National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gef latitude tilt

  1. Kenya-GEF Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    database1 GEF Climate Projects in Kenya 1780 Kenya Joint Geophysical Imaging (JGI) Methodology for Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Climate Change UNEP Medium Size Project, GEF...

  2. Turkmenistan-GEF Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics Background analysis Website http:www.gefonline.orgproje Country Turkmenistan Central Asia References GEF Climate Projects1 For a list of GEF climate projects in...

  3. File:NREL-afg-10km-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tilt.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Afghanistan - Annual Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution...

  4. UNEP-GEF Renewable Energy Project Financial Risk Management in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEF Renewable Energy Project Financial Risk Management in Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Name UNEP-GEF Renewable Energy Project Financial Risk Management in...

  5. GEF-Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant Jump to: navigation, search Name GEF-Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant AgencyCompany Organization Global Environment Facility (GEF),...

  6. File:NREL-africa-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tilt.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Africa - Annual Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude (PDF) Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution...

  7. Peru-GEF Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from UNDP-Peru GEF Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the Energy Generation and End-Use Sectors)...

  8. GEF-Knowledge Management Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization Global Environment Facility (GEF) Resource Type Dataset, Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:www.thegef.orggefsite Program Start 2010...

  9. Tilted fuel cell apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine; Krueger, Roger L.

    2005-04-12

    Bipolar, tilted embodiments of high temperature, molten electrolyte electrochemical cells capable of directly converting carbon fuel to electrical energy are disclosed herein. The bipolar, tilted configurations minimize the electrical resistance between one cell and others connected in electrical series. The tilted configuration also allows continuous refueling of carbon fuel.

  10. UNDP-GEF Fuel Cell Bus Programme: Update | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEF Fuel Cell Bus Programme: Update Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNDP-GEF Fuel Cell Bus Programme: Update AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations...

  11. File:NREL-bhutan-10kmsolar-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File File history File usage Bhutan - Annual - Flat PlateTilted at Latitude Solar Radiation Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275 pixels,...

  12. Brief introduction of GEF efficient industrial boiler project in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meijian, T.

    1996-12-31

    The present situation of installed industrial boilers, their efficiency and environmental impact are assessed. And the factors contribute to the low efficiency and serious pollution are summarized. Based on WB-assisted GEF project, {open_quotes}Efficient Industrial Boiler Project{close_quotes} aimed at CO{sub 2} mitigation in China, a series of effective measures to bring the GHG emission under control are addressed, in technology, system performance, and operation management aspects.

  13. China Renewable Energy Scale up Program CRESP GOC WB GEF | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    up Program CRESP GOC WB GEF Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Renewable Energy Scale-up Program (CRESP) GOCWBGEF Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100038...

  14. RE-EXAMINING SUNSPOT TILT ANGLE TO INCLUDE ANTI-HALE STATISTICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, B. H.; Norton, A. A.; Li, J. E-mail: aanorton@stanford.edu

    2014-12-20

    Sunspot groups and bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) serve as an observational diagnostic of the solar cycle. We use Debrecen Photohelographic Data (DPD) from 1974-2014 that determined sunspot tilt angles from daily white light observations, and data provided by Li and Ulrich that determined sunspot magnetic tilt angle using Mount Wilson magnetograms from 1974-2012. The magnetograms allowed for BMR tilt angles that were anti-Hale in configuration, so tilt values ranged from 0 to 360° rather than the more common ±90°. We explore the visual representation of magnetic tilt angles on a traditional butterfly diagram by plotting the mean area-weighted latitude of umbral activity in each bipolar sunspot group, including tilt information. The large scatter of tilt angles over the course of a single cycle and hemisphere prevents Joy's law from being visually identified in the tilt-butterfly diagram without further binning. The average latitude of anti-Hale regions does not differ from the average latitude of all regions in both hemispheres. The distribution of anti-Hale sunspot tilt angles are broadly distributed between 0 and 360° with a weak preference for east-west alignment 180° from their expected Joy's law angle. The anti-Hale sunspots display a log-normal size distribution similar to that of all sunspots, indicating no preferred size for anti-Hale sunspots. We report that 8.4% ± 0.8% of all bipolar sunspot regions are misclassified as Hale in traditional catalogs. This percentage is slightly higher for groups within 5° of the equator due to the misalignment of the magnetic and heliographic equators.

  15. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  16. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2012-10-09

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  17. Recognition of the Activated States of G[alpha]13 by the rgRGS Domain of PDZRhoGEF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhe; Singer, William D.; Danesh, Shahab M.; Sternweis, Paul C.; Sprang, Stephen R.

    2009-12-01

    G12 class heterotrimeric G proteins stimulate RhoA activation by RGS-RhoGEFs. However, p115RhoGEF is a GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) toward G{alpha}13, whereas PDZRhoGEF is not. We have characterized the interaction between the PDZRhoGEF rgRGS domain (PRG-rgRGS) and the alpha subunit of G13 and have determined crystal structures of their complexes in both the inactive state bound to GDP and the active states bound to GDP {center_dot} AlF (transition state) and GTP{gamma}S (Michaelis complex). PRG-rgRGS interacts extensively with the helical domain and the effector-binding sites on G{alpha}13 through contacts that are largely conserved in all three nucleotide-bound states, although PRG-rgRGS has highest affinity to the Michaelis complex. An acidic motif in the N terminus of PRG-rgRGS occupies the GAP binding site of G{alpha}13 and is flexible in the GDP {center_dot} AlF complex but well ordered in the GTPS complex. Replacement of key residues in this motif with their counterparts in p115RhoGEF confers GAP activity.

  18. An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media ...

  19. Spin transport in tilted electron vortex beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Banasri; Chowdhury, Debashree

    2014-12-10

    In this paper we have enlightened the spin related issues of tilted Electron vortex beams. We have shown that in the skyrmionic model of electron we can have the spin Hall current considering the tilted type of electron vortex beam. We have considered the monopole charge of the tilted vortex as time dependent and through the time variation of the monopole charge we can explain the spin Hall effect of electron vortex beams. Besides, with an external magnetic field we can have a spin filter configuration.

  20. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  1. Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahmen, Tim; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G; Lupini, Andrew R; Kubel, Christian; Slusallek, Phillip; De Jonge, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  2. Prediction of tilted capillary barrier performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; McCord, J.T.; Dwyer, S.F.

    1997-04-01

    Capillary barriers, consisting of tilted fine-over-coarse layers under unsaturated conditions, have been suggested as landfill covers to divert water infiltration away from sensitive underground regions, especially for arid and semi-arid regions. The Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer code is an evaluation tool for landfill covers used by designers and regulators. HELP is a quasi-two-dimensional model that predicts moisture movement into and through the underground soil and waste layers. Processes modeled within HELP include precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, unsaturated vertical drainage, saturated lateral drainage, and leakage through liners. Unfortunately, multidimensional unsaturated flow phenomena that are necessary for evaluating tilted capillary barriers are not included in HELP. Differences between the predictions of the HELP and those from a multidimensional unsaturated flow code are presented to assess the two different approaches. Comparisons are presented for the landfill covers including capillary barrier configurations at the Alternative Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD) being conducted at Sandia.

  3. Stabilizing windings for tilting and shifting modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardin, Stephen C.; Christensen, Uffe R.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to passive conducting loops for stabilizing a plasma ring against unstable tilting and/or shifting modes. To this end, for example, plasma ring in a spheromak is stabilized by a set of four figure-8 shaped loops having one pair on one side of the plasma and one pair on the other side with each pair comprising two loops whose axes are transverse to each other.

  4. TILT, WARP, AND SIMULTANEOUS PRECESSIONS IN DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2012-07-10

    Warps are suspected in disks around massive compact objects. However, the proposed warping source-non-axisymmetric radiation pressure-does not apply to white dwarfs. In this Letter, we report the first smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of accretion disks in SU UMa-type systems that naturally tilt, warp, and simultaneously precess in the prograde and retrograde directions using white dwarf V344 Lyrae in the Kepler field as our model. After {approx}79 days in V344 Lyrae, the disk angular momentum L{sub d} becomes misaligned to the orbital angular momentum L{sub o} . As the gas stream remains normal to L{sub o} , hydrodynamics (e.g., the lift force) is a likely source to disk tilt. In addition to tilt, the outer disk annuli cyclically change shape from circular to highly eccentric due to tidal torques by the secondary star. The effect of simultaneous prograde and retrograde precession is a warp of the colder, denser midplane as seen along the disk rim. The simulated rate of apsidal advance to nodal regression per orbit nearly matches the observed ratio in V344 Lyrae.

  5. Activated RhoA Binds to the Pleckstrin Homology (PH) Domain of PDZ-RhoGEF, a Potential Site for Autoregulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhe; Medina, Frank; Liu, Mu-ya; Thomas, Celestine; Sprang, Stephen R.; Sternweis, Paul C.

    2010-07-19

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) catalyze exchange of GDP for GTP by stabilizing the nucleotide-free state of the small GTPases through their Dbl homology/pleckstrin homology (DH {center_dot} PH) domains. Unconventionally, PDZ-RhoGEF (PRG), a member of the RGS-RhoGEFs, binds tightly to both nucleotide-free and activated RhoA (RhoA {center_dot} GTP). We have characterized the interaction between PRG and activated RhoA and determined the structure of the PRG-DH {center_dot} PH-RhoA {center_dot} GTP{gamma}S (guanosine 5{prime}-O-[{gamma}-thio]triphosphate) complex. The interface bears striking similarity to a GTPase-effector interface and involves the switch regions in RhoA and a hydrophobic patch in PRG-PH that is conserved among all Lbc RhoGEFs. The two surfaces that bind activated and nucleotide-free RhoA on PRG-DH {center_dot} PH do not overlap, and a ternary complex of PRG-DH {center_dot} PH bound to both forms of RhoA can be isolated by size-exclusion chromatography. This novel interaction between activated RhoA and PH could play a key role in regulation of RhoGEF activity in vivo.

  6. Insights into the Molecular Activation Mechanism of the RhoA-specific Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, PDZRhoGEF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bielnicki, Jakub A.; Shkumatov, Alexander V.; Derewenda, Urszula; Somlyo, Avril V.; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2012-10-09

    PDZRhoGEF (PRG) belongs to a small family of RhoA-specific nucleotide exchange factors that mediates signaling through select G-protein-coupled receptors via G{alpha}{sub 12/13} and activates RhoA by catalyzing the exchange of GDP to GTP. PRG is a multidomain protein composed of PDZ, regulators of G-protein signaling-like (RGSL), Dbl-homology (DH), and pleckstrin-homology (PH) domains. It is autoinhibited in cytosol and is believed to undergo a conformational rearrangement and translocation to the membrane for full activation, although the molecular details of the regulation mechanism are not clear. It has been shown recently that the main autoregulatory elements of PDZRhoGEF, the autoinhibitory 'activation box' and the 'GEF switch,' which is required for full activation, are located directly upstream of the catalytic DH domain and its RhoA binding surface, emphasizing the functional role of the RGSL-DH linker. Here, using a combination of biophysical and biochemical methods, we show that the mechanism of PRG regulation is yet more complex and may involve an additional autoinhibitory element in the form of a molten globule region within the linker between RGSL and DH domains. We propose a novel, two-tier model of autoinhibition where the activation box and the molten globule region act synergistically to impair the ability of RhoA to bind to the catalytic DH-PH tandem. The molten globule region and the activation box become less ordered in the PRG-RhoA complex and dissociate from the RhoA-binding site, which may constitute a critical step leading to PRG activation.

  7. An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media A finite-difference method for computing the first arrival traveltimes ...

  8. Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

  9. Reconciliation of local and long range tilt correlations in underdoped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) approaches. Long-range and static CuO tilt order with orthogonally inequivalent Cu-O bonds in the CuO planes in...

  10. Method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, John D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-10-26

    A method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal requires only two lithographic exposures and does not require mask repositioning between exposures. The mask and photoresist-coated substrate are spaced a fixed and constant distance apart using a spacer and the stack is clamped together. The stack is then tilted at a crystallographic symmetry angle (e.g., 45 degrees) relative to the X-ray beam and rotated about the surface normal until the mask is aligned with the X-ray beam. The stack is then rotated in plane by a small stitching angle and exposed to the X-ray beam to pattern the first half of the structure. The stack is then rotated by 180.degree. about the normal and a second exposure patterns the remaining half of the structure. The method can use commercially available DXRL scanner technology and LIGA processes to fabricate large-area, high-quality tilted logpile photonic crystals.

  11. Tilted dipole model for bias-dependent photoluminescence pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujieda, Ichiro Suzuki, Daisuke; Masuda, Taishi

    2014-12-14

    In a guest-host system containing elongated dyes and a nematic liquid crystal, both molecules are aligned to each other. An external bias tilts these molecules and the radiation pattern of the system is altered. A model is proposed to describe this bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns. It divides the liquid crystal/dye layer into sub-layers that contain electric dipoles with specific tilt angles. Each sub-layer emits linearly polarized light. Its radiation pattern is toroidal and is determined by the tilt angle. Its intensity is assumed to be proportional to the power of excitation light absorbed by the sub-layer. This is calculated by the Lambert-Beer's Law. The absorption coefficient is assumed to be proportional to the cross-section of the tilted dipole moment, in analogy to the ellipsoid of refractive index, to evaluate the cross-section for each polarized component of the excitation light. Contributions from all the sub-layers are added to give a final expression for the radiation pattern. Self-absorption is neglected. The model is simplified by reducing the number of sub-layers. Analytical expressions are derived for a simple case that consists of a single layer with tilted dipoles sandwiched by two layers with horizontally-aligned dipoles. All the parameters except for the tilt angle can be determined by measuring transmittance of the excitation light. The model roughly reproduces the bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns of a cell containing 0.5?wt.?% coumarin 6. It breaks down at large emission angles. Measured spectral changes suggest that the discrepancy is due to self-absorption and re-emission.

  12. Effects of a tilted magnetic field in a Dirac double layer (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of a tilted magnetic field in a Dirac double layer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of a tilted magnetic field in a Dirac double layer Authors: ...

  13. EIS-0039: Motor Gasoline Deregulation and the Gasoline Tilt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Economic Regulatory Administration developed this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts, including social and economic impacts, that may result from either of two proposed regulatory changes: (1) the exemption of motor gasoline from the Department of Energy's Mandatory Petroleum Price and Allocation Regulations, and (2) the adoption of the gasoline tilt, a proposed regulation that would allow refiners to recover an additional amount of their total increased costs on gasoline.

  14. Revisiting the question: Does high-latitude solar activity lead low-latitude solar activity in time phase?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. N.; Guo, Q. L.

    2014-05-01

    Cross-correlation analysis and wavelet transform methods are used to investigate whether high-latitude solar activity leads low-latitude solar activity in time phase or not, using the data of the Carte Synoptique solar filaments archive from 1919 March to 1989 December. From the cross-correlation analysis, high-latitude solar filaments have a time lead of 12 Carrington solar rotations with respect to low-latitude ones. Both the cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence indicate that high-latitude solar filaments lead low-latitude ones in time phase. Furthermore, low-latitude solar activity is better correlated with high-latitude solar activity of the previous cycle than with that of the following cycle, which is statistically significant. Thus, the present study confirms that high-latitude solar activity in the polar regions is indeed better correlated with the low-latitude solar activity of the following cycle than with that of the previous cycle, namely, leading in time phase.

  15. Experiments and Theoretical Data for Studying the Impact of Fission Yield Uncertainties on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle with TALYS/GEF and the Total Monte Carlo Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomp, S.; Al-Adili, A.; Alhassan, E.; Gustavsson, C.; Helgesson, P.; Hellesen, C.; Koning, A.J.; Lantz, M.; Österlund, M.; Rochman, D.; Simutkin, V.; Sjöstrand, H.; Solders, A.

    2015-01-15

    We describe the research program of the nuclear reactions research group at Uppsala University concerning experimental and theoretical efforts to quantify and reduce nuclear data uncertainties relevant for the nuclear fuel cycle. We briefly describe the Total Monte Carlo (TMC) methodology and how it can be used to study fuel cycle and accident scenarios, and summarize our relevant experimental activities. Input from the latter is to be used to guide the nuclear models and constrain parameter space for TMC. The TMC method relies on the availability of good nuclear models. For this we use the TALYS code which is currently being extended to include the GEF model for the fission channel. We present results from TALYS-1.6 using different versions of GEF with both default and randomized input parameters and compare calculations with experimental data for {sup 234}U(n,f) in the fast energy range. These preliminary studies reveal some systematic differences between experimental data and calculations but give overall good and promising results.

  16. Automatic recovery of missing amplitudes and phases in tilt-limited...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Automatic recovery of missing amplitudes and phases in tilt-limited electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Automatic...

  17. The effects of gantry tilt on breast dose and image noise in cardiac CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Michael E.; Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Stevens, Grant M.; Foley, W. Dennis

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on image noise and glandular breast dose in females during cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans. Reducing the dose to glandular breast tissue is important due to its high radiosensitivity and limited diagnostic significance in cardiac CT scans.Methods: Tilted-gantry acquisition was investigated through computer simulations and experimental measurements. Upon IRB approval, eight voxelized phantoms were constructed from previously acquired cardiac CT datasets. Monte Carlo simulations quantified the dose deposited in glandular breast tissue over a range of tilt angles. The effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on breast dose were measured on a clinical CT scanner (CT750HD, GE Healthcare) using an anthropomorphic phantom with MOSFET dosimeters in the breast regions. In both simulations and experiments, scans were performed at gantry tilt angles of 0°–30°, in 5° increments. The percent change in breast dose was calculated relative to the nontilted scan for all tilt angles. The percent change in noise standard deviation due to gantry tilt was calculated in all reconstructed simulated and experimental images.Results: Tilting the gantry reduced the breast dose in all simulated and experimental phantoms, with generally greater dose reduction at increased gantry tilts. For example, at 30° gantry tilt, the dosimeters located in the superior, middle, and inferior breast regions measured dose reductions of 74%, 61%, and 9%, respectively. The simulations estimated 0%–30% total breast dose reduction across the eight phantoms and range of tilt angles. However, tilted-gantry acquisition also increased the noise standard deviation in the simulated phantoms by 2%–50% due to increased pathlength through the iodine-filled heart. The experimental phantom, which did not contain iodine in the blood, demonstrated decreased breast dose and decreased noise at all gantry tilt angles.Conclusions: Tilting the

  18. Apparatus for raising or tilting a micromechanical structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, James J.

    2008-09-09

    An active hinge apparatus is disclosed which can be used to raise a micromechanical structure (e.g. a plate or micromirror) on a substrate. The active hinge apparatus utilizes one or more of teeth protruding outward from an axle which also supports the micromechanical structure on one end thereof. A rack is used to engage the teeth and rotate the axle to raise the micromechanical structure and tilt the structure at an angle to the substrate. Motion of the rack is provided by an actuator which can be a mechanically-powered actuator, or alternately an electrostatic comb actuator or a thermal actuator. A latch can be optionally provided in the active hinge apparatus to lock the micromechanical structure in an "erected" position.

  19. Microelectromechanical apparatus for elevating and tilting a platform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Samuel Lee; McWhorter, Paul Jackson; Rodgers, Murray Steven; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2003-04-08

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which has a platform that can be elevated above a substrate and tilted at an arbitrary angle using a plurality of flexible members which support the platform and control its movement. Each flexible member is further controlled by one or more MEM actuators which act to bend the flexible member. The MEM actuators can be electrostatic comb actuators or vertical zip actuators, or a combination thereof. The MEM apparatus can include a mirror coating to form a programmable mirror for redirecting or switching one or more light beams for use in a projection display. The MEM apparatus with the mirror coating also has applications for switching light beams between optical fibers for use in a local area fiber optic network, or for use in fiber optic telecommunications or data communications systems.

  20. Microelectromechanical apparatus for elevating and tilting a platform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Samuel Lee; McWhorter, Paul Jackson; Rodgers, Murray Steven; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2004-07-06

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which has a platform that can be elevated above a substrate and tilted at an arbitrary angle using a plurality of flexible members which support the platform and control its movement. Each flexible member is further controlled by one or more MEM actuators which act to bend the flexible member. The MEM actuators can be electrostatic comb actuators or vertical zip actuators, or a combination thereof. The MEM apparatus can include a mirror coating to form a programmable mirror for redirecting or switching one or more light beams for use in a projection display. The MEM apparatus with-the mirror coating also has applications for switching light beams between optical fibers for use in a local area fiber optic network, or for use in fiber optic telecommunications or data communications systems.

  1. The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds (MC3E) Experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Document: The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds (MC3E) Experiment Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Mid-latitude Continental ...

  2. AN ABSENCE OF FAST RADIO BURSTS AT INTERMEDIATE GALACTIC LATITUDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petroff, E.; Van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Coster, P.; Flynn, C.; Keane, E. F.; Johnston, S.; Bates, S. D.; Keith, M. J.; Kramer, M.; Stappers, B. W.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Tiburzi, C.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Champion, D.; Ng, C.; Levin, L.; and others

    2014-07-10

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an emerging class of bright, highly dispersed radio pulses. Recent work by Thornton et al. has revealed a population of FRBs in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey at high Galactic latitudes. A variety of progenitors have been proposed, including cataclysmic events at cosmological distances, Galactic flare stars, and terrestrial radio frequency interference. Here we report on a search for FRBs at intermediate Galactic latitudes (–15° latitudes. A revised rate estimate or another strong and heretofore unknown selection effect in Galactic latitude would provide closer agreement between the surveys' detection rates. The dearth of detections at low Galactic latitude disfavors a Galactic origin for these bursts.

  3. Method for removing tilt control in adaptive optics systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salmon, Joseph Thaddeus

    1998-01-01

    A new adaptive optics system and method of operation, whereby the method removes tilt control, and includes the steps of using a steering mirror to steer a wavefront in the desired direction, for aiming an impinging aberrated light beam in the direction of a deformable mirror. The deformable mirror has its surface deformed selectively by means of a plurality of actuators, and compensates, at least partially, for existing aberrations in the light beam. The light beam is split into an output beam and a sample beam, and the sample beam is sampled using a wavefront sensor. The sampled signals are converted into corresponding electrical signals for driving a controller, which, in turn, drives the deformable mirror in a feedback loop in response to the sampled signals, for compensating for aberrations in the wavefront. To this purpose, a displacement error (gradient) of the wavefront is measured, and adjusted by a modified gain matrix, which satisfies the following equation: G'=(I-X(X.sup.T X).sup.-1 X.sup.T)G(I-A)

  4. Method for removing tilt control in adaptive optics systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salmon, J.T.

    1998-04-28

    A new adaptive optics system and method of operation are disclosed, whereby the method removes tilt control, and includes the steps of using a steering mirror to steer a wavefront in the desired direction, for aiming an impinging aberrated light beam in the direction of a deformable mirror. The deformable mirror has its surface deformed selectively by means of a plurality of actuators, and compensates, at least partially, for existing aberrations in the light beam. The light beam is split into an output beam and a sample beam, and the sample beam is sampled using a wavefront sensor. The sampled signals are converted into corresponding electrical signals for driving a controller, which, in turn, drives the deformable mirror in a feedback loop in response to the sampled signals, for compensating for aberrations in the wavefront. To this purpose, a displacement error (gradient) of the wavefront is measured, and adjusted by a modified gain matrix, which satisfies the following equation: G{prime} = (I{minus}X(X{sup T} X){sup {minus}1}X{sup T})G(I{minus}A). 3 figs.

  5. Precision tip-tilt-piston actuator that provides exact constraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C.

    1999-01-01

    A precision device which can precisely actuate three degrees of freedom of an optic mount, commonly referred to as tip, tilt, and piston. The device consists of three identical flexure mechanisms, an optic mount to be supported and positioned, a structure that supports the flexure mechanisms, and three commercially available linear actuators. The advantages of the precision device is in the arrangement of the constraints offered by the flexure mechanism and not in the particular design of the flexure mechanisms, as other types of mechanisms could be substituted. Each flexure mechanism constrains two degrees of freedom in the plane of the mechanisms and one direction is actuated. All other degrees of freedom are free to move within the range of flexure mechanisms. Typically, three flexure mechanisms are equally spaced in angle about to optic mount and arranged so that each actuated degree of freedom is perpendicular to the plane formed by the optic mount. This arrangement exactly constrains the optic mount and allows arbitrary actuated movement of the plane within the range of the flexure mechanisms. Each flexure mechanism provides a mechanical advantage, typically on the order of 5:1, between the commercially available actuator and the functional point on the optic mount. This improves resolution by the same ratio and stiffness by the square of the ratio.

  6. THEORY OF SOLAR MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION AT HIGH LATITUDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dikpati, Mausumi; Gilman, Peter A. E-mail: gilman@ucar.edu

    2012-02-10

    We build a hydrodynamic model for computing and understanding the Sun's large-scale high-latitude flows, including Coriolis forces, turbulent diffusion of momentum, and gyroscopic pumping. Side boundaries of the spherical 'polar cap', our computational domain, are located at latitudes {>=} 60 Degree-Sign . Implementing observed low-latitude flows as side boundary conditions, we solve the flow equations for a Cartesian analog of the polar cap. The key parameter that determines whether there are nodes in the high-latitude meridional flow is {epsilon} = 2{Omega}n{pi}H{sup 2}/{nu}, where {Omega} is the interior rotation rate, n is the radial wavenumber of the meridional flow, H is the depth of the convection zone, and {nu} is the turbulent viscosity. The smaller the {epsilon} (larger turbulent viscosity), the fewer the number of nodes in high latitudes. For all latitudes within the polar cap, we find three nodes for {nu} = 10{sup 12} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, two for 10{sup 13}, and one or none for 10{sup 15} or higher. For {nu} near 10{sup 14} our model exhibits 'node merging': as the meridional flow speed is increased, two nodes cancel each other, leaving no nodes. On the other hand, for fixed flow speed at the boundary, as {nu} is increased the poleward-most node migrates to the pole and disappears, ultimately for high enough {nu} leaving no nodes. These results suggest that primary poleward surface meridional flow can extend from 60 Degree-Sign to the pole either by node merging or by node migration and disappearance.

  7. PROBING THE UNIVERSE'S TILT WITH THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND DIPOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Kashlinsky, A. E-mail: alexander.kashlinsky@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    Conventional interpretation of the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole is that all of it is produced by local peculiar motions. Alternative explanations requiring part of the dipole to be primordial have received support from measurements of large-scale bulk flows. A test of the two hypotheses is whether other cosmic dipoles produced by collapsed structures later than the last scattering coincide with the CMB dipole. One background is the cosmic infrared background (CIB) whose absolute spectrum was measured to {approx}30% by the COBE satellite. Over the 100-500 {mu}m wavelength range its spectral energy distribution can provide a probe of its alignment with the CMB. This is tested with the COBE FIRAS data set which is available for such a measurement because of its low noise and frequency resolution which are important for Galaxy subtraction. Although the FIRAS instrument noise is in principle low enough to determine the CIB dipole, the Galactic foreground is sufficiently close spectrally to keep the CIB dipole hidden. A similar analysis is performed with DIRBE, which-because of the limited frequency coverage-provides a poorer data set. We discuss strategies for measuring the CIB dipole with future instruments to probe the tilt and apply it to the Planck, Herschel, and the proposed Pixie missions. We demonstrate that a future FIRAS-like instrument with instrument noise a factor of {approx}10 lower than FIRAS would make a statistically significant measurement of the CIB dipole. We find that the Planck and Herschel data sets will not allow a robust CIB dipole measurement. The Pixie instrument promises a determination of the CIB dipole and its alignment with either the CMB dipole or the dipole galaxy acceleration vector.

  8. Blue-tilted tensor spectrum and thermal history of the Universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Takahashi, Tomo; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2015-02-01

    We investigate constraints on the spectral index of primordial gravitational waves (GWs), paying particular attention to a blue-tilted spectrum. Such constraints can be used to test a certain class of models of the early Universe. We investigate observational bounds from LIGO+Virgo, pulsar timing and big bang nucleosynthesis, taking into account the suppression of the amplitude at high frequencies due to reheating after inflation and also late-time entropy production. Constraints on the spectral index are presented by changing values of parameters such as reheating temperatures and the amount of entropy produced at late time. We also consider constraints under the general modeling approach which can approximately describe various scenarios of the early Universe. We show that the constraints on the blue spectral tilt strongly depend on the underlying assumption and, in some cases, a highly blue-tilted spectrum can still be allowed.

  9. Design and initial characterization of a compact, ultra high vacuum compatible, low frequency, tilt accelerometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OToole, A. E-mail: riccardo.desalvo@gmail.com; Pea Arellano, F. E.; Rodionov, A. V.; Kim, C.; Shaner, M.; Asadoor, M.; Sobacchi, E.; Dergachev, V.; DeSalvo, R. E-mail: riccardo.desalvo@gmail.com; Bhawal, A.; Gong, P.; Lottarini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Murphy, C.

    2014-07-15

    A compact tilt accelerometer with high sensitivity at low frequency was designed to provide low frequency corrections for the feedback signal of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory active seismic attenuation system. It has been developed using a Tungsten Carbide ceramic knife-edge hinge designed to avoid the mechanical 1/f noise believed to be intrinsic in polycrystalline metallic flexures. Design and construction details are presented; prototype data acquisition and control limitations are discussed. The instrument's characterization reported here shows that the hinge is compatible with being metal-hysteresis-free, and therefore also free of the 1/f noise generated by the dislocation Self-Organized Criticality in the metal. A tiltmeter of this kind will be effective to separate the ground tilt component from the signal of horizontal low frequency seismometers, and to correct the ill effects of microseismic tilt in advanced seismic attenuation systems.

  10. A Method of Correcting for Tilt From Horizontal in Downwelling Shortwave Irradiance Measurements on Moving Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Charles N.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Jonsson, Haf; Schmid, Beat; Vogelmann, A. M.; Wood, John

    2010-04-14

    Significant errors occur in downwelling shortwave irradiance measurements made on moving platforms due to tilt from horizontal because, when the sun is not completely blocked by overhead cloud, the downwelling shortwave irradiance has a prominent directional component from the direct sun. A-priori knowledge of the partitioning between the direct and diffuse components of the total shortwave irradiance is needed to properly apply a correction for tilt. This partitioning information can be adequately provided using a newly available commercial radiometer that produces reasonable measurements of the total and diffuse shortwave irradiance, and by subtraction the direct shortwave irradiance, with no moving parts and regardless of azimuthal orientation. We have developed methodologies for determining the constant pitch and roll offsets of the radiometers for aircraft applications, and for applying a tilt correction to the total shortwave irradiance data. Results suggest that the methodology is for tilt up to +/-10°, with 90% of the data corrected to within 10 Wm-2 at least for clear-sky data. Without a proper tilt correction, even data limited to 5° of tilt as is typical current practice still exhibits large errors, greater than 100 Wm-2 in some cases. Given the low cost, low weight, and low power consumption of the SPN1 total and diffuse radiometer, opportunities previously excluded for moving platform measurements such as small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and solar powered buoys now become feasible using our methodology. The increase in measurement accuracy is important, given current concerns over long-term climate variability and change especially over the 70% of the Earth’s surface covered by ocean where long-term records of these measurements are sorely needed and must be made on ships and buoys.

  11. Suppression of n=1 Tilt Instability by Magnetic Shaping Coils in Rotamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X.; Petrov, Y.; Huang, T. S.

    2009-06-26

    Measurements from the array of Mirnov magnetic coils provide the first evidence for n=1 tilt and radial shift instabilities in a 40 ms field-reversed configuration (FRC) driven by rotating magnetic field. External plasma-shaping magnetic coils are utilized to suppress the n=1 instability modes. It is demonstrated that by energizing the middle shaping coil with 250-500 A current, the tilt mode is completely suppressed when a doublet FRC with an internal figure-of-eight separatrix is formed.

  12. SIMULATED FARADAY ROTATION MEASURES TOWARD HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akahori, Takuya; Kim, Jongsoo; Ryu, Dongsu; Gaensler, B. M. E-mail: akahori@physics.usyd.edu.au E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr

    2013-04-20

    We study the Faraday rotation measure (RM) due to the Galactic magnetic field (GMF) toward high Galactic latitudes. The RM arises from the global, regular component as well as from the turbulent, random component of the GMF. We model the former based on observations and the latter using the data of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence simulations. For a large number of different GMF models, we produce mock RM maps around the Galactic poles and calculate various statistical quantities with the RM maps. We find that the observed medians of RMs toward the north and south Galactic poles, {approx}0.0 {+-} 0.5 rad m{sup -2} and {approx} + 6.3 {+-} 0.5 rad m{sup -2}, are difficult to explain with any of our many alternate GMF models. The standard deviation of observed RMs, {approx}9 rad m{sup -2}, is clearly larger than that of simulated RMs. The second-order structure function of observed RMs is substantially larger than that of simulated RMs, especially at small angular scales. We discuss other possible contributions to RM toward high Galactic latitudes. Besides observational errors and the intrinsic RM of background radio sources against which RM is observed, we suggest that the RM due to the intergalactic magnetic field may account for a substantial fraction of the observed RM. Finally, we note that reproducing the observed medians may require additional components or/and structures of the GMF that are not present in our models.

  13. Influences of photosynthetically active radiation on cladode orientation, stem tilting, and height of cacti

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1981-08-01

    Stem orientation and morphology were investigated for 14 species of cacti in Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and the United States. The interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was specifically considered for cladodes (flattened stems) of platyopuntias, for tilted cylindrical stems, and in the presence of surrounding vegetation.

  14. First results of a polychromatic artificial sodium star for the correction of tilt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.; Foy, R..; Tallon, M.; Migus, A.

    1996-03-06

    This paper presents the first results of a joint experiment carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during January, 1996. Laser and optical systems were tested to provide a polychromatic artificial sodium star for the correction of tilt. This paper presents the results of that experiment.

  15. Exploring a possible origin of a 14 deg y-normal spin tilt at RHIC polarimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meot, F.; Huang, H.

    2015-06-15

    A possible origin of a 14 deg y-normal spin n0 tilt at the polarimeter is in snake angle defects. This possible cause is investigated by scanning the snake axis angle µ, and the spin rotation angle at the snake, φ, in the vicinity of their nominal values.

  16. Selection of a numerical unsaturated flow code for tilted capillary barrier performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

    1996-09-01

    Capillary barriers consisting of tilted fine-over-coarse layers have been suggested as landfill covers as a means to divert water infiltration away from sensitive underground regions under unsaturated flow conditions, especially for arid and semi-arid regions. Typically, the HELP code is used to evaluate landfill cover performance and design. Unfortunately, due to its simplified treatment of unsaturated flow and its essentially one-dimensional nature, HELP is not adequate to treat the complex multidimensional unsaturated flow processes occurring in a tilted capillary barrier. In order to develop the necessary mechanistic code for the performance evaluation of tilted capillary barriers, an efficient and comprehensive unsaturated flow code needs to be selected for further use and modification. The present study evaluates a number of candidate mechanistic unsaturated flow codes for application to tilted capillary barriers. Factors considered included unsaturated flow modeling, inclusion of evapotranspiration, nodalization flexibility, ease of modification, and numerical efficiency. A number of unsaturated flow codes are available for use with different features and assumptions. The codes chosen for this evaluation are TOUGH2, FEHM, and SWMS{_}2D. All three codes chosen for this evaluation successfully simulated the capillary barrier problem chosen for the code comparison, although FEHM used a reduced grid. The numerical results are a strong function of the numerical weighting scheme. For the same weighting scheme, similar results were obtained from the various codes. Based on the CPU time of the various codes and the code capabilities, the TOUGH2 code has been selected as the appropriate code for tilted capillary barrier performance evaluation, possibly in conjunction with the infiltration, runoff, and evapotranspiration models of HELP. 44 refs.

  17. Microsoft Word - Tilted-Rig-TP-Definition-Version1-Aug-14-2012A.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Problem: Tilted Rayleigh-Taylor for 2-D Mixing Studies Authors: Malcolm J. Andrews (XCP-4, LANL), 505-606-1430, mandrews@lanl.gov David L. Youngs (AWE) , david.youngs@awe.co.uk Daniel Livescu (CCS-2, LANL), 505-665-1758, livescu@lanl.gov Date: August 10, 2012 Version: 1.0 LA-UR: 12-24091 Contents 1. Introduction................................................................................................................................. 2 2. Problem definition

  18. Cosmological signatures of tilted isocurvature perturbations: reionization and 21cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Silk, Joseph E-mail: hiroyuki.tashiro@asu.edu E-mail: naoshi@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-03-01

    We investigate cosmological signatures of uncorrelated isocurvature perturbations whose power spectrum is blue-tilted with spectral index 2?tilted isocurvature primordial power spectrum. We also study the consequences for 21cm line fluctuations due to neutral hydrogens in minihalos. Combination of measurements of the reionization optical depth and 21cm line fluctuations will provide complementary probes of a highly blue-tilted isocurvature power spectrum.

  19. Effects of the scatter in sunspot group tilt angles on the large-scale magnetic field at the solar surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, J.; Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M.

    2014-08-10

    The tilt angles of sunspot groups represent the poloidal field source in Babcock-Leighton-type models of the solar dynamo and are crucial for the build-up and reversals of the polar fields in surface flux transport (SFT) simulations. The evolution of the polar field is a consequence of Hale's polarity rules, together with the tilt angle distribution which has a systematic component (Joy's law) and a random component (tilt-angle scatter). We determine the scatter using the observed tilt angle data and study the effects of this scatter on the evolution of the solar surface field using SFT simulations with flux input based upon the recorded sunspot groups. The tilt angle scatter is described in our simulations by a random component according to the observed distributions for different ranges of sunspot group size (total umbral area). By performing simulations with a number of different realizations of the scatter we study the effect of the tilt angle scatter on the global magnetic field, especially on the evolution of the axial dipole moment. The average axial dipole moment at the end of cycle 17 (a medium-amplitude cycle) from our simulations was 2.73 G. The tilt angle scatter leads to an uncertainty of 0.78 G (standard deviation). We also considered cycle 14 (a weak cycle) and cycle 19 (a strong cycle) and show that the standard deviation of the axial dipole moment is similar for all three cycles. The uncertainty mainly results from the big sunspot groups which emerge near the equator. In the framework of Babcock-Leighton dynamo models, the tilt angle scatter therefore constitutes a significant random factor in the cycle-to-cycle amplitude variability, which strongly limits the predictability of solar activity.

  20. Octahedral tilt transitions in the relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Kai-Christian Gröting, Melanie; Albe, Karsten

    2015-07-15

    The kinetics of octahedral tilt transitions in the lead-free relaxor material sodium bismuth titanate Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (NBT) is investigated by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory. Energy barriers for transitions between tetragonal, rhombohedral and orthorhombic tilts in cation configurations with [001]- and [111]-order on the A-sites are determined by nudged elastic band calculations. By tilting entire layers of octahedra simultaneously we find that the activation energy is lower for structures with 001-order compared to such with 111-order. The energetic coupling between differently tilted layers is, however, negligibly small. By introducing a single octahedral defect we create local tilt disorder and find that the deformation energy of the neighboring octahedra is less in a rhombohedral than in a tetragonal structure. By successively increasing the size of clusters of orthorhombic defects in a rhombohedral matrix with 001-order, we determine a critical cluster size of about 40 Å . Thus groups of about ten octahedra can be considered as nuclei for polar nanoregions, which are the cause of the experimentally observed relaxor behavior of NBT. - Graphical abstract: Nine orthorhombic oxygen octahedral tilt defects in a rhombohedral tilt configuration. - Highlights: • Chemical order influences energy barriers of octahedral tilt transitions. • The octahedral deformation energy is lower in rhombohedral phases. • Tilt defect clusters are more likely in rhombohedral structures. • Tilt defect clusters can act as nuclei for polar nanoregions.

  1. Entanglement, avoided crossings, and quantum chaos in an Ising model with a tilted magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karthik, J.; Sharma, Auditya; Lakshminarayan, Arul [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2007-02-15

    We study a one-dimensional Ising model with a magnetic field and show that tilting the field induces a transition to quantum chaos. We explore the stationary states of this Hamiltonian to show the intimate connection between entanglement and avoided crossings. In general, entanglement gets exchanged between the states undergoing an avoided crossing with an overall enhancement of multipartite entanglement at the closest point of approach, simultaneously accompanied by diminishing two-body entanglement as measured by concurrence. We find that both for stationary as well as nonstationary states, nonintegrability leads to a destruction of two-body correlations and distributes entanglement more globally.

  2. Dual-frequency terahertz emission from splitting filaments induced by lens tilting in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhelin; Chen, Yanping Yang, Liu; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min; Xu, Jianqiu; Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Zhengming

    2014-09-08

    Dual-frequency terahertz radiation from air-plasma filaments produced with two-color lasers in air has been demonstrated experimentally. When a focusing lens is tilted for a few degrees, it is shown that the laser filament evolves from a single one to two sub-filaments. Two independent terahertz sources emitted from the sub-filaments with different frequencies and polarizations are identified, where the frequency of terahertz waves from the trailing sub-filament is higher than that from the leading sub-filament.

  3. Thermal conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} tilted nanowires, a molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shen Lacroix, David; Termentzidis, Konstantinos; Chaput, Laurent; Stein, Nicolas; Frantz, Cedric

    2015-06-08

    Evidence for an excellent compromise between structural stability and low thermal conductivity has been achieved with tilted Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires. The latter ones were recently fabricated and there is a need in modeling and characterization. The structural stability and the thermal conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires along the tilted [015]* direction and along the [010] direction have been explored. For the two configurations of nanowires, the effect of the length and the cross section on the thermal conductivity is discussed. The thermal conductivity of infinite size tilted nanowire is 0.34?W/m K, significantly reduced compared to nanowire along the [010] direction (0.59?W/m K). This reveals that in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires the structural anisotropy can be as important as size effects to reduce the thermal conductivity. The main reason is the reduction of the phonon mean free path which is found to be 1.7?nm in the tilted nanowires, compared to 5.3?nm for the nanowires along the [010] direction. The fact that tilted Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowire is mechanically stable and it has extremely low thermal conductivity suggests these nanowires as a promising material for future thermoelectric generation application.

  4. Measurement and modeling of solar irradiance components on horizontal and tilted planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padovan, Andrea; Col, Davide del

    2010-12-15

    In this work new measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance on the horizontal plane and global irradiance on planes tilted at 20 and 30 oriented due South and at 45 and 65 oriented due East are used to discuss the modeling of solar radiation. Irradiance data are collected in Padova (45.4 N, 11.9 E, 12 m above sea level), Italy. Some diffuse fraction correlations have been selected to model the hourly diffuse radiation on the horizontal plane. The comparison with the present experimental data shows that their prediction accuracy strongly depends on the sky characteristics. The hourly irradiance measurements taken on the tilted planes are compared with the estimations given by one isotropic and three anisotropic transposition models. The use of an anisotropic model, based on a physical description of the diffuse radiation, provides a much better accuracy, especially when measurements of the diffuse irradiance on the horizontal plane are not available and thus transposition models have to be applied in combination with a diffuse fraction correlation. This is particularly significant for the planes oriented away from South. (author)

  5. THE TRANSIT INGRESS AND THE TILTED ORBIT OF THE EXTRAORDINARILY ECCENTRIC EXOPLANET HD 80606b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Johnson, John Asher; Gazak, J. Zachary; Starkey, Donn; Ford, Eric B.; Colon, Knicole D.; Reyes, Francisco; Nortmann, Lisa; Dreizler, Stefan; Odewahn, Stephen; Welsh, William F.; Kadakia, Shimonee; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Lockhart, Matthew; Crossfield, Ian J.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Dantowitz, Ronald

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of a transcontinental campaign to observe the 2009 June 5 transit of the exoplanet HD 80606b. We report the first detection of the transit ingress, revealing the transit duration to be 11.64 +- 0.25 hr and allowing more robust determinations of the system parameters. Keck spectra obtained at midtransit exhibit an anomalous blueshift, giving definitive evidence that the stellar spin axis and planetary orbital axis are misaligned. The Keck data show that the projected spin-orbit angle lambda is between 32 deg. and 87 deg. with 68.3% confidence and between 14 deg. and 142 deg. with 99.73% confidence. Thus, the orbit of this planet is not only highly eccentric (e = 0.93) but is also tilted away from the equatorial plane of its parent star. A large tilt had been predicted, based on the idea that the planet's eccentric orbit was caused by the Kozai mechanism. Independently of the theory, it is worth noting that all three exoplanetary systems with known spin-orbit misalignments have massive planets on eccentric orbits, suggesting that those systems migrate through a different channel than lower mass planets on circular orbits.

  6. Observation of tilting activities in translated field reversed configuration plasma using computer tomography at two different cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Okada, Shigefumi

    2007-11-15

    Tilting activities of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasma were observed in translation experiments using computer tomography (CT) at two different cross sections in the FRC injection experiment (FIX) machine [S. Okada et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 677 (2007)]. In these experiments, two sets of CT devices were installed at the upstream and downstream sides of the confinement chamber of the FIX. Each CT device was composed of three arrays of detectors sensitive to the near-infrared radiation. The peak of the reconstructed emission profile at one side was displaced from the center of the cross section of the chamber. On the other hand, the reconstructed profile at the other side was located around the center. This result suggests that the FRC plasma was tilting in the axial direction. The occurrence of the observed tilting activities had almost no effect on the lifetime of the FRC plasma.

  7. Three-dimensional microelectromechanical tilting platform operated by gear-driven racks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klody, Kelly A.; Habbit, Jr., Robert D.

    2005-11-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) tiltable-platform apparatus is disclosed which utilizes a light-reflective platform (i.e. a micromirror) which is supported above a substrate by flexures which can be bent upwards to tilt the platform in any direction over an angle of generally .+-.10 degrees using a gear-driven rack attached to each flexure. Each rack is driven by a rotary microengine (i.e. a micromotor); and an optional thermal actuator can be used in combination with each microengine for initially an initial uplifting of the platform away from the substrate. The MEM apparatus has applications for optical switching (e.g. between a pair of optical fibers) or for optical beam scanning.

  8. Bose-Einstein condensates on tilted lattices: Coherent, chaotic, and subdiffusive dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolovsky, Andrey R.; Gomez, Edgar A.; Korsch, Hans Juergen

    2010-02-15

    The dynamics of a (quasi-) one-dimensional interacting atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in a tilted optical lattice is studied in a discrete mean-field approximation, i.e., in terms of the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation. If the static field is varied, the system shows a plethora of dynamical phenomena. In the strong field limit, we demonstrate the existence of (almost) nonspreading states which remain localized on the lattice region populated initially and show coherent Bloch oscillations with fractional revivals in the momentum space (so-called quantum carpets). With decreasing field, the dynamics becomes irregular, however, still confined in configuration space. For even weaker fields, we find subdiffusive dynamics with a wave-packet width growing as t{sup 1/4}.

  9. Test Problem: Tilted Rayleigh-Taylor for 2-D Mixing Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Malcolm J.; Livescu, Daniel; Youngs, David L.

    2012-08-14

    The 'tilted-rig' test problem originates from a series of experiments (Smeeton & Youngs, 1987, Youngs, 1989) performed at AWE in the late 1980's, that followed from the 'rocket-rig' experiments (Burrows et al., 1984; Read & Youngs, 1983), and exploratory experiments performed at Imperial College (Andrews, 1986; Andrews and Spalding, 1990). A schematic of the experiment is shown in Figure 1, and comprises a tank filled with light fluid above heavy, and then 'tilted' on one side of the apparatus, thus causing an 'angled interface' to the acceleration history due to rockets. Details of the configuration given in the next chapter include: fluids, dimensions, and other necessary details to simulate the experiment. Figure 2 shows results from two experiments, Case 110 (which is the source for this test problem) that has an Atwood number of 0.5, and Case 115 (a secondary source described in Appendix B), with Atwood of 0.9 Inspection of the photograph in Figure 2 (the main experimental diagnostic) for Case 110. reveals two main areas for mix development; 1) a large-scale overturning motion that produces a rising plume (spike) on the left, and falling plume (bubble) on the right, that are almost symmetric; and 2) a Rayleigh-Taylor driven mixing central mixing region that has a large-scale rotation associated with the rising and falling plumes, and also experiences lateral strain due to stretching of the interface by the plumes, and shear across the interface due to upper fluid moving downward and to the right, and lower fluid moving upward and to the left. Case 115 is similar but differs by a much larger Atwood of 0.9 that drives a strong asymmetry between a left side heavy spike penetration and a right side light bubble penetration. Case 110 is chosen as the source for the present test problem as the fluids have low surface tension (unlike Case 115) due the addition of a surfactant, the asymmetry small (no need to have fine grids for the spike), and there is extensive

  10. Characteristics of optical emissions and particle precipitation in mid/low-latitude aurorae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rassoul K., H.R.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based optical observations have been made at low/mid latitudes to study the auroral effects of particle precipitation. The measured optical emissions include (OI) 5577 {Angstrom}, (OI) 6300 {Angstrom}, and (OI) 7774 {Angstrom} of atomic oxygen, the Balmer-{beta} line of Hydrogen at 4861 {Angstrom}; and the emission bands from the first negative nitrogen system at 3914 {Angstrom} and 4278 {Angstrom}. Spectral characteristics of low-latitude aurorae, the correlation of optical data with geomagnetic field variations, and the nature of the precipitating particles were established. The observed auroral emissions have characteristics appropriate to the precipitation into the thermosphere of heavy energetic (keV energy) particles and/or electrons of energy of the order of eV rather than the keV electron precipitation as in the high-latitude auroral zone. The latitude variation of optical emissions shows a strong increase from low to mid latitudes, and the strongest emissions occur in the evening to midnight local time period. The particle precipitation enhances at times when there is a populated and/or energized ring current and there exists a strong magnetic perturbation near the local meridian of the precipitation.

  11. Uranium vacancy mobility at the Σ5 symmetric tilt and Σ5 twist grain boundaries in UO₂

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Andersson, David A.

    2015-10-01

    Ionic transport at grain boundaries in oxides dictates a number of important phenomena, from ionic conductivity to sintering to creep. For nuclear fuels, it also influences fission gas bubble nucleation and growth. Here, using a combination of atomistic calculations and object kinetic Monte Carlo (okMC) simulations, we examine the kinetic pathways associated with uranium vacancies at two model grain boundaries in UO2. The barriers for vacancy motion were calculated using the nudged elastic band method at all uranium sites at each grain boundary and were used as the basis of the okMC simulations. For both boundaries considered – a simple tilt and a simple twist boundary – the mobility of uranium vacancies is significantly higher than in the bulk. For the tilt boundary, there is clearly preferred migration along the tilt axis as opposed to in the perpendicular direction while, for the twist boundary, migration is essentially isotropic within the boundary plane. These results show that cation defect mobility in fluorite-structured materials is enhanced at certain types of grain boundaries and is dependent on the boundary structure with the tilt boundary exhibiting higher rates of migration than the twist boundary.

  12. Uranium vacancy mobility at the Σ5 symmetric tilt and Σ5 twist grain boundaries in UO₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Andersson, David A.

    2015-10-01

    Ionic transport at grain boundaries in oxides dictates a number of important phenomena, from ionic conductivity to sintering to creep. For nuclear fuels, it also influences fission gas bubble nucleation and growth. Here, using a combination of atomistic calculations and object kinetic Monte Carlo (okMC) simulations, we examine the kinetic pathways associated with uranium vacancies at two model grain boundaries in UO2. The barriers for vacancy motion were calculated using the nudged elastic band method at all uranium sites at each grain boundary and were used as the basis of the okMC simulations. For both boundaries considered – a simplemore » tilt and a simple twist boundary – the mobility of uranium vacancies is significantly higher than in the bulk. For the tilt boundary, there is clearly preferred migration along the tilt axis as opposed to in the perpendicular direction while, for the twist boundary, migration is essentially isotropic within the boundary plane. These results show that cation defect mobility in fluorite-structured materials is enhanced at certain types of grain boundaries and is dependent on the boundary structure with the tilt boundary exhibiting higher rates of migration than the twist boundary.« less

  13. Calculation of Latitude and Longitude for Points on Perimeter of a Circle on a Sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Heidi E.

    2015-08-14

    This document describes the calculation of the Earth-Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) coordinates for points lying on the perimeter of a circle. Here, the perimeter of the circle lies on the surface of the sphere and the center of the planar circle is below the surface. These coordinates are converted to latitude and longitude for mapping fields on the surface of the earth.

  14. Comprehensive kinetic analysis of the plasma-wall transition layer in a strongly tilted magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tskhakaya, D. D.; Kos, L.

    2014-10-15

    The magnetized plasma-wall transition (MPWT) layer at the presence of the obliquity of the magnetic field to the wall consists of three sub-layers: the Debye sheath (DS), the magnetic pre-sheath (MPS), and the collisional pre-sheath (CPS) with characteristic lengths ?{sub D} (electron Debye length), ?{sub i} (ion gyro-radius), and ? (the smallest relevant collision length), respectively. Tokamak plasmas are usually assumed to have the ordering ?{sub D}??{sub i}??, when the above-mentioned sub-layers can be distinctly distinguished. In the limits of ?{sub Dm}(?{sub D}/?{sub i})?0 and ?{sub mc}(?{sub i}/?)?0 (asymptotic three-scale (A3S) limits), these sub-layers are precisely defined. Using the smallness of the tilting angle of the magnetic field to the wall, the ion distribution functions are found for three sub-regions in the analytic form. The equations and characteristic length-scales governing the transition (intermediate) regions between the neighboring sub-layers (CPS MPS and MPS DS) are derived, allowing to avoid the singularities arising from the ?{sub Dm}?0 and ?{sub mc}?0 approximations. The MPS entrance and the related kinetic form of the BohmChodura condition are successfully defined for the first time. At the DS entrance, the Bohm condition maintains its usual form. The results encourage further study and understanding of physics of the MPWT layers in the modern plasma facilities.

  15. Segregation and Migration of the Oxygen Vacancies in the 3 (111) Tilt Grain Boundaries of Ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yuan, Fenglin; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2016-03-01

    In nanocrystalline materials, defect-grain boundary (GB) interaction plays a key role in determining the structure stability, as well as size-dependent ionic, electronic, magnetic and chemical properties. In this study, we systematically investigated using density functional theory segregation and migration of oxygen vacancies at the Σ3 [110] / (111) grain boundary of ceria. Three oxygen layers near the GB are predicted to be segregation sites for oxygen vacancies. Moreover, the presence of oxygen vacancies stabilizes this tilt GB at a low Fermi level and/or oxygen poor conditions. An atomic strain model was proposed to rationalize layer dependency of the relaxation energymore » for +2 charged oxygen vacancy. The structural origin of large relaxation energies at layers 1 and 2 was determined to be free-volume space that induces ion relaxation towards the GB. Our results not only pave the way for improving the oxygen transport near GBs of ceria, but also provide important insights into engineering the GB structure for better ionic, magnetic and chemical properties of nanocrystalline ceria.« less

  16. Noncircular skyrmion and its anisotropic response in thin films of chiral magnets under a tilted magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Shi-Zeng; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-11-03

    Here we study the equilibrium and dynamical properties of skyrmions in thin films of chiral magnets with oblique magnetic field. The shape of an individual skyrmion is non-circular and the skyrmion density decreases with the tilt angle from the normal of films. As a result, the interaction between two skyrmions depends on the relative angle between them in addition to their separation. The triangular lattice of skyrmions under a perpendicular magnetic field is distorted into a centered rectangular lattice for a tilted magnetic field. For a low skyrmion density, skyrmions form a chain like structure. Lastly, the dynamical response of the non-circular skyrmions depends on the direction of external currents.

  17. Noncircular skyrmion and its anisotropic response in thin films of chiral magnets under a tilted magnetic field

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Shi-Zeng; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-11-03

    Here we study the equilibrium and dynamical properties of skyrmions in thin films of chiral magnets with oblique magnetic field. The shape of an individual skyrmion is non-circular and the skyrmion density decreases with the tilt angle from the normal of films. As a result, the interaction between two skyrmions depends on the relative angle between them in addition to their separation. The triangular lattice of skyrmions under a perpendicular magnetic field is distorted into a centered rectangular lattice for a tilted magnetic field. For a low skyrmion density, skyrmions form a chain like structure. Lastly, the dynamical response ofmore » the non-circular skyrmions depends on the direction of external currents.« less

  18. Micromagnetic study of spin transfer switching with a spin polarization tilted out of the free layer plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaves-O'Flynn, Gabriel D. Wolf, Georg; Pinna, Daniele; Kent, Andrew D.

    2015-05-07

    We present the results of zero temperature macrospin and micromagnetic simulations of spin transfer switching of thin film nanomagnets in the shape of an ellipse with a spin-polarization tilted out of the layer plane. The perpendicular component of the spin-polarization is shown to increase the reversal speed, leading to a lower current for switching in a given time. However, for tilt angles larger than a critical angle, the layer magnetization starts to precess about an out-of-plane axis, which leads to a final magnetization state that is very sensitive to simulation conditions. As the ellipse lateral size increases, this out-of-plane precession is suppressed, due to the excitation of spatially non-uniform magnetization modes.

  19. Multi-Year Lags between Forest Browning and Soil Respiration at High Northern Latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bunn, Andrew G.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2012-11-26

    High-latitude northern ecosystems are experiencing rapid climate changes, and represent a large potential climate feedback because of their high soil carbon densities and shifting disturbance regimes. A significant carbon flow from these ecosystems is soil respiration (RS, the flow of carbon dioxide, generated by plant roots and soil fauna, from the soil surface to atmosphere), and any change in the high-latitude carbon cycle might thus be reflected in RS observed in the field. This study used two variants of a machine-learning algorithm and least squares regression to examine how remotely-sensed canopy greenness (NDVI), climate, and other variables are coupled to annual RS based on 105 observations from 64 circumpolar sites in a global database. The addition of NDVI roughly doubled model performance, with the best-performing models explaining ~62% of observed RS variability

  20. Observed Regimes of Mid-Latitude.and Tropical Cirrus Microphysical Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observed Regimes of Mid-Latitude and Tropical Cirrus Microphysical Behavior A. D. Del Genio and A. B. Wolf National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York G. G. Mace University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah L. M. Miloshevich National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado Introduction Little is known about the climatological microphysical properties of cirrus clouds. Thus, general circulation model (GCM) cirrus parameterizations often

  1. Cluster Analysis of Cloud Regimes and Characteristic Dynamics of Mid-Latitude Synoptic Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cluster Analysis of Cloud Regimes and Characteristic Dynamics of Mid-Latitude Synoptic Systems N. D. Gordon and J. R. Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California C. P. Weaver Center for Environmental Prediction Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey S. A. Klein Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey Introduction This study uses a clustering algorithm to group meteorological regimes by cloud

  2. Coherent radar estimates of average high-latitude ionospheric Joule heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosch, M.J.; Nielsen, E.

    1995-07-01

    The Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (STARE) and Sweden and Britain Radar Experiment (SABRE) bistatic coherent radar systems have been employed to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of the ionospheric Joule heating in the combined geographic latitude range 63.8 deg - 72.6 deg (corrected geomagnetic latitude 61.5 deg - 69.3 deg) over Scandinavia. The 173 days of good observations with all four radars have been analyzed during the period 1982 to 1986 to estimate the average ionospheric electric field versus time and latitude. The AE dependent empirical model of ionospheric Pedersen conductivity of Spiro et al. (1982) has been used to calculate the Joule heating. The latitudinal and diurnal variation of Joule heating as well as the estimated mean hemispherical heating of 1.7 x 10(exp 11) W are in good agreement with earlier results. Average Joule heating was found to vary linearly with the AE, AU, and AL indices and as a second-order power law with Kp. The average Joule heating was also examined as a function of the direction and magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field. It has been shown for the first time that the ionospheric electric field magnitude as well as the Joule heating increase with increasingly negative (southward) Bz.

  3. GEF climate change operational strategy: Whither UNDP?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosier, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses aspects of the implementation of the program for climatic change which has been come about as part of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change. Initial effort has focused on providing strategic information and help to countries, on achieving offsets in greenhouse gas emissions by energy conservation or carbon sinking, and an emphasis on development of renewable energy supplies. The U.N. Development Agency has limited funding to help support startup on projects submitted. Specific examples are discussed in the areas of energy conservation and energy efficiency, adoption of renewable energy sources, and reducing the long-term costs of low greenhouse gas-emitting energy technologies.

  4. Global Environment Fund GEF | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Invests in companies that make positive contributions to environmental quality, human health and sustainable management of resources. References: Global Environment Fund...

  5. Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seager, Richard

    2014-12-08

    Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

  6. Uranium vacancy mobility at the sigma 5 symmetric tilt grain boundary in UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2012-05-02

    An important consequence of the fissioning process occurring during burnup is the formation of fission products. These fission products alter the thermo-mechanical properties of the fuel. They also lead to macroscopic changes in the fuel structure, including the formation of bubbles that are connected to swelling of the fuel. Subsequent release of fission gases increase the pressure in the plenum and can cause changes in the properties of the fuel pin itself. It is thus imperative to understand how fission products, and fission gases in particular, behave within the fuel in order to predict the performance of the fuel under operating conditions. Fission gas redistribution within the fuel is governed by mass transport and the presence of sinks such as impurities, dislocations, and grain boundaries. Thus, to understand how the distribution of fission gases evolves in the fuel, we must understand the underlying transport mechanisms, tied to the concentrations and mobilities of defects within the material, and how these gases interact with microstructural features that might act as sinks. Both of these issues have been addressed in previous work under NEAMS. However, once a fission product has reached a sink, such as a grain boundary, its mobility may be different there than in the grain interior and predicting how, for example, bubbles nucleate within grain boundaries necessitates an understanding of how fission gases diffuse within boundaries. That is the goal of the present work. In this report, we describe atomic level simulations of uranium vacancy diffusion in the pressence of a {Sigma}5 symmetric tilt boundary in urania (UO{sub 2}). This boundary was chosen as it is the simplest of the boundaries we considered in previous work on segregation and serves as a starting point for understanding defect mobility at boundaries. We use a combination of molecular statics calculations and kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to determine how the mobility of uranium vacancies is

  7. A FALSE POSITIVE FOR OCEAN GLINT ON EXOPLANETS: THE LATITUDE-ALBEDO EFFECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Voigt, Aiko [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, D-20146, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-06-10

    Identifying liquid water on the surface of planets is a high priority, as this traditionally defines habitability. One proposed signature of oceans is specular reflection ('glint'), which increases the apparent albedo of a planet at crescent phases. We post-process a global climate model of an Earth-like planet to simulate reflected light curves. Significantly, we obtain glint-like phase variations even though we do not include specular reflection in our model. This false positive is the product of two generic properties: (1) for modest obliquities, a planet's poles receive less orbit-averaged stellar flux than its equator, so the poles are more likely to be covered in highly reflective snow and ice; and (2) we show that reflected light from a modest-obliquity planet at crescent phases probes higher latitudes than at gibbous phases, therefore a planet's apparent albedo will naturally increase at crescent phase. We suggest that this 'latitude-albedo effect' will operate even for large obliquities: in that case the equator receives less orbit-averaged flux than the poles, and the equator is preferentially sampled at crescent phase. Using rotational and orbital color variations to map the surfaces of directly imaged planets and estimate their obliquity will therefore be a necessary pre-condition for properly interpreting their reflected phase variations. The latitude-albedo effect is a particularly convincing glint false positive for zero-obliquity planets, and such worlds are not amenable to latitudinal mapping. This effect severely limits the utility of specular reflection for detecting oceans on exoplanets.

  8. Sedimentation and reservoir distribution related to a tilted block system in the Sardinia Oligocene-Miocene rift (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tremolieres, P.; Cherchi, A.; Eschard, R.; De Graciansky, P.C.; Montadert, L.

    1988-08-01

    In the western Mediterranean basin lies a rift system about 250 km long and 50 km wide and its infilling outcrop (central Sardinia). Seismic reflection surveys show its offshore extension. Block tilting started during the late Oligocene and lasted during Aquitanian-early Burdigalian time. Two main fault trends, with synthetic and antithetic throws, define the more-or-less collapsed blocks. This morphology guided the transit and trapping of sediments. The sedimentation started in a continental environment then, since the Chattian, in marine conditions. In the central part, the series can reach a thickness of 2,000 m. The basement composition and the volcanics products related to the main fault motion controlled the nature of the synrift deposits. According to their location in the rift context, the tilted blocks trap either continental deposits or marine siliciclastic or carbonate deposits. In the deeper part of the graben, sands were redeposited by gravity flows into the basinal marls. The younger prerift deposits are from Eocene to early Oligocene age and locally comprise thick coal layers. Postrift deposits, mainly marls, sealed the blocks and synrift sedimentary bodies. In middle and late Miocene time some faults were reactivated during compressional events. Then, a quaternary extensional phase created the Campidano graben, filled with about 1,000 m of sediments superimposed on the Oligocene-Miocene rift.

  9. Latitude survey investigation of galactic cosmic ray solar modulation during 1994-2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuntiyakul, W.; Ruffolo, D.; Siz, A.; Evenson, P.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Pyle, R.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E. E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th E-mail: evenson@udel.edu E-mail: clem@bartol.udel.edu E-mail: John.Humble@utas.edu.au

    2014-11-01

    The Galactic cosmic ray spectrum exhibits subtle variations over the 22 yr solar magnetic cycle in addition to the more dramatic variations over the 11 yr sunspot cycle. Neutron monitors are large ground-based detectors that provide accurate measurements of variations in the cosmic ray flux at the top of the atmosphere above the detector. At any given location the magnetic field of the Earth excludes particles below a well-defined rigidity (momentum per unit charge) known as the cutoff rigidity, which can be accurately calculated using detailed models of the geomagnetic field. By carrying a neutron monitor to different locations, e.g., on a ship, the Earth itself serves as a magnet spectrometer. By repeating such latitude surveys with identical equipment, a sensitive measurement of changes in the spectrum can be made. In this work, we analyze data from the 1994 through 2007 series of latitude surveys conducted by the Bartol Research Institute, the University of Tasmania, and the Australian Antarctic Division. We confirm the curious 'crossover' in spectra measured near solar minima during epochs of opposite solar magnetic polarity, and show that it is directly related to a sudden change in the spectral behavior of solar modulation at the time of the polarity reversal, as revealed from contemporaneous variations in the survey data and a fixed station. We suggest that the spectral change and crossover result from the interaction of effects due to gradient/curvature drifts with a systematic change in the interplanetary diffusion coefficient caused by turbulent magnetic helicity.

  10. Reconciliation of local and long range tilt correlations in underdoped La??xBaxCuO? (0 ? x ? 0.155)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bozin, Emil S.; Zhong, Ruidan; Knox, Kevin R.; Gu, Genda; Hill, John P.; Tranquada, John M.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-02-26

    A long standing puzzle regarding the disparity of local and long range CuO? octahedral tilt correlations in the underdoped regime of La??xBaxCuO? is addressed by utilizing complementary neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) approaches. Long-range and static CuO? tilt order with orthogonally inequivalent Cu-O bonds in the CuO? planes in the low temperature tetragonal (LTT) phase is succeeded on warming through the low-temperature transition by one with orthogonally equivalent bonds in the low temperature orthorhombic (LTO) phase. In contrast, the signatures of LTT-type tilts in the instantaneous local atomic structure persist on heating throughout the LTO crystallographic phasemoreon the nanoscale, although becoming weaker as temperature increases. Analysis of the INS spectra for the x = 1/8 composition reveals the dynamic nature of the LTT-like tilt fluctuations within the LTO phase and their 3D character. The doping dependence of relevant structural parameters indicates that the magnitude of the Cu-O bond anisotropy has a maximum at x = 1/8 doping where bulk superconductivity is most strongly suppressed, suggesting that the structural anisotropy might be influenced by electron-phonon coupling and the particular stability of the stripe-ordered phase at this composition. The bond-length modulation that pins stripe order is found to be remarkably subtle, with no anomalous bond length disorder at low temperature, placing an upper limit on any in-plane Cu-O bondlength anisotropy. The results further reveal that although appreciable octahedral tilts persist through the high-temperature transition and into the high temperature tetragonal (HTT) phase, there is no significant preference between different tilt directions in the HTT regime. This study also exemplifies the importance of a systematic approach using complementary techniques when investigating systems exhibiting a large degree of complexity and subtle structural responses.less

  11. Reconciliation of local and long-range tilt correlations in underdoped La2-xBaxCuO4(0 ≤ x ≤ 0.155)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bozin, Emil S.; Zhong, Ruidan; Knox, Kevin R.; Gu, Genda; Hill, John P.; Tranquada, John M.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-02-26

    A long standing puzzle regarding the disparity of local and long range CuO₆ octahedral tilt correlations in the underdoped regime of La₂₋xBaxCuO₄ is addressed by utilizing complementary neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) approaches. Long-range and static CuO₆ tilt order with orthogonally inequivalent Cu-O bonds in the CuO₂ planes in the low temperature tetragonal (LTT) phase is succeeded on warming through the low-temperature transition by one with orthogonally equivalent bonds in the low temperature orthorhombic (LTO) phase. In contrast, the signatures of LTT-type tilts in the instantaneous local atomic structure persist on heating throughout the LTO crystallographic phasemore » on the nanoscale, although becoming weaker as temperature increases. Analysis of the INS spectra for the x = 1/8 composition reveals the dynamic nature of the LTT-like tilt fluctuations within the LTO phase and their 3D character. The doping dependence of relevant structural parameters indicates that the magnitude of the Cu-O bond anisotropy has a maximum at x = 1/8 doping where bulk superconductivity is most strongly suppressed, suggesting that the structural anisotropy might be influenced by electron-phonon coupling and the particular stability of the stripe-ordered phase at this composition. The bond-length modulation that pins stripe order is found to be remarkably subtle, with no anomalous bond length disorder at low temperature, placing an upper limit on any in-plane Cu-O bondlength anisotropy. The results further reveal that although appreciable octahedral tilts persist through the high-temperature transition and into the high temperature tetragonal (HTT) phase, there is no significant preference between different tilt directions in the HTT regime. As a result, this study also exemplifies the importance of a systematic approach using complementary techniques when investigating systems exhibiting a large degree of complexity and subtle

  12. Symmetries of migration related segments of all [001] coincidence site lattice tilt boundaries in (001) projections for all holohedral cubic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeck, Peter; York, Bryant W.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-09-11

    Utilizing bicrystallography in two dimensions (2D), the symmetries of migration related segments of Coincidence Site Lattice (CSL) boundaries are derived for projections along their [001] tilt axis in grain boundaries of crystalline materials that possess the holohedral point symmetry of the cubic system (i.e. m3m). These kinds of “edge-on” projections are typical for atomic resolution imaging of such tilt boundaries with Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM). This fact facilitates the visual confirmation of our predictions by recently published Zcontrast scanning TEM investigations [H. Yang et al., Phil. Mag. 93 (2013) 1219] and many other TEM studies.

  13. Unit-cell thick BaTiO{sub 3} blocks octahedral tilt propagation across oxide heterointerface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kan, Daisuke Aso, Ryotaro; Kurata, Hiroki; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2014-05-14

    We fabricated SrRuO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3}/GdScO{sub 3} heterostructures in which the BaTiO{sub 3} layer is one unit cell thick by pulsed laser deposition and elucidated how the BaTiO{sub 3} layer influences structural and magneto-transport properties of the SrRuO{sub 3} layer through octahedral connections across the heterointerface. Our X-ray-diffraction-based structural characterizations show that while an epitaxial SrRuO{sub 3} layer grown directly on a GdScO{sub 3} substrate is in the monoclinic phase with RuO{sub 6} octahedral tilts, a one-unit-cell-thick BaTiO{sub 3} layer inserted between SrRuO{sub 3} and GdScO{sub 3} stabilizes the tetragonal SrRuO{sub 3} layer with largely reduced RuO{sub 6} tilts. Our high-angle annular dark-field and annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy observations provide an atomic-level view of the octahedral connections across the heterostructure and reveal that the BaTiO{sub 3} layer only one unit cell thick is thick enough to stabilize the RuO{sub 6}-TiO{sub 6} octahedral connections with negligible in-plane oxygen atomic displacements. This results in no octahedral tilts propagating into the SrRuO{sub 3} layer and leads to the formation of a tetragonal SrRuO{sub 3} layer. The magneto-transport property characterizations also reveal a strong impact of the octahedral connections modified by the inserted BaTiO{sub 3} layer on the spin-orbit interaction of the SrRuO{sub 3} layer. The SrRuO{sub 3} layer on BaTiO{sub 3}/ GdScO{sub 3} has in-plane magnetic anisotropy. This is in contrast to the magnetic anisotropy of the monoclinic SrRuO{sub 3} films on the GdScO{sub 3} substrate, in which the easy axis is ?45 to the film surface normal. Our results demonstrate that the one-unit-cell-thick layer of BaTiO{sub 3} can control and manipulate the interfacial octahedral connection closely linked to the structure-property relationship of heterostructures.

  14. THE HIGH-LATITUDE BRANCH OF THE SOLAR TORSIONAL OSCILLATION IN THE RISING PHASE OF CYCLE 24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, R.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Hill, F.; Komm, R.; Larson, T. P.; Schou, J.; Rempel, M.; Thompson, M. J.

    2013-04-10

    We use global heliseismic data from the Global Oscillation Network Group, the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, to examine the behavior, during the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24, of the migrating zonal flow pattern known as the torsional oscillation. Although the high-latitude part of the pattern appears to be absent in the new cycle when the flows are derived by subtracting a mean across a full solar cycle, it can be seen if we subtract the mean over a shorter period in the rising phase of each cycle, and these two mean rotation profiles differ significantly at high latitudes. This indicates that the underlying high-latitude rotation has changed; we speculate that this is in response to weaker polar fields, as suggested by a recent model.

  15. Quaternary sedimentation and diagenesis in a high-latitude reef, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosen, M.R.; Collins, L.B. (Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)); Wyrwoll, K.H.; Hatcher, B.G. (Univ. of Western Australia, Perth (Australia))

    1990-05-01

    The Houtman Abrolhos reefs are located 80 km off the west coast of Australia between latitudes 28 and 29{degree} south. The islands are situated on three Pleistocene carbonate reef platforms which rise above the surrounding shelf. The modern coral reefs are close to the geographic limit for coral growth in the southern hemisphere and survive due to the presence of the Leeuwin current (a poleward-flowing warm stream). Two major shallow-water benthic communities coexist in the Abrolhos: a macroalgal-dominated community on the windward platform margins and a coral-dominated community on the leeward margins. These communities overlap-particularly in the platform lagoons, where competition between macroalgae and corals is intense. This interaction has been suggested as a major factor controlling the growth of cord reefs at high latitudes. The Holocene carbonate sediments lack nonskeletal components and are dominated by coral and coralline algal fragments with subordinate molluskan and echinoderm debris. The accumulations can be grouped into the following major facies: (1) coral framestone and coralline algal/serpulid boundstone, (2) submarine sand sheets, (3) subaerial coral storm ridges, (4-) peritidal to subtidal shingle and rubble veneers composed of dominantly coral debris, and (5) eolian dunes and beach sand. The Holocene sediment is a thin (< 2 m) veneer on the Pleistocene reef platform, which is emergent as small islands. The Pleistocene platform is composed of reef facies that can be directly related to the Holocene sediments. The platform is composed of framestone and boundstone facies (corals and coralline algal/serpulid facies), rudstones (submarine coral rubble facies), planar-bedded skeletal grainstones dipping 12-13{degree} (submarine sand sheet and peritidal shingle facies), and large 15-m-high eolianite dunes (eolian dune facies).

  16. Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdo, A.A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; /more authors..

    2012-04-11

    The diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess {gamma}-ray emission {ge}1 GeV relative to diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called 'EGRET GeV excess'). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has measured the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission with improved sensitivity and resolution compared to EGRET. We report on LAT measurements for energies 100 MeV to 10 GeV and galactic latitudes 10{sup o} {le} |b| {le} 20{sup o}. The LAT spectrum for this region of the sky is well reproduced by a diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission model that is consistent with local CR spectra and inconsistent with the EGRET GeV excess.

  17. Is the northern high latitude land-based CO2 sink weakening?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcguire, David; Kicklighter, David W.; Gurney, Kevin R; Burnside, Todd; Melillo, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that, historically, terrestrial ecosystems of the northern high latitude region may have been responsible for up to 60% of the global net land-based sink for atmospheric CO2. However, these regions have recently experienced remarkable modification of the major driving forces of the carbon cycle, including surface air temperature warming that is significantly greater than the global average and associated increases in the frequency and severity of disturbances. Whether arctic tundra and boreal forest ecosystems will continue to sequester atmospheric CO2 in the face of these dramatic changes is unknown. Here we show the results of model simulations that estimate a 41 Tg C yr-1 sink in the boreal land regions from 1997 to 2006, which represents a 73% reduction in the strength of the sink estimated for previous decades in the late 20th Century. Our results suggest that CO2 uptake by the region in previous decades may not be as strong as previously estimated. The recent decline in sink strength is the combined result of 1) weakening sinks due to warming-induced increases in soil organic matter decomposition and 2) strengthening sources from pyrogenic CO2 emissions as a result of the substantial area of boreal forest burned in wildfires across the region in recent years. Such changes create positive feedbacks to the climate system that accelerate global warming, putting further pressure on emission reductions to achieve atmospheric stabilization targets.

  18. Study of mid-latitude 5577A CI dayglow emissions. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The green line (5577angstroms) is a bright, persistent component of the visible airglow. It is produced by an electric quadruple transition from the metastable second excited state (1So) to the first excited state (1D2) of atomic oxygen. These two excited states all lie in the same electron shell of the atom and have the same electron configuration as the ground state of 1s22s22p4, which is the 3P2,1,0. This emission is present in both the daytime and night airglow and in the aurora, and despite a long history of study it is still not fully understood. The emission in the dayglow and the nightglow is relatively homogeneous spatially and global in coverage. In the aurora, the emission is much brighter than the airglow, high structured and very localized being restricted to higher latitudes. The structure of the 5577angstroms emission with altitude and the chemistry responsible for the production of the emission are complex. The vertical structure for the emission has two distinct layers in the airglow each with its own set of production and loss mechanisms. the chemistry for either of these layers is not completely known. The auroral emission is not understood either since it overlaps the upper and lower layer altitudes and it tends to contain some parts of the chemistry of both layers as sources and losses.

  19. Generation of short gamma-ray pulses on electron bunches formed in intense interfering laser beams with tilted fronts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korobkin, V V; Romanovskiy, M Yu; Trofimov, V A; Shiryaev, O B

    2014-05-30

    It is shown that in the interference of multiple laser pulses with a relativistic intensity, phase and amplitude fronts of which are tilted at an angle with respect to their wave vector, effective traps of charged particles, which are moving at the velocity of light, are formed. Such traps are capable of capturing and accelerating the electrons produced in the ionisation of low-density gas by means of laser radiation. The accelerated electrons in the traps form a bunch, whose dimensions in all directions are much smaller than the laser radiation wavelength. Calculations show that the energy of accelerated electrons may amount to several hundred GeV at experimentally accessible relativistic laser intensities. As a result of the inverse Compton scattering, gamma-quanta with a high energy and narrow radiation pattern are emitted when these electrons interact with a laser pulse propagating from the opposite direction. The duration of emitted gamma-ray pulses constitutes a few attoseconds. The simulation is performed by solving the relativistic equation of motion for an electron with a relevant Lorentz force. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  20. Magnetic rotation (MR) band crossing in N=78 odd-Z nuclei: Tilted axis cranking (TAC) calculations to explore the role of nucleons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2014-08-14

    Magnetic Rotation (MR) band crossing is studied systematically in N=78 isotones (La, Pr, Pm and Eu) using Tilted Axis Cranking (TAC) model. The observables such as I(h) vs h?, excitation energy E(MeV) vs spin I(h), and the B(M1)/B(E2) vs I(h) were considered to pinpoint MR crossing in these nuclei. The results of tilted axis cranking were compared with these experimental observables. The B(M1) and B(E2) values were also reported and used to understand the crossing behaviour of these MR bands. The systematic evolution of this phenomenon in N=78 odd-Z istotones leads to understand the role of nucleons in MR band crossing.

  1. Strain Accommodation By Facile WO6 Octahedral Distortion and Tilting During WO3 Heteroepitaxy on SrTiO3(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yingge; Gu, Meng; Varga, Tamas; Wang, Chong M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-08-27

    In this paper, we show that compared to other BO6 octahedra in ABO3 structured perovskite oxides, the WO6 octahedra in tungsten trioxide (WO3) can withstand a much larger degree of distortion and tilting to accommodate interfacial strain, which in turn strongly impact the nucleation, structure, and defect formation during the epitaxial growth of WO3 on SrTiO3(001). A meta-stable tetragonal phase can be stabilized by epitaxy and a thickness dependent phase transition (tetragonal to monoclinic) is observed. In contrast to misfit dislocations to accommodate the interfacial stain, the facial WO6 octahedral distortion and tilting give rise to three types of planar defects that affect more than 15 monolayers from the interface. These atomically resolved, unusual interfacial defects may significantly alter the electronic, electrochromic, and mechanical properties of the epitaxial films.

  2. Reconciliation of local and long-range tilt correlations in underdoped La 2 x Ba x CuO 4 ( 0 ? x ? 0.155 )

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bozin, Emil S.; Zhong, Ruidan; Knox, Kevin R.; Gu, Genda; Hill, John P.; Tranquada, John M.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-02-26

    A long-standing puzzle regarding the disparity of local and long-range CuO? octahedral tilt correlations in the underdoped regime of La2xBaxCuO? is addressed by utilizing complementary neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) approaches. This system is of interest because of the strong depression of the bulk superconducting transition at x=1/8 in association with charge and spin stripe order. The latter unidirectional order is tied to Cu-O bond-length anisotropy present in the so-called low-temperature tetragonal (LTT) phase. On warming, the lattice exhibits two sequential structural transitions, involving changes in the CuO? tilt pattern, first to the low-temperature orthorhombic (LTO) andmorethen the high-temperature tetragonal (HTT) phase. Despite the changes in static order, inspection of the instantaneous local atomic structure suggests that the LTT-type tilts persist through the transitions. Analysis of the INS spectra for the x=1/8 composition reveals the dynamic nature of the LTT-like tilt fluctuations within the LTO and HTT phases. Within the low-temperature phase, the Cu-O bond-length splitting inferred from lattice symmetry and fitted atomic position parameters reaches a maximum of 0.3% at x=1/8, suggesting that electron-phonon coupling may contribute to optimizing the structure to stabilize stripe order. This splitting is much too small to be resolved in the pair distribution function, and in fact we do not resolve any enhancement of the instantaneous bond-length distribution in association with stripe order. This study exemplifies the importance of a systematic approach using complementary techniques when investigating systems exhibiting a large degree of complexity and subtle structural responses.less

  3. Aerosol optical depth derived from solar radiometry observations at northern mid-latitude sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Larson, N.R.; Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    Routine, automated solar radiometry observations began with the development of the Mobile Automated Scanning Photometer (MASP) and its installation at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory (RMO). We have introduced a microprocessor controlled rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR), both the single detector and the multi-filter/detector (MFRSR) versions to replace the MASP. The operational mode of the RSRs is substantially different than the MASP or other traditional sun-tracking radiometers, because, by virtue of the automated rotating shadowband, the total and diffuse irradiance on a horizontal plane are measured and the direct-normal component deduced through computation from the total and diffuse components by the self-contained microprocessor. Because the three irradiance components are measured using the same detector for a given wavelength, the calibration coefficients are identical for each component, thus reducing errors when comparing them. The MFRSR is the primary radiometric instrument in the nine-station Quantitative Links Network (QLN) established in the eastern United States in late 1991. Data from this network are being used to investigate how cloud- and aerosol-induced radiative effects vary in time and with cloud structure and type over a mid-latitude continental region. This work supports the DOE Quantitative Links Program to quantify linkages between changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. In this paper we describe the setup of the QLN and present aerosol optical depth results from the on-going measurements at PNL/RMO, as well as preliminary results from the QLN. From the time-series of data at each site, we compare seasonal variability and geographical differences, as well as the effect of the perturbation to the stratosphere by Mt. Pinatubo. Analysis of the wavelength dependence of optical depth also provides information on the evolution and changes in the size distribution of the aerosols.

  4. Generation of kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail: A global hybrid simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Zhifang; Hong, Minghua; Du, Aimin; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, effects of a fast flow in the tail plasma sheet on the generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in the high-latitude of the near-Earth magnetotail are investigated by performing a two-dimensional (2-D) global-scale hybrid simulation, where the plasma flow is initialized by the EB drift near the equatorial plane due to the existence of the dawn-dusk convection electric field. It is found that firstly, the plasma sheet becomes thinned and the dipolarization of magnetic field appears around (x,z)=(?10.5R{sub E},0.3R{sub E}), where R{sub E} is the radius of the Earth. Then, shear Alfven waves are excited in the plasma sheet, and the strong earthward flow is braked by the dipole-like magnetic field. These waves propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the polar regions later. Subsequently, KAWs with k{sub ?}?k{sub ?} are generated in the high-latitude magnetotail due to the existence of the non-uniformity of the magnetic field and density in the polar regions. The ratio of the electric field to the magnetic field in these waves is found to obey the relation (?E{sub z})/(?B{sub y}?)??/k{sub ?} of KAWs. Our simulation provides a mechanism for the generation of the observed low-frequency shear Alfven waves in the plasma sheet and kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail, whose source is suggested to be the flow braking in the low-latitude plasma sheet.

  5. DIFFUSE GALACTIC LIGHT IN THE FIELD OF THE TRANSLUCENT HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDE CLOUD MBM32

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ienaka, N.; Kawara, K.; Matsuoka, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Sameshima, H.; Tsujimoto, T.; Peterson, B. A.

    2013-04-10

    We have conducted B-, g-, V-, and R-band imaging in a 45' Multiplication-Sign 40' field containing part of the high Galactic latitude translucent cloud MBM32, and correlated the intensity of diffuse optical light S{sub {nu}}({lambda}) with that of 100 {mu}m emission S{sub {nu}}(100 {mu}m). A {chi}{sup 2} minimum analysis is applied to fit a linear function to the measured correlation and derive the slope parameter b({lambda}) = {Delta}S{sub {nu}}({lambda})/{Delta}S{sub {nu}}(100 {mu}m) of the best-fit linear function. Compiling a sample by combining our b({lambda}) and published ones, we show that the b({lambda}) strength varies from cloud to cloud by a factor of four. Finding that b({lambda}) decreases as S{sub {nu}}(100 {mu}m) increases in the sample, we suggest that a nonlinear correlation including a quadratic term of S{sub {nu}}(100 {mu}m){sup 2} should be fitted to the measured correlation. The variation of optical depth, which is A{sub V} = 0.16-2.0 in the sample, can change b({lambda}) by a factor of 2-3. There would be some contribution to the large b({lambda}) variation from the forward-scattering characteristic of dust grains which is coupled to the non-isotropic interstellar radiation field (ISRF). Models of the scattering of diffuse Galactic light (DGL) underestimate the b({lambda}) values by a factor of two. This could be reconciled by deficiency in UV photons in the ISRF or by a moderate increase in dust albedo. Our b({lambda}) spectrum favors a contribution from extended red emission (ERE) to the diffuse optical light; b({lambda}) rises from B to V faster than the models, seems to peak around 6000 A and decreases toward long wavelengths. Such a characteristic is expected from the models in which the DGL is combined with ERE.

  6. Tilting at windmills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gipe, P.

    1995-05-01

    In the spring of 1994 an angry mob confronted a group touring proposed sites for a new wind power plant near Mojave, Calif. The armed vigilantes were responding to rumors that the U.S. Bureau of Land Management was planning to build a wind farm near their remote homesteads. Though there was no truth to the rumors and the incident was settled peacefully, the event illustrates the sometimes highly charged atmosphere around proposals for new wind plants, or for power plants of any kind, in the United States. Analysis of surveys by the British Broadcasting Corp (BBC) and the Department of Trade & Industry in the UNited Kingdom; MRL Research Group in New Zealand; and th Center for Design Research in California gives potential developers and investors useful insights into publi attitudes toward wind power. In genral, the surveys on both sides of the Atlantic reveal that those who favor renewable energy are more likely to find wind`s effect on the community acceptable, and those who are neutral will accept wind turbines in the landscape if they know they are beneficial.

  7. Tilting at windmills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garvin, C.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Mr. Garvin feels that mutual understanding between environmentalists and oil companies will solve energy problems faster than the confrontational approach. Exxon's hope that nuclear energy, coal, and synthetic fuels can bridge the transition to clean, renewable energy sources is in conflict with those of the Environmental Defense Fund. Even with a slower future economic growth and improved efficiency, Exxon anticipates a greater demand for energy and sees its responsibility to produce energy along with a reasonable return to its shareholders. Most of the conservation can be achieved with realistic policies that price energy at its replacement cost and allow economic growth to continue. The major uncertainty in meeting future energy demand is the depletion of conventionally-produced oil and the need for another source to pick up the difference. Although health and safety concerns are the major uncertainties for nuclear and coal, the alternatives to not following this route may present even greater risks if renewable sources are inadequate in this century. Economic criteria should be applied to energy development, but both sides need to be aware of the consequences should they be wrong. (DCK)

  8. Tilting toward windmills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGowan, J.G. . Renewable Energy Research Lab.)

    1993-07-01

    Emerging from the shadow of an energy crisis in the 1970s, a wind-power industry flourished briefly in the US. Part of an ambitious US government program to support research and development on renewable energy sources, the Department of Energy and the National Aeronautic and Space Agency sponsored the construction of a wide variety of large wind turbines-most accompanied by exaggerated claims by the promoters. But by the 1980s, US interest in wind power almost disappeared due to a drop in world oil prices, the Reagan administrations curtailment of funding, and the disappointing results of the initial wind turbines. The problems with the initial wind turbines was overly optimistic economic projections, siting snags, difficulties connecting wind-generated electricity to utility power grids. Today, however the wind farms in California are a highly productive, inexpensive source of energy. The author presents arguments dispelling the following four widely-believed myths about wind energy: (1) Wind power is not a significant energy source; (2) Wind-generated electricity is expensive and unreliable; (3) New and improved machine designs are needed to make wind power feasible; and (4) The technology is impractical for use by utilities because of problems connecting wind machines to the electricity grid, and because wind itself is intermittent. A study at Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab estimates that turbine technology could supply 20% of the country's electrical needs. Investor-owned wind-power plants in California generate electricity at a rate ranging from 4.7 to 7.2 cents per kilowatt-hour. The reality is that wind-produced electricity is now less expensive that electricity produced by conventional fossil- or nuclear-powered generating plants in many parts of the world. And unlike some of the proposed renewable electric-power sources like photovoltaics, wind power's future is not dependent on further breakthroughs in engineering or materials technology.

  9. Tilting at windmills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selde, V.

    1982-04-01

    The three MOD-2, 300 ft. blade windmills, situated in the Goodnoe Hills in Washington state are described. Built by Boeing Engineering and Construction and financed by the DOE ($35 million) and the Bonneville Power Administration ($2 million), the wind turbines are rated at 2.5 megawatts of capacity per turbine. The need for the large size of the blades (world's largest) is explained as well as the factors influencing the site selection. It is pointed out that efficiency increases as the square of the rotor diameter and a wind velocity of at least 14 m.p.h. is required. The various factors and people involved in the financial aspects of commercialization of large windmills are discussed. Current cost of power generated is about $0.10/kWh. This can be reduced to $0.04-0.05/kwh by developing a facility with 100 windmills. Control of the facility by computers, safety features, rotor and tower design and the test program are described as well as environmental effects. (MJJ)

  10. Effect of electron-density gradients on propagation of radio waves in the mid-latitude trough. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Citrone, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Partial contents of this thesis include: (1) Radio-wave propagation and the mid-latitude trough; (2) Ionospheric measurements; (3) Modification of time-dependent ionospheric model output with latitudinal electron-density profiles from digisonde trough depictions; (4) Ray-tracing simulations to examine ground range; and (5) Effects of three-dimensional gradients in electron density on radio-wave propagation in the trough region. Data is tabulated for geophysical conditions, solar activity level, geomagnetic activity level, conditions for vertical ray refraction to surface, and ray-tracing fixed-input conditions.

  11. Options for improving the load matching capability of distributed photovoltaics: Methodology and application to high-latitude data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Lund, Peter D.

    2009-11-15

    At high latitudes, domestic electricity demand and insolation are negatively correlated on both an annual and a diurnal basis. With increasing integration of distributed photovoltaics (PV) in low-voltage distribution grids of residential areas, limits to the penetration level are set by voltage rise due to unmatched production and load. In this paper a methodology for determining the impacts of three options for increased load matching is presented and applied to high-latitude data. The studied options are PV array orientation, demand side management (DSM) and electricity storage. Detailed models for domestic electricity demand and PV output are used. An optimisation approach is applied to find an optimal distribution of PV systems on different array orientations and a best-case evaluation of DSM and a storage model are implemented. At high penetration levels, storage is the most efficient option for maximising the solar fraction, but at lower overproduction levels, the impact of DSM is equal or slightly better. An east-west orientation of PV arrays is suggested for high penetration levels, but the effect of the optimised orientation is small. Without an optimised storage operation, the overproduced power is more efficiently reduced by DSM than storage, although this is highly dependent on the applied DSM algorithm. Further research should be focused on the DSM potential and optimal operation of storage. (author)

  12. Reconciliation of local and long-range tilt correlations in underdoped La2-xBaxCuO4(0 ? x ? 0.155)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozin, Emil S.; Zhong, Ruidan; Knox, Kevin R.; Gu, Genda; Hill, John P.; Tranquada, John M.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-02-26

    A long standing puzzle regarding the disparity of local and long range CuO? octahedral tilt correlations in the underdoped regime of La??xBaxCuO? is addressed by utilizing complementary neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) approaches. Long-range and static CuO? tilt order with orthogonally inequivalent Cu-O bonds in the CuO? planes in the low temperature tetragonal (LTT) phase is succeeded on warming through the low-temperature transition by one with orthogonally equivalent bonds in the low temperature orthorhombic (LTO) phase. In contrast, the signatures of LTT-type tilts in the instantaneous local atomic structure persist on heating throughout the LTO crystallographic phase on the nanoscale, although becoming weaker as temperature increases. Analysis of the INS spectra for the x = 1/8 composition reveals the dynamic nature of the LTT-like tilt fluctuations within the LTO phase and their 3D character. The doping dependence of relevant structural parameters indicates that the magnitude of the Cu-O bond anisotropy has a maximum at x = 1/8 doping where bulk superconductivity is most strongly suppressed, suggesting that the structural anisotropy might be influenced by electron-phonon coupling and the particular stability of the stripe-ordered phase at this composition. The bond-length modulation that pins stripe order is found to be remarkably subtle, with no anomalous bond length disorder at low temperature, placing an upper limit on any in-plane Cu-O bondlength anisotropy. The results further reveal that although appreciable octahedral tilts persist through the high-temperature transition and into the high temperature tetragonal (HTT) phase, there is no significant preference between different tilt directions in the HTT regime. As a result, this study also exemplifies the importance of a systematic approach using complementary techniques when investigating systems exhibiting a large degree of complexity and subtle

  13. Reconciliation of local and long-range tilt correlations in underdoped La2-xBaxCuO4(0 ≤ x ≤ 0.155)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozin, Emil S.; Zhong, Ruidan; Knox, Kevin R.; Gu, Genda; Hill, John P.; Tranquada, John M.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-02-26

    A long standing puzzle regarding the disparity of local and long range CuO₆ octahedral tilt correlations in the underdoped regime of La₂₋xBaxCuO₄ is addressed by utilizing complementary neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) approaches. Long-range and static CuO₆ tilt order with orthogonally inequivalent Cu-O bonds in the CuO₂ planes in the low temperature tetragonal (LTT) phase is succeeded on warming through the low-temperature transition by one with orthogonally equivalent bonds in the low temperature orthorhombic (LTO) phase. In contrast, the signatures of LTT-type tilts in the instantaneous local atomic structure persist on heating throughout the LTO crystallographic phase on the nanoscale, although becoming weaker as temperature increases. Analysis of the INS spectra for the x = 1/8 composition reveals the dynamic nature of the LTT-like tilt fluctuations within the LTO phase and their 3D character. The doping dependence of relevant structural parameters indicates that the magnitude of the Cu-O bond anisotropy has a maximum at x = 1/8 doping where bulk superconductivity is most strongly suppressed, suggesting that the structural anisotropy might be influenced by electron-phonon coupling and the particular stability of the stripe-ordered phase at this composition. The bond-length modulation that pins stripe order is found to be remarkably subtle, with no anomalous bond length disorder at low temperature, placing an upper limit on any in-plane Cu-O bondlength anisotropy. The results further reveal that although appreciable octahedral tilts persist through the high-temperature transition and into the high temperature tetragonal (HTT) phase, there is no significant preference between different tilt directions in the HTT regime. As a result, this study also exemplifies the importance of a systematic approach using complementary techniques when investigating systems exhibiting a large degree of complexity

  14. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies implies ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J. Y.

    2014-12-11

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the climate. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the aboveground and belowground responses to warming and nitrogen addition in high-latitude ecosystems, and identified absent or poorly parameterized mechanisms in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar soil carbon stock trajectories following both warming and nitrogen addition, other predicted variables (e.g., belowgroundmore » respiration) differed from observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating that CLM4.5 has inadequate underlying mechanisms for representing high-latitude ecosystems. On the basis of observational synthesis, we attribute the model–observation differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, aboveground and belowground coupling, and nutrient cycling, and we use the observational meta-analysis to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models. However, we also urge caution concerning the selection of data sets and experiments for meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average = 72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which precludes a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to likely nitrogen perturbations. Overall, we demonstrate that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  15. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies imply ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.

    2014-08-18

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the atmosphere. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the above and belowground high-latitude ecosystem responses to warming and nitrogen addition, and identified mechanisms absent, or poorly parameterized in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar trajectories for soil carbon stocks following both types of perturbation, other variables (e.g., belowground respiration) differedmore » from the observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating the underlying mechanisms are inadequate for representing high-latitude ecosystems. The observational synthesis attribute these differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, characterization of above and belowground functional processes, and nutrient competition. We use the observational meta-analyses to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models (e.g., the inclusion of dynamic vegetation or different microbial functional guilds), however, we also raise a cautionary note on the selection of data sets and experiments to be included in a meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average =72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which preclude a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to nitrogen perturbation. Overall, we demonstrate here that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in both ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  16. UNDP/GEF-Cambodia-Sustainable Forest Management | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be carried out through community forestry activities to engage rural communities in nature conservation and create markets for sustainable bio-energy technologies to help curb...

  17. Investing in Sustainable Transport and Urban Systems: The GEF...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    expand clean public transportation choices that also have the added benefits of lowering air pollution and reducing traffic congestion. LEDSGP green logo.png This tool is included...

  18. Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wullschleger, Stan [ORNL

    2013-01-22

    Stan Wullschleger of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems" on March 22, 2012 at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, California.

  19. Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wullschleger, Stan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-03-22

    Stan Wullschleger of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems" on March 22, 2012 at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, California.

  20. Fast modulations of pulsating proton aurora related to subpacket structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations at subauroral latitudes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ozaki, M.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Yagitani, S.; Inoue, T.; Ebihara, Y.; Jun, C. -W; Nomura, R.; Sakaguchi, K.; et al

    2016-08-14

    To understand the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in determining the temporal features of pulsating proton aurora (PPA) via wave-particle interactions at subauroral latitudes, high-time-resolution (1/8 s) images of proton-induced N2>+ emissions were recorded using a new electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera, along with related Pc1 pulsations on the ground. The observed Pc1 pulsations consisted of successive rising-tone elements with a spacing for each element of 100 s and subpacket structures, which manifest as amplitude modulations with a period of a few tens of seconds. In accordance with the temporal features of the Pc1 pulsations, the auroral intensitymore » showed a similar repetition period of 100 s and an unpredicted fast modulation of a few tens of seconds. Furthermore, these results indicate that PPA is generated by pitch angle scattering, nonlinearly interacting with Pc1/EMIC waves at the magnetic equator.« less

  1. LANGEVIN DYNAMICS OF THE TWO STAGE MELTING TRANSITION OF VORTEX MATTER IN Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} IN THE PRESENCE OF STRAIGHT AND OF TILTED COLUMNAR DEFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GOLDSCHMIDT, YADIN Y.; LIU, Jin-Tao

    2007-08-07

    In this paper we use London Langevin molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the vortex matter melting transition in the highly anisotropic high-temperature superconductor material Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}#14; in the presence of low concentration of columnar defects (CDs). We reproduce with further details our previous results obtained by using Multilevel Monte Carlo simulations that showed that the melting of the nanocrystalline vortex matter occurs in two stages: a first stage melting into nanoliquid vortex matter and a second stage delocalization transition into a homogeneous liquid. Furthermore, we report on new dynamical measurements in the presence of a current that identifies clearly the irreversibility line and the second stage delocalization transition. In addition to CDs aligned along the c-axis we also simulate the case of tilted CDs which are aligned at an angle with respect to the applied magnetic field. Results for CDs tilted by 45{degree} with respect to c-axis show that the locations of the melting and delocalization transitions are not affected by the tilt when the ratio of flux lines to CDs remains constant. On the other hand we argue that some dynamical properties and in particular the position of the irreversibility line should be affected.

  2. The microbial fate of carbon in high-latitude seas: Impact of the microbial loop on oceanic uptake of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yager, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    This dissertation examines pelagic microbial processes in high-latitude seas, how they affect regional and global carbon cycling, and how they might respond to hypothesized changes in climate. Critical to these interests is the effect of cold temperature on bacterial activity. Also important is the extent to which marine biological processes in general impact the inorganic carbon cycle. The study area is the Northeast Water (NEW) Polynya, a seasonally-recurrent opening in the permanent ice situated over the northeastern Greenland continental shelf. This work was part of an international, multi-disciplinary research project studying carbon cycling in the coastal Arctic. The first chapter describes a simple model which links a complex marine food web to a simplified ocean and atmosphere. The second chapter investigates the inorganic carbon inventory of the summertime NEW Polynya surface waters to establish the effect of biological processes on the air-sea pCO{sub 2} gradient. The third and fourth chapters use a kinetic approach to examine microbial activities in the NEW Polynya as a function of temperature and dissolved organic substrate concentration, testing the so-called Pomeroy hypothesis that microbial activity is disproportionately reduced at low environmental temperatures owing to increased organic substrate requirements. Together, the suite of data collected on microbial activities, cell size, and grazing pressure suggest how unique survival strategies adopted by an active population of high-latitude bacteria may contribute to, rather than detract from, an efficient biological carbon pump.

  3. ESIF 2015: Bring Us Your Challenges (Book), Energy Systems Integration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... New Tools Rooftop Solar Resource Monitoring ... plane-of-array irradiance, latitude-tilt irradiance, back-of- panel PV ... Raytheon and NREL Demonstrate a Microgrid ...

  4. ARM - Datastreams - rphtilt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    basetime North latitude degreeN lat East longitude degreeE lon Surface condition Pitch angle reported by tilt table degrees pitch ( time ) Surface condition Roll angle...

  5. Derivation of physical and optical properties of mid-latitude cirrus ice crystals for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel; van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Um, Junshik; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Moyer, Elisabeth J.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2016-06-10

    Single-crystal images collected in mid-latitude cirrus are analyzed to provide internally consistent ice physical and optical properties for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model, including single-particle mass, projected area, fall speed, capacitance, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Using measurements gathered during two flights through a widespread synoptic cirrus shield, bullet rosettes are found to be the dominant identifiable habit among ice crystals with maximum dimension (Dmax) greater than 100 µm. Properties are therefore first derived for bullet rosettes based on measurements of arm lengths and widths, then for aggregates of bullet rosettes and for unclassified (irregular) crystals. Derived bullet rosette massesmore » are substantially greater than reported in existing literature, whereas measured projected areas are similar or lesser, resulting in factors of 1.5–2 greater fall speeds, and, in the limit of large Dmax, near-infrared single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (g) greater by  ∼  0.2 and 0.05, respectively. A model that includes commonly imaged side plane growth on bullet rosettes exhibits relatively little difference in microphysical and optical properties aside from  ∼ 0.05 increase in mid-visible g primarily attributable to plate aspect ratio. In parcel simulations, ice size distribution, and g are sensitive to assumed ice properties.« less

  6. Derivation of physical and optical properties of mid-latitude cirrus ice crystals for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel; van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Um, Junshik; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Moyer, Elisabeth J.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2016-06-10

    Single-crystal images collected in mid-latitude cirrus are analyzed to provide internally consistent ice physical and optical properties for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model, including single-particle mass, projected area, fall speed, capacitance, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Using measurements gathered during two flights through a widespread synoptic cirrus shield, bullet rosettes are found to be the dominant identifiable habit among ice crystals with maximum dimension (Dmax) greater than 100 µm. Properties are therefore first derived for bullet rosettes based on measurements of arm lengths and widths, then for aggregates of bullet rosettes and for unclassified (irregular) crystals. Derived bullet rosette massesmore » are substantially greater than reported in existing literature, whereas measured projected areas are similar or lesser, resulting in factors of 1.5–2 greater fall speeds, and, in the limit of large Dmax, near-infrared single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (g) greater by ~0.2 and 0.05, respectively. Furthermore, a model that includes commonly imaged side plane growth on bullet rosettes exhibits relatively little difference in microphysical and optical properties aside from ~0.05 increase in mid-visible g primarily attributable to plate aspect ratio. In parcel simulations, ice size distribution, and g are sensitive to assumed ice properties.« less

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A 1990 GLOBAL INVENTORY FOR SO(X) AND NO(X) ON A 1(DEGREE) X 1(DEGREE) LATITUDE-LONGITUDE GRID.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN HEYST,B.J.

    1999-10-01

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted to the atmosphere have been linked to the acidification of water bodies and soils and perturbations in the earth's radiation balance. In order to model the global transport and transformation of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}, detailed spatial and temporal emission inventories are required. Benkovitz et al. (1996) published the development of an inventory of 1985 global emissions of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from anthropogenic sources. The inventory was gridded to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} latitude-longitude grid and has served as input to several global modeling studies. There is now a need to provide modelers with an update of this inventory to a more recent year, with a split of the emissions into elevated and low level sources. This paper describes the development of a 1990 update of the SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} global inventories that also includes a breakdown of sources into 17 sector groups. The inventory development starts with a gridded global default EDGAR inventory (Olivier et al, 1996). In countries where more detailed national inventories are available, these are used to replace the emissions for those countries in the global default. The gridded emissions are distributed into two height levels (0-100m and >100m) based on the final plume heights that are estimated to be typical for the various sectors considered. The sources of data as well as some of the methodologies employed to compile and develop the 1990 global inventory for SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} are discussed. The results reported should be considered to be interim since the work is still in progress and additional data sets are expected to become available.

  8. Regional characteristics, tilt domains, and extensional history...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Transfer Zones and the Regional Segmentation of the Basin and Range Province Author J.H. Stewart Editors Faulds, J.E., and Stewart and J.H. Published Geological Society of...

  9. File:SWERA-203.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search File File history File usage Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km for Sri Lanka from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full...

  10. File:SWERA-254.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: monthly and annual latitude tilt horizontal GIS data at 40km resolution for Nepal from NREL Size of this preview: 776 ...

  11. File:SWERA-248.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: monthly latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600...

  12. File:SWERA-155.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File history File usage Solar: monthly average latitude tilt map at 40km resolution for Cuba from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  13. MID LATITUDE CYCLONE A CASE STUDY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MICKEY LELAND ENERGY FELLOWSHIP 2016 FLYLER MICKEY LELAND ENERGY FELLOWSHIP 2016 FLYLER MLEF 2016 Flyer.pdf (1.14 MB) More Documents & Publications 2015 Student Employment Brochure Engaging Students in Energy Webinar Presentation 2016 MEISPP Flyer

    PUBLIC LAW 106-65-OCT. 5, 1999 NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 VerDate 12-OCT-99 23:18 Oct 28, 1999 Jkt 079139 PO 00065 Frm 00001 Fmt 6579 Sfmt 6579 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL065.106 APPS24 PsN: APPS24 113 STAT. 512 PUBLIC LAW

  14. MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH FLUCTUATIONS AND THE q-TRIPLET IN THE HELIOSHEATH: VOYAGER 2 OBSERVATIONS FROM 91.0 TO 94.2 AU AT LATITUDE 30 Degree-Sign S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F. E-mail: nfnudel@yahoo.com

    2013-03-01

    Voyager 2 (V2) was in the heliosheath during 2010, at (91.0-94.2) AU from the Sun and at the latitudes (28. Degree-Sign 8-29. Degree-Sign 3 S) AU, observing solar wind that left the Sun during 2009, when solar activity was very low. There was no feature in B(t) associated with the changes in the plasma parameters observed near 2010.4. The CR-B relation was satisfied. The fluctuations of daily averages of B showed (1) a Gaussian distribution of B, (2) a q-Gaussian of the daily increments of B with q = 1.6, (3) a power-law correlation of B on scales from 1 to 16 days, (4) multifractal structure of B on scales from 1 to 8 days, and (5) a 1/f spectrum of B on scales from 1 to 100 days. The amplitude of the compressive microscale fluctuations of B during several hours on each day is described by the standard deviation (SD) of the 48 s averages of B during the day. Items 2, 3, and 4 determine a 'q-triplet' in the heliosheath. Large-scale fluctuations of SD show (1) a lognormal distribution of SD; (2) an average value of SD = 0.19, 20% of the average B; (3) a q-Gaussian distribution of the increments of SD with q = 1.4; (4) a power-law correlation on scales from 1 to 16 days; and (5) a 1/f spectrum on scales from 1 to 100 days. The heliosheath was in a quasi-stationary, metastable equilibrium state with well-defined structure over a wide range of scales near V2 during 2010.

  15. H I, CO, and Planck/IRAS dust properties in the high latitude cloud complex, MBM 53, 54, 55 and HLCG 92 – 35. Possible evidence for an optically thick H I envelope around the CO clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukui, Yasuo; Okamoto, Ryuji; Kaji, Ryohei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Torii, Kazufumi; Hayakawa, Takahiro; Tachihara, Kengo; Okuda, Takeshi; Ohama, Akio; Kuroda, Yutaka; Kuwahara, Toshihisa; Dickey, John M.

    2014-11-20

    We present an analysis of the H I and CO gas in conjunction with the Planck/IRAS submillimeter/far-infrared dust properties toward the most outstanding high latitude clouds MBM 53, 54, 55 and HLCG 92 – 35 at b = –30° to – 45°. The CO emission, dust opacity at 353 GHz (τ{sub 353}), and dust temperature (T {sub d}) show generally good spatial correspondence. On the other hand, the correspondence between the H I emission and the dust properties is less clear than in CO. The integrated H I intensity W{sub H} {sub I} and τ{sub 353} show a large scatter with a correlation coefficient of ∼0.6 for a T {sub d} range from 16 K to 22 K. We find, however, that W{sub H} {sub I} and τ{sub 353} show better correlation for smaller ranges of T {sub d} every 0.5 K, generally with a correlation coefficient of 0.7-0.9. We set up a hypothesis that the H I gas associated with the highest T {sub d} ≥ 21.5 K is optically thin, whereas the H I emission is generally optically thick for T {sub d} lower than 21.5 K. We have determined a relationship for the optically thin H I gas between atomic hydrogen column density and τ{sub 353}, N{sub H} {sub I} (cm{sup −2})=(1.5×10{sup 26})⋅τ{sub 353}, under the assumption that the dust properties are uniform and we have applied this to estimate N{sub H} {sub I} from τ{sub 353} for the whole cloud. N{sub H} {sub I} was then used to solve for T {sub s} and τ{sub H} {sub I} over the region. The result shows that the H I is dominated by optically thick gas having a low spin temperature of 20-40 K and a density of 40-160 cm{sup –3}. The H I envelope has a total mass of ∼1.2 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, an order of magnitude larger than that of the CO clouds. The H I envelope properties derived by this method do not rule out a mixture of H I and H{sub 2} in the dark gas, but we present indirect evidence that most of the gas mass is in the atomic state.

  16. An acoustic wave equation for modeling in tilted TI media

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... In other words, a local symmetry assumption instead of a global one is more realistic. To ... The parameters and are zero in the water layer and linearly increase from 0 at the ...

  17. File:NREL-asia-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  18. Research Update: Interface-engineered oxygen octahedral tilts...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Kan, Daisuke, E-mail: dkan@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp ; Aso, Ryotaro ; Kurata, Hiroki 1 ; Shimakawa, Yuichi 1 ; Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 ...

  19. ARM: RPH stabilized platform tilt (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Surface condition Dataset File size NAView Dataset View ...

  20. Vacuum compatible, high-speed, 2-D mirror tilt stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Denham; Paul E.

    2007-09-25

    A compact and vacuum compatible magnetic-coil driven tiltable stage that is equipped with a high efficiency reflective coating can be employed as a scanner in EUV applications. The drive electronics for the scanner is fully in situ programmable and rapidly switchable.

  1. MEASUREMENTS OF THE SUN'S HIGH-LATITUDE MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unlike the noisier MDI measurements, no evidence of a meridional flow counter-cell is seen in either hemisphere with the HMI measurements:more poleward flow continues all the ...

  2. Final Report for High Latitude Climate Modeling: ARM Takes Us...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The main thrust of this project was to devise a method by which the majority of North ... found in the Arctic using the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) data. less ...

  3. Effects of a tilted magnetic field in a Dirac double layer (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 1180576 GrantContract Number: E304 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 91; ...

  4. Reconciliation of local and long-range tilt correlations in underdoped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electron-phonon coupling and the particular stability of the stripe-ordered phase at this composition. The bond-length modulation that pins stripe order is found to more be...

  5. Microsoft Word - Tilted-Rig-TP-Definition-Version1-Aug-14-2012A...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... larger Atwood of 0.9 that drives a strong asymmetry between ... 1984), Linear Electric Motor - LEM (Dimonte, 1990), or ... specifications for density and pressure fields. 2. ...

  6. Research Update: Interface-engineered oxygen octahedral tilts in perovskite oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kan, Daisuke Aso, Ryotaro; Kurata, Hiroki; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Interface engineering of structural distortions is a key for exploring the functional properties of oxide heterostructures and superlattices. In this paper, we report on our comprehensive investigations of oxygen octahedral distortions at the heterointerface between perovskite oxides SrRuO{sub 3} and BaTiO{sub 3} on GdScO{sub 3} substrates and of the influences of the interfacially engineered distortions on the magneto-transport properties of the SrRuO{sub 3} layer. Our state-of-the-art annular bright-field imaging in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that the RuO{sub 6} octahedral distortions in the SrRuO{sub 3} layer have strong dependence on the stacking order of the SrRuO{sub 3} and BaTiO{sub 3} layers on the substrate. This can be attributed to the difference in the interfacial octahedral connections. We also found that the stacking order of the oxide layers has a strong impact on the magneto-transport properties, allowing for control of the magnetic anisotropy of the SrRuO{sub 3} layer through interface engineering. Our results demonstrate the significance of the interface engineering of the octahedral distortions on the structural and physical properties of perovskite oxides.

  7. MHK ISDB/Instruments/CDL MiniTilt | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Planar Measurement (Current), 3D Velocity Volumetric Measurement (Current), Density (Ice), Direction (Ice), Speed (Ice), Thickness (Ice), Pressure (Tidal), Sea Surface...

  8. Finite Difference Modeling of Wave Progpagation in Acoustic TiltedTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 875744 Report Number(s): LBNL--57324 Journal ID: ISSN 0016-8025; GPPRAR; R&D Project: G30901; BnR: AC1005000; TRN: US200603%%219 DOE Contract Number: ...

  9. Interplay of octahedral tilts and polar order in BiFeO3 films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1 ; Biegalski, Michael D 1 ; Ivanov, Ilia N 1 ; Eliseev, E. A. 3 ; Pennycook, Stephen J 1 ; Rondinelli, James 4 ; Kalinin, Sergei V 1 ; Borisevich, Albina Y 1 + ...

  10. Finite Difference Modeling of Wave Progpagation in Acoustic TiltedTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Based on an acoustic assumption (shear wave velocity is zero) and a dispersion relation, ... DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: ...

  11. End-to-End Network Tuning Sends Data Screaming from NERSC to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The GEFS weather forecast model used in this project is the same as that which is currently run in real time by the National Weather Service. In the reforecast project, GEFS ...

  12. Modeling of ground magnetic signatures associated with high latitude ionospheric current systems. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, P.G.

    1995-09-10

    Due to their location, ionospheric currents are difficult to study directly. To gather information indirectly, magnetometers have been placed throughout the polar regions to measure perturbations in the geomagnetic field caused by the currents. Understanding the abilities and limitations of the magnetometer networks to resolve details about changes in the magnetic field provides insight into the accuracy of the data. Discovering these abilities and limitations is the focus of this research. For use with ionospheric current system models, a simulation was made of a ground magnetometer. After validation of this simulation, it was used to verify Fukushima`s theory on the cancellation of the ground magnetic signatures caused by the field aligned currents and Pedersen current. A distribution of the simulated magnetometers, patterned after the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array, proved successful in gathering information about traveling convection twin vortices. A global distribution of the magnetometers was tested with an ionospheric substorm model to find out what effects gaps in magnetometer coverage would have on the accuracy of data collected.

  13. Final Report for High Latitude Climate Modeling: ARM Takes Us Beyond Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Lynn M

    2013-06-18

    The main thrust of this project was to devise a method by which the majority of North Slope of Alaska (NSA) meteorological and radiometric data, collected on a daily basis, could be used to evaluate and improve global climate model (GCM) simulations and their parameterizations, particularly for cloud microphysics. Although the standard ARM Program sensors for a less complete suite of instruments for cloud and aerosol studies than the instruments on an intensive field program such as the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), the advantage they offer lies in the long time base and large volume of data that covers a wide range of meteorological and climatological conditions. The challenge has been devising a method to interpret the NSA data in a practical way, so that a wide variety of meteorological conditions in all seasons can be examined with climate models. If successful, climate modelers would have a robust alternative to the usual “case study” approach (i.e., from intensive field programs only) for testing and evaluating their parameterizations’ performance. Understanding climate change on regional scales requires a broad scientific consideration of anthropogenic influences that goes beyond greenhouse gas emissions to also include aerosol-induced changes in cloud properties. For instance, it is now clear that on small scales, human-induced aerosol plumes can exert microclimatic radiative and hydrologic forcing that rivals that of greenhouse gas–forced warming. This project has made significant scientific progress by investigating what causes successive versions of climate models continue to exhibit errors in cloud amount, cloud microphysical and radiative properties, precipitation, and radiation balance, as compared with observations and, in particular, in Arctic regions. To find out what is going wrong, we have tested the models' cloud representation over the full range of meteorological conditions found in the Arctic using the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) data.

  14. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks from Abrupt Changes in High-Latitude Trace-Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qianlai Zhuang

    2012-11-16

    During the three-year project period, Purdue University has specifically accomplished the following: revised the existing Methane Dynamics Model (MDM) to consider the effects of changes of atmospheric pressure; applied the methane dynamics model (MDM) to Siberian region to demonstrate that ebullition estimates could increase previous estimates of regional terrestrial CH{sub 4} emissions 3- to 7-fold in Siberia; Conducted an analysis of the carbon balance of the Arctic Basin from 1997 to 2006 to show that terrestrial areas of the Arctic were a net source of 41.5 Tg CH{sub 4} yr{sup ??1} that increased by 0.6 Tg CH{sub 4} yr{sup ??1} during the decade of analysis, a magnitude that is comparable with an atmospheric inversion of CH{sub 4}; improved the quantification of CH{sub 4} fluxes in the Arctic with inversion methods; evaluated AIRS CH4 retrieval data with a transport and inversion model and surface flux and aircraft data; to better quantify methane emissions from wetlands, we extended the MDM within a biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to include a large-scale hydrology model, the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model; more recently, we developed a single box atmospheric chemistry model involving atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon monoxide (CO) and radical hydroxyl (OH) to analyze atmospheric CH{sub 4} concentrations from 1984 to 2008.

  15. The Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (and soon to become available) ARM facilities: a network of radiosonde stations, NASA ... PRECIPITATIONS; REMOTE SENSING; SIMULATORS; VALIDATION; PLANNING; RESEARCH PROGRAMS

  16. The Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (and soon to become available) ARM facilities: a network of radiosonde stations, NASA ... PRECIPITATIONS; REMOTE SENSING; SIMULATORS; VALIDATION; PLANNING; RESEARCH PROGRAMS

  17. DOE/SC-ARM-14-012 The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... along a dry line in west Texas propagated into the ARM scanning radar domain. ... more than 73 flight hours from Offutt Air Force Base in Bellevue, NE. Flight Date Flight ...

  18. Development and testing of an aerosol-stratus cloud parameterization scheme for middle and high latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsson, P.Q.; Meyers, M.P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Cotton, W.R.

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this new project is to develop an aerosol/cloud microphysics parameterization of mixed-phase stratus and boundary layer clouds. Our approach is to create, test, and implement a bulk-microphysics/aerosol model using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites and large-eddy simulation (LES) explicit bin-resolving aerosol/microphysics models. The primary objectives of this work are twofold. First, we need the prediction of number concentrations of activated aerosol which are transferred to the droplet spectrum, so that the aerosol population directly affects the cloud formation and microphysics. Second, we plan to couple the aerosol model to the gas and aqueous-chemistry module that will drive the aerosol formation and growth. We begin by exploring the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations of Arctic stratus clouds over the North Slope CART site. These simulations using Colorado State University`s regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) will be useful in designing the structure of the cloud-resolving model and in interpreting data acquired at the North Slope site.

  19. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks from Abrupt Changes in High-Latitude Trace-Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlosser, Courtney Adam; Walter-Anthony, Katey; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry

    2013-04-26

    Our overall goal was to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically forced climate warming, and the extent to which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes in the extent of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, over the Arctic. Through a coordinated effort of field measurements, model development, and numerical experimentation with an integrated assessment model framework, we have investigated the following hypothesis: There exists a climate-warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and thus instigates strong and/or sharp increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and wetland expansion). These would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  20. Quaternary tectonic movements in the Argentine Puna, 24/sup 0/ to 27/sup 0/ s latitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strecker, M.R.; Alonso, R.; Rivelli, F.; Mon, R.

    1985-01-01

    The Puna of NW Argentina, one of the highest plateaus in the world, is the southern continuation of the Andean Altiplano geomorphic province of Peru and Bolivia. The region is not seismically active and reports of neotectonic movements are scarce. However, the areas of Salar de los Pastos Grandes, Salar del Hombre Muerto and Sierra Calalaste clearly have experienced Quaternary tectonic movements. At Salar de los Pastos Grandes, early Pleistocene lake sediments are offset by reverse faulting. At Salar del Hombre Muerto, Quaternary pyroclastic and debris-flow deposits are unconformable over sediments 5.86 m.y. old that were folded during the Pliocene-Pleistocene Diaguita deformation. Within the Quaternary sediments two separate deformational phases with reverse faulting and shallow thrusting are recognized. The timing of movement is well defined since the deformed strata are covered by a basalt flow 0.75 m.y. old. The flow in turn is affected by normal faulting. Similar normal faults associated with basalt flows were found at Sierra Calalaste. These observations are in accord with pronounced extensional movements and basaltic volcanism at the Calama-Olacapato-Toro Lineament (0.2 m.y. old flows) and might document the Quaternary transition from a compressive to an extensional tectonic regime in the southern Puna.

  1. The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds (MC3E) Experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MC3E was a collaborative effort between the ARM Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) ...

  2. Low-cost, high-performance solar flat-plate collectors for applications in northern latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solar flat plate collector designs have been developed which incorporate high performance polymer film and laminate technology that have a projected manufacturing cost approaching $15/m/sup 2/ and potential thermal performance consistent with the best commercial solar flat plate collectors available today.

  3. Magnetization stability analysis of the Stoner-Wohlfarth model under a spin-polarized current with a tilted polarization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Sun, Z. Z.

    2014-02-14

    The stationary-state solutions of magnetization dynamics under a spin-polarized current that was polarized in an arbitrary direction were investigated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation for a single-domain magnet. Taking into consideration the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, the equilibrium directions of the magnetization vectors were analytically obtained by solving an algebraic cubic equation. It was found that one to three pairs of magnetization equilibrium states existed, depending on the current intensity and the direction of the spin polarization. By numerically analyzing the stabilities of these equilibrium states, the threshold switching current for the reversing the magnetic vector was obtained under different current polarization configurations, which may be useful for use in future spintronics devices.

  4. THE GLOBAL SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD-IDENTIFICATION OF TRAVELING, LONG-LIVED RIPPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Tran, Tham

    2013-05-10

    We have examined the global structure of the solar magnetic field using data from the Fe I spectral line at 5250.2 A obtained at the 150 foot tower telescope at the Mt. Wilson Observatory. For each point on the solar surface, we find the value of the magnetic field in the meridional plane, B{sub m} , by averaging over all available observations using a cosine weighting method. We have revised our cosine weighting method by now taking into account more fully the highest latitude geometry. We use the annual variation in the latitude of the disk center, b{sub 0}, to deduce the tilt angle of the field relative to the local vertical so that we can find the radial component of the field, B{sub r} , from B{sub m} . We find this tilt angle to be small except for a near-polar zone where a tilt-angle model can reduce the annual variation. The reduced annual variation in the deduced B{sub r} allows us to study dB{sub r} /dt and associated deviations in B{sub r} from a smoothed B{sub r} with a smoothing width of 2.5 yr. These functions make evident the presence of small amplitude (3-5 G) but spatially coherent ripples with a semi-regular periodicity of one to three years. At any given time, the half-wavelength (peak to trough) is between 15 Degree-Sign and 30 Degree-Sign of latitude. These patterns are ubiquitous and in many cases drift from near the equator to the poles over a time period of roughly two years. The drift rate pattern is not compatible with simple advection.

  5. Burkina Faso-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  6. Djibouti-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  7. Central African Republic-National Adaptation Plan Global Support...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  8. Niger-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  9. Rwanda-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  10. Lesotho-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  11. Liberia-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  12. Malawi-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  13. Comoros-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  14. Tanzania-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  15. Bangladesh-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  16. The Gambia-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  17. Democratic Republic of Congo-National Adaptation Plan Global...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  18. Uganda-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  19. Mali-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  20. Mozambique-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  1. Mauritania-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  2. Sudan-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  3. Cambodia-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  4. Benin-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  5. Maryland's 8th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8th congressional district Arborview Capital Clean Currents Global Environment Fund GEF National Interest Security Company NISC Formerly Technology Management Services TMS Inc...

  6. Annual Monitoring Report Interactive Map | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    inception, that are not currently under implementation, data is extracted from the GEF's Project Management Information System (PMIS). The main concept behind the map is to create...

  7. Ghana-NREL Rural Electrification | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electrification project in Ghana in cooperation with UNDP and GEF. NREL also piloted a business model for providing energy services in rural areas of Ghana.1 References ...

  8. Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Download Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF SWERA UNEP atmospheric water v... solar Additional Info Field Value Source www.nrel.gov Author National Renewable...

  9. Gateway:Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Center ClimateTechWiki ESMAP Low Carbon Development Knowledge Products and E-Learning IEA Policies and Measures Database GEF-Knowledge Management Initiative REN21...

  10. Promotion of Wind Energy: Lessons Learned from International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Energy: Lessons Learned from International Experience and United Nations Development Programme Global Environment Facility (UNDP-GEF) Projects Jump to: navigation, search Tool...

  11. Final Technical Report Interannual Variations in the Rate of Carbon Storage by a Mid-Latitude Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wofsy, Steven; Munger, J W

    2012-07-31

    The time series of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon by an entire forest ecosystem on time scales from hourly to decadal was measured by eddy-covariance supplemented with plot-level measurements of biomass and tree demography. The results demonstrate the response of forest carbon fluxes and long-term budgets to climatic factors and to successional change. The data from this project have been extensively used worldwide by the carbon cycle science community in support of model development and validation of remote sensing observations.

  12. BIPOLAR MAGNETIC REGIONS ON THE SUN: GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF THE SOHO/MDI DATA SET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenflo, J. O.; Kosovichev, A. G. E-mail: AKosovichev@solar.stanford.edu

    2012-02-01

    The magnetic flux that is generated by dynamo processes inside the Sun emerges in the form of bipolar magnetic regions. The properties of these directly observable signatures of the dynamo can be extracted from full-disk solar magnetograms. The most homogeneous, high-quality synoptic data set of solar magnetograms has been obtained with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft during 1995-2011. We have developed an IDL program that has, when applied to the 73,838 magnetograms of the MDI data set, automatically identified 160,079 bipolar magnetic regions that span a range of scale sizes across nearly four orders of magnitude. The properties of each region have been extracted and statistically analyzed, in particular with respect to the polarity orientations of the bipolar regions, including their tilt-angle distributions and their violations of Hale's polarity law. The latitude variation of the average tilt angles (with respect to the E-W direction), which is known as Joy's law, is found to closely follow the relation 32.{sup 0}1 Multiplication-Sign sin (latitude). There is no indication of a dependence on region size that one may expect if the tilts were produced by the Coriolis force during the buoyant rise of flux loops from the tachocline region. A few percent of all regions have orientations that violate Hale's polarity law. We show explicit examples, from different phases of the solar cycle, where well-defined medium-size bipolar regions with opposite polarity orientations occur side by side in the same latitude zone in the same magnetogram. Such oppositely oriented large bipolar regions cannot be part of the same toroidal flux system, but different flux systems must coexist at any given time in the same latitude zones. These examples are incompatible with the paradigm of coherent, subsurface toroidal flux ropes as the source of sunspots, and instead show that fluctuations must play a major role at all

  13. Methane recovery from landfill in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaolai, L.

    1996-12-31

    GEF has approved a special project for a demonstration project for Methane Recovery from the Urban Refuse Land Fill. This paper will introduce the possibility of GHG reduction from the landfill in China, describe the activities of the GEF project, and the priorities for international cooperation in this field. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) approved the project, China Promoting Methane Recovery and Unlization from Mixed Municipal Refuse, at its Council meeting in last April. This project is the first one supported by international organization in this field.

  14. Improving Translation Models for Predicting the Energy Yield of Photovoltaic Power Systems. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-526

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, Keith

    2015-08-04

    The project under this CRADA will analyze field data of various flat-plate and concentrator module technologies and cell measurements at the laboratory level. The field data will consist of current versus voltage data collected over many years on a latitude tilt test bed for Si, CdTe, amorphous silicon, and CIGS technologies. The concentrator data will be for mirror- and lens-based module designs using multijunction cells. The laboratory data will come from new measurements of cell performance with systematic variation of irradiance, temperature and spectral composition. These measurements will be labor-intensive and the aim will be to cover the widest possible parameter space for as many different PV samples as possible. The data analysis will require software tools to be developed. These tools will be customized for use with the specific NREL datasets and will be unsuitable for commercial release. The tools will be used to evaluate different translation equations against NREL outdoor datasets.

  15. A HIGH STELLAR OBLIQUITY IN THE WASP-7 EXOPLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Hirano, Teruyuki; Butler, R. Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Thompson, Ian B.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

    2012-01-10

    We measure a tilt of 86 Degree-Sign {+-} 6 Degree-Sign between the sky projections of the rotation axis of the WASP-7 star and the orbital axis of its close-in giant planet. This measurement is based on observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect with the Planet Finder Spectrograph on the Magellan II telescope. The result conforms with the previously noted pattern among hot-Jupiter hosts, namely, that the hosts lacking thick convective envelopes have high obliquities. Because the planet's trajectory crosses a wide range of stellar latitudes, observations of the RM effect can in principle reveal the stellar differential rotation profile; however, with the present data the signal of differential rotation could not be detected. The host star is found to exhibit radial-velocity noise ({sup s}tellar jitter{sup )} with an amplitude of Almost-Equal-To 30 m s{sup -1} over a timescale of days.

  16. GE科技为F1卡特汉姆车队添动力 | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GEF1 Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to ...

  17. Secondary PDZ domain-binding site on class B plexins enhances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Secondary PDZ domain-binding site on class B plexins enhances the affinity for PDZ-RhoGEF Authors: Pascoe, Heath G. ; Gutowski, Stephen ; Chen, Hua ; Brautigam, Chad A. ; ...

  18. insert 52005.indd

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) is a US 9.3 million Project, co-financed with US6.8 million from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and more than 25...

  19. Brazil-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1.1 Sao Paulo Metro Line 5 Project 1.2 BR-GEF Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Project (STAQ) 1.3 First Programmatic Development Policy Loan for Sustainable...

  20. Solar cyclical trend study of the mid-latitude, quiet-time, meridional, neutral winds at winter solstice conditions. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breninger, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Located within the region of the thermosphere is the major portion of the ionosphere. Distribution of the ionospheric plasma within this region is a function of atmospheric mass and energy transport. For the current study, the component of the neutral wind along the magnetic meridian is derived from ground-based ionosonde measurements of the F2 peak layer height. Meridional wind variations with respect to location, universal time, and level of solar activity are the focal points on this investigation. The primary timescale of interest covers a period of one solar cycle, from 1977 to 1987. Data from one station have been extended to 1965 to study the repetitive nature of solar activity on the meridional winds. Results of this study indicate a definite variation of wind speed and direction, which correlates with changing levels of solar activity. It is hoped that the results of this study will aid current efforts to develop ionospheric models and enhance their forecasting capabilities.

  1. A direct link between chorus emissions and pulsating aurora on timescales from milliseconds to minutes: A case study at subauroral latitudes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Sawai, Kaoru; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kataoka, Ryuho; Ieda, Akimasa; Ebihara, Yusuke; Connors, Martin; Schofield, Ian; et al

    2015-11-27

    A correlation was observed between chorus emissions and pulsating aurora (PA) from observations at Athabasca (L ≈ 4.3) in Canada at 9:00–9:20 UT on 7 February 2013, using an electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera and a VLF loop antenna with sampling rates of 110 Hz and 100 kHz, respectively. Pulsating aurora having a quasiperiodic variation in luminosity and a few hertz modulation was observed together with chorus emissions consisting of a group of successive rising-tone elements. The repetition period and modulation frequency of the PA are in good agreement with those of the modulated chorus. After 9:11 UT, the temporalmore » features of the aurora became aperiodic PA of indistinct modulation. Simultaneously, the rising-tone chorus turned into chorus emissions consisting of numerous rising-tone elements. The equatorial geomagnetic field inhomogeneity calculated using the Tsyganenko 2002 model shows a decreasing trend during the period. This result is consistent with nonlinear wave growth theory having a small geomagnetic field inhomogeneity, which contributes to a decrease in the threshold amplitude to trigger discrete chorus elements. As a result, these observations show a close connection between chorus emissions and PA on timescales from milliseconds for generation of discrete chorus elements on the microphysics of wave-particle interaction to minutes for the variations of the geomagnetic field inhomogeneity related with the substorm activity.« less

  2. A direct link between chorus emissions and pulsating aurora on timescales from milliseconds to minutes: A case study at subauroral latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Sawai, Kaoru; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kataoka, Ryuho; Ieda, Akimasa; Ebihara, Yusuke; Connors, Martin; Schofield, Ian; Katoh, Yuto; Otsuka, Yuichi; Sunagawa, Naoki; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-11-27

    A correlation was observed between chorus emissions and pulsating aurora (PA) from observations at Athabasca (L ≈ 4.3) in Canada at 9:00–9:20 UT on 7 February 2013, using an electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera and a VLF loop antenna with sampling rates of 110 Hz and 100 kHz, respectively. Pulsating aurora having a quasiperiodic variation in luminosity and a few hertz modulation was observed together with chorus emissions consisting of a group of successive rising-tone elements. The repetition period and modulation frequency of the PA are in good agreement with those of the modulated chorus. After 9:11 UT, the temporal features of the aurora became aperiodic PA of indistinct modulation. Simultaneously, the rising-tone chorus turned into chorus emissions consisting of numerous rising-tone elements. The equatorial geomagnetic field inhomogeneity calculated using the Tsyganenko 2002 model shows a decreasing trend during the period. This result is consistent with nonlinear wave growth theory having a small geomagnetic field inhomogeneity, which contributes to a decrease in the threshold amplitude to trigger discrete chorus elements. As a result, these observations show a close connection between chorus emissions and PA on timescales from milliseconds for generation of discrete chorus elements on the microphysics of wave-particle interaction to minutes for the variations of the geomagnetic field inhomogeneity related with the substorm activity.

  3. Temporal evolution of solar wind ion composition and their source coronal holes during the declining phase of cycle 23. I. Low-latitude extension of polar coronal holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Wang, Yi-Ming; Muglach, Karin; Young, Peter R.; Lepri, Susan T.

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed 27 solar wind (SW) intervals during the declining phase of cycle 23, whose source coronal holes (CHs) can be unambiguously identified and are associated with one of the polar CHs. We found that the SW ions have a temporal trend of decreasing ionization state, and such a trend is different between the slow and fast SW. The photospheric magnetic field, both inside and at the outside boundary of the CH, also exhibits a trend of decrease with time. However, EUV line emissions from different layers of the atmosphere exhibit different temporal trends. The coronal emission inside the CH generally increases toward the CH boundary as the underlying field increases in strength and becomes less unipolar. In contrast, this relationship is not seen in the coronal emission averaged over the entire CH. For C and O SW ions that freeze-in at lower altitude, stronger correlation between their ionization states and field strength (both signed and unsigned) appears in the slow SW, while for Fe ions that freeze-in at higher altitude, stronger correlation appears in the fast SW. Such correlations are seen both inside the CH and at its boundary region. On the other hand, the coronal electron temperature correlates well with the SW ion composition only in the boundary region. Our analyses, although not able to determine the likely footpoint locations of the SW of different speeds, raise many outstanding questions for how the SW is heated and accelerated in response to the long-term evolution of the solar magnetic field.

  4. A new tectonic model for the development of the Eastern Cordillera, Altiplano, and Subandean zones, Bolivian Central Andes, 20[degrees]S latitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gubbels, T.L.; Isacks, B.L. ); Koch, R.W. )

    1993-02-01

    Construction of a regional transect across the central Andes at 20[degrees]S sheds new light on the relationship between the Altiplano, Eastern Cordillera (EC), and Subandean zones and allows us to refine the two-stage model of Isacks (1988) for the growth of the Central Andes. This new model is based on examination of the regional geology and geophysics, coupled with field investigations, satellite image analysis, and new Ar-Ar geochronology. In this model, widespread Oligocene to mid-Miocene compressional deformation in the Altiplano and EC was followed in the late-Miocene and Pliocene by thrusting localized east of the EC within the Subandean fold-thrust belt. During the first stage of deformation, the Altiplano basin underwent important subsidence and internal deformation. The EC was both deformed internally and thrust westwards over the Altiplano basin, while the present Subandean zone was the site of an early, broad foreland basin which received material eroded from the EC. During the second stage, beginning at [approximately]10 ma, deformation terminated within the EC and became concentrated within the fold-thrust belt in response to large scale overthrusting of the EC above the Brazilian shield; this resulted in major thrusting along the Cabalgamiento Frontal Principal (CFP), which soles into the master Subandean decollement, and [approximately]100 km of telescoping within the early, broad foreland basin. In the EC, this second stage is marked by the elaboration of a regionally extensive erosion surface, ponding of gravels in shallow basins, and the emplacement of giant ignimbrite sheets. The Eastern Cordillera can thus be thought of as a crustal-scale wedge which has been extruded upward and outward on alternate sides during successive stages of late Cenozoic deformation. This motion has served to drive subsidence in both the Altiplano and Subandean foreland basins, as well as shortening in the fold-thrust belt.

  5. News Item

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wide gap 2.1 Point-to-point resolution, narrow gap 1.7 Specimen Stages Single-tilt heating to 1300 C 40 Double-tilt heating to 1000C 4040 Single-tilt...

  6. TWO NOVEL PARAMETERS TO EVALUATE THE GLOBAL COMPLEXITY OF THE SUN'S MAGNETIC FIELD AND TRACK THE SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.; Gibson, S. E.

    2013-08-20

    Since the unusually prolonged and weak solar minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24 (2008-2010), the sunspot number is smaller and the overall morphology of the Sun's magnetic field is more complicated (i.e., less of a dipole component and more of a tilted current sheet) compared with the same minimum and ascending phases of the previous cycle. Nearly 13 yr after the last solar maximum ({approx}2000), the monthly sunspot number is currently only at half the highest value of the past cycle's maximum, whereas the polar magnetic field of the Sun is reversing (north pole first). These circumstances make it timely to consider alternatives to the sunspot number for tracking the Sun's magnetic cycle and measuring its complexity. In this study, we introduce two novel parameters, the standard deviation (SD) of the latitude of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and the integrated slope (SL) of the HCS, to evaluate the complexity of the Sun's magnetic field and track the solar cycle. SD and SL are obtained from the magnetic synoptic maps calculated by a potential field source surface model. We find that SD and SL are sensitive to the complexity of the HCS: (1) they have low values when the HCS is flat at solar minimum, and high values when the HCS is highly tilted at solar maximum; (2) they respond to the topology of the HCS differently, as a higher SD value indicates that a larger part of the HCS extends to higher latitude, while a higher SL value implies that the HCS is wavier; (3) they are good indicators of magnetically anomalous cycles. Based on the comparison between SD and SL with the normalized sunspot number in the most recent four solar cycles, we find that in 2011 the solar magnetic field had attained a similar complexity as compared to the previous maxima. In addition, in the ascending phase of cycle 24, SD and SL in the northern hemisphere were on the average much greater than in the southern hemisphere, indicating a more tilted and wavier HCS in the north than

  7. WARPED IONIZED HYDROGEN IN THE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cersosimo, J. C.; Figueroa, N. Santiago; Velez, S. Figueroa; Soto, C. Lozada; Mader, S.; Azcarate, D.

    2009-07-01

    We report observations of the H166{alpha} ({nu} = 1424.734 MHz) radio recombination line (RRL) emission from the Galactic plane in the longitude range l = 267 deg. - 302 deg. and latitude range b = -3.{sup 0}0 to +1.{sup 0}5. The line emission observed describes the Carina arm in the Galactic azimuth range from {theta} = 260 deg. to 190 deg. The structure is located at negative latitudes with respect to the formal Galactic plane. The observations are combined with RRL data from the first Galactic quadrant. Both quadrants show the signature of the warp for the ionized gas, but an asymmetry of the distribution is noted. In the fourth quadrant, the gas is located between Galactic radii R {approx} 7 and 10 kpc, and the amplitude of the warp is seen from the midplane to z {approx} -150 pc. In the first quadrant, the gas is found between R {approx} 8 and 13-16 kpc, and flares to z {approx} +350 pc. We confirm the warp of the ionized gas near the solar circle. The distribution of the ionized gas is compared with the maximum intensity H I emission (0.30 < n{sub HI} < 0.45 cm{sup -3}) at intervals of the Galactic ring. The ionized material is correlated with the H I maximum intensity in both quadrants, and both components show the same tilted behavior with respect to the mid-Galactic plane.

  8. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL BABCOCK-LEIGHTON SOLAR DYNAMO MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miesch, Mark S.; Dikpati, Mausumi

    2014-04-10

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) kinematic solar dynamo model in which poloidal field is generated by the emergence and dispersal of tilted sunspot pairs (more generally bipolar magnetic regions, or BMRs). The axisymmetric component of this model functions similarly to previous 2.5 dimensional (2.5D, axisymmetric) Babcock-Leighton (BL) dynamo models that employ a double-ring prescription for poloidal field generation but we generalize this prescription into a 3D flux emergence algorithm that places BMRs on the surface in response to the dynamo-generated toroidal field. In this way, the model can be regarded as a unification of BL dynamo models (2.5D in radius/latitude) and surface flux transport models (2.5D in latitude/longitude) into a more self-consistent framework that builds on the successes of each while capturing the full 3D structure of the evolving magnetic field. The model reproduces some basic features of the solar cycle including an 11 yr periodicity, equatorward migration of toroidal flux in the deep convection zone, and poleward propagation of poloidal flux at the surface. The poleward-propagating surface flux originates as trailing flux in BMRs, migrates poleward in multiple non-axisymmetric streams (made axisymmetric by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion), and eventually reverses the polar field, thus sustaining the dynamo. In this Letter we briefly describe the model, initial results, and future plans.

  9. Documenting the Life and Death of Clouds | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    climate regimes: Arctic high latitude at Barrow, Alaska; continental mid latitude at Lamont, Oklahoma; tropical latitude at Darwin, Australia and Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. ...

  10. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... climate regimes: Arctic high latitude at Barrow, Alaska; continental mid latitude at Lamont, Oklahoma; tropical latitude at Darwin, Australia, and Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. ...

  11. Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

    2008-07-01

    Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

  12. Dynamics of local isolated magnetic flux tubes in a fast-rotating stellar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, W.; Tajima, C.T.; Matsumoto, R. |; Shibata, K.

    1998-01-01

    Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in the fast rotating stellar atmosphere is studied. We focus on the effects and signatures of the instability of the flux tube emergence influenced by the Coriolis force. We present the result from a linear stability analysis and discuss its possible signatures in the course of the evolution of G-type and M-type stars. We present a three dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulation of local isolated magnetic flux tubes under a magnetic buoyancy instability in co-rotating Cartesian coordinates. We find that the combination of the buoyancy instability and the Coriolis effect gives rise to a mechanism, to twist the emerging magnetic flux tube into a helical structure. The tilt angle, east-west asymmetry and magnetic helicity of the Twisted flux tubes in the simulations are studied in detail. The linear and nonlinear analyses provide hints as to what kind of pattern of large spots in young M-type main-sequence stars might be observed. We find that young and old G-type stars may have different distributions of spots while M-type stars may always have low latitudes spots. The size of stellar spots may decrease when a star becomes older, due to the decreasing of magnetic field. A qualitative comparison with solar observations is also presented.

  13. OGLE-III MICROLENSING EVENTS AND THE STRUCTURE OF THE GALACTIC BULGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrzykowski, ?ukasz; Rynkiewicz, Alicja E.; Skowron, Jan; Koz?owski, Szymon; Udalski, Andrzej; Szyma?ski, Micha? K.; Kubiak, Marcin; Soszy?ski, Igor; Pietrzy?ski, Grzegorz; Poleski, Rados?aw; Pietrukowicz, Pawe?; Pawlak, Micha?

    2015-01-01

    We present and study the largest and most comprehensive catalog of microlensing events ever constructed. The sample of standard microlensing events comprises 3718 unique events from 2001-2009 with 1409 events that had not been detected before in real-time by the Early Warning System of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. The search pipeline uses machine learning algorithms to help find rare phenomena among 150 million objects and to derive the detection efficiency. Applications of the catalog can be numerous, from analyzing individual events to large statistical studies of the Galactic mass, kinematics distributions, and planetary abundances. We derive maps of the mean Einstein ring crossing time of events spanning 31deg{sup 2} toward the Galactic center and compare the observed distributions with the most recent models. We find good agreement within the observed region and we see the signature of the tilt of the bar in the microlensing data. However, the asymmetry of the mean timescales seems to rise more steeply than predicted, indicating either a somewhat different orientation of the bar or a larger bar width. The map of events with sources in the Galactic bulge shows a dependence of the mean timescale on the Galactic latitude, signaling an increasing contribution from disk lenses closer to the plane relative to the height of the disk. Our data present a perfect set for comparing and enhancing new models of the central parts of the Milky Way and creating a three-dimensional picture of the Galaxy.

  14. Solar Energy Development Assistance for Fort Hunter Liggett

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Hoffman, Michael G.; Chvala, William D.

    2011-03-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided assistance to Fort Hunter Liggett to determine the opportunities for solar energy development on the site. Increasing use of renewable energy is mandated by several executive orders and legislation. Fort Hunter Liggett has many attributes that enhance its suitability for renewable energy development. First, the site is located south of San Francisco in a remote portion of the costal foothills. Brush and forest fires are frequent and often result in power outages, which subsequently impacts the site’s training mission. In addition, the site’s blended electric rate during fiscal year (FY) 2010 was high at 12 ¢/kWh. Lastly, the solar resource is moderately high; the site receives nearly 5.7 kWh/m2/day on a south facing, latitude-tilted surface. In light of these factors, the site is a clear candidate for a solar photovoltaic array. Prior to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) involvement, the site secured funding for a 1 megawatt (MW) photovoltaic (PV) array that will also provide shading for site vehicles. To best implement this project, PNNL conducted a site visit and was tasked with providing the site technical guidance and support regarding module selection, array siting, and other ancillary issues.

  15. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells (CXIDB ID 5)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nelson, Johanna

    2011-07-22

    This is the second of five exposures of the same sample at different tilts. This one is at +15 degrees tilt. Check CXI IDs 4 to 8 for the complete set.

  16. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells (CXIDB ID 4)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nelson, Johanna

    2011-07-22

    This is the first of five exposures of the same sample at different tilts. This one is at +0 degrees tilt. Check CXI IDs 4 to 8 for the complete set.

  17. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells (CXIDB ID 8)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nelson, Johanna

    2011-07-22

    This is the fifth of five exposures of the same sample at different tilts. This one is at -30 degrees tilt. Check CXI IDs 4 to 8 for the complete set.

  18. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells (CXIDB ID 7)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nelson, Johanna

    2011-07-22

    This is the fourth of five exposures of the same sample at different tilts. This one is at -15 degrees tilt. Check CXI IDs 4 to 8 for the complete set.

  19. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells (CXIDB ID 6)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nelson, Johanna

    2011-07-22

    This is the third of five exposures of the same sample at different tilts. This one is at +30 degrees tilt. Check CXI IDs 4 to 8 for the complete set.

  20. News Item

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cs (Spherical aberration) 2.2 mm Cc (Chromatic aberration) 2.2 mm Specimen Stage Double tilt holder angle 70 deg 30 deg Cryo double tilt holder angle 49 deg 30 deg...

  1. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the ship's movement-if the ship tilts in one direction, the platform is programmed to tilt in the opposite direction. Control software uses information from the IMU to keep the...

  2. BPA-2013-01309-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    records request FOIA request from Ted Sickinger. Doug Johnson Bonneville Power Administration 503-230-5840 Rt'(..'EIVEA) BY BPA FO 1A OFFICE TiltS I DUE DATE: LOG From:...

  3. Aurora Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  4. Cove Fort Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  5. Thermo Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  6. Ulupalakua Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  7. Kelsey South Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  8. Criterion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  9. Tuscarora I Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  10. Pilot Peak Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  11. Gerlach Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  12. Silver Peak Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  13. Hot Pot Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  14. Airforce Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  15. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measurements, improved reporting of calibration results, the ability to perform tilt calibrations for increasing pyranometer angular response measurements, improved event...

  16. Pumpernickel Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  17. Linden Ranch | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  18. Dynapower | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  19. Whirlwind Valley Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  20. Drum Mountain Geothermal Project (2) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  1. DeArmand Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  2. High Valley Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  3. Mahogany Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  4. Newberry I Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  5. Orita I Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  6. GV1 Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  7. Akutan Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  8. Olene Gap Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  9. Lovelock Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  10. Alum Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...