National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gell powder hydrogen

  1. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  2. Ultrafine Hydrogen Storage Powders - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinal designUltrafast Transformations inmixture ofHydrogen

  3. Standard test method for determination of total hydrogen content of uranium oxide powders and pellets by carrier gas extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    Standard test method for determination of total hydrogen content of uranium oxide powders and pellets by carrier gas extraction

  4. Studies of isotopic exchange between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, G.W.; Melius, C.F.

    1987-12-01

    A gas flow apparatus has been constructed and used to study the isotopic exchange reaction occurring between the solid and gas phases in hydrogen (deuterium) gas flows directed through packed-powder beds of ..beta..-phase palladium deuteride (hydride). Spontaneous Raman light scattering is employed to obtain a real-time analysis of the isotopic composition of the gas (H/sub 2/, D/sub 2/, HD) exiting from the bed. A parametric rate-equation model is described which depicts the time-dependent behavior of the isotopic exchange process. The exchange mechanism is assumed to be rate-limited by processes occurring on the surface of the powder. The fundamental kinetic parameter of the model is the isotopic exchange probability, p, which is the probability that an isotopic exchange event occurs during a collision of a gas-phase atom with the surface. Isotope effects between the gas and solid phases are explicitly included in terms of the isotope separation factor, ..cap alpha... Results of the model are compared with the experimental measurements and, using a literature value of ..cap alpha.. = 2.4, good agreement is obtained for p approx. = 10/sup -7/. In view of the importance of the isotope effects in the hydrogen/palladium system and the range of a values reported for the ..beta..-phase in the literature, the sensitivity of the model results to a variation in the value of ..cap alpha.. is examined.

  5. Heterostructured Ceramic Powders for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production: Nanostructured TiO2 Shells Surrounding Microcrystalline (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    Heterostructured Ceramic Powders for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production: Nanostructured TiO2 Shells areas, but had the highest rates of photochemical hydrogen production from water/methanol solu- tions coatings. I. Introduction INTEREST in photochemical hydrogen production began sev- eral decades ago upon

  6. Mechanistic study of the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Outka, D.A.; Foltz, G.W. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

    1991-07-01

    A detailed mechanism for the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and solid palladium hydride is developed which extends previous model for this reaction by specifically including surface reactions. The modeling indicates that there are two surface-related processes that contribute to the overall rate of exchange: the desorption of hydrogen from the surface and the exchange between surface hydrogen and bulk hydrogen. This conclusion is based upon measurements examining the effect of small concentrations of carbon monoxide were helpful in elucidating the mechanism. Carbon monoxide reversibly inhibits certain steps in the exchange; this slows the overall rate of exchange and changes the distribution of products from the reactor.

  7. Hydrogen production with nickel powder cathode catalysts in microbial electrolysis cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduction Most current hydrogen production methods use processes such as steam reforming and coal to the catalytic activity of the SS and the increased surface area of the brush [6]. Electrodeposited nickel alloys

  8. Stationary storage and purification of hydrogen using nickel-coated magnesium powder. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-12-30

    The following conclusions were reached: (1) The concept of a coating on a magnesium particle serving as a well-supported hydrogen-permselective membrane is sound. (2) Magnesium nitride can be made to coat magnesium particles through chemical vapor deposition within a fluidized bed. (3) Magnesium nitride exhibits the properties necessary for such a coating. (4) Magnesium nitride is not chemically inert to hydrogen in the absence of ammonia at temperatures typically used to hydride/dehydride magnesium.

  9. COMMENTS ON ANOMALOUS EFFECTS IN CHARGING OF PD POWDERS WITH HIGH DENSITY HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanahan, K.

    2009-10-01

    In Kitamura, et al, Pd-containing materials are exposed to isotopes of hydrogen and anomalous results obtained. These are claimed to be a replication of another experiment conducted by Arata and Zhang. Erroneous basic assumptions are pointed out herein that alter the derived conclusions significantly. The final conclusion is that the reported results are likely normal chemistry combined with noise. Thus the claim to have proven that cold fusion is occurring in these systems is both premature and unlikely.

  10. Study of gelled LNG. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudnicki, M I; Cabeal, J A; Hoffman, L C; Newton, R A; Schaplowsky, R K; Vander Wall, E M

    1980-01-01

    Research involved the characterization of gelled LNG (GELNG) with respect to process, flow, and use properties and an examination of the degree of safety enhancement attainable by gelation. The investigation included (1) an experimental examination of gel properties and gel safety characteristics as well as (2) an analytical study involving the economics and preliminary design of an industrial scale gelation system. The safety-related criterion for successful application of gelled LNG is the substantial reduction of the Maximum Distance to the Lower Flammability Limit, MDLFL. This will be achieved by first, gel-inhibition of the hydrodynamic pooling and spreading of the spill, and second, the suppressed thermal transport properties of the GELNG relative to those of LNG. The industrial scale gelation study evaluated a design capable of producing 11,000 gallons (LNG tank truck) of gel in two hours. The increased cost of gelation using this equipment was estimated at $0.23/10/sup 6/ Btu for plants with liquefaction facilities. The technical results of this study are supportive of the conclusion that gelation of LNG will reduce, relative to ungelled LNG, the hazard associated with a given size spill. Parameters of interest to the LNG facility operator (such as pumpability) are not significantly affected by gelation, and the impact on LNG delivery cost appears to be small, about 5%. Thus, the initial assumption that gelation would provide a practical means to enhance safety is supported by the results of this study. Larger scale, comparative spill tests of LNG and GELNG are now required to confirm the safety aspects of use of the gelled material.

  11. Method of freeform fabrication by selective gelation of powder suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baskaran, S.; Graff, G.L.

    1997-12-09

    The present invention is a novel method for freeform fabrication. Specifically, the method of solid freeform fabrication has the steps of: (a) preparing a slurry by mixing powder particles with a suspension medium and a gelling polysaccharide; (b) making a layer by depositing an amount of said powder slurry in a confined region; (c) hardening a selected portion of the layer by applying a gelling agent to the selected portion; and (d) repeating steps (b) and (c) to make successive layers and forming a layered object. In many applications, it is desirable to remove unhardened material followed by heating to remove gellable polysaccharide then sintering. 2 figs.

  12. hydrogen

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    3%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  13. Reversible gelling culture media for in-vitro cell culture in three-dimensional matrices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    An, Yuehuei H. (Charleston, SC); Mironov, Vladimir A. (Mt. Pleasant, SC); Gutowska, Anna (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    A gelling cell culture medium useful for forming a three dimensional matrix for cell culture in vitro is prepared by copolymerizing an acrylamide derivative with a hydrophilic comonomer to form a reversible (preferably thermally reversible) gelling linear random copolymer in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff, mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent to form a reversible gelling solution and adding a cell culture medium to the gelling solution to form the gelling cell culture medium. Cells such as chondrocytes or hepatocytes are added to the culture medium to form a seeded culture medium, and temperature of the medium is raised to gel the seeded culture medium and form a three dimensional matrix containing the cells. After propagating the cells in the matrix, the cells may be recovered by lowering the temperature to dissolve the matrix and centrifuging.

  14. Acid Diversion in Carbonate Reservoirs Using Polymer-Based In-Situ Gelled Acids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomaa, Ahmed Mohamed Mohamed

    2012-07-16

    and determine factors that impact its performance. Lab test of polymer-based in-situ gelled acids reveal that polymer and other additives separate out of the acid when these acids are prepared in high salinity water. In coreflood tests, in-situ gelled acid...

  15. Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes: Achieving a 10,000 GPU Permeance for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture with Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-02-02

    IMPACCT Project: Alongside Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute, CU-Boulder is developing a membrane made of a gelled ionic liquid to capture CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants. The membranes are created by spraying the gelled ionic liquids in thin layers onto porous support structures using a specialized coating technique. The new membrane is highly efficient at pulling CO2 out of coal-derived flue gas exhaust while restricting the flow of other materials through it. The design involves few chemicals or moving parts and is more mechanically stable than current technologies. The team is now working to further optimize the gelled materials for CO2 separation and create a membrane layer that is less than 1 micrometer thick.

  16. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, William W. (Belleair, FL)

    1983-01-01

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  17. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, W.W.

    1983-11-08

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

  18. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-03-06

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  19. Weak power law rheology of soft glassy and gelled materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro Patricio; Catarina R. Leal

    2015-09-07

    We make a parallel excursion to the generalised Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt models to find which general conditions may lead to the weak power law behaviours of the elastic and viscous moduli, $G'(w)\\sim G''(w)\\sim w^\\alpha$, with $0cells. We find that these behaviours are obtained for analogous, but essentially different power law spectra of relaxation and retardation times, stemming from the different nature of the models. The first, based on the generalised Maxwell model, retains the fluid properties of a soft glassy material (SGM) above the glass transition. The second, based on the generalised Kelvin-Voigt model, retains the elastic properties of a soft solid or gelled material. Using these models, we calculate with accuracy the power law exponents of $G'(w)\\sim w^x$ and $G''(w)\\sim w^y$, for the whole families of relaxation and retardation spectra previously obtained. Within the region corresponding to $0 y\\approx \\alpha$ and $y> x\\approx \\alpha$ for respectively the generalised Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt models. Beyond this region, we find very different and interesting exponents.

  20. Energetic powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Danen, Wayne C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-12-23

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  1. Hydrogen transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  2. Evaluation of a New Liquid Breaker for Polymer Based In-Situ Gelled Acids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksoy, Gamze

    2012-10-19

    A solid breaker is used to reduce the viscosity of the gel at pH range of 4-5 for in-situ gelled acids with Zr4 cross-linkers utilize. However, the literature survey confirmed that solid breakers caused a premature reduction ...

  3. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  4. Powder dispersion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorenz, Heather M. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20

    A powder dispersion method and apparatus comprising an air eductor and a powder dispensing syringe inserted into a suction connection of the air eductor.

  5. Hydrogen in polar intermetallics: Syntheses and structures of the ternary Ca5Bi3D0.93, Yb5Bi3Hx, and Sm5Bi3H~1 by powder neutron or single crystal X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon-Escamilla, E. Alejandro; Dervenagas, Panagiotis; Stasis, Constantine; Corbett, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The syntheses of the title compounds are described in detail. Structural characterizations from refinements of single crystal X-ray diffraction data for Yb{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub x} and Sm{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub 1} and of powder neutron diffraction data for Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}D{sub 0.93(3)} are reported. These confirm that all three crystallize with the heavy atom structure type of {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}, and the third gives the first proof that the deuterium lies in the center of nominal calcium tetrahedra, isostructural with the Ca{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}F-type structure. These Ca and Yb phases are particularly stable with respect to dissociation to Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type product plus H{sub 2}. Some contradictions in the literature regarding Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} and Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}H{sub x} phases are considered in terms of adventitious hydrogen impurities that are generated during reactions in fused silica containers at elevated temperatures.

  6. Preparation of titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  7. Precision powder feeder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Schmale, David T. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Michael S. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  8. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  9. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  10. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments, Annual Report, June 16,2000-June 15, 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, C.S.

    2002-05-22

    This program was aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production.

  11. Pyrotechnic filled molding powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartzel, Lawrence W. (Dayton, OH); Kettling, George E. (Cincinnati, OH)

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to thermosetting molding compounds and more particularly to a pyrotechnic filled thermosetting compound comprising a blend of unfilled diallyl phthalate molding powder and a pyrotechnic mixture.

  12. Powder River Pass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    as round wires are presented and discussed. Processes were developed to increase flux pinning in Nb3Sn by utilizing powder metallurgy techniques to introduce a heterogeneously homogenous distribution of nanoscale inclusions of candidate materials in Nb rod...

  13. Investigation of Soap Powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bragg, G.A.

    1913-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection Investigation of Soap Powders 1913 by G. A. Bragg This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center for Digital... Scholarship. http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Submitted to the School of Engineering of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science INVESTIGATION OF SOAP POWDERS. by G. A* Bragg. Presented...

  14. Hydrogen separation membrane on a porous substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Sun-Ju (Orland Park, IL); Lee, Tae H. (Naperville, IL); Chen, Ling (Woodridge, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (LaGrange Park, IL); Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

    2011-06-14

    A hydrogen permeable membrane is disclosed. The membrane is prepared by forming a mixture of metal oxide powder and ceramic oxide powder and a pore former into an article. The article is dried at elevated temperatures and then sintered in a reducing atmosphere to provide a dense hydrogen permeable portion near the surface of the sintered mixture. The dense hydrogen permeable portion has a higher initial concentration of metal than the remainder of the sintered mixture and is present in the range of from about 20 to about 80 percent by volume of the dense hydrogen permeable portion.

  15. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  16. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  17. Scalable synthesis of nanoporous palladium powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, David B.; Tran, Kim L.; Clift, W. Miles; Arslan Ilke; Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Ong, Markus D.; Fares, Stephen James

    2009-03-01

    Nanoporous palladium powders are synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrachloro complexes by ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20 and 30 C. Particle diameters are approximately 50 nm, and each particle is perforated by 3 nm pores, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for storage of hydrogen isotopes and electrical charge; producing them at large scales in a safe and efficient manner will help realize this. A slightly modified procedure also results in nanoporous platinum.

  18. Method to blend separator powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  19. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  20. Reaction of Calcite and Dolomite with In-Situ Gelled Acids, Organic Acids, and Environmentally Friendly Chelating Agent (GLDA) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabie, Ahmed 1978-

    2012-11-16

    rpm and 150?F, (Rabie et al. 2011a).?????.??????????????..... 17 Fig. 2.5 Effect of Disk Rotational Speed on the Calcite Dissolution of Pink Desert Limestone in 0.6M GLDA at 200oF and pH of 1.7, 3.8, and 13, (Rabie et al. 2011b...)????????????????...???? 20 Fig. 2.6 Effect of Disk Rotational Speed on the Dissolution Rate of Pink Desert Limestone in 5 wt% In-situ Gelled HCl at 150oF, (Rabie et al. 2011a)???????????????????????...?? 21 Fig. 2.7 Core Flood Setup????????????...????????... 23 Fig. 3...

  1. Comments on the report "Indications of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder" [arXiv:1305.3913] by G.Levi, E.Foschi, T.Hartman, B.H\\"oistad, R.Pettersson, L.Tegn\\'er, H.Ess\\'en

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ericsson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    In a recent report titled "Indications of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder" [arXiv:1305.3913], G. Levi and co-workers put forth several claims concerning the operations and performance of the so-called E-Cat of Andrea Rossi. We note first of all that the circumstances and people involved in the test make if far from being an independent one. We examine the claims put forth by the authors and note that in many cases they are not supported by the facts given in the report. The authors seem to jump to conclusions fitting pre-conceived ideas where alternative explanations are possible. In general we find that much attention is drawn to trivialities while important pieces of information and investigation are lacking and seem not to have been conducted or considered. These are characteristics more typically found in pseudo-scientific texts and have no place in a technical/scientific report on this level. We also note that the proposed claims would require...

  2. Comments on the report "Indications of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder" [arXiv:1305.3913] by G.Levi, E.Foschi, T.Hartman, B.Höistad, R.Pettersson, L.Tegnér, H.Essén

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Göran Ericsson; Stephan Pomp

    2013-09-17

    In a recent report titled "Indications of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder" and published on arXiv, G. Levi and co-workers put forth several claims concerning the operations and performance of the so-called E-Cat of inventor Andrea Rossi. We note first of all that the circumstances and people involved in the test make it far from being an independent one. We examine the claims put forth by the authors and note that in many cases they are not supported by the facts given in the report. We present results from thermal calculations showing that alternative explanations are possible were the authors seem to jump to conclusions fitting pre-conceived ideas. In general we find that much attention is drawn to trivialities, while important pieces of information and investigation are lacking and seem not to have been conducted or considered. We also note that the proposed claims would require new physics in not only one but several areas. Besides a cold-fusion like process without production of any radiation also extreme new material properties would be needed to explain what rather seems to be a problem of correct measurement. Therefore, it is clear to us that a truly independent and scientific investigation of the so called E-Cat device, convincingly demonstrating an "anomalous heat energy production" has not been presented in the arXiv report and is thus, to-date, still lacking.

  3. Optical properties of undoped and Mg doped CuCrO{sub 2} powders synthesized by sol-gel route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Bolloju, Satish [Department of Chemistry, BITS Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Jawahar Nagar Village, Shamirpet Mandal, R.R.District, Hyderabad - 500 078 (India)

    2014-01-28

    In this work, CuCrO{sub 2} was synthesized by sol-gel method using citric acid as a gelling agent. The different parameters like ratio of citric acid to metal ions, calcination temperature, and duration were studied. A green colored powder with particle size around 300 nm was formed at the calcination temperature of 800 °C for four hours duration. The increase in temperature has a profound impact on crystallite size and in turn effected the optical properties. Band gap of the obtained CuCrO{sub 2} has varied from 2.3 to 1.7 eV by increasing the temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C. Doping studies were performed by introducing Mg{sup 2+} ion to substitute Cr{sup 3+} in CuCrO{sub 2}. X-ray powder diffraction and SEM studies on 2% Mg doped samples indicated a clear formation of side phases. According to the X-ray powder patterns, the reflections from side phases were increasing with the increase in doping concentrations of Mg from 2 to 5%. The side phases were found to be MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and CuO. The band gap has decreased for doped samples in comparison to undoped one. In this paper, sol-gel synthesis and characterization by Xray powder diffraction, SEM studies and UV-Vis-Diffuse Reflectance spectra are presented.

  4. Hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  5. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO); Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  6. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  7. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  8. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.

    1990-01-16

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

  9. Causal Factors of Weld Porosity in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Powder Metallurgy Produced Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Chen, Wei [ORNL; Lim, Yong Chae [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    ORNL undertook an investigation using gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding on consolidated powder metallurgy (PM) titanium (Ti) plate, to identify the causal factors behind observed porosity in fusion welding. Tramp element compounds of sodium and magnesium, residual from the metallothermic reduction of titanium chloride used to produce the titanium, were remnant in the starting powder and were identified as gas forming species. PM-titanium made from revert scrap where sodium and magnesium were absent, showed fusion weld porosity, although to a lesser degree. We show that porosity was attributable to hydrogen from adsorbed water on the surface of the powders prior to consolidation. The removal / minimization of both adsorbed water on the surface of titanium powder and the residues from the reduction process prior to consolidation of titanium powders, are critical to achieve equivalent fusion welding success similar to that seen in wrought titanium produced via the Kroll process.

  10. Method for removing oxide contamination from silicon carbide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1984-08-01

    The described invention is directed to a method for removing oxide contamination in the form of oxygen-containing compounds such as SiO/sub 2/ and B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ from a charge of finely divided silicon carbide. The silicon carbide charge is contacted with a stream of hydrogen fluoride mixed with an inert gas carrier such as argon at a temperature in the range of about 200/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The oxides in the charge react with the heated hydrogen fluoride to form volatile gaseous fluorides such as SiF/sub 4/ and BF/sub 3/ which pass through the charge along with unreacted hydrogen fluoride and the carrier gas. Any residual gaseous reaction products and hydrogen fluoride remaining in the charge are removed by contacting the charge with the stream of inert gas which also cools the powder to room temperature. The removal of the oxygen contamination by practicing the present method provides silicon carbide powders with desirable pressing and sintering characteristics. 1 tab.

  11. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  12. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Hung, Cheng-Hung (Baltimore, MD)

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  13. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  14. Tungsten Powder Jet Update Ottone Caretta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    alternative tecnologies (solid & flowing powder targets) Must achieve cost estimate of target system so

  15. The Gell-Mann-Okubo and Colemann-Glashow relations for octet and decuplet baryons in the $SU_q(3)$ quantum algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Carcamo

    2006-08-10

    The q-deformed Clebsch-Gordan coefficients corresponding to the $\\lrpy{3}\\times\\lrpy{21}$ reduction of the $SU_q(3)$ quantum algebra are computed. From these results and using the quantum Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the $\\lrpy{21}\\times\\lrpy{21}$ reduction found by Zhong Qi Ma, the q-deformed Gell-Mann-Okubo mass relations for octet and decuplet baryons are determined by generalizing the procedure used for the SU(3) algebra. We also determine the Coleman-Glashow relations for octet and decuplet baryons in the $SU_q(3)$ algebra. Finally, by using the experimental particle masses of the octet and decuplet baryons, two values of the $q$-parameter are found and adjusted for the predicted masses expressions (one for the Gell-Mann-Okubo mass relations and the other for the Coleman-Glashow relations) and a possible physical interpretation is given.

  16. Hydrogen Safety

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet, intended for a non-technical audience, explains the basic properties of hydrogen and provides an overview of issues related to the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

  17. Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

  18. Hydrogen Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation on Hydrogen Analysis to the DOE Systems Analysis Workshop held in Washington, D.C. July 28-29, 2004 to discuss and define role of systems analysis in DOE Hydrogen Program.

  19. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  20. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

    1981-06-23

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

  1. Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Even, Jr., William R. (4254 Drake Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

    2000-01-01

    A novel method for preparing a hydrogenation composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon--carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces and particularly from atmospheres within enclosed spaces that contain air, water vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxide or ammonia. The organic polymers molecules containing carbon--carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble noble metal catalyst composition. High molecular weight polymers may be added to the organic polymer/catalyst mixture in order to improve their high temperature performance. The hydrogenation composition is prepared by dispersing the polymers in a suitable solvent, forming thereby a solution suspension, flash-freezing droplets of the solution in a liquid cryogen, freeze-drying the frozen droplets to remove frozen solvent incorporated in the droplets, and recovering the dried powder thus formed.

  2. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  3. Bulk synthesis of nanoporous palladium and platinum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, David B. (Fremont, CA); Fares, Stephen J. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Kim L. (Livermore, CA); Langham, Mary E. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2012-04-17

    Disclosed is a method for providing nanoporous palladium and platinum powders. These materials were synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrahalo-complexes with ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20.degree. C. and 30.degree. C. The prepared particles have diameters of approximately 50 nm, wherein each particle is perforated by pores having diameters of approximately 3 nm, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for hydrogen and electrical charge storage applications.

  4. Bulk synthesis of nanoporous palladium and platinum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, David B; Fares, Stephen J; Tran, Kim L; Langham, Mary E

    2014-04-15

    Disclosed is a method for providing nanoporous palladium and platinum powders. These materials were synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrahalo-complexes with ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20.degree. C. and 30.degree. C. The prepared particles have diameters of approximately 50 nm, wherein each particle is perforated by pores having diameters of approximately 3 nm, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for hydrogen and electrical charge storage applications.

  5. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore CA 94551 (United States)

    2009-12-28

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  6. Thermal method for fabricating a hydrogen separation membrane on a porous substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Sun-Ju (Orland Park, IL); Lee, Tae H. (Naperville, IL); Chen, Ling (Woodridge, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (LaGrange Park, IL); Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

    2009-10-20

    A thermal method of making a hydrogen permeable composition is disclosed. A mixture of metal oxide powder and ceramic oxide powder and optionally a pore former is formed and pressed to form an article. The article is dried at elevated temperatures and then sintered in a reducing atmosphere to provide a dense hydrogen permeable portion near the surface of the sintered mixture. The dense hydrogen permeable portion has a higher initial concentration of metal than the remainder of the sintered mixture and is present in the range of from about 20 to about 80 percent by volume of the dense hydrogen permeable portion.

  7. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI); Zidan, Ragaiy A. (Honolulu, HI)

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  8. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  9. Powder handling for automated fuel processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Eschenbaum, R.C.; Goldmann, L.H.

    1989-04-09

    Installation of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line has been completed. It is located in the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington. The SAF line was designed to fabricate advanced reactor fuel pellets and assemble fuel pins by automated, remote operation. This paper describes powder handling equipment and techniques utilized for automated powder processing and powder conditioning systems in this line. 9 figs.

  10. Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Titanium Powder for Feedstock Principal Investigator: Curt Lavender Presenter: Mark T. Smith Pacific Northwest National Laboratory OVT 2008 DOE Peer Review February 28, 2008 This...

  11. Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Code for Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines. B31 Hydrogen...

  12. Hydrogen program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gronich, S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  13. Storing Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

    2010-05-31

    Researchers have been studying mesoporous materials for almost two decades with a view to using them as hosts for small molecules and scaffolds for molding organic compounds into new hybrid materials and nanoparticles. Their use as potential storage systems for large quantities of hydrogen has also been mooted. Such systems that might hold large quantities of hydrogen safely and in a very compact volume would have enormous potential for powering fuel cell vehicles, for instance. A sponge-like form of silicon dioxide, the stuff of sand particles and computer chips, can soak up and store other compounds including hydrogen. Studies carried out at the XOR/BESSRC 11-ID-B beamline at the APS have revealed that the nanoscopic properties of the hydrogenrich compound ammonia borane help it store hydrogen more efficiently than usual. The material may have potential for addressing the storage issues associated with a future hydrogen economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  14. CAN HYDROGEN WIN?: EXPLORING SCENARIOS FOR HYDROGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAN HYDROGEN WIN?: EXPLORING SCENARIOS FOR HYDROGEN FUELLED VEHICLES by Katherine Aminta Muncaster of Research Project: Can Hydrogen Win?: Exploring Scenarios for Hydrogen Fuelled Vehicles Report No.: 459 explored the conditions under which hydrogen might succeed in Canada's transportation sector in a carbon

  15. Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2005-05-01

    Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

  16. Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls -Hydro-Pac Inc.,1 DOE HydrogenProduction Hydrogen is

  17. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  18. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Experience with the German Hydrogen Fuel Project," HydrogenHydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September bycost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel- cell vehicles would be

  19. Hydrogen Technology Validation

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This fact sheet provides a basic introduction to the DOE Hydrogen National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration for non-technical audiences.

  20. The Hype About Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirza, Umar Karim

    2006-01-01

    another promising solution for hydrogen storage. However,storage and delivery, and there are safety issues as well with hydrogen

  1. Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by...

  2. Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive...

  3. Hydrogen sorption characteristics of nanostructured Pd–10Rh processed by cryomilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, Joshua K.; Zhang, Zhihui; Kurmanaeva, Lilia; Cappillino, Patrick; Stavila, Vitalie; Lavernia, Enrique J.; San Marchi, Chris

    2014-10-03

    Palladium and its alloys are model systems for studying solid-state storage of hydrogen. Mechanical milling is commonly used to process complex powder systems for solid-state hydrogen storage; however, milling can also be used to evolve nanostructured powder to modify hydrogen sorption characteristics. In the present study, cryomilling (mechanical attrition milling in a cryogenic liquid) is used to produce nanostructured palladium-rhodium alloy powder. Characterization of the cryomilled Pd-10Rh using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and surface area analysis reveals that (i) particle morphology evolves from spherical to flattened disk-like particles; while the (ii) crystallite size decreases from several microns to less than 100 nm and (iii) dislocation density increases with increased cryomilling time. Hydrogen absorption and desorption isotherms as well as the time scales for absorption were measured for cryomilled Pd-10Rh, and correlated with observed microstructural changes induced by the cryomilling process. In short, as the microstructure of the Pd-10Rh alloy is refined by cryomilling: (i) the maximum hydrogen concentration in the ?-phase increases, (ii) the pressure plateau becomes flatter, and (iii) the equilibrium hydrogen capacity at 760 Torr increases. In addition, the rate of hydrogen absorption was reduced by an order of magnitude compared to non-cryomilled (atomized) powder.

  4. Hydrogen sorption characteristics of nanostructured Pd–10Rh processed by cryomilling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, Joshua K.; Zhang, Zhihui; Kurmanaeva, Lilia; Cappillino, Patrick; Stavila, Vitalie; Lavernia, Enrique J.; San Marchi, Chris

    2014-10-03

    Palladium and its alloys are model systems for studying solid-state storage of hydrogen. Mechanical milling is commonly used to process complex powder systems for solid-state hydrogen storage; however, milling can also be used to evolve nanostructured powder to modify hydrogen sorption characteristics. In the present study, cryomilling (mechanical attrition milling in a cryogenic liquid) is used to produce nanostructured palladium-rhodium alloy powder. Characterization of the cryomilled Pd-10Rh using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and surface area analysis reveals that (i) particle morphology evolves from spherical to flattened disk-like particles; while the (ii) crystallite size decreases from several microns to less thanmore »100 nm and (iii) dislocation density increases with increased cryomilling time. Hydrogen absorption and desorption isotherms as well as the time scales for absorption were measured for cryomilled Pd-10Rh, and correlated with observed microstructural changes induced by the cryomilling process. In short, as the microstructure of the Pd-10Rh alloy is refined by cryomilling: (i) the maximum hydrogen concentration in the ?-phase increases, (ii) the pressure plateau becomes flatter, and (iii) the equilibrium hydrogen capacity at 760 Torr increases. In addition, the rate of hydrogen absorption was reduced by an order of magnitude compared to non-cryomilled (atomized) powder.« less

  5. Hydrogen Cryomagnetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glowacki, B. A.; Hanely, E.; Nuttall, W. J.

    2014-01-01

    induction of 2-3 Tesla made from MgB2 superconductors indirectly cooled by LH2, besides the energy efficiency, the new technique generates a homogeneous heat distribution within the metal, so that any local overheating is avoided. As an aside... SMES device in combination with Vanadium Redox-flow Batteries as a generation reserve to regulate variations of power generation demand [25]. The use of liquid hydrogen is capable of enabling the superconducting industry as it is facing resource...

  6. Hydrogen Sensor Testing, Hydrogen Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    Factsheet describing the hydrogen sensor testing laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  7. Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, A.J.; Kim, H.

    1999-08-10

    A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are disclosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder. 9 figs.

  8. Hydrogen storage composition and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.; Heung, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition based on a metal hydride dispersed in an aerogel prepared by a sol-gel process. The starting material for the aerogel is an organometallic compound, including the alkoxysilanes, organometals of the form M(OR){sub X} where R is an organic ligand of the form C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}, and organometals of the form MO{sub x}Ry where R is an alkyl group, where M is an oxide-forming metal, n, x and y are integers and y is two less than the valence of M. A sol is prepared by combining the starting material, alcohol, water, and an acid. The sol is conditioned to the proper viscosity and a hydride in the form of a fine powder is added. The mixture is polymerized and dried under supercritical conditions. The final product is a composition having a hydride uniformly dispersed throughout an inert, stable and highly porous matrix. It is capable of absorbing up to 30 motes of hydrogen per kilogram at room temperature and pressure, rapidly and reversibly. Hydrogen absorbed by the composition can be readily be recovered by heat or evacuation.

  9. Hydrogen storage composition and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    2003-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition based on a metal hydride dispersed in an aerogel prepared by a sol-gel process. The starting material for the aerogel is an organometallic compound, including the alkoxysilanes, organometals of the form M(OR)x and MOxRy, where R is an alkyl group of the form C.sub.n H.sub.2n+1, M is an oxide-forming metal, n, x, and y are integers, and y is two less than the valence of M. A sol is prepared by combining the starting material, alcohol, water, and an acid. The sol is conditioned to the proper viscosity and a hydride in the form of a fine powder is added. The mixture is polymerized and dried under supercritical conditions. The final product is a composition having a hydride uniformly dispersed throughout an inert, stable and highly porous matrix. It is capable of absorbing up to 30 moles of hydrogen per kilogram at room temperature and pressure, rapidly and reversibly. Hydrogen absorbed by the composition can be readily be recovered by heat or evacuation.

  10. Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pernenkil, Lakshman

    2008-01-01

    Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

  11. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, E.A.; Fegley, M.B. Jr.; Bowen, H.K.

    1985-09-24

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 microns can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed. 6 figs.

  12. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation The...

  13. CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior Presentation given by Jay...

  14. Safety and Regulatory Structure for CNG, CNG-Hydrogen, Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrogen Vehicles and Fuels in China Safety and Regulatory Structure for CNG, CNG-Hydrogen, Hydrogen Vehicles and Fuels in China Presentation given by Jinyang Zheng of...

  15. Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline...

  16. NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage & Transportation NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage &...

  17. Hydrogen Liquefaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls -Hydro-Pac Inc., AEquipmentpDepartmentHydrogen: Over

  18. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Smol, Robert (East Patchogue, NY); Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY); Naphtali, Leonard M. (Washington, DC)

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  19. The Hydriding Kinetics of Organic Hydrogen Getters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, G. L.

    2002-02-11

    The aging of hermetically sealed systems is often accompanied by the gradual production of hydrogen gas that is a result of the decay of environmental gases and the degradation of organic materials. In particular, the oxygen, water, hydrogen ''equilibrium'' is affected by the removal of oxygen due the oxidation of metals and organic materials. This shift of the above ''equilibrium'' towards the formation of hydrogen gas, particularly in crevices, may eventually reach an explosive level of hydrogen gas or degrade metals by hydriding them. The latter process is generally delayed until the oxidizing species are significantly reduced. Organic hydrogen getters introduced by Allied Signal Aerospace Company, Kansas City Division have proven to be a very effective means of preventing hydrogen gas accumulation in sealed containers. These getters are relatively unaffected by air and environmental gases. They can be packaged in a variety of ways to fit particular needs such as porous pellets, fine or coarse [gravel] powder, or loaded into silicone rubber. The hydrogen gettering reactions are extremely irreversible since the hydrogen gas is converted into an organic hydrocarbon. These getters are based on the palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of triple bonds to double and then single bonds in aromatic aryl compounds. DEB (1,4 bis (phenyl ethynyl) benzene) typically mixed with 25% by weight carbon with palladium (1% by weight of carbon) is one of the newest and best of these organic hydrogen getters. The reaction mechanisms are complex involving solid state reaction with a heterogeneous catalyst leading to the many intermediates, including mixed alkyl and aryl hydrocarbons with the possibilities of many isomers. The reaction kinetics mechanisms are also strongly influenced by the form in which they are packaged. For example, the hydriding rates for pellets and gravel have a strong dependence on reaction extent (i.e., DEB reduction) and a kinetic order in pressure of 0.76. Silicone rubber based DEB getters hydride at a much lower rate, have little dependence on reaction extent, have a higher kinetic order in pressure (0.87), and have a lower activation energy. The kinetics of the reaction as a function of hydrogen pressure, stoichiometry, and temperature for hydrogen and deuterium near ambient temperature (0 to 75 C) for pressures near or below 100 Pa over a wide range (in some cases, the complete) hydrogenation range are presented along with multi-dimensional rate models.

  20. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Landingham, Richard Lee (Livermore, CA); Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  1. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  2. Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Luis W.

    1956-01-01

    t No. W - 7 4 0 5 -eng-48 ,LIQUID HYDROGEN EUSBLE CHA,MBEEZSand 3erkeley to iind if liquid hydrogen could be used as thethat supezheated 'liquid hydrogen could be made to boil

  3. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    1096 (1990). S. Furuhama, "Hydrogen Engine Systems for LandGelse, "The Mercedes-Benz Hydrogen Engine for Application inI do assume that the hydrogen engines would run ultra lean,

  4. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-10-21

    A strengthened, biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed, compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: Ni, Ag, Ag--Cu, Ag--Pd, Ni--Cu, Ni--V, Ni--Mo, Ni--Al, Ni--Cr--Al, Ni--W--Al, Ni--V--Al, Ni--Mo--Al, Ni--Cu--Al; and at least one fine metal oxide powder; the article having a grain size which is fine and homogeneous; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  5. Hydrogen Program Overview

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to the DOE Hydrogen Program. It describes the program mission and answers the question: “Why Hydrogen?”

  6. Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

  7. Hydrogen Storage Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For transportation, the overarching technical challenge for hydrogen storage is how to store the amount of hydrogen required for a conventional driving range (>300 miles) within the vehicular...

  8. Hydrogen Safety Panel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or otherwise restricted information. Project ID: scs07weiner PNNL-SA-65397 2 IEA HIA Task 19 Working Group Hydrogen Safety Training Props Hydrogen Safety Panel Incident...

  9. Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Diverse Domestic Resources Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources Distributed Generation Transportation HIGH EFFICIENCY HIGH EFFICIENCY & RELIABILITY & RELIABILITY ZERONEAR...

  10. Physically Gelled Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid-Based Composite Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation: Effect of Composition and Thickness on Membrane Properties and Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, PT; Voss, BA; Wiesenauer, EF; Gin, DL; Nobe, RD

    2013-07-03

    An aspartame-based, low molecular-weight organic gelator (LMOG) was used to form melt-infused and composite membranes with two different imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for CO2 separation from N-2. Previous work demonstrated that LMOGs can gel RTILs at low, loading levels, and this aspartame-based LMOG was selected because it has been reported to gel a large number of RTILs. The imidazolium-based RTILs were used because of their inherent good properties for CO2/light gas separations. Analysis of the resulting bulk RTIL/LMOG physical gels showed that these materials have high sol-gel transition temperatures (ca. 135 degrees C) suitable for flue gas applications. Gas permeabilities and burst pressure measurements of thick, melt infused membranes revealed a trade-off between high CO2 permeabilities and good mechanical stability as a function of the LMOG loading. Defect-free, composite membranes of the gelled RTILs were successfully fabricated by choosing an appropriate porous membrane support (hydrophobic PTFE) using a suitable coating technique (roller coating). The thicknesses of the applied composite gel layers ranged from 10.3 to 20.7 mu m, which represents an order of magnitude decrease in active layer thickness, compared to the original melt-infused gel RTIL membranes.

  11. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1995-12-26

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

  12. Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.; Sheinberg, H.; Blake, R.D.

    1987-04-24

    A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has dissolved. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO /plus/ Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/. 1 tab.

  13. Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has been removed. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x.

  14. NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP . . Toward a More Secure and Cleaner Energy Future for America Based on the results of the National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop to make it a reality. This Roadmap provides a framework that can make a hydrogen economy a reality

  15. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  16. Hydrogen delivery technology roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2005-11-15

    Document describing plan for research into and development of hydrogen delivery technology for transportation applications.

  17. AN INVESTIGATION OF A THERMOPLASTIC-POWDER METALLURGY PROCESS FOR THE FABRICATION OF POROUS NIOBIUM RODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordin, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    INVESTIGATION OF A THERMOPLASTIC- POWDER METALLURGY PROCESSINVESTIGATION OF A THERMOPLASTIC- POWDER METALLURGY PROCESSThe feasibility of using a thermoplastic-powder metallurgy

  18. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  19. Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock Low-Cost Titanium Powder for Feedstock Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25,...

  20. Consolidation of aluminum 6061 powder by equal channel angular extrusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, John Montgomery

    1997-01-01

    Equal channel angular extrusion is a promising approach to obtaining full density in powder metallurgy applications. This method can impose large effective deformations through uniform shear strain. Aluminum alloy 6061 powder is used as a test...

  1. HYDROGEN CONCENTRATIONS DURING STORAGE OF 3013 OXIDE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensel, S.; Askew, N.; Laurinat, J.

    2011-03-14

    As part of a surveillance program intended to ensure the safe storage of plutonium bearing nuclear materials in the Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS), samples of these materials are shipped to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. These samples are in the form of solids or powders which will have absorbed moisture. Potentially flammable hydrogen gas is generated due to radiolysis of the moisture. The samples are shipped for processing after chemical analysis. To preclude the possibility of a hydrogen deflagration or detonation inside the shipping containers, the shipping times are limited to ensure that hydrogen concentration in the vapor space of every layer of confinement is below the lower flammability limit of 4 volume percent (vol%). This study presents an analysis of the rate of hydrogen accumulation due to radiolysis and calculation of allowable shipping times for typical KAMS materials.

  2. Hydrogenation of palladium rich compounds of aluminium, gallium and indium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlmann, H.

    2010-02-15

    Palladium rich intermetallic compounds of aluminium, gallium and indium have been studied before and after hydrogenation by powder X-ray diffraction and during hydrogenation by in situ thermal analysis (DSC) at hydrogen gas pressures up to 39 MPa and temperatures up to 700 K. Very weak DSC signals and small unit cell increases of below 1% for AlPd{sub 2}, AlPd{sub 3}, GaPd{sub 2}, Ga{sub 5}Pd{sub 13}, In{sub 3}Pd{sub 5}, and InPd{sub 2} suggest negligible hydrogen uptake. In contrast, for both tetragonal modifications of InPd{sub 3} (ZrAl{sub 3} and TiAl{sub 3} type), heating to 523 K at 2 MPa hydrogen pressure leads to a rearrangement of the intermetallic structure to a cubic AuCu{sub 3} type with an increase in unit cell volume per formula unit by 3.6-3.9%. Gravimetric analysis suggests a composition InPd{sub 3}H{sub a}pprox{sub 0.8} for the hydrogenation product. Very similar behaviour is found for the deuteration of InPd{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: In situ differential scanning calorimetry of the hydrogenation of tetragonal InPd{sub 3} (ZrAl{sub 3} type) at 1.3 MPa hydrogen pressure.

  3. SIS a new SFF method based on powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asiabanpour, Bahram - Department of Engineering and Technology, Texas State University

    . This approach, used by SLS and 3D printing, is able to create thin and uniformly dense powder layers. Other

  4. LANL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Ultra-high Surface Area Main Group Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich; Phillip P. Power; Doinita Neiner; Alex Pickering; Eric Rivard; Bobby Ellis, T. M.; Atkins, A. Merrill; R. Wolf; Julia Wang

    2010-09-05

    The focus of the project was to design and synthesize light element compounds and nanomaterials that will reversibly store molecular hydrogen for hydrogen storage materials. The primary targets investigated during the last year were amine and hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) nanoparticles, Si alloyed with lighter elements (carbon (C) and boron (B)) and boron nanoparticles. The large surface area of nanoparticles should facilitate a favorable weight to volume ratio, while the low molecular weight elements such as B, nitrogen (N), and Si exist in a variety of inexpensive and readily available precursors. Furthermore, small NPs of Si are nontoxic and non-corrosive. Insights gained from these studies will be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets: cost, hydrogen capacity and reversibility. Two primary routes were explored for the production of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The first was the reduction of the elemental halides to achieve nanomaterials with chloride surface termination that could subsequently be replaced with amine or hydrogen. The second was the reaction of alkali metal Si or Si alloys with ammonium halides to produce hydrogen capped nanomaterials. These materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, FTIR, TG/DSC, and NMR spectroscopy.

  5. Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems- Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems - Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen. Design and operations standards and materials for hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

  6. Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of...

  7. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen Program Review Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen Program Review This paper, presented at the 2001 DOE...

  8. Hydrogen production by methanogens under low-hydrogen conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentine, DL; Valentine, DL; Blanton, DC; Reeburgh, WS

    2000-01-01

    greatly decreased hydrogen production. The addition ofThe lack of sustained hydrogen production by the cultures inMethanogens · Hydrogen production · Storage compounds ·

  9. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  10. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  11. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1994-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  12. Ignition of THKP and TKP pyrotechnic powders :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Erikson, William W; Highley, Aaron M.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Kay, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    We have conducted Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry (STMBMS) experiments on igniter/actuator pyrotechnic powders to characterize the reactive processes controlling the ignition and combustion behavior of these materials. The experiments showed a complex, interactive reaction manifold involving over ten reaction pathways. A reduced dimensionality reaction manifold was developed from the detailed 10-step manifold and is being incorporated into existing predictive modeling codes to simulate the performance of pyrotechnic powders for NW component development. The results from development of the detailed reaction manifold and reduced manifold are presented. The reduced reaction manifold has been successfully used by SNL/NM modelers to predict thermal ignition events in small-scale testing, validating our approach and improving the capability of predictive models.

  13. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-05-18

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  14. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  15. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1992-04-21

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

  16. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-10-19

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

  17. Hydrogen Storage - Current Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Basics Current Technology Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage Materials-Based Hydrogen...

  18. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  19. Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2007-01-01

    the electronic level of hydrogen (thick red bar) was notdescribing the behavior of hydrogen atoms as impuritiesenergy of interstitial hydrogen as a function of Fermi level

  20. Hydrogen Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources Hydrogen Resources Hydrogen can be produced from diverse, domestic resources. Currently, most hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels, specifically natural gas....

  1. Hydrogen Pipelines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pipelines Hydrogen Pipelines Photo of a hydrogen pipeline. Gaseous hydrogen can be transported through pipelines much the way natural gas is today. Approximately 1,500 miles of...

  2. The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

    2006-01-01

    carbon emissions from a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle will beis threefold. First, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles appear tobecome competitive and if hydrogen fuel can be made widely

  3. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Miquel, P.F.

    1997-07-22

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity. 24 figs.

  4. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Miquel, Philippe F. (Towson, MD)

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity.

  5. Full body powder antichip. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-17

    Chipping is the major paint defect listed for automobile customer dissatisfaction. The improved chip resistance and smoother paint surfaces produced by full body powder antichip will result in greater customer satisfaction and greater demand for US-produced automobiles. Powder antichip contains virtually no solvent, thereby reducing the potential VOC emissions from Newark Assembly by more than 90 tons per year as compared to the solvent-borne material presently applied in most full body applications. Since Newark Assembly Plant is in a severe non-attainment air quality area, which must demonstrate a 15% reduction in emissions by 1996, projects such as this are crucial to the longevity of industry in this region. The liquid paint spray systems include incineration of the oven volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) at 1,500 F. Since there are minimal VOC`s in powder coatings and the only possible releases occur only during polymerization, incineration is not required. The associated annual savings resulting from the elimination of the incinerator utilized on the liquid spray system is 1.44 {times} 10{sup 10} BTU`s per unit installed. The annual cost savings is approximately $388 thousand, far below the original estimates.

  6. Powder Injection Molding of Titanium Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Weil, K. Scott; Miller, Megan R.

    2005-01-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a well-established, cost-effective method of fabricating small-to-moderate size metal components. Derived from plastic injection molding and employing a mixture of metal powder and plastic binder, the process has been used with great success in manufacturing a wide variety of metal products, including those made from stainless steel, nickel-based superalloys, and copper alloys. Less progress has been achieved with titanium and other refractory metal alloys because of problems with alloy impurities that are directly attributable to the injection molding process. Specifically, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are left behind during binder removal and become incorporated into the chemistry and microstructure of the material during densification. Even at low concentration, these impurities can cause severe degradation in the mechanical properties of titanium and its alloys. We have developed a unique blend of PIM constituents where only a small volume fraction of binder (~5 – 10 vol%) is required for injection molding; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and binder solvent. Because of the nature of decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder is eliminated almost completely from the pre-sintered component during the initial stage of a two-step heat treatment process. Results will be presented on the first phase of this research, in which the binder, injection molding, de-binding and sintering schedule were developed. Additional data on the mechanical and physical properties of the material produced will be discussed.

  7. A study of the reactions of arsinic and arsonic acids with hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen selenide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applegate, Cynthia Annette

    1986-01-01

    -diarsa-2, 3, 5-triselenacyclopentane 35 Bond angles in 1, 4&ipheny1-1, 4-diarsa-2, 3, 5-triselenacyclopentane 79 80 INTRODUCTION Many arsenic sulfides occur naturally in the form of minerals due to the natural affinity of arsenic and sulfur for one... another [I]. Arsemc trisulfide, As, S, an orange or yellow powder, is found in nature as the mineral orpiment. Arsenic trisulfide can be prepared by passing a stream of hydrogen sulfide through an acidic solution of arsenic trioxide. Arsenic disulfide...

  8. A New Kind of Column Materials for Gas Chromatographic Hydrogen Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, M.; Shima, H.; Akamaru, S.; Abe, T.; Matsuyama, M.; Watanabe, K. [Toyama University (Japan)

    2005-07-15

    A new kind of materials that can be applied to a gas chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation system was developed to reduce the amount of Pd-Pt alloy required for making the column and to improve the separation efficiency. Pd and Pt were deposited on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder by using a barrel sputtering system. Prepared sample powder was characterized from surface morphology, element distributions on the surface, composition and crystallinity. The characterization showed that a uniform layer of Pd-Pt alloy with expected composition was formed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. The crystallinity, however, was poor, but improved after annealing at 1073 K for 2 hours. The hydrogen absorbing behavior was also improved by the annealing. A separation column was prepared from the annealed powder and was subjected to experiments on hydrogen isotope separation. The column of annealed powder gave considerably good separation efficiency around room temperature, in spite that only 0.35 g of Pd-Pt was used for the column. The amount of Pd-Pt alloy used here should be compared to previous results, where 1.5 g of Pd-Pt powder was required for high separation efficiency. The new material was quite effective to reduce the amount of Pd-Pt alloy without compromising the separation efficiency and can give further improvement.

  9. Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout- Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Targets, barriers and research and development priorities for gaseous delivery of hydrogen through hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

  10. Hydrogen Storage- Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Storing enough hydrogen on-board a vehicle to achieve a driving range of greater than 300 miles is a significant challenge. On a weight basis, hydrogen has nearly three times the energy content of...

  11. Hydrogen Safety Knowledge Tools

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data Partners Best Practices - LANL, SNL, NREL, NASA, Hydrogen Safety Panel, and IEA HIA Tasks 19 and 22 Incident Reporting - NASA and Hydrogen Safety Panel 3 Objectives H2...

  12. Webinar: Hydrogen Refueling Protocols

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Hydrogen Refueling Protocols, originally presented on February 22, 2013.

  13. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  14. Hydrogen production in single-chamber tubular microbial electrolysis cells using non-precious-metal catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    warming and the finite supply of fossil fuels, hydrogen as a clean energy carrier for the future has drawn excellent catalytic capabil- ities and popularity in microbial fuel cell (MFC) studies [3]. Several] synthesized tungsten carbide powder via a carburization procedure and explored its electrocatalytic behavior

  15. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

  16. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, G.R.

    1999-08-03

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system is described which uses passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor. 1 fig.

  17. Hydrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael (Longmont, CO); Xie, Xiaobing (Foster City, CA); Evenson, IV, Carl (Lafayette, CO); Grimmer, Paul (Longmont, CO); Wright, Harold (Longmont, CO)

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  18. Anti-Hydrogen Jonny Martinez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry

    Anti-Hydrogen Jonny Martinez University of California, Berkeley #12;OUTLINE WHAT IS ANTI-HYDROGEN? HISTORY IMPORTANCE THEORY HOW TO MAKE ANTI-HYDROGEN OTHER ANTI-MATTER EXPERIMENTS CONCLUSION #12;WHAT IS ANTI-HYDROGEN? Anti-hydrogen is composed of a Positron(anti-electron) and anti-Proton. Anti-Hydrogen

  19. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabern, Donald A.; Valdiviez, Robert

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  20. Material synthesis and hydrogen storage of palladium-rhodium alloy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavernia, Enrique J.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Ong, Markus D.

    2011-08-01

    Pd and Pd alloys are candidate material systems for Tr or H storage. We have actively engaged in material synthesis and studied the material science of hydrogen storage for Pd-Rh alloys. In collaboration with UC Davis, we successfully developed/optimized a supersonic gas atomization system, including its processing parameters, for Pd-Rh-based alloy powders. This optimized system and processing enable us to produce {le} 50-{mu}m powders with suitable metallurgical properties for H-storage R&D. In addition, we studied hydrogen absorption-desorption pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior using these gas-atomized Pd-Rh alloy powders. The study shows that the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior of Pd-Rh alloys is strongly influenced by its metallurgy. The plateau pressure, slope, and H/metal capacity are highly dependent on alloy composition and its chemical distribution. For the gas-atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh, the absorption plateau pressure is relatively high and consistent. However, the absorption-desorption PCT exhibits a significant hysteresis loop that is not seen from the 30-nm nanopowders produced by chemical precipitation. In addition, we observed that the presence of hydrogen introduces strong lattice strain, plastic deformation, and dislocation networking that lead to material hardening, lattice distortions, and volume expansion. The above observations suggest that the H-induced dislocation networking is responsible for the hysteresis loop seen in the current atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh powders. This conclusion is consistent with the hypothesis suggested by Flanagan and others (Ref 1) that plastic deformation or dislocations control the hysteresis loop.

  1. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Cremers, D.A.; Nemec, R.B.; Barbe, M.R.

    1998-11-17

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path. 20 figs.

  2. Hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced as reactor gases in a fast quench reactor. During the fast quench, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  3. Fast-quench reactor for hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2006-08-29

    A fast-quench reactor for production of diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated carbons is provided. During the fast quench in the downstream diverging section of the nozzle, such as in a free expansion chamber, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  4. Selection of powder factor in large diameter blastholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eloranta, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper documents the relationship between material handling and processing costs compared to blasting cost. The old adage, The cheapest crushing is done in the pit, appears accurate in this case study. Comparison of the accumulated cost of: powder, selected wear materials and electricity; indicate a strong, inverse correlation with powder factor (lbs powder/long ton of rock). In this case, the increased powder cost is more than offset by electrical savings alone. Measurable, overall costs decline while shovel and crusher productivity rise by about 5% when powder factor rises by 15%. These trends were previously masked by the effects of: weather, ore grade fluctuations and accounting practices. Attempts to correlate increased powder factor to: wear materials in the crushing plant and to shovel hoist rope life have not shown the same benefit.

  5. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    2011-11-29

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  6. Electrochemical cell with powdered electrically insulative material as a separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathers, James P. (Downers Grove, IL); Olszanski, Theodore W. (Justice, IL); Boquist, Carl W. (Chicago, IL)

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, can be compacted in layers with electrode materials to form an integral electrode structure or separately assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  7. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C. (MesoCoat, Inc.)

    2012-07-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

  8. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

  9. COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana (fig. PQ-1) is considered to be "clean coal." For the location

  10. Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

    2014-09-16

    The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

  11. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabin, Barry H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe.sub.3 Al and FeAl.

  12. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  13. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POWDERED ACTIVATED...

  14. Powder, Pomp, Power: Toward a Typology and Genealogy of Effeminacies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennen, Peter

    2001-04-01

    ~ , ------------------------- ~: .,:.• ,: •.•..~ .I'~.- POWDER, POMP, POWER: TOWARD A TYPOLOGY AND GENEALOGY OF EFFEMINACIES PETER HENNEN University ofMinnesota Ananalysisofsomeofthevaryinghistoricalandcross-cultural meaningsof effeminacyandtheirrelatianshiptohegemonicmasculinitypnnndeaunique...

  15. Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

  16. Dispersion of Hydrogen Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Swain; Eric S. Grilliot; Matthew N. Swain

    2000-06-30

    The following is the presentation of a simplification of the Hydrogen Risk Assessment Method previously developed at the University of Miami. It has been found that for simple enclosures, hydrogen leaks can be simulated with helium leaks to predict the concentrations of hydrogen gas produced. The highest concentrations of hydrogen occur near the ceiling after the initial transients disappear. For the geometries tested, hydrogen concentrations equal helium concentrations for the conditions of greatest concern (near the ceiling after transients disappear). The data supporting this conclusion is presented along with a comparison of hydrogen, LPG, and gasoline leakage from a vehicle parked in a single car garage. A short video was made from the vehicle fuel leakage data.

  17. Hydrogen Permeation Resistant Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KORINKO, PAUL; ADAMS, THAD; CREECH, GREGGORY

    2005-06-15

    As the National Hydrogen Economy continues to develop and evolve the need for structural materials that can resist hydrogen assisted degradation will become critical. To date austenitic stainless steel materials have been shown to be mildly susceptible to hydrogen attack which results in lower mechanical and fracture strengths. As a result, hydrogen permeation barrier coatings may be applied to these ferrous alloys to retard hydrogen ingress. Hydrogen is known to be very mobile in materials of construction. In this study, the permeation resistance of bare stainless steel samples and coated stainless steel samples was tested. The permeation resistance was measured using a modular permeation rig using a pressure rise technique. The coating microstructure and permeation results will be discussed in this document as will some additional testing.

  18. Sandia Energy - Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials Home Transportation Energy Hydrogen Materials & Components Compatibility Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility...

  19. Hydrogen Production: Electrolysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processes Hydrogen Production: Electrolysis Hydrogen Production: Electrolysis Electrolysis is a promising option for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Electrolysis...

  20. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-11-22

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  1. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    The fuel cell — an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen — is the key to making it happen.

  3. Hydrogen Industrial Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Component and System Qualification Workshop held November 4, 2010 in Livermore, CA.

  4. Hydrogen ion microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Deb, S.K.

    1990-10-02

    Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. 6 figs.

  5. Hydrogen purification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golben, Peter Mark

    2010-06-15

    The present invention provides a system to purify hydrogen involving the use of a hydride compressor and catalytic converters combined with a process controller.

  6. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Fleming, Pamela H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  7. Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1980-02-08

    A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

  8. Hydrogen Delivery and Fueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-09

    This MP3 provides an overview of how hydrogen is delivered from the point of production to where it is used.

  9. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Demonstration ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    generator currently used to provide power for refrigerated containers on land and on transport barges. Hydrogenics Corp. is designing and manufacturing a containerized...

  10. Renewable Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R. J.

    2009-11-16

    Presentation about the United State's dependence on oil, how energy solutions are challenging, and why hydrogen should be considered as a long-term alternative for transportation fuel.

  11. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J. (Andover, MA); Moniz, Gary A. (Windham, NH); Morse, Theodore F. (Little Compton, RI)

    1997-02-04

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  12. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J. (Andover, MA); Moniz, Gary A. (Windham, NH); Morse, Theodore F. (Little Compton, RI)

    1995-09-05

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  13. Novel Hydrogen Carriers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carriers Novel Hydrogen Carriers Hydrogen carriers store hydrogen in some other chemical state rather than as free hydrogen molecules. Additional research and analyses are...

  14. Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Gaseous hydrogen is most commonly delivered either by trucks or through pipelines. Because gaseous hydrogen is typically...

  15. Sandia Energy - Maritime Hydrogen Fuel Cell Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Project Home Transportation Energy Hydrogen Market Transformation Maritime Hydrogen & SF-BREEZE Maritime Hydrogen Fuel Cell Project Maritime Hydrogen Fuel Cell...

  16. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-29

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the reusltant hydrogen.

  17. Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U-based technology. (a) Based on equal quantities of coal used to produce hydrogen and electricity 4 #12;Why Hydrogen From Coal? Huge U.S. coal reserves Hydrogen can be produced cleanly from coal Coal can provide

  18. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Li, Yingwel (Ann Arbor, MI); Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  19. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  20. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Innocenzi, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.innocenzi1@univaq.it [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca [Department of Marine Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [SAT, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, Gurkasse 43/2, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Vegliň, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Treatment of fluorescent powder of CRT waste. • Factorial experimental designs to study acid leaching of fluorescent powder and the purification of leach liquors. • Recover of yttrium by precipitation using oxalic acid. • Suitable flowsheet to recover yttrium from fluorescent powder. - Abstract: This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2{sup 2} full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3 M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70 °C and 3 h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2{sup 2} full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2–2.5% and 10–12% v/v of Na{sub 2}S concentrated solution at 10% w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15–20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75–80%.

  1. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE VESSELS Y. S. Choi1 '3 , M. N of the present work was to develop a precise instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of powder cylinder is thermally anchored to the coldhead of a single stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler, while

  2. Thermite powder ignition by localized microwaves Yehuda Meir, Eli Jerby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerby, Eli

    Thermite powder ignition by localized microwaves Yehuda Meir, Eli Jerby Faculty of Engineering Keywords: Thermite Microwave heating Hotspots Thermal runaway Ignition a b s t r a c t This paper presents a new method to ignite pure thermite powder by low-power microwaves ($100 W). In this method

  3. Sinterable powders from laser driven reactions : final report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggerty, John Scarseth

    1981-01-01

    Extremely fine, uniform ceramic powders have been synthesized from Sil4 NH3 and C2H4 gas phase reactants that are heated by absorbing optical energy emitted from a C02 laser. Resulting Si, Si3N4 and SiC powders have been ...

  4. Pd conductor for thick film hydrogen sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felten, J.J. [DuPont Electronics, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Cooperation between a materials developer and sensor designers has resulted in a palladium conductor used ro design and build a new hydrogen sensor that has superior performance characteristics and is also inexpensive to manufacture. Material characteristics give it faster response time and greater thermal/mechanical stability. The thick film palladium conductor paste, which can be fired at 850{degrees}C-950{degrees}C, has provided device designers a practical conductor paste with which to produce the improved sensor. The conductor uses a high surface area Pd powder combined with a binder glass that is chemically very inert, which combination produces a porous conductor that has good adhesion and chemical resistance. The current sensor design consists of three or four thick film Layers. Because of the flexibility of thick film techniques, the sensor element can be configured to any desired size and shape for specific instrument needs.

  5. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring at any facility engaged in transport, handling and use of hydrogen. Development of High Efficiency Low Cost Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and PEM Fuel Cell Applications ? M. Rodgers, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to decrease platinum usage in fuel cells by conducting experiments to improve catalyst activity while lowering platinum loading through pulse electrodeposition. Optimum values of several variables during electrodeposition were selected to achieve the highest electrode performance, which was related to catalyst morphology. Understanding Mechanical and Chemical Durability of Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies ? D. Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to increase the knowledge base of the degradation mechanisms for membranes used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The results show the addition of ceria (cerium oxide) has given durability improvements by reducing fluoride emissions by an order of magnitude during an accelerated durability test. Production of Low-Cost Hydrogen from Biowaste (HyBrTec?) ? R. Parker, SRT Group, Inc., Miami, FL This project developed a hydrogen bromide (HyBrTec?) process which produces hydrogen bromide from wet-cellulosic waste and co-produces carbon dioxide. Eelectrolysis dissociates hydrogen bromide producing recyclable bromine and hydrogen. A demonstration reactor and electrolysis vessel was designed, built and operated. Development of a Low-Cost and High-Efficiency 500 W Portable PEMFC System ? J. Zheng, Florida State University, H. Chen, Bing Energy, Inc. The objectives of this project were to develop a new catalyst structures comprised of highly conductive buckypaper and Pt catalyst nanoparticles coated on its surface and to demonstrate fuel cell efficiency improvement and durability and cell cost reductions in the buckypaper based electrodes. Development of an Interdisciplinary Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Academic Program ? J. Politano, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL This project developed a hydrogen and fuel cel

  6. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organotin halides back to th

  7. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hindin, Saul G. (Mendham, NJ); Roberts, George W. (Westfield, NJ)

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  8. Hawaii hydrogen power park Hawaii Hydrogen Power Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy source. (Barrier V-Renewable Integration) Hydrogen storage & distribution system. (Barrier V fueled vehicle hydrogen dispensing system. Demonstrate hydrogen as an energy carrier. Investigate. Inform State policy & decision makers. Create environment to mitigate financial risk for investors

  9. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  10. Peer Review of the Hydrogen Program Hydrogen Briefing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    automotive fuel cells for electric generation. Provide testimony for hydrogen legislation Program Activity #12;Congressional Language Conference Committee: Hydrogen. --The Committee recommendation is $31

  11. Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of FreedomCAR & Fuels PartnershipDOE Delivery Program President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Posture Plan: An Integrated Research, Development and...

  12. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  13. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  14. The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

    2006-01-01

    It appears to us that hydrogen is a highly promising option06—16 The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen Daniel Sperling Joan OgdenThe Bumpy Road to Hydrogen 1 Daniel Sperling and Joan Ogden

  15. Renewable Resources for Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

    2010-05-03

    This presentation provides an overview of renewable resources for hydrogen. It was presented at the National Hydrogen Association Hydrogen Conference & Expo in Long Beach, CA, May 3-6, 2010.

  16. Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2007-01-01

    type can be applied to hydrogen storage materials. Keywords:can be applied to hydrogen storage materials. Manuscript O-of the formalism to hydrogen storage materials. A partial

  17. Hydrogen Fuel Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockward, Tommy

    2012-07-16

    For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

  18. Hydrogen Data Book from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Hydrogen Data Book contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells (e.g., hydrogen properties, hydrogen production and delivery data, and information on fuel cells and fuel cell vehicles), and it also provides other data that might be useful in analyses of hydrogen infrastructure in the United States (e.g., demographic data and data on energy supply and/or infrastructure). ItĆs made available from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center along with a wealth of related information. The related information includes guidelines for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis, various calculator tools, a hydrogen glossary, related websites, and analysis tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells. [From http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen

  19. Turing Water into Hydrogen Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel New method creates highly reactive catalytic surface, packed with hydroxyl species May 15, 2012 | Tags: Franklin,...

  20. The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

    2006-01-01

    potential for huge energy and environmental improvements.Cannon, eds, The Hydrogen Energy Transition, Elsevier Press,about environmental and energy threats. The hydrogen debate

  1. Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug-in...

  2. Recyclability study on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    beam melting In this study, powder bed based additive manufacturing technologies offer a big advantage in terms of reusability of the powders over multiple cycles that...

  3. Advancing the Hydrogen Safety Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiner, Steven C.

    2014-12-01

    A White Paper of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement Task 31 - Hydrogen Safety

  4. Atomizing apparatus for making polymer and metal powders and whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otaigbe, Joshua U. (Ames, IA); McAvoy, Jon M. (Moline, IL); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Mi, Jia (Pittsburgh, PA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA)

    2003-03-18

    Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

  5. Extremely weak hydrogen flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lecoustre, V.R.; Sunderland, P.B. [Department of Fire Protection Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Chao, B.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Axelbaum, R.L. [Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Hydrogen jet diffusion flames were observed near their quenching limits. These involved downward laminar flow of hydrogen from a stainless steel hypodermic tube with an inside diameter of 0.15 mm. Near their quenching limits these flames had hydrogen flow rates of 3.9 and 2.1 {mu}g/s in air and oxygen, respectively. Assuming complete combustion, the associated heat release rates are 0.46 and 0.25 W. To the authors' knowledge, these are the weakest self-sustaining steady flames ever observed. (author)

  6. Thermochemical method for producing hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrington, D.R.

    1984-02-21

    Hydrogen is produced from hydrogen sulfide by a 3-step, thermochemical process comprising: (a) contacting hydrogen sulfide with carbon dioxide to form carbonyl sulfide and water, (b) contacting the carbonyl sulfide produced in (a) with oxygen to form carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide, and (c) contacting the carbon monoxide produced in (b) with water to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

  7. HYDROGEN FLUORIDE Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) is an extremely

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lance, Veronica P.

    HYDROGEN FLUORIDE Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) is an extremely corrosive clear and colorless liquid BE PROVIDED TO INDIVIDUALS WITH EXPOSURE TO HYDROGEN FLOURIDE www.ehs.columbia.edu/HFPolicy.html HF USE. Because hydrogen fluoride can penetrate natural rubber gloves you must use only neoprene or nitrile gloves

  8. Hydrogen plasma enhanced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen plasma enhanced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films K. Pangal,a) J. C August 1998; accepted for publication 21 October 1998 We report that a room temperature hydrogen plasma thermal crystallization of amorphous silicon time by a factor of five. Exposure to hydrogen plasma reduces

  9. News and Views International hydrogen association for hydrogen energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    News and Views International hydrogen association for hydrogen energy design competition applied State University IAHE Chapter Student Members, USA c Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Association for Hydrogen Energy supplied a team of 12 members to enter the 1st IAHE Hydrogen Design

  10. Gaseous Decomposition Products of Safety Powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubbison, C.E.

    1912-01-01

    x i d e 15 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Heavy Hydrocarbons — — 16 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Oxygen 18 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Carbon Monoxide 18 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Hydrogen and Methane 19 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f n i... gases were then drawn o f f from the c y l i n d e r , c o l l e c t e d and the volume measured.A sample o f the gas was then taken and ana l y z ed f o r carbon d i ­ o x i d e , h e a v y hydrocarbons , oxygen, carbon monoxide, me thane...

  11. National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy developme

  12. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaplin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperature...

  13. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Demonstration ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brothers, Ltd., at their facility in the Port of Honolulu. The pilot hydrogen fuel cell unit will be used in place of a diesel generator currently used to provide power for...

  14. The Hydrogen Connection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-05-01

    As the world seeks to identify alternative energy sources, hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will offer a broad range of benefits for the environment, the economy and energy security.

  15. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  16. Hydrogen storage compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  17. Hydrogen Production & Delivery

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Current Conversion Price of H 2 kg delivered furanone Cost of Hydrogen From Bio-oil Conversion (Relative to 2012 Target of 3.80kg H 2 ) Ongoing Focus: * Acetic acid in...

  18. Analysis of powder compaction process through equal channel angular extrusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaushik, Anshul

    2009-05-15

    A thermodynamic framework was presented for the development of powderconstitutive models. The process of powder compaction through Equal ChannelAngular Extrusion (ECAE) at room temperature was modeled using the finiteelement ...

  19. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabin, B.H.; Wright, R.N.

    1993-12-14

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders is described. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe[sub 3] Al and FeAl. 25 figures.

  20. Hydrogen Distribution and Delivery Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen delivery technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how hydrogen is transported and delivered today, the challenges to delivering hydrogen for use as a widespread energy carrier, and the research goals for hydrogen delivery.

  1. Hybrid & Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    Hybrid & Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory www.vss.psu.edu/hhvrl Joel R. Anstrom, Director 201 The Pennsylvania Transportation Institute Hybrid and Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory will contribute to the advancement of hybrid and hydrogen vehicle technology to promote the emerging hydrogen economy by providing

  2. Savannah River Hydrogen Storage Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

  3. Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team (HDTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen delivery technologies, which will allow for fuel cell competitiveness with gasoline and hybrid technologies by achieving an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed hydrogen cost of $2-$4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent of hydrogen.

  4. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  5. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts continued to explore existing catalytic methods involving nano catalysts for capture of CO2 from the fermentation process.

  6. Method of producing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-12-26

    A method of producing hydrogen is disclosed and which includes providing a first composition; providing a second composition; reacting the first and second compositions together to produce a chemical hydride; providing a liquid and reacting the chemical hydride with the liquid in a manner to produce a high pressure hydrogen gas and a byproduct which includes the first composition; and reusing the first composition formed as a byproduct in a subsequent chemical reaction to form additional chemical hydride.

  7. Hydrogen recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

  8. Reactions of Methylene Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, E. L.

    1912-05-15

    for Digital Scholarship. http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Submitted to the School of Engineering of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science REACTIONS OP METEELEH1 HYDROGEN With. Special He...KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection Reactions of Methylene Hydrogen 1912 by E. L. Griffin This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center...

  9. Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, D.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wilkinson, A.P. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials

    1993-05-01

    With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f` for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high {Tc} superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, FeNi{sub 2}BO{sub 5}), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}, Eu{sub 3}O{sub 4}, GaCl{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}PO{sub 5}), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub l2}).

  10. Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, D.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Wilkinson, A.P. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials)

    1993-01-01

    With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f' for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high [Tc] superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo[sub 2](PO[sub 4])[sub 3], FeNi[sub 2]BO[sub 5]), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6+x], Eu[sub 3]O[sub 4], GaCl[sub 2], Fe[sub 2]PO[sub 5]), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y[sub 3]Ga[sub 5]O[sub l2]).

  11. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell & Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell & Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects Fact Sheet. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel...

  12. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB.sub.2 powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl.sub.3, at temperatures in the range of 500.degree.-800.degree. C. The BCl.sub.3 reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl.sub.3 exit stream.

  13. Neutron detectors comprising ultra-thin layers of boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehul; Morris, Christopher

    2013-07-23

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material having a thickness of from about 50 nm to about 250 nm and comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  14. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  15. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  16. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA); Crowell, Jeffrey A. W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  17. In vitro degradation and cytotoxicity of Mg/Ca composites produced by powder metallurgy q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    In vitro degradation and cytotoxicity of Mg/Ca composites produced by powder metallurgy q Y Biodegradation Cytotoxicity Powder metallurgy a b s t r a c t Mg/Ca (1 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.% Ca) composites were prepared from pure magnesium and calcium powders using the powder metallurgy method, aiming to enlarge

  18. Hydrogen-induced atomic rearrangement in MgPd{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlmann, H. . E-mail: h.kohlmann@mx.uni-saarland.de; Renaudin, G.; Yvon, K.; Wannek, C.; Harbrecht, B.

    2005-04-15

    The hydrogenation behavior of MgPd{sub 3} has been studied by in situ X-ray powder diffraction and by neutron powder diffraction. At room temperature and p {approx}500kPa hydrogen pressure its structure is capable of incorporating up to one hydrogen atom per formula unit ({alpha}-MgPd{sub 3}H{sub {approx}}{sub 1}), thereby retaining a tetragonal ZrAl{sub 3}-type metal atom arrangement. Upon heating to 750K in a hydrogen atmosphere of 610kPa it transforms into a cubic modification with AuCu{sub 3}-type metal atom arrangement ({beta}-MgPd{sub 3}H{sub {approx}}{sub 0.7}). Neutron diffraction on the deuteride reveals an anion deficient anti-perovskite-type structure ({beta}-MgPd{sub 3}D{sub 0.67}, a=398.200(7)pm) in which octahedral sites surrounded exclusively by palladium atoms are occupied by deuterium. Complete removal of hydrogen (480K, 1Pa) stabilizes a new binary modification ({beta}-MgPd{sub 3}, a=391.78(2)pm) crystallizing with a primitive cubic AuCu{sub 3}-type structure. Mechanical treatment (grinding) transforms both {alpha} and {beta} modifications of MgPd{sub 3} into a cubic face-centered solid solution Mg{sub 0.25}Pd{sub 0.75} showing a random distribution of magnesium and palladium atoms.

  19. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Chaplin

    2007-06-10

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

  20. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  1. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, John P. (Boulder, CO); Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2. s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  2. Hydrogen-Selective Membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, John P. (Boulder, CO); Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO)

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2.s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  3. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  4. Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.

    2004-09-14

    Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

  5. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    SCMAG-798 Comments on Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers for MICEshown in Figure 1. Three liquid hydrogen absorbers are shownthe RF Cavities, the Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers, the Central

  6. Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Technologies | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage - Storage of hydrogen (or its chemical precursors) within the distribution system Fuel Cells - Conversion of hydrogen to electrical power; use of hydrogen to power...

  7. National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap This roadmap provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen...

  8. Hydrogen Bond Shaping of Membrane Protein Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    2 1.3. HYDROGEN BOND STRENGTHAND EQUILIBRIUM HYDROGEN / DEUTERIUM FRACTIONATION4 1.4. MEASUING HYDROGEN BOND STRENGTH IN A MEMBRANE PROTEIN

  9. Hydrogen Storage Research and Development Activities | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Storage Research and Development Activities Hydrogen Storage Research and Development Activities DOE's hydrogen storage research and development (R&D) activities are aimed...

  10. Liquid Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen is most commonly transported and delivered as a liquid when high-volume transport is needed in the absence of pipelines....

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development & Hydrogen Fuel Quality Results Hydrogen Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development & Hydrogen Fuel Quality Results...

  12. Combinatorial Approach for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approach for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Combinatorial Approach for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen...

  13. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01

    high-pressure stationary hydrogen storage tanks. The storage10] reviewed the hydrogen storage and the delivery cost forwhich applies to hydrogen storage vessels and compressors.

  14. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01

    N I [10] reviewed the hydrogen storage and the delivery costwhich applies to hydrogen storage vessels and compressors.high-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage contain- ers, and a

  15. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01

    10] reviewed the hydrogen storage and the delivery cost forwhich applies to hydrogen storage vessels and compressors.high-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage containers, and a

  16. Hydrogen & Our Energy Future | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Future Hydrogen & Our Energy Future DOE overview of hydrogen fuel initiative and hydrogen production, delivery and storate hydrogenenergyfutureweb.pdf More Documents &...

  17. Renewable Hydrogen From Wind in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartholomy, Obadiah

    2005-01-01

    Suitability for Hydrogen Production in the Sacramento Area” Renewable Energy  for Hydrogen Production in Californiamodel of renewable hydrogen production in California, which

  18. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  19. Hydrogen: Fueling the Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leisch, Jennifer

    2007-02-27

    As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen storage will be highlighted in this seminar.

  20. Hydrogen and Sulfur Production from Hydrogen Sulfide Wastes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.; Doctor, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    treatment technologies widely used in the natural-gas industry. Laboratory-scale experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide indicate that conversions exceeding 90% are possible with appropriate reactor design and that the energy required to dissociate hydrogen...

  1. Method for producing microcomposite powders using a soap solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maginnis, Michael A. (Coker, AL); Robinson, David A. (Mobile, AL)

    1996-01-01

    A method for producing microcomposite powders for use in superconducting and non-superconducting applications. A particular method to produce microcomposite powders for use in superconducting applications includes the steps of: (a) preparing a solution including ammonium soap; (b) dissolving a preselected amount of a soluble metallic such as silver nitrate in the solution including ammonium soap to form a first solution; (c) adding a primary phase material such as a single phase YBC superconducting material in particle form to the first solution; (d) preparing a second solution formed from a mixture of a weak acid and an alkyl-mono-ether; (e) adding the second solution to the first solution to form a resultant mixture; (f) allowing the resultant mixture to set until the resultant mixture begins to cloud and thicken into a gel precipitating around individual particles of the primary phase material; (g) thereafter drying the resultant mixture to form a YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder; and (h) calcining the YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder to convert the silver nitrate to silver and thereby form a YBC/silver microcomposite powder wherein the silver is substantially uniformly dispersed in the matrix of the YBC material.

  2. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amber Lynn Genau

    2004-12-19

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  3. AVLIS modified direct denitration: UO{sub 3} powder evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagle, O.D.; Davis, N.C.; Parchen, L.J.

    1994-02-01

    The evaluation study demonstrated that AVLIS-enriched uranium converted to UO{sub 3} can be used to prepare UO{sub 3} pellets having densities in the range required for commercial power reactor fuel. Specifically, the program has demonstrated that MDD (Modified Direct Denitration)-derived UO{sub 2} powders can be reduced to sinterable UO{sub 2} powder using reduction techniques that allow control of the final powder characteristics; the resulting UO{sub 2} powders can be processed/sintered using standard powder preparation and pellet fabrication techniques to yield pellets with densities greater than 96% TD; pellet microstructures appear similar to those of power reactor fuel, and because of the high final pellet densities, it is expected that they would remain stable during in-reactor operation; the results of the present study confirm the results of a similar study carried out in 1982 (Davis and Griffin 1992). The laboratory processes were selected on the basis that they could be scaled up to standard commercial fuel processing. However, larger scale testing may be required to establish techniques compatible with commercial fuel fabrication techniques.

  4. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  5. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yang-Tse (Rochester Hills, MI); Poli, Andrea A. (Livonia, MI); Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  6. The hydrogen hybrid option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  7. The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor – A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor – A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

  8. Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es011yakovleva2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Stabilized...

  9. A simple procedure to prepare spherical {alpha}-alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Ning Guiling [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Gan Zhihong; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-04-02

    Spherical {alpha}-alumina powders were prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide in a hydrolysis system consisting of octanol and acetonitrile. Diverse solvents to dissolve reactant formed diverse hydrolysis systems and affected particle shape of {alpha}-alumina powders. The precursors crystallized to {gamma}-alumina at 1000 deg. C and converted to {alpha}-alumina at 1150 deg. C without intermediate phases. The particle morphology of precursor was retained after it crystallized to {alpha}-alumina. The heating rate influenced the particle shape and the state of agglomeration during calcination process. The thermal properties of the precursors were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction technique was used to confirm the conversion of crystalline phase of alumina powders from amorphous to {alpha}-phase. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphologies and size of the precursors and products.

  10. Hydrogen Distribution and Delivery Infrastructure

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen delivery technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how hydrogen is transported and delivered today, the challen

  11. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report, by the Nexant team, documents an in-depth analysis of seven hydrogen delivery options to identify the most cost-effective hydrogen infrastructure for the transition and long term. The pro

  12. Oxidation resistant organic hydrogen getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Buffleben, George M. (Tracy, CA)

    2008-09-09

    A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably Pt. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently removing hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

  13. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  14. Extracting Hydrogen Electricity from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In the United States, energy security motivates the de- velopment of previously untapped sources of oil as well in vehicles. Hydrogen is considered a mobile source of energy, but it must have renewable starting materials as new energy sources. Even if oil and fos- sil fuel production does not reach an international crisis

  15. Resistive hydrogen sensing element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

  16. Webinar: Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements, originally presented on June 25, 2013.

  17. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward C. Heydorn

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a ���¢��������real-world���¢������� retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation���¢��������s hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations with a focus on safe, convenient, fast-fills. These potential areas were then compared to and overlaid with suitable sites from various energy companies and other potential station operators. Work continues to match vehicle needs with suitable fueling station locations. Once a specific site was identified, the necessary agreements could be completed with the station operator and expected station users. Detailed work could then begin on the site drawings, permits, safety procedures and training needs. Permanent stations were successfully installed in Irvine (delivered liquid hydrogen), Torrance (delivered pipeline hydrogen) and Fountain Valley (renewable hydrogen from anaerobic digester gas). Mobile fueling stations were also deployed to meet short-term fueling needs in Long Beach and Placerville. Once these stations were brought online, infrastructure data was collected and reported to DOE using Air Products���¢�������� Enterprise Remote Access Monitoring system. Feedback from station operators was incorporated to improve the station user���¢��������s fueling experience.

  18. Detroit Commuter Hydrogen Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Jerry; Prebo, Brendan

    2010-07-31

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate the viability of using hydrogen as a fuel in an internal combustion engine vehicle for use as a part of a mass transit system. The advantages of hydrogen as a fuel include renew-ability, minimal environmental impact on air quality and the environment, and potential to reduce dependence on foreign energy sources for the transportation sector. Recognizing the potential for the hydrogen fuel concept, the Southeast Michigan Congress of Governments (SEMCOG) determined to consider it in the study of a proposed regional mass transit rail system for southeast Michigan. SEMCOG wanted to evaluate the feasibility of using hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicles in shuttle buses to connect the Detroit Metro Airport to a proposed, nearby rail station. Shuttle buses are in current use on the airport for passenger parking and inter-terminal transport. This duty cycle is well suited to the application of hydrogen fuel at this time because of the ability to re-fuel vehicles at a single nearby facility, overcoming the challenge of restricted fuel availability in the undeveloped hydrogen fuel infrastructure. A cooperative agreement between SEMCOG and the DOE was initiated and two H2ICE buses were placed in regular passenger service on March 29, 2009 and operated for six months in regular passenger service. The buses were developed and built by the Ford Motor Company. Wayne County Airport Authority provided the location for the demonstration with the airport transportation contractor, Metro Cars Inc. operating the buses. The buses were built on Ford E450 chassis and incorporated a modified a 6.8L V-10 engine with specially designed supercharger, fuel rails and injectors among other sophisticated control systems. Up to 30 kg of on-board gaseous hydrogen were stored in a modular six tank, 350 bar (5000 psi) system to provide a 150 mile driving range. The bus chassis and body were configured to carry nine passengers with luggage. By collecting fuel use data for the two H2ICE buses, with both written driver logs and onboard telemetry devices, and for two conventional propane-gasoline powered buses in the same service, comparisons of operating efficiency and maintenance requirements were completed. Public opinion about the concept of hydrogen fuel was sampled with a rider survey throughout the demonstration. The demonstration was very effective in adding to the understanding of the application of hydrogen as a transportation fuel. The two 9 passenger H2ICE buses accumulated nearly 50,000 miles and carried 14,285 passengers. Data indicated the H2ICE bus fuel economy to be 9.4 miles/ gallon of gasoline equivalent (m/GGE) compared to the 10 passenger propane-gasoline bus average of 9.8 m/GGE over 32,400 miles. The 23- passenger bus averaged 7.4 m/GGE over 40,700 miles. Rider feedback from 1050 on-board survey cards was overwhelmingly positive with 99.6% indicating they would ride again on a hydrogen powered vehicle. Minimal maintenance was required for theses buses during the demonstration project, but a longer duration demonstration would be required to more adequately assess this aspect of the concept.

  19. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Brownsboro, AL); Antony, Leo V. M. (Huntsville, AL); O'Dell, Scott (Arab, AL); Power, Chris (Guntersville, AL); Tabor, Terry (Huntsville, AL)

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  20. Oxide-dispersion strengthening of porous powder metalurgy parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthening of porous metal articles includes the incorporation of dispersoids of metallic oxides in elemental metal powder particles. Porous metal articles, such as filters, are fabricated using conventional techniques (extrusion, casting, isostatic pressing, etc.) of forming followed by sintering and heat treatments that induce recrystallization and grain growth within powder grains and across the sintered grain contact points. The result is so-called "oxide dispersion strengthening" which imparts, especially, large increases in creep (deformation under constant load) strength to the metal articles.

  1. Nancy Garland DOE Hydrogen Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nancy Garland DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Operation at Sub- Freezing Temperatures DOE Program/Targets and Workshop Objectives Sub-Freezing Temperature Effects on Fuel Cells Workshop Phoenix AZ February 1-2, 2005 #12;Hydrogen Fuel Initiative The Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program

  2. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  3. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  4. Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Green Algae: Milestone Completion Report Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen...

  5. Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation polymercompositemembranes.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  6. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project 2009 DOE...

  7. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Solicitation Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project...

  8. Combinatorial Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Combinatorial Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presentation on NIST Combinatorial Methods at the...

  9. Technoeconomic Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen Production Technoeconomic Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen Production This report documents the engineering and cost...

  10. A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production...

  11. Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria Presentation by Charles Dismukes, Rutgers...

  12. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop:...

  13. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turnbull, Robert J. (Urbana, IL); Foster, Christopher A. (Champaign, IL); Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  14. Green strength of zirconium sponge and uranium dioxide powder compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishna, Palanki Murty, B. Narasimha; Sahoo, P.K.; Gopalakrishna, T.

    2008-07-15

    Zirconium metal sponge is compacted into rectangular or cylindrical shapes using hydraulic presses. These shapes are stacked and electron beam welded to form a long electrode suitable for vacuum arc melting and casting into solid ingots. The compact electrodes should be sufficiently strong to prevent breakage in handling as well as during vacuum arc melting. Usually, the welds are strong and the electrode strength is limited by the green strength of the compacts, which constitute the electrode. Green strength is also required in uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder compacts, to withstand stresses during de-tensioning after compaction as well as during ejection from the die and for subsequent handling by man and machine. The strengths of zirconium sponge and UO{sub 2} powder compacts have been determined by bending and crushing respectively, and Weibul moduli evaluated. The green density of coarse sponge compact was found to be larger than that from finer sponge. The green density of compacts from lightly attrited UO{sub 2} powder was higher than that from unattrited category, accompanied by an improvement in UO{sub 2} green crushing strength. The factors governing green strength have been examined in the light of published literature and experimental evidence. The methodology and results provide a basis for quality control in metal sponge and ceramic powder compaction in the manufacture of nuclear fuel.

  15. Explosively driven low-density foams and powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viecelli, James A. (Orinda, CA); Wood, Lowell L. (Simi Valley, CA); Ishikawa, Muriel Y. (Livermore, CA); Nuckolls, John H. (Danville, CA); Pagoria, Phillip F. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-05-04

    Hollow RX-08HD cylindrical charges were loaded with boron and PTFE, in the form of low-bulk density powders or powders dispersed in a rigid foam matrix. Each charge was initiated by a Comp B booster at one end, producing a detonation wave propagating down the length of the cylinder, crushing the foam or bulk powder and collapsing the void spaces. The PdV work done in crushing the material heated it to high temperatures, expelling it in a high velocity fluid jet. In the case of boron particles supported in foam, framing camera photos, temperature measurements, and aluminum witness plates suggest that the boron was completely vaporized by the crush wave and that the boron vapor turbulently mixed with and burned in the surrounding air. In the case of PTFE powder, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of residues recovered from fragments of a granite target slab suggest that heating was sufficient to dissociate the PTFE to carbon vapor and molecular fluorine which reacted with the quartz and aluminum silicates in the granite to form aluminum oxide and mineral fluoride compounds.

  16. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  17. Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, T.J.; Whinnery, L.L.

    1998-11-17

    A novel composition is described comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. 1 fig.

  18. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Tao (Columbia, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  19. Consolidation of zirconium-based metallic glass powder by equal channel angular extrusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Jonathan Mark

    2002-01-01

    In this study, amorphous Zr??.?Nb?.?Cu??.?Ni??.?Al??.? (Vitreloy 106a) gas-atomized powder was consolidated by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE). Several copper cans were filled with the powder, vacuum encapsulated ...

  20. Electrically insulating phosphate coatings for iron powder based electromagnetic core applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, William Rane

    2009-01-01

    Powdered metals, such as iron, are a common building block for electromagnetic cores. An iron powder was reacted with phosphoric acid to create a layer of iron phosphate on each particle. This electrically insulating ...

  1. The hydrogenation of Dy{sub 5}Pd{sub 2} followed by in situ methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlmann, H.; Talik, E.; Hansen, T.C.

    2012-03-15

    The hydrogenation behavior of the intermetallic compound Dy{sub 5}Pd{sub 2} was investigated by means of ex situ X-ray powder diffraction, in situ neutron powder diffraction and in situ differential scanning calorimetry. The structural model of Dy{sub 5}Pd{sub 2} with a palladium atom at the 32(e) position x, x, x (x Almost-Equal-To 0.22, 7/8 occupation) and a dysprosium atom at almost the same location (x Almost-Equal-To 0.18, 1/8 occupation) is confirmed. Upon heating the latter approaches x(Pd) and at T=399 K both positional parameters are indistinguishable. Dy{sub 5}Pd{sub 2} does not incorporate hydrogen (deuterium) into its crystal structure, however, starting at T=495 K reacts with hydrogen to non stoichiometric dysprosium dideuteride, DyD{sub 2+x}, following a parabolic rate law. In situ differential scanning calorimetry at various hydrogen pressures up to 2.5 MPa shows strongly exothermic signals, whose temperature onset depend on the gas pressure, corresponding to the formation of a mainly ionic hydride (DyH{sub 2+x}). - Graphical abstract: The hydrogenation of Dy5Pd2 is being followed by in situ neutron diffraction. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dy5Pd2 does not form a ternary hydride upon hydrogenation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dy5Pd2 decomposes to binary hydrides of dysprosium and palladium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At T{>=}399 K Dy3 and Pd in the crystal structure of Dy5Pd2 share the same position. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of DyD2+x at T=495 K and p(D2)=2.5 MPa follows a parabolic rate law.

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort (INEEL)

    2005-03-01

    The U.S. Department Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) teamed with Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Arizona Public Service (APS) to develop the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant that produces and compresses hydrogen on site through an electrolysis process by operating a PEM fuel cell in reverse; natural gas is also compressed onsite. The Pilot Plant dispenses 100% hydrogen, 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG), and 100% CNG via a credit card billing system at pressures up to 5,000 psi. Thirty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles (including Daimler Chrysler, Ford and General Motors vehicles) are operating on 100% hydrogen and 15 to 50% H/CNG blends. Since the Pilot Plant started operating in June 2002, they hydrogen and H/CNG ICE vehicels have accumulated 250,000 test miles.

  3. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy Timothy E. LipmanElectricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy Timothy E. Lipmanof electricity, hydrogen, and thermal energy; 2) a survey of

  4. Hydrogen Strategies: an Integrated Resource Planning Analysis for the Development of Hydrogen Energy Infrastructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pigneri, Attilio

    2005-01-01

    concepts and knowledge in hydrogen energy systems and theirInternational Hydrogen Energy Congress and Exhibition IHECthe Development of Hydrogen Energy Infrastructures Attilio

  5. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    Partnership Finalizes Hydrogen Energy Roadmap,” World WideCommercialization Strategy for Hydrogen Energy Technologies,Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Energy Station Concepts: Are “

  6. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    a Key Link to a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Infrastructure? ”distributed power and hydrogen fuel efforts. We sug- gestefforts to promote hydrogen, fuel cells and advanced energy

  7. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    compressor Compressed hydrogen storage Figure 2: High-compressor Compressed hydrogen storage Clean Energy Group lduction, and a hydrogen compression, storage, and Energy

  8. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 9017: On-Board Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9017: On-Board Hydrogen Storage Systems - Projected Performance and Cost Parameters DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 9017: On-Board Hydrogen Storage Systems - Projected...

  9. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    report on renewable hydrogen production. We hope that youis one method of hydrogen production at small and mediumis one method of hydrogen production at small and medium

  10. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigt, James A. (Corrales, NM); Sipola, Diana L. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuttle, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Mark T. (Woodbury, MN)

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications.

  11. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1999-06-01

    A process is disclosed for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications. 4 figs.

  12. Study of the fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN explosive powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Dong; Sun Zhumei

    1996-05-01

    The fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN (pentaerythrite tetranitrate) explosive powders have been studied successfully by means of a spectrum-detecting and recovery technique. The results show that the appropriate particle size and content of aluminium powder in the aluminized PETN explosive powders are 44 {micro}m and 33%, respectively.

  13. Numerical simulations of dense clouds on steep slopes: Application to powder-snow avalanches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saramito, Pierre

    Numerical simulations of dense clouds on steep slopes: Application to powder-snow avalanches results. The interest of the results for powder- snow avalanches is discussed, concluding that two. Introduction A powder-snow avalanche is a dense cloud of suspended snow particles moving down a steep slope

  14. Fluidised powder t t t h las a new target technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Fluidised powder t t t h las a new target technology: The new rig is ready for take off!The new rig EUROnu-IDS meeting 2009 CERN March 2009 #12;Is there a `missing link' target technology? Increasing power Fluidised powder has some of the advantages of both solids and liquids #12;The powder loop #12;The new rig

  15. Ultrasonic characterization of the curing of powder coating films based on their tan()

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ultrasonic characterization of the curing of powder coating films based on their tan() R. S. Pai was to establish a relationship between the mechanical properties of a powder coating, extracted using ultrasonic investigating powder coating films by employing transmission mode ultrasound to extract the dimen- sionless

  16. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures for Micro Powder Injection Moulding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of Fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components.

  17. 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Review: Hydrogen Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohi, J.

    2005-05-01

    A PowerPoint presentation given as part of the 2005 Hydrogen Program Review, May 24, 2005, in Washington, D.C.

  18. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vehicles) in 2020. This record from the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that...

  19. Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.

  20. Quantum Confinement in Hydrogen Bond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos da Silva dos Santos; Elso Drigo Filho; Regina Maria Ricotta

    2015-02-09

    In this work, the quantum confinement effect is proposed as the cause of the displacement of the vibrational spectrum of molecular groups that involve hydrogen bonds. In this approach the hydrogen bond imposes a space barrier to hydrogen and constrains its oscillatory motion. We studied the vibrational transitions through the Morse potential, for the NH and OH molecular groups inside macromolecules in situation of confinement (when hydrogen bonding is formed) and non-confinement (when there is no hydrogen bonding). The energies were obtained through the variational method with the trial wave functions obtained from Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (SQM) formalism. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish the emission peaks related to the existence of the hydrogen bonds. These analytical results were satisfactorily compared with experimental results obtained from infrared spectroscopy.

  1. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  2. Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. es011yakovleva2010o.pdf More Documents &...

  3. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  4. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam E. Calihman; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard A. Mackay; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Tim R. Armstrong; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

    2001-04-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members, are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, it was demonstrated that increasing the transition metal loading in a model perovskite composition resulted in an increase in hydrogen flux. Improved flux corresponded to the emergence of additional phases in the ceramic membrane, and highest flux was achieved for a composite consisting of pseudo-cubic and rhombohedral perovskite phases. A 0.9-mm thick membrane of this material generated a hydrogen flux in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which was approximately 35 times greater than analogs with lower transition metal levels. The dopant level and crystal structure also correlated with membrane density and coefficient of thermal expansion, but did not appear to affect grain size or shape. Additionally, preliminary ceramic-metal (cermet) composite membranes demonstrated a 10-fold increase in flux relative to analogous membranes composed of only the ceramic component. The hydrogen flux for these cermet samples corresponded to a conductivity of {approx} 10{sup -3} S/cm, which was consistent with the predicted proton conductivity of the ceramic phase. Increasing the sweep gas flow rate in test reactors was found to significantly increase hydrogen flux, as well as apparent material conductivity for all samples tested. Adding humidity to the feed gas stream produced a small increase in hydrogen flux. However, the catalyst on ceramic membrane surfaces did not affect flux, which suggested that the process was membrane-diffusion limited. Representative samples and fabrication processes were evaluated on the basis of manufacturing practicality. it was determined that optimum membrane densification occurs over a very narrow temperature range for the subject ceramics. Additionally, calcination temperatures currently employed result in powders that are difficult mill and screen. These issues must be addressed to improve large-scale fabricability.

  5. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the Bill FinancingDepartmentDatabase Demonstration HydrogenClean Coal »Program

  6. Sandia Energy - Hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen GenerationTechnologiesEnergyGeoscience HomeGridHighHydrogen

  7. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA JumpDuimen RiverScoringUtilities Comm Jump to:Hydrogen Jump to:

  8. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA JumpDuimen RiverScoringUtilities Comm Jump to:Hydrogen Jump

  9. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energyarea,MagazineTechnologies JumpEngineHydrogen Jump to:

  10. Hydrogen Delivery Roadmap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls -Hydro-Pac Inc., A High HydrogenInvitedDelivery

  11. NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12Working withPhoto of theSolarHydrogen Basics

  12. Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy held on July 29, 2014.

  13. Hydrogen Codes and Standards (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohi, J.

    2006-05-01

    Presented at the 2006 DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Merit Review in Washington, D.C., May 16-19, 2006.

  14. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline using a relevant structural integrity model, such as that in ASME B31.12. A second objective of this project is to enable development of micromechanics models of hydrogen embrittlement in pipeline steels. The focus of this effort is to establish physical models of hydrogen embrittlement in line pipe steels using evidence from analytical techniques such as electron microscopy. These physical models then serve as the framework for developing sophisticated finite-element models, which can provide quantitative insight into the micromechanical state near defects. Understanding the micromechanics of defects can ensure that structural integrity models are applied accurately and conservatively.

  15. Hydrogen Technology Research at SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, E.

    2011-02-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development laboratory located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRNL has over 50 years of experience in developing and applying hydrogen technology, both through its national defense activities as well as through its recent activities with the DOE Hydrogen Programs. The hydrogen technical staff at SRNL comprises over 90 scientists, engineers and technologists. SRNL has ongoing R&D initiatives in a variety of hydrogen storage areas, including metal hydrides, complex hydrides, chemical hydrides and carbon nanotubes. SRNL has over 25 years of experience in metal hydrides and solid-state hydrogen storage research, development and demonstration. As part of its defense mission at SRS, SRNL developed, designed, demonstrated and provides ongoing technical support for the largest hydrogen processing facility in the world based on the integrated use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage, separation, and compression. The SRNL has been active in teaming with academic and industrial partners to advance hydrogen technology. A primary focus of SRNL's R&D has been hydrogen storage using metal and complex hydrides. SRNL and its Hydrogen Technology Research Laboratory have been very successful in leveraging their defense infrastructure, capabilities and investments to help solve this country's energy problems. SRNL has participated in projects to convert public transit and utility vehicles for operation using hydrogen fuel. Two major projects include the H2Fuel Bus and an Industrial Fuel Cell Vehicle (IFCV) also known as the GATOR{trademark}. Both of these projects were funded by DOE and cost shared by industry. These are discussed further in Section 3.0, Demonstration Projects. In addition to metal hydrides technology, the SRNL Hydrogen group has done extensive R&D in other hydrogen technologies, including membrane filters for H2 separation, doped carbon nanotubes, storage vessel design and optimization, chemical hydrides, hydrogen compressors and hydrogen production using nuclear energy. Several of these are discussed further in Section 2, SRNL Hydrogen Research and Development.

  16. Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Au, Ming (Augusta, GA)

    2012-02-28

    A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

  17. The oxidation-reduction kinetics of palladium powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munir, Z.A.; Coombs, P.G.

    1983-03-01

    The cyclic oxidation-reduction of submicrometer sized palladium powder was investigated over the temperature range 848 to 923 K. The total oxygen uptake decreased with increasing number of cycles as a consequence of sintering. Sintering was restricted to the reduction steps in these cycles. The relationships for the rate constants of the oxidation and reduction processes are, respectively, (1.04)10/sup 6/ exp(-(74.1)10/sup 3//RT), and (7.63)10/sup 12/ exp(-(207.9)10/sup 3//RT). The activation energies for the oxidation of palladium powder and the reduction of palladium oxide are 74.1 and 207.9 kJ mol/sup -1/, respectively.

  18. Integration algorithms of elastoplasticity for ceramic powder compaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Penasa; A. Piccolroaz; L. Argani; D. Bigoni

    2014-04-24

    Inelastic deformation of ceramic powders (and of a broad class of rock-like and granular materials), can be described with the yield function proposed by Bigoni and Piccolroaz (2004, Yield criteria for quasibrittle and frictional materials. Int. J. Solids and Structures, 41, 2855-2878). This yield function is not defined outside the yield locus, so that 'gradient-based' integration algorithms of elastoplasticity cannot be directly employed. Therefore, we propose two ad hoc algorithms: (i.) an explicit integration scheme based on a forward Euler technique with a 'centre-of-mass' return correction and (ii.) an implicit integration scheme based on a 'cutoff-substepping' return algorithm. Iso-error maps and comparisons of the results provided by the two algorithms with two exact solutions (the compaction of a ceramic powder against a rigid spherical cup and the expansion of a thick spherical shell made up of a green body), show that both the proposed algorithms perform correctly and accurately.

  19. Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines: Pipeline Transmission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines: Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines: Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Pipping of GH2 Pipeline....

  20. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies FY 2003 Progress Report Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies FY 2003 Progress Report 1 addresses the following technical barriers from the Hydrogen Production section of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells Photoelectrodes ." #12;Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies FY 2003 Progress Report 2

  1. Photoinduced Hydrogen Abstraction from Phenols by Aromatic Ketones. A New Mechanism for Hydrogen Abstraction by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, William J.

    Photoinduced Hydrogen Abstraction from Phenols by Aromatic Ketones. A New Mechanism for Hydrogen carried out of the kinetics of inter- and intramolecular phenolic hydrogen abstraction phenolic hydrogen, which yields the corresponding phenoxyl-hemipinacol biradical. The biradicals have also

  2. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    2008-05-06

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  3. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J. (Kennewick, WA); Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Bontha, Jagannadha R. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  4. Standard specification for nuclear-grade zirconium oxide powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements for zirconium oxide powder intended for fabrication into shapes, either entirely or partially of zirconia, for use in a nuclear reactor core. 1.2 The material described herein shall be particulate in nature. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  5. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, P.J.; Baskaran, S.; Bontha, J.R.; Liu, J.

    1999-07-13

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s). 24 figs.

  6. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  7. Hydrogen purifier module with membrane support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

    2012-07-24

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

  8. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Center of Excellence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage William Tumas proprietary or confidential information #12;2 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Overview Project Start Date: FY Barriers Addressed #12;3 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center National

  9. Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions Why Hydrogen Production? Hydrogen is a critical. Current methods of hydrogen storage in automobiles are either too bulky (large storage space for gas phase) or require a high input energy (cooling or pressurization systems for liquid hydrogen), making widespread use

  10. Titanium Sheet Fabricated from Powder for Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter, William H; Muth, Thomas R; Chen, Wei; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Jolly, Brian C; Stone, Nigel; Cantin, G.M.D.; Barnes, John; Paliwal, Muktesh; Smith, Ryan; Capone, Joseph; Liby, Alan L; Williams, James C; Blue, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with Ametek and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory has evaluated three different methods for converting titanium hydride-dehydride (HDH) powder into thin gauge titanium sheet from a roll compacted preform. Methodologies include sintering, followed by cold rolling and annealing; direct hot rolling of the roll-compacted sheet; and hot rolling of multiple layers of roll compacted sheet that are encapsulated in a steel can. All three methods have demonstrated fully consolidated sheet, and each process route has the ability to produce sheet that meets ASTM B265 specifications. However, not every method currently provides sheet that can be highly formed without tearing. The degree of sintering between powder particles, post processing density, and the particle to particle boundary layer where compositional variations may exist, have a significant effect on the ability to form the sheet into useful components. Uniaxial tensile test results, compositional analysis, bend testing, and biaxial testing of the titanium sheet produced from hydride-dehydride powder will be discussed. Multiple methods of fabrication and the resulting properties can then be assessed to determine the most economical means of making components for industrial applications.

  11. The hydrogenation of acetylene catalyzed by palladium: Hydrogen pressure dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molero, H.; Bartlett, B.F.; Tysoe, W.T.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of acetylene hydrogenation catalyzed by a clean palladium foil at high pressures are measured and yield an activation energy of 9.6 {+-} 0.1 kcal/mol when using hydrogen. The rate exhibits a deuterium isotope effect such that the reaction activation energy is 9.0 {+-} 0.2 kcal/mol for reaction with deuterium. The hydrogen pressure reaction order is 1.04 {+-} 0.02 at 300 K with an acetylene pressure of 100 Torr and the acetylene order is {minus}0.66 at 300 K and with a hydrogen pressure of 100 Torr. These reaction kinetics closely mimic those of supported model catalysts. In addition, it is found that the rate of benzene formation is accelerated by the addition of hydrogen to the reaction mixture. This is rationalized by proposing that hydrogen enhances the coverage of acetylene under catalytic conditions. This notion can be used to successfully calculate the hydrogen pressure dependence for acetylene hydrogenation as a function of temperature, a value which varies between {approximately}1.05 and 1.3 as the temperature changes from 300 to 380 K. Possible origins for this effect are discussed.

  12. Hydrogen iodide decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Keefe, Dennis R. (San Diego, CA); Norman, John H. (San Diego, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen iodide is decomposed to form hydrogen and iodine in the presence of water using a soluble catalyst. Decomposition is carried out at a temperature between about 350.degree. K. and about 525.degree. K. and at a corresponding pressure between about 25 and about 300 atmospheres in the presence of an aqueous solution which acts as a carrier for the homogeneous catalyst. Various halides of the platinum group metals, particularly Pd, Rh and Pt, are used, particularly the chlorides and iodides which exhibit good solubility. After separation of the H.sub.2, the stream from the decomposer is countercurrently extracted with nearly dry HI to remove I.sub.2. The wet phase contains most of the catalyst and is recycled directly to the decomposition step. The catalyst in the remaining almost dry HI-I.sub.2 phase is then extracted into a wet phase which is also recycled. The catalyst-free HI-I.sub.2 phase is finally distilled to separate the HI and I.sub.2. The HI is recycled to the reactor; the I.sub.2 is returned to a reactor operating in accordance with the Bunsen equation to create more HI.

  13. Solar Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koval, C.; Sutin, N.; Turner, J.

    1996-09-01

    This panel addressed different methods for the photoassisted dissociation of water into its component parts, hydrogen and oxygen. Systems considered include PV-electrolysis, photoelectrochemical cells, and transition-metal based microheterogeneous and homogeneous systems. While none of the systems for water splitting appear economically viable at the present time, the panel identified areas of basic research that could increase the overall efficiency and decrease the costs. Common to all the areas considered was the underlying belief that the water-to-hydrogen half reaction is reasonably well characterized, while the four-electron oxidation of water-to-oxygen is less well understood and represents a significant energy loss. For electrolysis, research in electrocatalysis to reduce overvoltage losses was identified as a key area for increased efficiency. Non-noble metal catalysts and less expensive components would reduce capital costs. While potentially offering higher efficiencies and lower costs, photoelectrochemical-based direct conversion systems undergo corrosion reactions and often have poor energetics for the water reaction. Research is needed to understand the factors that control the interfacial energetics and the photoinduced corrosion. Multi-photon devices were identified as promising systems for high efficiency conversion.

  14. HYDROGEN USE AND SAFETY The lightest and most common element in the universe, hydrogen has been

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reputation. Hydrogen was used to keep the airship buoyant, but hydrogen did not cause the fire. NASA

  15. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to maximize plant output is needed in order to address the DOE turbine goal for 20-30% reduction o

  16. Hydrogen and OUr Energy Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Tidball; Stu Knoke

    2009-03-01

    In 2003, President George W. Bush announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to accelerate the research and development of hydrogen, fuel cell, and infrastructure technologies that would enable hydrogen fuel cell vehicles to reach the commercial market in the 2020 timeframe. The widespread use of hydrogen can reduce our dependence on imported oil and benefit the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutant emissions that affect our air quality. The Energy Policy Act of 2005, passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bush on August 8, 2005, reinforces Federal government support for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Title VIII, also called the 'Spark M. Matsunaga Hydrogen Act of 2005' authorizes more than $3.2 billion for hydrogen and fuel cell activities intended to enable the commercial introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2020, consistent with the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. Numerous other titles in the Act call for related tax and market incentives, new studies, collaboration with alternative fuels and renewable energy programs, and broadened demonstrations--clearly demonstrating the strong support among members of Congress for the development and use of hydrogen fuel cell technologies. In 2006, the President announced the Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI) to accelerate research on technologies with the potential to reduce near-term oil use in the transportation sector--batteries for hybrid vehicles and cellulosic ethanol--and advance activities under the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. The AEI also supports research to reduce the cost of electricity production technologies in the stationary sector such as clean coal, nuclear energy, solar photovoltaics, and wind energy.

  17. Thermal analysis of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and development of a powder aging model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Geoffrey W; Sandstrom, Mary M; Giambra, Anna M; Archuleta, Jose G; Monroe, Deirde C

    2009-01-01

    We have applied a range of different physical and thermal analysis techniques to characterize the thermal evolution of the specific surface area of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders. Using atomic force microscopy we have determined that the mass transfer mechanism leading to powder coarsening is probably sublimation and redeposition of PETN. Using thermogravimetric analysis we have measured vapor pressures of PETN powders whose aging will be simulated in future work. For one specific powder we have constructed an empirical model of the coarsening that is fit to specific surface area measurements at 60 C to 70 C to provide predictive capability of that powder's aging. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectroscopy measurements highlight some of the thermal behavior of the powders and suggest that homologue-based eutectics and impurities are localized in the powder particles.

  18. Modeling of temporal behavior of isotopic exchange between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melius, C F; Foltz, G W

    1987-01-01

    A parametric rate-equation model is described which depicts the time dependent behavior of the isotopic exchange process occurring between the solid and gas phases in gaseous hydrogen (deuterium) flows through packed-powder palladium deuteride (hydride) beds. The exchange mechanism is assumed to be rate-limited by processes taking place on the surface of the powder. The fundamental kinetic parameter of the model is the isotopic exchange probability, p, which is the probability that an isotopic exchange event occurs during a collision of a gas phase atom with the surface. Isotope effects between the gas and solid phases are explicitly included in terms of the isotope separation factor, ..cap alpha... Results of the model are compared with recent experimental measurements of isotope exchange in the ..beta..-phase hydrogen/palladium system and, using a literature value of ..cap alpha.. = 2.4, a good description of the experimental data is obtained for p approx. 10/sup -7/. In view of the importance of the isotope effects in the hydrogen/palladium system and the range of ..cap alpha.. values reported for the ..beta..-phase in the literature, the sensitivity of the model results to a variation in the value of ..cap alpha.. is examined.

  19. Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen Program Policy Evaluation & Recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen Program Policy Evaluation & Recommendations Final Report August 2012 #12;Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen Program: Policy Recommendations 2 Project Title: Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology ­ Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Award Number: Contract No

  20. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01

    storing and transporting hydrogen. Golden, CO: NREL; 1998. [V. Survey of the economics of hydrogen technologies. Golden,liquid or gaseous form. Hydrogen can be produced from a va-

  1. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01

    Well-to-wheels analysis of hydrogen based fuel-cell vehicleJP, et al. Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Systems Analysis,”Year 2006 UCD—ITS—RR—06—04 Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs

  2. A nanosized hydrogen generator | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxygen in H2O to produce free hydrogen. The commercial separation process uses natural gas to react with superheated steam to strip away hydrogen atoms producing hydrogen fuel,...

  3. Hydrogen Tube Trailers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tube Trailers Hydrogen Tube Trailers Trucks that haul gaseous hydrogen are called tube trailers. Gaseous hydrogen is compressed to pressures of 180 bar (2,600 psig) or higher into...

  4. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Ogden, Joan M.

    1993-01-01

    264. DeLuchi M. A. (1992). Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles. Re-or regulation. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles MarkA.Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Mark Ao DeLuchi Joan M. Ogden

  5. Isopiestic Kinetics of Powdered Pd/C/DPB Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, L; Saab, A

    2008-05-30

    In a 2006 LLNL internal report, a study of DEB and DPB based hydrogen getter materials was described. The materials, consisting of DEB or DPB physically blended with amorphous carbon on which palladium nanoparticle catalyst was supported, were studied during the course of reaction with fixed aliquots of hydrogen gas in order to observe their hydrogen consumption capacities as a function of ambient hydrogen pressure. The experiments demonstrated that the getter capacity was directly proportional to hydrogen fugacity: the lower the initial hydrogen pressure, the lower the resultant capacity at correspondingly low steady-state pressures. In the course of these experiments, further interesting observations were made of DEB and DPB reduction by hydrogen gas that painted a picture of a complicated reaction mechanism. To summarize, it was determined that reaction rate was controlled partly by diffusion of the organic diacetylene toward the catalyst surface. The results indicated this diffusion was in turn enhanced by phase changes in the course of the reaction that result in a liquid phase of the getter, and also by the heat of reaction, itself being proportional to initial reaction rate. However, these same two terms were speculated to have negative impacts on the net reaction kinetics, as well. It was suggested the liquid phase served to block gas access, and that excessively fast initial rates limited rate and capacity at later times by creating a depletion zone of reactant around the catalyst. Because of the nature of the experiments, whereby both hydrogen pressure and getter activity were changing in time, actual kinetic information could not be gathered. Knowledge of the reaction rate characteristics of these materials as a function of pressure and temperature is crucial to understanding the overall behavior of this material in service. Further, direct observation of the reaction rate can permit estimates of the diffusion of the reactive species. The present work centers on the development of an understanding of the kinetics for the hydrogenation of DPB and DEB as a function of temperature and pressure.

  6. Hydrogen in Type Ic Supernovae?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Branch; David J. Jeffery; Timothy R. Young; E. Baron

    2006-05-09

    By definition, a Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) does not have conspicuous lines of hydrogen or helium in its optical spectrum. SNe Ic usually are modelled in terms of the gravitational collapse of bare carbon-oxygen cores. We consider the possibility that the spectra of ordinary (SN 1994I-like) SNe Ic have been misinterpreted, and that SNe Ic eject hydrogen. An absorption feature usually attributed to a blend of Si II 6355 and C II 6580 may be produced by H-alpha. If SN 1994I-like SNe Ic eject hydrogen, the possibility that hypernova (SN 1998bw-like) SNe Ic, some of which are associated with gamma-ray bursts, also eject hydrogen should be considered. The implications of hydrogen for SN Ic progenitors and explosion models are briefly discussed.

  7. Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V. [Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.

  8. Einstein's Hydrogen Atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. S. Kim

    2011-12-02

    In 1905, Einstein formulated his special relativity for point particles. For those particles, his Lorentz covariance and energy-momentum relation are by now firmly established. How about the hydrogen atom? It is possible to perform Lorentz boosts on the proton assuming that it is a point particle. Then what happens to the electron orbit? The orbit could go through an elliptic deformation, but it is not possible to understand this problem without quantum mechanics, where the orbit is a standing wave leading to a localized probability distribution. Is this concept consistent with Einstein's Lorentz covariance? Dirac, Wigner, and Feynman contributed important building blocks for understanding this problem. The remaining problem is to assemble those blocks to construct a Lorentz-covariant picture of quantum bound states based on standing waves. It is shown possible to assemble those building blocks using harmonic oscillators.

  9. Hydrogen Education Curriculum Path at Michigan Technological...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Curriculum Path at Michigan Technological University Hydrogen Education Curriculum Path at Michigan Technological University 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  10. Technoeconomic Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is a promising renewable energy technology for generation of hydrogen for use in the future hydrogen economy. PEC systems use solar photons to generate a voltage in an...

  11. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Analysis Presentation by NREL's Margo Melendez at the 2010 - 2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles...

  12. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    likely take precedence over biomass for hydrogen production. Thus, the price of biomass feedstocks for hydrogen, in the absence of major federal policy changes, will presumably...

  13. Survey of the Economics of Hydrogen Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Production Steam Methane Reforming Noncatalytic Partial Oxidation Coal Gasification Biomass Gasification Biomass Pyrolysis Electrolysis Hydrogen Storage Compressed Gas Liquefied Gas Metal Hydride Carbon

  14. Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities Workshop Agenda Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop Agenda Agenda for the Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop...

  15. High-Pressure Hydrogen Tank Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many types of compressed hydrogen tanks have been certified worldwide and demonstrated in several prototype fuel cell vehicles. The following information discusses high-pressure hydrogen tank...

  16. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Bolen, M. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C. W.; Bobela, D.; Branz, H. M.; Stradins, P. 08 HYDROGEN; 14...

  17. 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    November 2013 summary report for the 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop. bioh2workshopfinalreport.pdf More Documents & Publications The Hydrogen Program at NREL: A...

  18. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure...

  19. HYDROGEN SULFIDE -HIGH TEMPERATURE DRILLING CONTINGENCY PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HYDROGEN SULFIDE - HIGH TEMPERATURE DRILLING CONTINGENCY PLAN OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM TEXAS A Foundation. ii #12;HYDROGEN SULFIDE-HIGH TEMPERATURE DRILLING CONTINGENCY PLAN OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 139

  20. Dense, layered membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roark, Shane E.; MacKay, Richard; Mundschau, Michael V.

    2006-02-21

    This invention provides hydrogen-permeable membranes for separation of hydrogen from hydrogen-containing gases. The membranes are multi-layer having a central hydrogen-permeable layer with one or more catalyst layers, barrier layers, and/or protective layers. The invention also relates to membrane reactors employing the hydrogen-permeable membranes of the invention and to methods for separation of hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gas using the membranes and reactors. The reactors of this invention can be combined with additional reactor systems for direct use of the separated hydrogen.

  1. National Hydrogen Storage Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Hydrogen Storage Project National Hydrogen Storage Project In July 2003, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a "Grand Challenge" to the global scientific community for...

  2. Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An Overview of the Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) Project" held on November 18, 2014. Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and...

  3. Hydrogen Storage Materials Workshop Proceedings Workshop, October...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proceedings Workshop, October 16th, 2002 Hydrogen Storage Materials Workshop Proceedings Workshop, October 16th, 2002 A workshop on compressed and liquefied hydrogen storage was a...

  4. Webinar: Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production and Concentrating Solar Power: A Systems Analysis Webinar: Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen...

  5. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop March 18, 2015 8:00AM EDT to...

  6. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

  7. Hydrogen Vehicle and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications HYDROGEN TO THE HIGHWAYS Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen Safety Analysis of Type 4 Tanks in CNG Vehicles...

  8. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut Overview of strengths,...

  9. An Introduction to the Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-09

    This MP3 provides an overview of the Hydrogen Program and the benefits and challenges to the widespread use of hydrogen and fuel cells.

  10. NREL Dedicates Advanced Hydrogen Fueling Station | Community...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Dedicates Advanced Hydrogen Fueling Station Ceremony Coincides With National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day October 8, 2015 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy...

  11. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term Presentation on Hydrogen...

  12. Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines DOE Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop September 24 th , 2013 H 2 production PSIIPSI...

  13. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01

    04 Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.voltage connections) Capital costs for this equipment must

  14. Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report This report provides an overview of the...

  15. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    Energy-Efficient Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactions. Hydrogenation reactions are very versatile and account for 10% to 20% of all reactions in the pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Strategic Initiatives for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initiatives for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop included more than 45 researchers and industry experts. The...

  17. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH): Thermochemic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the production of hydrogen and identifies the critical path challenges to the commercial potential of each cycle. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH):...

  18. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program: 2002 Annual Progress Report Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program: 2002 Annual Progress Report...

  19. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program FY2003 Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program FY2003...

  20. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies ProgramHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Hydrogen Codes &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    safety standard as a regulation. 30 1Q, 2004With industry and code officials, develop templates and NFPA to develop first-order continuing education for code officials. 3 Date (FY Technologies Program Hydrogen Codes & Standards #12;Hydrogen Codes & Standards: Goal & Objectives Goal

  1. Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali T-Raissi

    2005-01-14

    The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1) Hydrogen production utilizing SQNG resources, (2) Hydrogen storage in ammonia and amine-borane complexes for fuel cell applications, and (3) Hydrogen from solar thermochemical cycles for splitting water. This report summarizes our findings with the following objectives: Technoeconomic analysis of the feasibility of the technology areas 1-3; Evaluation of the hydrogen production cost by technology areas 1; and Feasibility of ammonia and/or amine-borane complexes (technology areas 2) as a means of hydrogen storage on-board fuel cell powered vehicles. For each technology area, we reviewed the open literature with respect to the following criteria: process efficiency, cost, safety, and ease of implementation and impact of the latest materials innovations, if any. We employed various process analysis platforms including FactSage chemical equilibrium software and Aspen Technologies AspenPlus and HYSYS chemical process simulation programs for determining the performance of the prospective hydrogen production processes.

  2. Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S. (Tampa, FL); Niemann, Michael U. (Venice, FL); Goswami, D. Yogi (Tampa, FL); Stefanakos, Elias K. (Tampa, FL)

    2012-04-10

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  3. Structural studies of magnesium nitride fluorides by powder neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brogan, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert W.; Smith, Ronald I.; Gregory, Duncan H.

    2012-01-15

    Samples of ternary nitride fluorides, Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF have been prepared by solid state reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} at 1323-1423 K and investigated by powder X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} is cubic (space group: Pm3m) and has a structure related to rock-salt MgO, but with one cation site vacant. Mg{sub 2}NF is tetragonal (space group: I4{sub 1}/amd) and has an anti-LiFeO{sub 2} related structure. Both compounds are essentially ionic and form structures in which nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered. The nitride fluorides show temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour between 5 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Definitive structures of the ternary magnesium nitride fluorides Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and the lower temperature polymorph of Mg{sub 2}NF have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. The nitride halides are essentially ionic and exhibit weak temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definitive structures of Mg{sub 3}NF{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NF were determined by neutron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitride and fluoride anions are crystallographically ordered in both structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds exhibit weak, temperature independent paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compounds are essentially ionic with ionicity increasing with F{sup -} content.

  4. Characterization of Hafnia Powder Prepared from an Oxychloride Sol Gel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGilvery, Catriona M. [Imperial College, London; De Gendt, S [Imperial College, London; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; MacKenzie, M [Imperial College, London; Craven, A J [Imperial College, London; McComb, D W [Imperial College, London

    2011-01-01

    Hafnium containing compounds are of great importance to the semiconductor industry as a replacement for Si(O,N) with a high- gate dielectric. Whilst Hf is already being incorporated into working devices1, much is still to be understood about it. Here we investigate the crystallisation processes and chemistry of bulk HfO2 powders which will aid in interpretation of reactions and crystallisation events occurring in thin films used as gate dielectrics. Amorphous HfO2 powder was prepared via a sol-gel route using hafnium oxychloride (HfOCl2 xH2O) as a precursor. The powders were subjected to various heat treatments and analysed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis techniques. It was found that a large change in the crystallisation pathway occurred when the sample was heated in an inert environment compared with in air. Instead of the expected monoclinic phase (m-HfO2), tetragonal HfO2 (t-HfO2) also formed under these conditions and was observed up to temperatures of ~760 C. The t-HfO2 particles, which are less than 30nm in size, eventually transform into m-HfO2 on further heating. Possible mechanisms for the crystallisation of t-HfO2 are discussed. It is proposed that within this temperature range t-HfO2 is stabilised due to the presence of oxygen vacancies in the inert environment, forming by the reduction of HfIV to HfIII. As the crystal grows in size as the temperature increases there are too few oxygen vacancies left in the structure to continue stabilising the t-HfO2 phase and so transformation to m-HfO2 occurs.

  5. Production of films and powders for semiconductor device applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Noufi, R.; Li Wang

    1998-03-24

    A process is described for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu{sub x}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; (2) Cu{sub x}Ga{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0--1 and n=1--3; (3) Cu{sub x}In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.27, y=0.72--2 and n=1--3; (4) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.17, y=0.96--2 and n=1--3; (5) In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein y=1--2.3 and n=1--3; (6) Cu{sub x}S{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; and (7) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}(SeS){sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0.07--2 and n=0.663--3. A reaction vessel containing therein a substrate upon which will form one or more layers of semiconductor material is provided, and relevant solution mixtures are introduced in a sufficient quantity for a sufficient time and under favorable conditions into the vessel to react with each other to produce the resultant salt being prepared and deposited as one or more layers on the substrate and as a powder on the floor of the vessel. Hydrazine is present during all reaction processes producing non-gallium containing products and optionally present during reaction processes producing gallium-containing products to function as a strong reducing agent and thereby enhance reaction processes. 4 figs.

  6. Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Álamo, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    the combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Combustionfor carbon-monoxide hydrogen oxygen kinetics. Combustion

  7. Hydrogen Production: Fundamentals and Case Study Summaries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, K.; Remick, R.; Hoskin, A.; Martin, G.

    2010-05-19

    This presentation summarizes hydrogen production fundamentals and case studies, including hydrogen to wind case studies.

  8. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  9. New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-15

    Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

  10. Complex microwave conductivity of Na-DNA powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kitano; K. Ota; A. Maeda

    2006-08-01

    We report the complex microwave conductivity, $\\sigma=\\sigma_1-i\\sigma_2$, of Na-DNA powders, which was measured from 80 K to 300 K by using a microwave cavity perturbation technique. We found that the magnitude of $\\sigma_1$ near room temperature was much larger than the contribution of the surrounding water molecules, and that the decrease of $\\sigma_1$ with decreasing temperature was sufficiently stronger than that of the conduction of counterions. These results clearly suggest that the electrical conduction of Na-DNA is intrinsically semiconductive.

  11. Powder segregation during the filling of a simple die 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Larry Raymond

    1968-01-01

    of Shape Upon Segregation 14 Effect of Funnel Orifice Diameter and Die Diameter Upon Segregation 17 Flow Times of Atomized CuPbSn Powder With and Without Oil 27 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page. la Double Y hand-mixer lb Vertical Sampling Device, Zones A...~35 Mesh Lead System. QX vs Z Fines for Four Levels of Oil Content 26 The Effect of Oil Addition Upon Filtration of 325 Mesh CuPbSn Particles Through a 170 Mesh CuPbSn Matrix During Sieving, Z Filtering Per Second vs Time of Sieving in Seconds. A...

  12. Powder River Energy Corporation (Montana) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLC JumpPhono SolarPlexusJumpPowder River Energy

  13. Powder River Energy Corporation Smart Grid Project | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLC JumpPhono SolarPlexusJumpPowder River

  14. Insight into hydrogenation of graphene: Effect of hydrogen plasma chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felten, A.; Nittler, L.; Pireaux, J.-J.; McManus, D.; Rice, C.; Casiraghi, C.

    2014-11-03

    Plasma hydrogenation of graphene has been proposed as a tool to modify the properties of graphene. However, hydrogen plasma is a complex system and controlled hydrogenation of graphene suffers from a lack of understanding of the plasma chemistry. Here, we correlate the modifications induced on monolayer graphene studied by Raman spectroscopy with the hydrogen ions energy distributions obtained by mass spectrometry. We measure the energy distribution of H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} ions for different plasma conditions showing that their energy strongly depends on the sample position, pressure, and plasma power and can reach values as high as 45?eV. Based on these measurements, we speculate that under specific plasma parameters, protons should possess enough energy to penetrate the graphene sheet. Therefore, a graphene membrane could become, under certain conditions, transparent to both protons and electrons.

  15. Developments in Die Pressing Strategies for Low-Cost Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Weil, K. Scott; Lavender, Curt A.

    2009-05-01

    Recent developments in the production of low-cost titanium powders have rejuvenated interest in manufacturing titanium powder metallurgy components by direct press and sinter techniques. However excessive friction typically observed during titanium powder pressing operations leads to numerous problems ranging from non-homogeneous green densities of the compacted powder to excessive part ejection forces and reduced die life due to wear and galling. An instrumented double-acting die press was developed to both investigate the mechanics of titanium powder pressing (particularly for the new low-cost powder morphologies) and to screen potential lubricants that could reduce frictional effects. As will be discussed, the instrument was used to determine friction coefficients and to evaluate a number of candidate lubricants. These results were then used to optimize the lubricant system to reduce die-wall stresses and improve part density uniformity.

  16. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD) Scientific scope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in, for example, hydrogen storage, CO2 sequestration, advanced structural ceramics, catalysis, and materials processing. Such materials of high technological value often are complex, nanostructured handling, user-defined specific devices. The side station will operate at a fixed high energy (60 or 80ke

  17. Waste Disposition Update by Christine Gelles

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About Us ShirleyU.S. DRIVE Vehicle Technologies Office:VotePotomacDepartment

  18. Strain and particle size of palladium powders by time-of-flight neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, A.C.; Conant, J.W.; Talcott, C.L.; David, M.A.; Vaninetti, J.; Goldstone, J.A.; Williams, A.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Roof, R.B.; Hitterman, R.L.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Faber, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We have determined the strain and particle size for several samples of palladium powder by time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction on two different diffractometers and by x-ray powder diffraction. The results are compared and found to be in fair agreement. The time-of-flight method gives good enough precision to reveal deficiencies in the simple models used for strain and particle size line broadening. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Method of preparing a powdered, electrically insulative separator for use in an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Tom O. (Naperville, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL)

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, is compacted as layers onto an electrode to form an integral electrode structure and assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to its operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  20. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  1. Oxidation kinetics of calcium-doped palladium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, S.; Kodas, T.T.; Hampden-Smith, M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The oxidation kinetics of submicron Ca-containing Pd powders produced by spray pyrolysis were studied in the temperature range 600 to 675 C using thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidation of pure Pd powder had an activation energy of {approximately}230 kJ/mol in the region 27% < oxidation < 70% and 65 kJ/mol for oxidation > 70%. The activation energies for Pd particles containing 0.01 weight percent (w/o) and 0.4 w/o Ca in the region 27% < oxidation < 70% were {approximately}230 kJ/mol and {approximately}50 kJ/mol, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy suggested that the conversion of Pd to Pd{sup II}O (stoichiometric PdO) proceeds from the particle surface into the interior and not homogeneously throughout the particle. The predictions of a variety of models and rate laws (shrinking core, parabolic, cubic, logarithmic, and inverse logarithmic) were compared with the data. The comparison suggested a mechanism in which oxidation of pure Pd proceeds by chemisorption and diffusion of oxygen to form a substoichiometric oxide, followed by the conversion of substoichiometric PdO to Pd{sup II}O. Oxidation of pure Pd is then probably limited by the diffusion of oxygen through the substoichiometric PdO and/or Pd{sup II}O. The addition of Ca increased the oxidation resistance of Pd most likely by inhibiting oxygen diffusion through the metal oxide layers surrounding the Pd.

  2. Double helix boron-10 powder thermal neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher L.; Bacon, Jeffrey D.

    2015-06-02

    A double-helix Boron-10 powder detector having intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency comparable to 36'' long, 2-in diameter, 2-bar Helium-3 detectors, and which can be used to replace such detectors for use in portal monitoring, is described. An embodiment of the detector includes a metallic plate coated with Boron-10 powder for generating alpha and Lithium-7 particles responsive to neutrons impinging thereon supported by insulators affixed to at least two opposing edges; a grounded first wire wound in a helical manner around two opposing insulators; and a second wire having a smaller diameter than that of the first wire, wound in a helical manner around the same insulators and spaced apart from the first wire, the second wire being positively biased. A gas, disposed within a gas-tight container enclosing the plate, insulators and wires, and capable of stopping alpha and Lithium-7 particles and generating electrons produces a signal on the second wire which is detected and subsequently related to the number of neutrons impinging on the plate.

  3. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farbaniec, L.; Dirras, G.; Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F.; Couque, H.; Naimi, F.; Bernard, F.; Tingaud, D.

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ? 135 ?m) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ? 1.5 ?m) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ? 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (? 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: • Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. • Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities • Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. • Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. • In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.

  4. Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop Proceedings

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This document outlines activities for educating key target audiences, as suggested by workshop participants. Held December 4-5, 2002, the Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop kicked off a new educat

  5. National Hydrogen Vision Meeting Proceedings

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This document provides presentations and summaries of the notes from the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting''s facilitated breakout sessions. The Vision Meeting, which took place November 15-16, 2001, k

  6. Compressed/Liquid Hydrogen Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Currently, DOE's physical hydrogen storage R&D focuses on the development of high-pressure (10,000 psi) composite tanks, cryo-compressed tanks, conformable tanks, and other advanced concepts...

  7. Modeling hydrogen fuel distribution infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulido, Jon R. (Jon Ramon), 1974-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis' fundamental research question is to evaluate the structure of the hydrogen production, distribution, and dispensing infrastructure under various scenarios and to discover if any trends become apparent after ...

  8. Fossil-Based Hydrogen Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Processing Using Micro-channel Steam Reforming & Advanced Separations Technology · ITM Syngas Production · Capital Costs · O&M · Separation Technology · Control and Safety · Feedstock and Water Issues for Hydrogen Production · Separation Membrane Development · Internal Combustion Engines · Reduced Turbine

  9. Hydrogen Storage "Think Tank" Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report is a compilation of information exchanged at a forum on March 14, 2003 in Washington, DC. The forum was assembled for innovative and non-conventional brainstorming on this issue of hydrogen storage technologies.

  10. Status of Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The current status in terms of weight, volume, and cost of various hydrogen storage technologies is shown below. These values are estimates from storage system developers and the R&D community...

  11. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    t t 1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Program DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview Dr. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager U S D f E Overview U.S....

  12. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deluga, Gregg A. (St. Paul, MN); Schmidt, Lanny D. (Minneapolis, MN)

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  13. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  14. Hydrogen Delivery Technology Roadmap, November 2005

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Document describing plan for research into and development of hydrogen delivery technology for transportation applications.

  15. Hydrogen Storage Technologies Roadmap, November 2005

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Document describing plan for research into and development of hydrogen storage technology for transportation applications.

  16. Hydrogen Storage at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

  17. Composition for absorbing hydrogen from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Lee, Myung W. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition is provided which defines a physical sol-gel matrix having an average pore size of less than 3.5 angstroms which effectively excludes gaseous metal hydride poisons while permitting hydrogen gas to enter. The composition is useful for separating hydrogen gas from diverse gas streams which may have contaminants that would otherwise render the hydrogen absorbing material inactive.

  18. Apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K; Sessions, Henry T; Xiao, Xin

    2013-06-25

    The apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes is provided using dual columns, each column having an opposite hydrogen isotopic effect such that when a hydrogen isotope mixture feedstock is cycled between the two respective columns, two different hydrogen isotopes are separated from the feedstock.

  19. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap identifies research pathways leading to hydrogen production technologies that produce near-zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from highly efficient and diverse renewable energy sources. This roadmap focuses on initial development of the technologies, identifies their gaps and barriers, and describes activities by various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offices to address the key issues and challenges.

  20. Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani (Morgantown, WV)

    2010-08-03

    Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

  1. Metal oxide superconducting powder comprised of flake-like single crystal particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.; Dusek, J.

    1994-10-18

    Powder of a ceramic superconducting material is synthesized such that each particle of the powder is a single crystal having a flake-like, nonsymmetric morphology such that the c-axis is aligned parallel to the short dimension of the flake. Nonflake powder is synthesized by the normal methods and is pressed into pellets or other shapes and fired for excessive times to produce a coarse grained structure. The fired products are then crushed and ground producing the flake-like powder particles which exhibit superconducting characteristics when aligned with the crystal lattice. 3 figs.

  2. Multi-scale analysis and simulation of powder blending in pharmaceutical manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngai, Samuel S. H

    2005-01-01

    A Multi-Scale Analysis methodology was developed and carried out for gaining fundamental understanding of the pharmaceutical powder blending process. Through experiment, analysis and computer simulations, microscopic ...

  3. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pez, Guido Peter (Allentown, PA); Cooper, Alan Charles (Macungie, PA); Scott, Aaron Raymond (Allentown, PA)

    2011-08-23

    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

  4. Metallization of Fluid Hydrogen 3.1 Introduction to Metallic Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis, Ard

    Chapter 3 Metallization of Fluid Hydrogen 3.1 Introduction to Metallic Hydrogen 3.1.1 Some background on dense hydrogen Hydrogen, out of it the Universe evolved, every atom and leaf, marine iguana and apricot­smelling chanterelle. But my, my, what alchemy: nondescript H 2 --Diane Ackerman 1 -- Hydrogen

  5. Hydrogen bonding between neon and hydrogen fluoride M. Losonczy and J. W. Moskowitz*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    Hydrogen bonding between neon and hydrogen fluoride M. Losonczy and J. W. Moskowitz* Chemistry of hydrogen fluoride. The results exhibit formation of a linear hydrogen bond. Although this bond is weak (0.234 kcal!mole), its strength exceeds that found earlier for the neon-water hydrogen bond. I. INTRODUCTION

  6. Fuel cell using a hydrogen generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA); Crowell, Jeffrey A. W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2010-10-19

    A system is described for storing and generating hydrogen and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  7. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this project, covering two phases and an additional extension phase, were the development of thin film-based hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices for solar-powered water splitting. The hybrid device, comprising a low-cost photoactive material integrated with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H or a-Si in short)-based solar cells as a driver, should be able to produce hydrogen with a 5% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH) and be durable for at least 500 hours. Three thin film material classes were studied and developed under this program: silicon-based compounds, copper chalcopyrite-based compounds, and metal oxides. With the silicon-based compounds, more specifically the amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC), we achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% when the photoelectrode was coupled to an a-Si tandem solar cell, and a STH efficiency of 6.1% when using a crystalline Si PV driver. The hybrid PV/a-SiC device tested under a current bias of -3~4 mA/cm{sup 2}, exhibited a durability of up to ~800 hours in 0.25 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Other than the PV driver, the most critical element affecting the photocurrent (and hence the STH efficiency) of the hybrid PV/a-SiC device was the surface energetics at the a-SiC/electrolyte interface. Without surface modification, the photocurrent of the hybrid PEC device was ~1 mA/cm{sup 2} or lower due to a surface barrier that limits the extraction of photogenerated carriers. We conducted an extensive search for suitable surface modification techniques/materials, of which the deposition of low work function metal nanoparticles was the most successful. Metal nanoparticles of ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W) or titanium (Ti) led to an anodic shift in the onset potential. We have also been able to develop hybrid devices of various configurations in a monolithic fashion and optimized the current matching via altering the energy bandgap and thickness of each constituent cell. As a result, the short-circuit photocurrent density of the hybrid device (measured in a 2-electrode configuration) increased significantly without assistance of any external bias, i.e. from ?1 mA/cm{sup 2} to ~5 mA/cm{sup 2}. With the copper chalcopyrite compounds, we have achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% in a coplanar configuration with 3 a-Si solar cells and one CuGaSe{sub 2} photocathode. This material class exhibited good durability at a photocurrent density level of -4 mA/cm{sup 2} (“5% STH” equivalent) at a fixed potential (-0.45 VRHE). A poor band-edge alignment with the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) potential was identified as the main limitation for high STH efficiency. Three new pathways have been identified to solve this issue. First, PV driver with bandgap lower than that of amorphous silicon were investigated. Crystalline silicon was identified as possible bottom cell. Mechanical stacks made with one Si solar cell and one CuGaSe{sub 2} photocathode were built. A 400 mV anodic shift was observed with the Si cell, leading to photocurrent density of -5 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0VRHE (compared to 0 mA/cm{sup 2} at the same potential without PV driver). We also investigated the use of p-n junctions to shift CuGaSe{sub 2} flatband potential anodically. Reactively sputtered zinc oxy-sulfide thin films was evaluated as n-type buffer and deposited on CuGaSe{sub 2}. Ruthenium nanoparticles were then added as HER catalyst. A 250 mV anodic shift was observed with the p-n junction, leading to photocurrent density at 0VRHE of -1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Combining this device with a Si solar cell in a mechanical stack configuration shifted the onset potential further (+400 mV anodically), leading to photocurrent density of -7 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0VRHE. Finally, we developed wide bandgap copper chalcopyrite thin film materials. We demonstrated that Se can be substituted with S using a simple annealing step. Photocurrent densities in the 5-6 mA/cm{sub 2} range were obtained with red 2.0eV CuInGaS{sub 2} photocathodes. With the metal oxide compounds, we have demonstrated that a WO{sub 3}-based hybrid p

  8. Catalytic dehydrohalogenation and hydrogenation using H{sub 2} and palladium as a method for the removal of tetrachloroethylene from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreier, C.G.; Reinhard, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The reduction of tetrachloroethylene to ethane in water by hydrogen and supported palladium was rapid at room temperature even at the low hydrogen partial pressure of 0.1 atm. The rate constant for reaction of PCE with 0.05g of 1% Pd on polyethylenimine coated beads was 0.034min{sup -1}. Ethane and ethene production were concomitant with ethane accounting for 65% of the initial PCE and ethene about 2%. When the support was alumina pellets, granular carbon, or activated carbon powder, PCE disappeared within 10 minutes and rate data could not obtained. Ethane was produced in these systems with yields of 65-80% while ethene was a reactive intermediate whose maximum amount was about 5% of the initial PCE. Particle size was important when using a carbon support. If hydrogen was added after PCE sorption onto the activated carbon powder, the amount of ethane formed was the same as when hydrogen was added initially. However, when hydrogen was added after PCE sorption onto granular carbon, less than 10% of the PCE could be accounted for as ethane.

  9. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    500/kW Anode tail gas Hydrogen Engine Gen-Set ICE/GeneratorFuel Cell Deployment and Hydrogen Infrastructure, WorldwideOffice (2005), “Florida Hydrogen Business Partnership,”

  10. Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4EnergySolidof2 SpecialSpent| Department

  11. Method and system for hydrogen evolution and storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorn, David L.; Tumas, William; Hay, P. Jeffrey; Schwarz, Daniel E.; Cameron, Thomas M.

    2012-12-11

    A method and system for storing and evolving hydrogen (H.sub.2) employ chemical compounds that can be hydrogenated to store hydrogen and dehydrogenated to evolve hydrogen. A catalyst lowers the energy required for storing and evolving hydrogen. The method and system can provide hydrogen for devices that consume hydrogen as fuel.

  12. Method and System for Hydrogen Evolution and Storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorn, David L. (Los Alamos, NM); Tumas, William (Los Alamos, NM); Hay, P. Jeffrey (Los Alamos, NM); Schwarz, Daniel E. (Los Alamos, NM); Cameron, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-21

    A method and system for storing and evolving hydrogen employ chemical compounds that can be hydrogenated to store hydrogen and dehydrogenated to evolve hydrogen. A catalyst lowers the energy required for storing and evolving hydrogen. The method and system can provide hydrogen for devices that consume hydrogen as fuel.

  13. MECHANICAL ALLOYING AND THERMAL TREATMENT FOR PRODUCTION OF ZIRCONIUM IRON HYDROGEN ISOTOPE GETTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.

    2008-02-20

    The objective of this task was to demonstrate that metal hydrides could be produced by mechanical alloying in the quantities needed to support production-scale hydrogen isotope separations. Three starting compositions (ratios of elemental Zr and Fe powders) were selected and attritor milled under argon for times of 8 to 60 hours. In general, milling times of at least 24 hours were required to form the desired Zr{sub 2}Fe and Zr{sub 3}Fe phases, although a considerable amount of unalloyed Zr and Fe remained. Milling in liquid nitrogen does not appear to provide any advantages over milling in hexane, particularly due to the formation of ZrN after longer milling times. Carbides of Zr formed during some of the milling experiments in hexane. Elemental Zr was present in the as-milled material but not detected after annealing for milling times of 48 and 60 hours. It may be that after intimate mixing of the powders in the attritor mill the annealing temperature was sufficient to allow for the formation of a Zr-Fe alloy. Further investigation of this conversion is necessary, and could provide an opportunity for reducing the amount of unreacted metal powder after milling.

  14. A Modeling-Based Technique for Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Powders Undergoing Microwave Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    A Modeling-Based Technique for Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Powders Undergoing Microwave of sensors and probes (see, e.g., [9]) is very limited here because of high (up to hundreds degrees Celsius the development of suitable means of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of powder samples under microwave 978

  15. Simulations of Tungsten Powder Experiment at HiRadMat CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    solid spheres · Interphase drag force ­ Gidaspow · Heat transfer between phases ­ Hughmark · Gravity - y for experiment 1. Is force propagation through the powder negligible? 2. How severe is beam induced gas expansion by aerodynamic force applied by the escaping gas · It was postulated that a threshold exists for powder eruption

  16. Sinterable ceramic powders from laser heated gas phase reactions and rapidly solidified ceramic materials : annual report.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggerty, John Scarseth

    1984-01-01

    CO[subscript 2] lasers have been employed to heat reactant gases to synthesize Si, Si[subscript 3] N[subscript 4] and SiC powders. The powders are small, uniform in size, nonagglomerated, highly pure and of controlled ...

  17. A Semi-Empirical Model Relating Flow Properties to Particle Contacts in Fine Binary Powder Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kojima, Takehiro; Elliott, James A.

    2014-08-20

    . For the smaller component of the 12 binary mixtures, a polymer powder composed of poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) 13 microspheres (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) was used without pre-treatment process. 14 The cumulative size distributions of the powders obtained...

  18. About contacts of adhesive, elasto-plastic, frictional powders Stefan Luding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luding, Stefan

    About contacts of adhesive, elasto-plastic, frictional powders Stefan Luding Multi Scale Mechanics with peculiar pressure dependence, for adhesive powders ­ due to the nonlinear dependence of the contact adhesion on the confining forces. Introduction Granular materials have various applications, involving geo

  19. Preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium film and powder by electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Ginley, D.S.

    1995-10-31

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium (PZT) film and powder compositions. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of lead, zirconium and titanium metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby direct ions of each respective metal to a substrate electrode and cause formation of metallic particles as a recoverable film of PZT powder on the electrode, and also recovering the resultant film as a powder. Recovery of the PZT powder can be accomplished by continually energizing the bath to thereby cause powder initially deposited on the substrate-electrode to drop therefrom into the bath from which it is subsequently removed. A second recovery alternative comprises energizing the bath for a period of time sufficient to cause PZT powder deposition on the substrate-electrode only, from which it is subsequently recovered. PZT film and powder so produced can be employed directly in electronic applications, or the film and powder can be subsequently oxidized as by an annealing process to thereby produce lead-zirconium-titanium oxide for use in electronic applications. 4 figs.

  20. Synthesis of multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia powders and their enhanced thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Fengmei; Gao, Yanfeng; Chen, Hongfei; Liu, Xinling; Tang, Xiaoping; Luo, Hongjie

    2013-06-01

    Multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal-calcination process. The morphology, crystallinity, and microstructure of the products were characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM, and BET. A possible formation mechanism of the unique structure formed during hydrothermal processing was also investigated. The measured thermophysical results indicated that the prepared YSZ powders had a low thermal conductivity (0.63–1.27 W m?ą K?ą), good short-term high-temperature stability up to 1300 °C. The influence of the morphology and microstructure on their thermophysical properties was briefly discussed. The unique multi-hierarchical structure makes the prepared YSZ powders candidates for use in enhanced applications involving thermal barrier coatings. - Graphical abstract: There are many tiny pores and grain boundaries in the multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders,which greatly decrease the thermal conductivities of the YSZ powders. - Highlights: • Multi-hierarchical structured YSZ powders were successfully prepared. • The prepared YSZ powders had a low thermal conductivity (0.63–1.27 W m?ą K?ą). • Improved high-temperature stability had been achieved for the prepared YSZ powders. • The influence of the morphology on their thermophysical properties was explored.

  1. Preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium film and powder by electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium (PZT) film and powder compositions. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of lead, zirconium and titanium metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby direct ions of each respective metal to a substrate electrode and cause formation of metallic particles as a recoverable film of PZT powder on the electrode, and also recovering the resultant film as a powder. Recovery of the PZT powder can be accomplished by continually energizing the bath to thereby cause powder initially deposited on the substrate-electrode to drop therefrom into the bath from which it is subsequently removed. A second recovery alternative comprises energizing the bath for a period of time sufficient to cause PZT powder deposition on the substrate-electrode only, from which it is subsequently recovered. PZT film and powder so produced can be employed directly in electronic applications, or the film and powder can be subsequently oxidized as by an annealing process to thereby produce lead-zirconium-titanium oxide for use in electronic applications.

  2. Two methods for characterizing the compaction and ejection behavior of metal powders in a die 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sajdak, Richard James

    1969-01-01

    Diagram Showing, in General, the Effect of the Amount of Lubricant Admixed to Metal Powders on the Change in Powder Flow, Compact Properties and Conditions for Ejection Oie Set Photograph of Die Set 14 15 Test Set Up Showing Die Set, B. L. E. SR-4...

  3. "Ceramics and high-temperature composites, silicides" Oxidation of Stainless Steel Powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    "Ceramics and high-temperature composites, silicides" CHTC9 Oxidation of Stainless Steel Powder. To understand the corrosion behavior of a model 304L(p)-ZrO2(s) composite, a 304L stainless steel powder has stainless steel particles. In this domain a mechanism is proposed and the kp value is calculated both due

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Synthesis of WO3 catalytic powders: evaluation of photocatalytic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Synthesis of WO3 catalytic powders: evaluation of photocatalytic activity under NUV New York 2015 Abstract WO3 catalytic powders were successfully syn- thesized from tungstic acid-temperature hydrothermal treatment. WO3 crystallization process was completed with calcina- tion of the samples at 500

  5. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5037: Hydrogen Storage Materials- 2004 vs. 2006

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This program record from the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program provides information about hydrogen storage materials (2004 vs. 2006).

  6. NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage & Transportation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.; Harrison, K.; Steward, D.

    2009-11-16

    Presentation about NREL's Wind to Hydrogen Project and producing renewable hydrogen for both energy storage and transporation, including the challenges, sustainable pathways, and analysis results.

  7. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Hassel, Bart A.

    2015-09-18

    UTRC lead the development of the Simulink Framework model that enables a comparison of different hydrogen storage systems on a common basis. The Simulink Framework model was disseminated on the www.HSECoE.org website that is hosted by NREL. UTRC contributed to a better understanding of the safety aspects of the proposed hydrogen storage systems. UTRC also participated in the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of both the chemical- and the adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system during Phase 2 of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. UTRC designed a hydrogen storage system with a reversible metal hydride material in a compacted form for light-duty vehicles with a 5.6 kg H2 storage capacity, giving it a 300 miles range. It contains a heat exchanger that enables efficient cooling of the metal hydride material during hydrogen absorption in order to meet the 3.3 minute refueling time target. It has been shown through computation that the kinetics of hydrogen absorption of Ti-catalyzed NaAlH4 was ultimately limiting the rate of hydrogen absorption to 85% of the material capacity in 3.3 minutes. An inverse analysis was performed in order to determine the material property requirements in order for a metal hydride based hydrogen storage system to meet the DOE targets. Work on metal hydride storage systems was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review due to the lack of metal hydride materials with the required material properties. UTRC contributed to the design of a chemical hydrogen storage system by developing an adsorbent for removing the impurity ammonia from the hydrogen gas, by developing a system to meter the transport of Ammonia Borane (AB) powder to a thermolysis reactor, and by developing a gas-liquid-separator (GLS) for the separation of hydrogen gas from AB slurry in silicone oil. Stripping impurities from hydrogen gas is essential for a long life of the fuel cell system on board of a vehicle. Work on solid transport of AB was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review in favor of studying the slurry-form of AB as it appeared to be difficult to transport a solid form of AB through the thermolysis reactor. UTRC demonstrated the operation of a compact GLS in the laboratory at a scale that would be required for the actual automotive application. The GLS met the targets for weight and volume. UTRC also reported about the unresolved issue associated with the high vapor pressure of fluids that could be used for making a slurry-form of AB. Work on the GLS was halted after the Phase 2 to Phase 3 review as the off-board regeneration efficiency of the spent AB was below the DOE target of 60%. UTRC contributed to the design of an adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system through measurements of the thermal conductivity of a compacted form of Metal Organic Framework (MOF) number 5 and through the development and sizing of a particulate filter. Thermal conductivity is important for the design of the modular adsorbent tank insert (MATI), as developed by Oregon State University (OSU), in order to enable a rapid refueling process. Stringent hydrogen quality requirements can only be met with an efficient particulate filtration system. UTRC developed a method to size the particulate filter by taking into account the effect of the pressure drop on the hydrogen adsorption process in the tank. UTRC raised awareness about the potential use of materials-based H2 storage systems in applications outside the traditional light-duty vehicle market segment by presenting at several conferences about niche application opportunities in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), portable power and others.

  8. Virtual Center of Excellence for Hydrogen Storage - Chemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Center of Excellence for Hydrogen Storage - Chemical Hydrides Virtual Center of Excellence for Hydrogen Storage - Chemical Hydrides Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage...

  9. Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Hydrogen Source 2003deermauss.pdf More...

  10. 'Grand Challenge' for Basic and Applied Research in Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the following areas: New materials or technologies for hydrogen storage; Compressed and liquid hydrogen tank technologies; and Off-board hydrogen storage systems. Category 2 is...

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via...

  12. Developing SAE Safety Standards for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pmaterialsveenstra.pdf More Documents & Publications Introduction to SAE Hydrogen Fueling Standardization CNG and Hydrogen Tank Safety, R&D, and Testing Hydrogen Tank Testing R&D...

  13. HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN HIGH-PURITY GERMANIUM CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    melting point. By analogy, hydrogen permeation measurementsin silicon suggest that the hydrogen solubility also is notNo. 1, February 1982 HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION

  14. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collaboration to Enable a Carbon-Neutral Energy Economy Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen...

  15. Workshop Notes from ""Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Hydrogen Fuels Workshop Safety and Regulatory Structure for CNG, CNG-Hydrogen Vehicles and Fuels in India International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings...

  16. Implementing a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure: Storage Options and System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, J; Yang, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    to International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (November 2005).05—28 Implementing a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure: StorageImplementing a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure: Storage

  17. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, Journal ofof the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & theof battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles

  18. Prospecting the Future for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S.; Turrentine, Thomas S.; Heffner, Reid R.; Congleton, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Progress Report for Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructurewould anyone buy a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle? We addressThus we will shorten “hydrogen fuel cell vehicle” to the

  19. Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials for Hydrogen Science...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials for Hydrogen Science Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials for Hydrogen Science Presentation by 04-Adams to DOE Hydrogen...

  20. Materials Down Select Decisions Made Within DOE's Chemical Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    report describing DOE's Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence investigation into various hydrogen storage materials and progress towards meeting DOE's hydrogen storage...