Sample records for gdp gaseous diffusion

  1. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    January 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - January 2013 January 2013 Review of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Work Planning and Control...

  2. Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August 2011 Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August 2011 August 2011 Orientation Visit to the Portsmouth...

  3. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plant - November 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - November 2013 November 5, 2013 Review of Preparedness for Severe Natural Phenomena Events...

  4. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    April 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - April 2013 April 2013 Review of the Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification Review at...

  5. An introduction to technetium in the gaseous diffusion cascades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, D.W.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioisotope technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) was introduced into the gaseous diffusion plants (GDP) as a contaminant in uranium that had been reprocessed from spent nuclear reactor fuel. {sup 99}Tc is a product of the nuclear fission of uranium-235 ({sup 235}U). The significantly higher emitted radioactivity of {sup 99}Tc generates concern in the enrichment complex and warrants increased attention (1) to the control of all site emissions, (2) to worker exposures and contamination control when process equipment requires disassembly and decontamination, and (3) to product purity when the enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) product is marketed to the private sector. A total of 101,268 metric tons of RU ({approximately}96% of the total) was fed at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) between FY1953 and FY1976. An additional 5600 metric tons of RU from the government reactors were fed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), plus an approximate 500 tons of foreign reactor returns. Only a small amount of RU was fed directly at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The slightly enriched PGDP product was then fed to either the ORGDP or PORTS cascades for final enrichment. Bailey estimated in 1988 that of the 606 kg of Tc received at PGDP from RU, 121 kg was subsequently re-fed to ORGDP and 85 kg re-fed to PORTS.

  6. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Quadrant I Groundwater Investigat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Quadrant I Groundwater Investigative (5-Unit) Area Plume Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Quadrant I Groundwater Investigative (5-Unit)...

  7. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  8. Diffusion method of seperating gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pontius, Rex B. (Rochester, NY)

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of effecting a relatively large change in the relative concentrations of the components of a gaseous mixture by diffusion which comprises separating the mixture into heavier and lighter portions according to major fraction mass recycle procedure, further separating the heavier portions into still heavier subportions according to a major fraction mass recycle procedure, and further separating the lighter portions into still lighter subportions according to a major fraction equilibrium recycle procedure.

  9. Band Formation during Gaseous Diffusion in Aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Einarsrud; F. A. Maao; A. Hansen; M. Kirkedelen; J. Samseth

    1997-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study experimentally how gaseous HCl and NH_3 diffuse from opposite sides of and react in silica aerogel rods with porosity of 92 % and average pore size of about 50 nm. The reaction leads to solid NH_4Cl, which is deposited in thin sheet-like structures. We present a numerical study of the phenomenon. Due to the difference in boundary conditions between this system and those usually studied, we find the sheet-like structures in the aerogel to differ significantly from older studies. The influence of random nucleation centers and inhomogeneities in the aerogel is studied numerically.

  10. Orientation Visit to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis (DSA) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Category 2 Non-leased Facilities: X-345 Special Nuclear Material Storage Facility;...

  11. Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    surrogates are required to verify and validate NDA methods used to support characterization of gaseous diffusion equipment within the D&D project. Because working reference...

  12. Reassessment of liquefaction potential and estimation of earthquake- induced settlements at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sykora, D.W.; Yule, D.E.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a reassessment of liquefaction potential and estimation of earthquake-induced settlements for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), located southwest of Paducah, KY. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) was authorized to conduct this study from FY91 to FY94 by the DOE, Oak Ridge Operations (ORO), Oak Ridge, TN, through Inter- Agency Agreement (IAG) No. DE-AI05-91OR21971. The study was conducted under the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report (GDP SAR) Program.

  13. Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of equipment and piping of Gaseous Diffusion Plant Uranium Enrichment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singhal, M.K.; Kincaid, J.H.; Hammond, C.R.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Technical Programs and Services; Brock, W.R.; Denton, D.R. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade program (GDP SARUP), a natural phenomena hazards evaluation was performed for the main process equipment and piping in the uranium enrichment buildings at Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants. In order to reduce the cost of rigorous analyses, the evaluation methodology utilized a graded approach based on an experience data base collected by SQUG/EPRI that contains information on the performance of industrial equipment and piping during past earthquakes. This method consisted of a screening walkthrough of the facility in combination with the use of engineering judgment and simple calculations. By using these screenings combined with evaluations that contain decreasing conservatism, reductions in the time and cost of the analyses were significant. A team of experienced seismic engineers who were trained in the use of the DOE SQUG/EPRI Walkdown Screening Material was essential to the success of this natural phenomena hazards evaluation.

  14. Feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The five buildings at the K-25 Site formerly involved in the gaseous diffusion process contain 5000 gaseous diffusion stages as well as support facilities that are internally contaminated with uranium deposits. The gaseous diffusion facilities located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant also contain similar equipment and will eventually close. The decontamination of these facilities will require the most cost-effective technology consistent with the criticality, health physics, industrial hygiene, and environmental concerns; the technology must keep exposures to hazardous substances to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This report documents recent laboratory experiments that were conducted to determine the feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of the internal surfaces of the gaseous diffusion equipment that is contaminated with uranium deposits. A gaseous fluorinating agent is used to fluorinate the solid uranium deposits to gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF[sub 6]), which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The lab results regarding the feasibility of the gas-phase process are encouraging. These results especially showed promise for a novel decontamination approach called the long-term, low-temperature (LTLT) process. In the LTLT process: The equipment is rendered leak tight, evacuated, leak tested, and pretreated, charged with chlorine trifluoride (ClF[sub 3]) to subatmospheric pressure, left for an extended period, possibly > 4 months, while processing other items. Then the UF[sub 6] and other gases are evacuated. The UF[sub 6] is recovered by chemical trapping. The lab results demonstrated that ClF[sub 3] gas at subatmospheric pressure and at [approx] 75[degree]F is capable of volatilizing heavy deposits of uranyl fluoride from copper metal surfaces sufficiently that the remaining radioactive emissions are below limits.

  15. Feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The five buildings at the K-25 Site formerly involved in the gaseous diffusion process contain 5000 gaseous diffusion stages as well as support facilities that are internally contaminated with uranium deposits. The gaseous diffusion facilities located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant also contain similar equipment and will eventually close. The decontamination of these facilities will require the most cost-effective technology consistent with the criticality, health physics, industrial hygiene, and environmental concerns; the technology must keep exposures to hazardous substances to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This report documents recent laboratory experiments that were conducted to determine the feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of the internal surfaces of the gaseous diffusion equipment that is contaminated with uranium deposits. A gaseous fluorinating agent is used to fluorinate the solid uranium deposits to gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The lab results regarding the feasibility of the gas-phase process are encouraging. These results especially showed promise for a novel decontamination approach called the long-term, low-temperature (LTLT) process. In the LTLT process: The equipment is rendered leak tight, evacuated, leak tested, and pretreated, charged with chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3}) to subatmospheric pressure, left for an extended period, possibly > 4 months, while processing other items. Then the UF{sub 6} and other gases are evacuated. The UF{sub 6} is recovered by chemical trapping. The lab results demonstrated that ClF{sub 3} gas at subatmospheric pressure and at {approx} 75{degree}F is capable of volatilizing heavy deposits of uranyl fluoride from copper metal surfaces sufficiently that the remaining radioactive emissions are below limits.

  16. Privatization of the gaseous diffusion plants and impacts on nuclear criticality safety administration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Aquila, D.M.; Holliday, R.T. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Dean, J.C. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 created the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) on July 1, 1993. The USEC is a government-owned business that leases those Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) facilities at the Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, sites from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that are required for enriching uranium. Lockheed Martin Utility Services is the operating contractor for the USEC-leased facilities. The DOE has retained use of, and regulation over, some facilities and areas at the Portsmouth and Paducah sites for managing legacy wastes and environmental restoration activities. The USEC is regulated by the DOE, but is currently changing to regulation under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The USEC is also preparing for privatization of the uranium enrichment enterprise. These changes have significantly affected the nuclear criticality safety (NCS) programs at the sites.

  17. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, C.M. [ed.] [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Report for 1992, is published annually. It reflects the results of an environmental monitoring program designed to quantify potential increases in the concentration of contaminants and potential doses to the resident human population. The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP`s neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, reduce the generation of waste, and minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  18. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Counce-Brown, D. (ed.)

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site Environmental Report for 1990, is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  19. Overview of seismic considerations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, R.J.; Stoddart, W.C.; Burnett, W.A.; Beavers, J.E.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an overview of seismic considerations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the Department of Energy (DOE). The overview describes the original design, the seismic evaluations performed for the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) issued in 1985, and current evaluations and designs to address revised DOE requirements. Future plans to ensure changes in requirements and knowledge are addressed.

  20. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes.

  1. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.F. (ed.)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This calendar year (CY) 1991 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: narrative, summaries, and conclusions (Part 1), and data presentation (Part 2). Environmental-monitoring systems at PORTS include emission-monitoring networks for air and surface water discharges; waste sampling and characterization; and ambient-sampling networks for air, surface water, groundwater, drinking water, vegetation (cattle forage), food crops, fish, soil, creek and river sediments, and direct (gamma) radiation levels.

  2. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Counce-Brown, D. (ed.)

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This calendar year 1990 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the summary, discussion, and conclusions (Part 1) and the data presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are as follows: report 1990 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (when appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance.

  3. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Infrastructure Support Contract Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant- March 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether the Infrastructure Support Contract Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  4. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Infrastructure Support Contract Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant- May 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether Infrastructure Support Contract Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  5. Tiger Team Assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains findings and concerns identified during the Tiger Team Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The assessment was directed by the Department's Office of Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) and was conducted from June 18 to July 20, 1990. The PGDP Tiger Team Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environmental, Safety and Health (including OSHA Compliance), and Management areas and determines the site's compliance with applicable federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. The objective of the assessment program is to provide the Secretary with information on the current ES H compliance status of DOE facilities, root causation for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and site contractor ES H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES H compliance trends and root causes.

  6. Seismic issues at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, K.E. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A seismic expert workshop was held at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on March 13--15, 1989. the PGDP is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). During the last twenty years the design criteria for natural phenomenon hazards has steadily become more demanding at all of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) sites. The purpose of the two-day workshop was to review the seismic vulnerability issues of the PGDP facilities. Participants to the workshop included recognized experts in the fields of seismic engineering, seismology and geosciences, and probabilistic analysis, along with engineers and other personnel from Energy Systems. A complete list of the workshop participants is included in the front of this report. 29 refs.

  7. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.F. (ed.) (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This two-part report is published annually. It reflects the results of an environmental monitoring program designed to quantify potential increases in the concentration of contaminants and potential doses to the resident human population from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the generation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials. Environmental-monitoring systems at PGDP include emission-monitoring networks for airborne and aqueous discharges, groundwater monitoring, solid waste characterization, and ambient-sampling networks for air, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, food crops, fish, wildlife, soil, and surface stream sediments.

  8. Tiger Team Assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains findings and concerns identified during the Tiger Team Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The assessment was directed by the Department's Office of Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) and was conducted from June 18 to July 20, 1990. The PGDP Tiger Team Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environmental, Safety and Health (including OSHA Compliance), and Management areas and determines the site's compliance with applicable federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. The objective of the assessment program is to provide the Secretary with information on the current ES H compliance status of DOE facilities, root causation for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and site contractor ES H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES H compliance trends and root causes. This volume contains appendices.

  9. Gaseous diffusion plant transition from DOE to external regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dann, R.K.; Crites, T.R.; Rahm-Crites, L.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After many years of operation as government-owned/contractor-operated facilities, large portions of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, were leased to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC). These facilities are now certified by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and subject to oversight by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The transition from DOE to NRC regulation was more difficult than expected. The original commitment was to achieve NRC certification in October 1995; however, considerably more time was required and transition-related costs escalated. The Oak Ridge Operations Office originally estimated the cost of transition at $60 million; $240 million has been spent to date. The DOE`s experience in transitioning the GDPs to USEC operation with NRC oversight provides valuable lessons (both positive and negative) that could be applied to future transitions.

  10. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.W. (ed.) (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This two-part environmental report is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials. 36 refs.

  11. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1991. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.F. [ed.] [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This two-part report is published annually. It reflects the results of an environmental monitoring program designed to quantify potential increases in the concentration of contaminants and potential doses to the resident human population from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). PGDP`s overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP`s neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the generation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials. Environmental-monitoring systems at PGDP include emission-monitoring networks for airborne and aqueous discharges, groundwater monitoring, solid waste characterization, and ambient-sampling networks for air, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, food crops, fish, wildlife, soil, and surface stream sediments.

  12. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant annual site environmental report for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, C.M. [ed.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This calendar year (CY) 1993 annual report on environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth) and its environs consists of three separate documents: a summary pamphlet for the general public; a more detail discussion and of compliance status, data, and environmental impacts (this document); and a volume of detailed data that is available on request. The objectives of this report are to report compliance status during 1993; provide information about the plant site and plant operations; report 1993 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; document information on input and assumptions used in calculations; provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on quality assurance for the environmental monitoring program.

  13. Dispersion of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosol and HF vapor in the operating floor during winter ventilation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, J.C. [J.C. Carter Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The gaseous diffusion process is currently employed at two plants in the US: the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, a postulated design basis accident involving large line-rupture induced releases of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) is evaluated. When UF{sub 6} is released into the atmosphere, it undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form vaporized hydrogen fluoride (HF) and aerosolized uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}). These reactants disperse in the process building and transport through the building ventilation system. The ventilation system draws outside air into the process building, distributes it evenly throughout the building, and discharges it to the atmosphere at an elevated temperature. Since air is recirculated from the cell floor area to the operating floor, issues concerning in-building worker safety and evacuation need to be addressed. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the transport of HF vapor and UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols throughout the operating floor area following B-line break accident in the cell floor area.

  14. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.W. (ed.) (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This calendar year 1989 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions (Part 1) and the Data Presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are the following: report 1989 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE site are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, to identify trends, to provide information for the public, and to contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental-monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 26 refs.

  15. Partnering efforts at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, C.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Before individuals or agencies can effectively work together to solve common problems, they must first agree on exactly what those problems are and establish common goals and methods that will lead to mutually acceptable solutions. Then, they must make a conscientious effort to form a cohesive team that focuses on the established goals and deemphasize traditional roles, which may in some instances be considered adversarial. This kind of teamwork/partnering process can be more difficult, though not impossible, to achieve in cases where there are traditional (real or imagined) adversarial relationships between the parties, i.e. regulator vs. regulated. The US Department of Energy Site Office (DOE) at Paducah, Kentucky, the Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection (KDEP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV (EPA) have made t strides toward teamwork and partnering at DOE`s Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. They have accomplished this in a number of ways, which will be discussed in greater detail but first and foremost, the agencies agreed up front that they had mutual goals and interests. These goals are to protect public health and the environment in a cost-effective and timely manner, taking care to make the wisest use of public resources (tax dollars); to evaluate and minimize risks, and to achieve ``Win-Win`` for all parties concerned.

  16. Bioavailability study for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phipps, T.L.; Kszos, L.A.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this plan is to assess the bioavailability of metals in the continuous and intermittent outfalls. The results may be used to determine alternative metal limits that more appropriately measure the portion of metal present necessary for toxicity to aquatic life. These limits must remain protective of in-stream aquatic life; thus, the highest concentration of metal in the water will be determined concurrently with an assessment of acute or chronic toxicity on laboratory tests. Using the method developed by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW), biomonitoring results and chemical data will be used to recommend alternative metal limits for the outfalls of concern. The data will be used to meet the objectives of the study: (1) evaluate the toxicity of continuous outfalls and intermittent outfalls at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; (2) determine the mean ratio of dissolved to Total Recoverable metal for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in the continuous and intermittent outfalls; (3) determine whether the concentration of total recoverable metal discharged causes toxicity to fathead minnows and /or Ceriodaphnia; and (4) determine alternative metal limits for each metal of concern (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn).

  17. Radiation monitoring during criticality at a gaseous diffusion plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goebel, G.R.; Hines, T.W.; Carver, A.M.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP) has two systems of radiation detection units that monitor radiation associated with a nuclear criticality accident (NCA). The primary system, the criticality accident alarm system (CAAS), is composed of several detection units that alarm when gamma-radiation levels exceed 10 mR/h. The CAAS provides the means to initiate emergency-evacuation procedures in the event of an NCA. This system is augmented with a second system of radiation detectors, which is referred to as the argon gamma graph (AGG) system. The AGG system is utilized specifically for the remote monitoring of radiation during an NCA and is a primary tool used by emergency response personnel. The remote radiation readings supplied by the AGG system provide the means to quickly locate and characterize an NCA. The centralized remote monitoring of radiation during an NCA permits important data to be collected efficiently without subjecting personnel to unknown and unquantified radiation fields. Calculations of the expected radiation readings on the AGG system were performed for a postulated NCA at four different locations at PGDP.

  18. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Northwest Plume interceptor system evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laase, A.D.; Clausen, J.L.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) recently installed an interceptor system consisting of four wells, evenly divided between two well fields, to contain the Northwest Plume. As stated in the Northwest Plume Record of Decision (ROD), groundwater will be pumped at a rate to reduce further contamination and initiate control of the northwest contaminant plume. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the optimum (minimal) well field pumping rates required for plume hotspot containment. Plume hotspot, as defined in the Northwest Plume ROD and throughout this report, is that portion of the plume with trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations greater than 1,000 {micro}g/L. An existing 3-dimensional groundwater model was modified and used to perform capture zone analyses of the north and south interceptor system well fields. Model results suggest that the plume hotspot is not contained at the system design pumping rate of 100 gallons per minute (gal/min) per well field. Rather, the modeling determined that north and south well field pumping rates of 400 and 150 gal/min, respectively, are necessary for plume hotspot containment. The difference between the design and optimal pumping rates required for containment can be attributed to the discovery of a highly transmissive zone in the vicinity of the two well fields.

  19. Mixed waste storage facility CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Solid waste landfill CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report consists of two papers reviewing the waste storage facility and the landfill projects proposed for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant complex. The first paper is a review of DOE`s conceptual design report for a mixed waste storage facility. This evaluation is to review the necessity of constructing a separate mixed waste storage facility. The structure is to be capable of receiving, weighing, sampling and the interim storage of wastes for a five year period beginning in 1996. The estimated cost is assessed at approximately $18 million. The review is to help comprehend and decide whether a new storage building is a feasible approach to the PGDP mixed waste storage problem or should some alternate approach be considered. The second paper reviews DOE`s conceptual design report for a solid waste landfill. This solid waste landfill evaluation is to compare costs and the necessity to provide a new landfill that would meet State of Kentucky regulations. The assessment considered funding for a ten year storage facility, but includes a review of other facility needs such as a radiation detection building, compactor/baler machinery, material handling equipment, along with other personnel and equipment storage buildings at a cost of approximately $4.1 million. The review is to help discern whether a landfill only or the addition of compaction equipment is prudent.

  20. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in the diffusion cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffer, J.E. [Parallax, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in plant operations..

  1. EA-1856: Conveyance of Land and Facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant for Economic Development Purposes, Piketon, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of conveyance of land and facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, in Piketon, Ohio, for economic development purposes.

  2. Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement ofConverDynNet-ZeroNew Wave PowerSite |Nextof(GDP)

  3. Transient model of an intermediate surge system for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beard, B.; Blankenship, J.G.; McGrady, P.W.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineering design work (Reference 1) is underway for intermediate surge systems to be added to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) cascade as part of the Process Inventory Control System (PICS) project. These systems would be located between 000 buildings and lower half 00 buildings and would remove or add inventory during cascade transients in order to protect cascade compressors from overload and surge. Similar systems were operated in the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant cascade and are operated in the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant cascade. A steady state flow analysis of the system to be installed at the PGDP has been made. The flow analysis did not address response of the surge system to the cascade transients, nor did it address automatic control of the system. The need to address these issues prompted development of the transient model described in this report. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. On-line vibration and analysis system at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herricks, D.M.; Strunk, W.D.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enrichment facility in Paducah, KY uses a unique hard-wired vibration monitoring and analysis system for gaseous diffusion equipment. The axial flow and centrifugal flow compressors used in uranium enrichment range in size from 6 feet in diameter to less than one foot in diameter. These compressors must operate smoothly and safely, without breech of containment, since the working fluid of gaseous diffusion is gaseous UF/sub 6/. The condition of 1925 compressors is monitored by use of the 2500 point vibration analysis system. Since the failure mechanisms of the compressors are well known and documented, only one accelerometer per machine is needed for most machines. The system is completely automated and can generate spectra or broadband levels in either acceleration or velocity units. Levels are stored for historical review. The analyst can, via a custom telecommunications link, view and analyze data from all monitored points with an office PC. 4 figs.

  5. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site, Paducah, KY, March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The decision document presents the selected interim action for the North-South Diversion Ditch (NSDD) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The primary objective of this interim remedial action is to initiate control of the source of continued contaminant releases into the NSDD and mitigate the spread of contamination from the NSDD.

  6. Environmental Restoration Site-Specific Plan for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, FY 93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Site-Specific Plan (SSP) is to describe past, present, and future activities undertaken to implement Environmental Restoration and Waste Management goals at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The SSP is presented in sections emphasizing Environmental Restoration description of activities, resources, and milestones.

  7. Source term evaluation for UF{sub 6} release event in feed facility at gaseous diffusion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1997-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of UF{sub 6} release accidents was conducted for the feed facility of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP). Release rates from pig-tail connections were estimated from CYLIND code predictions, whereas, MELCOR was utilized for simulating reactions of UF{sub 6} with moisture and consequent transport of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and HF vapor through the building and to the environment. Two wind speeds were utilized. At the high end (Case 1) a wind speed of {approximately} 1 m/s (200 fpm) was assumed to flow parallel to the building length. At the low end (Case 2) to represent stagnant conditions a corresponding wind speed of 1 cm/s (2 fpm) was utilized. A further conservative assumption was made to specify no closure of crane and train doors at either end of the building. Relaxation of this assumption should provide for additional margins. Results indicated that, for the high (200 fpm) wind speed, close to 66% of the UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and 100% of the HF gas get released to the environment over a 10-minute period. However, for the low (2 fpm) wind speed, negligible amount ({approximately} 1% UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) of aerosols get released even over a 2 hour period.

  8. Environmental Restoration Site-Specific Plan for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, FY 93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of the major Environmental Restoration (ER) concerns at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The identified solid waste management units at PGDP are listed. In the Department of Energy (DOE) Five Year Plan development process, one or more waste management units are addressed in a series of activity data sheets (ADSs) which identify planned scope, schedule, and cost objectives that are representative of the current state of planned technical development for individual or multiple sites.

  9. Introduction to the nuclear criticality safety evaluation of facility X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the first in a series of documents that will evaluate nuclear criticality safety in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. It provides an overview of the facility, categorizes its functions for future analysis, reviews existing NCS documentation, and explains the follow-on effort planned for X-705. A detailed breakdown of systems, subsystems, and operational areas is presented and cross-referenced to existing NCS documentation.

  10. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of Spray Booth Operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for Spray Booth Operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current procedures and related hardware/equipment is presented. Control parameters relevant to nuclear criticality safety are explained, and a consolidated listing of administrative controls and safety systems is developed. Based on compliance with DOE Orders and MMES practices, the overall operation is evaluated, and recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested.

  11. EA-0767: Construction and Experiment of an Industrial Solid Waste Landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary at the U.S. Department of Energy's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion plant...

  12. United States Department of Energy Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air, water, soil, sediments, grass, and groundwater in the vicinity of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant were continuously or periodically sampled during 1984. Analyses for materials known to be in plant effluents were made to provide effluent control information and to determine compliance with applicable environmental standards. Low sulfur coal is burned in the steam plant to meet Kentucky emission limits for sulfur dioxide. Air analyses for radioactivity indicated concentrations at each off-site sampling station averaged less than 1% of the DOE Radioactivity Concentration Guide (RCG). Offsite analyses for fluorides in grass met the Kentucky Air Quality Requirements. All onsite and offsite airborne fluoride samples met the Kentucky one-week and one-month standards for gaseous HF. Soil samples were analyzed for uranium and showed no significant deviation from normal background concentrations. There was no detectable change in chemical, physical, or radioactive characteristics of the Ohio River attributable to Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant operations. The results of water sample analyses of the Ohio River show the chromium and fluoride concentrations to be in compliance with the requirements of the applicable Kentucky regulations. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Site-specific earthquake response analysis for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sykora, D.W.; Davis, J.J.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated under contract by Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., is located southwest of Paducah, Kentucky. An aerial photograph and an oblique sketch of the plant are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. The fenced portion of the plant consists of 748 acres. This plant was constructed in the 1950`s and is one of only two gaseous diffusion plants in operation in the United States; the other is located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The facilities at PGDP are currently being evaluated for safety in response to natural seismic hazards. Design and evaluation guidelines to evaluate the effects of earthquakes and other natural hazards on DOE facilities follow probabilistic hazard models that have been outlined by Kennedy et al. (1990). Criteria also established by Kennedy et al. (1990) classify diffusion plants as ``moderate hazard`` facilities. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) was tasked to calculate the site response using site-specific design earthquake records developed by others and the results of previous geotechnical investigations. In all, six earthquake records at three hazard levels and four individual and one average soil columns were used.

  14. Investigation of gas-phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Construction of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) was begun during World War 2 to produce enriched uranium for defense purposes. These plants, which utilized UF{sub 6} gas, were used primarily for this purpose through 1964. From 1959 through 1968, production shifted primarily to uranium enrichment to supply the nuclear power industry. Additional UF{sub 6}-handling facilities were built in feed and fuel-processing plants associated with the uranium enrichment process. Two of the five process buildings at Oak ridge were shut down in 1964. Uranium enrichment activities at Oak Ridge were discontinued altogether in 1985. In 1987, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to proceed with a permanent shutdown of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). DOE intends to begin decommissioning and decontamination (D D) of ORGDP early in the next century. The remaining two GDPs are expected to be shut down during the next 10 to 40 years and will also require D D, as will the other UF{sub 6}-handling facilities. This paper presents an investigation of gas- phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping using powerful fluorinating reagents that convert nonvolatile uranium compounds to volatile UF{sub 6}. These reagents include ClF{sub 3}, F{sub 2}, and other compounds. The scope of D D at the GDPs, previous work of gas-phase decontamination, four concepts for using gas-phase decontamination, plans for further study of gas-phase decontamination, and the current status of this work are discussed. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Fire protection review revisit No. 2, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, P.H.; Keller, D.R.; Treece, S.D.

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fire protection survey was conducted for the Department of Energy at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, from October 30--November 4, November 6--10, and December 4--8, 1989. The purpose of the survey was to review the facility fire protection program and to make recommendations. Surveys of other facilities resulted in a classification system for buildings which provide an indication of the importance of the building to the fulfillment of the mission of the facility. Recommendations in this report reflect to some degree the relative importance of the facility and the time to restore it to useful condition in the event a loss were to occur.

  16. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  17. Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

  18. A multispectral scanner survey of the United States Department of Energy's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Airborne multispectral scanner data of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area were acquired during late spring 1990. This survey was conducted by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) which is operated by EG G Energy Measurements (EG G/EM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office. It was requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Audit Team which was reviewing environmental conditions at the facility. The objectives of this survey were to: (1) Acquire 12-channel, multispectral scanner data of the PGDP from an altitude of 3000 feet above ground level (AGL); (2) Acquire predawn, digital thermal infrared (TIR) data of the site from the same altitude; (3) Collect color and color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs over the facilities; and (4) Illustrate how the analyses of these data could benefit environmental monitoring at the PGDP. This report summarizes the two multispectral scanner and aerial photographic missions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Selected examples of the multispectral data are presented to illustrate its potential for aiding environmental management at the site. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. The Blend Down Monitoring System Demonstration at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, J.; Close, D.; Johnson, W., Jr.; Kerr, P.; March-Leuba, J.; Mastal, E.; Moss, C.; Powell, D.; Sumner, J.; Uckan, T.; Vines, R.; Wright, P.D.

    1999-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Agreements between the governments of the US and the Russian Federation for the US purchase of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons calls for the establishment of transparency measures to provide confidence that nuclear nonproliferation goals are being met. To meet these transparency goals, the agreements call for the installation of nonintrusive US instruments to monitor the down blending of HEU to LEU. The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) has been jointly developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continuously monitor {sup 235}U enrichments and mass flow rates at Russian blending facilities. Prior to its installation in Russian facilities, the BDMS was installed and operated in a UF{sub 6} flow loop in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant simulating flow and enrichment conditions expected in a typical down-blending facility. A Russian delegation to the US witnessed the equipment demonstration in June, 1998. To conduct the demonstration in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the BDMS was required to meet stringent Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing, safety and operational requirements. The Paducah demonstration was an important milestone in achieving the operational certification for the BDMS use in Russian facilities.

  20. Lessons-Learned from D and D Activities at the Five Gaseous Diffusion Buildings (K-25, K- 27, K-29, K-31 and K-33) East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN - 13574

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopotic, James D. [United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Office, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Office, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Ferri, Mark S.; Buttram, Claude [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, East Tennessee Technology Park, P. O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, East Tennessee Technology Park, P. O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is the site of five former gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) process buildings that were used to enrich uranium from 1945 to 1985. The process equipment in the original two buildings (K-25 and K-27) was used for the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU), while that in the three later buildings (K-29, K-31 and K-33) produced low enriched uranium (LEU). Equipment was contaminated primarily with uranium and to a lesser extent technetium (Tc). Decommissioning of the GDP process buildings has presented several unique challenges and produced many lessons-learned. Among these is the importance of good, up-front characterization in developing the best demolition approach. Also, chemical cleaning of process gas equipment and piping (PGE) prior to shutdown should be considered to minimize the amount of hold-up material that must be removed by demolition crews. Another lesson learned is to maintain shutdown buildings in a dry state to minimize structural degradation which can significantly complicate characterization, deactivation and demolition efforts. Perhaps the most important lesson learned is that decommissioning GDP process buildings is first and foremost a waste logistics challenge. Innovative solutions are required to effectively manage the sheer volume of waste generated from decontamination and demolition (D and D) of these enormous facilities. Finally, close coordination with Security is mandatory to effectively manage Special Nuclear Material (SNM) and classified equipment issues. (authors)

  1. A probabilistic safety analysis of UF{sub 6} handling at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, G.J.; Lewis, S.R.; Summitt, R.L. [Safety and Reliability Optimization Services (SAROS), Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A probabilistic safety study of UF{sub 6} handling activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant has recently been completed. The analysis provides a unique perspective on the safety of UF{sub 6} handling activities. The estimated release frequencies provide an understanding of current risks, and the examination of individual contributors yields a ranking of important plant features and operations. Aside from the probabilistic results, however, there is an even more important benefit derived from a systematic modeling of all operations. The integrated approach employed in the analysis allows the interrelationships among the equipment and the required operations to be explored in depth. This paper summarizes the methods used in the study and provides an overview of some of the technical insights that were obtained. Specific areas of possible improvement in operations are described.

  2. Local drainage analyses of the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.O.; Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Local drainage analyses have been performed for the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm having an approximate 10,000-yr recurrence interval. This review discusses the methods utilized to accomplish the analyses in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) design and evaluation guidelines, and summarizes trends, results, generalizations, and uncertainties applicable to other DOE facilities. Results indicate that some culverts may be undersized, and that the storm sewer system cannot drain the influx of precipitation from the base of buildings. Roofs have not been designed to sustain ponding when the primary drainage system is clogged. Some underground tunnels, building entrances, and ground level air intakes may require waterproofing.

  3. Regional flood hazard assessment of the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.O.; Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional flood-hazard assessments performed for the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants are reviewed, compared, and contrasted to determine the relationship of probable maximum flood methodology with respect to US Department of Energy design and evaluation guidelines. The Paducah assessment was carried out using probable maximum flood methodology, while the Portsmouth assessment utilized probabilistic techniques. Results indicated that regional flooding along nearby rivers would not inundate either plant, and that the guidelines were satisfied. A comparison of results indicated that the probable maximum flood recurrence interval associated with the Paducah assessment exceeded the 10,000 years depending on the choice of the probabilistic model used to perform the assessment. It was concluded, based on an analysis of two data points, that smaller watersheds driven by single event storms could be assessed using probabilistic techniques, while probable maximum flood methodology could be applied to larger drainage basins flooded by storm sequences. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992.

  5. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report summary for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains summaries of the environmental programs at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, environmental monitoring and the results, and the impact of operations on the environment and the public for 1993. The environmental monitoring program at Paducah includes effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is measurement of releases as they occur. Contaminants are released through either airborne emissions or liquids discharged from the plant. These releases occur as part of normal site operations, such as cooling water discharged from the uranium enrichment cascade operations or airborne releases from ventilation systems. In the event of system failure, this monitoring provides timely warning so that corrective action can be taken before releases reach an unsafe level. Environmental surveillance tracks the dispersion of materials into the environment after they have been released. This involves the collection of samples from various media, such as water, soil, vegetation, and food crops, and the analysis of these samples for certain radionuclides, chemicals, and metals.

  6. Seismically-induced soil amplification at the DOE Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sykora, D.W.; Haynes, M.E. (Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Geotechnical Lab.); Brock, W.R.; Hunt, R.J.; Shaffer, K.E. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A site-specific earthquake site response (soil amplification) study is being conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This study is pursuant to an upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report in accordance with requirements specified by DOE. The seismic hazard at PGDP is dominated by the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Site-specific synthetic earthquake records developed by others were applied independently to four soil columns with heights above baserock of about 325 ft. The results for the 1000-year earthquake event indicate that the site period is between 1.0 and 1.5 sec. Incident shear waves are amplified at periods of motion greater than 0.15 sec. The peak free-field horizontal acceleration, occurring at very low periods, is 0.28 g. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  8. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report summary for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains summaries of the environmental programs at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, environmental monitoring and the results, and the impact of operations on the environment and the public for 1993. The environmental monitoring program at Paducah includes effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is measurement of releases as they occur. Contaminants are released through either airborne emissions or liquids discharged from the plant. These releases occur as part of normal site operations, such as cooling water discharged from the uranium enrichment cascade operations or airborne releases from ventilation systems. In the event of system failure, this monitoring provides timely warning so that corrective action can be taken before releases reach an unsafe level. Environmental surveillance tracks the dispersion of materials into the environment after they have been released. This involves the collection of samples from various media, such as water, soil, vegetation, and food crops, and the analysis of these samples for certain radionuclides, chemicals, and metals.

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within [plus minus]15%.

  10. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) conducted March 14 through 25, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental risk associated with ORGDP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORGDP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during is on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the ORGDP Survey findings for in inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 120 refs., 41 figs., 74 tabs.

  11. Assessment and interpretation of cross- and down-hole seismograms at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staub, W.P.; Wang, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Selfridge, R.J. (Automated Sciences Group, (United States))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is an assessment and interpretation of cross-and down-hole seismograms recorded at four sites in the vicinity of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Arrival times of shear (S-) and compressional (P-) waves are recorded on these seismograms in milliseconds. Together with known distances between energy sources and seismometers lowered into boreholes, these arrival times are used to calculate S- and P-wave velocities in unconsolidated soils and sediments that overlie bedrock approximately 320 ft beneath PGDP. The soil columns are modified after an earlier draft by ERC Environmental and Energy Services Company (ERCE), 1990. In addition to S- and P- wave velocity estimates from this paper, the soil columns contain ERCE's lithologic and other geotechnical data for unconsolidated soils and sediments from the surface to bedrock. Soil columns for Sites 1 through 4 and a site location map are in Plates 1 through 5 of Appendix 6. The velocities in the four columns are input parameters for the SHAKE computer program, a nationally recognized computer model that simulates ground response of unconsolidated materials to earthquake generated seismic waves. The results of the SHAKE simulation are combined with predicted ground responses on rock foundations (caused by a given design earthquake) to predict ground responses of facilities with foundations placed on unconsolidated materials. 3 refs.

  12. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  13. Martin Marietta Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant comprehensive earthquake emergency management program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Recognizing the value of a proactive, integrated approach to earthquake preparedness planning, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a contract in June 1989 with Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, to develop a comprehensive earthquake management program for their Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky. The overall purpose of the program is to mitigate the loss of life and property in the event of a major destructive earthquake. The program includes four distinct (yet integrated) components: an emergency management plan, with emphasis on the catastrophic earthquake; an Emergency Operations Center Duty Roster Manual; an Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System (IAEMIS); and a series of five training program modules. The PLAN itself is comprised of four separate volumes: Volume I -- Chapters 1--3; Volume II -- Chapters 4--6, Volume III -- Chapter 7, and Volume IV -- 23 Appendices. The EOC Manual (which includes 15 mutual aid agreements) is designated as Chapter 7 in the PLAN and is a stand alone'' document numbered as Volume III. This document, Volume I, provides an introduction, summary and recommendations, and the emergency operations center direction and control.

  14. Determination of operating limits for radionuclides for a proposed landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Kocher, D.C.

    1994-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The operating limits for radionuclides in sanitary and industrial wastes were determined for a proposed landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky. These limits, which may be very small but nonzero, are not mandated by law or regulation but are needed for rational operation. The approach was based on analyses of the potential contamination of groundwater at the plant boundary and the potential exposure to radioactivity of an intruder at the landfill after closure. The groundwater analysis includes (1) a source model describing the disposal of waste and the release of radionuclides from waste to the groundwater, (2) site-specific groundwater flow and contaminant transport calculations, and (3) calculations of operating limits from the dose limit and conversion factors. The intruder analysis includes pathways through ingestion of contaminated vegetables and soil, external exposure to contaminated soil, and inhalation of suspended activity from contaminated soil particles. In both analyses, a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) was adopted. The intended application of the results is to refine the radiological monitoring standards employed by the PGDP Health Physics personnel to determine what constitutes radioactive wastes, with concurrence of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

  15. Determination of operating limits for radionuclides for a proposed landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Kocher, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The operating limits for radionuclides in sanitary and industrial wastes were determined for a proposed landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. These limits, which may be very small but nonzero, are not mandated by law or regulation but are needed for rational operation. The primary advantages of establishing such operating limits include (a) technically defensible screening criteria for landfill-destined solid wastes, (b) significant reductions in the required capacity of radioactive waste storage and disposal facilities, and (c) reductions in costs associated with storage and disposal of radioactive materials. The approach was based on analyses of potential contamination of groundwater at the plant boundary and the potential exposure to radioactivity of an intruder at the landfill after closure. The groundwater analysis includes (a) a source model describing the disposal of waste and the release of radionuclides from waste to groundwater, (b) site-specific groundwater flow and contaminant transport calculations, and (c) calculations of operating limits from the dose objective and conversion factors. The intruder analysis includes pathways through ingestion of contaminated vegetables and soil, external exposure to contaminated soil, and inhalation of suspended activity from contaminated soil particles. In both analyses, a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) was adopted.

  16. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  17. Martin Marietta Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant comprehensive earthquake emergency management program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Recognizing the value of a proactive, integrated approach to earthquake preparedness planning, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a contract in June 1989 with Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, to develop a comprehensive earthquake management program for their Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky (PGDP -- Subcontract No. 19P-JV649V). The overall purpose of the program is to mitigate the loss of life and property in the event of a major destructive earthquake. The program includes four distinct (yet integrated) components: an emergency management plan, with emphasis on the catastrophic earthquake; an Emergency Operations Center Duty Roster Manual; an Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System (IAEMIS); and a series of five training program modules. The PLAN itself is comprised of four separate volumes: Volume I -- Chapters 1--3; Volume II -- Chapters 4--6, Volume III -- Chapter 7, and Volume IV -- 23 Appendices. The EOC Manual (which includes 15 mutual aid agreements) is designated as Chapter 7 in the PLAN and is a stand alone'' document numbered as Volume III. This document, Volume II, discusses methodology, engineering and environmental analyses, and operational procedures.

  18. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  19. Seismic hazard evaluation for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study presents the results of an investigation of seismic hazard at the site of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Paducah is located near the northern end of the Reelfoot Rift -- a large feature of the earth's crust that is believed to be associated with the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811 and 1812. Results from three separate seismic hazard analyses are presented here. The EPRI/SOG analysis uses the input data and methodology developed by the Electric Power Research Institute, under the sponsorship of several electric utilities, for the evaluation of seismic hazard in the central and eastern United States. Section 2 of this report documents the application of the EPRI/SOG methodology to the Paducah site (for both rock and soil conditions). The LLNL analysis uses the input data and methodology developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This analysis was performed by LLNL and results were transmitted to us. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of LLNL inputs and results (for both rock and soil conditions, and considering 4 and 5 LLNL ground motion experts). 29 refs., 118 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

  1. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997.

  2. Martin Marietta Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant comprehensive earthquake emergency management program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Recognizing the value of a proactive, integrated approach to earthquake preparedness planning, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc, initiated a contract in June 1989 with Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, to develop a comprehensive earthquake management program for their Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky (PGDP--Subcontract No. 19P-JV649V). The overall purpose of the program is to mitigate the loss of life and property in the event of a major destructive earthquake. The program includes four distinct (yet integrated) components: (1) an emergency management plan, with emphasis on the catas trophic earthquake, (2) an Emergency Operations Center Duty Roster Manual, (3) an Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System (IAEMIS), and (4) a series of five training program modules. The PLAN itself is comprised of four separate volumes: Volume I--Chapters 1--3; Volume II--Chapters 4--6, Volume III--Chapter 7, and Volume IV--23 Appendices. The EOC Manual (which includes 15 mutual aid agreements) is designated as Chapter 7 in the PLAN and is a stand alone'' document numbered as Volume III. This document, Volume IV contains the appendices to this report.

  3. Martin Marietta Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant comprehensive earthquake emergency management program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Recognizing the value of a proactive, integrated approach to earthquake preparedness planning, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a contract in June 1989 with Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, to develop a comprehensive earthquake management program for their Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky (PGDP -- Subcontract No. 19P-JV649V). The overall purpose of the program is to mitigate the loss of life and property in the event of a major destructive earthquake. The program includes four distinct (yet integrated) components: (1) an emergency management plan with emphasis on the catas trophic earthquake; (2) an Emergency Operations Center Duty Roster Manual; (3) an Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System (IAEMIS); and (4) a series of five training program modules. The PLAN itself is comprised of four separate volumes: Volume I -- Chapters 1--3; Volume II -- Chapters 4--6; Volume III -- Chapter 7; and Volume IV -- 23 Appendices. The EOC Manual (which includes 15 mutual aid agreements) is designated as Chapter 7 in the PLAN and is this document numbered as Volume III.

  4. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant proposed pilot pump-and-treat project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Huff, D.D.; Jones, K.S.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On March 23, 1992, R.C. Sleeman of the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office requested that a Groundwater Corrective Actions Team be assembled to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. In addition to other suggestions, the Team recommended that further characterization data be obtained for the plume. In the Fall of 1993 additional, temporary well points were installed so that groundwater samples from the shallow groundwater system and the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) could be obtained to provide a three-dimensional view of groundwater contamination in the region of the plume. The results indicate that pure-phase DNAPL (trichloroethylene [TCE]) probably are present in the source area of the plume and extend in depth to the base of the RGA. Because the DNAPL likely will represent a source of a dissolved phase plume for decades it is essential that source containment take place. The Team recommends that although effective hydraulic containment can be achieved, other alternatives should be considered. For example, recent advances in emplacing low permeability barrier walls to depths of 100 to 150 ft make it possible to consider encirclement of the source of the Northwest plume.

  5. Infrared absorption strengths of potential gaseous diffusion plant coolants and related reaction products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Angel, E.C.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE gaseous diffusion plant complex makes extensive use of CFC-114 as a primary coolant. As this material is scheduled for production curtailment within the next few years, a search for substitutes is underway, and apparently workable alternatives have been found and are under testing. The presently favored substitutes, FC-c3l8 and FC-3110, satisfy ozone depletion and operational chemical compatibility concerns, but will be long-lived greenhouse gases, and thus may be regulated on that basis in the future. A further search is therefore underway for compounds with shorter atmospheric lifetimes which could otherwise satisfy operational physical and chemical requirements. A number of such candidates are in the process of being screened for chemical compatibility in a fluorinating environment. This document presents infrared spectral data developed and used in that study for candidates recently examined, and also for many of their fluorination reaction products. The data include gas-phase infrared spectra, quantitative peak intensities as a function of partial pressure, and integrated absorbance strength in the IR-transparent atmospheric window of interest to global warming modeling. Combining this last property with literature or estimated atmospheric lifetimes, rough estimates of global warming potential for these compounds are also presented.

  6. Environmental restoration and waste management site specific plan for Oak Ridge Operation Office Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) occupies 748 security-fenced acres located on a 3,400-acre tract in McCracken County, Kentucky, which was previously part of the Kentucky Ordnance Works. The principle objective on-site process at PGDP is the separation of uranium isotopes through gaseous diffusion. The process produces enriched uranium, which is used for nuclear fuel in commercial power plants and for military purposes. This document provides an overview of the major environmental and waste management concerns at PGDP, requirements for implementation, organization/management, corrective activities, environmental restoration, waste management options, compliance with National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), reporting and data management, quality assurance and federal, state and local interactions. 12 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Ground penetrating radar surveys over an alluvial DNAPL site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, P.J. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Doll, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phillips, B.E. [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to map shallow sands and gravels which are DNAPL migration pathways at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. The sands and gravels occur as paleochannel deposits, at depths of 17-25 ft, embedded in Pleistocene lacustrine clays. More than 30 GPR profiles were completed over the Drop Test Area (DTA) to map the top and base of the paleochannel deposits, and to assess their lateral continuity. A bistatic radar system was used with antenna frequencies of 25 and 50 MHz. An average velocity of 0.25 ft/ns for silty and clayey materials above the paleochannel deposits was established from radar walkaway tests, profiles over culverts of known depth, and comparison of radar sections with borings. In the south portion of the DTA, strong reflections corresponded to the water table at approximately 9-10 ft, the top of the paleochannel deposits at approximately 18 ft, and to gravel horizons within these deposits. The base of these deposits was not visible on the radar sections. Depth estimates for the top of the paleochannel deposits (from 50 records) were accurate to within 2 ft across the southern portion of the DTA. Continuity of these sands and gravels could not be assessed due to interference from air-wave reflections and lateral changes in signal penetration depth. However, the sands and gravels appear to extend across the entire southern portion of the DTA, at depths as shallow as 17 ft. Ringing, air-wave reflections and diffractions from powerlines, vehicles, well casings, and metal equipment severly degraded GPR profiles in the northern portion of the DTA; depths computed from reflection times (where visible) were accurate to within 4 ft in this area. The paleochannel deposits are deeper to the north and northeast where DNAPL has apparently pooled (DNAPL was not directly imaged by the GPR, however). Existing hydrogeological models of the DTA will be revised.

  8. Inorganic soil and groundwater chemistry near Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, G.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-surface soils, boreholes, and sediments near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) were sampled in 1989-91 as were monitoring wells, TVA wells, and privately-owned wells. Most wells were sampled two or three times. The resulting chemical analyses have been published in previous reports and have been previously described (CH2M HILL 1991, 1992; Clausen et al. 1992). The two reports by CH2M HILL are controversial, however, because, the concentrations of some constituents were reported to exceed background levels or drinking water standards and because both on-site (within the perimeter fence at PGDP) and off-site pollution was reported to have occurred. The groundwater samples upon which these interpretations were based may not be representative, however. The CH2M HILL findings are discussed in the report. The purpose of this report is to characterize the inorganic chemistry of groundwater and soils near PGDP, using data from the CH2M HILL reports (1991, 1992), and to determine whether or not any contamination has occurred. The scope is limited to analysis and interpretation of data in the CH2M HILL reports because previous interpretations of these data may not be valid, because samples were collected in a relatively short period of time at several hundred locations, and because the chemical analyses are nearly complete. Recent water samples from the same wells were not considered because the characterization of inorganic chemistry for groundwater and soil requirements only one representative sample and an accurate analysis from each location.

  9. Proposed sale of radioactively contaminated nickel ingots located at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to sell 8,500 radioactively contaminated nickel ingots (9.350 short tons), currently in open storage at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), to Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) for decontamination and resale on the international market. SEG would take ownership of the ingots when they are loaded for transport by truck to its facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. SEG would receive approximately 200 short tons per month over approximately 48 months (an average of 180 ingots per month). The nickel decontamination process specified in SEG`s technical proposal is considered the best available technology and has been demonstrated in prototype at SEG. The resultant metal for resale would have contamination levels between 0.3 and 20 becquerel per gram (Bq/g). The health hazards associated with release of the decontaminated nickel are minimal. The activity concentration of the end product would be further reduced when the nickel is combined with other metals to make stainless steel. Low-level radioactive waste from the SEG decontamination process, estimated to be approximately 382 m{sup 3} (12,730 ft), would be shipped to a licensed commercial or DOE disposal facility. If the waste were packaged in 0.23 m{sup 3}-(7.5 ft{sup 3}-) capacity drums, approximately 1,500 to 1,900 drums would be transported over the 48-month contract period. Impacts from the construction of decontamination facilities and the selected site are minimal.

  10. Modeling and analyses of postulated UF{sub 6} release accidents in gaseous diffusion plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, J.C. [J.C. Carter Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, R.H. [Dyer Enterprises, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer models have been developed to simulate the transient behavior of aerosols and vapors as a result of a postulated accident involving the release of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant. UF{sub 6} undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form hydrogen fluoride (HF) and radioactive uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}). As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, this study evaluated source terms consisting of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} as well as HF during a postulated UF{sub 6} release accident in a process building. In the postulated accident scenario, {approximately}7900 kg (17,500 lb) of hot UF{sub 6} vapor is released over a 5 min period from the process piping into the atmosphere of a large process building. UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} mainly remains as airborne-solid particles (aerosols), and HF is in a vapor form. Some UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols are removed from the air flow due to gravitational settling. The HF and the remaining UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} are mixed with air and exhausted through the building ventilation system. The MELCOR computer code was selected for simulating aerosols and vapor transport in the process building. MELCOR model was first used to develop a single volume representation of a process building and its results were compared with those from past lumped parameter models specifically developed for studying UF{sub 6} release accidents. Preliminary results indicate that MELCOR predicted results (using a lumped formulation) are comparable with those from previously developed models.

  11. Health risk from earthquake caused releases of UF{sub 6} at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N.W; Lu, S.; Chen, J.C.; Roehnelt, R.; Lombardi, D.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The health risk to the public and workers from potential exposure to the toxic materials from earthquake caused releases of uranium hexafluoride from the Paducah gaseous Diffusion Plant are evaluated. The results of the study show that the health risk from earthquake caused releases is small, and probably less than risks associated with the transportation of hydrogen fluoride and other similar chemicals used by industry. The probability of more than 30 people experiencing health consequences (injuries) from earthquake damage is less than 4xlO{sup 4}/yr.

  12. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Northwest Plume, Paducah, KY, July 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Northwest Plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The primary objective of this interim remedial action is to initiate a first phase remedial action, as an interim action to initiate control of the source and mitigate the spread of contamination in the Northwest plume. This operable unit addresses a portion of the contaminated ground water. Additional interim actions associated with this integrator operable unit are being considered, as well as for other areas of contaminated ground water.

  13. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (USDOE), Operable Unit 15, Paducah, KY, August 10, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This decision document presents the remedial action for the Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 91 of the Waste Area Group (WAG) 27 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) near Paducah, Kentucky. The primary objective of this remedial action is to reduce the level of TCE-contaminated soil thereby reducing the potential future concentrations in ground water that could pose a threat to human health and the environment at the POE (i.e., the DOE property boundary). The potential for migration of the contamination from the soil of the off-site aquifer is the concern associated with the SWMU.

  14. APPLICATION OF THE LASAGNA{trademark} SOIL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY AT THE DOE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Barry D.; Tarantino, Joseph J., P. E.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), has been enriching uranium since the early 1950s. The enrichment process involves electrical and mechanical components that require periodic cleaning. The primary cleaning agent was trichloroethene (TCE) until the late 1980s. Historical documentation indicates that a mixture of TCE and dry ice were used at PGDP for testing the integrity of steel cylinders, which stored depleted uranium. TCE and dry ice were contained in a below-ground pit and used during the integrity testing. TCE seeped from the pit and contaminated the surrounding soil. The Lasagna{trademark} technology was identified in the Record of Decision (ROD) as the selected alternative for remediation of the cylinder testing site. A public-private consortium formed in 1992 (including DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Monsanto, DuPont, and General Electric) developed the Lasagna{trademark} technology. This innovative technology employs electrokinetics to remediate soil contaminated with organics and is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils. This technology uses direct current to move water through the soil faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods. Electrokinetics moves contaminants in soil pore water through treatment zones comprised of iron filings, where the contaminants are decomposed to basic chemical compounds such as ethane. After three years of development in the laboratory, the consortium field tested the Lasagna{trademark} process in several phases. CDM installed and operated Phase I, the trial installation and field test of a 150-square-foot area selected for a 120-day run in 1995. Approximately 98 percent of the TCE was removed. CDM then installed and operated the next phase (IIa), a year-long test on a 600-square-foot site. Completed in July 1997, this test removed 75 percent of the total volume of TCE down to a depth of 45 feet. TCE in the test sites. Based on the successful field tests (Phases I and IIa), the ROD was prepared and the Lasagna{trademark} alternative was selected for remediation of TCE contaminated soils at the cylinder testing site Solid Waste Management Unit 91(SWMU 91). Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC contracted CDM to construct and operate a full-scale Lasagna{trademark} remediation system at the site (Phase IIb). Construction began in August 1999 and the operational phase was initiated in December 1999. The Lasagna{trademark} system was operated for two years and reduced the average concentration of TCE in SWMU 91 soil from 84 ppm to less than 5.6 ppm. Verification sampling was conducted during May, 2002. Results of the verification sampling indicated the average concentration of TCE in SWMU 91 soil was 0.38 ppm with a high concentration of 4.5 ppm.

  15. Gamma radiological surveys of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, 1990-1993, and overview of data processing and analysis by the Environmental Restoration Remote Sensing Program, Fiscal Year 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyre, J.L.; Moll, B.W.; King, A.L.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three gamma radiological surveys have been conducted under auspices of the ER Remote Sensing Program: (1) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (1992), (2) Clinch River (1992), and (3) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) (1993). In addition, the Remote Sensing Program has acquired the results of earlier surveys at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) (1990) and PORTS (1990). These radiological surveys provide data for characterization and long-term monitoring of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contamination areas since many of the radioactive materials processed or handled on the ORR, PGDP, and PORTS are direct gamma radiation emitters or have gamma emitting daughter radionuclides. High resolution airborne gamma radiation surveys require a helicopter outfitted with one or two detector pods, a computer-based data acquisition system, and an accurate navigational positioning system for relating collected data to ground location. Sensors measure the ground-level gamma energy spectrum in the 38 to 3,026 KeV range. Analysis can provide gamma emission strength in counts per second for either gross or total man-made gamma emissions. Gross count gamma radiation includes natural background radiation from terrestrial sources (radionuclides present in small amounts in the earth`s soil and bedrock), from radon gas, and from cosmic rays from outer space as well as radiation from man-made radionuclides. Man-made count gamma data include only the portion of the gross count that can be directly attributed to gamma rays from man-made radionuclides. Interpretation of the gamma energy spectra can make possible the determination of which specific radioisotopes contribute to the observed man-made gamma radiation, either as direct or as indirect (i.e., daughter) gamma energy from specific radionuclides (e.g., cesium-137, cobalt-60, uranium-238).

  16. An interim report to the manager of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant from the Paducah Environmental Advisory Committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, G.D.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah Environmental Advisory Committee was formed as: (1) an outgrowth of other Environmental Advisory Committees already in existence at Oak Ridge and other Martin Marietta Energy Systems plants; (2) a result of public concern following significant nuclear incidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl; (3) a result of the new direction and commitment of the management of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant following contract acquisition by Martin Marietta Energy Systems; and (4) a means of reducing and/or preventing local and/or public concern regarding the activities of and potential risks created by PGDP. This report discusses the following issues and concerns of the Committee arrived at through a series of meetings: (1) groundwater monitoring; (2) long-range tails storage; C-404, scrap yrads, and PCB and TCE cleanup; nuclear criticality plan and alarm systems; documentation of historical data regarding hazardous waste burial grounds; dosimeter badges; and asbestos handling and removal.

  17. Utilization of 4-Dimensional Data Visualization Modeling to Evaluate Burial Ground Contaminants at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brindley, T. L.; Tarantino, J. J.; Locke, A. L. [CDM, 325 Kentucky Ave., Kevil, Kentucky 42053 (United States); Dollins, D. W. [Department of Energy, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah Kentucky 42001 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes how 4-Dimensional (4D) Data Visualization Modeling was used to evaluate historical data and to help guide the decisions for the sampling necessary to complete a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the burial ground sites at the Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). DOE at the Paducah Site is primarily involved in environmental cleanup and landlord activities. The scope of this project was to prepare a work plan for identifying the data available and the data required to conduct an RI/FS for the Burial Ground Operable Unit (BGOU) located within and near PGDP. The work plan focuses on collecting existing information about contamination in and around the burial grounds and determining what additional data are required to support an assessment of risks to human health and the environment and to support future decisions regarding actions to reduce these risks. (authors)

  18. The Mailbox Computer System for the IAEA verification experiment on HEU downlending at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aronson, A.L.; Gordon, D.M.

    2000-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    IN APRIL 1996, THE UNITED STATES (US) ADDED THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT TO THE LIST OF FACILITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) SAFEGUARDS. AT THAT TIME, THE US PROPOSED THAT THE IAEA CARRY OUT A ''VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT'' AT THE PLANT WITH RESPECT TO DOOWNBLENDING OF ABOUT 13 METRIC TONS OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) IN THE FORM OF URANIUM HEXAFLUROIDE (UF6). DURING THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1997 THROUGH JULY 1998, THE IAEA CARRIED OUT THE REQUESTED VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT. THE VERIFICATION APPROACH USED FOR THIS EXPERIMENT INCLUDED, AMONG OTHER MEASURES, THE ENTRY OF PROCESS-OPERATIONAL DATA BY THE FACILITY OPERATOR ON A NEAR-REAL-TIME BASIS INTO A ''MAILBOX'' COMPUTER LOCATED WITHIN A TAMPER-INDICATING ENCLOSURE SEALED BY THE IAEA.

  19. Type B Accident Investigation of the August 22, 2000, Injury Resulting From Violent Exothermic Chemical Reaction at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, X-701B Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On August 22, 2000, an accident occurred at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) located in Piketon, Ohio. An employee of the IT Corporation (IT) working on an Environmental Management (EM) Technology Deployment Project received serious burns from a violent chemical reaction.

  20. PGDP (Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant)-UF/sub 6/ handling, sampling, analysis and associated QC/QA and safety related procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.L. (comp.)

    1987-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a compilation of Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant procedures on UF/sub 6/ handling, sampling, and analysis, along with associated QC/QA and safety related procedures. It was assembled for transmission by the US Department of Energy to the Korean Advanced Energy Institute as a part of the US-Korea technical exchange program.

  1. Atmospheric Escape by Magnetically Driven Wind from Gaseous Planets II --Effects of Magnetic Diffusion--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Yuki A; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate roles of Alfvenic waves in the weakly-ionized atmosphere of hot Jupiters by carrying out non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations with Ohmic diffusion in one-dimensional magnetic flux tubes. Turbulence at the surface excites Alfven waves and they propagate upward to drive hot (~ 10^4 K) outflows. The magnetic diffusion plays an important role in the dissipation of the Alfvenic waves in the weakly ionized atmosphere of hot Jupiters. The mass-loss rate of the spontaneously driven planetary wind is considerably reduced, in comparison with that obtained from ideal MHD simulations because the Alfvenic waves are severely damped at low altitudes in the atmosphere, whereas the wave heating is still important in the heating of the upper atmosphere. Dependence on the surface temperature, planetary radius, and velocity dispersion at the surface is also investigated. We find an inversion phenomenon of the transmitted wave energy flux; the energy flux carried by Alfven waves in the upper atmosphere h...

  2. Prediction of external corrosion for steel cylinders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Application of an empirical method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, B.F.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer of 1995, ultrasonic wall thickness data were collected for 100 steel cylinders containing depleted uranium (DU) hexafluoride located at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The cylinders were selected for measurement to assess the condition of the more vulnerable portion of the cylinder inventory at PGDP. The purpose of this report is to apply the method used in Lyon to estimate the effects of corrosion for larger unsampled populations as a function of time. The scope of this report is limited and is not intended to represent the final analyses of available data. Future efforts will include continuing analyses of available data to investigate defensible deviations from the conservative assumptions made to date. For each cylinder population considered, two basic types of analyses were conducted: (1) estimates were made of the number of cylinders as a function of time that will have a minimum wall thickness of either 0 mils (1 mil = 0.00 1 in.) or 250 mils and (2) the current minimum wall thickness distributions across cylinders were estimated for each cylinder population considered. Additional analyses were also performed investigating comparisons of the results for F and G yards with the results presented in Lyon (1995).

  3. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (USDOE) Operable Unit 5, Paducah, KY, August 10, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the final remedial action decisions selected for soils and sediments in each of the solid waste management units (SWMUs) of Waste Area Groups (WAGs) 1 and 7 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) near Paducah, Kentucky. Waste Area Group 1 consists of SWMUs 100 and 136. Waste Area Group 7 consists of SWMUs 8 and 130 through 134. By mutual consent among the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection (KDEP), the United States Department of Defense (DOD), the United States Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and the DOE, it was agreed that the evaluation and implementation of any remedial actions required for the Kentucky Ordnance Works (KOW) SWMUs (SWMU 94 (KOW Sewage Treatment Plant), SWMU 95 (KOW Burn Area), and SWMU 157 (KOW Toluene Spill Site)), formerly included in WAGs 1 and 7, would be the responsibility of the DOD and conducted on behalf of the DOD by the COE. Due to the agreements reached among these entities, remedial technologies for the KOW SWMUs are not discussed further in this ROD and will be evaluated as part of the WAG 10 investigation by the COE. Additionally, by written mutual consent, the EPA, the DKEP, and the DOE agreed that an evaluation of remedial alternatives for SWMU 38, the C-615 Sewage Treatment Plant, would be deferred until the unit ceases operation. Consequently, no remedial actions are discussed for these SWMUs in this ROD.

  4. Source term evaluation during seismic events in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Schmidt, R.W.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1996-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The 00 buildings are expected to collapse (per guidance from structure evaluation) during a seismic event in which acceleration level exceeds 0.15g. All roof beams may slip off supports, and collapse. Equipment may slip off from supports and fall onto the floor. The cell floor is also supposed to collapse due to structural instability and distortion due to excessive acceleration forces. Following structure collapse, expansion joints in the process piping and joints between the piping and equipment are expected to fail. Preliminary analysis showed that converters are likely to remain intact. The UF{sub 6} gas released from the break will rapidly interact with moisture in the air to produce UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and HF with exothermic energy released of {approximately}0.32 MJ/kg of UF{sub 6} reacted. Depending on the degree of mixing between UF{sub 6} gas, its reaction products, air and freon (R-114), there may occur a strong buoyancy force to disperse UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosol particles that are subjected to the gravitational force for settling. Such a chemical reaction will also occur inside the converters. A substantial amount of UF{sub 6} must be stagnated at the bottom of the converters. At the interface between this stagnated UF{sub 6} and air, UF{sub 6} gas will diffuse into the air, undergo the chemical reaction with moisture there, and eventually be released through the break. Furthermore, lubricant oil fire in the building, if it occurs, will enhance the UF{sub 6} release into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to evaluate source term (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and HF) during such a seismic event. This study takes an approach using multiple steps as follows: (1) Source term evaluation at the break due to mixing between UF{sub 6} and air along with thermal buoyancy induced by chemical reaction energy, (2) Evaluation of additional source term from the converters in which a substantial UF{sub 6} vapor remains, and (3) Source term evaluation with lubricant oil fire.

  5. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  6. Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. population. The study found significantly lower death rates from all causes and cancer in general when compared to the overall U.S. population. However, slight increases...

  7. Source term evaluation for postulated UF{sub 6} release accidents in gaseous diffusion plants -- Summer ventilation mode (non-seismic cases)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Wendel, M.W.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, J.C. [J.C. Carter Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Dyer, R.H. [Dyer Enterprises, Harriman, TN (United States)

    1996-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer models have been developed to simulate the transient behavior of aerosols and vapors as a result of a postulated accident involving the release of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant. For the current study, gaseous UF{sub 6} is assumed to get released in the cell housing atmosphere through B-line break at 58.97 kg/s for 10 min and 30 min duration at the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants. The released UF{sub 6} undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form hydrogen fluoride (HF) and radioactive uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) while it disperses throughout the process building. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, this study evaluated source terms consisting of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} as well as HF during a postulated UF{sub 6} release accident in a process building. UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} mainly remains as airborne-solid particles (aerosols), and HF is in a vapor form. Some UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols are removed from the air flow due to gravitational settling. The HF and the remaining UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} are mixed with air and exhausted through the building ventilation system. The MELCOR computer code was selected for simulating aerosols and vapor transport in the process building. To characterize leakage flow through the cell housing wall, 3-D CFD tool (CFDS-FLOW3D) was used. About 57% of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} was predicted to be released into the environment. Since HF was treated as vapor, close to 100% was estimated to get released into the environment.

  8. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPORAL GROUNDWATER MONITORING VARIABILITY IN MW66 AND NEARBY WELLS, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of disposal records, soil data, and spatial/temporal groundwater data from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 7 indicate that the peak contaminant concentrations measured in monitoring well (MW) 66 result from the influence of the regional PGDP NW Plume, and does not support the presence of significant vertical transport from local contaminant sources in SWMU 7. This updated evaluation supports the 2006 conceptualization which suggested the high and low concentrations in MW66 represent different flow conditions (i.e., local versus regional influences). Incorporation of the additional lines of evidence from data collected since 2006 provide the basis to link high contaminant concentrations in MW66 (peaks) to the regional 'Northwest Plume' and to the upgradient source, specifically, the C400 Building Area. The conceptual model was further refined to demonstrate that groundwater and the various contaminant plumes respond to complex site conditions in predictable ways. This type of conceptualization bounds the expected system behavior and supports development of environmental cleanup strategies, providing a basis to support decisions even if it is not feasible to completely characterize all of the 'complexities' present in the system. We recommend that the site carefully consider the potential impacts to groundwater and contaminant plume migration as they plan and implement onsite production operations, remediation efforts, and reconfiguration activities. For example, this conceptual model suggests that rerouting drainage water, constructing ponds or basin, reconfiguring cooling water systems, capping sites, decommissioning buildings, fixing (or not fixing) water leaks, and other similar actions will potentially have a 'direct' impact on the groundwater contaminant plumes. Our conclusion that the peak concentrations in MW66 are linked to the regional PGDP NW Plume does not imply that there TCE is not present in SWMU 7. The available soil and groundwater data indicate that the some of the waste disposed in this facility contacted and/or were contaminated by TCE. In our assessment, the relatively small amount of TCE associated with SWMU 7 is not contributing detectable TCE to the groundwater and does not represent a significant threat to the environment, particularly in an area where remediation and/or management of TCE in the NW plume will be required for an extended timeframe. If determined to be necessary by the PGDP team and regulators, additional TCE characterization or cleanup activities could be performed. Consistent with the limited quantity of TCE in SWMU 7, we identify a range of low cost approaches for such activities (e.g., soil gas surveys for characterization or SVE for remediation). We hope that this information is useful to the Paducah team and to their regulators and stakeholders to develop a robust environmental management path to address the groundwater and soil contamination associated with the burial ground areas.

  9. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Peter T.; Starmer, R. John

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR survey used a 200 megahertz (MHz) antenna to provide the maximum depth penetration and subsurface detail yielding usable signals to a depth of about 6 to 10 feet in this environment and allowed discrimination of objects that were deeper, particularly useful in the southern area of the site where shallow depth metallic debris (primarily roof flashing) complicated interpretation of the EM and magnetic data. Several geophysical anomalies were defined on the contour plots that indicated the presence of buried metal. During the first phase of the project, nine anomalies or anomalous areas were detected. The sizes, shapes, and magnitudes of the anomalies varied considerably, but given the anticipated size of the primary target of the investigation, only the most prominent anomalies were considered as potential caches of 30 to 60 buried drums. After completion of a second phase investigation, only two of the anomalies were of sufficient magnitude, not identifiable with existing known metallic objects such as monitoring wells, and in positions that corresponded to the location of alleged dumping activities and were recommended for further, intrusive investigation. Other important findings, based on the variable frequency EM method and its combination with total field magnetic and GPR data, included the confirmation of the position of the old NSDD, the ability to differentiate between ferrous and non-ferrous anomalies, and the detection of what may be plumes emanating from the landfill cell.

  10. Environmental investigations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, McCracken County, Kentucky: Volume 1 -- Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the results of four studies into environmental and cultural resources on and near the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) located in Western Kentucky in McCracken County, approximately 10 miles west of Paducah, KY. The area investigated includes the PGDP facility proper, additional area owned by DOE under use permit to the Western Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA), area owned by the Commonwealth of Kentucky that is administered by the WKWMA, area owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Metropolis Lake State Nature preserve and some privately held land. DOE requested the assistance and support of the US Army Engineer District, Nashville (CEORN) in conducting various environmental investigations of the area. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) provided technical support to the CEORN for environmental investigations of (1) wetland resources, (2) threatened or endangered species and habitats, and (3) cultural resources. A floodplain investigation was conducted by CEORN.

  11. New Contract Helps Portsmouth GDP Cleanup

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To accelerate the Portsmouth GDP cleanup efforts left over from the Cold War, the Department of Energy made a huge step forward in our nuclear environmental cleanup efforts.

  12. Thermal discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant outfalls: Impacts on stream temperatures and fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, W.K.; Ryon, M.G.; Hinzman, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7 C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  13. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Houk, T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant] [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

  14. Application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter and evaluation of previous pumping tests at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Final report, June 15, 1992--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S.C.; Julian, S.C.; Neton, M.J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-well pumping tests have been concluded at wells MW79, MW108, and PW1 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) to determine the hydraulic properties of the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). Soil cores suggest that the RGA consists of a thin sandy facies (2 to 6 feet) at the top of a thicker (> 10 feet) gravelly facies. Previous analyses have not considered any permeability contrast between the two facies. To assess the accuracy of this assumption, TVA personnel conducted borehole flowmeter tests at wells MW108 and PW1. Well MW79 could not be tested. The high K sand unit is probably 10 times more permeable than comparable zone in the gravelly portion of the RGA. Previous analyses of the three multi-well aquifer tests do not use the same conceptual aquifer model. Data analysis for one pumping test assumed that leakance was significant. Data analysis for another pumping test assumed that a geologic boundary was significant. By collectively analyzing all three tests with the borehole flowmeter results, the inconsistency among the three pumping tests can be explained. Disparity exists because each pumping test had a different placement of observation wells relative to the high K zone delineating by flowmeter testing.

  15. Dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for groundwater contaminant plume delineation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smuin, D.R.; Morti, E.E.; Zutman, J.L.; Pickering, D.A.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dual wall reverse circulation (DWRC) drilling was used to drill 48 borings during a groundwater contaminant investigation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. This method was selected as an alternative to conventional hollow stem auger drilling for a number of reasons, including the expectation of minimizing waste, increasing the drilling rate, and reducing the potential for cross contamination of aquifers. Groundwater samples were collected from several water-bearing zones during drilling of each borehole. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds using a field gas chromatograph. This approach allowed the investigation to be directed using near-real-time data. Use of downhole geophysical logging, in conjunction with lithologic descriptions of borehole cuttings, resulted in excellent correlation of the geology in the vicinity of the contaminant plume. The total volume of cuttings generated using the DWRC drilling method was less than half of what would have been produced by hollow stem augering; however, the cuttings were recovered in slurry form and had to be dewatered prior to disposal. The drilling rate was very rapid, often approaching 10 ft/min; however, frequent breaks to perform groundwater sampling resulted in an average drilling rate of < 1 ft/min. The time required for groundwater sampling could be shortened by changing the sampling methodology. Analytical results indicated that the drilling method successfully isolated the various water bearing zones and no cross contamination resulted from the investigation.

  16. Thermal Discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Outfalls: Impacts on Stream Temperatures and Fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, W.K.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  17. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms applicable'' and relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  18. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  19. Assessment of the influences of groundwater colloids on the migration of technetium-99 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site in Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, B.; McDonald, J.A.; McCarthy, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Clausen, J.L. [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY (United States). Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This short report summarizes the influences of groundwater colloids on the migration/transport of {sup 99}Tc at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site in Paducah, Kentucky. Limited data suggest that inorganic colloidal materials (e.g., aluminosilicate clay minerals) may not play a significant role in the retention and transport of Tc. Studies by size fractionation reveal that both Tc and natural organic matter (NOM) are largely present in the <3K fraction. The role of NOM on Tc retention and transport is not conclusive on the basis of this study. However, a literature review suggests that Tc is very likely associated with the groundwater organics. The presence of the organic matter could have increased the solubility and cotransport of Tc at the PGDP site. Further studies, applying such techniques as gel chromatography, size exclusion, and spectroscopy, may be useful to determine the association of organic matter with Tc. If Tc is associated with groundwater organics, appropriate protocols for removal of organic matter associated with Tc may be developed. Time and resources were limited so this study is not comprehensive with respect to the role of mobile organic and inorganic colloidal materials on Tc transport in subsurface soils. The redox conditions (DO) of groundwaters reported may not represent the true groundwater conditions, which could have influenced the association and dissociation of Tc with groundwater colloidal materials. Because Tc concentrations in the groundwater (on the order of nCi/L) at the PGDP site is much lower than the solubility of reduced Tc (IV) (on the order of {approximately}10{sup {minus}8} mol/L or parts per billion), regardless of the redox conditions, Tc will stay in solution phase as TC(IV) or Tc(VII). The mechanisms of adsorption/association vs precipitation must be understood under reduced and low Tc conditions so that strategic plans for remediation of Tc contaminated soils and groundwaters can be developed.

  20. A TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT WATER POLICY BOUNDARY AT U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy boundary was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreed to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the boundary of the current Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western boundaries of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The available evidence supports adjusting the western and northwestern Water Policy boundary. Based on the historical and modeled hydrogeological data reflecting past flow and plume attenuation, along with associated plume migration toward the northeast, the establishment of a new boundary along the westernmost margin of the earliest indication of the TCE plume is proposed and justified on hydrogeological grounds. Approximately 30% of the original area would remain within the adjusted Water Policy area west and northwest of the PGDP facility. This modification would release about 70% of the area, although individual properties would overlap the new boundary.

  1. Fissible Deposit Characterization at the Former Oak Ridge K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant by {sup 252}CF-Source-Driven Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannon, T.F.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Uckan, T.; Valentine, T.E.; Wyatt, M.S.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Deposit Removal Project was undertaken with the support of the U. S. Department of Energy at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) formerly the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The project team performed the safe removal of the hydrated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) deposits from the K-29 Building of the former Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The deposits had developed as a result of air leakage into UF{sub 6} gas process pipes; UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} became hydrated by moisture from the air and deposited inside the pipes. The mass, its distribution, and the hydrogen content [that is, the ratio of H to U (H/U)], were the key parameters that controlled the nuclear criticality safety of the deposits. Earlier gamma-ray spectrometry measurements in K-29 had identified the largest deposits in the building. The first and third largest deposits in the building were measured in this program. The first deposit, found in the Unit 2, Cell 7, B-Line Outlet process pipe (called the ''Hockey Stick'') was about 1,300 kg ({+-} 50% uncertainty) at 3.34 wt% {sup 235}U enrichment ({+-}50% uncertainty) and according to the gamma-ray spectroscopy was uniformly distributed. The second deposit (the third-largest deposit in the building), found in the Unit 2, Cell 6, A-Line Outlet process pipe (called the ''Tee-Pipe''), had a uranium deposit estimated to be about 240 kg ({+-} 50% uncertainty) at 3.4 wt % {sup 235}U enrichment ({+-} 20% uncertainty). Before deposit removal activities began, the Deposit Removal Project team needed to survey the inside of the pipes intrusively to assess the nuclear criticality safety of the deposits. Therefore, the spatial distribution of the deposits, the total uranium deposit mass, and the moderation level resulting from hydration of the deposits, all of which affect nuclear criticality safety were required. To perform the task safely and effectively, the Deposit Removal Project team requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) characterize the two largest deposits with the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven transmission (CFSDT) technique, an active neutron interrogation method developed for use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to identify nuclear weapons components in containers. The active CFSDT measurement technique uses CFSDT time-of-flight measurements of prompt neutrons and gamma rays from an externally introduced {sup 252}Cf source.

  2. ENZYME ACTIVITY PROBE AND GEOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POTENTIAL AEROBIC COMETABOLISM OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN GROUNDWATER OF THE NORTHWEST PLUME, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B; M. Hope Lee, M; S. K. Hampson, S

    2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The overarching objective of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) enzyme activity probe (EAP) effort is to determine if aerobic cometabolism is contributing to the attenuation of trichloroethene (TCE) and other chlorinated solvents in the contaminated groundwater beneath PGDP. The site-specific objective for the EAP assessment is to identify if key metabolic pathways are present and expressed in the microbial community--namely the pathways that are responsible for degradation of methane and aromatic (e.g. toluene, benzene, phenol) substrates. The enzymes produced to degrade methane and aromatic compounds also break down TCE through a process known as cometabolism. EAPs directly measure if methane and/or aromatic enzyme production pathways are operating and, for the aromatic pathways, provide an estimate of the number of active organisms in the sampled groundwater. This study in the groundwater plumes at PGDP is a major part of a larger scientific effort being conducted by Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and North Wind Inc. in which EAPs are being applied to contaminated groundwater from diverse hydrogeologic and plume settings throughout the U.S. to help standardize their application as well as their interpretation. While EAP data provide key information to support the site specific objective for PGDP, several additional lines of evidence are being evaluated to increase confidence in the determination of the occurrence of biodegradation and the rate and sustainability of aerobic cometabolism. These complementary efforts include: (1) Examination of plume flowpaths and comparison of TCE behavior to 'conservative' tracers in the plume (e.g., {sup 99}Tc); (2) Evaluation of geochemical conditions throughout the plume; and (3) Evaluation of stable isotopes in the contaminants and their daughter products throughout the plume. If the multiple lines of evidence support the occurrence of cometabolism and the potential for the process to contribute to temporal and spatial attenuation of TCE in PGDP groundwater, then a follow-up enzyme probe microcosm study to better estimate biological degradation rate(s) is warranted.

  3. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boerner, A. J. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program; Maldonado, D. G. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program; Hansen, Tom [Ameriphysics, LLC (United States)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil guidelines as inputs into the code was also performed to determine the maximum (peak) dose for all receptors. This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE?s derivation of ALs for the 'Property.' A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines.

  4. Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

  5. Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

  6. Alternative methods for forecasting GDP Dominique Gugan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    analysis. Better forecast performance for macroeconomic variables will lead to Paris School of Economics the speed of computers that can develop search algorithms from appropriate selection criteria, Devroye. 1 Introduction Forecasting macroeconomic variables such as GDP and inflation play an important role

  7. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The Implementation of the Authorized Limits Process for Waste Acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2002-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1414) for the proposed implementation of the authorized limits process for waste acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. Based on the results of the impact analysis reported in the EA, which is incorporated herein by this reference, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA). Therefore preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact.

  9. Issues and recommendations related to replacement of CFC-114 at the uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plant. Task title: Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Program Review, Final report, August 1, 1991--October 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, B.L.; Banaghan, E.

    1993-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The operating uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) in Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky, which are operated for the United States Department for Energy by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES), currently use a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-114) as the primary process stream coolant. Due to recent legislation embodied in the Clean Air Act, the production of this and other related chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) are to be phased out with no production occurring after 1995. Since the plants lose approximately 500,000 pounds per year of this process stream coolant through various leaks, the GDPs are faced with the challenge of identifying a replacement coolant that will allow continued operation of the plants. MMES formed the CFC Task Team to identify and solve the various problems associated with identifying and implementing a replacement coolant. This report includes a review of the work performed by the CFC Task Team, and recommendations that were formulated based on this review and upon original work. The topics covered include; identifying a replacement coolant, coolant leak detection and repair efforts, coolant safety concerns, coolant level sensors, regulatory issues, and an analytical decision analysis.

  10. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of natural attenuation processes for trichloroethylene and technetium-99 in the Northeast and Northwest plumes at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausen, J.L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Heraty, L.J.; Huang, L.; Abrajano,T.

    1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    NA processes such as biodegradation, sorption, dilution dispersion, advection, and possibly sorption and diffusion are occurring in the Northeast and Northwest plumes. However, the overall biological attenuation rate for TCE within the plumes is not sufficiently rapid to utilize as remedial option. The mobility and toxicity of {sup 99}Tc is not being reduced by attenuating processes within the Northwest Plume. The current EPA position is that NA is not a viable remedial approach unless destructive processes are present or processes are active which reduce the toxicity and mobility of a contaminant. Therefore, active remediation of the dissolved phase plumes will be necessary to reduce contaminant concentrations before an NA approach could be justified at PGDP for either plume. Possible treatment methods for the reduction of dissolved phase concentrations within the plumes are pump-and-treat bioaugmentation, biostimulation, or multiple reactive barriers. Another possibility is the use of a regulatory instrument such as an Alternate Concentration Limit (ACL) petition. Biodegradation of TCE is occurring in both plumes and several hypothesis are possible to explain the apparent conflicts with some of the geochemical data. The first hypothesis is active intrinsic bioremediation is negligible or so slow to be nonmeasurable. In this scenario, the D.O., chloride, TCE, and isotopic results are indicative of past microbiological reactions. It is surmised in this scenario, that when the initial TCE release occurred, sufficient energy sources were available for microorganisms to drive aerobic reduction of TCE, but these energy sources were rapidly depleted. The initial degraded TCE has since migrated to downgradient locations. In the second scenario, TCE anaerobic degradation occurs in organic-rich micro-environments within a generally aerobic aquifer. TCE maybe strongly absorbed to organic-rich materials in the aquifer matrix and degraded by local Immunities of microbes, perhaps even under anaerobic conditions. Chloride, generated by degradation in such microenvironment is released rapidly into the water, as is CO{sub 2}, from respiration of the microorganisms. TCE and its organic degradation products are retained on the aquifer matrix by sorption, and released more slowly into the groundwater. In this process, chloride produced from the microbial reaction may become separated in the plume from the residual TCE. This may explain why the chloride isotope ratio and dissolved TCE do not correlate with the DIC isotope ratio. The relationship between the {delta}{sup 37}Cl values of TCE and dissolved inorganic chloride is consistent with what would be expected from the degradation of TCE, but is complicated by the elevated levels of background chloride, presumably due to agriculture practice, and complex behavior of TCE in the aquifer.

  12. Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop May 7 detection Pipeline Safety: odorants, flame visibility Compression: cost, reliability #12;Breakout Session goal of a realistic, multi-energy distribution network model Pipeline Technology Improved field

  13. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY AND PROPOSED PLAN FOR DESIGNATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNITS CONTRIBUTING TO THE SOUTHWEST GROUNDWATER PLUME AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Amidon, M.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart, L.

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently developing a Proposed Plan (PP) for remediation of designated sources of chlorinated solvents that contribute contamination to the Southwest (SW) Groundwater Plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, KY. The principal contaminants in the SW Plume are trichloroethene (TCE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); these industrial solvents were used and disposed in various facilities and locations at PGDP. In the SW plume area, residual TCE sources are primarily in the fine-grained sediments of the Upper Continental Recharge System (UCRS), a partially saturated zone that delivers contaminants downward into the coarse-grained Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). The RGA serves as the significant lateral groundwater transport pathway for the plume. In the SW Plume area, the four main contributing TCE source units are: (1) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 1 / Oil Landfarm; (2) C-720 Building TCE Northeast Spill Site (SWMU 211A); (3) C-720 Building TCE Southeast Spill Site (SWMU 211B); and (4) C-747 Contaminated Burial Yard (SWMU 4). The PP presents the Preferred Alternatives for remediation of VOCs in the UCRS at the Oil Landfarm and the C-720 Building spill sites. The basis for the PP is documented in a Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) (DOE, 2011) and a Site Investigation Report (SI) (DOE, 2007). The SW plume is currently within the boundaries of PGDP (i.e., does not extend off-site). Nonetheless, reasonable mitigation of the multiple contaminant sources contributing to the SW plume is one of the necessary components identified in the PGDP End State Vision (DOE, 2005). Because of the importance of the proposed actions DOE assembled an Independent Technical Review (ITR) team to provide input and assistance in finalizing the PP.

  14. Gaseous Diffusion Plant Production Workers Needs Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    about a variety of issues, including exposures, perceptions of risk, health concerns, health care, and receptivity to a health screening program The overall design recruitment...

  15. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation Services Section...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disease Prevention Program. d) Ensure adequate access to health programsambulatory care, and beryllium and radiation worker health surveillance programs. These services are...

  16. School science project 'demystifies' Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is valuable to the community." Students from teacher Roger Holbrook's environmental science class took the site's most recent ASER report, reworded it with help from English...

  17. Oversight Reports - Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the PortsmouthPaducah Project Office Conduct of Operations Oversight of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants August 25, 2011 Independent Activity...

  18. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHA Administrative Judgea.Work PlanNEPA/309 ReviewersTheMay

  19. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant -

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOEthe RankingReform atSolar2014 | DepartmentEnergyNovember

  20. Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop...

  1. GDP Jobs Direct Structure of Australian economy, employment and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzey, Jack

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% GDP Jobs Direct emissions Inclusive emissions Structure Geothermal On-shore wind Afforestation, cropland Coal-to-gas shift Agriculture, waste Coal CCS retrofit are not additive to those of previous years Source: McKinsey Australia Climate Change Initiative #12;What might

  2. EA-1927: Conveyance of Land and Facilities at the Paducah Gaseous...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Office is preparing an EA for a proposal to convey DOE land and facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, to the Paducah Area Community Reuse Organization and potentially...

  3. Beyond GDP: Measuring and achieving global genuine progress Ida Kubiszewski a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    's overall performance (Kuznets, 1934; Marcuss and Kane, 2007; McCulla and Smith, 2007). GDP's current role

  4. Solid and gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, H.; Wells, A.W.; Frommell, E.A.; Flenory, P.B.

    1987-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids covered during the period of October 1984 through Sept 30, 1986. Energy Research Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts were used as the reference sources. In most categories the volume of material available made it necessary to limit the number of publications in the review. This review also surveys publications concerned with methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels and related materials. Articles of significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature that were not available at the time of the last review are also included. Chemical Abstracts and Energy Research Abstracts were used extensively as reference sources. Some selectivity was necessary in order to include the most pertinent publications in preparing this review.

  5. Gaseous Flows in Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes

    2007-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas component plays a major role in the dynamics of spiral galaxies, because of its dissipative character, and its ability to exchange angular momentum with stars in the disk. Due to its small velocity dispersion, it triggers gravitational instabilities, and the corresponding non-axisymmetric patterns produce gravity torques, which mediate these angular momentum exchanges. When a srong bar pattern develops with the same pattern speed all over the disk, only gas inside corotation can flow towards the center. But strong bars are not long lived in presence of gas, and multiple-speed spiral patterns can develop between bar phases, and help the galaxy to accrete external gas flowing from cosmic filaments. The gas is then intermittently driven to the galaxy center, to form nuclear starbursts and fuel an active nucleus. The various time-scales of these gaseous flows are described.

  6. DOE/EA-1607: Final Environmental Assessment for Disposition of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    domestic and one foreign). The U.S. enrichment facilities are (1) the currently operating United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) in Paducah,...

  7. DOE/EA-1607 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DISPOSITION OF DOE...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    domestic and one foreign). The U.S. enrichment facilities are (1) the currently operating United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) in Paducah,...

  8. Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous FuelsFuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous FuelsSarah Studer, ORISE Fellow—Fuel Cell Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy

  9. The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous FuelsThe Promise of Renewable Gaseous FuelsJeffrey Reed, Director of Business Strategy and Development, Southern California Gas Company/San Diego Gas &...

  10. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  11. Crystal structure of a tetrameric GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase from a bacterial GDP-D-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, N.A.; Mulichak, A.M.; Lam, J.S.; Rocchetta, H.L.; Garavito, R.M. (MSU); (Guelph); (PG)

    2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    D-Rhamnose is a rare 6-deoxy monosaccharide primarily found in the lipopolysaccharide of pathogenic bacteria, where it is involved in host-bacterium interactions and the establishment of infection. The biosynthesis of D-rhamnose proceeds through the conversion of GDP-D-mannose by GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) to GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose, which is subsequently reduced to GDP-D-rhamnose by a reductase. We have determined the crystal structure of GMD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in complex with NADPH and GDP. GMD belongs to the NDP-sugar modifying subfamily of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzymes, all of which exhibit bidomain structures and a conserved catalytic triad (Tyr-XXX-Lys and Ser/Thr). Although most members of this enzyme subfamily display homodimeric structures, this bacterial GMD forms a tetramer in the same fashion as the plant MUR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The cofactor binding sites are adjoined across the tetramer interface, which brings the adenosyl phosphate moieties of the adjacent NADPH molecules to within 7 {angstrom} of each other. A short peptide segment (Arg35-Arg43) stretches into the neighboring monomer, making not only protein-protein interactions but also hydrogen bonding interactions with the neighboring cofactor. The interface hydrogen bonds made by the Arg35-Arg43 segment are generally conserved in GMD and MUR1, and the interacting residues are highly conserved among the sequences of bacterial and eukaryotic GMDs. Outside of the Arg35-Arg43 segment, residues involved in tetrameric contacts are also quite conserved across different species. These observations suggest that a tetramer is the preferred, and perhaps functionally relevant, oligomeric state for most bacterial and eukaryotic GMDs.

  12. Swift and Staley Team - Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, May...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    are still in draft form or need revision. In 2012, managers used a set of lagging performance indicators on a quarterly basis to evaluate safety and health performance. The...

  13. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN); Castleberry, Kim N. (Harriman, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value.

  14. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value. 6 figs.

  15. Breached cylinder incident at the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boelens, R.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On June 16, 1990, during an inspection of valves on partially depleted product storage cylinders, a 14-ton partially depleted product cylinder was discovered breached. The cylinder had been placed in long-term storage in 1977 on the top row of Portsmouth`s (two rows high) storage area. The breach was observed when an inspector noticed a pile of green material along side of the cylinder. The breach was estimated to be approximately 8- inches wide and 16-inches long, and ran under the first stiffening ring of the cylinder. During the continuing inspection of the storage area, a second 14-ton product cylinder was discovered breached. This cylinder was stacked on the bottom row in the storage area in 1986. This breach was also located adjacent to a stiffening ring. This paper will discuss the contributing factors of the breaching of the cylinders, the immediate response, subsequent actions in support of the investigation, and corrective actions.

  16. DOE Awards Contract for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    maintenance and repair of facilities; janitorial services; grounds maintenance, snow removal, and pest control; roadwayparking lot maintenance; computing, telecommunication,...

  17. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Draft Paducah Environmental Assessment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Draft EA. Written comments may submitted by the following methods: By Mail: Robert Smith, Paducah Strategic Planner Department of Energy-Paducah 5501 Hobbs Road C103 Kevil,...

  18. Phase I Independent Investigation of Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    covers the period from 1990 to the present. Phase II, which will begin in October 1999, will evaluate ES&H performance and concerns about Plant operations prior to 1990....

  19. DOE Awards Contract for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Plant Support Services DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities Subscribe to EM News Email Updates Gov...

  20. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site environmental report for 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, J.G.; Jett, T.G.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantities of nonradiological chemical emissions are not included in this report this year. An addendum that will include the information will be published after the Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III report is issued on July 1, 1989. When the addendum is published, probably in late July, a summary of the SARA Title III 313 report will be included. The SARA report provides the community with the opportunity to lean about estimated quantities of certain toxic chemicals used at a facility that are routinely or accidentally released into the environment. The addendum that will be published after the SARA report will summarize the SARA report and is expected to include some additional large quantity'' chemicals used or stored at the facilities that are not required to be reported by SARA Title III but are known to be emitted from the facilities. The addendum will not be all inclusive but will provide emissions information on the major chemical emissions to the air, water, or land from processes at the facilities.

  1. EM Begins Demolishing K-31 Gaseous Diffusion Building | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6: Record ofRecord of1:DepartmentofdrivesEnergy

  2. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Draft Paducah Environmental Assessment for

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM5 Accretion-of-DutiesPROPERTY3-0127 -Potential Land and

  3. EM Begins Demolishing K-31 Gaseous Diffusion Building | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised FindingDepartmentDepartmentStatementEnergy EM Begins Demolishing K-31

  4. Phase II Independent Investigation of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the fluorination ash and cylinder heels for classified uses. In response to a demand for technetium for use at Oak Ridge, a program to recover technetium from the cylinder...

  5. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    computing, telecommunication, and cyber security; fleet management; real and personal property management; records management and document control; safeguards and security;...

  6. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Computing, telecommunication and cyber security; Fleet management; Real and personal property management; Records management and document control; Safeguards and security;...

  7. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    computing, telecommunication, and cyber security; fleet management; real and personal property management; records management and document control; safeguards and security;...

  8. Energy Department Completes K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Building Demolition |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Department ofNoticesMaterialsEfficiency Prioritiesof the

  9. FEDERAL FACILITY AGREEMENT FOR THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan| Department of Energy 088:EnergyFAR27.pdfFE DOCKETFEDERAL FACILITY

  10. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Draft Paducah Environmental Assessment for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005UNS Electric, Inc. toEnergy July 1, 2015,purpose ofJune 2015Potential

  11. DOE Seeks Proposals for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Technical

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613PortsmouthBartlesvilleAbout »Department of2ViolatingRegulations |Services Contract |

  12. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613PortsmouthBartlesvilleAbout »Department of2ViolatingRegulations |ServicesInfrastructure

  13. DOE Awards Contract for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13, 2014Contributing DataDepartmentGuideandandBestSupport Services |

  14. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13, 2014ContributingDOE Contract DOE International EnergyPlant Support

  15. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13, 2014ContributingDOE Contract DOE

  16. Orientation Visit to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartmentGas and OilGeothermal and Solar Energy |HSS Independent

  17. Senior DOE Officials Visit Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015ParentsMiddle|Security Enforcement|DepartmentSenatorInnovation

  18. Federal Facility Agreement for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Summary

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan| Department of.pdf6-OPAMDepartment6Awards » Federal EnergyFederal

  19. K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732on ArmedManufacturingJune 17, 2015 - SEAB MeetingOperational

  20. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Transition | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732onMakeEducation ProgramsTourPPPORemediation PaducahPaducah

  1. DOE Seeks Quotes for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPM |TRUJuly 29, 2013 Agency/

  2. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPM |TRUJuly 29, 2013 Agency/Energy Seeks Reply

  3. DOE Seeks Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"WaveInteractions andDefinition of Showerhead DOE Seeks CommentReserve

  4. DOE Seeks Proposals for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Technical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"WaveInteractions andDefinition of Showerhead DOE

  5. Deactivation Project Begins at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732 DOE F 243.2Dashboards Dashboards PublicDavid W. Swindle,2of

  6. Senior DOE Officials Visit Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of Energy Advisory10 MarchEnergyWaterNew Reports

  7. School science project 'demystifies' Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014,Zaleski - Policy Advisor, EnergyA look at toolsThisSite | Department of

  8. School science project 'demystifies' Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative JC3 RSS September 9,AwardGrads & Researchers STEMSarahSite | Department of

  9. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northeast Plume | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartmentGas and OilGeothermal andofEnergyEnergy Northeast

  10. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northwest Plume | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartmentGas and OilGeothermal andofEnergyEnergy

  11. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Quadrant I Groundwater Investigative

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartmentGas and|Hours(5-Unit) Area Plume | Department of Energy

  12. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Southwest Plume | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T en YMedicine - AssistantCommunity Relations Plan

  13. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Compliance Order, September 10, 1997

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T en YMedicine - AssistantCommunity Relations Plan

  14. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Compliance Order, September 10, 1997 Summary

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T en YMedicine - AssistantCommunity Relations PlanAgreed

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - KY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp - CTOregon Metallurgical Corp -Oxnard01

  16. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant -

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp - CTOregonPetrolite Corp0-19026

  17. Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOEthe RankingReform atSolar Energy Awareness inDepartment2011 |

  18. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - April

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOEthe RankingReform atSolar2014 | DepartmentEnergyNovember2013

  19. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - January

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOEthe RankingReform atSolar2014 |

  20. Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approved on 24 JulyE,DepartmentDepartment2011 | Department of

  1. Deactivation Project Begins at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S.Contamination Control Instructor's|GreenhouseU.S. KMoabG.December 22,Above onof

  2. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hindin, Saul G. (Mendham, NJ); Roberts, George W. (Westfield, NJ)

    1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  3. Solid and gaseous fuels. [Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, H.; Wells, A.W.; Mima, M.J.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids. Energy Research Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts were used as reference sources. The volume of material available made it necessary to limit the number of publications in the review. This review also surveys publications concerned with methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels and related materials. Articles of significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature that were not available at the time of the last review are also included. Chemical Abstracts and Energy Research Abstracts were used extensively as reference sources. Some selectivity was necessary in order to include the most pertinent publications in preparing this review. 386 references.

  4. Combination free electron and gaseous laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Stein, William E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple laser having one or more gaseous laser stages and one or more free electron stages. Each of the free electron laser stages is sequentially pumped by a microwave linear accelerator. Subsequently, the electron beam is directed through a gaseous laser, in the preferred embodiment, and in an alternative embodiment, through a microwave accelerator to lower the energy level of the electron beam to pump one or more gaseous lasers. The combination laser provides high pulse repetition frequencies, on the order of 1 kHz or greater, high power capability, high efficiency, and tunability in the synchronous production of multiple beams of coherent optical radiation.

  5. Energy-GDP decoupling in a second best world -A case study on India Cline Guivarcha,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Energy-GDP decoupling in a second best world - A case study on India Céline Guivarcha best world ­ A case study on India. Climatic Change, Volume 113, Number 2, pages 339­ 356. Abstract India, energy intensity, second-best world, power sector, reference scenario. Introduction Reference

  6. Multiple Structural Breaks in India's GDP: Evidence from India's Service Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    of economists and policy makers. India was designated as an agricultural country with a highest share1 Multiple Structural Breaks in India's GDP: Evidence from India's Service Sector Purba Roy Choudhury1 Abstract: This paper takes a comprehensive investigation into India's service sector, the main

  7. The effects of energy policies in China on energy consumption and GDP1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    policies have significant impacts on diesel oil, gasoline and natural gas consumption. However, some energy The effects of energy policies in China on energy consumption and GDP1 Ming-Jie Lu, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Song Chen Abstract This paper examines the effects of energy policies in China on energy

  8. GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning (Performance Analysis. Grossmann #12;2 Motivation · Refinery planning is an active area in process systems that strongly relies HF REFINERY FUEL RG LPG LN HN KN GO1 GO2 VGO VR1 VR2 C1 LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA PMS 98 MOGAS 95 JET FUEL

  9. The Long-Run Relationship between Money, Nominal GDP, and the Price Level in Venezuela: 1950 to 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    The Long-Run Relationship between Money, Nominal GDP, and the Price Level in Venezuela: 1950 that structural breaks may be important. Since the economy depends heavily on oil revenue, oil price shocks have whether a significant long-run relationship exists between money and nominal GDP and between money

  10. GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning Department of Chemical · Refinery planning is an active area in process systems that strongly relies on the accuracy of the CDU REFINERY FUEL RG LPG LN HN KN GO1 GO2 VGO VR1 VR2 C1 LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA PMS 98 MOGAS 95 JET FUEL AGO HGO HFO

  11. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); James, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pace, Marshall O. (Knoxville, TN); Pai, Robert Y. (Concord, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  12. Methods and systems for deacidizing gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Liang

    2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for deacidizing a gaseous mixture using phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption is described. The process utilizes a multiphasic absorbent that absorbs an acid gas at increased rate and leads to reduced overall energy costs for the deacidizing operation.

  13. Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout- Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Targets, barriers and research and development priorities for gaseous delivery of hydrogen through hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

  14. Gaseous modification of MCrAlY coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally describes methods for modifying MCrAlY coatings by using gaseous carburization, gaseous nitriding or gaseous carbonitriding. The modified MCrAlY coatings are useful in thermal barrier coating systems, which may be used in gas turbine engines.

  15. Software digitizer for high granular gaseous detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddad, Y; Boudry, V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling calorimeter using gaseous sensor layers with digital readout [1] is near perfect for ``Particle Flow Algorithm'' [2,3] approach, since it is homogeneous over large surfaces, robust, cost efficient, easily segmentable to any readout pad dimension and size and almost insensitive to neutrons. Monte-Carlo (MC) programs such as GEANT4 [4] simulate with high precision the energy deposited by particles. The sensor and electronic response associated to a pad are calculated in a separate ``digitization'' process. We develop a general method for simulating the pad response using the spatial information from a simulation done at high granularity. The digitization method proposed here has been applied to gaseous detectors including Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPC) and MicroMegas, and validated on test beam data. Experimental observable such as pad multiplicity and mean number of hits at different thresholds have been reproduced with high precision.

  16. Golgi GDP-mannose Uptake Requires Leishmania LPG2 A MEMBER OF A EUKARYOTIC FAMILY OF PUTATIVE NUCLEOTIDE-SUGAR TRANSPORTERS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    and mammalian cells lack a Golgi GDP-Man transporter, this activity may offer a new tar- get for chemotherapy include those for UDP-Gal, UDP-Glc, UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-glucuronic acid, UDP-xylose, UDP-GalNAc, GDP-fucose, GDP-Man, and CMP-sialic acid (1). Three candidate NST genes have been reported recently: one

  17. Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: Congestion StudyForecasting. |October 3,andDepartmentGaseous hydrogen

  18. NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent at Processing Plants

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of FossilFoot) YearNGPL Production, Gaseous

  19. Thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons in noble gaseous environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Wei-Rong, E-mail: wrzhong@hotmail.com; Xu, Zhi-Cheng; Zheng, Dong-Qin [Department of Physics and Siyuan Laboratory, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ai, Bao-Quan, E-mail: aibq@scnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the thermal conductivity of suspended graphene nanoribbons in noble gaseous environments using molecular dynamics simulations. It is reported that the thermal conductivity of perfect graphene nanoribbons decreases with the gaseous pressure. The decreasing is more obvious for the noble gas with large atomic number. However, the gaseous pressure cannot change the thermal conductivity of defective graphene nanoribbons apparently. The phonon spectra of graphene nanoribbons are also provided to give corresponding supports.

  20. The Thermodynamics of Gaseous, Cuprous Chloride Monomer and Trimer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Leo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No.W-7405-eng~48B TIiE THERMODYNAMICS OF GASEOUS" CUPROUSCu(s) + HCl::= I Thermodynamics of Vaporization to Monomeric

  1. EMEF DMC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GDP :MMES MMUS NCS OSHA PGDP PORTS RCW S&M USEC EFS-95-002 ACRONYMS decontamination and decommissioning Department ofEnergy environmental safety and health gaseous diffusion...

  2. Microsoft Word - FY14 AF One-Page Score Card through Mod 133...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fee Plan for Fluor-B&W Portsmouth, LLC; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D), Revision 2, dated May 13, 2014 Award Fee Available:...

  3. Design considerations for instrumentation to monitor the enrichment of gaseous UF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, D.A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of the enrichment of gaseous UF{sub 6} presents unique measurement problems. The well-known uranium enrichment meter is not applicable. For solid samples of uranium, including metal, and oxide and fluoride compounds, the infinite thickness is {approximately}1 cm. Gaseous UF{sub 6}, at a pressure of tens of Torr, has an infinite thickness on the order of 350 m. This is a physically and operationally unrealistic situation for an operating facility. Pipe dimensions and composition also strongly influence the applicable measurement technique. Fundamentally, the definition of enrichment is the ratio of {sup 235}U to total uranium. The amount of {sup 235}U is determined by measuring the intensity of the 185.7-keV gamma ray from the decay of {sup 235}U. There are two methods that have been implemented to determine the amount of total uranium in the gas: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma-ray transmission. The technique used to measure the amount of total uranium is dependent on the pressure of the gas in the header pipe. The transmission measurement is applicable for higher pressures, generally pressures {lt}40 Torr. The XRF measurement can be used for pressures greater than a few Torr. An XRF measurement at pressures lower than a few Torr becomes very difficult. Two other constraints strongly influence the implementation of the measurement technique--pipe diameter and material composition. These two techniques have been implemented. The XRF technique is an approved measurement by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for inspections at gaseous centrifuge facilities. The XRF technique has also been implemented at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant for the IAEA verification experiment during the period December 1997 to October 1998 to verify the downblending of US highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). The transmission technique was originally developed to verify the downblending of Russian HEU to LEU. This instrument was demonstrated at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant from April 1998 to July 1998 and installed at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant, Novouralsk, Russia, during January 1999.

  4. Software digitizer for high granular gaseous detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Haddad; M. Ruan; V. Boudry

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling calorimeter equipped with gaseous sensor layers with digital readout is near perfect for "Particle Flow Algorithm" approach, since it is homogeneous over large surfaces, robust, cost efficient, easily segmentable to any readout pad dimension and size and almost insensitive to neutrons. The response of a finely segmented digital calorimeter is characterized by track efficiency and multiplicity. Monte Carlo (MC) programs such as GEANT4 simulate with high precision the energy deposited by particles. The sensor and electronic response associated to a pad are calculated in a separate "digitization" process. We developed a general method for simulating the pad response, a digitization, reproducing efficiency and multiplicity, using the spatial information from a simulation done at higher granularity. The digitization method proposed here has been applied to gaseous detectors including Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPC) and MicroMegas. Validating the method on test beam data, experimental observables such as efficiency, multiplicity and mean number of hits at different thresholds have been reproduced with high precision.

  5. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF/sub 4/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/, C/sub 3/F/sub 8/, n-C/sub 4/F/sub 10/, WF/sub 6/, (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/S and (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/O.

  6. U.S. Motor Vehicle Output and Other GDP, 1968-2007 Danilo J. Santini, Ph. D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    U.S. Motor Vehicle Output and Other GDP, 1968-2007 Danilo J. Santini, Ph. D. Senior Economist, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on behalf of the Government. 1 #12;U.S. Motor Vehicle Output of motor vehicle output" on the rest of the economy over the period 1968-2007. We statistically assess

  7. Hierarchical diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachas, C.P.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the solution and properties of the diffusion equation in a hierarchical or ultrametric space. 11 refs.

  8. Spectral modeling of gaseous metal disks around DAZ white dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnstedt, Jürgen

    been found at G29-38, the hypothesis was put forward that a dust cloud around the white dwarf causesSpectral modeling of gaseous metal disks around DAZ white dwarfs Klaus Werner, Thorsten Nagel for the first non-LTE modeling of gaseous metal disks around single DAZ white dwarfs recently discovered by G

  9. 2011 GASEOUS IONS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Anderson

    2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gaseous Ions: Structures, Energetics and Reactions Gordon Research Conference will focus on ions and their interactions with molecules, surfaces, electrons, and light. The conference will cover theory and experiments, and systems ranging from molecular to biological to clusters to materials. The meeting goal continues to be bringing together scientists interested in fundamentals, with those applying fundamental phenomena to a wide range of practical problems. Each of the ten conference sessions will focus on a topic within this spectrum, and there will also be poster sessions for contributed papers, with sufficient space and time to allow all participants to present their latest results. To encourage active participation by young investigators, about ten of the poster abstracts will be selected for 15 minute 'hot topic' talks during the conference sessions. Hot topic selection will be done about a month before the meeting. Funds should be available to offset the participation cost for young investigators.

  10. Simulating the Gaseous Halos of Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobias Kaufmann; James S. Bullock; Ari Maller; Taotao Fang

    2008-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of local X-ray absorbers, high-velocity clouds, and distant quasar absorption line systems suggest that a significant fraction of baryons may reside in multi-phase, low-density, extended, ~100 kpc, gaseous halos around normal galaxies. We present a pair of high-resolution SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) simulations that explore the nature of cool gas infall into galaxies, and the physical conditions necessary to support the type of gaseous halos that seem to be required by observations. The two simulations are identical other than their initial gas density distributions: one is initialized with a standard hot gas halo that traces the cuspy profile of the dark matter, and the other is initialized with a cored hot halo with a high central entropy, as might be expected in models with early pre-heating feedback. Galaxy formation proceeds in dramatically different fashions in these two cases. While the standard cuspy halo cools rapidly, primarily from the central region, the cored halo is quasi-stable for ~4 Gyr and eventually cools via the fragmentation and infall of clouds from ~100 kpc distances. After 10 Gyr of cooling, the standard halo's X-ray luminosity is ~100 times current limits and the resultant disk galaxy is twice as massive as the Milky Way. In contrast, the cored halo has an X-ray luminosity that is in line with observations, an extended cloud population reminiscent of the high-velocity cloud population of the Milky Way, and a disk galaxy with half the mass and ~50% more specific angular momentum than the disk formed in the low-entropy simulation. These results suggest that the distribution and character of halo gas provides an important testing ground for galaxy formation models and may be used to constrain the physics of galaxy formation.

  11. Gaseous Detectors: recent developments and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Titov

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volume with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photo-lithography and micro-processing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high energy physics, MPGD applications has expanded to nuclear physics, UV and visible photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection and medical physics.

  12. Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, O.; Veloo, Peter S.; Liu, N.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of laminar flame speeds, as well as extinction and ignition limits of premixed flames. The experiments were modeled using the USC Mech II kinetic model. It was determined that when hydrocarbons are added to hydrogen flames as additives, flame ignition, propagation, and extinction are affected in a counterintuitive manner. More specifically, it was found that by substituting methane by propane or n-butane in hydrogen flames, the reactivity of the mixture is reduced both under pre-ignition and vigorous burning conditions. This behavior stems from the fact that propane and n-butane produce higher amounts of methyl radicals that can readily recombine with atomic hydrogen and reduce thus the rate of the H + O{sub 2} ? O + OH branching reaction. The kinetic model predicts closely the experimental data for flame propagation and extinction for various fuel mixtures and pressures, and for various amounts of carbon dioxide in the fuel blend. On the other hand, it underpredicts, in general, the ignition temperatures.

  13. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA); Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  14. absorbing gaseous medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2001-01-01 17 Gravitational drag on a point mass in hypersonic motion through a gaseous medium CERN Preprints Summary: We explore a ballistic orbit model to infer the...

  15. Dissolved gaseous mercury behavior in shallow water estuaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landin, Charles Melchor

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) can be an important pathway for mercury removal from an aquatic environment. DGM evasional fluxes from an aquatic system can account for up to 95% of atmospheric Hg and its deposition pathways. While...

  16. Dissolved gaseous mercury behavior in shallow water estuaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landin, Charles Melchor

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) can be an important pathway for mercury removal from an aquatic environment. DGM evasional fluxes from an aquatic system can account for up to 95% of atmospheric Hg and its deposition pathways. While this makes DGM.... Based on information obtained in freshwater systems, one can hypothesize that processes affecting DGM cycling are similar in estuarine systems. The hypothesis that was tested in this research is as follows: Dissolved gaseous mercury concentrations...

  17. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical apparatus (10) is made having a generator section (22) containing electrochemical cells (16), a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet (28), a gaseous feed oxidant inlet (30), and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel (46), where the spent fuel recirculation channel (46), passes from the generator chamber (22) to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet (28) to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber (54) contains an outer portion containing reforming material (56), an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle (50) and a mixer-diffuser (52), and a middle portion (64) for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle (50) and mixer-diffuser (52) are preferably both within the reforming chamber (54) and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material (56), and the mixer nozzle (50) can operate below 400.degree. C.

  18. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shockling, L.A.

    1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical apparatus is made having a generator section containing electrochemical cells, a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet, a gaseous feed oxidant inlet, and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel, where the spent fuel recirculation channel, passes from the generator chamber to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber contains an outer portion containing reforming material, an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle and a mixer-diffuser, and a middle portion for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle and mixer-diffuser are preferably both within the reforming chamber and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material, and the mixer nozzle can operate below 400 C. 1 figure.

  19. MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

  20. Separation phenomenon in the Windowless Gaseous Tritium Source of KATRIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharipov, Felix

    Separation phenomenon in the Windowless Gaseous Tritium Source of KATRIN experiment. Ternary separa- tion. In the KATRIN experiment, in order to analyze the spectrum of electrons emmited by Tritium decay, it is very important to know the concentration distribution of Tritium along the source

  1. Test of potential homogeneity in the KATRIN gaseous tritium source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Rysavy

    2005-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    83mKr is supposed to be used to study the properties of the windowless gaseous tritium source of the experiment KATRIN. In this work we deduce the amount of 83mKr which is necessary to determine possible potential inhomogeneities via conversion-electron-line broadening.

  2. THE POSSIBILITY OF PRODUCING THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS IN A GASEOUS DISCHARGE*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE POSSIBILITY OF PRODUCING THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS IN A GASEOUS DISCHARGE* I.V. Kurchatov of the energy of thermonuclear reactions. Physicists the world over are attracted by the extraordinarily interest- ing and very difficult task of controlling thermonuclear reactiom. Investigations in this field

  3. Methods for deacidizing gaseous mixtures by phase enhanced absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Liang

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for deacidizing a gaseous mixture using phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption is described. The process utilizes a multiphasic absorbent that absorbs an acid gas at increased rate and leads to reduced overall energy costs for the deacidizing operation.

  4. The Structure of the MUR1 GDP-mannose 4,67-deydratase from A. thaliana: Implications for Ligand Binding Specificity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulichak, A.M.; Bonin, C.P.; Reiter, W.-D.; Garavito, R.M. (Michigan State University)

    2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase catalyzes the first step in the de novo synthesis of GDP-L-fucose, the activated form of L-fucose, which is a component of glycoconjugates in plants known to be important to the development and strength of stem tissues. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the MUR1 dehydratase isoform from Arabidopsis thaliana complexed with its NADPH cofactor as well as with the ligands GDP and GDP-D-rhamnose. MUR1 is a member of the nucleoside-diphosphosugar modifying subclass of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme family, having homologous structures and a conserved catalytic triad of Lys, Tyr, and Ser/Thr residues. MUR1 is the first member of this subfamily to be observed as a tetramer, the interface of which reveals a close and intimate overlap of neighboring NADP{sup +}-binding sites. The GDP moiety of the substrate also binds in an unusual syn conformation. The protein-ligand interactions around the hexose moiety of the substrate support the importance of the conserved triad residues and an additional Glu side chain serving as a general base for catalysis. Phe and Arg side chains close to the hexose ring may serve to confer substrate specificity at the O2 position. In the MUR1/GDP-D-rhamnose complex, a single unique monomer within the protein tetramer that has an unoccupied substrate site highlights the conformational changes that accompany substrate binding and may suggest the existence of negative cooperativity in MUR1 function.

  5. Final environmental impact assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document considers: the need for uranium enrichment facilities; site location; plant description; and describes the power generating facilities in light of its existing environment. The impacts from continuing operations are compared with alternatives of shutdown, relocation, and alternative power systems. (PSB)

  6. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (benthic macroinvertebrates, fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from Jan. 1995 to Dec. 1995, although activities conducted outside this period are included as appropriate.

  7. Placement of criticality alarms in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, L.F.; Weems, L.D.; Cao, Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The placement of criticality alarms at the Paducah plant has been studied. Four detectors placed in the halls of the first floor will provide double coverage of the first floor and single coverage of the basement, attic, and counting laboratory. Results from MCNP calculations also show that a detector placed in the hall adjacent to room 27 will cover the NDA laboratory.

  8. Environmental program audit, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmental monitoring program, environmental control equipment and its use, and the facility's compliance with DOE orders, Federal and State laws and regulations were evaluated in this audit. No imminent threat to public health and safety was discovered. A needed quality assurance program is being added. Recommendations are given. (PSB)

  9. Results of Lasagna process field experiment at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athmer, C.J.; Ho, S.V. [Monsanto Environmental Sciences Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lasagna process is being developed to remediate clayey soils in-situ. Lasagna is a combination of electrokinetics and in-situ treatment taking place in installed treatment zones. The zones are formed in either horizontal or vertical orientation using modified existing geoengineering processes. A Lasagna field experiment combining electroosmosis with carbon adsorption in the vertical orientation has been conducted at a TCE contaminated DOE site in Paducah, KY. Carbon adsorption was chosen for this first field test so that a material balance could confirm the movement of TCE from the clay to the treatment zones. The results of this experiment are presented in this paper.

  10. Evaluation of the proposed pilot groundwater pump and treat demonstration for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Hale, T.B.; Huff, D.D.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the evaluation and recommendations of a Groundwater Corrective Actions Review Team. The primary goal is to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at Paducah, Kentucky. A key distinction recognized by the review team is that the proposed project is intended to be a full-scale hydraulic containment of contaminants migrating from the sources of the plume, not plume remediation. The key questions incorporated into this plan are whether (1) dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLS) are present in the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) at the source of the plume and (2) [sup 99]Tc removal must be included as part of any groundwater treatment process. The first question cannot be answered until the contaminant sources are better defined; the second question requires further risk assessment and/or a policy decision by DOE. Technical evaluation by the review team suggests that the recommended course of action be to modify the proposed work plan to include accurate identification of the sources of contaminants and vertical distribution of contaminants within the Northwest plume before a decision is made on the preferred source-control option. If DNAPLs are not present in the RGA, removal or containment of the sources is recommended. If DNAPLs are present, then hydraulic containment will be required. Finally, the review team recognizes that it is necessary to initiate a more comprehensive analysis of sitewide remediation needs to create links between action taken for the Northwest plume and action taken for other contamination sites at PGPD.

  11. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13, 2014ContributingDOE Contract DOE International Energy

  12. DOE completes demolition of K-31 gaseous diffusion building | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13, 2014ContributingDOE Contract DOEEnergyLightingEnergy DOE

  13. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings and Orders, February 24, 1998

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T enAmount for IndividualEnergyFindings and Order

  14. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings and Orders, February 24, 1998 Summary

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T enAmount for IndividualEnergyFindings and OrderDUF 6

  15. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings and Orders, March 18, 1999

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T enAmount for IndividualEnergyFindings and OrderDUF 6

  16. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings and Orders, March 18, 1999 Summary

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T enAmount for IndividualEnergyFindings and OrderDUF

  17. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings and Orders, October 4, 1995

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T enAmount for IndividualEnergyFindings and

  18. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings and Orders, October 4, 1995 Summary

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T enAmount for IndividualEnergyFindings andPortsmouth

  19. Proposed On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - TProcuring SolarNo. 195 - Oct. 7, 2011 | Department ofEIS,i

  20. Proposed On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - TProcuring SolarNo. 195 - Oct. 7, 2011 | Department

  1. Proposed On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010 |of EnergySelected |

  2. EA-1927: Conveyance of Land and Facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0andEnergyGlobal NuclearofCommunicationMitigation Action Plan

  3. Demolition of K-31 gaseous diffusion building begins | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This workDayton:|Electricity PolicyActBegins

  4. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant - TN

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp - CT 0-01Naturita36NewNorton Co

  5. Demolition of K-31 gaseous diffusion building begins | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015 Business42.1 DEPARTMENTSeptember 27,SeptemberEnergy 4, CITE:WithSinceOREM

  6. Summary - Proposed On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2Uranium Transferon the Passing of AdmiraltheOil and LessOak Ridge, TNCalcine

  7. Method of producing gaseous products using a downflow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D; Rozmiarek, Robert T; Hornemann, Charles C

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactor systems and methods are provided for the catalytic conversion of liquid feedstocks to synthesis gases and other noncondensable gaseous products. The reactor systems include a heat exchange reactor configured to allow the liquid feedstock and gas product to flow concurrently in a downflow direction. The reactor systems and methods are particularly useful for producing hydrogen and light hydrocarbons from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons using aqueous phase reforming. The generated gases may find used as a fuel source for energy generation via PEM fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells, internal combustion engines, or gas turbine gensets, or used in other chemical processes to produce additional products. The gaseous products may also be collected for later use or distribution.

  8. Chapter 4 The Gaseous State Chemistry of Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    .15 V = V0[1+(t/273.15oC)] Kelvin T = 273.15 + t(Celsius) #12;Boyle's Law · The stirling engine, a heatChapter 4 The Gaseous State NO2 #12;AIR #12;Chemistry of Gases SO3 .. corrosive gas SO2...burning) ~1760 Charle The definition of the Temperature All gases expand with increasing temperature by the same

  9. Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons in east-central Texas groundwaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coffman, Bryan Keith

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; Follett, 1974). The high transmissivity and sandy lithology of the Sparta are much like those of the Queen City, as is the quality of water. 40 LIGNITE STREAKS 30 Laminated and discontinuous lenticular. Trough cross bedded siltstones. 20 ROAD l... hydrocarbons simply reflects a difference in the 5 C of the substrate. Sparta lignite is about 7%%do enriched in ' C relative to Yegua lignite, comparable to the difference seen in the gaseous hydrocarbons. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Steven...

  10. Method and apparatus for analyzing particle-containing gaseous suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solomon, Peter R. (West Hartford, CT); Carangelo, Robert M. (Coventry, CT); Best, Philip E. (Mansfield, CT)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method and apparatus permit analyses, by optical means, of properties of gaseous suspensions of particles, by measuring radiation that is emitted, transmitted or scattered by the particles. Determinations of composition, size, temperature and spectral emittance can be performed either in-situ or by sampling, and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometric techniques are most effectively used. Apparatus specifically adapted for performing radiation scattering analyses, and for collecting radiation from different sources, are provided.

  11. Method and apparatus for analyzing particle-containing gaseous suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solomon, P.R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Best, P.E.

    1987-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The method and apparatus permit analyses, by optical means, of properties of gaseous suspensions of particles, by measuring radiation that is emitted, transmitted or scattered by the particles. Determinations of composition, size, temperature and spectral emittance can be performed either in-situ or by sampling, and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometric techniques are most effectively used. Apparatus specifically adapted for performing radiation scattering analyses, and for collecting radiation from different sources, are provided. 51 figs.

  12. Process and composition for drying of gaseous hydrogen halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tom, Glenn M. (New Milford, CT); Brown, Duncan W. (Wilton, CT)

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for drying a gaseous hydrogen halide of the formula HX, wherein X is selected from the group consisting of bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine, to remove water impurity therefrom, comprising: contacting the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide with a scavenger including a support having associated therewith one or more members of the group consisting of: (a) an active scavenging moiety selected from one or more members of the group consisting of: (i) metal halide compounds dispersed in the support, of the formula MX.sub.y ; and (ii) metal halide pendant functional groups of the formula -MX.sub.y-1 covalently bonded to the support, wherein M is a y-valent metal, and y is an integer whose value is from 1 to 3; (b) corresponding partially or fully alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, of the metal halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); wherein the alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, when present, are reactive with the gaseous hydrogen halide to form the corresponding halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); and M being selected such that the heat of formation, .DELTA.H.sub.f of its hydrated halide, MX.sub.y.(H.sub.2 O).sub.n, is governed by the relationship: .DELTA.H.sub.f .gtoreq.n.times.10.1 kilocalories/mole of such hydrated halide compound wherein n is the number of water molecules bound to the metal halide in the metal halide hydrate. Also disclosed is an appertaining scavenger composition and a contacting apparatus wherein the scavenger is deployed in a bed for contacting with the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide.

  13. Infrared scintillation yield in gaseous and liquid argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Buzulutskov; A. Bondar; A. Grebenuk

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of primary and secondary scintillations in noble gases and liquids is of paramount importance to rare-event experiments using noble gas media. In the present work, the scintillation yield in gaseous and liquid Ar has for the first time been measured in the near infrared (NIR) and visible region, both for primary and secondary (proportional) scintillations, using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APDs) and pulsed X-ray irradiation. The primary scintillation yield of the fast component was measured to be 17000 photon/MeV in gaseous Ar in the NIR, in the range of 690-1000 nm, and 510 photon/MeV in liquid Ar, in the range of 400-1000 nm. Proportional NIR scintillations (electroluminescence) in gaseous Ar have been also observed; their amplification parameter at 163 K was measured to be 13 photons per drifting electron per kV. Possible applications of NIR scintillations in high energy physics experiments are discussed.

  14. Onsite Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant UF6 Cylinder Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Carter, Jennifer C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Phillips, Jon R.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The IAEA safeguards approach for gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) includes measurements of gross, partial, and bias defects in a statistical sampling plan. These safeguard methods consist principally of mass and enrichment nondestructive assay (NDA) verification. Destructive assay (DA) samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision offsite mass spectrometer analysis. DA is typically used to quantify bias defects in the GCEP material balance. Under current safeguards measures, the operator collects a DA sample from a sample tap following homogenization. The sample is collected in a small UF6 sample bottle, then sealed and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Current practice is expensive and resource intensive. We propose a new and novel approach for performing onsite gaseous UF6 DA analysis that provides rapid and accurate assessment of enrichment bias defects. DA samples are collected using a custom sampling device attached to a conventional sample tap. A few micrograms of gaseous UF6 is chemically adsorbed onto a sampling coupon in a matter of minutes. The collected DA sample is then analyzed onsite using Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry-Destructive Assay (LAARS-DA). DA results are determined in a matter of minutes at sufficient accuracy to support reliable bias defect conclusions, while greatly reducing DA sample volume, analysis time, and cost.

  15. Is Arnold diffusion relevant to global diffusion?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seiichiro Honjo; Kunihiko Kaneko

    2003-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Global diffusion of Hamiltonian dynamical systems is investigated by using a coupled standard maps. Arnold web is visualized in the frequency space, using local rotation numbers, while Arnold diffusion and resonance overlaps are distinguished by the residence time distributions at resonance layers. Global diffusion in the phase space is shown to be accelerated by diffusion across overlapped resonances generated by the coupling term, rather than Arnold diffusion along the lower-order resonances. The former plays roles of hubs for transport in the phase space, and accelerate the diffusion.

  16. Pattern recognition techniques to reduce backgrounds in the search for the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay with gaseous TPCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iguaz, F. J.; Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; Gómez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzon, G.; Segui, L.; Tomas, A. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)] [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay may provide essential information on the nature of neutrinos. Among the current experimental approaches, a high pressure gaseous TPC is an attractive option for the search of double beta decay due to its good energy resolution and the detailed topological information of each event. We present in this talk a detailed study of the ionization topology of the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay events in a High Pressure Xenon TPC, as well as that of the typical competing backgrounds. We define some observables based on graph theory concepts to develop automated discrimination algorithms. Our criteria are able to reduce the background level by about three orders of magnitude in the region of interest of the {sup 136}Xe Q{sub ??} for a signal acceptance of 40%. This result provides a quantitative assessment of the benefit of topological information offered by gaseous TPCs for double beta decay search, and proves that it is a promising feature in view of future experiments in the field. Possible ideas for further improvement in the discrimination algorithms and the dependency of these results with the gas diffusion and readout granularity will be also discussed.

  17. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  18. Modified gaseous atmospheres for storage of beef, lamb and pork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, George Theodore

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ( Member ) (He d of Depar ent) December 1979 ABSTRACT Modified Gaseous Atmospheres for Storage of Bee f, Pork and Lamb (December 1979) George Theodore Davis III, B. S. , Texas AsM University Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. Z. L. Carpenter...MODIFIED G'~. ' . . OUS ATMOSPHERI. S FOR STORAGE OI REEF, I. PMB AND PORK A Thesis by GEORGE THEODORE DAVIS I II Submitted to thc. graduate college of Texas AsM University in partial fulfillment of the rec, u. 'rement fox the degree...

  19. NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent at Processing Plants (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of FossilFoot) YearNGPL Production, Gaseous2,408

  20. Property:PotentialBiopowerGaseousGeneration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformationInformationMarine/RiverlinePotentialBiopowerGaseousGeneration Jump

  1. Property:PotentialBiopowerGaseousMass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformationInformationMarine/RiverlinePotentialBiopowerGaseousGeneration

  2. Test of a Multilayer Dose-Verification Gaseous Detector with Raster Scan Mode Proton Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyong Sei; Han, Youngyih; Hong, Byungsik; Kang, Minho; Kim, Sang Yeol; Lee, Seunkyung; Park, Sung Keun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilayer gaseous detector has been developed for the fast dose-verification measurements of raster-scan-mode therapeutic beams in particle therapy.

  3. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jujasz, Albert J. (North Olmsted, OH); Burkhart, James A. (Olmsted Falls, OH); Greenberg, Ralph (New York, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  4. Kinetics of Heterogeneous Reaction of CaCO3 Particles with Gaseous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Humidity. Abstract: Heterogeneous reaction kinetics of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles was investigated using the Particle-on-Substrate...

  5. Application of gaseous disinfectants ozone and chlorine dioxide for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydogan, Ahmet

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of gaseous ozone for MRSA decontamination of hospital side-H. ; Kamiki, T. , “Ozone decontamination of bioclean rooms”,Nelson, P.E. , “Decontamination of bacillus thuringiensis

  6. TREATMENT OF GASEOUS EFFLUENTS ISSUED FROM RECYCLING – A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES AND PROSPECTIVE IMPROVEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; William Kerlin; Steven Bakhtiar

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of gaseous waste management for the recycling of nuclear used fuel is to reduce by best practical means (ALARA) and below regulatory limits, the quantity of activity discharged to the environment. The industrial PUREX process recovers the fissile material U(VI) and Pu(IV) to re-use them for the fabrication of new fuel elements e.g. recycling plutonium as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel or recycling uranium for new enrichment for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Meanwhile the separation of the waste (activation and fission product) is performed as a function of their pollution in order to store and avoid any potential danger and release towards the biosphere. Raffinate, that remains after the extraction step and which contains mostly all fission products and minor actinides is vitrified, the glass package being stored temporarily at the recycling plant site. Hulls and end pieces coming from PWR recycled fuel are compacted by means of a press leading to a volume reduced to 1/5th of initial volume. An organic waste treatment step will recycle the solvent, mainly tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and some of its hydrolysis and radiolytic degradation products such as dibutyl phosphate (HDPB) and monobutyl phosphate (H2MBP). Although most scientific and technological development work focused on high level waste streams, a considerable effort is still under way in the area of intermediate and low level waste management. Current industrial practices for the treatment of gaseous effluents focusing essentially on Iodine-129 and Krypton-85 will be reviewed along with the development of novel technologies to extract, condition, and store these fission products. As an example, the current industrial practice is to discharge Kr-85, a radioactive gas, entirely to the atmosphere after dilution, but for the large recycling facilities envisioned in the near future, several techniques such as 1) cryogenic distillation and selective absorption in solvents, 2) adsorption on activated charcoal, 3) selective sorption on chemical modified zeolites, or 4) diffusion through membranes with selective permeability are potential technologies to retain the gas.

  7. An In-Situ Ion Mobility Spectrometer Sensor System for Detecting Gaseous VOCs in Unsaturated Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, R. Jacob

    An In-Situ Ion Mobility Spectrometer Sensor System for Detecting Gaseous VOCs in Unsaturated Soils and will be ultimately equipped with water content, temperature, and pressure sensors. The proposed system is designed knowledge, an in-situ IMS for detection of subsurface gaseous VOCs has not been previously developed. VOCs

  8. Effect of gaseous cement industry effluents on four species of Amlie Talec a, b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of gaseous cement industry effluents on four species of microalgae Amélie Talec a, b , Myrvline Philistin a the possibility to grow microalgae with CO2 from gaseous effluent of cement industry. Four microalgal species the composition of a typical Cement Flue Gas (CFG). In a second stage, the culture submitted to the CFG received

  9. Spiral density waves in the outer galactic gaseous discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khoperskov, S A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep HI observations of the outer parts of disc galaxies demonstrate the frequent presence of extended, well-developed spiral arms far beyond the optical radius. To understand the nature and the origin of such outer spiral structure, we investigate the propagation in the outer gaseous disc of large-scale spiral waves excited in the bright optical disc. Using hydrodynamical simulations, we show that non-axisymmetric density waves, penetrating in the gas through the outer Lindblad resonance, can exhibit relatively regular spiral structures outside the bright optical stellar disc. For low-amplitude structures, the results of numerical simulations match the predictions of a simple WKB linear theory. The amplitude of spiral structure increases rapidly with radius. Beyond $\\approx 2$ optical radii, spirals become nonlinear (the linear theory becomes quantitatively and qualitatively inadequate) and unstable to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. In numerical simulations, in models for which gas is available very far out, ...

  10. Spectral modeling of gaseous metal disks around DAZ white dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Werner; T. Nagel; T. Rauch

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on our attempt for the first non-LTE modeling of gaseous metal disks around single DAZ white dwarfs recently discovered by Gaensicke et al. and thought to originate from a disrupted asteroid. We assume a Keplerian rotating viscous disk ring composed of calcium and hydrogen and compute the detailed vertical structure and emergent spectrum. We find that the observed infrared CaII emission triplet can be modeled with a hydrogen-deficient gas ring located at R=1.2 R_sun, inside of the tidal disruption radius, with Teff about 6000 K and a low surface mass density of about 0.3 g/cm**2. A disk having this density and reaching from the central white dwarf out to R=1.2 R_sun would have a total mass of 7 10**21 g, corresponding to an asteroid with about 160 km diameter.

  11. METAL TRANSPORT TO THE GASEOUS OUTSKIRTS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werk, J. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Putman, M. E.; Santiago-Figueroa, N. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Meurer, G. R., E-mail: jwerk@ucolick.org [ICRAR/University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a search for outlying H II regions in the extended gaseous outskirts of nearby (D < 40 Mpc) galaxies and subsequent multi-slit spectroscopy used to obtain the H II region nebular oxygen abundances. The galaxies in our sample have extended H I disks and/or interaction-related H I features that extend well beyond their primary stellar components. We report oxygen abundance gradients out to 2.5 times the optical radius for these galaxies which span a range of morphologies and masses. We analyze the underlying stellar and neutral H I gas distributions in the vicinity of the H II regions to understand the physical processes that give rise to the observed metal distributions in galaxies. These measurements, for the first time, convincingly show flat abundance distributions out to large radii in a wide variety of systems and have broad implications for galaxy chemodynamical evolution.

  12. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  13. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a DC arc melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overcamp, T.J.; Speer, M.P.; Griner, S.J.; Cash, D.M. [Clemson Univ., Anderson, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of the gaseous and particulate emissions from eight experimental tests of a DC arc melter to treat simulated Savannah River soils contaminated with metals, surrogates for radionuclides, and organic debris. The gaseous analyses reported on the concentrations of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane, nitric oxide, and nitrogen dioxide. The carbon dioxide concentration was high for all runs. For the runs with an air purge, the carbon monoxide concentration ranged up to 10% in the runs with the debris and 2% in the runs without debris. Hydrogen ranged up to 5% by with debris and up to 1% without debris. The methane concentration ranged up to 7,000 ppm{sub v} for the runs with debris and 2,000 ppm for the runs without debris. With a nitrogen purge, oxygen concentrations were less than 1%. The carbon dioxide concentrations ranged from 3 to 15%. Much of this carbon dioxide was probably due the carbonates added to the feed material. The carbon monoxide concentration ranged up to 20% with the debris and 7% without debris. Hydrogen was above 6% in with debris and up to 6% without debris. The methane concentration ranged up to 10,000 ppm{sub v} with debris and 4,000 ppm{sub v} without debris. The particulate concentrations exiting ranged from 32 to 145 g/m{sup 3}. From the chemical analyses, the primary elements were silicon and calcium. The CHN analyses indicated that carbon, probably as carbonates, are an additional component in the particulate matter. The estimated emissions were at a level of 3% or less for cerium, up to 7% for nickel, and 11 to 30% for cesium.

  14. Jupiter and Super-Earth embedded in a gaseous disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Podlewska; E. Szuszkiewicz

    2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we investigate the evolution of a pair of interacting planets - a Jupiter mass planet and a Super-Earth with the 5.5 Earth masses - orbiting a Solar type star and embedded in a gaseous protoplanetary disc. We focus on the effects of type I and II orbital migrations, caused by the planet-disc interaction, leading to the Super-Earth capture in first order mean motion resonances by the Jupiter. The stability of the resulting resonant system in which the Super-Earth is on the internal orbit relatively to the Jupiter has been studied numerically by means of full 2D hydrodynamical simulations. Our main motivation is to determine the Super-Earth behaviour in the presence of the gas giant in the system. It has been found that the Jupiter captures the Super-Earth into the interior 3:2 or 4:3 mean motion resonances and the stability of such configurations depends on the initial planet positions and eccentricity evolution. If the initial separation of planet orbits is larger or close to that required for the exact resonance than the final outcome is the migration of the pair of planets with the rate similar to that of the gas giant at least for time of our simulations. Otherwise we observe a scattering of the Super-Earth from the disc. The evolution of planets immersed in the gaseous disc has been compared with their behaviour in the case of the classical three-body problem when the disc is absent.

  15. A GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL FOR GASEOUS EXOPLANETS WITH DOUBLE-GRAY RADIATIVE TRANSFER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauscher, Emily [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new version of our code for modeling the atmospheric circulation on gaseous exoplanets, now employing a 'double-gray' radiative transfer scheme, which self-consistently solves for fluxes and heating throughout the atmosphere, including the emerging (observable) infrared flux. We separate the radiation into infrared and optical components, each with its own absorption coefficient, and solve standard two-stream radiative transfer equations. We use a constant optical absorption coefficient, while the infrared coefficient can scale as a power law with pressure; however, for simplicity, the results shown in this paper use a constant infrared coefficient. Here we describe our new code in detail and demonstrate its utility by presenting a generic hot Jupiter model. We discuss issues related to modeling the deepest pressures of the atmosphere and describe our use of the diffusion approximation for radiative fluxes at high optical depths. In addition, we present new models using a simple form for magnetic drag on the atmosphere. We calculate emitted thermal phase curves and find that our drag-free model has the brightest region of the atmosphere offset by {approx}12 Degree-Sign from the substellar point and a minimum flux that is 17% of the maximum, while the model with the strongest magnetic drag has an offset of only {approx}2 Degree-Sign and a ratio of 13%. Finally, we calculate rates of numerical loss of kinetic energy at {approx}15% for every model except for our strong-drag model, where there is no measurable loss; we speculate that this is due to the much decreased wind speeds in that model.

  16. Thermo-quantum diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roumen Tsekov

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach to thermo-quantum diffusion is proposed and a nonlinear quantum Smoluchowski equation is derived, which describes classical diffusion in the field of the Bohm quantum potential. A nonlinear thermo-quantum expression for the diffusion front is obtained, being a quantum generalization of the classical Einstein law. The quantum diffusion at zero temperature is also described and a new dependence of the position dispersion on time is derived. A stochastic Bohm-Langevin equation is also proposed.

  17. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): USDOE Paducah Gas Diffusion Plant, Northeast Plume Operable Unit, Paducah, KY, June 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The decision document presents the selected interim remedial action for the Northeast Plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) near Paducah, Kentucky. The primary objective of the interim remedial action is to implement a first-phase remedial action as an interim action to initiate hydraulic control of the high concentration area within the Northeast Plume that extends outside the plant security fence.

  18. Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

  19. Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ?32?MPa. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

  20. GASEOUS CO ABUNDANCE-AN EVOLUTIONARY TRACER FOR MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com, E-mail: ywu@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Planck cold clumps are among the most promising objects to investigate the initial conditions of the evolution of molecular clouds. In this work, by combing the dust emission data from the survey of the Planck satellite with the molecular data of {sup 12}CO/{sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O (1-0) lines from observations with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m telescope, we investigate the CO abundance, CO depletion, and CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor of 674 clumps in the early cold cores sample. The median and mean values of the CO abundance are 0.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} and 1.28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, respectively. The mean and median of CO depletion factor are 1.7 and 0.9, respectively. The median value of X{sub CO-to-H{sub 2}} for the whole sample is 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} K{sup -1} km{sup -1} s. The CO abundance, CO depletion factor, and CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor are strongly (anti-)correlated to other physical parameters (e.g., dust temperature, dust emissivity spectral index, column density, volume density, and luminosity-to-mass ratio). To conclude, the gaseous CO abundance can be used as an evolutionary tracer for molecular clouds.

  1. Technique to study corrosion in fluctuating gaseous atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ficalora, P.J.; Godfrey, T.G.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hot metal surfaces in a combustion system operating with an imperfect air-to-fuel mix experience a variation of corrosion potential. For example, the corrosion conditions can vary from reducing to oxidizing as the combustion conditions vary from rich to lean. This variation of conditions is particularly important in combustion systems utilizing sulfur-containing fuels since small variations in the sulfur partial pressure can cause catastrophic corrosion conditions. In an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC), coal is burned in the presence of a sulfur sorber, CaO or MgO. The alkaline oxide reacts with sulfur dioxide, the combustion product of the sulfur in the coal, to form the corresponding sulfate. Hence, the oxygen and sulfur dioxide partial pressures are controlled by the input conditions (air-coal ratio) as well as the sorption process. Figure 1 shows the observed variation of the oxygen partial pressure in an AFBC as a function of time and bed position. Clearly, fluctuations occur in a time interval of seconds, and the oxygen partial pressure can vary over approximately ten orders of magnitude. Corrosion in these fluctuating gaseous environments is being studied by measuring the resistance change of a heated metal filament specimen while it reacts with alternating oxidizing and sulfidizing gas pulses.

  2. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen - carbon monoxide-based gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.J.; Kubasco, A.J.; Lecren, R.T.; Notardonato, J.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental rig program has been conducted with the objective of evaluating the combustion performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Bluewater gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an ''optimum'' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit low NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  3. Dispersal of Gaseous Circumstellar Discs around High-Mass Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yue Shen; Yu-Qing Lou

    2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dispersal of a gaseous disc surrounding a central high-mass stellar core once this circumstellar disc becomes fully ionized. If the stellar and surrounding EUV and X-ray radiations are so strong as to rapidly heat up and ionize the entire circumstellar disc as further facilitated by disc magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, a shock can be driven to travel outward in the fully ionized disc, behind which the disc expands and thins. For an extremely massive and powerful stellar core, the ionized gas pressure overwhelms the centrifugal and gravitational forces in the disc. In this limit, we construct self-similar shock solutions for such an expansion and depletion phase. As a significant amount of circumstellar gas being removed, the relic disc becomes vulnerable to strong stellar winds and fragments into clumps. We speculate that disc disappearance happens rapidly, perhaps on a timescale of $\\sim 10^3-10^4\\hbox{yr}$ once the disc becomes entirely ionized sometime after the onset of thermal nuclear burning in a high-mass stellar core.

  4. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the operating activities, upgrade activities, maintenance, and other activities regarding liquid and gaseous low level radioactive waste management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Miscellaneous activities include training, audits, tours, and environmental restoration support.

  5. Gaseous effluents from the combustion of nanocomposites in controlled-ventilation conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Gaseous effluents from the combustion of nanocomposites in controlled-ventilation conditions D on the combustion of nanocomposite samples under various ventilation conditions. Tests have been performed ammonium polyphosphate in equal proportions. During testing, the ventilation-controlled conditions were

  6. Oxygen diffusion in titanite: Lattice diffusion and fast-path diffusion in single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, E. Bruce

    Oxygen diffusion in titanite: Lattice diffusion and fast-path diffusion in single crystals X June 2006 Editor: P. Deines Abstract Oxygen diffusion in natural and synthetic single-crystal titanite be recognized as responsible for oxygen diffusion. The diffusion profiles showed two segments: a steep one close

  7. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department Annual Operating Report, CY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities of the waste management operations section of the liquid and gaseous waste operations department at ORNL for 1993. The process waste, liquid low-level waste, gaseous waste systems activities are reported, as well as the low-level waste solidification project. Upgrade activities is the various waste processing and treatment systems are summarized. A maintenance activity overview is provided, and program management, training, and other miscellaneous activities are covered.

  8. Method for selectively removing fluorine and fluorine-containing contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Robert L. (Paducah, KY); Otey, Milton G. (Melber, KY); Perkins, Roy W. (Mayfield, KY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a method for effecting preferential removal and immobilization of certain gaseous contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6. The contaminants include fluorine and fluorides which are more reactive with CaCO.sub.3 than is UF.sub.6. The method comprises contacting the contaminant-carrying UF.sub.6 with particulate CaCO.sub.3 at a temperature effecting reaction of the contaminant and the CaCO.sub.3.

  9. Advanced Laser Diagnostics Development for the Characterization of Gaseous High Speed Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ADVANCED LASER DIAGNOSTICS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF GASEOUS HIGH SPEED FLOWS A Dissertation by RODRIGO SANCHEZ-GONZALEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2012 Major Subject: Chemistry Advanced Laser Diagnostics Development for the Characterization of Gaseous High Speed Flows Copyright 2012 Rodrigo...

  10. Influences of Water Vapor on Cr(VI) Reduction by Gaseous Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 In Situ Gaseous Reduction (ISGR) using hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a technology the contaminants, H2S, and various soil components. In this study, Cr(VI) reduction by gaseous H2S was examined under various relative humidities (0-96.7%), concentrations of Cr(VI) (127-475 µg/g of solid), and H2S

  11. Development of a test facility for the experimental evaluation of liquid and gaseous automotive engine fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCanlies, John Michael

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for comparison of gaseous fuels. A 2. 3 liter, 4-cylinder engine was instrumented to obtain engine performance in terms of power output, efficiency, and exhaust emissions. Fuel supply systems were constructed to deliver and measure the f'lowrates of both... the liquid and gaseous fuels. Electrical signals proport onal to the ma?'or dependent and independent va, iables (except emissions) were input to a microcomputer based data acquisition system to provide con- tInuous display and recording. Stationary...

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene over TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite nanotubes synthesized by sol-gel with template technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Xuejun [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical and Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical and Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical and Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical and Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Qu, Zhenping; Zhao, Qidong; Shi, Yong; Chen, Yongying [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical and Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical and Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Tade, Moses [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: shaomin.liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanotubes (b) were fabricated by sol-gel method using ZnO nanowires (a) as template. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple method to prepare TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanotubes for photocatalytic toluene removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanotubes have a small blue shift and higher absorption intensity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanotubes have an enhanced photoactivity in degrading gaseous toluene. -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite nanotubes were successfully synthesized by a facile sol-gel technique utilizing ZnO nanowires as template. The nanotubes were well characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The nanotubular TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite photocatalysts showed diameter of 300-325 nm, fine mesoporous structure and high specific surface area. The results indicated that the degradation efficiency of gaseous toluene could get 65% after 4 h reaction using the TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite as the photocatalyst under UV light illumination, which was higher than that of P25.

  13. China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% Reduction in CO{sub 2} Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Ke, Jing

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario – to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} emissions intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative reduction of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} emissions of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated emissions reduction are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.

  14. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  15. Restoration and repair of 30-year old cooling towers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Phase I. Draft 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, M.F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early in 1980, a comprehensive reliability study was made to ascertain the ability of the present 30-year old recirculating water system to meet the anticipated load demand through the year 2000. The findings and recommendations of this study were used as a guide to schedule uprating and repairs. This paper deals with the underground distribution system and cooling tower repairs.

  16. Northwest Plume Groundwater System Green-sand Media Removal and Waste Packaging Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troutman, M.T.; Richards, C.J.; Tarantino, J.J. [CDM Federal Programs Corporation, 325 Kentucky Avenue, Kevil, KY 42053 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Northwest Plume Groundwater System (NWPGS) was temporarily shut down due to high differential pressures across the green-sand filters. Increased levels of suspended solids were introduced into the system from monitoring well development water, equipment decontamination water, and secondary containment water. These waters were treated for suspended solids through a groundwater pretreatment system but were suspected of causing the high differential pressures in the green-sand filters. Prior to the system being shutdown, the NWPGS had been experiencing increasingly shorter run times between filter backwashes indicating that the normal backwash cycle was not adequately removing the fines. This condition led to the removal and replacement of green-sand media from two filter vessels. Discussions include problems with the removal process, waste packaging specifications, requirements for the disposition of green-sand media, and lessons learned. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of the proposed pilot groundwater pump and treat demonstration for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Hale, T.B.; Huff, D.D.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the evaluation and recommendations of a Groundwater Corrective Actions Review Team. The primary goal is to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at Paducah, Kentucky. A key distinction recognized by the review team is that the proposed project is intended to be a full-scale hydraulic containment of contaminants migrating from the sources of the plume, not plume remediation. The key questions incorporated into this plan are whether (1) dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLS) are present in the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) at the source of the plume and (2) {sup 99}Tc removal must be included as part of any groundwater treatment process. The first question cannot be answered until the contaminant sources are better defined; the second question requires further risk assessment and/or a policy decision by DOE. Technical evaluation by the review team suggests that the recommended course of action be to modify the proposed work plan to include accurate identification of the sources of contaminants and vertical distribution of contaminants within the Northwest plume before a decision is made on the preferred source-control option. If DNAPLs are not present in the RGA, removal or containment of the sources is recommended. If DNAPLs are present, then hydraulic containment will be required. Finally, the review team recognizes that it is necessary to initiate a more comprehensive analysis of sitewide remediation needs to create links between action taken for the Northwest plume and action taken for other contamination sites at PGPD.

  18. Final report. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant PCB sediment survey: Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory analysis of collected samples along drainage features at PGDP. Report documents levels of PCB contamination and considers locations of contamination and known releases to theorize probable sources to further investigate.

  19. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  20. The Effects of Gaseous Ozone and Nitric Acid Deposition on two Crustose Lichen Species From Joshua Tree National Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hessom, Elizabeth Curie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photosynthetic rate responses to ozone in some foliose andof gaseous nitric acid and ozone on lichens. Dissertations &with nitric acid and ozone. Environmental Pollution, In

  1. Tungsten diffusion in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Luca, A.; Texier, M.; Burle, N.; Oison, V.; Pichaud, B. [Aix-Marseille Université, IM2NP UMR 7334, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Campus de Saint-Jérôme, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen - Case 142, F-13397 Marseille Cedex (France); Portavoce, A., E-mail: alain.portavoce@im2np.fr [CNRS, IM2NP UMR 7334, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Campus de Saint-Jérôme, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen - Case 142, F-13397 Marseille Cedex (France); Grosjean, C. [STMicroelectronics, Rousset (France)

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Two doses (10{sup 13} and 10{sup 15}?cm{sup ?2}) of tungsten (W) atoms were implanted in different Si(001) wafers in order to study W diffusion in Si. The samples were annealed or oxidized at temperatures between 776 and 960?°C. The diffusion profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and defect formation was studied by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. W is shown to reduce Si recrystallization after implantation and to exhibit, in the temperature range investigated, a solubility limit close to 0.15%–0.2%, which is higher than the solubility limit of usual metallic impurities in Si. W diffusion exhibits unusual linear diffusion profiles with a maximum concentration always located at the Si surface, slower kinetics than other metals in Si, and promotes vacancy accumulation close to the Si surface, with the formation of hollow cavities in the case of the higher W dose. In addition, Si self-interstitial injection during oxidation is shown to promote W-Si clustering. Taking into account these observations, a diffusion model based on the simultaneous diffusion of interstitial W atoms and W-Si atomic pairs is proposed since usual models used to model diffusion of metallic impurities and dopants in Si cannot reproduce experimental observations.

  2. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.

  3. Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

  4. Journal Diffusion Factors a measure of diffusion? Tove Faber Frandsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Journal Diffusion Factors ­ a measure of diffusion? Tove Faber Frandsen Royal School of Library In this paper we show that the measure of diffusion introduced by Ian Rowlands called the Journal Diffusion Factor (JDF) is highly negatively correlated with the number of citations, leading highly cited journals

  5. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    household GDP was corrected for Purchase Power Parity (PPP).The PPP factor adjusts currency market exchange rates (MER)20% for countries with average PPP adjusted incomes below $

  6. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Don

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of thc Beg;voc cf kBSTBACT The propane-nitrogen system has been investigated in the gaseous phase at a temperature of 300 F. and at pressures up to 4/0 atmospheres. Compressibility curves for three mixtures of this system have been determined. A... the pressure corresponding to the "n " expansion ? th? the partial pressure of nitrogen the partial pressure oi' propane the total pressure of a gaseous system the universal gas constant (0. 08206 liter-atmosphere/ gram mole - oK) the absolute...

  7. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickson, Cecil Herman

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY A A N O'iLLEOE OF 1EXAS THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEIN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of' Texas in partial... f'ulf'illment of the requirements for the de~ree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Ma]or GubjectI Chemistry May I&55 THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Approved as to style...

  8. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickson, Cecil Herman

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY A A N O'iLLEOE OF 1EXAS THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEIN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of' Texas in partial... f'ulf'illment of the requirements for the de~ree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Ma]or GubjectI Chemistry May I&55 THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Approved as to style...

  9. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Don

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of thc Beg;voc cf kBSTBACT The propane-nitrogen system has been investigated in the gaseous phase at a temperature of 300 F. and at pressures up to 4/0 atmospheres. Compressibility curves for three mixtures of this system have been determined. A... the pressure corresponding to the "n " expansion ? th? the partial pressure of nitrogen the partial pressure oi' propane the total pressure of a gaseous system the universal gas constant (0. 08206 liter-atmosphere/ gram mole - oK) the absolute...

  10. Nonlinear signal contamination effects for gaseous plume detection in hyperspectral imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theiler, James

    Nonlinear signal contamination effects for gaseous plume detection in hyperspectral imagery James-plume pixels are inadvertently included, then that background characterization will be contaminated. In broad in the scene are off- plume, so some contamination is inevitable. In general, the contaminated background

  11. Fracture response of externally flawed aluminum cylindrical shells under internal gaseous detonation loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, Al

    , there is a lack of standard guidance in designing and testing pressure vessels and piping under explosive-mechanics driven design and safety criteria for pressure vessels under gaseous detonation load- ing. At this time pipelines, nuclear plant, and petrochemical piping. This study may also guide forensic analysis

  12. Impacts of a Nanosized Ceria Additive on Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulate and Gaseous Pollutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Impacts of a Nanosized Ceria Additive on Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulate and Gaseous incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However- cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations

  13. Emission and Long-Range Transport of Gaseous Mercury from a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    Emission and Long-Range Transport of Gaseous Mercury from a Large-Scale Canadian Boreal Forest FireQuebec.Thesemeasurementsindicated significant and highly correlated increases in Hg and CO during the plume event. The Hg:CO emissions ratio emissions and biomass burned to determine a mean area-based Hg emission flux density for boreal forest fires

  14. Changes in seal capacity of fractured claystone caprocks induced by dissolved and gaseous CO2 seepage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luquot, Linda

    reactivate pre-existing weaknesses inherited from reservoir production periods and create new fracturesChanges in seal capacity of fractured claystone caprocks induced by dissolved and gaseous CO2 underground storage when residual CO2 gas reaches the reservoir top due to buoyancy. Permeability changes

  15. Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons from Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Piceance basin, western Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, David Jonathan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the Douglas Creek arch. The Piceance basin contains commercial quantities of both liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in Tertiary-age oil shales and in tight Cretaceous-age sandstone reservoirs (Rice, 1993). Iles and Williams Fork strata deeper in the basin...

  16. Extending the Photon Mapping Method for Realistic Rendering of Hot Gaseous Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    sophistication and use of heated gas, fire, and explosion simulations in computer graphics applications gaseous fluids, ranging from simple smoke and gas to fire flames and explosions, abound in the real world, simulated flames and explosion were visualized using color maps, obtained from reference im- ages [1, 2, 3

  17. Numerical assessment of stability criteria from disturbance energies in gaseous combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoud, Franck

    Numerical assessment of stability criteria from disturbance energies in gaseous combustion A, which corresponds to a ducted, laminar premixed propane-air flame, is used to assess the different terms a contribution from the unsteady heat flux-pressure correlation, allows a better agreement with the numerical

  18. Elucidating the solid, liquid and gaseous products from batch pyrolysis of cotton-gin trash.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aquino, Froilan Ludana

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cotton-gin trash (CGT) was pyrolyzed at different temperatures and reaction times using an externally-heated batch reactor. The average yields of output products (solid/char, liquid/bio-oil, and gaseous) were determined. The heating value (HV...

  19. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kee Chul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Division OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC11905 -DISCLAIMER - OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRICc o n e e n i g woroxygen self-diffusion coefficient

  20. A Possible Anisotropy in Blackbody Radiation Viewed through Non-uniform Gaseous Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray-Dastidar, T K

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-local gauge symmetry of a complex scalar field, which can be trivially extended to spinor fields, was demonstrated in a recent paper (Mod.Phys.Lett. A13, 1265 (1998) ; hep-th/9902020). The corresponding covariant Lagrangian density yielded a new, non-local Quantum Electrodynamics. In the present paper it is shown that as a consequence of this new QED, a blackbody radiation viewed through gaseous matter appears to show a slight deviation from the Planck formula, and we propose an experimental test to check this effect. We also show that a non-uniformity in this gaseous matter distribution leads to an (apparent) spatial anisotropy in the blackbody radiation.

  1. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha (Aurora, IL); Meyer, Howard S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA); Leppin, Dennis (Chicago, IL); Wangerow, James R. (Medinah, IL)

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  2. Supplementary Information for Depletion of gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    , Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M3H 5T4 *now at: Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough of gaseous PAHs S5­S6 Table S4 Concentrations of particulate PAHs S7­S8 Fig. S3 Back trajectories and wind-rose diagrams S9­S11 Fig. S4 Vertical profiles of PAHs S12­S13 Table S5 Particle-bound percentages of PAHs S14­S

  3. Peridynamic thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oterkus, Selda [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Madenci, Erdogan, E-mail: madenci@email.arizona.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Agwai, Abigail [Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ 85226 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents the derivation of ordinary state-based peridynamic heat conduction equation based on the Lagrangian formalism. The peridynamic heat conduction parameters are related to those of the classical theory. An explicit time stepping scheme is adopted for numerical solution of various benchmark problems with known solutions. It paves the way for applying the peridynamic theory to other physical fields such as neutronic diffusion and electrical potential distribution.

  4. The development of a sensitive method to study volatile organic compounds in gaseous emissions of lung cancer cell lines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroly, Anupam

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a low cost, reliable system that would lead to early detection of lung cancer. Tests involved the quantitation of gaseous metabolic emissions from immortalized lung ...

  5. Laser acceleration of protons using multi-ion plasma gaseous targets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Tung-Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; Hill, W T; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical and numerical study of a novel acceleration scheme by applying a combination of laser radiation pressure and shielded Coulomb repulsion in laser acceleration of protons in multi-species gaseous targets. By using a circularly polarized CO2 laser pulse with a wavelength of 10 ?m—much greater than that of a Ti: Sapphire laser—the critical density is significantly reduced, and a high-pressure gaseous target can be used to achieve an overdense plasma. This gives us a larger degree of freedom in selecting the target compounds or mixtures, as well as their density and thickness profiles. By impinging such amore »laser beam on a carbon–hydrogen target, the gaseous target is first compressed and accelerated by radiation pressure until the electron layer disrupts, after which the protons are further accelerated by the electron-shielded carbon ion layer. An 80 MeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beam can be generated using a half-sine shaped laser beam with a peak power of 70 TW and a pulse duration of 150 wave periods.« less

  6. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghate, Madhav R. (Morgantown, WV); Yang, Ralph T. (Williamsville, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon, zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high parity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber.

  7. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  9. The development of a sensitive method to study volatile organic compounds in gaseous emissions of lung cancer cell lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroly, Anupam

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSITIVE METHOD TO STUDY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF LUNG CANCER CELL LINES A Thesis by ANUPAM MAROLY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2005 Major Subject: Biomedical Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSITIVE METHOD TO STUDY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF LUNG CANCER CELL...

  10. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland

    2004-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P species. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of Si in Ge was measured over the temperature range of 550 C to 900 C using a buried Si layer in an epitaxially grown Ge layer.

  11. STAR FORMATION IN THE EXTENDED GASEOUS DISK OF THE ISOLATED GALAXY CIG 96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espada, D.; Sabater, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Sulentic, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de AndalucIa, CSIC, Apdo. 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain); Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Gil de Paz, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. de la Complutense, s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Boissier, S.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille and CNRS UMR 6110, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Verley, S. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Leon, S. [Joint ALMA Observatory/ESO, Av. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Yun, M., E-mail: daniel.espada@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: despada@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law and efficiency in the gaseous disk of the isolated galaxy CIG 96 (NGC 864), with special emphasis on its unusually large atomic gas (H I) disk (r{sub Hmathsci}/r{sub 25} = 3.5, r{sub 25} = 1.'85). We present deep Galaxy Evolution Explorer near- and far-UV observations, used as a recent star formation tracer, and we compare them with new, high-resolution (16''or 1.6 kpc) Very Large Array H I observations. The UV and H I maps show good spatial correlation outside the inner 1', where the H I phase dominates over H{sub 2}. Star-forming regions in the extended gaseous disk are mainly located along the enhanced H I emission within two (relatively) symmetric, giant gaseous spiral arm-like features, which emulate an H I pseudo-ring at r {approx_equal} 3'. Inside this structure, two smaller gaseous spiral arms extend from the northeast and southwest of the optical disk and connect to the previously mentioned H I pseudo-ring. Interestingly, we find that the (atomic) Kennicutt-Schmidt power-law index systematically decreases with radius, from N {approx_equal} 3.0 {+-} 0.3 in the inner disk (0.'8-1.'7) to N = 1.6 {+-} 0.5 in the outskirts of the gaseous disk (3.'3-4.'2). Although the star formation efficiency (SFE), the star formation rate per unit of gas, decreases with radius where the H I component dominates as is common in galaxies, we find that there is a break of the correlation at r = 1.5r{sub 25}. At radii 1.5r{sub 25} < r < 3.5r{sub 25}, mostly within the H I pseudo-ring structure, regions exist whose SFE remains nearly constant, SFE {approx_equal} 10{sup -11} yr{sup -1}. We discuss possible mechanisms that might be triggering the star formation in the outskirts of this galaxy, and we suggest that the constant SFE for such large radii (r > 2r{sub 25}) and at such low surface densities might be a common characteristic in extended UV disk galaxies.

  12. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL GRADE API PIPELINE STEELS IN HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalheim, Mr. Douglas [DGS Metallurgical Solutions Inc; Boggess, Todd [Secat; San Marchi, Chris [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Jansto, Steven [Reference Metals Company; Somerday, Dr. B [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Sofronis, Prof. Petros [University of Illinois

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continued growth of the world s developing countries has placed an ever increasing demand on traditional fossil fuel energy sources. This development has lead to increasing research and development of alternative energy sources. Hydrogen gas is one of the potential alternative energy sources under development. Currently the most economical method of transporting large quantities of hydrogen gas is through steel pipelines. It is well known that hydrogen embrittlement has the potential to degrade steel s mechanical properties when hydrogen migrates into the steel matrix. Consequently, the current pipeline infrastructure used in hydrogen transport is typically operated in a conservative fashion. This operational practice is not conducive to economical movement of significant volumes of hydrogen gas as an alternative to fossil fuels. The degradation of the mechanical properties of steels in hydrogen service is known to depend on the microstructure of the steel. Understanding the levels of mechanical property degradation of a given microstructure when exposed to hydrogen gas under pressure can be used to evaluate the suitability of the existing pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen service and guide alloy and microstructure design for new hydrogen pipeline infrastructure. To this end, the 2 Copyright 2010 by ASME microstructures of relevant steels and their mechanical properties in relevant gaseous hydrogen environments must be fully characterized to establish suitability for transporting hydrogen. A project to evaluate four commercially available pipeline steels alloy/microstructure performance in the presences of gaseous hydrogen has been funded by the US Department of Energy along with the private sector. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and then tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 800, 1600 and 3000 psi. Based on measurements of reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best across the pressure range were selected for evaluation of fracture and fatigue performance in gaseous hydrogen at 800 and 3000 psi. This paper will describe the work performed on four commercially available pipeline steels in the presence of gaseous hydrogen at pressures relevant for transport in pipelines. Microstructures and mechanical property performances will be compared. In addition, recommendations for future work related to gaining a better understanding of steel pipeline performance in hydrogen service will be discussed.

  13. The Harrison Diffusion Kinetics Regimes in Solute Grain Boundary Diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belova, Irina [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Fiedler, T [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Murch, Prof. Graeme [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the limits of the principal Harrison kinetics regimes (Type-A, B and C) for grain boundary diffusion is very important for the correct analysis of the depth profiles in a tracer diffusion experiment. These regimes for self-diffusion have been extensively studied in the past by making use of the phenomenological Lattice Monte Carlo (LMC) method with the result that the limits are now well established. The relationship of those self-diffusion limits to the corresponding ones for solute diffusion in the presence of solute segregation to the grain boundaries remains unclear. In the present study, the influence of solute segregation on the limits is investigated with the LMC method for the well-known parallel grain boundary slab model by showing the equivalence of two diffusion models. It is shown which diffusion parameters are useful for identifying the limits of the Harrison kinetics regimes for solute grain boundary diffusion. It is also shown how the measured segregation factor from the diffusion experiment in the Harrison Type-B kinetics regime may differ from the global segregation factor.

  14. Microviscometric studies on thermal diffusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyna, Eddie

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for its improvement. This in~estigation was supported in part by the Convsir Division of General Dynamics Corporation. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter III INTRODUCTION EXPERINENTAL NETHODS AND PROCEDUPJIS Thermal Diffusion Column Viscosity Measurements.... The main interest of 6 tais work was the molecular weight dependence of the thermal diffusion coefficient and the suitability of thermal diffusion as a method of frac- tionation of polymers. Since the work of Debye and Bueche, applications of thermal...

  15. Turing instability in reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemskov, E. P., E-mail: zemskov@ccas.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Dorodnicyn Computing Center (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Turing instability is studied in two-component reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear diffusion terms, and the regions in parametric space where Turing patterns can form are determined. The boundaries between super- and subcritical bifurcations are found. Calculations are performed for one-dimensional brusselator and oregonator models.

  16. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  17. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  18. The Stability of an Isentropic Model for a Gaseous Relativistic Star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Negi

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the isentropic subclass of Buchdahl's exact solution for a gaseous relativistic star is stable and gravitationally bound for all values of the compactness ratio $u [\\equiv (M/R)$, where $M$ is the total mass and $R$ is the radius of the configuration in geometrized units] in the range, $0 < u \\leq 0.20$, corresponding to the {\\em regular} behaviour of the solution. This result is in agreement with the expectation and opposite to the earlier claim found in the literature.

  19. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  20. Measurement of the cross section for scattering of p. mu. atoms in gaseous hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bystritskii, V.M.; Dzhelepov, V.P.; Petrukhin, V.I.; Rudenko, A.I.; Suvorov, V.M.; Fil'chenkov, V.V.; Khovanskii, N.N.; Khomenko, B.A.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The muon beam of the synchrocyclotron at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research has been used in an experiment with gaseous hydrogen at a pressure of 41 atm to measure the cross section for scattering of p..mu.. atoms by hydrogen molecules sigma(p..mu..+H/sub 2/) = (42 +- 8) x 10/sup -21/ cm/sup 2/, which corresponds to a cross section for scattering by free protons sigma(p..mu..+p) = (17.4 +- 3.3) x 10/sup -21/ cm/sup 2/.

  1. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  2. 2013 GASEOUS IONS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, FEBRUARY 24 - MARCH 1, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Evan

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gaseous Ions: Structures, Energetics and Reactions Gordon Research Conference will focus on ions and their interactions with molecules, surfaces, electrons, and light. The long-standing goal of our community is to develop new strategies for capturing complex molecular architectures as gas phase ions where they can be isolated, characterized and manipulated with great sensitivity. Emergent areas of interest include catalytic mechanisms, cryogenic processing of ions extracted from solution, ion fragmentation mechanisms, and new methods for ion formation and structural characterization. The conference will cover theoretical and experimental advances on systems ranging from model studies at the molecular scale to preparation of nanomaterials and characterization of large biological molecules.

  3. DIFFUSION IN SOLIDSDIFFUSION IN SOLIDS FICK'S LAWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    Diffusion bonding To comprehend many materials related phenomenon one must understand Diffusion. The focusDIFFUSION IN SOLIDSDIFFUSION IN SOLIDS FICK'S LAWS KIRKENDALL EFFECT ATOMIC MECHANISMS Diffusion in Solids P.G. Shewmon McGraw-Hill, New York (1963) #12;Oxidation Roles of Diffusion Creep Aging

  4. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  5. The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) Apparatus for Nuclear Diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaughnessy, D A; Velsko, C A; Jedlovec, D R; Yeamans, C B; Moody, K J; Tereshatov, E; Stoeffl, W; Riddle, A

    2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The RAGS (Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples) diagnostic apparatus was recently installed at the National Ignition Facility. Following a NIF shot, RAGS is used to pump the gas load from the NIF chamber for purification and isolation of the noble gases. After collection, the activated gaseous species are counted via gamma spectroscopy for measurement of the capsule areal density and fuel-ablator mix. Collection efficiency was determined by injecting a known amount of {sup 135}Xe into the NIF chamber, which was then collected with RAGS. Commissioning was performed with an exploding pusher capsule filled with isotopically enriched {sup 124}Xe and {sup 126}Xe added to the DT gas fill. Activated xenon species were recovered post-shot and counted via gamma spectroscopy. Results from the collection and commissioning tests are presented. The performance of RAGS allows us to establish a noble gas collection method for measurement of noble gas species produced via neutron and charged particle reactions in a NIF capsule.

  6. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  7. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  8. Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foreman, Kenneth M. (North Bellmore, NY); Gilbert, Barry L. (Westbury, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  9. Effects of turbulent diffusion on the chemistry of diffuse clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Lesaffre; M. Gerin; P. Hennebelle

    2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims. We probe the effect of turbulent diffusion on the chemistry at the interface between a cold neutral medium (CNM) cloudlet and the warm neutral medium (WNM). Methods. We perform moving grid, multifluid, 1D, hydrodynamical simulations with chemistry including thermal and chemical diffusion. The diffusion coefficients are enhanced to account for turbulent diffusion. We post-process the steady-states of our simulations with a crude model of radiative transfer to compute line profiles. Results. Turbulent diffusion spreads out the transition region between the CNM and the WNM. We find that the CNM slightly expands and heats up: its CH and H$_2$ content decreases due to the lower density. The change of physical conditions and diffusive transport increase the H$^+$ content in the CNM which results in increased OH and H$_2$O. Diffusion transports some CO out of the CNM. It also brings H$_2$ into contact with the warm gas with enhanced production of CH$^+$, H$_3^+$, OH and H$_2$O at the interface. O lines are sensitive to the spread of the thermal profile in the intermediate region between the CNM and the WNM. Enhanced molecular content at the interface of the cloud broadens the molecular line profiles and helps exciting transitions of intermediate energy. The relative molecular yield are found higher for bigger clouds. Conclusions. Turbulent diffusion can be the source of additional molecular production and should be included in chemical models of the interstellar medium (ISM). It also is a good candidate for the interpretation of observational problems such as warm H$_2$, CH$^+$ formation and presence of H$_3^+$.

  10. Indirect NMR detection of 235U in gaseous uranium hexafluoride National Center for Physics, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest, Romania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    dans le UF6 gazeux. L'examen de la raie d'absorption du 19F appartenant au UF6 gazeux isotopiquement in indirect detection of the 235U nucleus in gaseous UF6 is discussed. The 19F absorption spectra linewidths in gaseous UF6 was investigated as a function of 235U enrichment, revealing a dependence on the isotope

  11. NARROW DUST JETS IN A DIFFUSE GAS COMA: A NATURAL PRODUCT OF SMALL ACTIVE REGIONS ON COMETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V. M.; Rubin, M.; Fougere, N.; Gombosi, T. I., E-mail: mcombi@umich.edu [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Comets often display narrow dust jets but more diffuse gas comae when their eccentric orbits bring them into the inner solar system and sunlight sublimates the ice on the nucleus. Comets are also understood to have one or more active areas covering only a fraction of the total surface active with sublimating volatile ices. Calculations of the gas and dust distribution from a small active area on a comet's nucleus show that as the gas moves out radially into the vacuum of space it expands tangentially, filling much of the hemisphere centered on the active region. The dust dragged by the gas remains more concentrated over the active area. This explains some puzzling appearances of comets having collimated dust jets but more diffuse gaseous atmospheres. Our test case is 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Rosetta mission target comet, whose activity is dominated by a single area covering only 4% of its surface.

  12. Hot carrier diffusion in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruzicka, Brian Andrew; Wang, Shuai; Werake, Lalani Kumari; Weintrub, Ben; Loh, Kian Ping; Zhao, Hui

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an optical study of charge transport in graphene. Diffusion of hot carriers in epitaxial graphene and reduced graphene oxide samples are studied using an ultrafast pump-probe technique with a high spatial resolution. Spatiotemporal...

  13. Microviscometric studies on thermal diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyna, Eddie

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    proportions until Clusiui and Dickel introduced a type of therrail diffusion column 4 which caused a thermal circul~tion in addition to thermal diffusion. With tni' equipment they were able to separate chlorine isotopes. Applying this same method..., it was decided to . onstruct equipment which could measure the viscosity and concentration of 0. 1 ml. samples. It was desired to have the reproduceability of the viscosimeter better than I'X since the dilute solutions to be studied had maximum viscosities...

  14. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Atlanta, GA); Kim, Dong Seop (Atlanta, GA); Nakayashiki, Kenta (Smyrna, GA); Rounsaville, Brian (Stockbridge, GA)

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  15. Perspectives of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector Technologies for Future Physics Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Maxim

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A centenary after the invention of the basic principle of gas amplification, gaseous detectors - are still the first choice whenever the large area coverage with low material budget is required. Advances in photo-lithography and micro-processing techniques in the chip industry during the past two decades triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the frontiers of research. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. In 2008, the RD51 collaboration at CERN has been established to further advance technological developments of MPGDs and associated electronic-readout systems, for applications in basic and applied research. This review provides an overview of the state-of-the...

  16. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

  17. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  18. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Alexeff, Igor (Oak Ridge, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Clinton, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to "float" in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields.

  19. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to ''float'' in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields. 6 figs.

  20. Gusty, gaseous flows of FIRE: galactic winds in cosmological simulations with explicit stellar feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muratov, Alexander L; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Hopkins, Philip F; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of the galaxy-scale gaseous outflows from the FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments) simulations. This suite of hydrodynamic cosmological zoom simulations provides a sample of halos where star-forming giant molecular clouds are resolved to z=0, and features an explicit stellar feedback model on small scales. In this work, we focus on quantifying the gas mass ejected out of galaxies in winds and how this material travels through the halo. We correlate these quantities to star formation in galaxies throughout cosmic history. Our simulations reveal that a significant portion of every galaxy's evolution, particularly at high redshift, is dominated by bursts of star formation, which are followed by powerful gusts of galactic outflow that sweep up a large fraction of gas in the interstellar medium and send it through the circumgalactic medium. The dynamical effect of these outflows can significantly limit the amount of star formation within the affected galaxy. At low redshift, however, su...

  1. Composition, apparatus, and process, for sorption of gaseous compounds of group II-VII elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tom, Glenn M. (New Milford, CT); McManus, James V. (Danbury, CT); Luxon, Bruce A. (Stamford, CT)

    1991-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Scavenger compositions are disclosed, which have utility for effecting the sorptive removal of hazardous gases containing Group II-VII elements of the Periodic Table, such as are widely encountered in the manufacture of semiconducting materials and semiconductor devices. Gas sorption processes including the contacting of Group II-VII gaseous compounds with such scavenger compositions are likewise disclosed, together with critical space velocity contacting conditions pertaining thereto. Further described are gas contacting apparatus, including mesh structures which may be deployed in gas contacting vessels containing such scavenger compositions, to prevent solids from being introduced to or discharged from the contacting vessel in the gas stream undergoing treatment. A reticulate heat transfer structure also is disclosed, for dampening localized exothermic reaction fronts when gas mixtures comprising Group II-VII constituents are contacted with the scavenger compositions in bulk sorption contacting vessels according to the invention.

  2. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.

    2003-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  3. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W. (Lake Matthews, CA); Scott, Paul B. (Northridge, CA); Park, Chan Seung (Yorba Linda, CA)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  4. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: third status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Status Report contains contributions from all contractors currently participating in the DOE Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LG) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program and is presented in two principal sections. Section I is an Executive Summary of work done by all program participants. Section II is a presentation of fourteen individual reports (A through N) on specific LGF Program activities. The emphasis of Section II is on research conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Reports A through M). Report N, an annotated bibliography of literature related to LNG safety and environmental control, was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of its LGF Safety Studies Project. Other organizations who contributed to this Status Report are Aerojet Energy Conversion Company; Applied Technology Corporation; Arthur D. Little, Incorporated; C/sub v/ International, Incorporated; Institute of Gas Technology; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for Reports A through N for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. Selective Gaseous Extraction: Research, Development and Training for Isotope Production, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertch, Timothy C, [General Atomics

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    General Atomics and the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) completed research and development of selective gaseous extraction of fission products from irradiated fuel, which included training and education of MURR students. The process used porous fuel and after irradiation flowed product gases through the fuel to selectively removed desired fission products with the primary goal of demonstrating the removal of rhodium 105. High removal rates for the ruthenium/rhodium (Ru/Rh), tellurium/iodine (Te/I) and molybdenum/technetium (Mo/Tc) series were demonstrated. The success of this research provides for the reuse of the target for further production, significantly reducing the production of actinide wastes relative to processes that dissolve the target. This effort was conducted under DOE funding (DE-SC0007772). General Atomics objective of the project was to conduct R&D on alternative methods to produce a number of radioactive isotopes currently needed for medical and industry applications to include rhodium-105 and other useful isotopes. Selective gaseous extraction was shown to be effective at removing radioisotopes of the ruthenium/rhodium, tellurium/iodine and molybdenum/technetium decay chains while having trace to no quantities of other fission products or actinides. This adds a new, credible method to the area of certain commercial isotope production beyond current techniques, while providing significant potential reduction of process wastes. Waste reduction, along with reduced processing time/cost provides for superior economic feasibility which may allow domestic production under full cost recovery practices. This provides the potential for improved access to domestically produced isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment at reduced cost, providing for the public good.

  6. Inverted end-Hall-type low-energy high-current gaseous ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A. V.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Grishin, D. M.; Anders, A.; Baldwin, D. A. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); 4Wave, Inc., Sterling, Virginia 20166 (United States)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel approach to low-energy, high-current, gaseous ion beam generation was explored and an ion source based on this technique has been developed. The source utilizes a dc high-current (up to 20 A) gaseous discharge with electron injection into the region of ion generation. Compared to the conventional end-Hall ion source, the locations of the discharge anode and cathode are inverted: the cathode is placed inside the source and the anode outside, and correspondingly, the discharge current is in the opposite direction. The discharge operates in a diverging axial magnetic field, similar to the end-Hall source. Electron generation and injection is accomplished by using an additional arc discharge with a ''cold'' (filamentless) hollow cathode. Low plasma contamination is achieved by using a low discharge voltage (avoidance of sputtering), as well as by a special geometric configuration of the emitter discharge electrodes, thereby filtering (removing) the erosion products stemming from the emitter cathode. The device produces a dc ion flow with energy below 20 eV and current up to 2.5 A onto a collector of 500 cm{sup 2} at 25 cm from the source edge, at a pressure {>=}0.02 Pa and gas flow rate {>=}14 SCCM. The ion energy spread is 2 to 3 eV (rms). The source is characterized by high reliability, low maintenance, and long lifetime. The beam contains less than 0.1% of metallic ions. The specific electric energy consumption is 400 eV per ion registered at the collector. The source operates with noble gases, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbons. Utilizing biasing, it can be used for plasma sputtering, etching, and other ion technologies.

  7. The Effect of Debris on Collector Optics, its Mitigation and Repair: Next-Step a Gaseous Sn EUV DPP Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spila, Timothy P.

    The Effect of Debris on Collector Optics, its Mitigation and Repair: Next-Step a Gaseous Sn EUV DPP to advanced fuel plasma EUV sources is collector lifetime. The Illinois Debris-mitigation EUV Applications based on this work. Keywords: EUV source, debris, optics, collector lifetime, mitigation, plasma

  8. Nonlinear Data Transformation with Diffusion Map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Others: Laplacian eigenmaps, Hessian eigenmaps, LTSA We apply the diffusion map (Coifman & Lafon 2006

  9. Delafosse, D. 2012. "Chapter 9 -Hydrogen Effects on the Plasticity of Face Centred Cubic (fcc) Crystals." In Gaseous Hydrogen Embrittlement of Materials in Energy Technologies, edited by Richard P Gangloff and B P Somerday,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) Crystals." In Gaseous Hydrogen Embrittlement of Materials in Energy Technologies, edited by Richard P-11May2014 Author manuscript, published in "Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of materials in energy) Crystals." In Gaseous Hydrogen Embrittlement of Materials in Energy Technologies, edited by Richard P

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene over hollow “spindle-like” ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} loaded with Ag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Basic, Dalian Naval Academy, Dalian 116018 (China); Zhao, Qidong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Shi, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhu, Zhengru [Research Center of Hydrology and Engineering, Academy of City and Environment, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [Research Center of Hydrology and Engineering, Academy of City and Environment, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Tade, Moses [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: shaomin.liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Hollow ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spindle-shaped microparticles were prepared for Ag support. ? The hollow ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials were used to degrade gaseous toluene. ? Complete degradation of toluene occurred on the Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface. -- Abstract: In this work, hollow “spindle-like” ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was prepared based on the spindle-shaped ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with CTAB as the surfactant, which showed excellent photoelectric property and photocatalytic activity. The structural properties of these samples were systematically investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques. The photo-induced charge separation in the samples was demonstrated by surface photovoltage measurement. The photocatalytic performances of the Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples were comparatively studied in the degradation of toluene under xenon lamp irradiation by in situ FTIR spectroscopy. Benzaldehyde and benzoic acid species could be observed on the ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface rather than Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface. The results indicate that the Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample exhibited higher photocatalytic efficiency.

  11. Hindered diffusion of coal liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsotsis, T.T.; Sahimi, M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Webster, I.A. (Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecules comprising coal liquids can range from less than 10 to several hundred [angstrom] in diameter. Their size is, therefore, comparable to the average pore size of most hydroprocessing catalysts. Thus, during processing, transport of these molecules into the catalyst occurs mainly by configurational'' or hindered diffusion,'' which is the result of two phenomena occurring in the pores; the distribution of solute molecules in the pores is affected by the pores and the solute molecules experience an increased hydrodynamic drag. The field of hindered diffusion has been reviewed by Deen [16]. The earliest studies in the filed were by Renkin et al. [17].

  12. Prediction of Room Air Diffusion for Reduced Diffuser Flow Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gangisetti, Kavita

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    and analytical tool for investigating ventilation inside the system and thus to increase thermal comfort and improve indoor air quality. The room air supply diffuser flow rates can be reduced for less loading with the help of a variable air volume unit...

  13. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boerner, A. J. [IEAVP, ORISE, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maldonado, D. G. [IEAVP, ORISE, Oak Ridge, TN (United States; Hansen, Tom [Ameriphysics, LLC (United States)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE?s derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for the DOE Paducah C-746-U Landfill. A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines. The ORISE-derived soil guidelines are specifically applicable to the Landfill at the end of its operational life. A suggested 'upper bound' multiple of the derived soil guidelines for individual shipments is provided.

  14. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the September 15, 1997, Drum Explosion at Building C-746-Q, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report is an independent product of the Type B Accident Investigation Board (Board) appointed by James C. Hall, Manager, Oak Ridge Operations.

  15. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and closure of the solid waste landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the proposed construction, operation, and closure of a Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) that would be designed in accordance with Commonwealth of Kentucky landfill regulations (401 Kentucky Administrative Regulations Chapters 47 and 48 and Kentucky Revised Statutes 224.855). PGDP produces approximately 7,200 cubic yards per year of non-hazardous, non-radioactive solid waste currently being disposed of in a transitional contained (residential) landfill cell (Cell No. 3). New Kentucky landfill regulations mandate that all existing landfills be upgraded to meet the requirements of the new regulations or stop receiving wastes by June 30, 1995. Cell No. 3 must stop receiving wastes at that time and be closed and capped within 180 days after final receipt of wastes. The proposed SWL would occupy 25 acres of a 60-acre site immediately north of the existing PGDP landfill (Cell No. 3). The EA evaluated the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action and reasonable alternative actions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action which will significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, it is determined that an environmental impact statement will not be prepared, and DOE is issuing this FONSI.

  16. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Investigation of the radiological safety concerns and medical history of the late Joseph T. Harding, former employee of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallario, E J

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ex-employee's claims that inadequate enforcement of radiation safety regulations allowed excess radiation exposure thereby causing his deteriorating health was not substantiated by a thorough investigation.

  18. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized water reactors (PWR-GALE Code). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekaran, T.; Lee, J.Y.; Willis, C.A.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report revises the original issuance of NUREG-0017, ''Calculation of Releases of Radioactive Materials in Gaseous and Liquid Effluents from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR-GALE-Code)'' (April 1976), to incorporate more recent operating data now available as well as the results of a number of in-plant measurement programs at operating pressurized water reactors. The PWR-GALE Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the releases of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents (i.e., the gaseous and liquid source terms). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the PWR-GALE Code to determine conformance with the requirements of Appendix I to 10 CFR Part 50.

  19. Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tallec, G.; Bureau, C. [Cemagref, UR HBAN, Parc de Tourvoie, BP44, F-92163 Antony (France); Peu, P.; Benoist, J.C. [Cemagref, UR GERE, 17 Avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes (France); Lemunier, M. [Suez-Environnement, CIRADE, 38 Av. Jean Jaures, 78440 Gargenville (France); Budka, A.; Presse, D. [SITA France, 132 Rue des 3 Fontanot, 92000 Nanterre Cedex (France); Bouchez, T. [Cemagref, UR HBAN, Parc de Tourvoie, BP44, F-92163 Antony (France)], E-mail: theodore.bouchez@cemagref.fr

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N{sub 2}O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N{sub 2}O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N{sub 2}O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N{sub 2}O releases: 8.1 {+-} 0.16 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 384), 4.2 {+-} 0.14 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 132) and 1.9 {+-} 0.10 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N{sub 2}O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N{sub 2}O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection.

  20. Beta Diffusion Trees Creighton Heaukulani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Beta Diffusion Trees Creighton Heaukulani CKH28@CAM.AC.UK David A. Knowles DAVIDKNOWLES Stanford University, Department of Computer Science, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract We define the beta structures over clusters of the particles. With the beta diffu- sion tree, however, multiple copies

  1. Postplasma particle dynamics in a Gaseous Electronics Conference RF Reference Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, S.M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Brown, D.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); O`Hanlon, J.F.; Carlile, R.N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle contamination in plasma tools used for the manufacture of very large scale integrated semiconductor devices on silicon wafers is a major cause of yield loss. Understanding the dynamics of particle movement in the postplasma regime is important to explain the process of their transport to the wafer. The movement of particle contamination in a Gaseous Electronics Conference RF Reference Cell in the postplasma regime was investigated using a novel technique. Particle clouds were observed using laser light scattering together with an image intensifier and a monochromator. This technique allowed particle clouds of low density, that could not otherwise be detected, to be seen. Video analysis of the particles showed movement of the cloud front during the first second after the plasma was extinguished. Using the particle terminal velocity to estimate particle size, we estimate diameters of 0.11 {mu}m in argon and 0.05 {mu}m in krypton. The role of the thermophoretic force on particles during the postplasma was shown to be larger than gravitational forces and to dominate particle transport for small particles under the conditions investigated. A temperature gradient of 12 {degree}C/cm was observed to move these particles away from a warm electrode as the plasma was extinguished and the particles were released from the electrostatic confinement forces generated by the plasma. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

  2. On the possible environmental effect in distributing heavy elements beyond individual gaseous halos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Sean D; Mulchaey, John S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of extended galaxy halo gas through HI and OVI absorption over two decades in projected distance at $z\\approx0.2$. The study is based on a sample of $95$ galaxies from a highly complete ($ > 80\\%$) survey of faint galaxies ($L > 0.1L_*$) with archival quasar absorption spectra and $53$ galaxies from the literature. A clear anti-correlation is found between HI (OVI) column density and virial radius normalized projected distance, $d/R_{\\rm h}$. Strong HI (OVI) absorption systems with column densities greater than $10^{14.0}$ ($10^{13.5}$) cm$^{-2}$ are found for $48$ of $54$ ($36$ of $42$) galaxies at $d R_{\\rm h}$ compared to isolated galaxies ($\\kappa_{\\rm OVI}\\approx0.13$ versus $0.04$) but no excess HI absorption. These findings suggest that environmental effects play a role in distributing heavy elements beyond the enriched gaseous halos of individual galaxies. Finally, we find that differential HI and OVI absorption between early- and late-type galaxies continues from $d < R_{\\rm h}$...

  3. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

  4. Design and reliability optimization of a MEMS micro-hotplate for combustion of gaseous fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manginell, R. P.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will detail the process by which the silicon carbide (SiC) microhotplate devices, manufactured by GE, were imaged using IR microscopy equipment available at Sandia. The images taken were used as inputs to a finite element modeling (FEM) process using the ANSYS software package. The primary goal of this effort was to determine a method to measure the temperature of the microhotplate. Prior attempts to monitor the device's temperature by measuring its resistance had proven to be unreliable due to the nonlinearity of the doped SiC's resistance with temperature. As a result of this thermal modeling and IR imaging, a number of design recommendations were made to facilitate this temperature measurement. The lower heating value (LHV) of gaseous fuels can be measured with a catalyst-coated microhotplate calorimeter. GE created a silicon carbide (SiC) based microhotplate to address high-temperature survivability requirements for the application. The primary goal of this effort was to determine a method to measure the temperature of the microhotplate. Prior attempts to monitor the device's temperature by measuring its resistance had proven to be unreliable due to the non-linearity of the doped SiC's resistance with temperature. In this work, thermal modeling and IR imaging were utilized to determine the operation temperature as a function of parameters such as operation voltage and device sheet resistance. A number of design recommendations were made according to this work.

  5. The effect of stellar feedback on a Milky Way-like galaxy and its gaseous halo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marasco, Antonino; Fraternali, Filippo; van der Hulst, Thijs; Wadsley, James; Quinn, Thomas; Roškar, Rok

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the study of a set of N-body+SPH simulations of a Milky Way-like system produced by the radiative cooling of hot gas embedded in a dark matter halo. The galaxy and its gaseous halo evolve for 10 Gyr in isolation, which allows us to study how internal processes affect the evolution of the system. We show how the morphology, the kinematics and the evolution of the galaxy are affected by the input supernova feedback energy E$_{\\rm SN}$, and we compare its properties with those of the Milky Way. Different values of E$_{\\rm SN}$ do not significantly affect the star formation history of the system, but the disc of cold gas gets thicker and more turbulent as feedback increases. Our main result is that, for the highest value of E$_{\\rm SN}$ considered, the galaxy shows a prominent layer of extra-planar cold (log(T)<4.3) gas extended up to a few kpc above the disc at column densities of $10^{19}$ cm$^{-2}$. The kinematics of this material is in agreement with that inferred for the HI halos of our Galaxy ...

  6. Radiation Heat Transfer in Particle-Laden Gaseous Flame: Flame Acceleration and Triggering Detonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberman, M A; Kiverin, A D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we examine influence of the radiation heat transfer on the combustion regimes in the mixture, formed by suspension of fine inert particles in hydrogen gas. The gaseous phase is assumed to be transparent for the thermal radiation, while the radiant heat absorbed by the particles is then lost by conduction to the surrounding gas. The particles and gas ahead of the flame is assumed to be heated by radiation from the original flame. It is shown that the maximum temperature increase due to the radiation preheating becomes larger for a flame with lower velocity. For a flame with small enough velocity temperature of the radiation preheating may exceed the crossover temperature, so that the radiation heat transfer may become a dominant mechanism of the flame propagation. In the case of non-uniform distribution of particles, the temperature gradient formed due to the radiation preheating can initiate either deflagration or detonation ahead of the original flame via the Zel'dovich's gradient mechanism. Th...

  7. Dynamical Decoupling of Nested Bars: Self-Gravitating Gaseous Nuclear Bars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Englmaier; Isaac Shlosman

    2004-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A substantial fraction of barred galaxies host additional nuclear bars which tumble with pattern speeds exceeding those of the large-scale (primary) stellar bars. We have investigated the mechanism of formation and dynamical decoupling in such nested bars which include gaseous (secondary) nuclear bars within the full size galactic disks, hosting a double inner Lindblad resonance. Becoming increasingly massive and self-gravitating, the nuclear bars lose internal (circulation) angular momentum to the primary bars and increase their strength. Developing chaos within these bars triggers a rapid gas collapse -- bar contraction. During this time period, the secondary bar pattern speed Omega_s~a^{-1}, where "a" stands for the bar size. As a result, Omega_s increases dramatically until a new equilibrium is reached (if at all), while the gas specific angular momentum decreases -- demonstrating the dynamical decoupling of nested bars. Viscosity, and therefore the gas presence, appears to be a necessary condition for the prograde decoupling of nested bars. This process maintains an inflow rate of ~1 M_o/yr over ~10^8 yrs across the central 200 pc and has important implications for fueling the nuclear starbursts and AGN.

  8. Ices in the Galactic Centre : solid ice and gaseous CO in the central parsec

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moultaka, Jihane; Sabha, Nadeen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past few years, we have observed the central half parsec of our Galaxy in the mid-infrared from 2.8 to 5.1 micron. Our aim is to improve our understanding of the direct environment of SgrA*, the supermassive blackhole at the centre of the Milky Way. This work is described in the present paper and by Moultaka et al. 2015 (submitted). Here, we focus on the study of the spatial distribution of the 12CO ice and gas-phase absorptions. We observed the central half parsec with ISAAC spectrograph located at the UT3/VLT ESO telescope in Chile. The slit was placed along 22 positions arranged parallel to each other to map the region. We built the first data cube in this wavelength range covering the central half parsec. The wavelength interval of the used M-band filter ranges from 4.6 to 5.1 micron. It hosts the P- and R- branches of the ro-vibrational transitions of the gaseous 12CO and 13CO, as well as the absorption band attributed to the 12CO ice at 4.675 micron. Using two calibrators, we could disentangle t...

  9. Adsorption, Desorption, and Diffusion of Nitrogen in a Model...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II. Diffusion Limited Kinetics in Amorphous Adsorption, Desorption, and Diffusion of Nitrogen in a Model Nanoporous Material: II. Diffusion Limited Kinetics in Amorphous Abstract:...

  10. Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials. Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials. Abstract: Uranium(VI) diffusion was investigated in...

  11. Summary and Outlook of the International Workshop on Aging Phenomena in Gaseous Detectors (DESY, Hamburg, October, 2001)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Titov; M. Hohlmann; C. Padilla; N. Tesch

    2002-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    High Energy Physics experiments are currently entering a new era which requires the operation of gaseous particle detectors at unprecedented high rates and integrated particle fluxes. Full functionality of such detectors over the lifetime of an experiment in a harsh radiation environment is of prime concern to the involved experimenters. New classes of gaseous detectors such as large-scale straw-type detectors, Micro-pattern Gas Detectors and related detector types with their own specific aging effects have evolved since the first workshop on wire chamber aging was held at LBL, Berkeley in 1986. In light of these developments and as detector aging is a notoriously complex field, the goal of the workshop was to provide a forum for interested experimentalists to review the progress in understanding of aging effects and to exchange recent experiences. A brief summary of the main results and experiences reported at the 2001 workshop is presented, with the goal of providing a systematic review of aging effects in state-of-the-art and future gaseous detectors.

  12. The Central Kiloparsec of Seyfert and Inactive Host Galaxies: a Comparison of Two-Dimensional Stellar and Gaseous Kinematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaelle Dumas; Carole Mundell; Eric Emsellem; Neil Nagar

    2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the properties of the two-dimensional distribution and kinematics of ionised gas and stars in the central kiloparsecs of a matched sample of nearby active (Seyfert) and inactive galaxies, using the SAURON Integral Field Unit on the William Herschel Telescope. The ionised gas distributions show a range of low excitation regions such as star formation rings in Seyferts and inactive galaxies, and high excitation regions related to photoionisation by the AGN. The stellar kinematics of all galaxies in the sample show regular rotation patterns typical of disc-like systems, with kinematic axes which are well aligned with those derived from the outer photometry and which provide a reliable representation of the galactic line of nodes. After removal of the non-gravitational components due to e.g. AGN-driven outflows, the ionised gas kinematics in both the Seyfert and inactive galaxies are also dominated by rotation with global alignment between stars and gas in most galaxies. This result is consistent with previous findings from photometric studies that the large-scale light distribution of Seyfert hosts are similar to inactive hosts. However, fully exploiting the two-dimensional nature of our spectroscopic data, deviations from axisymmetric rotation in the gaseous velocity fields are identified that suggest the gaseous kinematics are more disturbed at small radii in the Seyfert galaxies compared with the inactive galaxies, providing a tentative link between nuclear gaseous streaming and nuclear activity.

  13. Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination A Bioprophylactic Concept Karin/Repro, Uppsala 2013 #12;Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination. A Bioprophylactic Concept. Abstract Pesticides and their residues frequently contaminate surface waters and groundwater so

  14. Synergistic diffuser/heat-exchanger design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazzara, David S. (David Sergio), 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical and numerical evaluation of synergistic diffusing heat-exchanger design is presented. Motivation for this development is based on current diffuser and heat-exchange technologies in cogeneration plants, which ...

  15. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN UO2-x

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, K.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ K.C. K:i.m, "Oxygen Diffusion in Hypostoichiometricsystem for enriching uo 2 in oxygen-18 or for stoichiometry+nal of Nuclear Materials OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN U0 2 _:x K.C.

  16. MICROFLUIDIC CONTROL OF STEM CELL DIFFUSIBLE SIGNALING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voldman, Joel

    MICROFLUIDIC CONTROL OF STEM CELL DIFFUSIBLE SIGNALING Katarina Blagovi, Lily Y. Kim, Alison M cell differentiation. KEYWORDS: Embryonic stem cells, microfluidic perfusion, diffusible signaling; they secrete molecules to which they respond. Microfluidics offers a potential solution to this challenge

  17. Method for selectively removing fluorine and fluorine-containing contaminants from gaseous UF/sub 6/. [ClF/sub 3/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, R.L.; Otey, M.G.; Perkins, R.W.

    1980-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a method for effecting preferential removal and immobilization of certain gaseous contaminants from gaseous UF/sub 6/. The contaminants include fluorine and fluorides which are more reactive with CaCO/sub 3/ than is UF/sub 6/. The method comprises contacting the contaminant-carrying UF/sub 6/ with particulate CaCO/sub 3/ at a temperature effecting reaction of the contaminant and the CaCO/sub 3/.

  18. Heat Hyperbolic Diffusion in Planck Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslaw Kozlowski; Janina Marciak-Kozlowska

    2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we investigate the diffusion of the thermal pulse in Planck Gas. We show that the Fourier diffusion equation gives the speed of diffusion, v > c and breaks the causality of the thermal processes in Planck gas .For hyperbolic heat transport v

  19. Service Promotion -Diffusion Raphale LOMBARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellier, Damien

    Service Promotion - Diffusion Raphaële LOMBARD Editions L'Harmattan - 5 Rue de l'Ecole Polytechnique ­ 75005 Paris Tél 01.40.46.79.23 ­ mail : raphaele.lombard@harmattan.fr La mondialisation avance à complémentaires BON DE COMMANDE A retourner à L'HARMATTAN, 7 rue de l'�cole Polytechnique 75005 Paris Veuillez me

  20. Energy and Security in Northeast Asia: Proposals for Nuclear Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaneko, Kumao; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Choi, Jor-Shan; Fei, Edward

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    two gaseous diffusion plants (at Portsmouth and Paducah) andgaseous diffusion plants (GDPs; in Portsmouth, Ohio; Paducah,

  1. Feedback from galactic stellar bulges and hot gaseous haloes of galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shikui Tang; Q. Daniel Wang; Yu Lu; H. J. Mo

    2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that the feedback from stellar bulges can play an essential role in shaping the halo gas of galaxies with substantial bulge components by conducting 1-D hydrodynamical simulations. The feedback model we consider consists of two distinct phases: 1) an early starburst during the bulge formation and 2) a subsequent long-lasting mass and energy injection from stellar winds of low-mass stars and Type Ia SNe. An energetic outward blastwave is initiated by the starburst and is maintained and enhanced by the long-lasting stellar feedback. For a MW-like galactic bulge, this blastwave sweeps up the halo gas in the proto-galaxy and heats up the surrounding medium to a scale much beyond the virial radius of the halo, thus the accretion of the halo hot gas can be completely stopped. In addition, the long-lasting feedback in the later phase powers a galactic bulge wind that is reverse-shocked at a large radius in the presence of surrounding intergalactic medium and hence maintains a hot gaseous halo. As the mass and energy injection decreases with time, the feedback evolves to a subsonic and quasi-stable outflow, which is enough to prevent halo gas from cooling. The two phases of the feedback thus re-enforce each-other's impact on the gas dynamics. The simulation results demonstrate that the stellar bulge feedback may provide a plausible solution to the long-standing problems in understanding the MW type galaxies, such as the "missing stellar feedback" problem and the "over-cooling" problem. The simulations also show that the properties of the hot gas in the subsonic outflow state depend sensitively on the environment and the formation history of the bulge. This dependence and variance may explain the large dispersion in the X-ray to B-band luminosity ratio of the low $L_X/L_B$ Es.

  2. Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. TIME-DEPENDENT PHOTOIONIZATION OF GASEOUS NEBULAE: THE PURE HYDROGEN CASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, J.; Elhoussieny, E. E.; Bautista, M. A. [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Kallman, T. R., E-mail: javier@head.cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: manuel.bautista@wmich.edu, E-mail: ehab.elhoussieny@wmich.edu, E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the problem of time-dependent photoionization of low density gaseous nebulae subjected to sudden changes in the intensity of ionizing radiation. To this end, we write a computer code that solves the full time-dependent energy balance, ionization balance, and radiation transfer equations in a self-consistent fashion for a simplified pure hydrogen case. It is shown that changes in the ionizing radiation yield ionization/thermal fronts that propagate through the cloud, but the propagation times and response times to such fronts vary widely and nonlinearly from the illuminated face of the cloud to the ionization front (IF). IF/thermal fronts are often supersonic, and in slabs initially in pressure equilibrium such fronts yield large pressure imbalances that are likely to produce important dynamical effects in the cloud. Further, we studied the case of periodic variations in the ionizing flux. It is found that the physical conditions of the plasma have complex behaviors that differ from any steady-state solution. Moreover, even the time average of ionization and temperature is different from any steady-state case. This time average is characterized by overionization and a broader IF with respect to the steady-state solution for a mean value of the radiation flux. Around the time average of physical conditions there is a large dispersion in instantaneous conditions, particularly across the IF, which increases with the period of radiation flux variations. Moreover, the variations in physical conditions are asynchronous along the slab due to the combination of nonlinear propagation times for thermal fronts/IFs and equilibration times.

  4. Short-term effects of gaseous pollutants on cause-specific mortality in Wuhan, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhengmin Qian; Qingci He; Hung-Mo Lin (and others) [Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was to determine the acute mortality effects of the gaseous pollutants in Wuhan, China a city with 7.5 million permanent residents during the period from 2000 to 2004. The major sources of air pollution in the city are motor vehicles and the use of coal for domestic cooking, heating, and industrial processes. In recent years, combustion of gas has been the most common method for domestic cooking. There is a large coal-combustion smelter in the district. There are approximately 4.5 million residents in Wuhan who live in the city's core area of 201 km{sup 2}, where air pollution levels are highest, and pollution ranges are wider than the majority of the cities in the published literature. We used the generalized additive model to analyze pollution, mortality, and covariate data. We found consistent NO{sub 2} effects on mortality with the strongest effects on the same day. Every 10-{mu}g/m{sup 3} increase in NO{sub 2} daily concentration on the same day was associated with an increase in nonaccidental cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, respiratory, and cardiopulmonary mortality. These effects were stronger among the elderly than among the young. Formal examination of exposure-response curves suggests no-threshold linear relationships between daily mortality and NO{sub 2}, where the NO{sub 2} concentrations ranged from 19.2 to 127.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} were not associated with daily mortality. The exposure response relationships demonstrated heterogeneity, with some curves showing nonlinear relationships for SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. We conclude that there is consistent evidence of acute effects of NO{sub 2} on mortality and suggest that a no-threshold linear relationship exists between NO{sub 2} and mortality. 36 refs., 7 tabs.

  5. Neutral Current Coherent Cross Sections- Implications on Gaseous Spherical TPC's for detecting SN and Earth neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Vergados

    2011-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The detection of galactic supernova (SN) neutrinos represents one of the future frontiers of low-energy neutrino physics and astrophysics. The neutron coherence of neutral currents (NC) allows quite large cross sections in the case of neutron rich targets, which can be exploited in detecting earth and sky neutrinos by measuring nuclear recoils. A core-collapse supernova represents one of the most powerful source of (anti)neutrinos in the Universe. These (NC) cross sections are not dependent on flavor conversions and, thus, their measurement will provide useful information about the neutrino source. In particular the case of SN they will yield information about the primary neutrino fluxes, i.e. before flavor conversions in neutrino sphere. The advantages of large gaseous low threshold and high resolution time projection counters (TPC) detectors TPC detectors will be discussed. These are especially promising since they are expected to be relatively cheap and easy to maintain. The information thus obtained can also be useful to other flavor sensitive detectors, e.g. the large liquid scintillation detectors like LENA. All together such detectors will provide invaluable information on the astrophysics of core-collapse explosion and on the neutrino mixing parameters. In particular, neutrino flavor transitions in SN envelope might be sensitive to the value of theta-{13} and to the unknown neutrino mass hierarchy. Till a real SN explosion is detected, one can use available earth neutrino sources with similar energy spectra to test the behavior of these detectors. Among them, the ORNL Neutron Spallation source (SNS) and boosted radioactive neutrino beams are good candidates.

  6. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.; Kim, S.; Hwang, D.; Chen, C.C.; Chiou, Z.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of our research was to obtain fundamental information regarding the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient of coal molecules on the ratio of molecule to pore diameter. That is, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of molecule size and configuration on hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules through as porous medium. To best accomplish this task, we circumvented the complexities of an actual porous catalyst by using a well defined porous matrix with uniform capillaric pores, i.e., a track-etched membrane. In this way, useful information was obtained regarding the relationship of molecular size and configuration on the diffusion rate of coal derived macromolecules through a pore structure with known geometry. Similar studies were performed using a pellet formed of porous alumina, to provide a link between the idealized membranes and the actual complex pore structure of real catalyst extrudates. The fundamental information from our study will be useful toward the tailoring of catalysts to minimize diffusional influences and thereby increase coal conversion and selectivity for desirable products. (VC)

  7. Are Aftershocks of Large Californian Earthquakes Diffusing?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helmstetter, A; Sornette, D; Helmstetter, Agnes; Ouillon, Guy; Sornette, Didier

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze 21 aftershock sequences of California to test for evidence of space-time diffusion. Aftershock diffusion may result from stress diffusion and is also predicted by any mechanism of stress weakening. Here, we test an alternative mechanism to explain aftershock diffusion, based on multiple cascades of triggering. In order to characterize aftershock diffusion, we develop two methods, one based on a suitable time and space windowing that has been calibrated on the ETAS model of triggered seismicity, the other using a wavelet transform adapted to the removal of background seismicity. Both methods confirm that diffusion of seismic activity is very weak, much weaker than reported in previous studies. A possible mechanism explaining the weakness of observed diffusion is the effect of geometry, including the localization of aftershocks on a fractal fault network and the impact of extended rupture lengths which control the typical distances of interaction between earthquakes.

  8. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C. (RR E) A different set of alloys, such as Alloy N and 242, are needed to handle molten salts at this temperature. The diffusion welding development work described here builds on techniques developed during the NGNP work, as applied to these alloys. There is also the matter of dissimilar metal welding, since alloys suitable for salt service are generally not suited for service in gaseous oxidizing environments, and vice versa, and welding is required for the Class I boundaries in these systems, as identified in the relevant ASME codes.

  9. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 °C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 °C. (RR E) A different set of alloys, such as Alloy N and 242, are needed to handle molten salts at this temperature. The diffusion welding development work described here builds on techniques developed during the NGNP work, as applied to these alloys. There is also the matter of dissimilar metal welding, since alloys suitable for salt service are generally not suited for service in gaseous oxidizing environments, and vice versa, and welding is required for the Class I boundaries in these systems, as identified in the relevant ASME codes.

  10. Group classification of systems of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations with general diffusion matrix. II. Generalized Turing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Nikitin

    2007-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Group classification of systems of two coupled nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation with a diagonal diffusion matrix is carried out. Symmetries of diffusion systems with singular diffusion matrix and additional first order derivative terms are described.

  11. EA-1856: Conveyance of Land and Facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S.ContaminationJuly 2011DDelphi Automotive Systems, LLC ElectricWasteThisDiffusion

  12. Proposed On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at the Portsmouth Gaseous

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010 |of EnergySelected |Diffusion Plant |

  13. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids producing a small plume containing uranium atoms. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for uranium. It is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. High speed sample scanning and pinpoint characterization allow measurements on millions of particles/hour to detect and analyze the enrichment of trace uranium in samples. The spectrometer is assembled using commercially available components at comparatively low cost, and features a compact and low power design. Future designs can be engineered for reliable, autonomous deployment within an industrial plant environment. Two specific applications of the spectrometer are under development: 1) automated unattended aerosol sampling and analysis and 2) on-site small sample destructive assay measurement. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) safeguards verification. The aerosol measurement instrument, LAARS-environmental sampling (ES), collects aerosol particles from the plant environment in a purpose-built rotating drum impactor and then uses LAARS-ES to quickly scan the surface of the impactor to measure the enrichments of the captured particles. The current approach to plant misuse detection involves swipe sampling and offsite analysis. Though this approach is very robust it generally requires several months to obtain results from a given sample collection. The destructive assay instrument, LAARS-destructive assay (DA), uses a simple purpose-built fixture with a sampling planchet to collect adsorbed UF6 gas from a cylinder valve or from a process line tap or pigtail. A portable LAARS-DA instrument scans the microgram quantity of uranium collected on the planchet and the assay of the uranium is measured to ~0.15% relative precision. Currently, destructive assay samples for bias defect measurements are collected in small sample cylinders for offsite mass spectrometry measurement.

  14. Design of an Unattended Environmental Aerosol Sampling and Analysis System for Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Munley, John T.; Alexander, M. L.

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The resources of the IAEA continue to be challenged by the rapid, worldwide expansion of nuclear energy production. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) represent an especially formidable dilemma to the application of safeguard measures, as the size and enrichment capacity of GCEPs continue to escalate. During the early part of the 1990's, the IAEA began to lay the foundation to strengthen and make cost-effective its future safeguard regime. Measures under Part II of 'Programme 93+2' specifically sanctioned access to nuclear fuel production facilities and environmental sampling by IAEA inspectors. Today, the Additional Protocol grants inspection and environmental sample collection authority to IAEA inspectors at GCEPs during announced and low frequency unannounced (LFUA) inspections. During inspections, IAEA inspectors collect environmental swipe samples that are then shipped offsite to an analytical laboratory for enrichment assay. This approach has proven to be an effective deterrence to GCEP misuse, but this method has never achieved the timeliness of detection goals set forth by IAEA. Furthermore it is questionable whether the IAEA will have the resources to even maintain pace with the expansive production capacity of the modern GCEP, let alone improve the timeliness in reaching current safeguards conclusions. New safeguards propositions, outside of familiar mainstream safeguard measures, may therefore be required that counteract the changing landscape of nuclear energy fuel production. A new concept is proposed that offers rapid, cost effective GCEP misuse detection, without increasing LFUA inspection access or introducing intrusive access demands on GCEP operations. Our approach is based on continuous onsite aerosol collection and laser enrichment analysis. This approach mitigates many of the constraints imposed by the LFUA protocol, reduces the demand for onsite sample collection and offsite analysis, and overcomes current limitations associated with the in-facility misuse detection devices. Onsite environmental sample collection offers the ability to collect fleeting uranium hexafluoride emissions before they are lost to the ventilation system or before they disperse throughout the facility, to become deposited onto surfaces that are contaminated with background and historical production material. Onsite aerosol sample collection, combined with enrichment analysis, provides the unique ability to quickly detect stepwise enrichment level changes within the facility, leading to a significant strengthening of facility misuse deterence. We report in this paper our study of several GCEP environmental sample release scenarios and simulation results of a newly designed aerosol collection and particle capture system that is fully integrated with the Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) uranium particle enrichment analysis instrument that was developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  15. Method of preparing and utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark; Haynes, Daniel

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a method of utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream with a mitigation of carbon accumulation. The system is comprised of a catalytically active phase deposited onto an oxygen conducting phase, with or without supplemental support. The catalytically active phase has a specified crystal structure where at least one catalytically active metal is a cation within the crystal structure and coordinated with oxygen atoms within the crystal structure. The catalyst system employs an optimum coverage ratio for a given set of oxidation conditions, based on a specified hydrocarbon conversion and a carbon deposition limit. Specific embodiments of the catalyst system are disclosed.

  16. Characterizing unsaturated diffusion in porous tuff gravel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Qinhong; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Wang, Joseph, S.Y.

    2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (for example, the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent to which surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents were calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s for tuff gravel. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel at very low water contents.

  17. Diffusion processes in general relativistic radiating spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barreto, W.; Herrera, L.; Santos, N.O. (Oriente Universidad, Cumana (Venezuela); Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas; Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of diffusion processes on the dynamics of general relativistic radiating spheres is systematically studied by means of two examples. Differences between the streaming-out limit and the diffusion limit are exhibited, for both models, through the evolution curves of dynamical variables. In particular it is shown the Bondi mass decreases, for both models, in the diffusion limit as compared with its value at the streaming-out regime. 15 refs.

  18. Nonlinear diffusion in Acetone-Benzene Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obukhovsky, Vjacheslav V

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonlinear diffusion in multicomponent liquids under chemical reactions influence has been studied. The theory is applied to the analysis of mass transfer in a solution of acetone-benzene. It has been shown, that the creation of molecular complexes should be taken into account for the explanation of the experimental data on concentration dependence of diffusion coefficients. The matrix of mutual diffusivities has been found and effective parameters of the system have been computed.

  19. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S.H. [comp.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C{sub 4}F{sub 10} weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd.

  20. A Rearrangement Inequality for Diffusion Processes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Teng

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Rearrangement Inequality and its Proba- bilisticRearrangement Inequality . . . . . . 4.5 Some ObservationsSAN DIEGO A Rearrangement Inequality for Diffusion Processes

  1. Summary and Outlook of the International Workshop on Aging Phenomena in Gaseous Detectors (DESY, Hamburg, October, 2001)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, M L; Padilla, C; Tesch, N

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High Energy Physics experiments are currently entering a new era which requires the operation of gaseous particle detectors at unprecedented high rates and integrated particle fluxes. Full functionality of such detectors over the lifetime of an experiment in a harsh radiation environment is of prime concern to the involved experimenters. New classes of gaseous detectors such as large-scale straw-type detectors, Micro-pattern Gas Detectors and related detector types with their own specific aging effects have evolved since the first workshop on wire chamber aging was held at LBL, Berkeley in 1986. In light of these developments and as detector aging is a notoriously complex field, the goal of the workshop was to provide a forum for interested experimentalists to review the progress in understanding of aging effects and to exchange recent experiences. A brief summary of the main results and experiences reported at the 2001 workshop is presented, with the goal of providing a systematic review of aging effects in ...

  2. Modelling international wind energy diffusion: Are the patterns of induced diffusion `S'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    Modelling international wind energy diffusion: Are the patterns of induced diffusion `S' shaped datasets, the paper explores the patterns of international wind energy diffusion in OECD countries. The model employed in the paper predicted that wind energy, as a complex and expensive innovation, would

  3. Turbulent diffusion and turbulent thermal diffusion of aerosols in stratified atmospheric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elperin, Tov

    Turbulent diffusion and turbulent thermal diffusion of aerosols in stratified atmospheric flows M to the turbulent diffusion, and its potential impact on aerosol distribution. This phenomenon was predicted a nondiffusive flux of aerosols in the direction of the heat flux and results in formation of long-living aerosol

  4. Investigation of high temperature gaseous species by Knudsen cell mass spectrometry above the condensed systems Au-Ge-Cu and Au-Si / by Joseph Edward Kingcade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kingcade, Joseph Edward

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Chemistry INVESTIGATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GASEOUS SPECIES BY KNUDSEN CELL MASS SPECTROMETRY ABOVE THE CONDENSED SYSTEMS Au-Ge-Cu AND Au-Si A Thesis by Joseph Edward Kingcade Jr. Approved as to style and content by: ( Chairman of omittee ) ( Head... of Department ) /& I) au~ ( Member ) ( Member ) May 1 978 ABS TRAC T Investigation of High Temperature Gaseous Species by Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry Above the Condensed Systems Au-Ge-Cu and Au-Si. ( May 1978 ) Joseph Edward Kingcade Jr. , B. Sc...

  5. Surveying Diffusion in Complex Geometries. An Essay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis Grebenkov

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The surrounding world surprises us by the beauty and variety of complex shapes that emerge from nanometric to macroscopic scales. Natural or manufactured materials (sandstones, sedimentary rocks and cement), colloidal solutions (proteins and DNA), biological cells, tissues and organs (lungs, kidneys and placenta), they all present irregularly shaped "scenes" for a fundamental transport "performance", that is, diffusion. Here, the geometrical complexity, entangled with the stochastic character of diffusive motion, results in numerous fascinating and sometimes unexpected effects like diffusion screening or localization. These effects control many diffusion-mediated processes that play an important role in heterogeneous catalysis, biochemical mechanisms, electrochemistry, growth phenomena, oil recovery, or building industry. In spite of a long and rich history of academic and industrial research in this field, it is striking to see how little we know about diffusion in complex geometries, especially the one which occurs in three dimensions. We present our recent results on restricted diffusion. We look into the role of geometrical complexity at different levels, from boundary microroughness to hierarchical structure and connectivity of the whole diffusion-confining domain. We develop a new approach which consists in combining fast random walk algorithms with spectral tools. The main focus is on studying diffusion in model complex geometries (von Koch boundaries, Kitaoka acinus, etc.), as well as on developing and testing spectral methods. We aim at extending this knowledge and at applying the accomplished arsenal of theoretical and numerical tools to structures found in nature and industry.

  6. DIFFUSE RADIO EMISSION IN ABELL 754

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kale, Ruta; Dwarakanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India)], E-mail: ruta@rri.res.in, E-mail: dwaraka@rri.res.in

    2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a low-frequency study of the diffuse radio emission in the galaxy cluster A754. We present a new 150 MHz image of the galaxy cluster A754 made with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and discuss the detection of four diffuse features. We compare the 150 MHz image with the images at 74, 330, and 1363 MHz; one new diffuse feature is detected. The flux density upper limits at 330 and 1363 MHz imply a synchrotron spectral index, {alpha}>2 (S {proportional_to} {nu}{sup -{alpha}}), for the new feature. The 'west relic' detected at 74 MHz is not detected at 150 MHz and is thus consistent with its nondetection at 1363 MHz and 330 MHz. Integrated spectra of all the diffuse features are presented. The fourth diffuse feature is located along the proposed merger axis in A754 and 0.7 Mpc away from the peak of X-ray emission; we refer to it as a relic. We have made use of the framework of the adiabatic compression model to obtain spectra. We show that the spectrum of the fourth diffuse feature is consistent with that of a cocoon of a radio galaxy lurking for about 9 x 10{sup 7} yr; no shock compression is required. The other three diffuse emission have spectra steeper than 1.5 and could be cocoons lurking for longer time. We discuss other possibilities such as shocks and turbulent reacceleration being responsible for the diffuse emission in A754.

  7. Diffusive limit for the random Lorentz gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessia Nota

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We review some recent results concerning the derivation of the diffusion equation and the validation of Fick's law for the microscopic model given by the random Lorentz Gas. These results are achieved by using a linear kinetic equation as an intermediate level of description between our original mechanical system and the diffusion equation.

  8. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: es@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  9. CONVERTIBLE BONDS IN A DEFAULTABLE DIFFUSION MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanblanc, Monique

    CONVERTIBLE BONDS IN A DEFAULTABLE DIFFUSION MODEL Tomasz R. Bielecki Department of Applied Research Grant PS12918. #12;2 Convertible Bonds in a Defaultable Diffusion Model 1 Introduction In [4), such as Convertible Bonds (CB), and we provided a rigorous decomposition of a CB into a bond component and a (game

  10. ON DIFFUSION IN HETEROGENEOUS MEDIA YOUXUE ZHANG*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Liping

    , heterogeneous media, multi-mineral rocks, multi-phase media, composite materials, kinetics, porous rocks to bulk diffusion, and porous materials (such as plants, soil, rock with partial melt or fluid, sediment of air and moisture in soils, drying of paint, wood, and concrete, diffusion of gases in rubber, movement

  11. Surveying Diffusion in Complex Geometries. An Essay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grebenkov, Denis

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The surrounding world surprises us by the beauty and variety of complex shapes that emerge from nanometric to macroscopic scales. Natural or manufactured materials (sandstones, sedimentary rocks and cement), colloidal solutions (proteins and DNA), biological cells, tissues and organs (lungs, kidneys and placenta), they all present irregularly shaped "scenes" for a fundamental transport "performance", that is, diffusion. Here, the geometrical complexity, entangled with the stochastic character of diffusive motion, results in numerous fascinating and sometimes unexpected effects like diffusion screening or localization. These effects control many diffusion-mediated processes that play an important role in heterogeneous catalysis, biochemical mechanisms, electrochemistry, growth phenomena, oil recovery, or building industry. In spite of a long and rich history of academic and industrial research in this field, it is striking to see how little we know about diffusion in complex geometries, especially the one whic...

  12. Inverse diffusion from knowledge of power densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume; Monard, Francois; Triki, Faouzi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of a diffusion coefficient in an elliptic equation from knowledge of several power densities. The power density is the product of the diffusion coefficient with the square of the modulus of the gradient of the elliptic solution. The derivation of such internal functionals comes from perturbing the medium of interest by acoustic (plane) waves, which results in small changes in the diffusion coefficient. After appropriate asymptotic expansions and (Fourier) transformation, this allow us to construct the power density of the equation point-wise inside the domain. Such a setting finds applications in ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography and ultrasound modulated optical tomography. We show that the diffusion coefficient can be uniquely and stably reconstructed from knowledge of a sufficient large number of power densities. Explicit expressions for the reconstruction of the diffusion coefficient are also provided. Such results hold for a large class of boundary...

  13. Laser utilizing a gaseous lasing medium and method for operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerr, Bruce A. (Harriman, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to an improvement in gas lasers and a method of operating the same. In one aspect, the invention is an improved method for operating a high-power gas laser. The improvement comprises introducing the gas lasing medium tangentially to the laser tube at a pressure establishing a forced vortex in the tube. The vortex defines an axially extending core region characterized by a low pressure and temperature relative to the gas inlet and the exterior of the vortex. An electrical discharge is established in the core region to initiate lasing of the gas. The gas discharge from the tube is passed through a diffuser. As in conventional gas lasers, firing results in a very abrupt increase in gas temperature and in severe disruption of the gas. However, the gas vortex almost immediately restores the gas to its pre-firing condition. That is, almost all of the waste heat is transferred radially to the laser wall, and the original gas-flow pattern is restored. As a result, the power output of the laser is increased significantly, and the laser firing repetition rate is markedly increased.

  14. Laser utilizing a gaseous lasing medium and method for operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerr, B.A.

    1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to an improvement in gas lasers and a method of operating the same. In one aspect, the invention is an improved method for operating a high-power gas laser. The improvement comprises introducing the gas lasing medium tangentially to the laser tube at a pressure establishing a forced vortex in the tube. The vortex defines an axially extending core region characterized by a low pressure and temperature relative to the gas inlet and the exterior of the vortex. An electrical discharge is established in the core region to initiate lasing of the gas. The gas discharge from the tube is passed through a diffuser. As in conventional gas lasers, firing results in a very abrupt increase in gas temperature and in severe disruption of the gas. However, the gas vortex, almost immediately restores the gas to its prefiring condition. That is, almost all of the waste heat is transferred radially to the laser wall, and the original gas-flow pattern is restored. As a result, the power output of the laser is increased significantly, and the laser firing repetition rate is markedly increased.

  15. Time evolution of negative binomial optical field in diffusion channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu Tang-Kun; Wu Pan-Pan; Shan Chuan-Jia; Liu Ji-Bing; Fan Hong-Yi

    2015-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We find time evolution law of negative binomial optical field in diffusion channel. We reveal that by adjusting the diffusion parameter, photon number can controlled. Therefore, the diffusion process can be considered a quantum controlling scheme through photon addition.

  16. Microfluidic Investigation of Tracer Dye Diffusion in Alumina Nanofluids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozturk, Serdar 1979-

    2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    on enhanced mass diffusion and the possibility of tailoring mass transport by direct manipulation of molecular diffusion. Therefore, a microfluidic approach capable of directly probing tracer diffusion between nanoparticle-laden fluid streams was developed...

  17. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  18. Apparatus and method for generating continuous wave 16. mu. m laser radiation using gaseous CF/sub 4/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telle, J.M.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for generating continuous wave 16 ..mu..m laser radiation using gaseous CF/sub 4/. Laser radiation at 16 ..mu..m has been observed in a cooled static cell containing low pressure CF/sub 4/ optically pumped by an approximately 3 W output power c-w CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser cavity employed was a multiple-pass off-axis-path two spherical mirror ring resonator. Unidirectional CF/sub 4/ laser output power at 615 cm/sup -1/ exceeded 2 mW. Computer calculations indicate that for modest pump powers of about 40 W, approximately 1 W of emitted laser radiation at 16 ..mu..m might be obtained.

  19. Apparatus and method for generating continuous wave 16 .mu.m laser radiation using gaseous CF.sub.4

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telle, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for generating continuous wave 16 .mu.m laser radiation using gaseous CF.sub.4. Laser radiation at 16 .mu.m has been observed in a cooled static cell containing low pressure CF.sub.4 optically pumped by an approximately 3 W output power cw CO.sub.2 laser. The laser cavity employed was a multiple-pass off-axis-path two spherical mirror ring resonator. Unidirectional CF.sub.4 laser output power at 615 cm.sup.-1 exceeded 2 mW. Computer calculations indicate that for modest pump powers of about 40 W, approximately 1 W of emitted laser radiation at 16 .mu.m might be obtained.

  20. Detection of illicit HEU production in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants using neutron counting techniques on product cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative and novel safeguards approaches are needed for nuclear energy to meet global energy needs without the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Part of these efforts will include creating verification techniques that can monitor uranium enrichment facilities for illicit production of highly-enriched uranium (HEU). Passive nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques will be critical in preventing illicit HEU production because NDA offers the possibility of continuous and unattended monitoring capabilities with limited impact on facility operations. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) are commonly used to produce low-enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel. In a GCEP, gaseous UF{sub 6} spins at high velocities in centrifuges to separate the molecules containing {sup 238}U from those containing the lighter {sup 235}U. Unfortunately, the process for creating LEU is inherently the same as HEU, creating a proliferation concern. Insuring that GCEPs are producing declared enrichments poses many difficult challenges. In a GCEP, large cascade halls operating thousands of centrifuges work together to enrich the uranium which makes effective monitoring of the cascade hall economically prohibitive and invasive to plant operations. However, the enriched uranium exiting the cascade hall fills product cylinders where the UF{sub 6} gas sublimes and condenses for easier storage and transportation. These product cylinders hold large quantities of enriched uranium, offering a strong signal for NDA measurement. Neutrons have a large penetrability through materials making their use advantageous compared to gamma techniques where the signal is easily attenuated. One proposed technique for detecting HEU production in a GCEP is using neutron coincidence counting at the product cylinder take off stations. This paper discusses findings from Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code simulations that examine the feasibility of such a detector.

  1. ar diffusion coefficient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffusion is examined. Kazuhiko Seki; Saurabh Mogre; Shigeyuki Komura 2014-02-05 4 Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions Nonlinear Sciences (arXiv)...

  2. axial diffusion coefficient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffusion is examined. Kazuhiko Seki; Saurabh Mogre; Shigeyuki Komura 2014-02-05 5 Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions Nonlinear Sciences (arXiv)...

  3. Pore-Scale Simulation of Intragranular Diffusion: Effects of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulation of Intragranular Diffusion: Effects of Incomplete Mixing on Macroscopic Manifestations. Pore-Scale Simulation of Intragranular Diffusion: Effects of Incomplete Mixing on...

  4. Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate. Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate. Abstract: Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning,...

  5. Quantitative analysis of the diffusion of hydrogen peroxide through teeth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petersen, Brenden Kyle

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    activation  properties  of  hydrogen  peroxide  diffusion  the   transport   properties   of   hydrogen   peroxide  Hydrogen   peroxide   has   been   shown   to   readily   diffuse   through   both   enamel   and   dentin,   with   transport   properties  

  6. Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions of methanol and ethanol at temperatures near the glass Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid...

  7. Microscopic Reactive Diffusion of Uranium in the Contaminated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactive Diffusion of Uranium in the Contaminated Sediments at Hanford, United States. Microscopic Reactive Diffusion of Uranium in the Contaminated Sediments at Hanford, United...

  8. Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency &...

  9. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of gaseous formaldehyde by the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Gaoke, E-mail: gkzhang@whut.edu.cn; Qin, Xi

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites were prepared by a sol–gel method. • The composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and good stability. • The physicochemical property of tourmaline may be favor for the degradation of HCHO. • The mixed-phase of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} may be favor for the degradation of HCHO. - Abstract: The TiO{sub 2} supported tourmaline composites were prepared by a sol–gel method and used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of formaldehyde (HCHO). The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS). The results indicate that the mixed-phase of anatase and rutile exists in the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites. The specific surface area of the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites is much higher than that of the pure TiO{sub 2}. The TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of HCHO, which was 6 times higher than that of the pure TiO{sub 2}. Moreover, the excellent photocatalytic activity of the composites was fully maintained after five photocatalytic cycles, which may be attributed to the physicochemical property of tourmaline and the mixed-phase of anatase and rutile in the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites.

  10. Anaerobic Digestion of Algal Biomass Residues with Nutrient Recycle Microalgae are currently considered as a renewable source of liquid and gaseous biofuels and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    are currently considered as a renewable source of liquid and gaseous biofuels and a practical technology of the most sustainable and promising of biofuel feedstock, demonstrating particularly high growth rates, and their entrained lipids, can offer several different types of biofuel and bioenergy production options including

  11. International Symposium on Gaseous and Odour Emissions from Animal Production Facilities, Horsens, Jutland, Denmark 1-4 June, 2003 Ammonia Emissions from Broiler Houses in Kentucky during Winter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentucky, University of

    International Symposium on Gaseous and Odour Emissions from Animal Production Facilities, Horsens, Jutland, Denmark 1-4 June, 2003 Ammonia Emissions from Broiler Houses in Kentucky during Winter Kenneth D a comprehensive database of ammonia emission rates (ER) from US poultry facilities. The influence of common

  12. International Symposium on Gaseous and Odour Emissions from Animal Production Facilities, Horsens, Jutland, Denmark 1-4 June, 2003 AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM LAYER HOUSES IN IOWA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentucky, University of

    International Symposium on Gaseous and Odour Emissions from Animal Production Facilities, Horsens, Jutland, Denmark 1-4 June, 2003 1 AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM LAYER HOUSES IN IOWA Y. Liang1 , H. Xin2 , A. Casey10 ABSTRACT An ongoing project of monitoring ammonia (NH3) emissions from U.S. layer houses

  13. International Symposium on Gaseous and Odour Emissions from Animal Production Facilities, Horsens, Jutland, Denmark 1-4 June, 2003 Ammonia Emissions from Broiler Houses in Pennsylvania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentucky, University of

    International Symposium on Gaseous and Odour Emissions from Animal Production Facilities, Horsens, Jutland, Denmark 1-4 June, 2003 1 Ammonia Emissions from Broiler Houses in Pennsylvania During Cold of reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions are under study. Ammonia emissions during cold weather conditions from

  14. Molecular diffusion in plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, M.A.; Buss, R.J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States))

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffusion of an array of molecules in micrometer-thick films of plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene has been measured using an optical interferometric technique. The diffusivity is approximately independent of molecular size up to a molar volume of about 100 cm{sup 3} and drops rapidly for larger molecules. For much larger molecules no penetration of the films is observed. These results suggest that plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene films are heavily cross linked and that this limits the size of the molecules that can penetrate the polymer. The temperature dependence and the molecular size dependence of the diffusivities are discussed in the context of free-volume theory.

  15. Site Characterization Report ORGDP Diffusion Facilities Permanent Shutdown K-700 Power House and K-27 Switch Yard/Switch House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas R.J., Blanchard R.D.

    1988-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The K-700 Power House area, initially built to supply power to the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was shutdown and disassembled in the 1960s. This shutdown was initiated by TVA supplying economical power to the diffusion plant complex. As a result of world wide over production of enriched, reactor grade U{sup 235}, the K-27 switch yard and switch house area was placed in standby in 1985. Subsequently, as the future production requirements decreased, the cost of production increased and the separation technologies for other processes improved, the facility was permanently shutdown in December, 1987. This Site Characterization Report is a part of the FY-88 engineering Feasibility Study for placing ORGDP Gaseous Diffusion Process facilities in 'Permanent Shutdown'. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy through Virgil Lowery of Headquarters--Enrichment and through Don Cox of ORO--Enrichment Operations. The primary purpose of these building or site characterization reports is to document, quantify, and map the following potential problems: Asbestos; PCB containing fluids; Oils, coolants, and chemicals; and External contamination. With the documented quantification of the concerns (problems) the Engineering Feasibility Study will then proceed with examining the potential solutions. For this study, permanent shutdown is defined as the securing and/or conditioning of each facility to provide 20 years of safe service with minimal expenditures and, where feasible, also serving DOE's needs for long-term warehousing or other such low-risk use. The K-700 power house series of buildings were either masonry construction or a mix of masonry and wood. The power generating equipment was removed and sold as salvage in the mid 1960s but the buildings and auxiliary equipment were left intact. The nine ancillary buildings in the power house area use early in the Manhattan Project for special research projects, were left intact minus the original special equipment. During the late 1960s and 1970s, some of the abandoned buildings were used for offices, special projects, and storage. Some of the remaining electrical transformers contain PCBs in concentrations less than 500 ppm. Many of the steam and hot water pipes in the buildings are insulated with asbestos insulation, but none of the equipment or buildings have high counts of surface radioactive contamination. The general conditions of the buildings are from fair to poor. Many should be boarded-up to prevent personnel entry and in some cases demolitions would be the safer alternative.

  16. JUMP DIFFUSION OPTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mocioalca, Oana

    JUMP DIFFUSION OPTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS "non-systematic" risk, inclusive of transaction costs. We compute the total transac- tion costs and the turnover for different options, transaction costs, and revision intervals

  17. Determination of diffusion coefficient for unsaturated soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sood, Eeshani

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    is non-linear but due to the complexity involved it has been simplified to a linear problem. The nonlinear behavior has been studied during this research. Therefore, certain refinements have been applied in the determination of the diffusion coefficient...

  18. Diffusion, dimensionality and noise in transcriptional regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasper Tkacik; William Bialek

    2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The precision of biochemical signaling is limited by randomness in the diffusive arrival of molecules at their targets. For proteins binding to the specific sites on the DNA and regulating transcription, the ability of the proteins to diffuse in one dimension by sliding along the length of the DNA, in addition to their diffusion in bulk solution, would seem to generate a larger target for DNA binding, consequently reducing the noise in the occupancy of the regulatory site. Here we show that this effect is largely cancelled by the enhanced temporal correlations in one dimensional diffusion. With realistic parameters, sliding along DNA has surprisingly little effect on the physical limits to the precision of transcriptional regulation.

  19. Diffuse reflectance imaging with astronomical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasinoff, Samuel W.

    Diffuse objects generally tell us little about the surrounding lighting, since the radiance they reflect blurs together incident lighting from many directions. In this paper we discuss how occlusion geometry can help invert ...

  20. Electrospray emitters For diffusion vacuum pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz Gómez Maqueo, Pablo (Pablo Ly)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following similar principles as regular diffusion vacuum pumps, an electrospray emitter is set to produce a jet of charged particles that will drag air molecules out of a volume. To be a feasible concept, the emitted ...

  1. Princeton University Diffusion of Networking Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Sharon

    Electronic Commerce (EC'12) Valencia, Spain June 7, 2012 ISP #12;Seedset: A set of nodes that can kick off, photovoltaics, fax, computers, Internet, video games, ... Source: Rogers. "The Diffusion of Home Computers Among

  2. DIFFUSION MEDIATED TRANSPORT AND THE BROWNIAN MOTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIFFUSION MEDIATED TRANSPORT AND THE BROWNIAN MOTOR David Kinderlehrer Center for Nonlinear in small viscous systems and provide brief illustrations to brownian motor or molecular rachet situations which are found in intracellular transport. Keywords: Brownian motor, molecular rachet, motor protein

  3. An AMR Capable Finite Element Diffusion Solver

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rd. Berkeley, CA 94720, USA E-mail: fisher47@llnl.gov Abstract. We present a novel method for the solution of the diffusion equation on a composite AMR mesh. This approach is...

  4. Novel applications of diffusion-driven flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allshouse, Michael R

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffusion-driven flow is the result of a conflict between hydrostatic equilibrium in a density stratified fluid and the no-flux boundary condition that must be obeyed on impermeable boundaries that are sloping with respect ...

  5. Diffusion Preconditioner for Discontinuous Galerkin Transport Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbu, Anthony Petru

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    DIFFUSION PRECONDITIONER FOR DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN TRANSPORT PROBLEMS A Thesis by ANTHONY PETRU BARBU Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 2011 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering DIFFUSION PRECONDITIONER FOR DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN TRANSPORT PROBLEMS A Thesis by ANTHONY PETRU BARBU Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment...

  6. Diffusion Simulation and Lifetime Calculation at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu,N.P.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Robert-Demolaize, G.

    2009-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The beam lifetime is an important parameter for any storage ring. For protons in RHIC it is dominated by the non-linear nature of the head-on collisions that causes the particles to diffuse outside the stable area in phase space. In this report we show results from diffusion simulation and lifetime calculation for the 2006 and 2008 polarized proton runs in RHIC.

  7. APPLICATION OF A CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Facility located in Piketon, Ohio and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant located in Paducah, Kentucky. Number and Title of the Categorical...

  8. APPLICATION OF A CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Facility located performing in Piketon, Ohio and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant located in Paducah, Kentucky. Number and Title of the Categorical...

  9. U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) at Piketon, Ohio and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) at Paducah, Kentucky. Number and Title of the Categorical...

  10. U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. Wastes will be disposed of in...

  11. Determination of Matrix Diffusion Properties of Granite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtta, Pirkko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Huittinen, Nina [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, P.O. Box 55, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 (Finland); Poteri, Antti [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1608, VTT, FI-02044 (Finland)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rock-core column experiments were introduced to estimate the diffusion and sorption properties of Kuru Grey granite used in block-scale experiments. The objective was to examine the processes causing retention in solute transport through rock fractures, especially matrix diffusion. The objective was also to estimate the importance of retention processes during transport in different scales and flow conditions. Rock-core columns were constructed from cores drilled into the fracture and were placed inside tubes to form flow channels in the 0.5 mm gap between the cores and the tube walls. Tracer experiments were performed using uranin, HTO, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 131}I, {sup 22}Na and {sup 85}Sr at flow rates of 1-50 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. Rock matrix was characterized using {sup 14}C-PMMA method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis (EDX) and the B.E.T. method. Solute mass flux through a column was modelled by applying the assumption of a linear velocity profile and molecular diffusion. Coupling of the advection and diffusion processes was based on the model of generalised Taylor dispersion in the linear velocity profile. Experiments could be modelled applying a consistent parameterization and transport processes. The results provide evidence that it is possible to investigate matrix diffusion at the laboratory scale. The effects of matrix diffusion were demonstrated on the slightly-sorbing tracer breakthrough curves. Based on scoping calculations matrix diffusion begins to be clearly observable for non-sorbing tracer when the flow rate is 0.1 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. The experimental results presented here cannot be transferred directly to the spatial and temporal scales that prevail in an underground repository. However, the knowledge and understanding of transport and retention processes gained from this study is transferable to different scales from laboratory to in-situ conditions. (authors)

  12. diffusion-fundamentals The Open-Access Journal for the Basic Principles of Diffusion Theory, Experiment and Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuck, Götz

    × 10­10 H+ -Diffusion, symmetr. H-bond (TD) ~0.3 4 × 10­09 The method allowing us to isolate specificdiffusion-fundamentals The Open-Access Journal for the Basic Principles of Diffusion Theory, Experiment and Application www.diffusion-fundamentals.org, ISSN 1862-4138; © 2005-2010 Diffusion Fundamentals

  13. Economic evaluation of potential reuse of ORGDP equipment at Paducah GDP and Portsmouth GDP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.C.

    1988-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The relocation of up to 36 000 and 19 00 cells of barrier to Portsmouth and Paducah can be economically justified. In addition, relocation of some compressors, control valves and other piping would be required to maximize the benefit and assure operability. Models developed to perform the analyses described herein are readily adaptable to evaluate any modifications to the economic criteria and/or cost data upon which these studies were based.

  14. A pumping system for measuring coastal diffusion coefficients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolen, Zane Kevin

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system was used to measure surface horizontal diffusion coefficients in the vicin- ity of the diffuser. These experiments were also used to develop tech- niques of underway sampling as well as measuring site specific horizon- tal diffusion... coefficients. Measurement of horizontal diffusion coef- ficients used a continuous point source of tracer material to produce a plume that could be profiled using the pumping system connected to a fluorometer. The resultant horizontal diffusion coefficients...

  15. Subsurface and surface oceanic diffusion experiments near Freeport, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Alan Dale

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The results indicate that a power law relationship between the dye distribution variance and the diffusion time is appropriate for horizontal diffusion and that Fickian diffusion adequately describes vertical diffusion. Recommended horizontal and vertical... as From Equations 2 and 3, it can be seen that K may not increase Y linearly with time, but instead by time raised to a power, which will be discussed later in this report. Harramoes (11) suggests that the Fickian diffusion equation is appropriate when...

  16. The Diffusive Finite State Projection Algorithm for Efficient Simulation of the Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion Master

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petzold, Linda R.

    strategy. A novel formulation of the Finite State Projection (FSP) method, called the Diffusive FSP (DFSP (FSP) method [8], called the Diffusive FSP (DFSP) method, for the efficient and accurate simulation with DFSP and reactions with SSA. The dynamics of spatially inhomogeneous stochastic systems are governed

  17. Topology, finite time Lyapunov exponents, and barriers for diffusive transport in advection-diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Xianzhu [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Boozer, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide range of transport problems are of advection-diffusion type. Typical fluid problems of this type are the relaxation of temperature differences in a room or the spread of a contaminant in a river. Important examples in plasma include the relaxation of electrons in a region of stochastic magnetic field lines and the evolution of the magnetic field embedded in a conducting fluid. The archetypal model equation is the advection-diffusion equation. The quantity being transported is {phi}. The flow velocity of the medium, v(x, t), is assumed given and independent of {phi}. The diffusive flux is {Tau}{sub d} = -D{del}{phi}. If the flow is chaotic, the properties of the transport are determined by the spatial and time dependence of the finite time Lyapunov exponent {lambda}({xi}, t). The rapid diffusive transport occurs only along the field line (s line) of the vector s, which defines the stable direction in which neighboring points asymptotically converge. The topology of the s lines affects the diffusive transport through the finite time Lyapunov exponent. We discover that the spatial variation of the finite time Lyapunov exponent along the s lines is smooth and determined by the topology of the s lines. For example, the finite time Lyapunov exponent reaches local minima if the s line makes a sharp bend. These topological bends hinder the diffusive transport and act as a barrier for diffusive relaxation. Such barriers for diffusion reside inside the chaotic region and they persist even the flow is highly chaotic. In the case of the electron relaxation in a region of stochastic field lines, there is a rapid diffusive relaxation of the spatial inhomogeneity in the electron distribution function which is typical of the chaotic transport of a passive scalar. But the diffusive relaxation of the pitch angle distribution is much slower.

  18. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield with high-pressure gaseous mixtures of Xe and TMA for improved neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakajima, Y; Matis, H S; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C; Renner, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid Xe TPCs are among the most popular choices for double beta decay and WIMP dark matter searches. Gaseous Xe has intrinsic advantages when compared to Liquid Xe, specifically, tracking capability and better energy resolution for double beta decay searches. The performance of gaseous Xe can be further improved by molecular additives such as trimethylamine(TMA), which are expected to (1) cool down the ionization electrons, (2) convert Xe excitation energy to TMA ionizations through Penning transfer, and (3) produce scintillation and electroluminescence light in a more easily detectable wavelength (300 nm). These features may provide better tracking and energy resolution for double-beta decay searches. They are also expected to enhance columnar recombination for nuclear recoils, which can be used for searches for WIMP dark matter with directional sensitivity. We constructed a test ionization chamber and successfully measured scintillation and ionization yields at high precision with various Xe and TMA mixtu...

  19. Super-Altro 16: a Front-End System on Chip for DSP Based Readout of Gaseous Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aspell, P.; Franca, H.; Garcia Garcia, E.; Musa, L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the architecture, design and test results of an ASIC specifically designed for the readout of gaseous detectors. The primary application is the readout of the Linear Collider Time Projection Chamber. The small area available (4mm2/channel) requires an innovative design, where sensitive analog components and massive digital functionalities are integrated on the same chip. Moreover, shut down (power pulsing) features are necessary in order to reduce the power consumption. The Super-Altro is a 16-channel demonstrator ASIC involving analog and digital signal processing. Each channel contains a low noise Pre-Amplifier and Shaping Amplifier (PASA), a pipeline ADC, and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The PASA is programmable in terms of gain and shaping time and can operate with both positive and negative polarities of input charge. The 10-bit ADC samples the output of the PASA at a frequency up to 40MHz before providing the digitized signal to the DSP which performs baseline subtraction, signa...

  20. Reverse-selective diffusion in nanocomposite membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reghan J. Hill

    2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The permeability of certain polymer membranes with impenetrable nanoinclusions increases with the particle volume fraction (Merkel et al., Science, 296, 2002). This intriguing observation contradicts even qualitative expectations based on Maxwell's classical theory of conduction/diffusion in composites with homogeneous phases. This letter presents a simple theoretical interpretation based on classical models of diffusion and polymer physics. An essential feature of the theory is a polymer-segment depletion layer at the inclusion-polymer interface. The accompanying increase in free volume leads to a significant increase in the local penetrant diffusivity, which, in turn, increases the bulk permeability while exhibiting reverse selectivity. This model captures the observed dependence of the bulk permeability on the inclusion size and volume fraction, providing a straightforward connection between membrane microstructure and performance.