmaceutical is uniformly distributed throughout the blood pool, are routinely used to compute the left ventricular ejec- tion fraction...
Jian-Miin Liu
2003-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
In solar interior, it is the equilibrium velocity distribution of few high-energy protons and nuclei that participates in determining nuclear fusion reaction rates. So, it is inappropriate to use the Maxwellian velocity distribution to calculate the rates of solar nuclear fusion reactions. We have to use the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for the purpose. The nuclear fusion reaction rate based on the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution has a reduction factor with respect to that based on the Maxwellian distribution. The reduction factor depends on the temperature, reduced mass and atomic numbers of the studied nuclear fusion reactions, in other words, it varies with the sort of neutrinos. Substituting the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for the Maxwellian distribution is not important for the calculation of solar sound speeds. The relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution, if adopted in standard solar models, will lower solar neutrino fluxes and change solar neutrino energy spectra but maintain solar sound speeds. This velocity distribution is possibly a solution to the solar neutrino problem.
Stabilization of beam-weibel instability by equilibrium density ripples
Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@gmail.com; Kaw, Predhiman; Das, A.; Sengupta, S. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Ravindra Kumar, G. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)] [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we present an approach to achieve suppression/complete stabilization of the transverse electromagnetic beam Weibel instability in counter streaming electron beams by modifying the background plasma with an equilibrium density ripple, shorter than the skin depth; this weakening is more pronounced when thermal effects are included. On the basis of a linear two stream fluid model, it is shown that the growth rate of transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be reduced to zero value provided certain threshold values for ripple parameters are exceeded. We point out the relevance of the work to recent experimental investigations on sustained (long length) collimation of fast electron beams and integral beam transport for laser induced fast ignition schemes, where beam divergence is suppressed with the assistance of carbon nano-tubes.
Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas
Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)
2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance.
Monazam, E., Shadle, L., Pennline, H., Miller, D., Fauth, D., Hoffman, J., Gray, M.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The equilibrium and conversion-time data on the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with amine-based solid sorbent were analyzed over the range of 303–373 K. Data on CO{sub 2} loading on amine based solid sorbent at these temperatures and CO{sub 2} partial pressure between 10 and 760 mm Hg obtained from volumetric adsorption apparatus were fitted to a simple equilibrium model to generate the different parameters (including equilibrium constant) in the model. Using these constants, a correlation was obtained to define equilibrium constant and maximum CO{sub 2} loading as a function of temperature. In this study, a shrinking core model (SCM) was applied to elucidate the relative importance of pore diffusion and surface chemical reaction in controlling the rate of reaction. Application of SCM to the data suggested a surface reaction-controlled mechanism for the temperature of up to 40°C and pore-diffusion mechanism at higher temperature.
Alvarez, Pedro J.
and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, MS-317, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005, USA a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Article history: Received 30 October 2009 Received in revised form 26 January 2010 generalizations about the level of impact of specific fuel alcohols on benzene plume dynamics. Â© 2010 Elsevier B
Johnson, Brian Scott
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and the flowing ground water. Assumming that local equilibrium conditions were acheived within the first hour hour of contact produced a poor fit of predicted to experimental values. However, an equilibrium model which assumes that equilibrium conditions...
Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads
Milan Batista
2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z
The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.
Space Charge and Equilibrium Emittances in Damping Rings
Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu; Wolski, Andy
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
SPACE CHARGE AND EQUILIBRIUM EMITTANCES IN DAMPING RINGS ?for the pos- sible impact of space charge on the equilibriumrings. INTRODUCTION Direct space charge effects have the
anesthetics equilibrium measurements: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
etched CR-39 SSNTD Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: .60 Keywords: Radon progeny concentration; Equilibrium factor; CR-39 1. Introduction Inhaled radon (222 Rn...
antagonistic folding-unfolding equilibrium: Topics by E-print...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
locally in thermodynamic equilibrium, and always global maximizers of the pertinent maximum entropy principle. Michael K. -H. Kiessling 2008-05-03 11 A Nonstandard...
acid-base equilibrium: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
locally in thermodynamic equilibrium, and always global maximizers of the pertinent maximum entropy principle. Michael K. -H. Kiessling 2008-05-03 12 A Nonstandard...
Rahul Ghosh; Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath
2011-10-22T23:59:59.000Z
This work is motivated by the work of Kim et al (2008), which considered the equation of state parameter for the new agegraphic dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle coexisting with dark matter without interaction. In this work, we have considered the same dark energy inter- acting with dark matter in emergent, intermediate and logamediate scenarios of the universe. Also, we have investigated the statefinder, kerk and lerk parameters in all three scenarios under this inter- action. The energy density and pressure for the new agegraphic dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle have been calculated and their behaviors have been investigated. The evolu- tion of the equation of state parameter has been analyzed in the interacting and non-interacting situations in all the three scenarios. The graphical analysis shows that the dark energy behaves like quintessence era for logamediate expansion and phantom era for emergent and intermediate expansions of the universe.
Generalized Hawking-Page Phase Transition
Parthasarathi Majumdar
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The issue of radiant spherical black holes being in stable thermal equilibrium with their radiation bath is reconsidered. Using a simple equilibrium statistical mechanical analysis incorporating Gaussian thermal fluctuations in a canonical ensemble of isolated horizons, the heat capacity is shown to diverge at a critical value of the classical mass of the isolated horizon, given (in Planckian units) by the {\\it microcanonical} entropy calculated using Loop Quantum Gravity. The analysis reproduces the Hawking-Page phase transition discerned for anti-de Sitter black holes and generalizes it in the sense that nowhere is any classical metric made use of.
Wenting Zhou; Hongwei Yu
2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z
We study the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an atom out of thermal equilibrium near the surface of a dielectric substrate. We first generalize, adopting the local source hypothesis, the formalism proposed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc and Cohen-Tannoudji, which separates the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction to the energy shift and allows a distinct treatment to atoms in the ground and excited states, to the case out of thermal equilibrium, and then use the generalized formalism to calculate the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an isotropically polarizable neutral atom. We identify the effects of the thermal fluctuations that originate from the substrate and the environment and discuss in detail how the Casimir-Polder force out of thermal equilibrium behaves in three different distance regions in both the low-temperature limit and the high-temperature limit for both the ground-state and excited-state atoms, with special attention devoted to the new features as opposed to thermal equilibrium. In particular, we recover the new behavior of the atom-wall force out of thermal equilibrium at large distances in the low temperature limit recently found in a different theoretical framework and furthermore we give a concrete region where this behavior holds.
Gilman, Lindsey Anne
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Advanced modeling capabilities were developed for application to subcooled flow boiling through this work. The target was to introduce, and demonstrate, all necessary mechanisms required to accurately predict the temperature ...
Zhang, Yuwen
transfer Non-equilibrium Dual-phase lag a b s t r a c t Based on a nonequilibrium heat transfer model
Newton, James Edward
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
are reported for FeP where P = porphinato(2-) ~ (NH2)4 , (NHCH2)4 , (N4C2H10) , (N4CBH6) and for Fe(02)PL where P = porphi nato(2-), (NH2)4 , (N4C2H6) and L = imidazole, NH3. The MO calculations indicate that (N4C2H6) is a better model for the porphyri n... ring in metal-dioxygen porphyrin complexes than the model (NH ) . This model was employed in generalized molecular orbital-confi guration interaction calculations of Fe(02)P(NH3), Co(02)P(NH3), and Mn(02)P where P = (N4C2H6) The ozone...
Herrera, Ramón; Olivares, Marco
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A warm inflationary Universe in the Randall-Sundrum II model during intermediate inflation is studied. For this purpose, we consider a general form for the dissipative coefficient $\\Gamma(T,\\phi)=C_{\\phi}\\,\\frac{T^{m}}{\\phi^{m-1}}$, and also analyze this inflationary model in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. We study the evolution of the Universe under the slow-roll approximation and find solutions to the full effective Friedmann equation in the brane-world framework. In order to constrain the parameters in our model, we consider the recent data from the BICEP2-Planck 2015 data together with the necessary condition for warm inflation $T>H$, and also the condition from the weak (or strong) dissipative regime.
Ramón Herrera; Nelson Videla; Marco Olivares
2015-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
A warm inflationary Universe in the Randall-Sundrum II model during intermediate inflation is studied. For this purpose, we consider a general form for the dissipative coefficient $\\Gamma(T,\\phi)=C_{\\phi}\\,\\frac{T^{m}}{\\phi^{m-1}}$, and also analyze this inflationary model in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. We study the evolution of the Universe under the slow-roll approximation and find solutions to the full effective Friedmann equation in the brane-world framework. In order to constrain the parameters in our model, we consider the recent data from the BICEP2-Planck 2015 data together with the necessary condition for warm inflation $T>H$, and also the condition from the weak (or strong) dissipative regime.
Solubility of carbon in tetragonal ferrite in equilibrium with austenite
Cambridge, University of
Solubility of carbon in tetragonal ferrite in equilibrium with austenite Jae Hoon Jang a H. K. D. H in tetragonal ferrite that is in equilibrium with austenite. It is found that the solubility is dramatically increased relative to the cubic form of ferrite, and the implications of this are discussed briefly. Key
Sony, Priya
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Pariser-Parr-Pople (P-P-P) model Hamiltonian has been used extensively over the years to perform calculations of electronic structure and optical properties of $\\pi$-conjugated systems successfully. In spite of tremendous successes of \\emph{ab initio} theory of electronic structure of large systems, the P-P-P model continues to be a popular one because of a recent resurgence in interest in the physics of $\\pi$-conjugated polymers, fullerenes and other carbon based materials. In this paper, we describe a Fortran 90 computer program developed by us, which uses P-P-P model Hamiltonian to not only solve Hartree-Fock (HF) equation for closed- and open-shell systems, but also for performing correlation calculations at the level of single configuration interactions (SCI) for molecular systems. Moreover, the code is capable of computing linear optical absorption spectrum at various levels, such as, tight binding (TB) Hueckel model, HF, SCI, and also of calculating the band structure using the Hueckel model. The code ...
Optimization Under Generalized Uncertainty
Lodwick, Weldon
11 Optimization Under Generalized Uncertainty Optimization Modeling Math 4794/5794: Spring 2013 Weldon A. Lodwick Weldon.Lodwick@ucdenver.edu 2/14/2013 Optimization Modeling - Spring 2013 #12 in the context of optimization problems. The theoretical frame-work for these notes is interval analysis. From
Di Troia, Claudio
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A class of parametric distribution functions has been proposed in [C.DiTroia, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion,54,2012] as equilibrium distribution functions (EDFs) for charged particles in fusion plasmas, representing supra-thermal particles in anisotropic equilibria for Neutral Beam Injection, Ion Cyclotron Heating scenarios. Moreover, the EDFs can also represent nearly isotropic equilibria for Slowing-Down $alpha$ particles and core thermal plasma populations. These EDFs depend on constants of motion (COMs). Assuming an axisymmetric system with no equilibrium electric field, the EDF depends on the toroidal canonical momentum $P_\\phi$, the kinetic energy $w$ and the magnetic moment \\mu. In the present work, the EDFs are obtained from first principles and general hypothesis. The derivation is probabilistic and makes use of the Bayes' Theorem. The bayesian argument allows us to describe how far from the prior probability distribution function (pdf), e.g. Maxwellian, the plasma is, based on the information...
Proton-Rich Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium
I. R. Seitenzahl; F. X. Timmes; A. Marin-Laflèche; E. Brown; G. Magkotsios; J. Truran
2008-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
Proton-rich material in a state of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is one of the least studied regimes of nucleosynthesis. One reason for this is that after hydrogen burning, stellar evolution proceeds at conditions of equal number of neutrons and protons or at a slight degree of neutron-richness. Proton-rich nucleosynthesis in stars tends to occur only when hydrogen-rich material that accretes onto a white dwarf or neutron star explodes, or when neutrino interactions in the winds from a nascent proto-neutron star or collapsar-disk drive the matter proton-rich prior to or during the nucleosynthesis. In this paper we solve the NSE equations for a range of proton-rich thermodynamic conditions. We show that cold proton-rich NSE is qualitatively different from neutron-rich NSE. Instead of being dominated by the Fe-peak nuclei with the largest binding energy per nucleon that have a proton to nucleon ratio close to the prescribed electron fraction, NSE for proton-rich material near freeze-out temperature is mainly composed of Ni56 and free protons. Previous results of nuclear reaction network calculations rely on this non-intuitive high proton abundance, which this paper will explain. We show how the differences and especially the large fraction of free protons arises from the minimization of the free energy as a result of a delicate competition between the entropy and the nuclear binding energy.
Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Self-Replicating Protocells
Harold Fellermann; Bernat Corominas-Murtra; Per Lyngs Hansen; John Hjort Ipsen; Ricard Solé; Steen Rasmussen
2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z
We provide a non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of the life-cycle of a droplet based, chemically feasible, system of protocells. By coupling the protocells metabolic kinetics with its thermodynamics, we demonstrate how the system can be driven out of equilibrium to ensure protocell growth and replication. This coupling allows us to derive the equations of evolution and to rigorously demonstrate how growth and replication life-cycle can be understood as a non-equilibrium thermodynamic cycle. The process does not appeal to genetic information or inheritance, and is based only on non-equilibrium physics considerations. Our non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of simple, yet realistic, processes of protocell growth and replication, represents an advance in our physical understanding of a central biological phenomenon both in connection to the origin of life and for modern biology.
Heermann, Dieter W.
parametrization for Bisphenol-A-Polycarbonate Klaus M. Zimmer, Andreas Linke and Dieter W. Heermann Institut fur of the monomer units. We apply the model to the special case of Bisphenol-A-Polycarbonate (BPA- PC) and present properties of polycarbonate systems. We will also present properties and e ciency considerations
Casey, James Elmer
1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. Hypothetical Factor-Pactor Model indicating profit maximizing conditions with limited capital and with a variab1e input limitation 24 P2 units, then other inputs would be added until their marginal value poduct was equal to their price. This would...
Circulation Models Alan M. Haywood a, , Mark A. Chandler b , Paul J. Valdes c , Ulrich Salzmann d , Daniel J set of Piacenzian Stage land cover [Salzmann, U., Haywood, A.M., Lunt, D.J., Valdes, P.J., Hill, D intervals in Earth History (e.g. Kutzbach and Otto-Bliesner, 1982; Barron and Washington, 1982; Valdes
1 stepped pressure equilibrium code : co01aa 1 stepped pressure equilibrium code : co01aa 1
Hudson, Stuart
1 stepped pressure equilibrium code : co01aa Contents 1 stepped pressure equilibrium code : co01aa) g = RR + R2 (12) g = RR (13) g = RR + 1 (14) co01aa.h last modified on 2014-04-30 ; 2 #12;
Objective Our goal is to develop a modeling formalism for representing state and change of state. Approach We represent cyber systems as discrete mathematical objects interacting across hierarchically
Colaiori, Francesca; Cuskley, Christine F; Loreto, Vittorio; Pugliese, Martina; Tria, Francesca
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Empirical evidence shows that the rate of irregular usage of English verbs exhibits discontinuity as a function of their frequency: the most frequent verbs tend to be totally irregular. We aim to qualitatively understand the origin of this feature by studying simple agent--based models of language dynamics, where each agent adopts an inflectional state for a verb and may change it upon interaction with other agents. At the same time, agents are replaced at some rate by new agents adopting the regular form. In models with only two inflectional states (regular and irregular), we observe that either all verbs regularize irrespective of their frequency, or a continuous transition occurs between a low frequency state where the lemma becomes fully regular, and a high frequency one where both forms coexist. Introducing a third (mixed) state, wherein agents may use either form, we find that a third, qualitatively different behavior may emerge, namely, a discontinuous transition in frequency. We introduce and solve an...
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental AssessmentsGeoffrey Campbelllong version)Confinement |GeneralGeneral
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental AssessmentsGeoffrey Campbelllong version)Confinement |GeneralGeneralÂ»
Van Gorder, Robert A., E-mail: rav@knights.ucf.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816-1364 (United States)
2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
In his study of superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit, Svistunov [“Superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3647 (1995)] derived a Hamiltonian equation for the self-induced motion of a vortex filament. Under the local induction approximation (LIA), the Svistunov formulation is equivalent to a nonlinear dispersive partial differential equation. In this paper, we consider a family of rotating vortex filament solutions for the LIA reduction of the Svistunov formulation, which we refer to as the 2D LIA (since it permits a potential formulation in terms of two of the three Cartesian coordinates). This class of solutions holds the well-known Hasimoto-type planar vortex filament [H. Hasimoto, “Motion of a vortex filament and its relation to elastica,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 31, 293 (1971)] as one reduction and helical solutions as another. More generally, we obtain solutions which are periodic in the space variable. A systematic analytical study of the behavior of such solutions is carried out. In the case where vortex filaments have small deviations from the axis of rotation, closed analytical forms of the filament solutions are given. A variety of numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the wide range of rotating filament behaviors possible. Doing so, we are able to determine a number of vortex filament structures not previously studied. We find that the solution structure progresses from planar to helical, and then to more intricate and complex filament structures, possibly indicating the onset of superfluid turbulence.
Liquidity Shortages in a Model with Equilibrium Manoj Atolia
Bowers, Philip L.
suggests that the incentive for the entrepreneur to shirk increases during times of economic distress incentives that the economic environment provides to the entrepreneurs to ensure their project's success economic contraction. This result occurs without significant additional cuts in factor employment due
A Two Stage Stochastic Equilibrium Model for Electricity Markets ...
2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
a monopoly, its marginal cost at output level qu or above would exceed any possible market price. ...... in an electricity markets with locational prices. See [15] for ...
Justification of Constrained Game Equilibrium Models1 1 Introduction
2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
13-01-00029a. 2Department of System Analysis and Information Technologies, Kazan Federal Uni- versity, ul. Kremlevskaya, 18, Kazan 420008, Russia. 1 ...
An Equilibrium Model of Investment in Restructured Electricity Markets
Bushnell, Jim B; Ishii, Jun
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
in Deregulated Wholesale Electricity Markets,” RAND JournalBehavior in a Competitive Electricity Market,” InternationalMarket Power in Electricity Markets: Beyond Concentration
An Equilibrium Model of Investment in Restructured Electricity Markets
Bushnell, Jim B; Ishii, Jun
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
electricity generation ?rm should invest in the new plant.plant stems from the value of its electricity generation.Electricity generation ?rms make two important sets of decisions: bids in the spot market and power plant
A multi-period equilibrium pricing model of weather derivatives
Lee, Yongheon; Oren, Shmuel S.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Y. : Valuation and hedging of weather derivatives on monthlyJ. Risk 31. Yoo, S. : Weather derivatives and seasonaleffects and valuation of weather derivatives. Financ. Rev.
CSEM WP 164 An Equilibrium Model of Investment in
Kammen, Daniel M.
by the Midwest Independent System Operator. 1 #12;1 Introduction Under the regime of cost-of-service regulation increasingly sophisticated unit-level representations of the various costs and constraints of plant operations
Prediction of heptanes-plus equilibrium ratios from empirical correlations
McKenna, Martin James
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
6590 305 247 0. 862 low 600 3225 158 149 0. 787 8055 313 212 0. 841 low sOV 2375 127 108 0. 746 TABLE 3-PHYS ICAL AND CRITICAL PROPERTIES Component methane ethane propane i-butane n-butane i-pentane n-pentane hexane (1b... using only one property ? critical temperature- to correlate equilibrium ratios. Campbell stated that for a fixed temperature and pressure, the equilibrium ratios of a mixture in v the equation apor-liquid equilibrium can be represented by log K...
Entanglement Production in Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics
V. Vedral
2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
We define and analyse the concept of entanglement production during the evolution of a general quantum mechanical dissipative system. While it is important to minimise entropy production in order to achieve thermodynamical efficiency, maximising the rate of change of entanglement is important in quantum information processing. Quantitative relations are obtained between entropy and entanglement productions, under specific assumptions detailed in the text. We apply these to the processes of dephasing and decay of correlations between two initially entangled qubits. Both the Master equation treatment as well as the higher Hilbert space analysis are presented. Our formalism is very general and contains as special cases many reported individual instance of entanglement dynamics, such as, for example, the recently discovered notion of the sudden death of entanglement.
Waugh, C. (Caleb Joseph)
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Air pollution and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission reduction policies are desirable to reduce smog, tropospheric concentrations of ozone precursors, acid rain, and other adverse effects on human health, the environment, ...
Morris Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Most economists see incentive-based measures such a cap-and-trade system or a carbon tax as cost effective policy instruments for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In actuality, many efforts to address GHG emissions combine ...
Morris, Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...
Karkatsouli, Ioanna
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Wind generation has been growing fast, with onshore wind having a 27% average annual growth rate over the past decade. Motivated by this growth, a comprehensive analysis of both the economic and engineering implications ...
Madan, Tanvir Singh
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The residential sector in the U.S. is responsible for about 20% of the country's primary energy use (EIA, 2011). Studies estimate that efficiency improvements in this sector can reduce household energy consumption by over ...
Kishimoto, Paul N
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Vehicle sales and road travel volume in China have grown rapidly in recent years, and with them energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollution. Aviation and rail travel have also grown, while ceding a large ...
Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States : a general equilibrium analysis
Karplus, Valerie Jean
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from personal vehicle transportation in the United States over the next century, depending on the ...
Morris, J.
The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...
A General Equilibrium Analysis of Land Use Restrictions and Residential Welfare
Quigley, John M.; Swoboda, Aaron
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
20:1–20, 1986. John M. Quigley. Current Issues in UrbanPress, 1979. John M. Quigley. The production of housing15(4):555–567, 1984. John M. Quigley and Larry A. Rosenthal.
The Urban Impacts of the Endangered Species Act: A General Equilibrium Analysis
Quigley, John M.; Swoboda, Aaron
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
quigley@econ.berkeley.edu (J.M. Quigley), swoboda@pitt.edu (1 (x) ? r 0 (x)) dx. J.M. Quigley, A.M. Swoboda / Journal ofx), S(x), and r(x). J.M. Quigley, A.M. Swoboda / Journal of
The Prospects for Coal-To-Liquid Conversion: A General Equilibrium Analysis
Chen, Y.-H. Henry
We investigate the economics of coal-to-liquid (CTL) conversion, a polygeneration technology that produces liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity by coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch process. CTL is more expensive ...
Generalized Solovev equilibrium with sheared flow of arbitrary direction and stability consideration
Kaltsas, D. A., E-mail: dkaltsas@cc.uoi.gr, E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr; Throumoulopoulos, G. N., E-mail: dkaltsas@cc.uoi.gr, E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece)
2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
A Solovev-like solution describing equilibria with field aligned incompressible flows [G. N. Throumoulopoulos and H. Tasso, Phys. Plasmas 19, 014504 (2012)] is extended to non parallel flows. The solution expressed as a superposition of Bessel functions contains an arbitrary number of free parameters which are exploited to construct a variety of configurations including ITER shaped ones. For parallel flows, application of a sufficient condition for linear stability shows that this condition is satisfied in an appreciable part of the plasma region on the high-field side mostly due to the variation of the magnetic field perpendicular to the magnetic surfaces. Also, the results indicate that depending on the shape of the Mach-function profile and the values of the free parameters the flow and flow shear may have either stabilizing or destabilizing effects.
Rausch, Sebastian
Many policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions have at their core efforts to put a price on carbon emissions. Carbon pricing impacts households both by raising the cost of carbon intensive products and by changing factor ...
Blitzer, Charles R.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a methodology for analyzing the potential for reduction in carbon emissions through increased fuel efficiency and provides an illustration of the method. The methodology employed is a multisectoral, ...
Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
and the Organization of the Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC) that these concerns have been officially acknowledged transfers raise questions about both their amount and their efficiency for sustaining economic activity. The first question relates to the evaluation of climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries, which
Blitzer, Charles R.
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is an assessment for a particular country, Egypt, of the economic effects, under various conditions, of carbon emission restrictions. Like other work, it is an exemplification of some of the economic possibilities. ...
Analyzing stability of equilibrium points in neural networks: a general approach
Rangarajan, Govindan
for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA Revised 10 July, Cohen, & Grossberg, 1987; Destexhe, 1994; Li, 1994; Li, 1999; Li & Hopfield, 1989; Whittle, 1998; Yao
Energy conservation, counting statistics, and return to equilibrium
Jaksic, Vojkan
Energy conservation, counting statistics, and return to equilibrium V. JaksiÂ´c1 , J. Panangaden1 lim t QS(, t), QR = lim 0 lim t QR(, t). As a consequence of energy conservation, we expect that QS
Title of dissertation: MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM AND STABILITY OF
Anlage, Steven
ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM AND STABILITY OF CENTRIFUGALLY CONFINED PLASMAS Yi-Min Huang, Doctor of Philosophy, 2004 Dissertation directed by: Professor Adil B. This dissertation addresses the equilib- rium and stability of this configuration within the framework
Non-equilibrium fluctuation induced-phenomena in quantum electrodynamics
Golyk, Vladyslav Alexander
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study fluctuation-induced phenomena in systems out of thermal equilibrium, resulting from the stochastic nature of quantum and thermal fluctuations of electromagnetic currents and waves. Specifically, we study radiative ...
Phase-equilibrium-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles
Kwon, Seok Joon
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Colloidal dispersion of nanoparticles (CNPs) has interesting properties both in terms of fundamental studies and industrials applications. Particular focus on the phase equilibrium and separation dynamics of CNPs has been ...
Restoring Equilibrium to Natural Gas Markets: Can Renewable Energy Help?
Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
AC03- 76SF00098. The report “Easing the Natural Gas Crisis:Reducing Natural Gas Prices through Increased Deployment ofRestoring Equilibrium to Natural Gas Markets: Can Renewable
Land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium
Cronin, Timothy (Timothy Wallace)
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
I present work on several topics related to land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium: the first two research chapters invoke ideas related to land-atmosphere interaction to better understand ...
A Core Equilibrium Convergence in a Public Goods Economy
Allouch, N
A core-equilibrium convergence in a public goods economy? Nizar Allouch Queen Mary University of London School of Economics and Finance n.allouch@qmul.ac.uk April 15, 2010 Abstract This paper shows a core-equilibrium convergence in a public goods... economy where consumers’ preferences display warm glow effects. We demonstrate that if each consumer becomes satiated to other con- sumers’ provision, then as the economy grows large the core shrinks to the set of Edgeworth allocations. Moreover, we show...
Non-equilibrium Entanglement and Noise in Coupled Qubits
N. Lambert; R. Aguado; T. Brandes
2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
We study charge entanglement in two Coulomb-coupled double quantum dots in thermal equilibrium and under stationary non-equilibrium transport conditions. In the transport regime, the entanglement exhibits a clear switching threshold and various limits due to suppression of tunneling by Quantum Zeno localisation or by an interaction induced energy gap. We also calculate quantum noise spectra and discuss the inter-dot current correlation as an indicator of the entanglement in transport experiments.
Equilibrium Selection in Experimental Games on Networks
Charness, Gary; Feri, Francesco; Meléndez-Jiménez, Miguel A.; Sutter, Matthias
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
511-586. Jackson, M. O. and Yariv, L. (2005): “Diffusion onVega-Redondo, F. and Yariv, L. (2010): “Network Games,”Jackson, Vega-Redondo, and Yariv (2010) model. The degree of
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
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Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental AssessmentsGeoffrey Campbelllong version)ConfinementGeneral Tables The
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFundingGene ControlsCounsel Law StudentGeneral
Hugh D. Newman; Anand Yethiraj
2015-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, we use structure and dynamics in sedimentation equilibrium, in the presence of gravity, to examine, $via$ confocal microscopy, a Brownian colloidal system in the presence of an external electric field. The zero field equation of state (EOS) is hard sphere without any re-scaling of particle size, and the hydrodynamic corrections to the long-time self-diffusion coefficient are quantitatively consistent with the expected value for hard spheres. Care is taken to ensure that both the dimensionless gravitational energy $g'$ and dipolar strength $\\Lambda$ are of order unity. In the presence of an external electric field, anisotropic chain-chain clusters form; this cluster formation manifests itself with the appearance of a plateau in the diffusion coefficient when the dimensionless dipolar strength $\\Lambda \\sim 1$, suggesting quantitative validity of a pure-dielectric dipolar model. The structure and dynamics of this equilibrium phase of clusters is examined for a monodisperse system for two particle sizes.
Fluctuation-induced noise in out-of-equilibrium disordered superconducting films
Petkovi?, Aleksandra, E-mail: alpetkovic@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR 7589, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France) [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR 7589, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique-CNRS, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, IRSAMC, CNRS and Université de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Vinokur, Valerii M. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)] [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We study out-of-equilibrium transport in disordered superconductors close to the superconducting transition. We consider a thin film connected by resistive tunnel interfaces to thermal reservoirs having different chemical potentials and temperatures. The nonequilibrium longitudinal current–current correlation function is calculated within the nonlinear sigma model description and nonlinear dependence on temperatures and chemical potentials is obtained. Different contributions are calculated, originating from the fluctuation-induced suppression of the quasiparticle density of states, Maki–Thompson and Aslamazov–Larkin processes. As a special case of our results, close-to-equilibrium we obtain the longitudinal ac conductivity using the fluctuation–dissipation theorem. -- Highlights: •Contributions to the current noise induced by superconducting fluctuations are calculated. •Nonequilibrium physics is studied. •Nonlinear dependence of the noise on temperatures and chemical potentials of the reservoirs is found.
DRILLING MACHINES GENERAL INFORMATION
Gellman, Andrew J.
TC 9-524 Chapter 4 DRILLING MACHINES GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSE This chapter contains basic information pertaining to drilling machines. A drilling machine comes in many shapes and sizes, from small hand-held power drills to bench mounted and finally floor-mounted models. They can perform operations