National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for general circulation model

  1. LLNL Ocean General Circulation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-12-29

    The LLNL OGCM is a numerical ocean modeling tool for use in studying ocean circulation over a wide range of space and time scales, with primary applications to climate change and carbon cycle science.

  2. Open Geospace General Circulation Model simulation of a substorm...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Open Geospace General Circulation Model simulation of a substorm: Axial tail instability ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  3. Evaluation of cirrus statistics produced by general circulation models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using ARM data cirrus statistics produced by general circulation models using ARM data Hartsock, Daniel University of Utah Mace, Gerald University of Utah Benson, Sally University of Utah Category: Modeling Our goal is to evaluate the skill of various general circulation models for producing climatological cloud statistics by comparing them to the cirrus climatology compiled over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site. This evaluation includes quantifying similar cloud properties and

  4. Posters Comparison Between General Circulation Model Simulation and Central Equatorial

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    61 Posters Comparison Between General Circulation Model Simulation and Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment Measurements G. J. Zhang, S. Sherwood, T. P. Barnett, and V. Ramanathan Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California Introduction A general circulation model (GCM) is a very powerful tool for understanding many climate issues. However, it must be validated using observational data in order for the model results to be credible in climate

  5. A general circulation model (GCM) parameterization of Pinatubo aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacis, A.A.; Carlson, B.E.; Mishchenko, M.I.

    1996-04-01

    The June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo is the largest and best documented global climate forcing experiment in recorded history. The time development and geographical dispersion of the aerosol has been closely monitored and sampled. Based on preliminary estimates of the Pinatubo aerosol loading, general circulation model predictions of the impact on global climate have been made.

  6. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  7. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M.

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  8. Single-Column Modeling A Stratiform Cloud Parameterization for General Circulation Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Stratiform Cloud Parameterization for General Circulation Models S. J. Ghan and L. R. Leung Pacific Northwest Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 C. C. Chuang and J. E. Penner Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory : Livermore. CA 94550 J. McCaa University of Washington Seattle, Washington The crude treatment of clouds in general circulation models (GCMs) is widely recognized as a major limitation in applying these models to predictions of global climate change. The purpose of this project is to

  9. Prediction of cloud droplet number in a general circulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.

    1996-04-01

    We have applied the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) bulk cloud microphysics parameterization to the treatment of stratiform clouds in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). The RAMS predicts mass concentrations of cloud water, cloud ice, rain and snow, and number concnetration of ice. We have introduced the droplet number conservation equation to predict droplet number and it`s dependence on aerosols.

  10. Evaluation of a stratiform cloud parameterization for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.; McCaa, J.

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the relative importance of horizontal advection of cloud versus cloud formation within the grid cell of a single column model (SCM), we have performed a series of simulations with our SCM driven by a fixed vertical velocity and various rates of horizontal advection.

  11. Simulation of the Low-Level-Jet by general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    To what degree is the low-level jet climatology and it`s impact on clouds and precipitation being captured by current general circulation models? It is hypothesised that a need for a pramaterization exists. This paper describes this parameterization need.

  12. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D.; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  13. Integrated cumulus ensemble and turbulence (ICET): An integrated parameterization system for general circulation models (GCMs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.L.; Frank, W.M.; Young, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    Successful simulations of the global circulation and climate require accurate representation of the properties of shallow and deep convective clouds, stable-layer clouds, and the interactions between various cloud types, the boundary layer, and the radiative fluxes. Each of these phenomena play an important role in the global energy balance, and each must be parameterized in a global climate model. These processes are highly interactive. One major problem limiting the accuracy of parameterizations of clouds and other processes in general circulation models (GCMs) is that most of the parameterization packages are not linked with a common physical basis. Further, these schemes have not, in general, been rigorously verified against observations adequate to the task of resolving subgrid-scale effects. To address these problems, we are designing a new Integrated Cumulus Ensemble and Turbulence (ICET) parameterization scheme, installing it in a climate model (CCM2), and evaluating the performance of the new scheme using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites.

  14. A comparison of general circulation model predictions to sand drift and dune orientations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumberg, D.G.; Greeley, R.

    1996-12-01

    The growing concern over climate change and decertification stresses the importance of aeolian process prediction. In this paper the use of a general circulation model to predict current aeolian features is examined. A GCM developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center was used in conjunction with White`s aeolian sand flux model to produce a global potential aeolian transport map. Surface wind shear stress predictions were used from the output of a GCM simulation that was performed as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project on 1979 climate conditions. The spatial resolution of this study (as driven by the GCM) is 4{degrees} X 5{degrees}; instantaneous 6-hourly wind stress data were saved by the GCM and used in this report. A global map showing potential sand transport was compared to drift potential directions as inferred from Landsat images from the 1980s for several sand seas and a coastal dune field. Generally, results show a good correlation between the simulated sand drift direction and the drift direction inferred for dune forms. Discrepancies between the drift potential and the drift inferred from images were found in the North American deserts and the Arabian peninsula. An attempt to predict the type of dune that would be formed in specific regions was not successful. The model could probably be further improved by incorporating soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation information for a better assessment of sand threshold conditions. The correlation may permit use of a GCM to analyze {open_quotes}fossil{close_quotes} dunes or to forecast aeolian processes. 48 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Short ensembles: An Efficient Method for Discerning Climate-relevant Sensitivities in Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhang, Kai; Qian, Yun; Yan, Huiping; Zhao, Chun

    2014-09-08

    This paper explores the feasibility of an experimentation strategy for investigating sensitivities in fast components of atmospheric general circulation models. The basic idea is to replace the traditional serial-in-time long-term climate integrations by representative ensembles of shorter simulations. The key advantage of the proposed method lies in its efficiency: since fewer days of simulation are needed, the computational cost is less, and because individual realizations are independent and can be integrated simultaneously, the new dimension of parallelism can dramatically reduce the turnaround time in benchmark tests, sensitivities studies, and model tuning exercises. The strategy is not appropriate for exploring sensitivity of all model features, but it is very effective in many situations. Two examples are presented using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The first example demonstrates that the method is capable of characterizing the model cloud and precipitation sensitivity to time step length. A nudging technique is also applied to an additional set of simulations to help understand the contribution of physics-dynamics interaction to the detected time step sensitivity. In the second example, multiple empirical parameters related to cloud microphysics and aerosol lifecycle are perturbed simultaneously in order to explore which parameters have the largest impact on the simulated global mean top-of-atmosphere radiation balance. Results show that in both examples, short ensembles are able to correctly reproduce the main signals of model sensitivities revealed by traditional long-term climate simulations for fast processes in the climate system. The efficiency of the ensemble method makes it particularly useful for the development of high-resolution, costly and complex climate models.

  16. The Madden-Julian oscillation in ECHAM4 coupled and uncoupled general circulation models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Gualdi, Silvio; Legutke, Stephanie; Gayler, Veronika

    2005-06-29

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) dominates tropical variability on timescales of 30–70 days. During the boreal winter/spring, it is manifested as an eastward propagating disturbance, with a strong convective signature over the eastern hemisphere. The space–time structure of the MJO is analyzed using simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model run with observed monthly mean sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and coupled to three different ocean models. The coherence of the eastward propagation of MJO convection is sensitive to the ocean model to which ECHAM4 is coupled. For ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, models for which ~100 years of daily data is available, Montemore » Carlo sampling indicates that their metrics of eastward propagation are different at the 1% significance level. The flux-adjusted coupled simulations, ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, maintain a more realistic mean-state, and have a more realistic MJO simulation than the nonadjusted scale interaction experiment (SINTEX) coupled runs. The SINTEX model exhibits a cold bias in Indian Ocean and tropical West Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature of ~0.5°C. This cold bias affects the distribution of time-mean convection over the tropical eastern hemisphere. Furthermore, the eastward propagation of MJO convection in this model is not as coherent as in the two models that used flux adjustment or when compared to an integration of ECHAM4 with prescribed observed SST. This result suggests that simulating a realistic basic state is at least as important as air–sea interaction for organizing the MJO. While all of the coupled models simulate the warm (cold) SST anomalies that precede (succeed) the MJO convection, the interaction of the components of the net surface heat flux that lead to these anomalies are different over the Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4/OPYC model in which the atmospheric model is run at a horizontal resolution of T42, has eastward propagating zonal wind anomalies and latent heat

  17. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd

  18. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is

  19. Modeling of Arctic Storms with a Variable High-Resolution General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Mark A.; Roesler, Erika Louise; Bosler, Peter Andrew

    2015-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Biological and Environmental Research project, “Water Cycle and Climate Extremes Modeling” is improving our understanding and modeling of regional details of the Earth’s water cycle. Sandia is using high resolution model behavior to investigate storms in the Arctic.

  20. Prognostic residual mean flow in an ocean general circulation model and its relation to prognostic Eulerian mean flow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saenz, Juan A.; Chen, Qingshan; Ringler, Todd

    2015-05-19

    Recent work has shown that taking the thickness-weighted average (TWA) of the Boussinesq equations in buoyancy coordinates results in exact equations governing the prognostic residual mean flow where eddy–mean flow interactions appear in the horizontal momentum equations as the divergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux tensor (EPFT). It has been proposed that, given the mathematical tractability of the TWA equations, the physical interpretation of the EPFT, and its relation to potential vorticity fluxes, the TWA is an appropriate framework for modeling ocean circulation with parameterized eddies. The authors test the feasibility of this proposition and investigate the connections between the TWAmore » framework and the conventional framework used in models, where Eulerian mean flow prognostic variables are solved for. Using the TWA framework as a starting point, this study explores the well-known connections between vertical transfer of horizontal momentum by eddy form drag and eddy overturning by the bolus velocity, used by Greatbatch and Lamb and Gent and McWilliams to parameterize eddies. After implementing the TWA framework in an ocean general circulation model, we verify our analysis by comparing the flows in an idealized Southern Ocean configuration simulated using the TWA and conventional frameworks with the same mesoscale eddy parameterization.« less

  1. Prognostic residual mean flow in an ocean general circulation model and its relation to prognostic Eulerian mean flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenz, Juan A.; Chen, Qingshan; Ringler, Todd

    2015-05-19

    Recent work has shown that taking the thickness-weighted average (TWA) of the Boussinesq equations in buoyancy coordinates results in exact equations governing the prognostic residual mean flow where eddy–mean flow interactions appear in the horizontal momentum equations as the divergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux tensor (EPFT). It has been proposed that, given the mathematical tractability of the TWA equations, the physical interpretation of the EPFT, and its relation to potential vorticity fluxes, the TWA is an appropriate framework for modeling ocean circulation with parameterized eddies. The authors test the feasibility of this proposition and investigate the connections between the TWA framework and the conventional framework used in models, where Eulerian mean flow prognostic variables are solved for. Using the TWA framework as a starting point, this study explores the well-known connections between vertical transfer of horizontal momentum by eddy form drag and eddy overturning by the bolus velocity, used by Greatbatch and Lamb and Gent and McWilliams to parameterize eddies. After implementing the TWA framework in an ocean general circulation model, we verify our analysis by comparing the flows in an idealized Southern Ocean configuration simulated using the TWA and conventional frameworks with the same mesoscale eddy parameterization.

  2. An assessment of possible climate change in the Australian region based on intercomparison of general circulation modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whetton, P.H.; Pittock, A.B.; Haylock, M.R. ); Rayner, P.J. )

    1994-03-01

    To assist in estimating likely future climate change in the Australian region, the authors examine the results of four different general circulation modeling experiments run to assess the equilibrium impact of doubling greenhouse gases. The results examined were the most recent available at the time of study from various research centers in North America and Europe, as well as those of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). The approach used is, first, to assess the quality of the control (1 x CO[sub 2]) simulations from each of the models of mean sea level (MSL) pressure and precipitation in the Australian region by comparing these with the corresponding observed patterns; and, second, to then analyze the 2 x CO[sub 2] results of only those model experiments with the best control simulations. Of the models examined two are chosen on the basis of their simulation of current climate in the region: the CSIRO four-level model (CSIRO4) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) model. For conditions of equivalent doubling of CO[sub 2], both models show substantial increases in surface air temperature of around 4[degrees]-6[degrees] inland and 2[degrees]-4[degrees]C in coastal regions. Both models show decreased MSL pressure over the Australian continent and increases in rainfall over northern, central, and eastern Australia, particularly in the summer half of the year. The CSIRO4 model, but not the UKMO model, also shows increased pressure to the south of the continent and decreased winter rainfall in southwest and southern Australia. Generally, field significance tests show the pattern and magnitude of the changes to be significant of CSIRO4 (for which the necessary monthly simulated data were available). 42 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert G. Ellingson

    2004-09-28

    One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

  4. Improvement of Moist and Radiative Processes in Highly Parallel Atmospheric General Circulation Models: Validation and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, William M.; Hack, James J.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    1997-02-24

    Research on designing an integrated moist process parameterization package was carried. This work began with a study that coupled an ensemble of cloud models to a boundary layer model to examine the feasibility of such a methodology for linking boundary layer and cumulus parameterization schemes. The approach proved feasible, prompting research to design and evaluate a coupled parameterization package for GCMS. This research contributed to the development of an Integrated Cumulus Ensemble-Turbulence (ICET) parameterization package. This package incorporates a higher-order turbulence boundary layer that feeds information concerning updraft properties and the variances of temperature and water vapor to the cloud parameterizations. The cumulus ensemble model has been developed, and initial sensitivity tests have been performed in the single column model (SCM) version of CCM2. It is currently being coupled to a convective wake/gust front model. The major function of the convective wake/gust front model is to simulate the partitioning of the boundary layer into disturbed and undisturbed regions. A second function of this model is to predict the nonlinear enhancement of surface to air sensible heat and moisture fluxes that occur in convective regimes due to correlations between winds and anomalously cold, dry air from downdrafts in the gust front region. The third function of the convective wake/gust front model is to predict the amount of undisturbed boundary layer air lifted by the leading edge of the wake and the height to which this air is lifted. The development of the wake/gust front model has been completed, and it has done well in initial testing as a stand-alone component. The current task, to be completed by the end of the funding period, is to tie the wake model to a cumulus ensemble model and to install both components into the single column model version of CCM3 for evaluation. Another area of parametrization research has been focused on the representation

  5. Cloud/Aerosol Parameterizations: Application and Improvement of General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, Joyce

    2012-06-30

    One of the biggest uncertainties associated with climate models and climate forcing is the treatment of aerosols and their effects on clouds. The effect of aerosols on clouds can be divided into two components: The first indirect effect is the forcing associated with increases in droplet concentrations; the second indirect effect is the forcing associated with changes in liquid water path, cloud morphology, and cloud lifetime. Both are highly uncertain. This project applied a cloud-resolving model to understand the response of clouds under a variety of conditions to changes in aerosols. These responses are categorized according to the large-scale meteorological conditions that lead to the response. Meteorological conditions were sampled from various fields, which, together with a global aerosol model determination of the change in aerosols from present day to pre-industrial conditions, was used to determine a first order estimate of the response of global cloud fields to changes in aerosols. The response of the clouds in the NCAR CAM3 GCM coupled to our global aerosol model were tested by examining whether the response is similar to that of the cloud resolving model and methods for improving the representation of clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions were examined.

  6. Posters Treatment of Cloud Radiative Effects in General Circulation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Posters Treatment of Cloud Radiative Effects in General Circulation Models W.-C. Wang, M. P. Dudek, X.-Z. Liang, M. Ding, L. Zhu, E. Joseph, and S. Cox Atmospheric Sciences...

  7. General circulation model calculations of the direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulfate and fossil-fuel soot aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haywood, J.M.; Roberts, D.L.; Slingo, A.

    1997-07-01

    A new radiation code within a general circulation model is used to assess the direct solar and thermal radiative forcing by sulfate aerosol of anthropogenic origin and soot aerosol from fossil-fuel burning. The radiative effects of different aerosol profiles, relative humidity parameterizations, chemical compositions, and internal and external mixtures of the two aerosol types are investigated. The contribution to the radiative forcing from cloudy sky regions is found to be negligible for sulfate aerosol; this is in contrast to recent studies where the cloudy sky contribution was estimated using a method in which the spatial correlation between cloud amount and sulfate burden was ignored. However, the radiative forcing due to fossil-fuel soot aerosol is enhanced in cloudy regions if soot aerosol exists within or above the cloud. The global solar radiative forcing due to sulfate aerosol is estimated to be -0.38 W m{sup -2} and the global thermal radiative forcing is estimated to be +0.01 W m{sup -2}. The hemispheric mean radiative forcings vary by only about 10% for reasonable assumptions about the chemical form of the sulfate aerosol and the relative humidity dependence; the uncertainties in the aerosol loading are far more significant. If a soot/sulfate mass ratio of 0.075 is assumed, then the global solar radiative forcing weakens to -0.18 W m{sup -2} for an external mixture and weakens further for an internal mixture. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the radiative forcing shows strong negative/positive forcing contrasts that may influence the dynamical response of the atmosphere. Although these results are extremely sensitive to the adopted soot/sulfate ratio and the assumed vertical profile, they indicate that fossil-fuel soot aerosol may exert a nonnegligible radiative forcing and emphasize the need to consider each anthropogenic aerosol species. 58 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Northern Hemisphere wintertime variability in a two-level general circulation model. Part II. The maintenance of short and long time-scale disturbances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushnir, Y.; Esbensen, S.K.

    1986-12-01

    The energetics of large-scale disturbances of the wintertime, Northern Hemisphere circulation are studied with the OSU two-level general circulation model. The behavior of simulated eddies with short time-scale (2.5 to 10 days) is found to be consistent with observations and with baroclinic instability theory. Eddies with long time-scales (>10 days) appear to be maintained primarily by high-latitude baroclinic energy conversions. Energy conversions characteristic of barotropic processes are found at jet stream latitudes.

  9. The northern wintertime divergence extrema at 200 hPa and surface cyclones as simulated in the AMIP integration of the ECMWF general circulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, J.S.

    1994-11-01

    Divergence and convergence centers at 200 hPa and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) cyclones were located every 6 hr for a 10-yr general circulation model (GCM) simulation with the ECMWF (Cycle 36) for the boreal winters from 1980 to 1988. The simulation used the observed monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST) for the decade. Analysis of the frequency, location, and strength of these centers and cyclones gives insight into the dynamical response of the model to the varying SST. The results indicate that (1) the model produces reasonable climatologies of upper-level divergence and MSLP cyclones; (2) the model distribution of anomalies of divergence and convergence centers and MSLP cyclones is consistent with observations for the 1982-83 and 1986-87 El Nifio events; (3) the tropical Indian Ocean is the region of greatest divergence activity and interannual variability in the model; (4) the variability of the divergence centers is greater than that of the convergence centers; (5) strong divergence centers occur chiefly over the ocean in the midlatitudes but are more land-based in the tropics, except in the Indian Ocean; and (6) locations of divergence and convergence centers can be a useful tool for the intercomparison of global atmospheric simulations.

  10. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping

    2013-03-14

    This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar

  11. Predictive models of circulating fluidized bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1992-07-01

    Steady flows influenced by walls cannot be described by inviscid models. Flows in circulating fluidized beds have significant wall effects. Particles in the form of clusters or layers can be seen to run down the walls. Hence modeling of circulating fluidized beds (CFB) without a viscosity is not possible. However, in interpreting Equations (8-1) and (8-2) it must be kept in mind that CFB or most other two phase flows are never in a true steady state. Then the viscosity in Equations (8-1) and (8-2) may not be the true fluid viscosity to be discussed next, but an Eddy type viscosity caused by two phase flow oscillations usually referred to as turbulence. In view of the transient nature of two-phase flow, the drag and the boundary layer thickness may not be proportional to the square root of the intrinsic viscosity but depend upon it to a much smaller extent. As another example, liquid-solid flow and settling of colloidal particles in a lamella electrosettler the settling process is only moderately affected by viscosity. Inviscid flow with settling is a good first approximation to this electric field driven process. The physical meaning of the particulate phase viscosity is described in detail in the chapter on kinetic theory. Here the conventional derivation resented in single phase fluid mechanics is generalized to multiphase flow.

  12. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houze, Jr., Robert A.

    2013-11-13

    We examined cloud radar data in monsoon climates, using cloud radars at Darwin in the Australian monsoon, on a ship in the Bay of Bengal in the South Asian monsoon, and at Niamey in the West African monsoon. We followed on with a more in-depth study of the continental MCSs over West Africa. We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the observed anvil clouds to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model at high resolution using six different ice-phase microphysical schemes. We carried out further simulations with a cloud-resolving model forced by sounding network budgets over the Niamey region and over the northern Australian region. We have devoted some of the effort of this project to examining how well satellite data can determine the global breadth of the anvil cloud measurements obtained at the ARM ground sites. We next considered whether satellite data could be objectively analyzed to so that their large global measurement sets can be systematically related to the ARM measurements. Further differences were detailed between the land and ocean MCS anvil clouds by examining the interior structure of the anvils with the satellite-detected the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The satellite survey of anvil clouds in the Indo-Pacific region was continued to determine the role of MCSs in producing the cloud pattern associated with the MJO.

  13. Plugging mechanisms in a lost circulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Givler, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of lost circulation during the drilling of geothermal wells is recognized to be a serious impediment to well completion. A viable solution, in terms of an ''engineered'' plugging material, will be enhanced via analytical cognizance of possible down-hole plugging mechanisms. This paper investigates several plugging strategies that result from rudimentary, mathematical models of the mud rheology (with and without dispersed particulate). 10 refs., 7 figs.

  14. GFDL ARM Project Technical Report: Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Convection Parameterizations & Cloud-Convection-Radiation Interactions in the GFDL Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Ramaswamy; L. J. Donner; J-C. Golaz; S. A. Klein

    2010-06-17

    This report briefly summarizes the progress made by ARM postdoctoral fellow, Yanluan Lin, at GFDL during the period from October 2008 to present. Several ARM datasets have been used for GFDL model evaluation, understanding, and improvement. This includes a new ice fall speed parameterization with riming impact and its test in GFDL AM3, evaluation of model cloud and radiation diurnal and seasonal variation using ARM CMBE data, model ice water content evaluation using ARM cirrus data, and coordination of the TWPICE global model intercomparison. The work illustrates the potential and importance of ARM data for GCM evaluation, understanding, and ultimately, improvement of GCM cloud and radiation parameterizations. Future work includes evaluation and improvement of the new dynamicsPDF cloud scheme and aerosol activation in the GFDL model.

  15. Aerosol indirect effects - general circulation model intercomparison...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (a) and various cloud ... Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the ...

  16. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Essam A

    2013-01-09

    Details of numerical simulations of two-phase gas-solid turbulent flow in the riser section of Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor (CFBR) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique are reported. Two CFBR riser configurations are considered and modeled. Each of these two riser models consist of inlet, exit, connecting elbows and a main pipe. Both riser configurations are cylindrical and have the same diameter but differ in their inlet lengths and main pipe height to enable investigation of riser geometrical scaling effects. In addition, two types of solid particles are exploited in the solid phase of the two-phase gas-solid riser flow simulations to study the influence of solid loading ratio on flow patterns. The gaseous phase in the two-phase flow is represented by standard atmospheric air. The CFD-based FLUENT software is employed to obtain steady state and transient solutions for flow modulations in the riser. The physical dimensions, types and numbers of computation meshes, and solution methodology utilized in the present work are stated. Flow parameters, such as static and dynamic pressure, species velocity, and volume fractions are monitored and analyzed. The differences in the computational results between the two models, under steady and transient conditions, are compared, contrasted, and discussed.

  17. Posters A Stratiform Cloud Parameterization for General Circulation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P(w) is the probability distribution of vertical velocity, determined from the predicted mean and variance of vertical velocity. Application to a Single-Column Model To test the...

  18. Optimal control of CPR procedure using hemodynamic circulation model

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenhart, Suzanne M.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Jung, Eunok

    2007-12-25

    A method for determining a chest pressure profile for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) includes the steps of representing a hemodynamic circulation model based on a plurality of difference equations for a patient, applying an optimal control (OC) algorithm to the circulation model, and determining a chest pressure profile. The chest pressure profile defines a timing pattern of externally applied pressure to a chest of the patient to maximize blood flow through the patient. A CPR device includes a chest compressor, a controller communicably connected to the chest compressor, and a computer communicably connected to the controller. The computer determines the chest pressure profile by applying an OC algorithm to a hemodynamic circulation model based on the plurality of difference equations.

  19. Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhambare, K.S.; Mitra, S.K.; Gaitonde, U.N.

    2007-06-15

    Modeling of a natural circulation boiler for a coal-fired thermal power station is presented here. The boiler system is divided into seven subcomponents, and for each section, models based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are formulated. The pressure drop at various sections and the heat transfer coefficients are computed using empirical correlations. Solutions are obtained by using SIMULINK. The model is validated by comparing its steady state and dynamic responses with the actual plant data. Open loop responses of the model to the step changes in the operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, steam flow, feed water flow, are also analyzed. The present model can be used for the development and design of effective boiler control systems.

  20. (CO sub 2 uptake in an Ocean Circulation Model)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegenthaler, U.C.

    1990-11-06

    The traveler collaborated with Drs. J. L. Sarmiento and J. C. Orr of the Program in Atmospheric Sciences at Princeton University to finish the article A Perturbation Simulation of CO{sub 2} Uptake in an Ocean Circulation Model,'' which has been submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research for publication. With F. Joos, a graduate student from the University of Bern, the traveler started writing a journal article describing a box model of the global carbon cycle that is an extension of the one-dimensional box-diffusion model. The traveler further collaborated with F. Joos and Dr. J. L. Sarmiento on modeling the potential enhancement of oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake by fertilizing the southern ocean with iron. A letter describing the results is currently being written for the journal Nature.

  1. Computer modeling of a CFB (circulating fluidized bed) gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.; Ding, J.

    1990-06-01

    The overall objective of this investigation is to develop experimentally verified models for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors. This report presents an extension of our cold flow modeling of a CFB given in our first quarterly report of this project and published in Numerical Methods for Multiphase Flows'' edited by I. Celik, D. Hughes, C. T. Crowe and D. Lankford, FED-Vol.91, American Society of Mechanical Engineering, pp47--56 (1990). The title of the paper is Multiphase Navier-Stokes Equation Solver'' by D. Gidaspow, J. Ding and U.K. Jayaswal. To the two dimensional code described in the above paper we added the energy equations and the conservation of species equations to describe a synthesis gas from char producer. Under the simulation conditions the injected oxygen reacted near the inlet. The solid-gas mixing was sufficiently rapid that no undesirable hot spots were produced. This simulation illustrates the code's capability to model CFB reactors. 15 refs., 20 figs.

  2. Predictive models of circulating fluidized bed combustors. 12th technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1992-07-01

    Steady flows influenced by walls cannot be described by inviscid models. Flows in circulating fluidized beds have significant wall effects. Particles in the form of clusters or layers can be seen to run down the walls. Hence modeling of circulating fluidized beds (CFB) without a viscosity is not possible. However, in interpreting Equations (8-1) and (8-2) it must be kept in mind that CFB or most other two phase flows are never in a true steady state. Then the viscosity in Equations (8-1) and (8-2) may not be the true fluid viscosity to be discussed next, but an Eddy type viscosity caused by two phase flow oscillations usually referred to as turbulence. In view of the transient nature of two-phase flow, the drag and the boundary layer thickness may not be proportional to the square root of the intrinsic viscosity but depend upon it to a much smaller extent. As another example, liquid-solid flow and settling of colloidal particles in a lamella electrosettler the settling process is only moderately affected by viscosity. Inviscid flow with settling is a good first approximation to this electric field driven process. The physical meaning of the particulate phase viscosity is described in detail in the chapter on kinetic theory. Here the conventional derivation resented in single phase fluid mechanics is generalized to multiphase flow.

  3. Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-02-07

    GEMS is an integrated environment that allows technical analysts, modelers, researchers, etc. to integrate and deploy models and/or decision tools with associated data to the internet for direct use by customers. GEMS does not require that the model developer know how to code or script and therefore delivers this capability to a large group of technical specialists. Customers gain the benefit of being able to execute their own scenarios directly without need for technical support.more » GEMS is a process that leverages commercial software products with specialized codes that add connectivity and unique functions to support the overall capability. Users integrate pre-existing models with a commercial product and store parameters and input trajectories in a companion commercial database. The model is then exposed into a commercial web environment and a graphical user interface (GUI) is applied by the model developer. Users execute the model through the web based GUI and GEMS manages supply of proper inputs, execution of models, routing of data to models and display of results back to users. GEMS works in layers, the following description is from the bottom up. Modelers create models in the modeling tool of their choice such as Excel, Matlab, or Fortran. They can also use models from a library of previously wrapped legacy codes (models). Modelers integrate the models (or a single model) by wrapping and connecting the models using the Phoenix Integration tool entitled ModelCenter. Using a ModelCenter/SAS plugin (DOE copyright CW-10-08) the modeler gets data from either an SAS or SQL database and sends results back to SAS or SQL. Once the model is working properly, the ModelCenter file is saved and stored in a folder location to which a SharePoint server tool created at INL is pointed. This enables the ModelCenter model to be run from SharePoint. The modeler then goes into Microsoft SharePoint and creates a graphical user interface (GUI) using the ModelCenter Web

  4. Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability Impact...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Publications, Softwaremodeling tools User Interface: Other Website: iatools.jrc.ec.europa.eudocsecolecon2006.pdf Computable General Equilibrium Models for Sustainability...

  5. Compactlike kinks and vortices in generalized models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazeia, D.; Hora, E. da; Menezes, R.; Oliveira, H. P. de; Santos, C. dos

    2010-06-15

    This work deals with the presence of topological defects in k-field models, where the dynamics is generalized to include higher order power in the kinetic term. We investigate kinks in (1, 1) dimensions and vortices in (2, 1) dimensions, focusing on some specific features of the solutions. In particular, we show how the kinks and vortices change to compactlike solutions, controlled by the parameter used to introduce the generalized models.

  6. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  7. Simple implementation of general dark energy models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon K.; Pearson, Jonathan A. E-mail: jonathan.pearson@durham.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We present a formalism for the numerical implementation of general theories of dark energy, combining the computational simplicity of the equation of state for perturbations approach with the generality of the effective field theory approach. An effective fluid description is employed, based on a general action describing single-scalar field models. The formalism is developed from first principles, and constructed keeping the goal of a simple implementation into CAMB in mind. Benefits of this approach include its straightforward implementation, the generality of the underlying theory, the fact that the evolved variables are physical quantities, and that model-independent phenomenological descriptions may be straightforwardly investigated. We hope this formulation will provide a powerful tool for the comparison of theoretical models of dark energy with observational data.

  8. MODELING STRATEGIES TO COMPUTE NATURAL CIRCULATION USING CFD IN A VHTR AFTER A LOFA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu-Hsin Tung; Richard W. Johnson; Ching-Chang Chieng; Yuh-Ming Ferng

    2012-11-01

    A prismatic gas-cooled very high temperature reactor (VHTR) is being developed under the next generation nuclear plant program (NGNP) of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. In the design of the prismatic VHTR, hexagonal shaped graphite blocks are drilled to allow insertion of fuel pins, made of compacted TRISO fuel particles, and coolant channels for the helium coolant. One of the concerns for the reactor design is the effects of a loss of flow accident (LOFA) where the coolant circulators are lost for some reason, causing a loss of forced coolant flow through the core. In such an event, it is desired to know what happens to the (reduced) heat still being generated in the core and if it represents a problem for the fuel compacts, the graphite core or the reactor vessel (RV) walls. One of the mechanisms for the transport of heat out of the core is by the natural circulation of the coolant, which is still present. That is, how much heat may be transported by natural circulation through the core and upwards to the top of the upper plenum? It is beyond current capability for a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis to perform a calculation on the whole RV with a sufficiently refined mesh to examine the full potential of natural circulation in the vessel. The present paper reports the investigation of several strategies to model the flow and heat transfer in the RV. It is found that it is necessary to employ representative geometries of the core to estimate the heat transfer. However, by taking advantage of global and local symmetries, a detailed estimate of the strength of the resulting natural circulation and the level of heat transfer to the top of the upper plenum is obtained.

  9. A zonally averaged, three-basin ocean circulation model for climate studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovine, S.; Fichefet, T.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional, three-basin ocean model suitable for long-term climate studies is developed. The model is based on the zonally averaged form of the primitive equations written in spherical coordinates. The east-west density difference which arises upon averaging the momentum equations is taken to be proportional to the meridional density gradient. Lateral exchanges of heat and salt between the basins are explicitly resolved. Moreover, the model includes bottom topography and has representations of the Arctic Ocean and of the Weddell and Ross seas. Under realistic restoring boundary conditions, the model reproduces the global conveyor belt: deep water is formed in the Atlantic between 60 and 70{degree}N at a rate of about 17 Sv (1 Sv=10{sup 6} m{sup 3}S{sup {minus}1}) and in the vicinity of the Antarctic continent, while the Indian and Pacific basins show broad upwelling. Superimposed on this thermohaline circulation are vigorous wind-driven cells in the upper thermocline. The simulated temperature and salinity fields and the computed meridional heat transport compare reasonably well with the observational estimates. When mixed boundary conditions i.e., a restoring condition no sea-surface temperature and flux condition on sea-surface salinity are applied, the model exhibits an irregular behavior before reaching a steady state characterized by self-sustained oscillations of 8.5-y period. The conveyor-belt circulation always results at this stage. A series of perturbation experiments illustrates the ability of the model to reproduce different steady-state circulations under mixed boundary conditions. Finally, the model sensitivity to various factors is examined. This sensitivity study reveals that the bottom topography and the presence of a submarine meridional ridge in the zone of the Drake passage play a crucial role in determining the properties of the model bottom-water masses. The importance of the seasonality of the surface forcing is also stressed.

  10. Study of natural circulation in a VHTR after a LOFA using different turbulence models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu-Hsin Tung; Yuh-Ming Ferng; Richard W. Johnson; Ching-Chang Chieng

    2013-10-01

    Natural convection currents in the core are anticipated in the event of the failure of the gas circulator in a prismatic gas-cooled very high temperature reactor (VHTR). The paths that the helium coolant takes in forming natural circulation loops and the effective heat transport are of interest. The heated flow in the reactor core is turbulent during normal operating conditions and at the beginning of the LOFA with forced convection, but the flow may significantly be slowed down after the event and laminarized with mixed convection. In the present study, the potential occurrence and effective heat transport of natural circulation are demonstrated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations with different turbulence models as well as laminar flow. Validations and recommendation on turbulence model selection are conducted. The study concludes that large loop natural convection is formed due to the enhanced turbulence levels by the buoyancy effect and the turbulent regime near the interface of upper plenum and flow channels increases the flow resistance for channel flows entering upper plenum and thus less heat can be removed from the core than the prediction by laminar flow assumption.

  11. Responses of estuarine circulation and salinity to the loss of intertidal flats – A modeling study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2015-08-25

    Intertidal flats in estuaries are coastal wetlands that provide critical marine habitats to support wide ranges of marine species. Over the last century many estuarine systems have experienced significant loss of intertidal flats due to anthropogenic impacts. This paper presents a modeling study conducted to investigate the responses of estuarine hydrodynamics to the loss of intertidal flats caused by anthropogenic actions in Whidbey Basin of Puget Sound on the northwest coast of North America. Changes in salinity intrusion limits in the estuaries, salinity stratification, and circulation in intertidal flats and estuaries were evaluated by comparing model results under the existingmore » baseline condition and the no-flat condition. Model results showed that loss of intertidal flats results in an increase in salinity intrusion, stronger mixing, and a phase shift in salinity and velocity fields in the bay front areas. Model results also indicated that loss of intertidal flats enhances two-layer circulation, especially the bottom water intrusion. Loss of intertidal flats increases the mean salinity but reduces the salinity range in the subtidal flats over a tidal cycle because of increased mixing. Salinity intrusion limits extend upstream in all three major rivers discharging into Whidbey Basin when no intertidal flats are present. Changes in salinity intrusion and estuarine circulation patterns due to loss of intertidal flats affect the nearshore habitat and water quality in estuaries and potentially increase risk of coastal hazards, such as storm surge and coastal flooding. Furthermore, model results suggested the importance of including intertidal flats and the wetting-and-drying process in hydrodynamic simulations when intertidal flats are present in the model domain.« less

  12. Model for flue-gas desulfurization in a circulating dry scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neathery, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    A simple model was developed to describe the absorption of SO{sub 2} in a circulating dry scrubbing (CDS) process, which is a semi dry, lime-based, flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) process that utilizes a circulating fluidized bed arrangement for contacting a sorbent with SO{sub 2}-laden flue gas under coolside conditions. The reaction chemistry is thought to be similar to that of spray-drying absorption. The liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficient was successfully modeled as a function of the sorbent particle spacing on the wetted surfaces. Gas-phase mass-transfer resistances were assumed to be insignificant. Due to the high surface area available in a CDS reactor, the evaporation rate of water from the slurry was modeled as constant-rate drying according to classic spray-dryer theory. However, the falling-rate and diffusion evaporation stages were negligible in CDS since sorbent particle bunching at the surface of the slurry is nonexistent.

  13. New model for nucleon generalized parton distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new type of models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E. They are heavily based on the fact nucleon GPDs require to use two forms of double distribution (DD) representations. The outcome of the new treatment is that the usual DD+D-term construction should be amended by an extra term, {xi} E{sub +}{sup 1} (x,{xi}) which has the DD structure {alpha}/{beta} e({beta},{alpha}, with e({beta},{alpha}) being the DD that generates GPD E(x,{xi}). We found that this function, unlike the D-term, has support in the whole -1 <= x <= 1 region. Furthermore, it does not vanish at the border points |x|={xi}.

  14. General single phase wellbore flow model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Liang-Biao; Arbabi, S.; Aziz, K.

    1997-02-05

    A general wellbore flow model, which incorporates not only frictional, accelerational and gravitational pressure drops, but also the pressure drop caused by inflow, is presented in this report. The new wellbore model is readily applicable to any wellbore perforation patterns and well completions, and can be easily incorporated in reservoir simulators or analytical reservoir inflow models. Three dimensionless numbers, the accelerational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub af}, the gravitational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub gf}, and the inflow-directional to accelerational pressure gradient ratio R{sub da}, have been introduced to quantitatively describe the relative importance of different pressure gradient components. For fluid flow in a production well, it is expected that there may exist up to three different regions of the wellbore: the laminar flow region, the partially-developed turbulent flow region, and the fully-developed turbulent flow region. The laminar flow region is located near the well toe, the partially-turbulent flow region lies in the middle of the wellbore, while the fully-developed turbulent flow region is at the downstream end or the heel of the wellbore. Length of each region depends on fluid properties, wellbore geometry and flow rate. As the distance from the well toe increases, flow rate in the wellbore increases and the ratios R{sub af} and R{sub da} decrease. Consequently accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops have the greatest impact in the toe region of the wellbore. Near the well heel the local wellbore flow rate becomes large and close to the total well production rate, here R{sub af} and R{sub da} are small, therefore, both the accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops can be neglected.

  15. Interaction between surface wind and ocean circulation in the Carolina Capes in a coupled low-order model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, L.; Pietrafesa, L.J.; Raman, S.

    1997-03-18

    Interactions between surface winds and ocean currents over an east-coast continental shelf are studied using a simple mathematical model. The model physics include cross-shelf advection of sea surface temperature (SST) by Ekman drift, upwelling due to Ekman transport divergence, differential heating of the low-level atmosphere by a cross-shelf SST gradient, and the Coriolis effect. Additionally, the effects of diabatic cooling of surface waters due to air-sea heat exchange and of the vertical density stratification on the thickness of the upper ocean Ekman layer are considered. The model results are qualitatively consistent with observed wind-driven coastal ocean circulation and surface wind signatures induced by SST. This simple model also demonstrates that two-way air-sea interaction plays a significant role in the subtidal frequency variability of coastal ocean circulation and mesoscale variability of surface wind fields over coastal waters.

  16. A general simulation model for Stirling cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, S.; Schwendig, F.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for the calculation of the Stirling cycle and of similar processes is presented. The model comprises a method to reproduce schematically any kind of process configuration, including free piston engines. The differential balance equations describing the process are solved by a stable integration algorithm. Heat transfer and pressure loss are calculated by using new correlations, which consider the special conditions of the periodic compression/expansion respectively of the oscillating flow. A comparison between experimental data achieved by means of a test apparatus and calculated data shows a good agreement.

  17. System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description Paul Gilman and Aron Dobos Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-53437 February 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description

  18. Generalized gas-solid adsorption modeling: Single-component equilibria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ladshaw, Austin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.

    2015-01-07

    Over the last several decades, modeling of gas–solid adsorption at equilibrium has generally been accomplished through the use of isotherms such as the Freundlich, Langmuir, Tóth, and other similar models. While these models are relatively easy to adapt for describing experimental data, their simplicity limits their generality to be used with many different sets of data. This limitation forces engineers and scientists to test each different model in order to evaluate which one can best describe their data. Additionally, the parameters of these models all have a different physical interpretation, which may have an effect on how they can bemore » further extended into kinetic, thermodynamic, and/or mass transfer models for engineering applications. Therefore, it is paramount to adopt not only a more general isotherm model, but also a concise methodology to reliably optimize for and obtain the parameters of that model. A model of particular interest is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm. The GSTA isotherm has enormous flexibility, which could potentially be used to describe a variety of different adsorption systems, but utilizing this model can be fairly difficult due to that flexibility. To circumvent this complication, a comprehensive methodology and computer code has been developed that can perform a full equilibrium analysis of adsorption data for any gas-solid system using the GSTA model. The code has been developed in C/C++ and utilizes a Levenberg–Marquardt’s algorithm to handle the non-linear optimization of the model parameters. Since the GSTA model has an adjustable number of parameters, the code iteratively goes through all number of plausible parameters for each data set and then returns the best solution based on a set of scrutiny criteria. Data sets at different temperatures are analyzed serially and then linear correlations with temperature are made for the parameters of the model. The end result is a full set

  19. Generalized Optoelectronic Model of Series-Connected Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, John F.; Steiner, Myles A.; Garcia, Ivan; France, Ryan M.; McMahon, William E.; Osterwald, Carl R.; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-10-02

    The emission of light from each junction in a series-connected multijunction solar cell, we found, both complicates and elucidates the understanding of its performance under arbitrary conditions. Bringing together many recent advances in this understanding, we present a general 1-D model to describe luminescent coupling that arises from both voltage-driven electroluminescence and voltage-independent photoluminescence in nonideal junctions that include effects such as Sah-Noyce-Shockley (SNS) recombination with n ≠ 2, Auger recombination, shunt resistance, reverse-bias breakdown, series resistance, and significant dark area losses. The individual junction voltages and currents are experimentally determined from measured optical and electrical inputs and outputs of the device within the context of the model to fit parameters that describe the devices performance under arbitrary input conditions. Furthermore, our techniques to experimentally fit the model are demonstrated for a four-junction inverted metamorphic solar cell, and the predictions of the model are compared with concentrator flash measurements.

  20. Generalized Optoelectronic Model of Series-Connected Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, John F.; Steiner, Myles A.; Garcia, Ivan; France, Ryan M.; McMahon, William E.; Osterwald, Carl R.; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The emission of light from each junction in a series-connected multijunction solar cell, we found, both complicates and elucidates the understanding of its performance under arbitrary conditions. Bringing together many recent advances in this understanding, we present a general 1-D model to describe luminescent coupling that arises from both voltage-driven electroluminescence and voltage-independent photoluminescence in nonideal junctions that include effects such as Sah-Noyce-Shockley (SNS) recombination with n ≠ 2, Auger recombination, shunt resistance, reverse-bias breakdown, series resistance, and significant dark area losses. The individual junction voltages and currents are experimentally determined from measured optical and electrical inputs and outputs of the device within the context of the model to fit parameters that describe the devices performance under arbitrary input conditions. Furthermore, our techniques to experimentally fit the model are demonstrated for a four-junction inverted metamorphic solar cell, and the predictions of the model are compared with concentrator flash measurements.

  1. A Generalized Stability Analysis of the AMOC in Earth System Models: Implication for Decadal Variability and Abrupt Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, Alexey V.; Fedorov, Alexey

    2015-01-14

    The central goal of this research project was to understand the mechanisms of decadal and multi-decadal variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as related to climate variability and abrupt climate change within a hierarchy of climate models ranging from realistic ocean models to comprehensive Earth system models. Generalized Stability Analysis, a method that quantifies the transient and asymptotic growth of perturbations in the system, is one of the main approaches used throughout this project. The topics we have explored range from physical mechanisms that control AMOC variability to the factors that determine AMOC predictability in the Earth system models, to the stability and variability of the AMOC in past climates.

  2. System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description Nate Blair, Aron P. Dobos, Janine Freeman, Ty Neises, and Michael Wagner National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tom Ferguson, Paul Gilman, and Steven Janzou Independent Consultants Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-61019 February 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the

  3. Generalized Optoelectronic Model of Series-Connected Multijunction Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geisz, John F.; Steiner, Myles A.; Garcia, Ivan; France, Ryan M.; McMahon, William E.; Osterwald, Carl R.; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-10-02

    The emission of light from each junction in a series-connected multijunction solar cell, we found, both complicates and elucidates the understanding of its performance under arbitrary conditions. Bringing together many recent advances in this understanding, we present a general 1-D model to describe luminescent coupling that arises from both voltage-driven electroluminescence and voltage-independent photoluminescence in nonideal junctions that include effects such as Sah-Noyce-Shockley (SNS) recombination with n ≠ 2, Auger recombination, shunt resistance, reverse-bias breakdown, series resistance, and significant dark area losses. The individual junction voltages and currents are experimentally determined from measured optical and electrical inputs and outputs ofmore » the device within the context of the model to fit parameters that describe the devices performance under arbitrary input conditions. Furthermore, our techniques to experimentally fit the model are demonstrated for a four-junction inverted metamorphic solar cell, and the predictions of the model are compared with concentrator flash measurements.« less

  4. Statistical surrogate models for prediction of high-consequence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    existing coupled atmospheric models due to the high computational cost of each simulation. ... CLIMATES; DIAGNOSIS; DISTRIBUTION; FORECASTING; GENERAL CIRCULATION MODELS; METRICS; ...

  5. Global Ocean Circulation Modeling with an Isopycnic Coordinate Model. Final Report for May 1, 1998 - April 30, 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleck, R.

    2004-05-19

    The overall aim of this project was to continue development of a global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM) with the intent of turning it into a full-fledged oceanic component of an earth system model.

  6. A generalized Fokker-Planck model applied to beam transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prinja, A.K.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the authors consider a generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) model for the transport of charged-particle beams, when scattering is not sufficiently forward peaked for the well-known Fokker-Planck (FP) approximation to hold. This approximation is strictly valid in the limit that the total scattering cross section {sigma}{sub s} {r_arrow} {infinity} and the mean cosine of scattering {bar {mu}} {r_arrow} 1. When scattering is not sufficiently forward peaked, higher order Fokker-Planck expansions, restricted to differential cross sections that fall off sufficiently rapidly, can be developed. For instance, the Henyey-Greenstein differential cross section does not possess an FP limit at all, while the screened Rutherford cross section satisfies the FP limit only marginally, and its higher order FP limits do not exist. For cross sections that fall off faster than screened Rutherford, including the exponential phase function, higher order truncations exist.

  7. Generalized Modeling of Enrichment Cascades That Include Minor Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Charles F

    2012-01-01

    The monitoring of enrichment operations may require innovative analysis to allow for imperfect or missing data. The presence of minor isotopes may help or hurt - they can complicate a calculation or provide additional data to corroborate a calculation. However, they must be considered in a rigorous analysis, especially in cases involving reuse. This study considers matched-abundanceratio cascades that involve at least three isotopes and allows generalized input that does not require all feed assays or the enrichment factor to be specified. Calculations are based on the equations developed for the MSTAR code but are generalized to allow input of various combinations of assays, flows, and other cascade properties. Traditional cascade models have required specification of the enrichment factor, all feed assays, and the product and waste assays of the primary enriched component. The calculation would then produce the numbers of stages in the enriching and stripping sections and the remaining assays in waste and product streams. In cases where the enrichment factor or feed assays were not known, analysis was difficult or impossible. However, if other quantities are known (e.g., additional assays in waste or product streams), a reliable calculation is still possible with the new code, but such nonstandard input may introduce additional numerical difficulties into the calculation. Thus, the minimum input requirements for a stable solution are discussed, and a sample problem with a non-unique solution is described. Both heuristic and mathematically required guidelines are given to assist the application of cascade modeling to situations involving such non-standard input. As a result, this work provides both a calculational tool and specific guidance for evaluation of enrichment cascades in which traditional input data are either flawed or unknown. It is useful for cases involving minor isotopes, especially if the minor isotope assays are desired (or required) to be

  8. Generalized charge-screening in relativistic ThomasFermi model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar

  9. Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Type: Softwaremodeling tools Website: www-tc.iaea.orgtcwebabouttcstrategyThematicpdfpresentationsener References: Overview of IAEA PESS Models 1 "MESSAGE...

  10. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldeira, K.; Hoffert, M.I.; Siegenthaler, U.

    1994-02-01

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  11. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  12. System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2011.12.2, released on December 2, 2011. SAM is software that models the cost and performance of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financing structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). Advanced analysis options facilitate parametric, sensitivity, and statistical analyses, and allow for interfacing SAM with Microsoft Excel or with other computer programs. SAM is available as a free download at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  13. System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.; Freeman, J.; Neises, T.; Wagner, M.; Ferguson, T.; Gilman, P.; Janzou, S.

    2014-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2013.9.20, released on September 9, 2013. SAM is a computer model that calculates performance and financial metrics of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar water heating, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financial structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). SAM's advanced simulation options facilitate parametric and sensitivity analyses, and statistical analysis capabilities are available for Monte Carlo simulation and weather variability (P50/P90) studies. SAM can also read input variables from Microsoft Excel worksheets. For software developers, the SAM software development kit (SDK) makes it possible to use SAM simulation modules in their applications written in C/C++, C#, Java, Python, and MATLAB. NREL provides both SAM and the SDK as free downloads at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  14. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

    1998-02-01

    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

  15. Unified Einstein-Virasoro Master Equation in the General Non-Linear Sigma Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boer, J. de; Halpern, M.B.

    1996-06-05

    The Virasoro master equation (VME) describes the general affine-Virasoro construction $T=L^abJ_aJ_b+iD^a \\dif J_a$ in the operator algebra of the WZW model, where $L^ab$ is the inverse inertia tensor and $D^a $ is the improvement vector. In this paper, we generalize this construction to find the general (one-loop) Virasoro construction in the operator algebra of the general non-linear sigma model. The result is a unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation which couples the spacetime spin-two field $L^ab$ to the background fields of the sigma model. For a particular solution $L_G^ab$, the unified system reduces to the canonical stress tensors and conventional Einstein equations of the sigma model, and the system reduces to the general affine-Virasoro construction and the VME when the sigma model is taken to be the WZW action. More generally, the unified system describes a space of conformal field theories which is presumably much larger than the sum of the general affine-Virasoro construction and the sigma model with its canonical stress tensors. We also discuss a number of algebraic and geometrical properties of the system, including its relation to an unsolved problem in the theory of $G$-structures on manifolds with torsion.

  16. Fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, R.C.H.

    1982-01-01

    The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its simplicity and low volume data storage requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  17. Large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions in a simplified coupled model of the midlatitude wintertime circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, A.J. )

    1992-02-15

    Midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interactions are studied in simulations from a simplified coupled model that includes synoptic-scale atmospheric variability, ocean current advection of sea surface temperature (SST), and air-sea heat exchange. Although theoretical dynamical ([open quotes]identical twin[close quotes]) predictions using this model have shown that the SST anomalies in this model indeed influence the atmosphere, it is found here that standard cross-correlation and empirical orthogonal function analyses of monthly mean model output yield the standard result, familiar from observational studies, that the atmosphere forces the ocean with little or no feedback. Therefore, these analyses are inconclusive and leave open the question of whether anomalous SST is influencing the atmosphere. In contrast, the authors find that compositing strong warm events of model SST is a useful indicator of ocean forcing the atmosphere. The authors present additional evidence for oceanic influence on the atmosphere, namely, that ocean current advection appears to enhance the persistence of model SST anomalies through a feedback effect that is absent when only heat flux is allowed to influence SST anomaly evolution. Models with more complete physics must ultimately be used to conclusively demonstrate these results. 26 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation – Description of a novel in vitro model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehnert, Sabrina; Freude, Thomas; Ihle, Christoph; Mayer, Larissa; Braun, Bianca; Graeser, Jessica; Flesch, Ingo; and others

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts' maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients' sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients' serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients' blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β. - Highlights: • We present here a physiologically relevant in vitro model for diabetic osteopathy. • Blood of T2DM patients contains factors that affect osteoblasts' function. • The model developed here can be used to identify these factors, e.g. TGF-β. • Blocking TGF-β signaling partly rescues the osteoblasts' function in the T2DM group. • The model is useful to demonstrate the role of single factors in diabetic osteopathy.

  19. A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, E T; Shumlak, U

    2012-04-06

    A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.

  20. General N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model: Supervariable approach to its off-shell nilpotent symmetries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R.P.

    2014-12-15

    Using the supersymmetric (SUSY) invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral supervariables, we derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetries of the general one (0+1)-dimensional N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model which is considered on a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold (parametrized by a bosonic variable t and a pair of Grassmannian variables θ and θ-bar with θ{sup 2}=(θ-bar){sup 2}=0,θ(θ-bar)+(θ-bar)θ=0). We provide the geometrical meanings to the two SUSY transformations of our present theory which are valid for any arbitrary type of superpotential. We express the conserved charges and Lagrangian of the theory in terms of the supervariables (that are obtained after the application of SUSY invariant restrictions) and provide the geometrical interpretation for the nilpotency property and SUSY invariance of the Lagrangian for the general N=2 SUSY quantum theory. We also comment on the mathematical interpretation of the above symmetry transformations. - Highlights: • A novel method has been proposed for the derivation of N=2 SUSY transformations. • General N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model with a general superpotential, is considered. • The above SUSY QM model is generalized onto a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. • SUSY invariant restrictions are imposed on the (anti-)chiral supervariables. • Geometrical meaning of the nilpotency property is provided.

  1. Change of variables as a method to study general ?-models: Bulk universality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shcherbina, M.

    2014-04-15

    We consider ? matrix models with real analytic potentials. Assuming that the corresponding equilibrium density ? has a one-interval support (without loss of generality ? = [?2, 2]), we study the transformation of the correlation functions after the change of variables ?{sub i} ? ?(?{sub i}) with ?(?) chosen from the equation ?{sup ?}(?)?(?(?)) = ?{sub sc}(?), where ?{sub sc}(?) is the standard semicircle density. This gives us the deformed ?-model which has an additional interaction term. Standard transformation with the Gaussian integral allows us to show that the deformed ?-model may be reduced to the standard Gaussian ?-model with a small perturbation n{sup ?1}h(?). This reduces most of the problems of local and global regimes for ?-models to the corresponding problems for the Gaussian ?-model with a small perturbation. In the present paper, we prove the bulk universality of local eigenvalue statistics for both one-cut and multi-cut cases.

  2. Portable oven air circulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  3. Integrated hydrogeological model of the general separations area. Volume 2: groundwater flow model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.P.; Harris, M.K.

    1997-08-01

    This report models the Gordon aquifer, the Gordon confining unit, and the `lower` aquifer zone, `tan clay` confining zone, and `upper` aquifer zone of the Water Table aquifer. The report presents structure-contour and isopach maps of each unit.

  4. A kernel-oriented model for coalition-formation in general environments: Implementation and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shehory, O.; Kraus, S.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a model for coalition formation and payoff distribution in general environments. We focus on a reduced complexity kernel-oriented coalition formation model, and provide a detailed algorithm for the activity of the single rational agent. The model is partitioned into a social level and a strategic level, to distinguish between regulations that must be agreed upon and are forced by agent-designers, and strategies by which each agent acts at will. In addition, we present an implementation of the model and simulation results. From these we conclude that implementing the model for coalition formation among agents increases the benefits of the agents with reasonable time consumption. It also shows that more coalition formations yield more benefits to the agents.

  5. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    We consider the problem of determining the three-dimensional folding of a protein given its one-dimensional amino acid sequence. We use the HP model for protein folding proposed by Dill, which models protein as a chain of amino acid residues that are either hydrophobic or polar, and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant initial driving force for the protein folding. Hart and Istrail gave approximation algorithms for folding proteins on the cubic lattice under HP model. In this paper, we examine the choice of a lattice by considering its algorithmic and geometric implications and argue that triangular lattice is a more reasonable choice. We present a set of folding rules for a triangular lattice and analyze the approximation ratio which they achieve. In addition, we introduce a generalization of the HP model to account for residues having different levels of hydrophobicity. After describing the biological foundation for this generalization, we show that in the new model we are able to achieve similar constant factor approximation guarantees on the triangular lattice as were achieved in the standard HP model. While the structures derived from our folding rules are probably still far from biological reality, we hope that having a set of folding rules with different properties will yield more interesting folds when combined.

  6. Inverse scattering method and soliton double solution family for the general symplectic gravity model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Yajun

    2008-08-15

    A previously established Hauser-Ernst-type extended double-complex linear system is slightly modified and used to develop an inverse scattering method for the stationary axisymmetric general symplectic gravity model. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton double solutions for the considered theory is obtained.

  7. A generalized multi-dimensional mathematical model for charging and discharging processes in a supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allu, Srikanth; Velamur Asokan, Badri; Shelton, William A; Philip, Bobby; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2014-01-01

    A generalized three dimensional computational model based on unied formulation of electrode- electrolyte-electrode system of a electric double layer supercapacitor has been developed. The model accounts for charge transport across the solid-liquid system. This formulation based on volume averaging process is a widely used concept for the multiphase ow equations ([28] [36]) and is analogous to porous media theory typically employed for electrochemical systems [22] [39] [12]. This formulation is extended to the electrochemical equations for a supercapacitor in a consistent fashion, which allows for a single-domain approach with no need for explicit interfacial boundary conditions as previously employed ([38]). In this model it is easy to introduce the spatio-temporal variations, anisotropies of physical properties and it is also conducive for introducing any upscaled parameters from lower length{scale simulations and experiments. Due to the irregular geometric congurations including porous electrode, the charge transport and subsequent performance characteristics of the super-capacitor can be easily captured in higher dimensions. A generalized model of this nature also provides insight into the applicability of 1D models ([38]) and where multidimensional eects need to be considered. In addition, simple sensitivity analysis on key input parameters is performed in order to ascertain the dependence of the charge and discharge processes on these parameters. Finally, we demonstarted how this new formulation can be applied to non-planar supercapacitors

  8. The Transient Circulation Response to Radiative Forcings and Sea Surface Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staten, Paul; Reichler, Thomas; Lu, Jian

    2014-08-27

    Tropospheric circulation shifts have strong potential to impact surface climate. But the magnitude of these shifts in a changing climate, and the attending regional hydrological changes, are difficult to project. Part of this difficulty arises from our lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the circulation shifts themselves. In order to better delineate circulation shifts and their respective causes, we decompose the circulation response into (1) the "direct" response to radiative forcings themselves, and (2) the "indirect" response to changing sea surface temperatures. Using ensembles of 90-day climate model simulations with immediate switch-on forcings, including perturbed greenhouse gas concentrations, stratospheric ozone concentrations, and sea surface temperatures, we document the direct and indirect transient responses of the zonal mean general circulation, and investigate the roles of previously proposed mechanisms in shifting the midlatitude jet. We find that both the direct and indirect wind responses often begin in the lower stratosphere. Changes in midlatitude eddies are ubiquitous and synchronous with the midlatitude zonal wind response. Shifts in the critical latitude of wave absorption on either flank of the jet are not indicted as primary factors for the poleward shifting jet, although we see some evidence for increasing equatorward wave reflection over the southern hemisphere in response to sea surface warming. Mechanisms for the northern hemisphere jet shift are less clear.

  9. Ecosystem carbon storage capacity as affected by disturbance regimes: A general theoretical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Ensheng; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Weile; Wang, Han; Hayes, Daniel J; McGuire, A. David; Hastings, Alan; Schimel, David

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances have been recognized as a key factor shaping terrestrial ecosystem states and dynamics. A general model that quantitatively describes the relationship between carbon storage and disturbance regime is critical for better understanding large scale terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics. We developed a model (REGIME) to quantify ecosystem carbon storage capacities (E[x]) under varying disturbance regimes with an analytical solution E[x] = U {center_dot} {tau}{sub E} {center_dot} {lambda}{lambda} + s {tau} 1, where U is ecosystem carbon influx, {tau}{sub E} is ecosystem carbon residence time, and {tau}{sub 1} is the residence time of the carbon pool affected by disturbances (biomass pool in this study). The disturbance regime is characterized by the mean disturbance interval ({lambda}) and the mean disturbance severity (s). It is a Michaelis-Menten-type equation illustrating the saturation of carbon content with mean disturbance interval. This model analytically integrates the deterministic ecosystem carbon processes with stochastic disturbance events to reveal a general pattern of terrestrial carbon dynamics at large scales. The model allows us to get a sense of the sensitivity of ecosystems to future environmental changes just by a few calculations. According to the REGIME model, for example, approximately 1.8 Pg C will be lost in the high-latitude regions of North America (>45{sup o} N) if fire disturbance intensity increases around 5.7 time the current intensity to the end of the twenty-first century, which will require around 12% increases in net primary productivity (NPP) to maintain stable carbon stocks. If the residence time decreased 10% at the same time additional 12.5% increases in NPP are required to keep current C stocks. The REGIME model also lays the foundation for analytically modeling the interactions between deterministic biogeochemical processes and stochastic disturbance events.

  10. Quantifying and Generalizing Hydrologic Responses to Dam Regulation using a Statistical Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamay, Ryan A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous existence of dams within riverscapes, much of our knowledge about dams and their environmental effects remains context-specific. Hydrology, more than any other environmental variable, has been studied in great detail with regard to dam regulation. While much progress has been made in generalizing the hydrologic effects of regulation by large dams, many aspects of hydrology show site-specific fidelity to dam operations, small dams (including diversions), and regional hydrologic regimes. A statistical modeling framework is presented to quantify and generalize hydrologic responses to varying degrees of dam regulation. Specifically, the objectives were to 1) compare the effects of local versus cumulative dam regulation, 2) determine the importance of different regional hydrologic regimes in influencing hydrologic responses to dams, and 3) evaluate how different regulation contexts lead to error in predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Overall, model performance was poor in quantifying the magnitude of hydrologic responses, but performance was sufficient in classifying hydrologic responses as negative or positive. Responses of some hydrologic indices to dam regulation were highly dependent upon hydrologic class membership and the purpose of the dam. The opposing coefficients between local and cumulative-dam predictors suggested that hydrologic responses to cumulative dam regulation are complex, and predicting the hydrology downstream of individual dams, as opposed to multiple dams, may be more easy accomplished using statistical approaches. Results also suggested that particular contexts, including multipurpose dams, high cumulative regulation by multiple dams, diversions, close proximity to dams, and certain hydrologic classes are all sources of increased error when predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Statistical models, such as the ones presented herein, show promise in their ability to model the effects of dam regulation effects at

  11. A Generalized Fokker-Planck Model for Transport of Collimated Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prinja, Anil K.; Pomraning, G.C.

    2001-03-15

    A generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) model is introduced for application to the problem of the angular spreading of a broad beam of charged particles. This approach extends the classic Fokker-Planck (FP) approximation of the scattering operator to instances when the differential scattering cross section is not sufficiently forward peaked for the strict FP representation to be valid. Our previously developed (1 - {mu}){sup n}-moments method is used to construct a truncated hierarchy of moment equations from the GFP and transport equations. For slab thicknesses that are small compared to the transport mean-free-path, the scalar flux is explicitly represented as a Taylor expansion in the depth variable for different truncation orders and for different orders of the generalized Fokker-Planck expansion. Numerical results indicate that the GFP method is a viable method for dealing with larger scattering angles than are possible with the classic FP approximation.

  12. 6Be General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6Be General Table The General Table for 6Be is subdivided into the following categories: Cluster Model Model Calculations...

  13. Testing the (generalized) Chaplygin gas model with the lookback time-redshift data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhengxiang; Wu, Puxun; Yu, Hongwei E-mail: wpx0227@gmail.com

    2009-09-01

    The Chaplygin gas (CG) and the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) models, proposed as candidates of the unified dark matter-dark energy (UDME), are tested with the look-back time (LT) redshift data. We find that the LT data only give a very weak constraint on the model parameter. However, by combing the LT with the baryonic acoustic oscillation peak, we obtain, at the 95.4% confidence level, 0.68 ≤ A{sub c} ≤ 0.82 and 0.59 ≤ h ≤ 0.65 for the CG model , and 0.67 ≤ A{sub s} ≤ 0.89 and −0.29 ≤ α ≤ 0.61 for the GCG model. This shows that both the CG and the GCG are viable as a candidate of UDME. Within the GCG model, we also find that the Chaplygin gas model (α = 1) is ruled out by these data at the 99.7% confidence level.

  14. Studies of Ocean Predictability at Decade to Century Time Scales Using a Global Ocean General Circulation Model in a Parallel Computing Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, T.P.

    1998-11-30

    The objectives of this report are to determine the structure of oceanic natural variability at time scales of decades to centuries, characterize the physical mechanisms responsible for the variability; determine the relative importance of heat, fresh water, and moment fluxes on the variability; determine the predictability of the variability on these times scales. (B204)

  15. Computable General Equilibrium Model Fiscal Year 2013 Capability Development Report - April 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Brian Keith; Rivera, Michael K.; Boero, Riccardo

    2014-04-01

    This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.

  16. A = 5 General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 General Tables The General Table for 5H is subdivided into the following categories: Cluster Model Hypernuclei Model Calculations Photodisintegration Pions The General Table for...

  17. Generalized parton distribution functions and the nucleon spin sum rules in the chiral quark soliton model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakamatsu, M.; Tsujimoto, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    The theoretical predictions are given for the forward limit of the unpolarized spin-flip isovector generalized parton distribution function (E{sup u}-E{sup d})(x,{xi},t) within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model, with full inclusion of the polarization of Dirac sea quarks. We observe that [(H{sup u}-H{sup d})+(E{sup u}-E{sup d})](x,0,0) has a sharp peak around x=0, which we interpret as a signal of the importance of the pionic qq excitation with large spatial extension in the transverse direction. Another interesting indication given by the predicted distribution in combination with Ji's angular momentum sum rule is that the d quark carries more angular momentum than the u quark in the proton, which may have some relation with the physics of the violation of the Gottfried sum rule.

  18. 10He General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General Table The General Table for 10He is subdivided into the following categories: Theoretical Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Special States Electromagnetic Transitions...

  19. 7Be General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Be General Table The General Table for 7Be is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Experimental Work Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Model...

  20. TROPICAL METEOROLOGY & Climate: Hadley Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jian; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-30

    The Hadley circulation, a prominent circulation feature characterized by rising air near the Equator and sinking air in the subtropics, defines the position of dry subtropical areas and is a fundamental regulator of the earth’s energy and momentum budgets. The character of the Hadley circulation, and its related precipitation regimes, exhibits variation and change in response to both climate variability and radiative forcing changes. The strength and position of the Hadley circulation change from year to year paced by El Niño and La Niña events. Over the last few decades of the twentieth century, the Hadley cell has expanded poleward in both hemispheres, with changes in atmospheric composition (including stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increases) thought to have contributed to its expansion. This article introduces the basic phenomenology and driving mechanism of the Hadley circulation and discusses its variations under both natural and anthropogenic climate forcings.

  1. The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon ...

  2. A coupled theory of tropical climatology: Warm pool, cold tongue, and Walker circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhengyu Liu; Boyin Huang

    1997-07-01

    Based on results from analytic and general circulation models, the authors propose a theory for the coupled warm pool, cold tongue, and Walker circulation system. The intensity of the coupled system is determined by the coupling strength, the local equilibrium time, and latitudinal differential heating. Most importantly, this intensity is strongly regulated in the coupled system, with a saturation level that can be reached at a modest coupling strength. The saturation west-east sea surface temperature difference (and the associated Walker circulation) corresponds to about one-quarter of the latitudinal differential equilibrium temperature. This regulation is caused primarily by the decoupling of the SST gradient from a strong ocean current. The author`s estimate suggests that the present Pacific is near the saturation state. Furthermore, the much weaker Walker circulation system in the Atlantic Ocean is interpreted as being the result of the influence of the adjacent land, which is able to extend into the entire Atlantic to change the zonal distribution of the trade wind. The theory is also applied to understand the tropical climatology in coupled GCM simulations, in the Last Glacial Maximum climate, and in the global warming climate, as well as in the regulation of the tropical sea surface temperature. 41 refs., 15 figs.

  3. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yock, Adam D. Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Rao, Arvind; Dong, Lei; Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S.; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: −11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: −7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: −6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: −1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: −11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography

  4. 5He General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He General Table The General Table for 5He is subdivided into the following categories: Ground State Properties Theoretical Special States Model Discussions Shell Model Cluster...

  5. 9He General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He General Table The General Table for 9He is subdivided into the following categories: Shell Model Other Model Calculations Theoretical

  6. 5H General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H General Table The General Table for 5H is subdivided into the following categories: Cluster Model Hypernuclei Model Calculations Photodisintegration Pions...

  7. Simulating coarse-scale vegetation dynamics using the Columbia River Basin succession model-crbsum. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keane, R.E.; Long, D.G.; Menakis, J.P.; Hann, W.J.; Bevins, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    The paper details the landscape succession model developed for the coarse-scale assessment called CRBSUM (Columbia River Basin SUccession Model) and presents some general results of the application of this model to the entire basin. CRBSUM was used to predict future landscape characteristics to evaluate management alternatives for both mid-and coarse-scale efforts. A test and sensitivity analysis of CRBSUM is also presented. This paper was written as a users guide for those who wish to run the model and interprete results, and its was also written as documentation for some results of the Interior Columbia River Basin simulation effort.

  8. Two-phase flow stability structure in a natural circulation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Zhiwei

    1995-09-01

    The present study reports a numerical analysis of two-phase flow stability structures in a natural circulation system with two parallel, heated channels. The numerical model is derived, based on the Galerkin moving nodal method. This analysis is related to some design options applicable to integral heating reactors with a slightly-boiling operation mode, and is also of general interest to similar facilities. The options include: (1) Symmetric heating and throttling; (2) Asymmetric heating and symmetric throttling; (3) Asymmetric heating and throttling. The oscillation modes for these variants are discussed. Comparisons with the data from the INET two-phase flow stability experiment have qualitatively validated the present analysis.

  9. A GRID OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STELLAR ATMOSPHERE MODELS OF SOLAR METALLICITY. I. GENERAL PROPERTIES, GRANULATION, AND ATMOSPHERIC EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trampedach, Regner; Asplund, Martin; Collet, Remo; Nordlund, Ake

    2013-05-20

    Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late-type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late-type stars, based on deep, three-dimensional (3D), convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations and improving stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize the use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, and asymptotic adiabat as functions of atmospheric parameters.

  10. Circulation in gas-slurry column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, N.; Kuhlman, J.; Celik, I.; Gross, R.; Nebiolo, E.; Wang, Yi-Zun.

    1990-08-15

    Circulation in bubble columns, such as those used in fischer-tropsch synthesis, detracts from their performance in that gas is carried on average more rapidly through the column, and the residence time distribution of the gas in the column is widened. Both of these factors influence mass-transfer operations in bubble columns. Circulation prediction and measurement has been undertaken using probes, one-dimensional models, laser Doppler velocimetry, and numerical modeling. Local void fraction was measured using resistance probes and a newly developed approach to determining air/water threshold voltage for the probe. A tall column of eight inch diameter was constructed of Plexiglas and the distributor plate was manufactured to distribute air evenly through the base of the column. Data were gathered throughout the volume at three different gas throughputs. Bubble velocities proved difficult to measure using twin probes with cross-correlation because of radial bubble movement. A series of three-dimensional mean and RMS bubble and liquid velocity measurements were also obtained for a turbulent flow in a laboratory model of a bubble column. These measurements have been made using a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), to determine velocity distributions non-intrusively. Finally, the gas-liquid flow inside a vertically situated circular isothermal column reactor was simulated numerically. 74 refs., 170 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. A general model of resource production and exchange in systems of interdependent specialists.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Breen, Peter; Kuypers, Marshall; Norton, Matthew David; Quach, Tu-Thach; Antognoli, Matthew; Mitchell, Michael David

    2011-11-01

    Infrastructures are networks of dynamically interacting systems designed for the flow of information, energy, and materials. Under certain circumstances, disturbances from a targeted attack or natural disasters can cause cascading failures within and between infrastructures that result in significant service losses and long recovery times. Reliable interdependency models that can capture such multi-network cascading do not exist. The research reported here has extended Sandia's infrastructure modeling capabilities by: (1) addressing interdependencies among networks, (2) incorporating adaptive behavioral models into the network models, and (3) providing mechanisms for evaluating vulnerability to targeted attack and unforeseen disruptions. We have applied these capabilities to evaluate the robustness of various systems, and to identify factors that control the scale and duration of disruption. This capability lays the foundation for developing advanced system security solutions that encompass both external shocks and internal dynamics.

  12. A = 10 General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Table for 10He is subdivided into the following categories: Theoretical Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Special States Electromagnetic Transitions The General Table for...

  13. A = 9 General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The General Table for 9Li is subdivided into the following categories: Shell Model Cluster Model Theoretical Ground State Properties Special States Other Model Calculations...

  14. 8Be General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Be General Tables The General Table for 8Be is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Photodisintegration Fission and Fusion Astrophysical b-decay Hypernuclei

  15. 9B General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B General Table The General Table for 9B is subdivided into the following categories: Shell Model Cluster Model Theoretical Other Model Calculations Complex Reactions Beta-Decay Pions Light-ion and Neutron Induced Reactions Hypernuclei

  16. 9C General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C General Table The General Table for 9C is subdivided into the following categories: Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Theoretical Beta-Decay Light-ion and Neutron Induced Reactions Astrophysical

  17. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT Lab. for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    A long standing problem in molecular biology is to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein, given its amino acid sequence. A variety of simplifying models have been proposed abstracting only the {open_quotes}essential physical properties{close_quotes} of real proteins. In these models, the three dimensional space is often represented by a lattice. Residues which are adjacent in the primary sequence (i.e. covalently linked) must be placed at adjacent points in the lattice. A conformation of a protein is simply a self-avoiding walk along the lattice. The protein folding problem STRING-FOLD is that of finding a conformation of the protein sequence on the lattice such that the overall energy is minimized, for some reasonable definition of energy. This formulation leaves open the choices of a lattice and an energy function. Once these choices are made, one may then address the algorithmic complexity of optimizing the energy function for the lattice. For a variety of such simple models, this minimization problem is in fact NP-hard. In this paper, we consider the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) Model introduced by Dill. The HP model abstracts the problem by grouping the 20 amino acids into two classes: hydrophobic (or non-polar) residues and hydrophilic (or polar) residues. For concreteness, we will take our input to be a string from (H,P){sup +}, where P represents polar residues, and H represents hydrophobic residues. Dill et.al. survey the literature analyzing this model. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 6He General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He General Table The General Table for 6He is subdivided into the following categories: Ground State Properties Theoretical Special States Shell Model Cluster and alpha-particle...

  19. 7He General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He General Table The General Table for 7He is subdivided into the following categories: Experimental Theoretical Model Calculations Hypernuclei and Mesons Pions

  20. LBE Natural Circulation Fluid Dynamics Validation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voit, Regan; Prince, Robert; Cacuci, Dan G.

    2015-12-20

    Conceptual design of a scaled Natural Circulation Experimental Facility (NCEF) for providing data in support of validating reactor design codes.

  1. Circulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Research Library provides a large collection of print and electronic books, journals, reports, conference proceedings and many audiovisual materials. Research Library...

  2. Users guide for SAMM: A prototype southeast Alaska multiresource model. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weyermann, D.L.; Fight, R.D.; Garrett, F.D.

    1991-08-01

    This paper instructs resource analysts on using the southeast Alaska multiresource model (SAMM). SAMM is an interactive microcomputer program that allows users to explore relations among several resources in southeast Alaska (timber, anadromous fish, deer, and hydrology) and the effects of timber management activities (logging, thinning, and road building) on those relations and resources. This guide assists users in installing SAMM on a microcomputer, developing input data files, making simulation runs, and strong output data for external analysis and graphic display.

  3. Generalization of the ERIT Principle and Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruggiero,A.

    2008-02-01

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  4. Generalization of the ERIT principle and method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruggiero,A.G.

    2007-11-04

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  5. Matrix-free constructions of circulant and block circulant preconditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Chao; Ng, Esmond G.; Penczek, Pawel A.

    2001-12-01

    A framework for constructing circulant and block circulant preconditioners (C) for a symmetric linear system Ax=b arising from certain signal and image processing applications is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme does not make explicit use of matrix elements of A. It is ideal for applications in which A only exists in the form of a matrix vector multiplication routine, and in which the process of extracting matrix elements of A is costly. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of the fact that for many linear systems arising from signal or image processing applications, eigenvectors of A can be well represented by a small number of Fourier modes. Therefore, the construction of C can be carried out in the frequency domain by carefully choosing its eigenvalues so that the condition number of C{sup T} AC can be reduced significantly. We illustrate how to construct the spectrum of C in a way such that the smallest eigenvalues of C{sup T} AC overlaps with those of A extremely well while the largest eigenvalues of C{sup T} AC are smaller than those of A by several orders of magnitude. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the preconditioner on accelerating the solution of linear systems arising from image reconstruction application.

  6. Circulation in Enewetak Atoll lagoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, M.; Smith, S.V.; Stroup, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Currents at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, were measured on the reef margins, in the channels, and in the lagoon. Lagoon circulation is dominated by wind-driven downwind surface flow and an upwind middepth return flow. This wind-driven flow has the characteristics of an Ekman spiral in an enclosed sea. Lagoon flushing is accomplished primarily by surf-driven water input over the windward (eastern) reefs and southerly drift out the South Channel. Mean water residence time is 1 month, while water entering the northern portion of the atoll takes about 4 months to exit.

  7. 6Li General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li General Table The General Table for 6Li is subdivided into the following categories: Ground State Properties of 6Li Special States Theoretical Shell Model Cluster Models Complex...

  8. 8He General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He General Tables The General Table for 8He is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground-state Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Elastic and Inelastic Scattering b-decay

  9. 10N General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground-State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work These General Tables correspond to "Energy Levels of...

  10. The Role of Subtropical Irreversible PV Mixing in the Zonal Mean Circulation Response to Global Warming-like Thermal Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jian; Sun, Lantao; Wu, Yutian; Chen, Gang

    2013-11-21

    The atmospheric circulation response to the global warming-like tropical upper tropospheric heating is revisited using a dry atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) in light of a new diagnostics based on the concept of finite-amplitude wave activity (FAWA) on equivalent latitude. For a given tropical heating profile, the linear Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) wave refraction analysis sometimes gives a very different and even opposite prediction of the eddy momentum flux response to that of the actual full model simulation, exposing the limitation of the traditional linear approach in understanding the full dynamics of the atmospheric response under global warming. The implementation of the FAWA diagnostics reveals that in response to the upper tropospheric heating, effective diffusivity, a measure of the mixing efficiency, increases and advances upward and poleward in the subtropics and the resultant enhancement and the poleward encroachment of eddy potential vorticity mixing leads to a poleward displaced potential vorticity (PV) gradient peak in the upper troposphere. The anomalous eddy PV flux, in balance with the PV dissipation, gives rise to a poleward shift in the eddy-driven jet and eddy-driven mean meridional circulation. Sensitivity experiments show that these irreversible dissipation processes in the upper troposphere are robust, regardless of the width of the tropical heating.

  11. Carderock Circulating Water Channel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Features The Circulating Water Channel is a vertical plane, open to the atmosphere test section with a free surface in a closed recirculating water circuit, variable speed,...

  12. Circulating system simplifies dry scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, S.Q.; Jorgensen, C.

    1995-10-01

    This article describes a circulating dry scrubber, based on fluid-bed absorption process, which demonstrates high SO{sub 2} removal with minimal O and M requirements. Unlike other dry scrubbers, this one involves dry reagent and results in dry products. Before construction can begin on a new coal-fired plant, a rigorous set of permit requirements must be satisfied. When the Roanoke Valley Energy Facility, Weldon, NC, began the permitting process for their proposed 44-MW pulverized-coal (p-c)-fired Unit 2, the facility permit limited not only SO{sub 2} emissions (0.187 lb SO{sub 2}/million Btu) but also the removal efficiency of the flue-gas desulfurization process (93%) and the maximum amount of sulfur in the coal (1.6%).

  13. Validation of the RRTM Shortwave Radiation Model and Comparison to GCM Shortwave Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Validation of the RRTM Shortwave Radiation Model and Comparison to GCM Shortwave Models M. J. Iacono, E. J. Mlawer, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Lexington, Massachusetts Introduction An important step toward improving radiative transfer codes in general circulation models (GCMs) is to thoroughly evaluate them either by comparison to measurements directly or by comparing them to other data-validated radiation models. The Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM)

  14. General Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    information General Information JLF Contacts Request a Tour

  15. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glowka, D.A.

    1994-09-06

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drill string in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drill string at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone. 6 figs.

  16. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glowka, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drillstring in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drillstring at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone.

  17. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glowka, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and method for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drillstring in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drillstring at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone.

  18. Simulations of Cyclic Voltammetry for Electric Double Layers in Asymmetric Electrolytes: A Generalized Modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hainan; Thiele, Alexander; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-11-15

    This paper presents a generalized modified Poisson–Nernst–Planck (MPNP) model derived from first principles based on excess chemical potential and Langmuir activity coefficient to simulate electric double-layer dynamics in asymmetric electrolytes. The model accounts simultaneously for (1) asymmetric electrolytes with (2) multiple ion species, (3) finite ion sizes, and (4) Stern and diffuse layers along with Ohmic potential drop in the electrode. It was used to simulate cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements for binary asymmetric electrolytes. The results demonstrated that the current density increased significantly with decreasing ion diameter and/or increasing valency |zi| of either ion species. By contrast, the ion diffusion coefficients affected the CV curves and capacitance only at large scan rates. Dimensional analysis was also performed, and 11 dimensionless numbers were identified to govern the CV measurements of the electric double layer in binary asymmetric electrolytes between two identical planar electrodes of finite thickness. A self-similar behavior was identified for the electric double-layer integral capacitance estimated from CV measurement simulations. Two regimes were identified by comparing the half cycle period τCV and the “RC time scale” τRC corresponding to the characteristic time of ions’ electrodiffusion. For τRC ← τCV, quasi-equilibrium conditions prevailed and the capacitance was diffusion-independent while for τRC → τCV, the capacitance was diffusion-limited. The effect of the electrode was captured by the dimensionless electrode electrical conductivity representing the ratio of characteristic times associated with charge transport in the electrolyte and that in the electrode. The model developed here will be useful for simulating and designing various practical electrochemical, colloidal, and biological systems for a wide range of applications.

  19. The characteristics of local atmospheric circulation around the Wolsung NPP in Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, G.B.; Lee, M.C.; Song, Y.I.

    1998-12-31

    The transport of air pollutants in coastal regions has been known to be strongly affected by the mesoscale atmospheric circulations such as sea-land breezes. These mesoscale atmospheric circulations depend on synoptic weather conditions. In this study, a three-dimensional sea-land breeze model was developed to evaluate the effects of the sea and land breezes on the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants in Korea. In the model, the hydrostatic primitive equations in the terrain-following coordinate system were used. The mesoscale atmospheric circulation simulation were carried out under various synoptic weather conditions for all seasons around the Wolsung nuclear power plant site.

  20. RF power recovery feedback circulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharamentov, Sergey I.

    2011-03-29

    A device and method for improving the efficiency of RF systems having a Reflective Load. In the preferred embodiment, Reflected Energy from a superconducting resonator of a particle accelerator is reintroduced to the resonator after the phase of the Reflected Energy is aligned with the phase of the Supply Energy from a RF Energy Source. In one embodiment, a Circulator is used to transfer Reflected Energy from the Reflective Load into a Phase Adjuster which aligns the phase of the Reflected Energy with that of the Supply Energy. The phase-aligned energy is then combined with the Supply Energy, and reintroduced into the Reflective Load. In systems having a constant phase shift, the Phase Adjuster may be designed to shift the phase of the Reflected Energy by a constant amount using a Phase Shifter. In systems having a variety (variable) phase shifts, a Phase Shifter controlled by a phase feedback loop comprising a Phase Detector and a Feedback Controller to account for the various phase shifts is preferable.

  1. Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave Current and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay CA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jones, Craig; Magalen, Jason

    2014-09-01

    The goal s of this study were to develop tools to quantitatively characterize environments where wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices may be installed and to assess e ffects on hydrodynamics and lo cal sediment transport. A large hypothetical WEC array was investigated using wave, hydrodynamic, and sediment transport models and site - specific average and storm conditions as input. The results indicated that there were significant changes in sediment s izes adjacent to and in the lee of the WEC array due to reduced wave energy. The circulation in the lee of the array was also altered; more intense onshore currents were generated in the lee of the WECs . In general, the storm case and the average case show ed the same qualitative patterns suggesting that these trends would be maintained throughout the year. The framework developed here can be used to design more efficient arrays while minimizing impacts on nearshore environmen ts.

  2. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  3. 7Li General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li General Table The General Table for 7Li is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Model Calculations Photodisintegration Polarization Fission and Fusion Elastic and Inelastic Scattering Projectile Fragmentation and Multifragmentation Astrophysical Hyperfine Structure b-decay Muons Hypernuclei and Mesons Hypernuclei and Baryons Pion, Kaon and Eta-Mesons Other Work Applications

  4. 8B General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B General Tables The General Table for 8B is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Photodisintegration and Coulomb Dissociation Elastic and Inelastic Scattering Fragmentation Reactions Astrophysical b Decay Nucleon Spatial Distribution

  5. 8Li General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li General Tables The General Table for 8Li is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Photodissociation Fusion and Fission Elastic and Inelastic Scattering Fragmentation Reactions Astrophysical b Decay Hypernuclei Pions, Kaons and h-mesons

  6. 9Li General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li General Table The General Table for 9Li is subdivided into the following categories: Shell Model Cluster Model Theoretical Ground State Properties Special States Other Model Calculations Complex Reactions Beta-Decay Pions Muons Photodisintegration Elastic and Inelastic Scattering Electromagnetic Transitions Astrophysical

  7. 10Li General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li General Table The General Table for 10Li is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Theoretical Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Models Special States Astrophysical Electromagnetic Transitions Hypernuclei Photodisintegration Light-Ion and Neutron Induced Reactions These General Tables correspond to the 2003 preliminary evaluation of ``Energy Levels of Light Nuclei, A = 10''. The prepublication version of A = 10 is available on this website in PDF format: A =

  8. Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork You are ...

  9. Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork Germicidal ...

  10. Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork Ultraviolet; UV; ...

  11. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Wednesday, 31 July 2013 00:00 In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the...

  12. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in...

  13. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Wednesday, 31 July 2013 00:00 In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny

  14. Effects of a geomagnetic storm on thermospheric circulation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The motions of the thermosphere and its interactions with the ionosphere during a geomagnetic storm are of current interest to space scientists. A two-dimensional model was used to simulate the thermospheric response to the impulsive high-latitude heating associated with a geomagnetic storm. The storm-induced motions can be characterized by an initial period of transient waves followed by the development of a mean circulation. These motions generate an electrical-current system that is on the same order of magnitude as, and in the opposite sense to the normal s/sub q/ current system. Model-simulated winds and electrical currents were then compared to observations.

  15. Sorption testing and generalized composite surface complexation models for determining uranium sorption parameters at a proposed in-situ recovery site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Truax, Ryan A.; Lankford, David A.; Stone, James J.

    2016-02-03

    Solid-phase iron concentrations and generalized composite surface complexation models were used to evaluate procedures in determining uranium sorption on oxidized aquifer material at a proposed U in situ recovery (ISR) site. At the proposed Dewey Burdock ISR site in South Dakota, USA, oxidized aquifer material occurs downgradient of the U ore zones. Solid-phase Fe concentrations did not explain our batch sorption test results,though total extracted Fe appeared to be positively correlated with overall measured U sorption. Batch sorption test results were used to develop generalized composite surface complexation models that incorporated the full genericsorption potential of each sample, without detailedmore » mineralogiccharacterization. The resultant models provide U sorption parameters (site densities and equilibrium constants) for reactive transport modeling. The generalized composite surface complexation sorption models were calibrated to batch sorption data from three oxidized core samples using inverse modeling, and gave larger sorption parameters than just U sorption on the measured solidphase Fe. These larger sorption parameters can significantly influence reactive transport modeling, potentially increasing U attenuation. Because of the limited number of calibration points, inverse modeling required the reduction of estimated parameters by fixing two parameters. The best-fit models used fixed values for equilibrium constants, with the sorption site densities being estimated by the inversion process. While these inverse routines did provide best-fit sorption parameters, local minima and correlated parameters might require further evaluation. Despite our limited number of proxy samples, the procedures presented provide a valuable methodology to consider for sites where metal sorption parameters are required. Furthermore, these sorption parameters can be used in reactive transport modeling to assess downgradient metal attenuation, especially when no other

  16. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. themore » different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.« less

  17. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. the different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.

  18. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  19. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  20. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  1. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  2. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  3. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  4. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  5. Response to Comment on General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation [Phys. Fluids 26, 119101 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2014-11-15

    In R. A. Van Gorder, General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation, Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014) I discussed properties of generalized vortex filaments exhibiting purely rotational motion under the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation. Such solutions are stationary in terms of translational motion. In the Comment [N. Hietala, Comment on General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation [Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)], Phys. Fluids 26, 119101 (2014)], the author criticizes my paper for not including translational motion (although it was clearly stated that the filament motion was assumed rotational). As it turns out, if one is interested in studying the geometric structure of solutions (which was the point of my paper), one obtains the needed qualitative results on the structure of such solutions by studying the purely rotational case. Nevertheless, in this Response I shall discuss the vortex filaments that have both rotational and translational motions. I then briefly discuss why one might want to study such generalized rotating filament solutions, in contrast to simple the standard helical or planar examples (which are really special cases). I also discuss how one can study the time evolution of filaments which exhibit more complicated dynamics than pure translation and rotation. Doing this, one can study non-stationary solutions which initially appear purely rotational and gradually display other dynamics as the filaments evolve.

  6. Natural Circulation Patterns in the VHTR Air-Ingress Accident and Related Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2012-08-01

    Natural circulation patterns in the VHTR during a hypothetical air-ingress accident have been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods in order to compare results from the previous 1-D model which was developed using GAMMA code for the air-ingress analyses. The GT-MHR 600 MWt reactor was selected to be the reference design and modeled by a half symmetric 3-D geometry using FLUENT 6.3, a commercial CFD code. CFD simulations were carried out as the steady-state calculation, and the boundary conditions were either assumed or provided from the 1-D GAMMA code results. Totally, 12 different cases have been reviewed, and many notable results have been obtained through in this work. According to the simulations, natural circulation patterns in the reactor were quite different from the previous 1-D assumptions. A large re-circulation flow with thermal stratification phenomena was clearly observed in the hot-leg and the lower plenum in the 3-D model. This re-circulation flow provided about an order faster air-ingress speed (0.46 m/s in superficial velocity) than previously predicted by 1-D modeling (0.02~0.03 m/s). It indicates that the 1-D air-ingress modeling may significantly distort the air-ingress scenario and consequences. In addition, complicated natural circulation patterns are eventually expected to result in very complex graphite oxidations and corrosion behaviors.

  7. General Engineers

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    General Engineers The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the General Engineer, whose work is associated with analytical studies and evaluation projects pertaining to the operations of the energy industry. Responsibilities: General Engineers perform or participate in one or

  8. Comment on General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation [Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hietala, Niklas Hnninen, Risto

    2014-11-15

    Van Gorder considers a formulation of the local induction approximation, which allows the vortex to move in the direction of the reference axis [General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation, Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)]. However, in his analytical and numerical study he does not use it. A mistake in the torsion of a helical vortex is also corrected.

  9. General Engineer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in Office of Standard Contract Management, within the Office of the General Counsel (GC). The purpose of the position is to conduct technical and engineering reviews of the...

  10. A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly; Kim, Young Jin; Jardine, Philip M; Watson, David B

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing NE equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-NE kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

  11. A general correlation of MPPS penetration as a function of face velocity with the model 8140 using the certitest 8160

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lifshutz, N.; Pierce, M.

    1997-08-01

    The CertiTest 8160 is a Condensation Nucleus Counter (CNC) based filtration test stand which permits measurement of penetration as a function of particle size. The Model 8140 is also a CNC based filtration test stand which provides a single penetration measurement for a fixed particle distribution aerosol challenge. A study was carried out measuring DOP penetration on a broad range of flat filtration media at various face velocities to compare these two instruments. The tests done on the CertiTest 8160 incorporated a range of particle sizes which encompassed the most penetrating particle size (MPPS). In this paper we present a correlation between the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160 and the penetration values obtained on the Model 8140. We observed that at the lowest air face velocities of the study the Model 8140 tended to overpredict the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160. We also present a correlation of MPPS penetration with face velocity which may be of use for extrapolation purposes. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi; Sadhukhan, Pasupati; Fraley, Lowell D.; Hsiao, Keh-Hsien

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  13. Generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation induced from position-dependent effective mass quantum models and mass-deformed soliton solution through inverse scattering transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, A. E-mail: aganguly@maths.iitkgp.ernet.in; Das, A.

    2014-11-15

    We consider one-dimensional stationary position-dependent effective mass quantum model and derive a generalized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation in (1+1) dimension through Lax pair formulation, one being the effective mass Schrödinger operator and the other being the time-evolution of wave functions. We obtain an infinite number of conserved quantities for the generated nonlinear equation and explicitly show that the new generalized KdV equation is an integrable system. Inverse scattering transform method is applied to obtain general solution of the nonlinear equation, and then N-soliton solution is derived for reflectionless potentials. Finally, a special choice has been made for the variable mass function to get mass-deformed soliton solution. The influence of position and time-dependence of mass and also of the different representations of kinetic energy operator on the nature of such solitons is investigated in detail. The remarkable features of such solitons are demonstrated in several interesting figures and are contrasted with the conventional KdV-soliton associated with constant-mass quantum model.

  14. General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2014-06-15

    In his study of superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit, Svistunov [Superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit, Phys. Rev. B 52, 3647 (1995)] derived a Hamiltonian equation for the self-induced motion of a vortex filament. Under the local induction approximation (LIA), the Svistunov formulation is equivalent to a nonlinear dispersive partial differential equation. In this paper, we consider a family of rotating vortex filament solutions for the LIA reduction of the Svistunov formulation, which we refer to as the 2D LIA (since it permits a potential formulation in terms of two of the three Cartesian coordinates). This class of solutions holds the well-known Hasimoto-type planar vortex filament [H. Hasimoto, Motion of a vortex filament and its relation to elastica, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 31, 293 (1971)] as one reduction and helical solutions as another. More generally, we obtain solutions which are periodic in the space variable. A systematic analytical study of the behavior of such solutions is carried out. In the case where vortex filaments have small deviations from the axis of rotation, closed analytical forms of the filament solutions are given. A variety of numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the wide range of rotating filament behaviors possible. Doing so, we are able to determine a number of vortex filament structures not previously studied. We find that the solution structure progresses from planar to helical, and then to more intricate and complex filament structures, possibly indicating the onset of superfluid turbulence.

  15. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF BROWN DWARFS: JETS, VORTICES, AND TIME VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-06-10

    A variety of observational evidence demonstrates that brown dwarfs exhibit active atmospheric circulations. In this study we use a shallow-water model to investigate the global atmospheric dynamics in the stratified layer overlying the convective zone on these rapidly rotating objects. We show that the existence and properties of the atmospheric circulation crucially depend on key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, a banded flow pattern comprised of east-west jet streams spontaneously emerges from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. In contrast, when the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by transient eddies and isotropic turbulence instead. The simulation results are not very sensitive to the form of the forcing. Based on the location of the transition between jet-dominated and eddy-dominated regimes, we suggest that many brown dwarfs may exhibit atmospheric circulations dominated by eddies and turbulence (rather than jets) due to the strong radiative damping on these worlds, but a jet structure is also possible under some realistic conditions. Our simulated light curves capture important features from observed infrared light curves of brown dwarfs, including amplitude variations of a few percent and shapes that fluctuate between single-peak and multi-peak structures. More broadly, our work shows that the shallow-water system provides a useful tool to illuminate fundamental aspects of the dynamics on these worlds.

  16. Description of the stand-damage model: Part of the gypsy moth life system model. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colbert, J.J.; Sheehan, K.A.

    1995-08-16

    This document describes the structure, organization, and mathematical formulations for the Stand-Damage Model and the Biological basis for these formulations. Growth, mortality, and regeneration are modeled along with the effects of user-prescribed defoliation and stand-management actions. The appendices provide a full description of the logic and mathematics in the form of code listings, structure charts, and files.

  17. The stability of the thermohaline circulation in global warming experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmittner, A.; Stocker, T.F.

    1999-04-01

    A simplified climate model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system is used to perform extensive sensitivity studies concerning possible future climate change induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Supplemented with an active atmospheric hydrological cycle, experiments with different rates of CO{sub 2} increase and different climate sensitivities are performed. The model exhibits a threshold value of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration beyond which the North Atlantic Deep Water formation stops and never recovers. For a climate sensitivity that leads to an equilibrium warming of 3.6 C for a doubling of CO{sub 2} and a rate of CO{sub 2} increase of 1% yr{sup {minus}1}, the threshold lies between 650 and 700 ppmv. Moreover, it is shown that the stability of the thermohaline circulation depends on the rate of increase of greenhouse gases. For a slower increase of atmospheric pCO{sub 2} the final amount that can be reached without a shutdown of the circulation is considerably higher. This rate-sensitive response is due to the uptake of heat and excess freshwater from the uppermost layers to the deep ocean. The increased equator-to-pole freshwater transport in a warmer atmosphere is mainly responsible for the cessation of deep water formation in the North Atlantic. Another consequence of the enhanced latent heat transport is a stronger warming at high latitudes. A model version with fixed water vapor transport exhibits uniform warming at all latitudes. The inclusion of a simple parameterization of the ice-albedo feedback increases the model sensitivity and further decreases the pole-to-equator temperature difference in a greenhouse climate. The possible range of CO{sub 2} threshold concentrations and its dependency on the rate of CO{sub 2} increase, on the climate sensitivity, and on other model parameters are discussed.

  18. General Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General Publications General Publications Print ALS Strategic Plan 2015-19 cover image An updated version of the ALS Strategic Plan, covering the five-year period from 2015 to 2019. As in the 2014-18 version, Section I gives a brief synopsis on beamline and endstation projects. The science drivers behind these projects are explained in greater detail in Section II, and a very brief description of emerging plans for a ALS-U are in Section III. Soft X-ray Science Opportunities Using

  19. Generalized galilean genesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2015-03-31

    The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by α) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as opposed to what happens in quasi-de Sitter inflation. We show that the spectral index of curvature perturbations is determined solely from the parameter α and does not depend on the other details of the model. In contrast to the original model, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is obtained for a specific choice of α.

  20. TRANSPORT BY MERIDIONAL CIRCULATIONS IN SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, T. S.; Brummell, N. H.

    2012-08-20

    Transport by meridional flows has significant consequences for stellar evolution, but is difficult to capture in global-scale numerical simulations because of the wide range of timescales involved. Stellar evolution models therefore usually adopt parameterizations for such transport based on idealized laminar or mean-field models. Unfortunately, recent attempts to model this transport in global simulations have produced results that are not consistent with any of these idealized models. In an effort to explain the discrepancies between global simulations and idealized models, here we use three-dimensional local Cartesian simulations of compressible convection to study the efficiency of transport by meridional flows below a convection zone in several parameter regimes of relevance to the Sun and solar-type stars. In these local simulations we are able to establish the correct ordering of dynamical timescales, although the separation of the timescales remains unrealistic. We find that, even though the generation of internal waves by convective overshoot produces a high degree of time dependence in the meridional flow field, the mean flow has the qualitative behavior predicted by laminar, 'balanced' models. In particular, we observe a progressive deepening, or 'burrowing', of the mean circulation if the local Eddington-Sweet timescale is shorter than the viscous diffusion timescale. Such burrowing is a robust prediction of laminar models in this parameter regime, but has never been observed in any previous numerical simulation. We argue that previous simulations therefore underestimate the transport by meridional flows.

  1. General quantitative model for coal liquefaction kinetics: the thermal cleavage/hydrogen donor capping mechanism. [59 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangwer, T

    1980-01-01

    A mechanism for coal liquefaction, based on the concept of thermal cleavage-hydrogen capping donor complexes, is proposed and the quantitative agreement between the derived rate laws and the kinetic data obtained from fifteen publications is presented. The mechanism provides rate laws which describe the preasphaltene, asphaltene, oil and gas time/yield curves for the coal liquefaction process. A simplistic dissolution model is presented and used to relate the proposed mechanism to the experimentally observed products. Based on the quality of the mechanistic fit to the reported coal liquefaction systems, which cover a diverse range of reaction conditions, coal types and donor solvent compositions, it is proposed that the donor solvent/thermal bond cleavage/hydrogen capping mechanism provides a good, quantitative description of the rate limiting process. Interpretation of the rate constant/temperature dependencies in terms of transition state theory indicates formation of the activated complex can involve either physically or chemically controlled steps. A uniform free energy of activation of 52 kcal was found for the diverse liquefaction systems indicating a common transition state describes the reactions. Thus the proposed mechanism unifies the diverse liquefaction kinetic data by using a set of uniform reaction sequences, which have a common transition state, to describe the conversion chemistry. The mechanism thereby creates a common base for intercomparison, interpretation and evaluation of coal conversion for the broad range of processes currently being investigated in the liquefaction field.

  2. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-31

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  3. A general unified non-equilibrium model for predicting saturated and subcooled critical two-phase flow rates through short and long tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, D.W.H.; Abdelmessih, A.H.

    1995-09-01

    A general unified model is developed to predict one-component critical two-phase pipe flow. Modelling of the two-phase flow is accomplished by describing the evolution of the flow between the location of flashing inception and the exit (critical) plane. The model approximates the nonequilibrium phase change process via thermodynamic equilibrium paths. Included are the relative effects of varying the location of flashing inception, pipe geometry, fluid properties and length to diameter ratio. The model predicts that a range of critical mass fluxes exist and is bound by a maximum and minimum value for a given thermodynamic state. This range is more pronounced at lower subcooled stagnation states and can be attributed to the variation in the location of flashing inception. The model is based on the results of an experimental study of the critical two-phase flow of saturated and subcooled water through long tubes. In that study, the location of flashing inception was accurately controlled and adjusted through the use of a new device. The data obtained revealed that for fixed stagnation conditions, the maximum critical mass flux occurred with flashing inception located near the pipe exit; while minimum critical mass fluxes occurred with the flashing front located further upstream. Available data since 1970 for both short and long tubes over a wide range of conditions are compared with the model predictions. This includes test section L/D ratios from 25 to 300 and covers a temperature and pressure range of 110 to 280{degrees}C and 0.16 to 6.9 MPa. respectively. The predicted maximum and minimum critical mass fluxes show an excellent agreement with the range observed in the experimental data.

  4. Pulling the Meridional Overturning Circulation From the South DESC0005100

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cessi, Paola; Wolfe, Christopher L.

    2015-11-25

    This project concerned the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), its stability, variability and sensitivity to atmospheric forcing, both mechanical (wind-stress) and thermodynamical (heat and freshwater surface fluxes). The focus of the study is the interhemispheric cell in the largely adiabatic regime, where the flow is characterized by a descending branch in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic and the upwelling branch in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) region of the Southern Ocean. These two end points are connected by shared isopycnals along which the flow takes place. The approach is to systematically study the amplitude and frequency of the AMOC’s response to localized buoyancy with an ocean-only model in both coarse and high-resolution configurations, analyzed with innovative diagnostics, focused on the “residual overturning circulation” (ROC), which is the proper measure of the transport of heat and other tracers.

  5. Hydrodynamic aspects of a circulating fluidized bed with internals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balasubramanian, N.; Srinivasakannan, C.

    1998-06-01

    An attempt is made to examine the influence of internals (baffles) in the riser of the circulating fluidized bed. Experiments are conducted in a circulating fluidized bed, having perforated plates with different free areas. It is noticed from the present work that a circulating fluidized bed having 45% free area gives uniform solids concentration and pressure drop along the length of the riser. In addition to the uniformity, the circulating fluidized bed with internals gives higher pressure drop (solids concentration) compared to a conventional circulating fluidized bed. For internals having 67.6% free area the pressure drop is higher at the lower portion of the riser compared to the upper portion, similar to a conventional circulating fluidized bed. For 30% free area plates the solids concentration varies axially within the stage and remains uniform from stage to stage.

  6. RETRAN-02 comparison of natural circulation flow rates at Babcock and Wilcox 177-FA plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simms, N.T.

    1985-07-01

    A very important aspect of nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) model development is the process of comparing the computer model results against actual plant responses. Good comparisons will qualify the computer model for specific engineering analyses. Flow rates and decay heat power levels were obtained from planned and unplanned natural circulation events that occurred at Arkansas Nuclear One, Crystal River, Davis-Besse, and Oconee nuclear power plants. A oneloop RETRAN model of the Oconee NSSS is used to attain a spectrum of steady-state equilibrium conditions at different power levels of 25, 50, 75, and 100 MW. The benchmark comparisons are respectable. The comparisons also illustrate the ability of the Babcock and Wilcox raised-loop plant to induce a greater natural circulation flow rate.

  7. Intercomparison of methods of coupling between convection and large-scale circulation: 2. Comparison over nonuniform surface conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daleu, C. L.; Plant, R. S.; Woolnough, S. J.; Sessions, S.; Herman, M. J.; Sobel, A.; Wang, S.; Kim, D.; Cheng, A.; Bellon, G.; et al

    2016-03-18

    As part of an international intercomparison project, the weak temperature gradient (WTG) and damped gravity wave (DGW) methods are used to parameterize large-scale dynamics in a set of cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and single column models (SCMs). The WTG or DGW method is implemented using a configuration that couples a model to a reference state defined with profiles obtained from the same model in radiative-convective equilibrium. We investigated the sensitivity of each model to changes in SST, given a fixed reference state. We performed a systematic comparison of the WTG and DGW methods in different models, and a systematic comparison ofmore » the behavior of those models using the WTG method and the DGW method. The sensitivity to the SST depends on both the large-scale parameterization method and the choice of the cloud model. In general, SCMs display a wider range of behaviors than CRMs. All CRMs using either the WTG or DGW method show an increase of precipitation with SST, while SCMs show sensitivities which are not always monotonic. CRMs using either the WTG or DGW method show a similar relationship between mean precipitation rate and column-relative humidity, while SCMs exhibit a much wider range of behaviors. DGW simulations produce large-scale velocity profiles which are smoother and less top-heavy compared to those produced by the WTG simulations. Lastly, these large-scale parameterization methods provide a useful tool to identify the impact of parameterization differences on model behavior in the presence of two-way feedback between convection and the large-scale circulation.« less

  8. Process simulation of a circulating fluidized bed coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legros, R.; Sotudeh-Gharebaagh, R.; Paris, J.; Chaouki, J.; Preto, F.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of this work is the development of a process simulator for a Circulating Fluidized Bed coal Combustor (CFBC). The development of a simple comprehensive model for coal combustion in a CFBC is based on existing work reported in the literature. The model combines the hydrodynamic features of a CFBC riser with the different reaction steps involved during coal combustion, including the sulphur capture by limestone particles. The commercial process simulation program ASPEN PLUS was chosen as a framework for the development of the CFBC process simulator. ASPEN PLUS has been widely accepted in the chemical industry as a design tool because of its ability to simulate various chemical processes, including power generation cycles. In ASPEN PLUS, several ideal chemical reactor models involving solids are available for simulation purposes. The CFBC process simulator is constructed using several ASPEN PLUS unit operation blocks. The information required for each block is obtained from the combustion and hydrodynamic models, which are inserted into the simulation flowsheet as subroutines or internal programs. The resulting CFBC process simulator is used to predict the performance of the CFBC pilot plant at Energy Research laboratories, CANMET in Ottawa.

  9. Progress in The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Wright, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30--50{percent} through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April, 1990--March, 1991. 4 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Circulating heat exchangers for oscillating wave engines and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    heat exchangers for oscillating wave engines and refrigerators Title: Circulating heat exchangers for oscillating wave engines and refrigerators An oscillating-wave engine or ...

  11. Dynamics and efficiency of magnetic vortex circulation reversal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dynamics and efficiency of magnetic vortex circulation reversal Not Available Temp HTML Storage 2: Urbnek, Michal; Uhl, Vojtch; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Kan, Jimmy J.; ...

  12. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith, Raymond E.

    1991-10-01

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  13. Community Atmosphere Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-10-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is an atmospheric general circulation model that solves equations for atmospheric dynamics and physics. CAM is an outgrowth of the Community Climate Model at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and was developed as a joint collaborative effort between NCAR and several DOE laboratories, including LLNL. CAM contains several alternative approaches for advancing the atmospheric dynamics. One of these approaches uses a finite-volume method originally developed by personnel atmore » NASNGSFC, We have developed a scalable version of the finite-volume solver for massively parallel computing systems. FV-CAM is meant to be used in conjunction with the Community Atmosphere Model. It is not stand-alone.« less

  14. Basement Structure and Implications for Hydrothermal Circulation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Abstract Detailed surface mapping, subsurface drill hole data, and geophysical modeling are the basis of a structural and hydrothermal model for the western part of Long...

  15. Solar powered circulation pump development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A.L.

    1980-09-01

    An iterative design and evaluation process was undertaken to develop a prototype solar powered liquid circulation pump. The first effort was to review the state-of-the-art of liquid piston heat engines. Next a morphological analysis of the original concept was performed. An analysis of the pump performance from a theoretical basis was performed by deriving and solving the equations governing the cycle. The results are documented. An experimental evaluation of the condensing phenomena was performed. The design of the boiler was then undertaken. This effort showed a fundamental physical limitation imposed by the original geometry and the physics of water boiling. In an effort to resolve this problem, a number of alternate configurations were examined, with the result being that the boiler and heat pipe elements of the design were entirely eliminated. In their stead it was assumed that the boiling could be conducted in the solar panel. A number of solar panel designs were examined, and the most appropriate type of solar panel is described in the appendix. A 1/4th scale unit was fabricated and tested. The overall efficiency was approximately 1% at the design point, compared with a theoretical limit of 1.6% for the given operating conditions. The production costs of the full size pump were examined. Finally systems integration aspects were considered and the results presented.

  16. Do Coupled Climate Models Correctly SImulate the Upward Branch of the Deept Ocean Global Conveyor?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarmiento, Jorge L; Downes, Stephanie; Bianchi, Daniele

    2013-01-17

    The large-scale meridional overturning circulation (MOC) connects the deep ocean, a major reservoir of carbon, to the other components of the climate system and must therefore be accurately represented in Earth System Models. Our project aims to address the specific question of the pathways and mechanisms controlling the upwelling branch of the MOC, a subject of significant disagreement between models and observational syntheses, and among general circulation models. Observations of these pathways are limited, particularly in regions of complex hydrography such as the Southern Ocean. As such, we rely on models to examine theories of the overturning circulation, both physically and biogeochemically. This grant focused on a particular aspect of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) where there is currently significant disagreement between models and observationally based analyses of the MOC, and amongst general circulation models. In particular, the research focused on addressing the following questions: 1. Where does the deep water that sinks in the polar regions rise to the surface? 2. What processes are responsible for this rise? 3. Do state-of-the-art coupled GCMs capture these processes? Our research had three key components: observational synthesis, model development and model analysis. In this final report we outline the key results from these areas of research for the 2007 to 2012 grant period. The research described here was carried out primarily by graduate student, Daniele Bianchi (now a Postdoc at McGill University, Canada), and Postdoc Stephanie Downes (now a Research Fellow at The Australian national University, Australia). Additional support was provided for programmers Jennifer Simeon as well as Rick Slater.

  17. Cloudy Sky RRTM Shortwave Radiative Transfer and Comparison to the Revised ECMWF Shortwave Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloudy Sky RRTM Shortwave Radiative Transfer and Comparison to the Revised ECMWF Shortwave Model M. J. Iacono, J. S. Delamere, E. J. Mlawer, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Lexington, Massachusetts J.-J. Morcrette European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reading, United Kingdom Introduction An important step toward improving radiative transfer codes in general circulation models (GCMs) is their thorough evaluation by comparison to measurements directly, or

  18. Constrained Generalized Supersymmetries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toppan, Francesco; Kuznetsova, Zhanna

    2005-10-17

    We present a classification of admissible types of constraint (hermitian, holomorphic, with reality condition on the bosonic sectors, etc.) for generalized supersymmetries in the presence of complex spinors. A generalized supersymmetry algebra involving n-component real spinors Qa is given by the anticommutators {l_brace}Q{sub a},Q{sub b}{r_brace} = Z{sub ab} where the matrix Z appearing in the r.h.s. is the most general symmetric matrix. A complex generalized supersymmetry algebra is expressed in terms of complex spinors Qa and their complex conjugate Q* a. The most general (with a saturated r.h.s.) algebra is in this case given by {l_brace}Q{sub a},Q{sub b}{r_brace} P{sub ab}{l_brace}Q*{sub a}, Q*{sub b}{r_brace} = P*{sub ab}{l_brace}Q{sub a},Q*{sub b}{r_brace} = R{sub ab} where the matrix Pab is symmetric, while Rab is hermitian. The bosonic right hand side can be expressed in terms of the rank-k totally antisymmetric tensors P{sub ab} {sigma}k(C{gamma}{sub [{mu}}{sub 1...{mu}}{sub k]}){sub ab}P{sup [{mu}{sup 1...{mu}{sup k}]}.The decomposition in terms of anti-symmetric tensors for any space-time up to dimension D = 13 is presented. Real type, complex type, and quaternionic type space-times are classified. Any restriction on the saturated bosonic generators that allows all possible combinations of these tensors is in principle admissible by a Lorenz-covariant requirement. We investigate division algebra constraints and their influence on physical models. High spin theory models are presented as examples of the applications of such models.

  19. The Role of Eddy-Tansport in the Thermohaline Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paola Cessi

    2011-11-17

    Several research themes were developed during the course of this project. (1) Low-frequency oceanic varibility; (2) The role of eddies in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) region; (3) Deep stratification and the overturning circulation. The key findings were as follows: (1) The stratification below the main thermocline (at about 500m) is determined in the circumpolar region and then communicated to the enclosed portions of the oceans through the overturning circulation. (2) An Atlantic pole-to-pole overturning circulation can be maintained with very small interior mixing as long as surface buoyancy values are shared between the northern North Atlantic and the ACC region.

  20. Dynamic Switching of the Spin Circulation in Tapered Magnetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which allows to record an image of the in-plane circulation of the magnetic vortex. The topology of vortices-areas where there is a spinning motion around an imaginary axis-is a...

  1. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercCirculationFans | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sePercCirculationFans" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 18.6715328229 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  2. Circulating heat exchangers for oscillating wave engines and refrigerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2003-10-28

    An oscillating-wave engine or refrigerator having a regenerator or a stack in which oscillating flow of a working gas occurs in a direction defined by an axis of a trunk of the engine or refrigerator, incorporates an improved heat exchanger. First and second connections branch from the trunk at locations along the axis in selected proximity to one end of the regenerator or stack, where the trunk extends in two directions from the locations of the connections. A circulating heat exchanger loop is connected to the first and second connections. At least one fluidic diode within the circulating heat exchanger loop produces a superimposed steady flow component and oscillating flow component of the working gas within the circulating heat exchanger loop. A local process fluid is in thermal contact with an outside portion of the circulating heat exchanger loop.

  3. Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the complex processes involved are poorly understood and represented in climate models. Here we report that aerosol indirect effect on deep convective cloud systems can lead ...

  4. The atmospheric circulation of the super Earth GJ 1214b: Dependence on composition and metallicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Fortney, J. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.

    2014-04-20

    We present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models of GJ 1214b, a 2.7 Earth-radius, 6.5 Earth-mass super Earth detected by the MEarth survey. Here we explore the planet's circulation as a function of atmospheric metallicity and atmospheric composition, modeling atmospheres with a low mean molecular weight (MMW; i.e., H{sub 2}-dominated) and a high MMW (i.e., water- and CO{sub 2}-dominated). We find that atmospheres with a low MMW have strong day-night temperature variations at pressures above the infrared photosphere that lead to equatorial superrotation. For these atmospheres, the enhancement of atmospheric opacities with increasing metallicity lead to shallower atmospheric heating, larger day-night temperature variations, and hence stronger superrotation. In comparison, atmospheres with a high MMW have larger day-night and equator-to-pole temperature variations than low MMW atmospheres, but differences in opacity structure and energy budget lead to differences in jet structure. The circulation of a water-dominated atmosphere is dominated by equatorial superrotation, while the circulation of a CO{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere is instead dominated by high-latitude jets. By comparing emergent flux spectra and light curves for 50× solar and water-dominated compositions, we show that observations in emission can break the degeneracy in determining the atmospheric composition of GJ 1214b. The variation in opacity with wavelength for the water-dominated atmosphere leads to large phase variations within water bands and small phase variations outside of water bands. The 50× solar atmosphere, however, yields small variations within water bands and large phase variations at other characteristic wavelengths. These observations would be much less sensitive to clouds, condensates, and hazes than transit observations.

  5. 8C General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C General Tables The General Table for 8C is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Other Theoretical Work...

  6. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afsin Gungor

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. General Motors LLC Final Project Report: Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozeman, Jeffrey; Chen, Kuo-Huey

    2014-12-09

    On November 3, 2009, General Motors (GM) accepted U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement award number DE-EE0000014 from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). GM was selected to execute a three-year cost shared research and development project on Solid State Energy Conversion for Vehicular Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC) and for Waste Heat Recovery.

  8. Single-Column Modeling R. D. Cess Marine Sciences Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D. Cess Marine Sciences Research Center State University of New York Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 Cloud-climate interactions are one of the greatest uncertainties in contemporary general circulation models (GCMs) (Cess et al. 1989, 1990), and the present study has focused on one aspect of this. Specifically, combined satellite and near-surface shortwave (SW) flux measurements have been used to test the impact of clouds on the SW radiation budget of two GCMs. Concentration is initially on SW rather

  9. Methods of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2011-05-24

    There is disclosed an apparatus for forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the apparatus includes a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile, and the bottom portion configured to contain a bed of particles; and a gas inlet configured to produce a column of gas to carry entrained particles therein. There is disclosed a method of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the method includes positioning particles within a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile; producing a column of gas directed upwardly through a gas inlet; carrying entrained particles in the column of gas to produce a fountain of particles over the fluidized bed of circulating particles and subside in the particle bed until being directed inwardly into the column of gas within the curvilinear profile.

  10. Recent progress on Exxon's circulating zinc bromine battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellows, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The design, performance, and factory cost of Exxon's circulating zinc bromine batteries are described. The Exxon system has demonstrated stable performance in scale-ups to 3- and 10-kWh sub-modules. Cost studies based on recently demonstrated extrusion and injection molding techniques, have shown that this battery, with plastic electrodes, bipolar stacks, Br/sub 2/ complexation, and circulating electrolytes, could be produced (20 kWh units, 100,000 units/year) at a factory cost of $28/kWh (excluding R.O.I., and various indirect overheads).

  11. General | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Jump to: navigation, search Informacin y Documentos Herramientas y Modelos <> Estadsticas de Energas Renovables Volver Pgina principal General banner.jpg Retrieved...

  12. Support of Publication Costs, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Special Issue of Deep Sea Research II Journal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amy Honchar

    2012-11-12

    The contribution of funds from DOE supported publication costs of a special issue of Deep Sea Research arising from presentations at the First U.S. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) Meeting held 4-6 May, 2009 to review the US implementation plan and its coordination with other monitoring activities. The special issue includes a total of 16 papers, including publications from three DOE-supported investigators (ie Sevellec, F., and A.V. Fedorov; Hu et. al., and Wan et. al.,). The special issue addresses DOE interests in understanding and simulation/modeling of abrupt climate change.

  13. Viscosity of liquid {sup 4}He and quantum of circulation: Are they related?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L’vov, Victor S. E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz; Skrbek, Ladislav E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R. E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz

    2014-04-15

    In the vicinity of the superfluid transition in liquid {sup 4}He, we explore the relation between two apparently unrelated physical quantities—the kinematic viscosity, ν, in the normal state and the quantum of circulation, κ, in the superfluid state. The model developed here leads to the simple relationship ν ≈ κ/6, and links the classical and quantum flow properties of liquid {sup 4}He. We critically examine available data relevant to this relation and find that the prediction holds well at the saturated vapor pressure. Additionally, we predict the kinematic viscosity for liquid {sup 4}He along the λ-line at negative pressures.

  14. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-07-22

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  15. Development of a Multi Megawatt Circulator for X Band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilson, J.; Ives, L.; Tantawi, S.G.; /Calabazas Creek Res., Saratoga /SLAC

    2008-03-24

    Research is in progress on a TeV-scale linear collider that will operate at 5-10 times the energy of present-generation accelerators. This will require development of high power RF sources generating of 50-100 MW per source. Transmission of power at this level requires overmoded waveguide to avoid breakdown. In particular, the TE{sub 01} circular waveguide mode is currently the mode of choice for waveguide transmission at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the Multimode Delay Line Distribution System (MDLDS). A common device for protecting an RF source from reflected power is the waveguide circulator. A circulator is typically a three-port device that allows low loss power transmission from the source to the load, but diverts power coming from the load (reflected power) to a third terminated port. To achieve a low loss, matched, three port junction requires nonreciprocal behavior. This is achieved using ferrites in a static magnetic field which introduces a propagation constant dependent on RF field direction relative to the static magnetic field. Circulators are currently available at X-Band for power levels up to 1 MW in fundamental rectangular waveguide; however, the next generation of RF sources for TeV-level accelerators will require circulators in the 50-100 MW range. Clearly, conventional technology is not capable of reaching the power level required. In this paper, we discuss the development of an X-Band circulator operating at multi-megawatt power levels in overmoded waveguide. The circulator will employ an innovative coaxial geometry using the TE{sub 01} mode. Difficulties in maintaining mode purity in oversized rectangular guide preclude increasing guide area to allow increasing the power level to the desired 50-100 MW range. The TE{sub 01} mode in circular waveguide is very robust mode for transmission of high power in overmoded waveguide. The mode is ideal for transmission of high power microwaves because of its low-losses, zero tangential

  16. Entanglement Entropy of the Early Universe in Generalized Chaplygin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Entanglement Entropy of the Early Universe in Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Entanglement Entropy of the Early Universe in Generalized...

  17. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Publication Year 2009 URL http:www.nrel.govdocsfy09osti46100.pdf Building Models General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago High Plug Load Baseline, General Merchandise 2009...

  18. MFIX simulation of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean-François; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) using the open-source code Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) are reported. Two rounds of simulation results are reported including the first-round blind test and the second-round modeling refinement. Three-dimensional high fidelity simulations are conducted to model a 12-inch diameter pilot-scale CFB riser. Detailed comparisons between numerical results and experimental data are made with respect to axial pressure gradient profile, radial profiles of solids velocity and solids mass flux along different radial directions at various elevations for operating conditions covering different fluidization regimes. Overall, the numericalmore » results show that CFD can predict the complex gas–solids flow behavior in the CFB riser reasonably well. In addition, lessons learnt from modeling this challenge problem are presented.« less

  19. MFIX simulation of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean-Franois; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) using the open-source code Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) are reported. Two rounds of simulation results are reported including the first-round blind test and the second-round modeling refinement. Three-dimensional high fidelity simulations are conducted to model a 12-inch diameter pilot-scale CFB riser. Detailed comparisons between numerical results and experimental data are made with respect to axial pressure gradient profile, radial profiles of solids velocity and solids mass flux along different radial directions at various elevations for operating conditions covering different fluidization regimes. Overall, the numerical results show that CFD can predict the complex gassolids flow behavior in the CFB riser reasonably well. In addition, lessons learnt from modeling this challenge problem are presented.

  20. 5Li General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Table for 5Li is subdivided into the folowing categories: Ground State Properties Cluster Model Shell Model Special States Model Calculations Model Discussions Complex...

  1. A = 6 General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    following categories: Ground State Properties Theoretical Special States Shell Model Cluster and alpha-particle Models Other Models Model Calculations Complex Reactions Involving...

  2. Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities Release Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil,Benny Manuel; Ballance, Robert; Haskell, Karen

    2012-08-09

    Cielo is a massively parallel supercomputer funded by the DOE/NNSA Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, and operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES), a partnership between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The primary Cielo compute platform is physically located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model documents the capabilities and the environment to be provided for the Q1 FY12 Level 2 Cielo Capability Computing (CCC) Platform Production Readiness Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, or Sandia National Laboratories, but also addresses the needs of users working in the unclassified environment. The Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model maps the provided capabilities to the tri-Lab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the Production Readiness Milestone user environment capabilities of the ASC community. A description of ACE requirements met, and those requirements that are not met, are included in each section of this document. The Cielo Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the tri-Lab community.

  3. Liquid Fluoride Salt Experimentation Using a Small Natural Circulation Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne; Williams, David F; Elkassabgi, Yousri M.; Caja, Joseph; Caja, Mario; Jordan, John; Salinas, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    A small molten fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and tested to develop experimental techniques for application in liquid fluoride salt systems. There were five major objectives in developing this test apparatus: Allow visual observation of the salt during testing (how can lighting be introduced, how can pictures be taken, what can be seen) Determine if IR photography can be used to examine components submerged in the salt Determine if the experimental configuration provides salt velocity sufficient for collection of corrosion data for future experimentation Determine if a laser Doppler velocimeter can be used to quantify salt velocities. Acquire natural circulation heat transfer data in fluoride salt at temperatures up to 700oC All of these objectives were successfully achieved during testing with the exception of the fourth: acquiring velocity data using the laser Doppler velocimeter. This paper describes the experiment and experimental techniques used, and presents data taken during natural circulation testing.

  4. Apparatus and method for determining solids circulation rate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludlow, J. Christopher; Spenik, James L.

    2012-02-14

    The invention relates to a method of determining bed velocity and solids circulation rate in a standpipe experiencing a moving packed bed flow, such as the in the standpipe section of a circulating bed fluidized reactor The method utilizes in-situ measurement of differential pressure over known axial lengths of the standpipe in conjunction with in-situ gas velocity measurement for a novel application of Ergun equations allowing determination of standpipe void fraction and moving packed bed velocity. The method takes advantage of the moving packed bed property of constant void fraction in order to integrate measured parameters into simultaneous solution of Ergun-based equations and conservation of mass equations across multiple sections of the standpipe.

  5. PLUVIUS: a generalized one-dimensional model of reactive pollutant behavior, including dry deposition, precipitation formation, and wet removal. Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report is a second-edition user's manual for the PLUVIUS reactive-storm model. The PLUVIUS code simulates the formation of storm systems of a variety of types, and characterizes the behavior of air pollutants as they flow through, react within, and are scavenged by the storms. The computer code supplied with this report is known as PLUVIUS MOD 5.0, and is a substantial improvement over the MOD 3.1 version given in the original user's manual. Example applications of MOD 5.0 are given in the report to facilitate rapid application of the code for a variety of specific uses. 22 references, 7 figures, 48 tables.

  6. General Employee Radiological Training

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Part 2 page 5 The average annual radiation dose to a member of the general population is about 360 milliremyear. The average annual radiation dose to a member of the general ...

  7. Comment on ''Interacting holographic dark energy model and generalized second law of thermodynamics in a non-flat universe{sup ,} by M.R. Setare (JCAP 01 (2007) 023)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karami, K.

    2010-01-01

    Author of ref. 1, M.R. Setare (JCAP 01 (2007) 023), by redefining the event horizon measured from the sphere of the horizon as the system's IR cut-off for an interacting holographic dark energy model in a non-flat universe, showed that the generalized second law of thermodynamics is satisfied for the special range of the deceleration parameter. His paper includes an erroneous calculation of the entropy of the cold dark matter. Also there are some missing terms and some misprints in the equations of his paper. Here we present that his conclusion is not true and the generalized second law is violated for the present time independently of the deceleration parameter.

  8. OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    APP-005 Planning for and Measuring Office of Inspector General Results FY 2002 Annual Performance Report and FY 2003 Annual Performance Plan Office of Inspector General U.S. Department of Energy Inspector General's Message We are pleased to present the Office of Inspector General's (OIG) consolidated Fiscal Year 2002 Annual Performance Report and Fiscal Year 2003 Annual Performance Plan. This document evaluates our actual Fiscal Year (FY) 2002 performance and establishes the performance goals

  9. A review of existing gas-cooled reactor circulators with application of the lessons learned to the new production reactor circulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, L.S.

    1990-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the lessons learned during the design, testing, and operation of gas-cooled reactor coolant circulators. The intent of this study is to identify failure modes and problem areas of the existing circulators so this information can be incorporated into the design of the circulators for the New Production Reactor (NPR)-Modular High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The information for this study was obtained primarily from open literature and includes data on high-pressure, high-temperature helium test loop circulators as well as the existing gas cooled reactors worldwide. This investigation indicates that trouble free circulator performance can only be expected when the design program includes a comprehensive prototypical test program, with the results of this test program factored into the final circulator design. 43 refs., 7 tabs.

  10. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-07-22

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  11. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector

    2015-04-29

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  12. A toolkit for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, I.

    1993-03-01

    An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth's weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and biosphere. I propose a toolkit that would support a modular, or object-oriented, approach to the implementation of such models.

  13. A toolkit for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, I.

    1993-03-01

    An earth system model is a computer code designed to simulate the interrelated processes that determine the earth`s weather and climate, such as atmospheric circulation, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic circulation, and biosphere. I propose a toolkit that would support a modular, or object-oriented, approach to the implementation of such models.

  14. Intercomparison of methods of coupling between convection and large-scale circulation. 1. Comparison over uniform surface conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daleu, C. L.; Plant, R. S.; Woolnough, S. J.; Sessions, S.; Herman, M. J.; Sobel, A.; Wang, S.; Kim, D.; Cheng, A.; Bellon, G.; Peyrille, P.; Ferry, F.; Siebesma, P.; van Ulft, L.

    2015-10-24

    Here, as part of an international intercomparison project, a set of single-column models (SCMs) and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are run under the weak-temperature gradient (WTG) method and the damped gravity wave (DGW) method. For each model, the implementation of the WTG or DGW method involves a simulated column which is coupled to a reference state defined with profiles obtained from the same model in radiative-convective equilibrium. The simulated column has the same surface conditions as the reference state and is initialized with profiles from the reference state. We performed systematic comparison of the behavior of different models under a consistent implementation of the WTG method and the DGW method and systematic comparison of the WTG and DGW methods in models with different physics and numerics. CRMs and SCMs produce a variety of behaviors under both WTG and DGW methods. Some of the models reproduce the reference state while others sustain a large-scale circulation which results in either substantially lower or higher precipitation compared to the value of the reference state. CRMs show a fairly linear relationship between precipitation and circulation strength. SCMs display a wider range of behaviors than CRMs. Some SCMs under the WTG method produce zero precipitation. Within an individual SCM, a DGW simulation and a corresponding WTG simulation can produce different signed circulation. When initialized with a dry troposphere, DGW simulations always result in a precipitating equilibrium state. The greatest sensitivities to the initial moisture conditions occur for multiple stable equilibria in some WTG simulations, corresponding to either a dry equilibrium state when initialized as dry or a precipitating equilibrium state when initialized as moist. Multiple equilibria are seen in more WTG simulations for higher SST. In some models, the existence of multiple equilibria is sensitive to some parameters in the WTG calculations.

  15. Intercomparison of methods of coupling between convection and large-scale circulation. 1. Comparison over uniform surface conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daleu, C. L.; Plant, R. S.; Woolnough, S. J.; Sessions, S.; Herman, M. J.; Sobel, A.; Wang, S.; Kim, D.; Cheng, A.; Bellon, G.; et al

    2015-10-24

    Here, as part of an international intercomparison project, a set of single-column models (SCMs) and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are run under the weak-temperature gradient (WTG) method and the damped gravity wave (DGW) method. For each model, the implementation of the WTG or DGW method involves a simulated column which is coupled to a reference state defined with profiles obtained from the same model in radiative-convective equilibrium. The simulated column has the same surface conditions as the reference state and is initialized with profiles from the reference state. We performed systematic comparison of the behavior of different models under a consistentmore » implementation of the WTG method and the DGW method and systematic comparison of the WTG and DGW methods in models with different physics and numerics. CRMs and SCMs produce a variety of behaviors under both WTG and DGW methods. Some of the models reproduce the reference state while others sustain a large-scale circulation which results in either substantially lower or higher precipitation compared to the value of the reference state. CRMs show a fairly linear relationship between precipitation and circulation strength. SCMs display a wider range of behaviors than CRMs. Some SCMs under the WTG method produce zero precipitation. Within an individual SCM, a DGW simulation and a corresponding WTG simulation can produce different signed circulation. When initialized with a dry troposphere, DGW simulations always result in a precipitating equilibrium state. The greatest sensitivities to the initial moisture conditions occur for multiple stable equilibria in some WTG simulations, corresponding to either a dry equilibrium state when initialized as dry or a precipitating equilibrium state when initialized as moist. Multiple equilibria are seen in more WTG simulations for higher SST. In some models, the existence of multiple equilibria is sensitive to some parameters in the WTG calculations.« less

  16. Solids circulation around a jet in a fluidized bed gasifier. Final technical report, September 1, 1978-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.; Ettehadieh, B.; Lin, C.; Goyal, A.; Lyczkowski, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to develop an experimentally verified hydrodynamic model to predict solids circulation around a jet in a fluidized bed gasifier. Hydrodynamic models of fluidization use the principles of conservation of mass, momentum and energy. To account for unequal velocities of solid and fluid phases, separate phase momentum balances are developed. Other fluid bed models used in the scale-up of gasifiers do not employ the principles of conservation of momentum. Therefore, these models cannot predict fluid and particle motion. In such models solids mixing is described by means of empirical transfer coefficients. A two dimensional unsteady state computer code was developed to give gas and solid velocities, void fractions and pressure in a fluid bed with a jet. The growth, propagation and collapse of bubbles was calculated. Time-averaged void fractions were calculated that showed an agreement with void fractions measured with a gamma ray densitometer. Calculated gas and solid velocities in the jet appeared to be reasonable. Pressure and void oscillations also appear to be reasonable. A simple analytical formula for the rate of solids circulation was developed from the equations of change. It agrees with Westinghouse fluidization data in a bed with a draft tube. One dimensional hydrodynamic models were applied to modeling of entrained-flow coal gasification reactors and compared with data. Further development of the hydrodynamic models should make the scale-up and simulation of fluidized bed reactors a reality.

  17. "What Controls the Structure and Stability of the Ocean Meridional Overturning Circulation: Implications for Abrupt Climate Change?"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, Alexey

    2013-11-23

    The central goal of this research project is to understand the properties of the ocean meridional overturning circulation (MOC) – a topic critical for understanding climate variability and stability on a variety of timescales (from decadal to centennial and longer). Specifically, we have explored various factors that control the MOC stability and decadal variability in the Atlantic and the ocean thermal structure in general, including the possibility abrupt climate change. We have also continued efforts on improving the performance of coupled ocean-atmosphere GCMs.

  18. A study on the effect of various design parameters on the natural circulation flow rate of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of EU-APR1400

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhee, B. W.; Ha, K. S.; Park, R. J.; Song, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a study on the effect of various design parameters such as the channel gap width, heat flux distribution, down-comer pipe size and two-phase flow slip ratio on the natural circulation flow rate is performed based on a physical model for a natural circulation flow along the flow path of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of an EU-APR1400, and these effects on the natural circulation flow rate are analyzed and compared with the minimum flow rate required for the safe operation of the system. (authors)

  19. Predictive Understanding of the Oceans' Wind-Driven Circulation on Interdecadal Time Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Ghil; Temam, Roger; Y. Feliks; Simonnet, E.; Tachim-Medjo, T.

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project was to obtain a predictive understanding of a major component of the climate system's interdecadal variability: the oceans' wind-driven circulation. To do so, we developed and applied advanced computational and statistical methods to the problem of climate variability and climate change. The methodology was developed first for models of intermediate complexity, such as the quasi-geostrophic and the primitive equations, which describe the wind-driven, near-surface flow in mid-latitude ocean basins. Our computational work consisted in developing efficient multi-level methods to simulate this flow and study its dependence on physically relevant parameters. Our oceanographic and climate work consisted in applying these methods to study the bifurcations in the wind-driven circulation and their relevance to the flows observed at present and those that might occur in a warmer climate. Both aspects of the work are crucial for the efficient treatment of large-scale, eddy-resolving numerical simulations of the oceans and an increased understanding and better prediction of climate change. Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding ocean-atmosphere interaction in the mid-latitudes. An important by-product of this research is a novel approach to explaining the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  20. Final Report for Research Conducted at The Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego from 2/2002 to 8/2003 for ''Aerosol and Cloud-Field Radiative Effects in the Tropical Western Pacific: Analyses and General Circulation Model Parameterizations''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogelmann, A. M.

    2004-01-27

    OAK-B135 Final report from the University of California San Diego for an ongoing research project that was moved to Brookhaven National Laboratory where proposed work will be completed. The research uses measurements made by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to quantify the effects of aerosols and clouds on the Earth's energy balance in the climatically important Tropical Western Pacific.

  1. General User Proposals (GUPs)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General User Proposals (GUPs) General User Proposals (GUPs) Print Tuesday, 01 June 2010 09:36 General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS or the Participating Research Team (PRT) that operates the beamline. Before Submitting a Proposal Review the ALS Beamlines Directory to learn about the research capabilities of individual beamlines at the ALS. Contact the beamline scientist or the local contact listed in

  2. A Structural Model Guide For Geothermal Exploration In Ancestral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    traverse the base of the AMB volcano. This master fault induced fracture-controlled permeability where fluids in the Tongonan Geothermal Field circulate. The structural model...

  3. Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuqing; Leung, Lai R.; McGregor, John L.; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ding, Yihui; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-12-01

    Regional climate modeling with regional climate models (RCMs) has matured over the past decade and allows for meaningful utilization in a broad spectrum of applications. In this paper, latest progresses in regional climate modeling studies are reviewed, including RCM development, applications of RCMs to dynamical downscaling for climate change assessment, seasonal climate predictions and climate process studies, and the study of regional climate predictability. Challenges and potential directions of future research in this important area are discussed, with the focus on those to which less attention has been given previously, such as the importance of ensemble simulations, further development and improvement of regional climate modeling approach, modeling extreme climate events and sub-daily variation of clouds and precipitation, model evaluation and diagnostics, applications of RCMs to climate process studies and seasonal predictions, and development of regional earth system models. It is believed that with both the demonstrated credibility of RCMs capability in reproducing not only monthly to seasonal mean climate and interannual variability but also the extreme climate events when driven by good quality reanalysis and the continuous improvements in the skill of global general circulation models (GCMs) in simulating large-scale atmospheric circulation, regional climate modeling will remain an important dynamical downscaling tool for providing the needed information for assessing climate change impacts and seasonal climate predictions, and a powerful tool for improving our understanding of regional climate processes. An internationally coordinated effort can be developed with different focuses by different groups to advance regional climate modeling studies. It is also recognized that since the final quality of the results from nested RCMs depends in part on the realism of the large-scale forcing provided by GCMs, the reduction of errors and improvement in

  4. The generalized SchrdingerLangevin equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bargueo, Pedro; Miret-Arts, Salvador

    2014-07-15

    In this work, for a Brownian particle interacting with a heat bath, we derive a generalization of the so-called SchrdingerLangevin or Kostin equation. This generalization is based on a nonlinear interaction model providing a state-dependent dissipation process exhibiting multiplicative noise. Two straightforward applications to the measurement process are then analyzed, continuous and weak measurements in terms of the quantum Bohmian trajectory formalism. Finally, it is also shown that the generalized uncertainty principle, which appears in some approaches to quantum gravity, can be expressed in terms of this generalized equation. -- Highlights: We generalize the Kostin equation for arbitrary systembath coupling. This generalization is developed both in the Schrdinger and Bohmian formalisms. We write the generalized Kostin equation for two measurement problems. We reformulate the generalized uncertainty principle in terms of this equation.

  5. General Service LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that compares general service incandescent lamps—i.e., light bulbs—to LED and CFL alternatives.

  6. General Service LED Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A U.S. DOE SSL technology fact sheet that compares general service LED light bulbs with incandescent and CFL bulbs.

  7. QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of model atoms in fields Milonni, P.W. 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS; OPTICAL MODELS; QUANTUM MECHANICS;...

  8. 10B General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Complex Reactions Reactions Involving Pions, Other...

  9. 10C General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for 10C is subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Photodisintegration b-decay Complex Reactions...

  10. 9Be General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9Be is subdivided into the following categories: Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Theoretical Complex Reactions Beta-Decay Light-Ion and Neutron Induced...

  11. 10Be General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground State Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Photo- and Electro-Induced Reactions Atmospheric...

  12. A = 8 General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    subdivided into the following categories: Reviews Ground-state Properties Shell Model Cluster Model Other Theoretical Work Elastic and Inelastic Scattering b-decay Nuclear Spatial...

  13. HTGR-SC/C program baseline review meeting, Session IIC: circulators, C and I, and helium service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Information is presented concerning main and auxiliary circulators; reactor service equipment; and control and instrumentation systems.

  14. General Equilibrium Modeling Package (GEMPACK) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This tool is included in the Development Impacts Assessment (DIA) Toolkit from the LEDS Global Partnership. Approach The GEMPACK is used for building and solving applied...

  15. Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Related Tools Manual for Quantitative Evaluation of the Co-Benefits Approach to Climate Change Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) Object-Oriented Energy,...

  16. General Equilibrium Model for Economy - Energy - Environment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and non-energy related emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), other GHG such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N20) sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), and...

  17. Impact of biomass burning aerosol on the monsoon circulation transition over Amazonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Fu, Rong; Yu, Hongbin; Qian, Yun; Dickinson, Robert; Silva Dias, Maria Assuncao F.; da Silva Dias, Pedro L.; Fernandes, Katia

    2009-05-30

    Ensemble simulations of a regional climate model (RegCM3) forced by aerosol radiative forcing suggest that biomass burning aerosols can work against the seasonal monsoon circulation transition, thus re-enforce the dry season rainfall pattern for Southern Amazonia. Strongly absorbing smoke aerosols warm and stabilize the lower troposphere within the smoke center in southern Amazonia (where aerosol optical depth > 0.3). These changes increase the surface pressure in the smoke center, weaken the southward surface pressure gradient between northern and southern Amazonia, and consequently induce an anomalous moisture divergence in the smoke center and an anomalous convergence occurs in northwestern Amazonia (5S-5N, 60W-40 70W). The increased atmospheric thermodynamic stability, surface pressure, and divergent flow in Southern Amazonia may inhibit synoptic cyclonic activities propagated from extratropical South America, and re-enforce winter-like synoptic cyclonic activities and rainfall in southeastern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

  18. CFD analyses of natural circulation in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, R.; Pointer, W. D.

    2013-07-01

    The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is currently being built at Argonne National Laboratory, to evaluate the feasibility of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) for Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). CFD simulations have been applied to evaluate the NSTF and NGNP RCCS designs. However, previous simulations found that convergence was very difficult to achieve in simulating the complex natural circulation. To resolve the convergence issue and increase the confidence of the CFD simulation results, additional CFD simulations were conducted using a more detailed mesh and a different solution scheme. It is found that, with the use of coupled flow and coupled energy models, the convergence can be greatly improved. Furthermore, the effects of convection in the cavity and the effects of the uncertainty in solid surface emissivity are also investigated. (authors)

  19. General Restaurant Equipment: Order (2013-CE-5344)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered General Restaurant Equipment Co. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding General Restaurant Equipment had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  20. PEMP General Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OF CONTENTS Num ber PEMP General Information A Introduction 2 B Roles and Responsibilities 3 C Process and Schedule 5 D Contractor Self-Assessment 5 E PEMP Numbering System and ...

  1. A = 7 General Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hyperfine Structure b-decay Muons Hypernuclei and Baryons Pion, Kaon and Eta-Mesons Other Work Applications The General Table for 7Be is subdivided into the following categories:...

  2. Parallel Computation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P; Song, Y T; Chao, Y; Zhang, H

    2005-04-05

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is a regional ocean general circulation modeling system solving the free surface, hydrostatic, primitive equations over varying topography. It is free software distributed world-wide for studying both complex coastal ocean problems and the basin-to-global scale ocean circulation. The original ROMS code could only be run on shared-memory systems. With the increasing need to simulate larger model domains with finer resolutions and on a variety of computer platforms, there is a need in the ocean-modeling community to have a ROMS code that can be run on any parallel computer ranging from 10 to hundreds of processors. Recently, we have explored parallelization for ROMS using the MPI programming model. In this paper, an efficient parallelization strategy for such a large-scale scientific software package, based on an existing shared-memory computing model, is presented. In addition, scientific applications and data-performance issues on a couple of SGI systems, including Columbia, the world's third-fastest supercomputer, are discussed.

  3. Symmetric generalized binomial distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, H.; Curado, E. M. F.; Instituto Nacional de Cincia e Tecnologia - Sistemas Complexos, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ ; Gazeau, J. P.; APC, UMR 7164, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 75205 Paris ; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S. E-mail: evaldo@cbpf.br E-mail: ligia@cbpf.br

    2013-12-15

    In two recent articles, we have examined a generalization of the binomial distribution associated with a sequence of positive numbers, involving asymmetric expressions of probabilities that break the symmetry win-loss. We present in this article another generalization (always associated with a sequence of positive numbers) that preserves the symmetry win-loss. This approach is also based on generating functions and presents constraints of non-negativeness, similar to those encountered in our previous articles.

  4. General User Proposals (GUPs)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General User Proposals (GUPs) Print General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS or the Participating Research Team (PRT) that operates the beamline. Before Submitting a Proposal Review the ALS Beamlines Directory to learn about the research capabilities of individual beamlines at the ALS. Contact the beamline scientist or the local contact listed in the tables, for additional information about the

  5. 2011 IAEA General Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 IAEA General Conference Remarks as Prepared for Delivery Secretary Steven Chu Monday, September 19, 2011 Thank you, Ambassador Feruta. Congratulations on your election as President of this Conference. I also want to thank Director General Amano for his outstanding leadership. I am honored to represent the United States today, and I want to share a message from President Barack Obama: "On behalf of the United States, please accept my best wishes for a successful International Atomic Energy

  6. Atmospheric circulation of eccentric hot Jupiter HAT-P-2B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Knutson, Heather A.; Marley, Mark S.

    2014-11-10

    The hot Jupiter HAT-P-2b has become a prime target for Spitzer Space Telescope observations aimed at understanding the atmospheric response of exoplanets on highly eccentric orbits. Here we present a suite of three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models for HAT-P-2b that investigate the effects of assumed atmospheric composition and rotation rate on global scale winds and thermal patterns. We compare and contrast atmospheric models for HAT-P-2b, which assume one and five times solar metallicity, both with and without TiO/VO as atmospheric constituents. Additionally we compare models that assume a rotation period of half, one, and two times the nominal pseudo-synchronous rotation period. We find that changes in assumed atmospheric metallicity and rotation rate do not significantly affect model predictions of the planetary flux as a function of orbital phase. However, models in which TiO/VO are present in the atmosphere develop a transient temperature inversion between the transit and secondary eclipse events that results in significant variations in the timing and magnitude of the peak of the planetary flux compared with models in which TiO/VO are omitted from the opacity tables. We find that no one single atmospheric model can reproduce the recently observed full orbit phase curves at 3.6, 4.5 and 8.0 ?m, which is likely due to a chemical process not captured by our current atmospheric models for HAT-P-2b. Further modeling and observational efforts focused on understanding the chemistry of HAT-P-2b's atmosphere are needed and could provide key insights into the interplay between radiative, dynamical, and chemical processes in a wide range of exoplanet atmospheres.

  7. Erosivity of particles in circulating fluidized bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, A.V.; Wang, B.Q.; Geng, G.Q. ); Mack, W. )

    1989-01-01

    The metal wastage of superheater tubes in the convection pass region of circulating fluidized bed combustors (CFBC) is a current problem. An investigation was carried out to determine what kinds of metal loss rates and mechanisms occurred when the various types of particles in CFBC's were used as the erodent in a laboratory blast nozzle tester. The laboratory tests were compared to in-service exposures. A loss mechanism was established that was based on metal losses and the observed microstructures of E-C surfaces. It was additionally determined that more angular and larger size particles have a greater level of erosivity and that the particles must be strong enough not to shatter upon impact in order to be erosive. Favorable comparisons between laboratory and in-service loss mechanisms are reported.

  8. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute`s decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  9. Options for Cryogenic Load Cooling with Forced Flow Helium Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Roberto Than

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic pumps designed to circulate super-critical helium are commonly deemed necessary in many super-conducting magnet and other cooling applications. Acknowledging that these pumps are often located at the coldest temperature levels, their use introduces risks associated with the reliability of additional rotating machinery and an additional load on the refrigeration system. However, as it has been successfully demonstrated, this objective can be accomplished without using these pumps by the refrigeration system, resulting in lower system input power and improved reliability to the overall cryogenic system operations. In this paper we examine some trade-offs between using these pumps vs. using the refrigeration system directly with examples of processes that have used these concepts successfully and eliminated using such pumps

  10. Computer support to run models of the atmosphere. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, I.

    1996-08-30

    This research is focused on a better quantification of the variations in CO{sub 2} exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere and the factors responsible for these exchangers. The principal approach is to infer the variations in the exchanges from variations in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} distribution. The principal tool involves using a global three-dimensional tracer transport model to advect and convect CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The tracer model the authors used was developed at the Goddard institute for Space Studies (GISS) and is derived from the GISS atmospheric general circulation model. A special run of the GCM is made to save high-frequency winds and mixing statistics for the tracer model.

  11. General Motors sidestream separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessier, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    On February 15, 1980, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, acting pursuant to Paragraph 113(D) (4) of the Clean Air Act, issued to General Motors an innovative technology order covering fifteen coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers located at six General Motors plants in Ohio. The purpose and effect of this order was to permit General Motors time to develop a new, innovative technique for controlling particulate emissions from the specified boilers before compliance with the federally approved Ohio particulate control regulation was required. This new technology was christened, The Sidestream Separator, by General Motors. It provides a highly cost effective means of reducing particulate emissions below levels currently obtainable with conventionally used high efficiency mechanical collectors. These improvements could prove to be of substantial benefit to many industrial facilities with spreader-stoker coal-fired boilers that cannot be brought into compliance with applicble air pollution regulations except by application of far more expensive and unwieldly electrostatic precipitators (ESP's) or fabric filters (baghouses).

  12. Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P. M.

    2015-03-27

    Single-column model (SCM) capability is an important tool for general circulation model development. In this study, the SCM mode of version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is shown to handle aerosol initialization and advection improperly, resulting in aerosol, cloud-droplet, and ice crystal concentrations which are typically much lower than observed or simulated by CAM5 in global mode. This deficiency has a major impact on stratiform cloud simulations but has little impact on convective case studies because aerosol is currently not used by CAM5 convective schemes and convective cases are typically longer in duration (so initialization is less important).more » By imposing fixed aerosol or cloud-droplet and crystal number concentrations, the aerosol issues described above can be avoided. Sensitivity studies using these idealizations suggest that the Meyers et al. (1992) ice nucleation scheme prevents mixed-phase cloud from existing by producing too many ice crystals. Microphysics is shown to strongly deplete cloud water in stratiform cases, indicating problems with sequential splitting in CAM5 and the need for careful interpretation of output from sequentially split climate models. Droplet concentration in the general circulation model (GCM) version of CAM5 is also shown to be far too low (~ 25 cm−3) at the southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site.« less

  13. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  14. General Employee Radiological Training

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE HANDBOOK GENERAL EMPLOYEE RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Not Measurement Sensitive This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 iii Foreword This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in chapter 14,

  15. General Employee Radiological Training

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Not Measurement Sensitive DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 December 2007_______ Change Notice 1 Reaffirmed 2013 DOE HANDBOOK GENERAL EMPLOYEE RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ Change 1 DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 Original Change Part 2 page 5 The

  16. Office of Inspector General

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Work Plan for FY 2013 Audits Central Audits Division  Ecotality  Funding Overlap  Follow-up on Smart Grid Investment Grant  DOE's Loan Program Office's Portfolio Management  Office of Fossil Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  Advanced Manufacturing Office's Combined Heat and Power Systems  DOE's Management of Contaminated Non-EM Facilities  Unneeded Real Estate  Review of For-Profit Grantees

  17. A cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stockett, M. H.; Lawler, J. E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A novel absorption cell has been developed to enable a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under astrophysically relevant conditions and utilizing a synchrotron radiation continuum to test the still controversial hypothesis that these molecules or their ions could be carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell resembles a wind tunnel; molecules evaporated from a crucible or injected using a custom gas feedthrough are entrained in a laminar flow of cryogenically cooled buffer gas and advected into the path of the synchrotron beam. This system includes a multi-pass optical White cell enabling absorption path lengths of hundreds of meters and a detection sensitivity to molecular densities on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}. A capacitively coupled radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge provides ionized and metastable buffer gas atoms for ionizing the candidate molecules via charge exchange and the Penning effect. Stronger than expected clustering of PAH molecules has slowed efforts to record gas phase PAH spectra at cryogenic temperatures, though such clusters may play a role in other interstellar phenomena.

  18. Circulating fluidized-bed boiler makes inroads for waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers have ben used for years in Scandinavia to burn refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Now, Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc., (Clinton, N.J.) is bringing the technology to the US. Touted as the world`s largest waste-to-energy plant to use CFB technology, the Robbins (III.) Resource Recovery Facility will have the capacity to process 1,600 tons/d of municipal solid waste (MSW) when it begins operation in early 1997. The facility will have two materials-separation and RDF-processing trains, each with dual trommel screens, magnetic and eddy current separators, and shredders. About 25% of the incoming MSW will be sorted and removed for recycling, while 75% of it will be turned into fuel, with a heat value of roughly 6,170 btu/lb. Once burned in the twin CFB boilers the resulting steam will be routed through a single turbine generator to produce 50,000 mW of electric power.

  19. Generalized self-dual Chern-Simons vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazeia, D.; Hora, E. da; Santos, C. dos; Menezes, R.

    2010-06-15

    We search for vortices in a generalized Abelian Chern-Simons model with a nonstandard kinetic term. We illustrate our results, plotting and comparing several features of the vortex solution of the generalized model with those of the vortex solution found in the standard Chern-Simons model.

  20. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF AGREEMENT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PRINCIPLES OF AGREEMENT HWB-14-20 and HWB-14-21 These General Principles of Agreement ("Principles of Agreement") are agreed upon by the New Mexico Environment Department ("NMED"), and the United States Department of Energy ("DOE"), Los Alamos National Security, LLC ("LANS"), and Nuclear Waste Partnership, LLC ("NWP") (collectively, with DOE and LANS, the "DOE Permittees") for the purpose of resolving Compliance Order Nos. HWB-14- 20

  1. United States Attorney General

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    93, 5 U.S. Op. Off. Legal Counsel 1, 1981 WL 30865 (U.S.A.G.) United States Attorney General ***1 *293 January 16, 1981 **1 The President The White House Washington, D.C. 20500 MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: You have asked my opinion concerning the scope of currently existing legal and constitutional authorities for the continuance of government functions during a temporary lapse in appropriations, such as the Government sustained on October 1, 1980. As you know, some initial determination concerning

  2. General Motors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motors Jump to: navigation, search Name: General Motors Place: Detroit, MI Website: www.generalmotors.com References: General Motors1 Information About Partnership with NREL...

  3. Polarized 3He Gas Circulating Technologies for Neutron Analyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watt, David; Hersman, Bill

    2014-12-10

    We describe the development of an integrated system for quasi-continuous operation of a large volume neutron analyzer. The system consists of a non-magnetic diaphragm compressor, a prototype large volume helium polarizer, a surrogate neutron analyzer, a non-depolarizing gas storage reservoir, a non-ferrous valve manifold for handling gas distribution, a custom rubidium-vapor gas return purifier, and wire-wound transfer lines, all of which are immersed in a two-meter external magnetic field. Over the Phase II period we focused on three major tasks required for the successful deployment of these types of systems: 1) design and implementation of gas handling hardware, 2) automation for long-term operation, and 3) improvements in polarizer performance, specifically fabrication of aluminosilicate optical pumping cells. In this report we describe the design, implementation, and testing of the gas handling hardware. We describe improved polarizer performance resulting from improved cell materials and fabrication methods. These improvements yielded valved 8.5 liter cells with relaxation times greater than 12 hours. Pumping this cell with 1500W laser power with 1.25nm linewidth yielded peak polarizations of 60%, measured both inside and outside the polarizer. Fully narrowing this laser to 0.25nm, demonstrated separately on one stack of the four, would have allowed 70% polarization with this cell. We demonstrated the removal of 5 liters of polarized helium from the polarizer with no measured loss of polarization. We circulated the gas through a titanium-clad compressor with polarization loss below 3% per pass. We also prepared for the next phase of development by refining the design of the polarizer so that it can be engineer-certified for pressurized operation. The performance of our system far exceeds comparable efforts elsewhere.

  4. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, Solar Newsletter, SunShot, Systems Analysis Sandia Develops Stochastic ...

  5. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monte Carlo modeling it was found that for noisy signals with a significant background component, accuracy is improved by fitting the total emission data which includes the...

  6. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Sandia Labs Releases New Version of PVLib Toolbox Sandia has released version 1.3 of PVLib, its widely used Matlab toolbox for modeling photovoltaic (PV) power ...

  7. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Sandia Will Host PV Bankability Workshop at Solar Power International (SPI) 2013 Computational Modeling & Simulation, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Facilities, Grid ...

  8. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science and Actuarial Practice" Read More Permalink New Project Is the ACME of Computer Science to Address Climate Change Analysis, Climate, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, ...

  9. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Though adequate for modeling mean transport, this approach does not address ... Microphysics such as diffusive transport and chemical kinetics are represented by ...

  10. Modular Applied General Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Related Tools CRiSTAL Forests MCA4Climate - Guidance for scientifically sound climate change planning Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium Model...

  11. Thermally induced flow oscillation in vertical two-phase natural circulation loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Ishii, Mamoru

    1988-01-01

    In order to study the two-phase natural circulation during a small break loss of coolant accident in LWR, simulation experiments have been performed using Freon-113 boiling and condensation loop. In quasi-steady state, the flow became relatively stabilized and certain regular patterns of flow oscillations were detected with ranges of periods in 8-/approximately/35 seconds and 2.5-/approximately/4 minutes. In order to find out the nature of these oscillations, one-dimensional field equations for the single-phase (liquid) and two-phase region were set up, and these field equations were integrated along the loop. The homogeneous flow model was used for the two-phase region. Then the characteristic equation was derived using perturbation method. Thermal non-equilibrium and compressibility of each phase were not considered in the present analysis. The characteristic equation derived can be used to obtain the stability criteria. A simplified approach showed that the short-period oscillation were the manometer oscillation. The longer period oscillations were the density wave oscillation which had the period of oscillations close to the residence time of a fluid around the loop.

  12. A Test Facility for MEIC ERL Circulator Ring Based Electron Cooler...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    repetition rate up to 750 MHz is required for MEIC. The present cooler design concept is based on a magnetized photo-cathode SRF gun, an SRF ERL and a compact circulator ring. ...

  13. Slip stream apparatus and method for treating water in a circulating water system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleveland, J.R.

    1997-03-18

    An apparatus is described for treating water in a circulating water system that has a cooling water basin which includes a slip stream conduit in flow communication with the circulating water system, a source of acid solution in flow communication with the slip stream conduit, and a decarbonator in flow communication with the slip stream conduit and the cooling water basin. In use, a slip stream of circulating water is drawn from the circulating water system into the slip stream conduit of the apparatus. The slip stream pH is lowered by contact with an acid solution provided from the source thereof. The slip stream is then passed through a decarbonator to form a treated slip stream, and the treated slip stream is returned to the cooling water basin. 4 figs.

  14. Slip stream apparatus and method for treating water in a circulating water system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleveland, Joe R.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus (10) for treating water in a circulating water system (12) t has a cooling water basin (14) includes a slip stream conduit (16) in flow communication with the circulating water system (12), a source (36) of acid solution in flow communication with the slip stream conduit (16), and a decarbonator (58) in flow communication with the slip stream conduit (16) and the cooling water basin (14). In use, a slip stream of circulating water is drawn from the circulating water system (12) into the slip stream conduit (16) of the apparatus (10). The slip stream pH is lowered by contact with an acid solution provided from the source (36) thereof. The slip stream is then passed through a decarbonator (58) to form a treated slip stream, and the treated slip stream is returned to the cooling water basin (14).

  15. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2CirculationFans...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    eKwhM2CirculationFans" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 13.3422495258 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  16. The Transient Circulation Response to Radiative Forcings and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using ensembles of 90-day climate model simulations with immediate switch-on forcings, including perturbed greenhouse gas concentrations, stratospheric ozone concentrations, and ...

  17. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with application in modeling NDCX-II experiments Wangyi Liu 1 , John Barnard 2 , Alex Friedman 2 , Nathan Masters 2 , Aaron Fisher 2 , Alice Koniges 2 , David Eder 2 1 LBNL, USA, 2...

  18. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA Earth at Night Video EC, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Global, Modeling, News & Events, Solid-State Lighting, Videos NASA Earth at Night Video Have you ever wondered what the ...

  19. Use of Advanced Meteorological Model Output for Coastal Ocean Modeling in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Wang, Taiping

    2011-06-01

    It is a great challenge to specify meteorological forcing in estuarine and coastal circulation modeling using observed data because of the lack of complete datasets. As a result of this limitation, water temperature is often not simulated in estuarine and coastal modeling, with the assumption that density-induced currents are generally dominated by salinity gradients. However, in many situations, temperature gradients could be sufficiently large to influence the baroclinic motion. In this paper, we present an approach to simulate water temperature using outputs from advanced meteorological models. This modeling approach was applied to simulate annual variations of water temperatures of Puget Sound, a fjordal estuary in the Pacific Northwest of USA. Meteorological parameters from North American Region Re-analysis (NARR) model outputs were evaluated with comparisons to observed data at real-time meteorological stations. Model results demonstrated that NARR outputs can be used to drive coastal ocean models for realistic simulations of long-term water-temperature distributions in Puget Sound. Model results indicated that the net flux from NARR can be further improved with the additional information from real-time observations.

  20. Direct Push Groundwater Circulation Wells for Remediation of BTEX and Volatile Organics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borden, R. E.; Cherry, Robert Stephen

    2000-09-01

    Direct push groundwater circulation wells (DP-GCW) are a promising technology for remediation of groundwater contaminated with dissolved hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. In these wells, groundwater is withdrawn from the formation at the bottom of the well, aerated and vapor stripped and injected back into the formation at or above the water table. Previous field studies have shown that: (a) GCWs can circulate significant volumes of groundwater; and (b) GCWs can effectively remove volatile compounds and add oxygen. In this work, we describe the development and field-testing of a system of DP-GCWs for remediation of volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and toluene (BTEX). The GCWs were constructed with No. 20 slotted well screen (2.4 cm ID) and natural sand pack extending from 1.5 to 8.2 m below grade. Air is introduced ~7.5 m below grade via 0.6 cm tubing. Approximately 15% of the vertical length of the air supply tubing is wrapped in tangled mesh polypropylene geonet drainage fabric to provide surface area for biological growth and precipitation of oxidized iron. These materials were selected to allow rapid installation of the GCWs using 3.8 cm direct push Geoprobe® rods, greatly reducing well installation costs. Laboratory testing of these sparged wells and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling showed that these wells, although they used only about 1 L/min of air, could circulate about 1 L/min of water through the surrounding aquifer. This flow was sufficient to capture all of a flowing contaminant if the wells are sufficiently closely together, about 1 meter on center depending on the air flow rate supplied, in a line across the plume. The CFD work showed the details of this ability to capture, and also showed that unforeseen heterogeneities in the aquifer such as a gradient of permeability or a thin impermeable layer (such as a clay layer) did not prevent the system from working largely as intended. The system was tested in a

  1. Direct Push Groundwater Circulation Wells for Remediation of BTEX and Volatile Organics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borden, R.C.; Cherry, R.S.

    2000-09-30

    Direct push groundwater circulation wells (DP-GCW) are a promising technology for remediation of groundwater contaminated with dissolved hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. In these wells, groundwater is withdrawn from the formation at the bottom of the well, aerated and vapor stripped and injected back into the formation at or above the water table. Previous field studies have shown that: (a) GCWs can circulate significant volumes of groundwater; and (b) GCWs can effectively remove volatile compounds and add oxygen. In this work, we describe the development and field-testing of a system of DP-GCWs for remediation of volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and toluene (BTEX). The GCWs were constructed with No. 20 slotted well screen (2.4 cm ID) and natural sand pack extending from 1.5 to 8.2 m below grade. Air is introduced {approximately}7.5 m below grade via 0.6 cm tubing. Approximately 15% of the vertical length of the air supply tubing is wrapped in tangled mesh polypropylene geonet drainage fabric to provide surface area for biological growth and precipitation of oxidized iron. These materials were selected to allow rapid installation of the GCWs using 3.8 cm direct push Geoprobe{reg_sign} rods, greatly reducing well installation costs. Laboratory testing of these sparged wells and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling showed that these wells, although they used only about 1 L/min of air, could circulate about 1 L/min of water through the surrounding aquifer. This flow was sufficient to capture all of a flowing contaminant if the wells are sufficiently closely together, about 1 meter on center depending on the air flow rate supplied, in a line across the plume. The CFD work showed the details of this ability to capture, and also showed that unforeseen heterogeneities in the aquifer such as a gradient of permeability or a thin impermeable layer (such as a clay layer) did not prevent the system from working largely as intended. The

  2. A self-circulating heat exchanger for use in stirling and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thermoacoustic-stirling engines (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: A self-circulating heat exchanger for use in stirling and thermoacoustic-stirling engines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A self-circulating heat exchanger for use in stirling and thermoacoustic-stirling engines A major technical hurdle to the implementation of large Stirling engines or thermoacoustic engines is the reliability, performance, and manufacturability of the hot heat exchanger that brings

  3. General Electric: ENERGY STAR Referral (PFSF5NFZ****)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE referred the matter of General Electric refrigerator-freezer basic model PFSF5NFZ**** to the EPA for appropriate action after DOE testing showed that the model does not meet the ENERGY STAR specification.

  4. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuru, Satoru; Tamai, Katsuto . E-mail: tamai@gts.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-03-09

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood.

  5. Title 1 General Provisions Chapter 5 Common Law; General Rights...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Provisions Chapter 5 Common Law; General Rights 3 V.S.A. Section 2809 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute:...

  6. Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) provides legal support for non-programmatic issues other than those involving procurement and intellectual property.  The office...

  7. California Wintertime Precipitation in Regional and Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, P M

    2009-04-27

    In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California (CA) and compared. Several averaging methodologies are considered and all are found to give similar values when model grid spacing is less than 3{sup o}. This suggests that CA is a reasonable size for regional intercomparisons using modern GCMs. Results show that reanalysis-forced RCMs tend to significantly overpredict CA precipitation. This appears to be due mainly to overprediction of extreme events; RCM precipitation frequency is generally underpredicted. Overprediction is also reflected in wintertime precipitation variability, which tends to be too high for RCMs on both daily and interannual scales. Wintertime precipitation in most (but not all) GCMs is underestimated. This is in contrast to previous studies based on global blended gauge/satellite observations which are shown here to underestimate precipitation relative to higher-resolution gauge-only datasets. Several GCMs provide reasonable daily precipitation distributions, a trait which doesn't seem tied to model resolution. GCM daily and interannual variability is generally underpredicted.

  8. Agent Model Development for Assessing Climate-Induced Geopolitical Instability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.

    2005-12-01

    We present the initial stages of development of new agent-based computational methods to generate and test hypotheses about linkages between environmental change and international instability. This report summarizes the first year's effort of an originally proposed three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The preliminary work focused on a set of simple agent-based models and benefited from lessons learned in previous related projects and case studies of human response to climate change and environmental scarcity. Our approach was to define a qualitative model using extremely simple cellular agent models akin to Lovelock's Daisyworld and Schelling's segregation model. Such models do not require significant computing resources, and users can modify behavior rules to gain insights. One of the difficulties in agent-based modeling is finding the right balance between model simplicity and real-world representation. Our approach was to keep agent behaviors as simple as possible during the development stage (described herein) and to ground them with a realistic geospatial Earth system model in subsequent years. This work is directed toward incorporating projected climate data--including various C02 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report--and ultimately toward coupling a useful agent-based model to a general circulation model.3

  9. Soliton configurations in generalized Mie electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rybakov, Yu. P.

    2011-07-15

    The generalization of the Mie electrodynamics within the scope of the effective 8-spinor field model is suggested, with the Lagrangian including Higgs-like potential and higher degrees of the invariant A{sub Micro-Sign }A{sup Micro-Sign }. Using special Brioschi 8-spinor identity, we show that the model includes the Skyrme and the Faddeev models as particular cases. We investigate the large-distance asymptotic of static solutions and estimate the electromagnetic contribution to the energy of the localized charged configuration.

  10. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

  11. Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loth, E.; Tryggvason, G.; Tsuji, Y.; Elghobashi, S. E.; Crowe, Clayton T.; Berlemont, A.; Reeks, M.; Simonin, O.; Frank, Th; Onishi, Yasuo; Van Wachem, B.

    2005-09-01

    Slurry flows occur in many circumstances, including chemical manufacturing processes, pipeline transfer of coal, sand, and minerals; mud flows; and disposal of dredged materials. In this section we discuss slurry flow applications related to radioactive waste management. The Hanford tank waste solids and interstitial liquids will be mixed to form a slurry so it can be pumped out for retrieval and treatment. The waste is very complex chemically and physically. The ARIEL code is used to model the chemical interactions and fluid dynamics of the waste.

  12. General Atomics (GA) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General Atomics (GA) Subscribe to RSS - General Atomics (GA) General Atomics Image: General Atomics (GA) The Scorpion's Strategy: "Catch and Subdue" Read more about The Scorpion's...

  13. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-29

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  14. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  15. Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Miller, R. L.; Tausnev, N.; Kelley, M.; Ruedy, R.; Russell, G. L.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; et al

    2015-02-24

    We examine the anthropogenically forced climate response for the 21st century representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios and their extensions for the period 2101–2500. The experiments were performed with ModelE2, a new version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences (GISS) coupled general circulation model that includes three different versions for the atmospheric composition components: a noninteractive version (NINT) with prescribed composition and a tuned aerosol indirect effect (AIE), the TCAD version with fully interactive aerosols, whole-atmosphere chemistry, and the tuned AIE, and the TCADI version which further includes a parameterized first indirect aerosol effect on clouds. Each atmosphericmore » version is coupled to two different ocean general circulation models: the Russell ocean model (GISS-E2-R) and HYCOM (GISS-E2-H). By 2100, global mean warming in the RCP scenarios ranges from 1.0 to 4.5° C relative to 1850–1860 mean temperature in the historical simulations. In the RCP2.6 scenario, the surface warming in all simulations stays below a 2 °C threshold at the end of the 21st century. For RCP8.5, the range is 3.5–4.5° C at 2100. Decadally averaged sea ice area changes are highly correlated to global mean surface air temperature anomalies and show steep declines in both hemispheres, with a larger sensitivity during winter months. By the year 2500, there are complete recoveries of the globally averaged surface air temperature for all versions of the GISS climate model in the low-forcing scenario RCP2.6. TCADI simulations show enhanced warming due to greater sensitivity to CO₂, aerosol effects, and greater methane feedbacks, and recovery is much slower in RCP2.6 than with the NINT and TCAD versions. All coupled models have decreases in the Atlantic overturning stream function by 2100. In RCP2.6, there is a complete recovery of the Atlantic overturning stream function by the year 2500 while with scenario RCP8.5, the

  16. Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Miller, R. L.; Tausnev, N.; Kelley, M.; Ruedy, R.; Russell, G. L.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bleck, R.; Canuto, V.; Cheng, Y.; Clune, T. L.; Del Genio, A. D.; Faluvegi, G.; Hansen, J. E.; Healy, R. J.; Kiang, N. Y.; Koch, D.; Lacis, A. A.; LeGrande, A. N.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K. K.; Menon, S.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, J.; Puma, M. J.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Sato, M.; Shindell, D. T.; Sun, S.; Tsigaridis, K.; Unger, N.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yao, M. -S.; Zhang, Jinlun

    2015-02-24

    We examine the anthropogenically forced climate response for the 21st century representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios and their extensions for the period 2101–2500. The experiments were performed with ModelE2, a new version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences (GISS) coupled general circulation model that includes three different versions for the atmospheric composition components: a noninteractive version (NINT) with prescribed composition and a tuned aerosol indirect effect (AIE), the TCAD version with fully interactive aerosols, whole-atmosphere chemistry, and the tuned AIE, and the TCADI version which further includes a parameterized first indirect aerosol effect on clouds. Each atmospheric version is coupled to two different ocean general circulation models: the Russell ocean model (GISS-E2-R) and HYCOM (GISS-E2-H). By 2100, global mean warming in the RCP scenarios ranges from 1.0 to 4.5° C relative to 1850–1860 mean temperature in the historical simulations. In the RCP2.6 scenario, the surface warming in all simulations stays below a 2 °C threshold at the end of the 21st century. For RCP8.5, the range is 3.5–4.5° C at 2100. Decadally averaged sea ice area changes are highly correlated to global mean surface air temperature anomalies and show steep declines in both hemispheres, with a larger sensitivity during winter months. By the year 2500, there are complete recoveries of the globally averaged surface air temperature for all versions of the GISS climate model in the low-forcing scenario RCP2.6. TCADI simulations show enhanced warming due to greater sensitivity to CO₂, aerosol effects, and greater methane feedbacks, and recovery is much slower in RCP2.6 than with the NINT and TCAD versions. All coupled models have decreases in the Atlantic overturning stream function by 2100. In RCP2.6, there is a complete recovery of the Atlantic overturning stream function by the year 2500 while with scenario RCP8.5, the E2-R

  17. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a doseresponse model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR dose-dependently increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ?-muricholic acid (?MCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12?-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12?-hydroxylated BAs). Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  18. Unraveling hadron structure with generalized parton distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrei Belitsky; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2004-10-01

    The recently introduced generalized parton distributions have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. They combine the features of form factors, parton densities and distribution amplitudes - the functions used for a long time in studies of hadronic structure. Generalized parton distributions are analogous to the phase-space Wigner quasi-probability function of non-relativistic quantum mechanics which encodes full information on a quantum-mechanical system. We give an extensive review of main achievements in the development of this formalism. We discuss physical interpretation and basic properties of generalized parton distributions, their modeling and QCD evolution in the leading and next-to-leading orders. We describe how these functions enter a wide class of exclusive reactions, such as electro- and photo-production of photons, lepton pairs, or mesons.

  19. Code System to Calculate Fluid Circulation Patterns Near Jets.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-01-18

    Version 00 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. ORSMAC predicts the temperatures occurring in the immediate vicinity (the near field) of a hot water discharge from a power plant. ORSMAC numerically solves the differential equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in a two-dimensional vertical plane containing the power plant discharge. The model allows arbitrary discharge angle and can accommodate either quiescent or cross-flowing ambient conditions.

  20. The elimination of the reverse circulation in thermosiphon solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prapas, D.E.; Sotiropoulos, B.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Thermosiphon solar water heaters (TSWH), employing either closed or open collector loops, are widely used today to cover a substantial part of the hot water needs, mostly in residential small scale applications. Their cost is lower in comparison to pumped systems, because no pumps, controls etc. are required. However, the storage tank has to be mounted above the collector in order to promote the thermosiphon flow; this could be a serious drawback in some applications. An undesirable characteristic of TSWH is the reverse circulation (RC) of the working liquid when the temperature of the collector is lower than that of the storage tank. The causes of reverse circulation in thermosyphon solar water heaters, the geometry of the systems, and the affects of nocturnal radiative cooling of the collector are discussed. A means of interconnecting collector and tank to drastically reduce reverse circulation is presented.

  1. General Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Jump to: navigation, search Name: General Biodiesel Address: 4034 West Marginal Way Place: Seattle, Washington Zip: 98106 Region: Pacific Northwest Area Sector: Biofuels...

  2. Singularities of Generalized Parton Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2012-05-14

    The basic ideas of the theory of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) are reviewed. Recent developments in the study of singularities of GPDs are discussed.

  3. General Atomics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: General Atomics offers research, development and consulting services to the nuclear industry, including nuclear energy production, manufacturing, defense and related...

  4. The role of aerosols in cloud drop parameterizations and its applications in global climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    The characteristics of the cloud drop size distribution near cloud base are initially determined by aerosols that serve as cloud condensation nuclei and the updraft velocity. We have developed parameterizations relating cloud drop number concentration to aerosol number and sulfate mass concentrations and used them in a coupled global aerosol/general circulation model (GCM) to estimate the indirect aerosol forcing. The global aerosol model made use of our detailed emissions inventories for the amount of particulate matter from biomass burning sources and from fossil fuel sources as well as emissions inventories of the gas-phase anthropogenic SO{sub 2}. This work is aimed at validating the coupled model with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program measurements and assessing the possible magnitude of the aerosol-induced cloud effects on climate.

  5. STOIC: An Assessment of Coupled Model Climatology and Variability in Tropical Ocean Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davey, M.K.; Sperber, K.R.; Huddleston, M

    2000-08-30

    The tropics are regions of strong ocean-atmosphere interaction on seasonal and interannual timescales, so a good representation of observed tropical behavior is a desirable objective for coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs). To broaden and update previous assessments (Mechoso et al. 1995, Neelin et al. 1992), two complementary projects were initiated by the CLIVAR Working Group on Seasonal to Interannual Prediction (WGSIP): the El Nino Simulation Intercomparison Project (ENSIP, by Mojib Latif) and STOIC (Study of Tropical Oceans In Coupled models). The aim was to compare models against observations to identify common weaknesses and strengths. Results from ENSIP concentrating on the equatorial Pacific have been described by Latif et al. (2000), hereafter ENSIP2000. A detailed report on STOIC is available via anonymous ftp at email.meto.gov.uk/pub/cr/ ''stoic'' and is summarized in Davey et al. (2000). The STOIC analyses extend beyond the equatorial Pacific, to examine behavior in all three tropical ocean regions.

  6. Dynamics of Arctic and Sub-Arctic Climate and Atmospheric Circulation: Diagnosis of Mechanisms and Biases Using Data Assimilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric T. DeWeaver

    2010-01-19

    This is the final report for DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER64434 to Eric DeWeaver at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The overall goal of work performed under this grant is to enhance understanding of simulations of present-day climate and greenhouse gas-induced climate change. Enhanced understanding is desirable 1) as a prerequisite for improving simulations; 2) for assessing the credibility of model simulations and their usefulness as tools for decision support; and 3) as a means to identify robust behaviors which commonly occur over a wide range of models, and may yield insights regarding the dominant physical mechanisms which determine mean climate and produce climate change. A furthe objective is to investigate the use of data assimilation as a means for examining and correcting model biases. Our primary focus is on the Arctic, but the scope of the work was expanded to include the global climate system to the extent that research targets of opportunity present themselves. Research performed under the grant falls into five main research areas: 1) a study of data assimilation using an ensemble filter with the atmospheric circulation model of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in which both conventional observations and observations of the refraction of radio waves from GPS satellites were used to constrain the atmospheric state of the model; 2) research on the likely future status of polar bears, in which climate model simluations were used to assess the effectiveness of climate change mitigation efforts in preserving the habitat of polar bears, now considered a threatened species under global warming; 3) as assessment of the credibility of Arctic sea ice thickness simulations from climate models; 4) An examination of the persistence and reemergence of Northern Hemisphere sea ice area anomalies in climate model simulations and in observations; 5) An examination of the roles played by changes in net radiation and surface relative humidity in determine the

  7. Access to generalized parton distributions at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-04-10

    A brief experimentalist's introduction to Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) is given. Recent COMPASS results are shown on transverse target-spin asymmetries in hard exclusive ρ{sup 0} production and their interpretation in terms of a phenomenological model as indication for chiral-odd, transverse GPDs is discussed. For deeply virtual Compton scattering, it is briefly outlined how to access GPDs and projections are shown for future COMPASS measurements.

  8. Scientific Final Report: COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William J. Gutowski; Joseph M. Prusa, Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz

    2012-04-09

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the 'physics' of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  9. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellah, W.

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the design of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.

  10. SFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 29 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  11. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 31 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  12. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 19 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  13. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 22 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2014) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  14. EFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 39 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Apr 2013) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  15. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 33 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  16. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 20 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  17. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 29 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2014) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  18. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 9/26/14) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 29 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2014) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  19. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 31 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  20. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 18 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  1. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 6 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1C DEFINITIONS (Jun 2010) ........................................................................................................... 2 GC-6C ORDER OF PRECEDENCE (Mar 2012) .................................................................................... 2 GC-8B COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS, RULES, REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS (Jun 2010) .......... 2 GC-11 NEW MEXICO GROSS

  2. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 21 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  3. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 12/15/14) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 20 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  4. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 11/9/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 9 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1C DEFINITIONS (Jun 2010) ...................................................................................................... 2 GC-6C ORDER OF PRECEDENCE (Mar 2012) ................................................................................ 2 GC-8B COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS, RULES, REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS (Jun 2010)

  5. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 8 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1C DEFINITIONS (Jun 2010) ........................................................................................................... 2 GC-6C ORDER OF PRECEDENCE (Mar 2012) .................................................................................... 2 GC-8B COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS, RULES, REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS (Jun 2010) .......... 2 GC-11 NEW MEXICO GROSS

  6. THEORY OF SOLAR MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION AT HIGH LATITUDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dikpati, Mausumi; Gilman, Peter A. E-mail: gilman@ucar.edu

    2012-02-10

    We build a hydrodynamic model for computing and understanding the Sun's large-scale high-latitude flows, including Coriolis forces, turbulent diffusion of momentum, and gyroscopic pumping. Side boundaries of the spherical 'polar cap', our computational domain, are located at latitudes {>=} 60 Degree-Sign . Implementing observed low-latitude flows as side boundary conditions, we solve the flow equations for a Cartesian analog of the polar cap. The key parameter that determines whether there are nodes in the high-latitude meridional flow is {epsilon} = 2{Omega}n{pi}H{sup 2}/{nu}, where {Omega} is the interior rotation rate, n is the radial wavenumber of the meridional flow, H is the depth of the convection zone, and {nu} is the turbulent viscosity. The smaller the {epsilon} (larger turbulent viscosity), the fewer the number of nodes in high latitudes. For all latitudes within the polar cap, we find three nodes for {nu} = 10{sup 12} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, two for 10{sup 13}, and one or none for 10{sup 15} or higher. For {nu} near 10{sup 14} our model exhibits 'node merging': as the meridional flow speed is increased, two nodes cancel each other, leaving no nodes. On the other hand, for fixed flow speed at the boundary, as {nu} is increased the poleward-most node migrates to the pole and disappears, ultimately for high enough {nu} leaving no nodes. These results suggest that primary poleward surface meridional flow can extend from 60 Degree-Sign to the pole either by node merging or by node migration and disappearance.

  7. SPEAR fuel reliability code system. General description. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, R.

    1980-03-01

    A general description is presented for the SPEAR fuel reliability code system. Included is a discussion of the methodology employed and the structure of the code system, as well as discussion of the major components: the data preparation routines, the mechanistic fuel performance model, the mechanistic cladding failure model, and the statistical failure model.

  8. Louisiana Title V General Permits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, B.E.; Neal, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires federal operating permits for all major sources of air pollution. In 1992, Title 40, Part 70 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 70) codified the law s requirements. These federal regulations, entitled Operating Permit Program, define the minimum requirements for state administered operating permit programs. The intent of Title V is to put into one document all requirements of an operating permit. General Permits for oil and gas facilities may be preferred if the facility can comply with all permit requirements. If greater flexibility than allowed by the General Permit is required, then the facility should apply for an individual Title V permit. General Permits are designed to streamline the permitting process, shorten the time it takes to obtain approval for initial and modified permits. The advantages of the General Permit include reduced paperwork and greater consistency because the permits are standardized. There should be less uncertainty because permit requirements will be known at the time of application. Approval times for Initial and modified General Permits should be reduced. Lengthy public notice procedures (and possible hearings) will be required for only the initial approval of the General Permit and not for each applicant to the permit. A disadvantage of General Permits is reduced flexibility since the facility must comply with the requirements of a standardized permit.

  9. Performance evaluation approach for the supercritical helium cold circulators of ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaghela, H.; Sarkar, B.; Bhattacharya, R.; Kapoor, H.; Chalifour, M.; Chang, H.-S.; Serio, L.

    2014-01-29

    The ITER project design foresees Supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling for the main cryogenic components, namely, the superconducting (SC) magnets and cryopumps (CP). Therefore, cold circulators have been selected to provide the required SHe mass flow rate to cope with specific operating conditions and technical requirements. Considering the availability impacts of such machines, it has been decided to perform evaluation tests of the cold circulators at operating conditions prior to the series production in order to minimize the project technical risks. A proposal has been conceptualized, evaluated and simulated to perform representative tests of the full scale SHe cold circulators. The objectives of the performance tests include the validation of normal operating condition, transient and off-design operating modes as well as the efficiency measurement. A suitable process and instrumentation diagram of the test valve box (TVB) has been developed to implement the tests at the required thermodynamic conditions. The conceptual engineering design of the TVB has been developed along with the required thermal analysis for the normal operating conditions to support the performance evaluation of the SHe cold circulator.

  10. Natural Convection and Boiling for Cooling SRP Reactors During Loss of Circulation Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckner, M.R.

    2001-06-26

    This study investigated natural convection and boiling as a means of cooling SRP reactors in the event of a loss of circulation accident. These studies show that single phase natural convection cooling of SRP reactors in shutdown conditions with the present piping geometry is probably not feasible.

  11. First Tracer Test After Circulation in Desert Peak 27-15

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rose, Peter

    Following the successful stimulation of Desert Peak target EGS well 27-15, a circulation test was initiated by injecting a conservative tracer (1,5-nds) in combination with a reactive tracer (7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonate). The closest production well 74-21 was monitored over the subsequent several months.

  12. First Tracer Test After Circulation in Desert Peak 27-15

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rose, Peter

    2013-11-16

    Following the successful stimulation of Desert Peak target EGS well 27-15, a circulation test was initiated by injecting a conservative tracer (1,5-nds) in combination with a reactive tracer (7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonate). The closest production well 74-21 was monitored over the subsequent several months.

  13. Mobilization of Viable Tumor Cells Into the Circulation During Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Olga A.; Anderson, Robin L.; Russell, Prudence A.; Ashley Cox, R.; Ivashkevich, Alesia; Swierczak, Agnieszka; Doherty, Judy P.; Jacobs, Daphne H.M.; Smith, Jai; Siva, Shankar; Daly, Patricia E.; Ball, David L.; and others

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) could mobilize viable tumor cells into the circulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: We enumerated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) by fluorescence microscopy of blood samples immunostained with conventional CTC markers. We measured their DNA damage levels using ?-H2AX, a biomarker for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, either by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: Twenty-seven RT-treated NSCLC patients had blood samples analyzed by 1 or more methods. We identified increased CTC numbers after commencement of RT in 7 of 9 patients treated with palliative RT, and in 4 of 8 patients treated with curative-intent RT. Circulating tumor cells were also identified, singly and in clumps in large numbers, during RT by cytopathologic examination (in all 5 cases studied). Elevated ?-H2AX signal in post-RT blood samples signified the presence of CTCs derived from irradiated tumors. Blood taken after the commencement of RT contained tumor cells that proliferated extensively in vitro (in all 6 cases studied). Circulating tumor cells formed ?-H2AX foci in response to ex vivo irradiation, providing further evidence of their viability. Conclusions: Our findings provide a rationale for the development of strategies to reduce the concentration of viable CTCs by modulating RT fractionation or by coadministering systemic therapies.

  14. LA-2271 CHEMISTRY-GENERAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2271 CHEMISTRY-GENERAL TID-4500, 14th Ed. LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY OF THE ... U in Vol. n of A Treatise on Physical Chemistry, edited by H. S. Taylor and S. ...

  15. General Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Electric Place: Fairfield, Connecticut Zip: 06828 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Year Founded: 1892 Website: www.ge.com Coordinates: 41.1758333, -73.2719444...

  16. General Renewable Energy Technology Resources | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    General Renewable Energy Technology Resources General Renewable Energy Technology Resources Below are general resources for Tribes on renewable energy technologies. Developing ...

  17. General Privacy Act Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Privacy Act Guidance General Privacy Act Guidance This document provides information on Privacy Act Requests and responses to general FAQs PDF icon General Privacy Act Guidance ...

  18. Subgrid-Scale Mixing in Climate Models: A Novel Look at Diffusion, Accuracy, Stability and Climate Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, Richard B; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2012-10-31

    This project focuses on evaluating the role of subgrid-scale dissipation in the dynamical core of atmospheric models. All dynamical cores of atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) employ some form of subgrid-scale dissipation, either explicitly specified or inherent in the chosen numerical schemes. The dissipation processes are needed to keep the simulation stable or to satisfy important physical properties, and the hope is that they capture and mimic in some poorly understood way the true processes at the unresolved subgrid scale. There is no physical basis that such dissipation can accomplish this. We originally posed a set of numerical test cases chosen or designed to isolate the role of the filters and fixers on both the dynamical variables (pressure, temperature, velocity, vorticity) and trace constituents. From these test case results, we synthesize the information to determine the impact of the subgrid-scale assumptions on weather and climate models.

  19. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

  20. Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) (Redirected from GCOMAP) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Generalized Comprehensive...

  1. Interdisciplinary General Engineer/Physical Scientist (Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Interdisciplinary General EngineerPhysical Scientist (Facility Representative) Interdisciplinary General EngineerPhysical Scientist (Facility Representative) Submitted by admin ...

  2. GENERAL@ELECTtiIC COMPINY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    GENERAL@ELECTtiIC COMPINY ~9013 ~APPROVAL NO. 143 Article II, Section 8(b) PICHLAND, WASHINGTON .~. "ANFORD ATOMlC PlOD"CTS O*Ert*,ION ,. u/S; Atomic Energy Comisaion Hailfbrd operations Office Richland, Washington Attention: Mr. J. E. Travis, Manager Gentlemen: EXTRUSION OF URANIUM DIOXIDE FOR GENERAL ~ED&'RIC - APED The Atoinic Power Equipment Depart!++ of ~the The uranium dioxide necess :Material License No. C-3351. for establishing the value'of the.material will be developed

  3. First moments of nucleon generalized parton distributions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, P.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-06-01

    We extrapolate the first moments of the generalized parton distributions using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The calculation is based on the one loop level with the finite range regularization. The description of the lattice data is satisfactory, and the extrapolated moments at physical pion mass are consistent with the results obtained with dimensional regularization, although the extrapolation in the momentum transfer to t=0 does show sensitivity to form factor effects, which lie outside the realm of chiral perturbation theory. We discuss the significance of the results in the light of modern experiments as well as QCD inspired models.

  4. Apparatus, components and operating methods for circulating fluidized bed transport gasifiers and reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-02-24

    The improvements proposed in this invention provide a reliable apparatus and method to gasify low rank coals in a class of pressurized circulating fluidized bed reactors termed "transport gasifier." The embodiments overcome a number of operability and reliability problems with existing gasifiers. The systems and methods address issues related to distribution of gasification agent without the use of internals, management of heat release to avoid any agglomeration and clinker formation, specific design of bends to withstand the highly erosive environment due to high solid particles circulation rates, design of a standpipe cyclone to withstand high temperature gasification environment, compact design of seal-leg that can handle high mass solids flux, design of nozzles that eliminate plugging, uniform aeration of large diameter Standpipe, oxidant injection at the cyclone exits to effectively modulate gasifier exit temperature and reduction in overall height of the gasifier with a modified non-mechanical valve.

  5. Validation of a plant dynamics code for 4S - Test analysis of natural circulation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebe, F.; Horie, H.; Matsumiya, H.; Fanning, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    A plant transient dynamics code for a sodium-cooled fast reactor was developed by Toshiba. The code is used to evaluate the safety performance of Super-Safe, Small, and Simple reactor (4S) for Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOOs), Design Basis Accident (DBA) and Beyond DBA (BDBA). The code is currently undergoing verification and validation (V and V). As one of the validation, test analysis of the Shutdown Heat Removal Test (SHRT)-17 performed in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR)-II was conducted. The SHRT-17 is protected loss of flow test. The purpose of this validation is to confirm capability of the code to simulate natural circulation behavior of the plant. As a result, good agreements are shown between the analytical results and the measured data which were available from instrumented subassembly. The detailed validation result of the natural circulation behavior is described in this paper. (authors)

  6. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2005-01-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period October 1, 2004 through December 31, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have proceeded well. Second, the detailed design of supporting and hanging structures for the CFBC was completed. Third, the laboratory-scale simulated fluidized-bed facility was modified after completing a series of pretests. The two problems identified during the pretest were solved. Fourth, the carbonization of chicken waste and coal was investigated in a tube furnace and a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  7. One-Piece Battery Incorporating A Circulating Fluid Type Heat Exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoog, Roelof

    2001-10-02

    A one-piece battery comprises a tank divided into cells each receiving an electrode assembly, closure means for the tank and a circulating fluid type heat exchanger facing the relatively larger faces of the electrode assembly. The fluid flows in a compartment defined by two flanges which incorporate a fluid inlet orifice communicating with a common inlet manifold and a fluid outlet orifice communicating with a common outlet manifold. The tank comprises at least two units and each unit comprises at least one cell delimited by walls. The wall facing a relatively larger face of the electrode assembly constitutes one of the flanges. Each unit further incorporates a portion of an inlet and outlet manifold. The units are fastened together so that the flanges when placed face-to-face form a sealed circulation compartment and the portions of the same manifold are aligned with each other.

  8. Diagnosis of extratropical variability in seasonal integrations of the ECMWF model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferranti, L.; Molteni, F.; Brankovic, C.; Palmer, T.N. )

    1994-06-01

    Properties of the general circulation simulated by the ECMWF model are discussed using a set of seasonal integrations at T63 resolution. For each season, over the period of 5 years, 1986-1990, three integrations initiated on consecutive days were run with prescribed observed sea surface temperature (SST). This paper presents a series of diagnostics of extratropical variability in the model, with particular emphasis on the northern winter. Time-filtered maps of variability indicate that in this season there is insufficient storm track activity penetrating into the Eurasian continent. Related to this the maximum of lower-frequency variability for northern spring are more realistic. Blocking is defined objectively in terms of the geostrophic wind at 500 mb. Consistent with the low-frequency transience, in the Euro-Atlantic sector the position of maximum blocking in the model is displaced eastward. The composite structure of blocks over the Pacific is realistic, though their frequency is severely underestimated at all times of year. Shortcomings in the simulated wintertime general circulation were also revealed by studying the projection of 5-day mean fields onto empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the observed flow. The largest differences were apparent for statistics of EOFs of the zonal mean flow. Analysis of weather regime activity, defined from the EOFs, suggested that regimes with positive PNA index were overpopulated, while the negative PNA regimes were underpopulated. A further comparison between observed and modeled low-frequency variance revealed that underestimation of low-frequency variability occurs along the same axes that explain most of the spatial structure of the error in the mean field, suggesting a common dynamical origin for these two aspects of the systematic error. 17 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  10. Davison Circulating Riser (DCR) Capabilities Postcard (Other Marketing Product), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vapor Phase Upgrading With NREL's Davison Circulating Riser (DCR) Advancing technologies in biomass conversion to fuels and fuel intermediates NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. DCR System With Custom Biomass Prolyzer Highlights * Custom biomass pyrolyzer provides vapors to the DCR for upgrading to hydrocarbon fuel intermediates * 2 mass balance runs per 8 hrs: 3-6

  11. Drilling fluids and lost circulation in hot dry rock geothermal wells at Fenton Hill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G.; Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.; Baroid, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. Four wells (GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3) penetrated 733 m (2405 ft) of Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments and Precambrian crystalline rock units to +4572 m (+15,000 ft). The Cenozoic rocks consist of volcanics (rhyolite, tuff, and pumice) and volcaniclastic sediments. Paleozoic strata include Permian red beds (Abo Formation) and the Pennsylvanian Madera and Sandia Formations, which consist of massive limestones and shales. Beneath the Sandia Formation are igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hydrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque friction were incurred.

  12. Influence factors on the flue gas desulfurization in the circulating fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, J.; Tang, D.; Liu, H.; Suzuki, Yoshizo; Kito, Nobo

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a dry SO{sub 2} removal method -- the absorbent (Ca(OH){sub 2}) was injected into the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) reactor at the coolside of the duct to abate SO{sub 2} in the flue gas -- with the potential to significantly enhance desulfurization performance over that of existing dry/semi-dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) technology such as Spray Drying. A patent for coolside Flue Gas Desulfurization in the Circulating Fluidized Bed reactor (CFB-FGD) was approved by the China Patent Bureau in September of 1995 and the additional laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated bench scale quartz circulating fluidized bed reactor of 2350mm in height and 23mm in diameter in January, 1996. The influences of steam, ratio of calcium and sulfur, reactor temperature, and absorbent utilization efficiency were invested. The results show that: (1) Water steam plays a key role in the reaction of Ca(OH){sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in the CFB reactor; (2) There is a positive effect of Ca/S on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency; (3) The temperature is an another key factor for SO{sub 2} removal efficiency for the CFB-FGD process; (4) The absorbent can be enhanced in the CFB reactor; (5) The CFB reactor is better than the dry/semi-dry FDG technology. SO{sub 2} removal efficiency can be as high as 84.8%.

  13. Charged black holes in generalized teleparallel gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigues, M.E.; Houndjo, M.J.S.; Tossa, J.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R. E-mail: sthoundjo@yahoo.fr E-mail: d.momeni@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we investigate charged static black holes in 4D for generalized teleparallel models of gravity, based on torsion as the geometric object for describing gravity according to the equivalence principle. As a motivated idea, we introduce a set of non-diagonal tetrads and derive the full system of non linear differential equations. We prove that the common Schwarzschild gauge is applicable only when we study linear f(T) case. We reobtain the Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter (or RN-AdS) solution for the linear case of f(T) and perform a parametric cosmological reconstruction for two nonlinear models. We also study in detail a type of the no-go theorem in the framework of this modified teleparallel gravity.

  14. Generalizing the cosmic energy equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shtanov, Yuri; Sahni, Varun

    2010-11-15

    We generalize the cosmic energy equation to the case when massive particles interact via a modified gravitational potential of the form {phi}(a,r), which is allowed to explicitly depend upon the cosmological time through the expansion factor a(t). Using the nonrelativistic approximation for particle dynamics, we derive the equation for the cosmological expansion which has the form of the Friedmann equation with a renormalized gravitational constant. The generalized Layzer-Irvine cosmic energy equation and the associated cosmic virial theorem are applied to some recently proposed modifications of the Newtonian gravitational interaction between dark-matter particles. We also draw attention to the possibility that the cosmic energy equation may be used to probe the expansion history of the universe thereby throwing light on the nature of dark matter and dark energy.

  15. General Engineer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engineer General Engineer Submitted by admin on Mon, 2016-08-08 00:15 Job Summary Organization Name Department Of Energy Agency SubElement Department of Energy Locations Golden, Colorado Announcement Number SE-16-EE-00730-DE Job Summary The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energys (EEREs) mission is to create and sustain American leadership in the global transition to a clean energy economy through high-impact research, development, and demonstration and by breaking down barriers to

  16. Map labeling and its generalizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doddi, S. |; Marathe, M.V.; Mirzaian, A.; Moret, B.M.E.; Zhu, B. |

    1997-01-01

    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  17. Radiative Heating of the ISCCP Upper Level Cloud Regimes and its Impact on the Large-scale Tropical Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Schumacher, Courtney; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2013-01-31

    Radiative heating profiles of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud regimes (or weather states) were estimated by matching ISCCP observations with radiative properties derived from cloud radar and lidar measurements from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites at Manus, Papua New Guinea, and Darwin, Australia. Focus was placed on the ISCCP cloud regimes containing the majority of upper level clouds in the tropics, i.e., mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), deep cumulonimbus with cirrus, mixed shallow and deep convection, and thin cirrus. At upper levels, these regimes have average maximum cloud occurrences ranging from 30% to 55% near 12 km with variations depending on the location and cloud regime. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating contributions from the longwave and shortwave components. Upper level minima occur near 15 km, with the MCS regime showing the strongest cooling of 0.2 K/day and the thin cirrus showing no cooling. The gradient of upper level heating ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 K/(day∙km), with the most convectively active regimes (i.e., MCSs and deep cumulonimbus with cirrus) having the largest gradient. When the above heating profiles were applied to the 25-year ISCCP data set, the tropics-wide average profile has a radiative heating maximum of 0.45Kday-1 near 250 hPa. Column-integrated radiative heating of upper level cloud accounts for about 20% of the latent heating estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The ISCCP radiative heating of tropical upper level cloud only slightly modifies the response of an idealized primitive equation model forced with the tropics-wide TRMM PR latent heating, which suggests that the impact of upper level cloud is more important to large-scale tropical circulation variations because of convective feedbacks rather than direct forcing by

  18. Generalized Gas-Solid Adsorption ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This limitation forces engineers and scientists to test each different model in order to ... isotherms, so it served as a vigorous test of the ability of the codes to handle big data. ...

  19. Radiative Heating Profiles in the Convective Tropics: A Comparison of Observations and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Mather, Jim H.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2005-01-10

    Radiative heating is one of the principal drivers of tropical circulation. While we have good knowledge of radiative fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere and at specific surface sites, observations of atmospheric profiles of radiative heating, particular in cloudy conditions, have been largely unavailable. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has begun a program to compute radiative heating profiles routinely at its observational sites at Nauru and Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, using observed and retrieved inputs of water vapor and condensed water phase, particle size, and mass. The accuracy of these profiles can be assessed by comparing the calculated TOA and surface fluxes with observations. We have computed radiative heating profiles every 20 minutes for several months at each of these two sites in the 1999-2000 time period, which represent a unique dataset for model comparison. Here, we compare this dataset to model output from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) analysis, the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0) and the Multi-Scale Modeling Framework (MMF). These three models, all run using observed SST for this comparison, provide an interesting range of resolution from the 4 km cloud resolving model in the MMF to the approximately 280 km grid-scale of the CAM and a contrast between forecasting and climate models. In general, the model results fail to capture the structure of the observed heating in the upper troposphere because of their failure to simulate cirrus and stratiform cloud adequately.

  20. A stochastic diffusion process for Lochner's generalized Dirichlet distribution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    The method of potential solutions of Fokker-Planck equations is used to develop a transport equation for the joint probability of N stochastic variables with Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet distribution as its asymptotic solution. Individual samples of a discrete ensemble, obtained from the system of stochastic differential equations, equivalent to the Fokker-Planck equation developed here, satisfy a unit-sum constraint at all times and ensure a bounded sample space, similarly to the process developed in for the Dirichlet distribution. Consequently, the generalized Dirichlet diffusion process may be used to represent realizations of a fluctuating ensemble of N variables subject to a conservation principle.more » Compared to the Dirichlet distribution and process, the additional parameters of the generalized Dirichlet distribution allow a more general class of physical processes to be modeled with a more general covariance matrix.« less

  1. SWRCB General NPDES Permits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NPDES PermitsLegal Abstract SWRCB General NPDES Permits, current through August 14, 2014. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2014 Legal Citation SWRCB General NPDES...

  2. General Information | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General Information General Information Outreach is an integral part of our mission here at PARC. Through various partnerships and the efforts of talented teachers, researchers,...

  3. General Construction and Environmental Regulatory Support at...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    General Construction and Environmental Regulatory Support at the Los Alamos National Laboratory General Construction and Environmental Regulatory Support at the Los Alamos National ...

  4. General Biodiesel Incorporated | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Incorporated Jump to: navigation, search Name: General Biodiesel Incorporated Place: Seattle, Washington Zip: 98136 Product: General BioDiesel", Inc. specializes in...

  5. Alaska - CPCN General Information | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CPCN General Information Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Instructions: Alaska - CPCN General...

  6. Oregon General Industrial Water Pollution Control Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Industrial Water Pollution Control Facilities Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon General Industrial Water Pollution...

  7. Michigan: General Motors Optimizes Engine Valve Technology |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Michigan: General Motors Optimizes Engine Valve Technology Michigan: General Motors Optimizes Engine Valve Technology November 8, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis An EERE-supported effort to ...

  8. General Building Spa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spa Jump to: navigation, search Name: General Building Spa Place: Polverigi - Ancona, Italy Zip: 60020 Product: Ancona based developer of PV projects. References: General Building...

  9. Shanghai Aerospace Industrial General Corporation aka Shanghai...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industrial General Corporation aka Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Aerospace Industrial General Corporation (aka Shanghai...

  10. Texas General Land Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Office Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Texas General Land Office Name: Texas General Land Office Address: 1700 Congress Ave Place: Austin, Texas Zip: 78701 Website:...

  11. A Test Facility for MEIC ERL Circulator Ring Based Electron Cooler Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yuhong; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Douglas, David R.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Nissen, Edward W.

    2013-05-01

    An electron cooling facility which is capable to deliver a beam with energy up to 55 MeV and average current up to 1.5 A at a high bunch repetition rate up to 750 MHz is required for MEIC. The present cooler design concept is based on a magnetized photo-cathode SRF gun, an SRF ERL and a compact circulator ring. In this paper, we present a proposal of a test facility utilizing the JLab FEL ERL for a technology demonstration of this cooler design concept. Beam studies will be performed and supporting technologies will also be developed in this test facility.

  12. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-31

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  13. Measuring the seeds of ion outflow: auroral sounding rocket observations of low-altitude ion heating and circulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.; Zettergren, M.; Hampton, D. L.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Cohen, I. J.; Conde, M.; Fisher, L. E.; Horak, P.; Lessard, M. R.; et al

    2016-01-25

    Here, we present an analysis of in situ measurements from the MICA (Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator) nightside auroral sounding rocket with comparisons to a multifluid ionospheric model. MICA made observations at altitudes below 325 km of the thermal ion kinetic particle distributions that are the origins of ion outflow. Late flight, in the vicinity of an auroral arc, we observe frictional processes controlling the ion temperature. Upflow of these cold ions is attributed to either the ambipolar field resulting from the heated electrons or possibly to ion-neutral collisions. We measure E→xB→ convection away from the arc (poleward) andmore » downflows of hundreds of m s-1 poleward of this arc, indicating small-scale low-altitude plasma circulation. In the early flight we observe DC electromagnetic Poynting flux and associated ELF wave activity influencing the thermal ion temperature in regions of Alfvénic aurora. We observe enhanced, anisotropic ion temperatures which we conjecture are caused by transverse heating by wave-particle interactions (WPI) even at these low altitudes. Throughout this region we observe several hundred m s-1 upflow of the bulk thermal ions colocated with WPI; however, the mirror force is negligible at these low energies; thus, the upflow is attributed to ambipolar fields (or possibly neutral upwelling drivers). Moreover, the low-altitude MICA observations serve to inform future ionospheric modeling and simulations of (a) the need to consider the effects of heating by WPI at altitudes lower than previously considered viable and (b) the occurrence of structured and localized upflows/downflows below where higher-altitude heating rocesses are expected.« less

  14. Cosmology in general massive gravity theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@aquila.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We study the cosmological FRW flat solutions generated in general massive gravity theories. Such a model are obtained adding to the Einstein General Relativity action a peculiar non derivative potentials, function of the metric components, that induce the propagation of five gravitational degrees of freedom. This large class of theories includes both the case with a residual Lorentz invariance as well as the case with rotational invariance only. It turns out that the Lorentz-breaking case is selected as the only possibility. Moreover it turns out that that perturbations around strict Minkowski or dS space are strongly coupled. The upshot is that even though dark energy can be simply accounted by massive gravity modifications, its equation of state w{sub eff} has to deviate from -1. Indeed, there is an explicit relation between the strong coupling scale of perturbations and the deviation of w{sub eff} from -1. Taking into account current limits on w{sub eff} and submillimiter tests of the Newton's law as a limit on the possible strong coupling scale, we find that it is still possible to have a weakly coupled theory in a quasi dS background. Future experimental improvements on short distance tests of the Newton's law may be used to tighten the deviation of w{sub eff} form -1 in a weakly coupled massive gravity theory.

  15. ENV-Linkages General Equilibrium Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics: Co-benefits assessment Resource Type: Softwaremodeling tools Website: www.oecd.orgofficialdocumentsdisplaydocumentpdf?coteECOWKP(2008)6 References: OECD1...

  16. Renormalization group equations in a model of generalized hidden...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Hidaka, Yoshimasa ; Morimatsu, Osamu 1 ; Ohtani, Munehisa 2 + Show Author Affiliations Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research ...

  17. Modeling dislocations in a polycrystal using the generalized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Particular attention will be paid to the effect of grain size on polycrystalline strength. less Authors: Robbins, Joshua H. Publication Date: 2010-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1044963 ...

  18. Modeling dislocations in a polycrystal using the generalized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Proposed for publication in International Journal of Theoretical and Applied ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Country of ...

  19. General Equilibrium Emissions Model (GEEM) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development (IISD) Sector: Climate, Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Goods...

  20. Generalized Coalescents may be Necessary for Modeling Intrahost...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: HIV Dynamics and Evolution ; 2016-04-24 - 2016-04-27 ; ... Subject: Biological Science; HIV Evolution, coalescent theory Word Cloud More Like This ...

  1. Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    long term strategies by analysing cost optimal energy mixes, investment needs and other costs for new infrastructure, energy supply security, energy resource utilization, rate of...

  2. Fast Model Generalized Pseudopotential Theory (MGPT) Interatomic Potential Routine

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-03-18

    MGPT is an unclassified source code for the fast evaluation and application of quantum-based MGPT interatomic potentials for mrtals. The present version of MGPT has been developed entirely at LLNL, but is specifically designed for implementation in the open-source molecular0dynamics code LAMMPS maintained by Sandia National Laboratories. Using MGPT in LAMMPS, with separate input potential data, one can perform large-scale atomistic simulations of the structural, thermodynamic, defeat and mechanical properties of transition metals with quantum-mechanicalmore » realism.« less

  3. Simulations of Clouds and Sensitivity Study by Weather Research and Forecast Model for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Case 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.; Zhang, M.

    2005-03-18

    One of the large errors in general circulation models (GCMs) cloud simulations is from the mid-latitude, synoptic-scale frontal cloud systems. Now, with the availability of the cloud observations from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) 2000 cloud Intensive Operational Period (IOP) and other observational datasets, the community is able to document the model biases in comparison with the observations and make progress in development of better cloud schemes in models. Xie et al. (2004) documented the errors in midlatitude frontal cloud simulations for ARM Case 4 by single-column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs). According to them, the errors in the model simulated cloud field might be caused by following reasons: (1) lacking of sub-grid scale variability; (2) lacking of organized mesoscale cyclonic advection of hydrometeors behind a moving cyclone which may play important role to generate the clouds there. Mesoscale model, however, can be used to better under stand these controls on the subgrid variability of clouds. Few studies have focused on applying mesoscale models to the forecasting of cloud properties. Weaver et al. (2004) used a mesoscale model RAMS to study the frontal clouds for ARM Case 4 and documented the dynamical controls on the sub-GCM-grid-scale cloud variability.

  4. Traffic circulation study and long-range plan for Del Rio. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissmann, A.J.; Islam, R.

    1996-03-01

    A 1992 report to Congress, pursuant to Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) sections 1089 and 6015, acknowledges that Texas serves a disproportionate share of the U.S.-Mexico international trade, and, accordingly, recommends the development of federal-aid program options to improve transportation infrastructure related to international trade. In order to take advantage of this recommendation, border states must monitor their transborder traffic demand and develop traffic circulation plans for their border cities. This report presents a 25-year traffic circulation plan for the City of Del Rio, Texas. The plan includes recommendations for increasing roadway capacity, adding left-turn lanes, building new routes to relieve congestion, and adding international thoroughfares. It also includes a comprehensive analysis of a transborder traffic in Del Rio, as well as of international thoroughfares between Cuidad Acuna and Del Rio. The recommendations take into account input from TxDOT personnel, City officials, border inspectors, international bridge managers, and several Mexican officials. The recommendations and schedules discussed in this report can assist TxDOT not only in planning land transport infrastructure, but also in alleviating problems associated with additional highway capacity, pavement rehabilitation, signalization, and right-of-way.

  5. Brain insulin lowers circulating BCAA levels by inducing hepatic BCAA catabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Andrew C.; Fasshauer, Martin; Filatova, Nika; Grundell, Linus A.; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Zhou, Jianying; Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; White, Phillip J.; Lapworth, Amanda L.; Llkayeva, Olka; Knippschild, Uwe; Wolf, Anna M.; Scheja, Ludger; Grove, Kevin L.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun; Lynch, Christopher J.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-11-04

    Circulating branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels are elevated in obesity and diabetes and are a sensitive predictor for type 2 diabetes. Here we show in rats that insulin dose-dependently lowers plasma BCAA levels through induction of protein expression and activity of branched-chain alpha keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the BCAA degradation pathway in the liver. Selective induction of hypothalamic insulin signaling in rats as well as inducible and lifelong genetic modulation of brain insulin receptor expression in mice both demonstrate that brain insulin signaling is a major regulator of BCAA metabolism by inducing hepatic BCKDH. Further, short-term overfeeding impairs the ability of brain insulin to lower circulating BCAA levels in rats. Chronic high-fat feeding in primates and obesity and/or type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with reduced BCKDH protein expression in liver, further supporting the concept that decreased hepatic BCKDH is a primary cause of increased plasma BCAA levels in insulin-resistant states. These findings demonstrate that neuroendocrine pathways control BCAA homeostasis and that hypothalamic insulin resistance can be a cause of impaired BCAA metabolism in obesity and diabetes.

  6. DETECTION OF EQUATORWARD MERIDIONAL FLOW AND EVIDENCE OF DOUBLE-CELL MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION INSIDE THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Junwei; Bogart, R. S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Hartlep, Thomas; Duvall, T. L. Jr.

    2013-09-10

    Meridional flow in the solar interior plays an important role in redistributing angular momentum and transporting magnetic flux inside the Sun. Although it has long been recognized that the meridional flow is predominantly poleward at the Sun's surface and in its shallow interior, the location of the equatorward return flow and the meridional flow profile in the deeper interior remain unclear. Using the first 2 yr of continuous helioseismology observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic Magnetic Imager, we analyze travel times of acoustic waves that propagate through different depths of the solar interior carrying information about the solar interior dynamics. After removing a systematic center-to-limb effect in the helioseismic measurements and performing inversions for flow speed, we find that the poleward meridional flow of a speed of 15 m s{sup -1} extends in depth from the photosphere to about 0.91 R{sub Sun }. An equatorward flow of a speed of 10 m s{sup -1} is found between 0.82 and 0.91 R{sub Sun} in the middle of the convection zone. Our analysis also shows evidence of that the meridional flow turns poleward again below 0.82 R{sub Sun }, indicating an existence of a second meridional circulation cell below the shallower one. This double-cell meridional circulation profile with an equatorward flow shallower than previously thought suggests a rethinking of how magnetic field is generated and redistributed inside the Sun.

  7. Thermalhydraulic calculation for boiling water reactor and its natural circulation component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trianti, Nuri Nurjanah,; Su’ud, Zaki; Arif, Idam; Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-30

    Thermalhydraulic of reactor core is the thermal study on fluids within the core reactor, i.e. analysis of the thermal energy transfer process produced by fission reaction from fuel to the reactor coolant. This study include of coolant temperature and reactor power density distribution. The purposes of this analysis in the design of nuclear power plant are to calculate the coolant temperature distribution and the chimney height so natural circulation could be occurred. This study was used boiling water reactor (BWR) with cylinder type reactor core. Several reactor core properties such as linear power density, mass flow rate, coolant density and inlet temperature has been took into account to obtain distribution of coolant density, flow rate and pressure drop. The results of calculation are as follows. Thermal hydraulic calculations provide the uniform pressure drop of 1.1 bar for each channels. The optimum mass flow rate to obtain the uniform pressure drop is 217g/s. Furthermore, from the calculation it could be known that outlet temperature is 288°C which is the saturated fluid’s temperature within the system. The optimum chimney height for natural circulation within the system is 14.88 m.

  8. Design study of lead bismuth cooled fast reactors and capability of natural circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oktamuliani, Sri Su’ud, Zaki

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary study designs SPINNOR (Small Power Reactor, Indonesia, No On-Site Refueling) liquid metal Pb-Bi cooled fast reactors, fuel (U, Pu)N, 150 MWth have been performed. Neutronic calculation uses SRAC which is designed cylindrical core 2D (R-Z) 90 × 135 cm, on the core fuel composed of heterogeneous with percentage difference of PuN 10, 12, 13% and the result of calculation is effective neutron multiplication 1.0488. Power density distribution of the output SRAC is generated for thermal hydraulic calculation using Delphi based on Pascal language that have been developed. The research designed a reactor that is capable of natural circulation at inlet temperature 300 °C with variation of total mass flow rate. Total mass flow rate affect pressure drop and temperature outlet of the reactor core. The greater the total mass flow rate, the smaller the outlet temperature, but increase the pressure drop so that the chimney needed more higher to achieve natural circulation or condition of the system does not require a pump. Optimization of the total mass flow rate produces optimal reactor design on the total mass flow rate of 5000 kg/s with outlet temperature 524,843 °C but require a chimney of 6,69 meters.

  9. Inflation in the generalized inverse power law scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zhun

    2013-11-01

    We propose a single field inflationary model by generalizing the inverse power law potential from the intermediate model. We study the implication of our model on the primordial anisotropy of cosmological microwave background radiation. Specifically, we apply the slow-roll approximation to calculate the scalar spectral tilt n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. The results are compared with the recent data measured by the Planck satellite. We find that by choosing proper values for the parameters, our model can well describe the Planck data.

  10. Code System for Calculating the Nonlinear Transient Behavior of a Natural Circulation U-Tube Steam Generator with Its Main Steam System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-04-20

    Version 00 The code is based on a non-linear theoretical model describing the steady-state and transient behavior of a vertical natural-circulation U-tube steam generator together with its main steam system. The steam generator is considered to consist of a heat exchange section, a top plenum, a down-comer region and a main steam system (with a sequence of relief and/or safety valves, isolation, bypass, turbine-trip and turbine-control valves and a steam turbine). Possible perturbations from outsidemore » can be: inlet water temperature, inlet water mass flow and system pressure on the primary side, feedwater temperature, feed-water mass flow and outlet steam mass flow disturbed by actions of the different valves within the main steam system on the secondary side.« less

  11. Advanced Target Effects Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Target Effects Modeling for Ion Accelerators and other High-Energy-Density ... ature effects, e.g., surface tension and target fragmentation, that are not generally ...

  12. A field range bound for general single-field inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel E-mail: drgreen@ias.edu

    2012-05-01

    We explore the consequences of a detection of primordial tensor fluctuations for general single-field models of inflation. Using the effective theory of inflation, we propose a generalization of the Lyth bound that applies to models of inflation coupled to Einstein gravity. Our strongest bound applies to all single-field models with two-derivative kinetic terms for the scalar fluctuations and is always stronger than the corresponding bound for slow-roll models. This shows that non-trivial dynamics of the inflaton can't evade the Lyth bound. We also present a weaker, but more universal bound that holds when the Null Energy Condition (NEC) is satisfied at horizon crossing.

  13. A generalized procedure for the prediction of multicomponent adsorption equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladshaw, Austin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of multicomponent adsorption equilibria has been investigated for several decades. While there are theories available to predict the adsorption behavior of ideal mixtures, there are few purely predictive theories to account for nonidealities in real systems. Most models available for dealing with nonidealities contain interaction parameters that must be obtained through correlation with binary-mixture data. However, as the number of components in a system grows, the number of parameters needed to be obtained increases exponentially. Here, a generalized procedure is proposed, as an extension of the predictive real adsorbed solution theory, for determining the parameters of any activity model, for any number of components, without correlation. This procedure is then combined with the adsorbed solution theory to predict the adsorption behavior of mixtures. As this method can be applied to any isotherm model and any activity model, it is referred to as the generalized predictive adsorbed solution theory.

  14. A generalized procedure for the prediction of multicomponent adsorption equilibria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ladshaw, Austin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of multicomponent adsorption equilibria has been investigated for several decades. While there are theories available to predict the adsorption behavior of ideal mixtures, there are few purely predictive theories to account for nonidealities in real systems. Most models available for dealing with nonidealities contain interaction parameters that must be obtained through correlation with binary-mixture data. However, as the number of components in a system grows, the number of parameters needed to be obtained increases exponentially. Here, a generalized procedure is proposed, as an extension of the predictive real adsorbed solution theory, for determining the parameters of any activity model,more » for any number of components, without correlation. This procedure is then combined with the adsorbed solution theory to predict the adsorption behavior of mixtures. As this method can be applied to any isotherm model and any activity model, it is referred to as the generalized predictive adsorbed solution theory.« less

  15. Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Modeling Updates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Analysis; Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis July 23, 2013 | Washington, DC Annual Energy Outlook 2014: Modeling Updates in the Transportation Sector Overview 2 AEO2014 Transportation Model Updates Washington, D.C., July 2013 Discussion purposes only - Do not cite or circulate * Light-duty vehicle - Vehicle miles traveled by age cohort, update modeling parameters, employment and VMT - E85 demand - Battery electric vehicle cost, efficiency, and availability * Heavy-duty vehicle, rail,

  16. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2000-06-30

    This EIS assesses environmental issues associated with constructing and demonstrating a project that would be cost-shared by DOE and JEA (formerly the Jacksonville Electric Authority) under the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project would demonstrate circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology at JEA's existing Northside Generating Station in Jacksonville, Florida, about 9 miles northeast of the downtown area of Jacksonville. The new CFB combustor would use coal and petroleum coke to generate nearly 300 MW of electricity by repowering the existing Unit 2 steam turbine, a 297.5-MW unit that has been out of service since 1983. The proposed project is expected to demonstrate emission levels of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), and particulate matter that would be lower than Clean Air Act limits while at the same time producing power more efficiently and at less cost than conventional coal utilization technologies. At their own risk, JEA has begun initial construction activities without DOE funding. Construction would take approximately two years and, consistent with the original JEA schedule, would be completed in December 2001. Demonstration of the proposed project would be conducted during a 2-year period from March 2002 until March 2004. In addition, JEA plans to repower the currently operating Unit 1 steam turbine about 6 to 12 months after the Unit 2 repowering without cost-shared funding from DOE. Although the proposed project consists of only the Unit 2 repowering, this EIS analyzes the Unit 1 repowering as a related action. The EIS also considers three reasonably foreseeable scenarios that could result from the no-action alternative in which DOE would not provide cost-shared funding for the proposed project. The proposed action, in which DOE would provide cost-shared finding for the proposed project, is DOE's preferred alternative. The EIS evaluates the principal environmental issues, including air quality, traffic

  17. General Reactive Atomistic Simulation Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-09-22

    GRASP (General Reactive Atomistic Simulation Program) is primarily intended as a molecular dynamics package for complex force fields, The code is designed to provide good performance for large systems, either in parallel or serial execution mode, The primary purpose of the code is to realistically represent the structural and dynamic properties of large number of atoms on timescales ranging from picoseconds up to a microsecond. Typically the atoms form a representative sample of some material,more » such as an interface between polycrystalline silicon and amorphous silica. GRASP differs from other parallel molecular dynamics codes primarily due to it’s ability to handle relatively complicated interaction potentials and it’s ability to use more than one interaction potential in a single simulation. Most of the computational effort goes into the calculation of interatomic forces, which depend in a complicated way on the positions of all the atoms. The forces are used to integrate the equations of motion forward in time using the so-called velocity Verlet integration scheme. Alternatively, the forces can be used to find a minimum energy configuration, in which case a modified steepest descent algorithm is used.« less

  18. Deming's General Least Square Fitting

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-18

    DEM4-26 is a generalized least square fitting program based on Deming''s method. Functions built into the program for fitting include linear, quadratic, cubic, power, Howard''s, exponential, and Gaussian; others can easily be added. The program has the following capabilities: (1) entry, editing, and saving of data; (2) fitting of any of the built-in functions or of a user-supplied function; (3) plotting the data and fitted function on the display screen, with error limits if requested,more » and with the option of copying the plot to the printer; (4) interpolation of x or y values from the fitted curve with error estimates based on error limits selected by the user; and (5) plotting the residuals between the y data values and the fitted curve, with the option of copying the plot to the printer. If the plot is to be copied to a printer, GRAPHICS should be called from the operating system disk before the BASIC interpreter is loaded.« less

  19. Evaluating climate models: Should we use weather or climate observations?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oglesby, Robert J; Erickson III, David J

    2009-12-01

    Calling the numerical models that we use for simulations of climate change 'climate models' is a bit of a misnomer. These 'general circulation models' (GCMs, AKA global climate models) and their cousins the 'regional climate models' (RCMs) are actually physically-based weather simulators. That is, these models simulate, either globally or locally, daily weather patterns in response to some change in forcing or boundary condition. These simulated weather patterns are then aggregated into climate statistics, very much as we aggregate observations into 'real climate statistics'. Traditionally, the output of GCMs has been evaluated using climate statistics, as opposed to their ability to simulate realistic daily weather observations. At the coarse global scale this may be a reasonable approach, however, as RCM's downscale to increasingly higher resolutions, the conjunction between weather and climate becomes more problematic. We present results from a series of present-day climate simulations using the WRF ARW for domains that cover North America, much of Latin America, and South Asia. The basic domains are at a 12 km resolution, but several inner domains at 4 km have also been simulated. These include regions of complex topography in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Sri Lanka, as well as a region of low topography and fairly homogeneous land surface type (the U.S. Great Plains). Model evaluations are performed using standard climate analyses (e.g., reanalyses; NCDC data) but also using time series of daily station observations. Preliminary results suggest little difference in the assessment of long-term mean quantities, but the variability on seasonal and interannual timescales is better described. Furthermore, the value-added by using daily weather observations as an evaluation tool increases with the model resolution.

  20. Circulating levels of p,p'-DDE are related to prevalent hypertension in the elderly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, P. Monica; Penell, Johanna; Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van; Lind, Lars

    2014-02-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin given to experimental animals increase the blood pressure. We therefore investigated if circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were related to hypertension in a population-based sample of men and women. Methods: One thousand and sixteen subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Twenty-three POPs were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Results: Seven hundred and thirty-two subjects (72%) showed hypertension. When the POPs were treated as continuous variables and adjusted for gender only, two PCBs with a low number of chlorine atoms (PCB 105 and 118) were related to prevalent hypertension. Also the OC pesticide p,p'-DDE was related to hypertension. The strongest of these associations was seen for p,p'-DDE (OR 1.35 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.17–1.56, p<0.0001). Following further adjustment also for BMI, smoking status, education level and exercise habits, only p,p'-DDE was still significantly related to hypertension (OR 1.23 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.06–1.43, p=0.006). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of an elderly population, high levels of circulating levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension, further strengthening the experimental findings that POPs might influence blood pressure. - Highlights: • We evaluated the relation between POPs and hypertension. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly men and women were analyzed. • The main exposure was circulating levels of 23 different POPs. • Hypertension was defined as ≥140/90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive treatment. • High levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension.

  1. Towards Direct Simulation of Future Tropical Cyclone Statistics in a High-Resolution Global Atmospheric Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Bala, G.; Duffy, Phillip; Mirin, Arthur A.; Romano, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    We present a set of high-resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations focusing on the model's ability to represent tropical storms and their statistics. We find that the model produces storms of hurricane strength with realistic dynamical features. We also find that tropical storm statistics are reasonable, both globally and in the north Atlantic, when compared to recent observations. The sensitivity of simulated tropical storm statistics to increases in sea surface temperature (SST) is also investigated, revealing that a credible late 21st century SST increase produced increases in simulated tropical storm numbers and intensities in all ocean basins. Whilemore » this paper supports previous high-resolution model and theoretical findings that the frequency of very intense storms will increase in a warmer climate, it differs notably from previous medium and high-resolution model studies that show a global reduction in total tropical storm frequency. However, we are quick to point out that this particular model finding remains speculative due to a lack of radiative forcing changes in our time-slice experiments as well as a focus on the Northern hemisphere tropical storm seasons.« less

  2. The accuracy of climate models' simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of grid scale correction factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterhalter, Wade E.

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact biological populations through a variety of mechanisms including increases in the length of their growing season. Climate models are useful tools for predicting how season length might change in the future. However, the accuracy of these models tends to be rather low at regional geographic scales. Here, I determined the ability of several atmosphere and ocean general circulating models (AOGCMs) to accurately simulate historical season lengths for a temperate ectotherm across the continental United States. I also evaluated the effectiveness of regional-scale correction factors to improve the accuracy of these models. I found that both the accuracy of simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of the correction factors to improve the model's accuracy varied geographically and across models. These results suggest that regional specific correction factors do not always adequately remove potential discrepancies between simulated and historically observed environmental parameters. As such, an explicit evaluation of the correction factors' effectiveness should be included in future studies of global climate change's impact on biological populations.

  3. The accuracy of climate models' simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of grid scale correction factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Winterhalter, Wade E.

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact biological populations through a variety of mechanisms including increases in the length of their growing season. Climate models are useful tools for predicting how season length might change in the future. However, the accuracy of these models tends to be rather low at regional geographic scales. Here, I determined the ability of several atmosphere and ocean general circulating models (AOGCMs) to accurately simulate historical season lengths for a temperate ectotherm across the continental United States. I also evaluated the effectiveness of regional-scale correction factors to improve the accuracy of these models. I foundmore » that both the accuracy of simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of the correction factors to improve the model's accuracy varied geographically and across models. These results suggest that regional specific correction factors do not always adequately remove potential discrepancies between simulated and historically observed environmental parameters. As such, an explicit evaluation of the correction factors' effectiveness should be included in future studies of global climate change's impact on biological populations.« less

  4. A New Two-Moment Bulk Stratiform Cloud Microphysics Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model, Version 3 (CAM3). Part II: Single-Column and Global Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettelman, A.; Morrison, H.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2008-08-11

    The global performance of a new 2-moment cloud microphysics scheme for a General Circulation Model (GCM) is presented and evaluated relative to observations. The scheme produces reasonable representations of cloud particle size and number concentration when compared to observations, and represents expected and observed spatial variations in cloud microphysical quantities. The scheme has smaller particles and higher number concentrations over land than the standard bulk microphysics in the GCM, and is able to balance the radiation budget of the planet with 60% the liquid water of the standard scheme, in better agreement with observations. The new scheme treats both the mixing ratio and number concentration of rain and snow, and is therefore able to differentiate the two key regimes, consisting of drizzle in shallow warm clouds and larger rain drops in deeper cloud systems. The modeled rain and snow size distributions are consistent with observations.

  5. Category:Building Models | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    category "Building Models" The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total. G General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago High Plug Load 50% Energy Savings General...

  6. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a natural circulation experiment in Nuclear Power Plant Borssele. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, L.

    1993-07-01

    As part of the ICAP (International Code Assessment and Applications Program) agreement between ECN (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation) and USNRC, ECN has performed a number of assessment calculations for the thermohydraulic system analysis code RELAP5/MOD2/36.05. This document describes the assessment of this computer program versus a natural circulation experiment as conducted at the Borssele Nuclear Power Plant. The results of this comparison show that the code RELAP5/MOD2 predicts well the natural circulation behaviour of Nuclear Power Plant Borssele.

  7. Natural circulation in a VVER reactor geometry: Experiments with the PACTEL facility and Cathare simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raussi, P.; Kainulainen, S.; Kouhia, J.

    1995-09-01

    There are some 40 reactors based on the VVER design in use. Database available for computer code assessment for VVER reactors is rather limited. Experiments were conducted to study natural circulation behaviour in the PACTEL facility, a medium-scale integral test loop patterned after VVER pressurized water reactors. Flow behaviour over a range of coolant inventories was studied with a small-break experiment. In the small-break experiments, flow stagnation and system repressurization were observed when the water level in the upper plenum fell below the entrances to the hot legs. The cause was attributed to the hot leg loop seals, which are a unique feature of the VVER geometry. At low primary inventories, core cooling was achieved through the boiler-condenser mode. The experiment was simulated using French thermalhydraulic system code CATHARE.

  8. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Zhongxian Cheng; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2006-09-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project entitled ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2006 through September 30, 2006. The following activities have been completed: the steel floor grating around the riser in all levels and the three-phase power supply for CFBC System was installed. Erection of downcomers, loop seals, ash bunker, thermal expansion joints, fuel and bed material bunkers with load cells, rotary air-lock valves and fuel flow monitors is underway. Pilot-scale slipstream tests conducted with bromine compound addition were performed for two typical types of coal. The purposes of the tests were to study the effect of bromine addition on mercury oxidization. From the test results, it was observed that there was a strong oxidization effect for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The proposed work for next quarter and project schedule are also described.

  9. Circulating fluidized bed hydrodynamics experiments for the multiphase fluid dynamics research consortium (MFDRC).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oelfke, John Barry; Torczynski, John Robert; O'Hern, Timothy John; Tortora, Paul Richard; Bhusarapu, Satish; Trujillo, Steven Mathew

    2006-08-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study the multiphase gas-solid flow in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB). This report describes the CFB experimental facility assembled for this program, the diagnostics developed and/or applied to make measurements in the riser section of the CFB, and the data acquired for several different flow conditions. Primary data acquired included pressures around the flow loop and solids loadings at selected locations in the riser. Tomographic techniques using gamma radiation and electrical capacitance were used to determine radial profiles of solids volume fraction in the riser, and axial profiles of the integrated solids volume fraction were produced. Computer Aided Radioactive Particle Tracking was used to measure solids velocities, fluxes, and residence time distributions. In addition, a series of computational fluid dynamics simulations was performed using the commercial code Arenaflow{trademark}.

  10. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' in this quarter (September-December of 2003). The main tasks in this quarter consisted of the following four parts. First, all documents for managing this project have been prepared and sent to the Office of Project Management at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Second, plans for the renovation of space for a new combustion laboratory for the CFBC system has progressed smoothly. Third, considerable progress in the design of the CFBC system has been made. Finally, a lab-scale simulated fluidized-bed combustion facility has been set up in order to make some fundamental investigations of the co-firing of coal with waste materials in the next quarter. Proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  11. Analysis of ammonium sulfate circulation tank failure -- Possible causes and their remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Hearn, R.J.

    1997-12-31

    Acme steel manufactures a liquid solution of ammonium sulphate by scrubbing the coke oven gas with a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. When the bath reaches a predetermined specific gravity, it is isolated from the system, neutralized with aqua ammonia, pumped to the shipping tanks, re-charged with water and acid, then placed back in service. To improve the ammonia removal efficiency, three circulation tanks are used in this system. In June 1996, the volume of two of the sulfate solution tanks in the ammonia removal plant were increased by two different pressure events. The first tank was damaged by pressure that was not relieved due to a plugged vent line. The second tank was damaged by a pressure event generated during the process of making ammonium sulfate. This paper will discuss the cause of the second tank`s failure, and the design solution to restart the operation of the plant.

  12. Scoping Study of Airlift Circulation Technologies for Supplemental Mixing in Pulse Jet Mixed Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Berglin, Eric J.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2015-04-07

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a scoping study to investigate supplemental technologies for supplying vertical fluid motion and enhanced mixing in Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels designed for high solids processing. The study assumed that the pulse jet mixers adequately mix and shear the bottom portion of a vessel. Given that, the primary function of a supplemental technology should be to provide mixing and shearing in the upper region of a vessel. The objective of the study was to recommend a mixing technology and configuration that could be implemented in the 8-ft test vessel located at Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE). Several mixing technologies, primarily airlift circulator (ALC) systems, were evaluated in the study. This technical report contains a review of ALC technologies, a description of the PNNL testing and accompanying results, and recommended features of an ALC system for further study.

  13. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - General Atomics (GA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    general-atomics-ga General Atomics en The Scorpion's Strategy: "Catch and Subdue" http:www.pppl.govnode1132

  14. Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) AgencyCompany Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory...

  15. Montana Construction Dewatering General Permit Application Information...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    overview of Construction Dewatering General Permit process. Author Montana Department of Environmental Quality - Water Protection Bureau Published Montana Department of...

  16. EPA - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System General...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This guidebook outlines the requirements for Construction General Permits issued from the Environmental Protection Agency. Author Environmental Protection Agency Published...

  17. Multi-Sector General Permit (MSGP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MSGP Multi-Sector General Permit (MSGP) The Multi-Sector General Permit authorizes the discharge of stormwater associated with industrial activity. What's New Documents submitted to EPRR in last 30 Days TBD What is the Multi-Sector General Permit? Storm water discharges from EPA specified industrial activities are regulated under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Multi-Sector General Permit (MSGP). LANL regulated industrial activities include: Metal fabrication Power

  18. Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information General Guideline | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information General Guideline Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information General Guideline GG-5, is a record of decisions made by the Director, OC, as to what general subject areas are UCNI. Note: GG-5 may only be used by the Director, OC, to make determinations as to whether information is UCNI. All other UCNI Reviewing Officials must use UCNI guidance. UCNI General Guideline (80.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Briefing, For Persons With

  19. Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds V. E. Zuev, G. A. Titov, ... Introduction Generally, radiation codes for general circulation models (GCMs) include, ...

  20. General non-minimal kinetic coupling to gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granda, L.N.; Cardona, W. E-mail: wilalbca@univalle.edu.co

    2010-07-01

    We study a model of scalar field with a general non-minimal kinetic coupling to itself and to the curvature, as a source of dark energy, and analyze the cosmological dynamics of this model and the issue of accelerated expansion. Solutions giving rise to power-law expansion have been found. The dynamical equation of state is studied for the two cases, without and with free kinetic term . In the first case, a behavior very close to that of the cosmological constant was found. In the second case, a solution was found, which match the current phenomenology of the dark energy. The model shows a rich variety of dynamical scenarios.

  1. Geometric Transitions, Topological Strings, and Generalized Complex Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2007-06-29

    Mirror symmetry is one of the most beautiful symmetries in string theory. It helps us very effectively gain insights into non-perturbative worldsheet instanton effects. It was also shown that the study of mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau flux compactification leads us to the territory of ''Non-Kaehlerity''. In this thesis we demonstrate how to construct a new class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua via generalized geometric transitions. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. From a variety of sources, including super-gravity analysis and KK reduction on SU(3) structure manifolds, we conclude that string theory connects Calabi-Yau spaces to both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds and the resulting manifolds lie in generalized complex geometry. We go on to study the topological twisted models on a class of generalized complex geometry, bi-Hermitian geometry, which is the most general target space for (2, 2) world-sheet theory with non-trivial H flux turned on. We show that the usual Kaehler A and B models are generalized in a natural way. Since the gauged supergravity is the low energy effective theory for the compactifications on generalized geometries, we study the fate of flux-induced isometry gauging in N = 2 IIA and heterotic strings under non-perturbative instanton effects. Interestingly, we find we have protection mechanisms preventing the corrections to the hyper moduli spaces. Besides generalized geometries, we also discuss the possibility of new NS-NS fluxes in a new doubled formalism.

  2. Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Services » Environment and Compliance » Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law The Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) provides legal support for non-programmatic issues other than those involving procurement and intellectual property. The office serves as program counsel for the Offices of the Chief Financial Officer, Human Capital Management, Management and Administration (with the

  3. Raman and far ir spectroscopic study of quaternary ammonium polybromide fused salt phases for zinc bromine circulating electrolyte batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larrabee, J.A.; Graf, K.R.; Grimes, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The circulating electrolyte zinc bromine battery is an attractive advanced battery system. The electrolyte is a solution of zinc bromide, quaternary ammonium bromides for bromine complexation and added salts to enhance properties. Laser Raman spectroscopy and far infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the liquid quaternary ammonium polybromide fused salt phases.

  4. Models and the paleo record of biome responses to glacial climate and CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prentice; Colin, I.; Haxeltine

    1995-06-01

    Continental-scale reconstructions of the distribution of biomes at the last glacial maximum (LGM) indicate big changes, which can primarily be explained by climate. The climate was different from today mainly because of a combination of low concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases and the presence of large continental ice sheets. Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations, driven by these factors and linked to simple biome models in {open_quotes}diagnostic{close_quotes} mode, account for the broad outlines of the changes in vegetation patterns, including encroachment of C4 grasslands and savannas on what are now tropical forests. Physiological effects of low CO{sub 2} might also have played a role by altering the partitioning of precipitation to evapotranspiration and runoff, and altering the competitive balance of C3 and C4 plants. Such effects have not been quantified until recently, with the development of integrated biome/biochemistry models like those used in the VEMAP project. In these models, vegetation composition affects the coupled C and H{sub 2}O fluxes, which in turn influence the competitive balance of the constituent plant types. The relative importance of climatic and physiological effects of CO{sub 2} on biome distributions is a key issue for the future. This is gives added impetus to research that aims to exploit the potential of palaeo, data, through global data synthesis projects like BIOME 6000, to provide objective benchmarks against which to test models of the biosphere and climate.

  5. Crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shum, D.K.M.; Merkle, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A method for estimating the decrease in crack-initiation toughness, from a reference plane strain value, due to positive straining along the crack front of a circumferential flaw in a reactor pressure vessel is presented in this study. This method relates crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions with material failure at points within a distance of a few crack-tip-opening displacements ahead of a crack front, and involves the formulation of a micromechanical crack-initiation model. While this study is intended to address concerns regarding the effects of positive out-of- plane straining on ductile crack initiation, the approach adopted in this work can be extended in a straightforward fashion to examine conditions of macroscopic cleavage crack initiation. Provided single- parameter dominance of near-tip fields exists in the flawed structure, results from this study could be used to examine the appropriateness of applying plane strain fracture toughness to the evaluation of circumferential flaws, in particular to those in ring-forged vessels which have no longitudinal welds. In addition, results from this study could also be applied toward the analysis of the effects of thermal streaming on the fracture resistance of circumferentially oriented flaws in a pressure vessel. 37 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; Lin, Yanluan; Morcrette, J. -J.; Mulcahay, Jane; Saide, Pablo; Spak, S. N.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-09

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar to observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL

  7. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; et al

    2015-01-09

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar tomore » observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL clouds

  8. EA-97-C Portland General Electric | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    C Portland General Electric EA-97-C Portland General Electric Order authorizing Portland General Electric to export electic energy to Canada PDF icon EA-97-C Portland General ...

  9. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department

  10. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  11. Dynamics of Arctic and Sub-Arctic Climate and Atmospheric Circulation: Diagnosis of Mechanisms and Model Biases Using data Assimilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant Nigam

    2013-02-05

    These five publications are summarized: Key role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet periods over the Great Plains; A Sub-Seasonal Teleconnection Analysis: PNA Development and Its Relationship to the NAO; AMO's Structure and Climate Footprint in Observations and IPCC AR5 Climate Simulations; The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in 20th Century Climate Simulations: Uneven Progress from CMIP3 to CMIP5; and Tropical Atlantic Biases in CCSM4.

  12. SOLAR MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION FROM DOPPLER SHIFTS OF THE Fe I LINE AT 5250 A AS MEASURED BY THE 150-FOOT SOLAR TOWER TELESCOPE AT THE MT. WILSON OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, Roger K.

    2010-12-10

    Doppler shifts of the Fe I spectral line at 5250 A from the full solar disk obtained over the period 1986 to 2009 are analyzed to determine the circulation velocity of the solar surface along meridional planes. Simultaneous measurements of the Zeeman splitting of this line are used to obtain measurements of the solar magnetic field that are used to select low field points and impose corrections for the magnetically induced Doppler shift. The data utilized is from a new reduction that preserves the full spatial resolution of the original observations so that the circulation flow can be followed to latitudes of 80{sup 0} N/S. The deduced meridional flow is shown to differ from the circulation velocities derived from magnetic pattern movements. A reversed circulation pattern is seen in polar regions for three successive solar minima. A surge in circulation velocity at low latitudes is seen during the rising phases of cycles 22 and 23.

  13. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library General

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - General Photos related to the Nevada Field Office which do not fall under the other photo categories are located here. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information. Thumbnail Category Number Date http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/photos/thumbs/nf1648.jpg General

  14. Contact for the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Contact for the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) Contact for the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) All comments and requests for assistance should be directed to our office phone at 202-586-1522. Susan Beard, Assistant General Counsel for General Law 202-586-1522 susan.beard@hq.doe.gov Christina (Tina) Hymer, Deputy Assistant General Counsel for Standards of Conduct 202-586-1522 christina.hymer@hq.doe.gov William (Will) Grant II, Deputy

  15. High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires Upadhyay, Anand 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION New generation of standalone LED driver platforms...

  16. Washington Energy Facility Site Evalutation Council - Generalized...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reference LibraryAdd to library Chart: Washington Energy Facility Site Evalutation Council - Generalized Siting ProcessInfo GraphicMapChart Abstract Flowchart showing the...

  17. Colorado Construction Dewatering General Permit | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Construction Dewatering General Permit Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Colorado Construction Dewatering...

  18. General Plasma Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: General Plasma Inc Place: Tucson, Arizona Zip: 85713 Product: Makes manufacturing equipment which can be used for PV - particularly sensors for ITO glass coating,...

  19. Generalized Subtraction Schemes for the Difference Formulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the Difference Formulation in Radiation Transport Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generalized Subtraction Schemes for the Difference Formulation in Radiation ...

  20. Erratum: Connection between Newtonian simulations and general...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Erratum: Connection between Newtonian simulations and general relativity Phys. Rev. D 83, 123505 (2011) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Erratum: Connection between ...

  1. Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - NPDES General Permit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - NPDES General Permit...

  2. Multi-Sector General Permit (MSGP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General Permit authorizes the discharge of stormwater associated with industrial activity. What's New Documents submitted to EPRR in last 30 Days TBD What is the...

  3. Generalized parton distributions: Status and perspectives (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; COMPTON EFFECT; DIFFRACTION; DIPOLES; ...

  4. Dr. Steven Croley Confirmed as General Counsel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dr. Steven Croley was confirmed by the Senate on Monday, May 12 as the Department of Energy’s General Counsel.

  5. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: General Motors | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... General Electric Google Nissan San Diego Gas & Electric Siemens Tesla Verizon Behind the workplace charging goal is the EV Everywhere Challenge, which is dedicated to accelerating ...

  6. Colorado Water Quality Certification General Information | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Colorado Water Quality Certification General InformationLegal Abstract The Colorado Department of...

  7. Arizona Department of Environmental Quality's General Permits...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Arizona Department of Environmental Quality's General Permits Website Abstract This website provides information...

  8. Cooperation with the Office of Inspector General

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-02-25

    To establish responsibilities and requirements for cooperating with the Department of Energy Office of Inspector General. Supersedes DOE O 221.2.

  9. Perturbation kernels for generalized seismological data functionals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Authors: Chen, Po., Jordan, T.H., Lee, E. In seismic waveform analysis and inversion, data ... The generalized seismological data functionals (GSDF) of Gee & Jordan quantify waveform ...

  10. Cooperation with the Office of Inspector General

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-03-21

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) policy for cooperating with the Office of Inspector General (OIG). Cancels DOE 2320.1C

  11. Montana Produced Water General Permit - Example Authorization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Permit. Author Montana Department of Environmental Quality - Water Protection Bureau Published State of Montana, 052010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability:...

  12. Montana Construction Dewatering General Permit - Example Authorization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Permit. Author Montana Department of Environmental Quality - Water Protection Bureau Published State of montana, 92010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:...

  13. Mr. Robert Muller, Manager General Chemical Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    S 1997 Mr. Robert Muller, Manager General Chemical Corporation 6300 Philadelphia Pike ... Mr. D. T. Murphy of Allied Chemical Corporation, Delaware Valley Works in Marcus Hook, was ...

  14. The General Theory of Relativity - E

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    E. Further Tests The reality checks didn't stop there. In his early discussions of general relativity, Einstein described several other consequences of the theory. Observations of ...

  15. APPLICANT BACKGROUND SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    personnel practices meet the requirements of Federal law. Your responses are voluntary. ... PRIVACY INFORMATION General The information is provided pursuant to Public Law 935-597 ...

  16. The General Theory of Relativity - A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Einstein's special theory of relativity addressed the problem of the invariant speed of light in vacuum by showing the interrelationship of space and time. The general theory of ...

  17. General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benefits Pursuant to 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal Protection Benefits ...

  18. Condition for production of circulating proton beam with intensity greater than space charge limit.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vadim Dudnikov

    2002-11-19

    Transverse e-p instability in proton rings could be damped by increasing the beam density and the rate of secondary particles production above the threshold level, with the corresponding decrease of unstable wavelength {lambda} below the transverse beam size h (increase of beam density n{sub b} and ion density n{sub i} above the threshold level: n{sub b} + n{sub i} > {beta}{sup 2}/(r{sub e} h{sup 2}), where r{sub e} = e{sup 2}/mc{sup 2}). Such island of stability can be reached by a fast charge-exchange injection without painting and enhanced generation of secondary plasma, which was demonstrated in a small scale Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. With successful damping of e-p instability, the intensity of circulating proton beam, with a space charge neutralization was increased up to 6 times above a space charge limit. Corresponding tune shift without space charge neutralization should be up to {Delta}v=0.85 x 6 (in the ring with v = 0.85). In this paper, they review experimental observations of transverse instability of proton beams in various rings. they also discuss methods which can be used to damp the instability. Such experimental data could be useful for verification of computer simulation tools developed for the studies of the space charge and instabilities in realistic conditions.

  19. Design considerations and operating experience in firing refuse derived fuel in a circulating fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekos, S.J.; Matuny, M.

    1997-12-31

    The worldwide demand for cleaner, more efficient methods to dispose of municipal solid waste has stimulated interest in processing solid waste to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) for use in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The combination of waste processing and materials recovery systems and CFB boiler technology provides the greatest recovery of useful resources from trash and uses the cleanest combustion technology available today to generate power. Foster Wheeler Power Systems along with Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation and several other Foster Wheeler sister companies designed, built, and now operates a 1600 tons per day (TPD) (1450 metric tons) municipal waste-to-energy project located in Robbins, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. This project incorporates waste processing systems to recover recyclable materials and produce RDF. It is the first project in the United States to use CFB boiler technology to combust RDF. This paper will provide an overview of the Robbins, Illinois waste-to-energy project and will examine the technical and environmental reasons for selecting RDF waste processing and CFB combustion technology. Additionally, this paper will present experience with handling and combusting RDF and review the special design features incorporated into the CFB boiler and waste processing system that make it work.

  20. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan, Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-07-30

    This report presents the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the quarter April 1--June 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the final specifications for the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the CFB Combustor Building have been delivered to the architect, and invitations for construction bids for the two tasks have been released. Second, the component parts of the CFBC system have been designed after the design work for assembly parts of the CFBC system was completed. Third, the literature pertaining to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDF) released during the incineration of solid waste, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) have been reviewed, and an experimental plan for fundamental research of MSW incineration on a simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facility has been prepared. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  1. An experimental study of ammonia effects in a circulating dry scrubber process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neathery, J.K.; Schaefer, J.L.; Stencel, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    Utilities and independent power plants have increased needs to install both de-NO{sub x} and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired boilers. Many de-NO{sub x} processes are based on the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) by ammonia (NH{sub 3}) to elemental nitrogen (N{sub 2}). When applied upstream of a dry FGD system the issue of NH{sub 3} slippage, which may influence the scrubbing chemistry and/or the proficiency of the particulate collector`s performance, has become a concern. This paper addresses some of those concerns as they relate to the circulating dry scrubber (CDS) process. Fundamental aspects of sulfur capture and sorbent utilization under various Ca/S ratios and inlet NH{sub 3} concentrations were investigated with a 5.6 m{sup 3} min{sup -1} (200 ft{sup 3} min{sup -1}) pilot-scale CDS reactor. The objective of this research was to elucidate possible benefits (e.g., increased sulfur capture) and adverse side-effects (e.g., increased baghouse pressure drop) resulting from trace amounts of NH{sub 3} in the flue gas.

  2. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, Lars; Penell, Johanna; Syvänen, Anne-Christine; Axelsson, Tomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia; Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van; Lind, P. Monica

    2014-08-15

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene.

  3. An international land-biosphere model benchmarking activity for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Randerson, James T [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Erickson III, David J [ORNL; Fung, Inez [University of California, Berkeley

    2009-12-01

    The need to capture important climate feedbacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, called Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results (Friedlingstein et al., 2006). This work suggests that a more rigorous set of global offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are needed. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) was designed to meet this need by providing a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). Recently, a similar effort in Europe, called the International Land Model Benchmark (ILAMB) Project, was begun to assess the performance of European land surface models. These two projects will now serve as prototypes for a proposed international land-biosphere model benchmarking activity for those models participating in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Initially used for model validation for terrestrial biogeochemistry models in the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM), C-LAMP incorporates a simulation protocol for both offline and partially coupled simulations using a prescribed historical trajectory of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Models are confronted with data through comparisons against AmeriFlux site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA Globalview flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site measurements. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the CLM version 3 in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): the CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon

  4. Checklist for managing a general program evaluation study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Checklist for Managing a General Program Evaluation Study 1 Status Action Step Reference(s) 1 Initial Planning Construct or confirm program logic model Step 4 Determine program decisions subject to evaluation Step 1 Develop statement(s) of evaluation objectives (evaluation's contributions to making a decision) Step 1 Determine type(s) of information needed to evaluate objectives Step 1 Determine appropriate type(s) of evaluation Step 1 Determine resources required to achieve objectives Step 2

  5. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-05-18

    In this study, we briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices.

  6. Time and Materials Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 32 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  7. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prusa, Joseph

    2012-05-08

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAGâ??s advanced dynamics core with the â??physicsâ? of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer- reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  8. Technical Sessions F. J. Barnes W. Porch and D. Cooper Los Alamos...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K. E. Kunkel Illinois State Water Survey Champaign, IL L. Hipps Utah State University Logan, UT The lower boundary of the GCM (general circulation model) modeling domain, the...

  9. ARM - User Executive Committee Bios

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization Participants Facility Statistics Forms Contacts Facility Documents ARM ... feedbacks in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) global General Circulation Model. ...

  10. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. II. RADIATIVE TRANSFER VIA THE TWO-STREAM APPROXIMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin; Mendonça, João M.; Lee, Jae-Min E-mail: joao.mendonca@csh.unibe.ch

    2014-11-01

    We present a comprehensive analytical study of radiative transfer using the method of moments and include the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the coherent limit. Within this unified formalism, we derive the governing equations and solutions describing two-stream radiative transfer (which approximates the passage of radiation as a pair of outgoing and incoming fluxes), flux-limited diffusion (which describes radiative transfer in the deep interior), and solutions for the temperature-pressure profiles. Generally, the problem is mathematically underdetermined unless a set of closures (Eddington coefficients) is specified. We demonstrate that the hemispheric (or hemi-isotropic) closure naturally derives from the radiative transfer equation if energy conservation is obeyed, while the Eddington closure produces spurious enhancements of both reflected light and thermal emission. We concoct recipes for implementing two-stream radiative transfer in stand-alone numerical calculations and general circulation models. We use our two-stream solutions to construct toy models of the runaway greenhouse effect. We present a new solution for temperature-pressure profiles with a non-constant optical opacity and elucidate the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the optical and infrared. We derive generalized expressions for the spherical and Bond albedos and the photon deposition depth. We demonstrate that the value of the optical depth corresponding to the photosphere is not always 2/3 (Milne's solution) and depends on a combination of stellar irradiation, internal heat, and the properties of scattering in both the optical and infrared. Finally, we derive generalized expressions for the total, net, outgoing, and incoming fluxes in the convective regime.

  11. SPEAR-BETA fuel performance code system. Volume 1. General description. Final report. [BWR; PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, R.

    1982-04-01

    This document provides a general description of the SPEAR-BETA fuel reliability code system. Included is a discussion of the methodology employed and the structure of the code system, as well as discussion of the major components: the data preparation routines, the mechanistic fuel performance model, the mechanistic cladding failure model, and the statistical failure model.

  12. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan

    2006-05-30

    Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

  13. Carbon attrition during the circulating fluidized bed combustion of a packaging-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastellone, M.L.; Arena, U.

    1999-05-01

    Cylindrical pellets of a market-available packaging-derived fuel, obtained from a mono-material collection of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, were batchwise fed to a laboratory scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The apparatus, whose riser was 41 mm ID and 4 m high, was operated under both inert and oxidizing conditions to establish the relative importance of purely mechanical attrition and combustion-assisted attrition in generating carbon fines. Silica sand particles of two size distributions were used as inert materials. For each run, carbon load and carbon particle size distribution in the riser and rates of attrited carbon fines escaping the combustor were determined as a function of time. A parallel investigation was carried out with a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor to point out peculiarities of attrition in CFB combustors. After devolatilization, PET pellets generated fragile aggregates of char and sand, which easily crumbled, leading to single particles, partially covered by a carbon-rich layer. The injected fixed carbon was therefore present in the bed in three phases: an A-phase, made of aggregates of sand and char, an S-phase, made of individual carbon-covered sand particles and an F-phase, made of carbon fines, abraded by the surfaces of the A- and S-phases. The effects of the size of inert material on the different forms under which fixed carbon was present in the bed and on the rate of escape of attrited carbon fines from the combustor were investigated. Features of carbon attrition in CFB and BFB combustors are discussed.

  14. Windflow circulation patterns in a blowout in coastal dunes along the southern shore of Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauch, N.J.; Bennett, S.; Ferguson, V.; Fraser, G.S.; Gellasch, C.A.; Millard, C.L.; Mueller, B.; O'Malley, P.J.; Way, J.N.; Woodfield, M.C. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-03-01

    The windflow patterns in one of several large active blowouts in the coastal dunes along the southern shore of Lake Michigan was intensively monitored over a two-day period. Two wind towers, consisting of four sets of anemometer cups mounted at 20-, 40-, 80, and 160-cm heights above the base, were used to provide a velocity profile from which basal shear velocities could be calculated. A wind vane was mounted at the top of the tower to monitor wind directions. Data was collected continuously with digital data loggers and averaged over 1-min intervals, and each station was occupied for a 5-min period. The topography of the blowout was mapped with a transit, which also was used to establish the position and elevation of the authors data-collecting stations. Photomosaics were used to prepare a map of the geomorphic elements. The elliptical blowout is 100m long and approximately 25m wide. Its floor drops slightly in elevation from the mouth, and then rises to a height of 32 meters at the back wall. The walls of the blowout assume smooth parabolic shapes except where undercutting at the margins has produced several large slump blocks. Windflow entering the blowout at the mouth and sides separates at the point of maximum expansion and veers as much as 100[degree]. Maximum velocities occur at the point of reattachment, and deceleration occurs as the wind proceeds into the blowout. Axial flows may accelerate toward the back wall where flow compression occurs. Flows entering the blowout at the back wall separate at the margin. As they overflow the blowout, they produce a reverse flow circulation that is strongest near the mouth and decelerates rapidly up the axis.

  15. Call for General User Proposals - Upcoming Deadline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Call for General User Proposals - Upcoming Deadline Call for General User Proposals - Upcoming Deadline Print The User Office is accepting new General User Proposals (GUPs) from scientists who wish to conduct research at the ALS in the 2016-2 July-Dec cycle. PROPOSAL SUBMISSION DEADLINE: March 2, 2016 Please log in to ALSHub to submit a new GUP or to make a Beam Time Request (BTR) on an existing active proposal. Users are reminded that they need to have an ALSHub account to submit proposals, and

  16. Office of Inspector General | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Department » Office of Inspector General Office of Inspector General Office of Inspector General Latest Reports & News August 4, 2016 Inspection Report: OAI-L-16-13 Technetium-99 Incident at Los Alamos National Laboratory July 29, 2016 Assessment Report: OAI-V-16-11 Audit Coverage of Cost Allowability for UT-Battelle LLC During Fiscal Year 2014 Under Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 July 27, 2016 Audit Report: OAI-M-16-14 Battelle's Pacific Northwest National

  17. The Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration NEMS Transportation Demand Model Documentation Report 2005 25 manufacturing, and design advances. Manufacturing advances can generally be thought of as...

  18. Modeling Transient Response of Forests to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Tharp, M Lynn; Lannom, Karen O.; Hodges, Donald G

    2010-01-01

    Our hypothesis is that a high diversity of dominant life forms in Tennessee forests conveys resilience to disturbance such as climate change. Because of uncertainty in climate change and their effects, three climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2080 from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) were used to simulate a range of potential climate conditions for the state. These climate changes derive from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B storyline that assumes rapid global economic growth. The precipitation and temperature projections from the three GCMs for 2030 and 2080 were related to changes in five ecological provinces using the monthly record of temperature and precipitation from 1980 to 1997 for each 1 km cell across the state as aggregated into the provinces. Temperatures are projected to increase in all ecological provinces in all months for all three GCMs for both 2030 and 2080. Precipitation differences from the long-term average are more complex but less striking. The forest ecosystem model LINKAGES was used to simulate conditions for five ecological provinces from 1989 to 2300. Average output projects changes in tree diversity and species composition in all ecological provinces in Tennessee with the greatest changes in the Southern Mixed Forest province. Projected declines in total tree biomass are followed by biomass recovery as species replacement occurs in stands. The Southern Mixed Forest province results in less diversity in dominant trees as well as lower overall biomass than projections for the other four provinces. The biomass and composition changes projected in this study differ from forest dynamics expected without climate change. These results suggest that biomass recovery following climate change is linked to dominant tree diversity in the southeastern forest of the US. The generality of this observation warrants further investigation, for it relates to ways that forest management may influence climate change effects.

  19. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP): A Model-Data Comparison System for Evaluation of Coupled Biosphere-Atmosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Thornton, Peter E; Mahowald, Natalie; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    The need to capture important climate feebacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in new efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results, suggesting that a more rigorous set of offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are warranted. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) provides a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). C-LAMP provides feedback to the modeling community regarding model improvements and to the measurement community by suggesting new observational campaigns. C-LAMP Experiment 1 consists of a set of uncoupled simulations of terrestrial carbon models specifically designed to examine the ability of the models to reproduce surface carbon and energy fluxes at multiple sites and to exhibit the influence of climate variability, prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land cover change on projections of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 20th century. Experiment 2 consists of partially coupled simulations of the terrestrial carbon model with an active atmosphere model exchanging energy and moisture fluxes. In all experiments, atmospheric CO{sub 2} follows the prescribed historical trajectory from C{sup 4}MIP. In Experiment 2, the atmosphere model is forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and corresponding sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre; prescribed CO{sub 2} is radiatively active; and land, fossil fuel, and ocean CO{sub 2} fluxes are advected by the model. Both sets of experiments

  20. Qatar General Petroleum Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Corporation is located in Doha, Qatar About Qatar Petroleum is a state-owned oil and gas company that was founded in 1974. The company focuses on all aspects of the...