Mukhopadhyay, J.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.
2013-01-01
This report compares the performance of a 2009 IECC compliant house using IC3 (Ver. 3.12.1), REM/Rate (Ver. 13.00), REScheck (Ver. 4.4.3.1) and EnergyGauge (Ver. 2.8.05). The analysis was conducted for Houston, Dallas and ...
and Sustainable Environments REM/ENV 321 (3) Ecological Economics REM 350 (4) Sustainable Energy and Materialswww.rem.sfu.ca Contact us: School of Resource and Environmental Management Faculty of Environment/SCD 301 (4) Sustainable Community Development theory and Practice REM 311 (3) Applied Ecology
2014 Renewable Energy Markets (REM) Conference
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Renewable Energy Markets (REM) is the clean energy industry's most important annual event focused on the states, businesses, organizations, and households that choose clean, renewable electricity...
The twitcing eye : REM sleep and the emotional brain
Beck, Taylor McGowin
2012-01-01
Sleep and emotion have been linked since the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep sixty years ago. Sleep, in particular REM sleep and the dreams it harbors, seems to modulate mood, restoring stability to the weary ...
Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter
Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Seagraves, David T. (Los Alamos, NM)
2003-01-01
A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.
REM Handling Procedures | The Ames Laboratory
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on Global Technology OUTSIDEContractTheSGP-TR-172 REM
Lyapunov-Based Stability Analysis for REM Congestion Control
Low, Steven H.
Lyapunov-Based Stability Analysis for REM Congestion Control Orhan C¸ . IMER, Tamer BAS¸AR Abstract-- This paper investigates convergence properties of basic REM flow control algorithm via Lyapunov functions a Lyapunov argument. Extension to the general multi-link model is discussed as well. I. INTRODUCTION
Ante rem Structuralism and the Myth of Identity Criteria
Siu, Ho Kin
2010-01-20
reasons why the thesis has to be dropped. (i) The purported metaphysical and epistemic purchase of adopting the thesis can be put into doubt. (ii) Primitive identity within a mathematical structure is more in line with ante rem structuralist's commitment...
http://www.hss.energy.gov/csa/analysis/rems/rems/ri.htm
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4)9 FederalRivers and StreamsyouREMS Data Selection Data
Betts, Robert E. (Huntsville, AL); Crawford, John F. (Huntsville, AL)
1989-01-01
An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.
Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.
1989-04-04
An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.
Baughman, Martin L.
1981-01-01
This study compares two models of the U.S. electric utility industry including the EIA's electric utility submodel in the Midterm Energy Market Model (MEMM), and the Baughman-Joskow Regionalized Electricity Model (REM). ...
LATTICE GAUGE THEORY 1 Lattice Gauge Theory
Creutz, Michael
a crucial tool for the quantum field the- orist. Applied to the formalism of lattice gauge theory, numerical simulations are providing fundamental quantitative information about the interactions of quarksLATTICE GAUGE THEORY 1 Lattice Gauge Theory Michael Creutz Supercomputers have recently become
High temperature pressure gauge
Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)
1981-01-01
A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.
Gauged Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation
I. I Kogan; A. Lewis; O. A. Soloviev
1996-11-25
Correlation functions of gauged WZNW models are shown to satisfy a differential equation, which is a gauge generalization of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation.
Manifestly gauge invariant computations
Stefano Arnone; Antonio Gatti; Tim R. Morris
2002-07-16
Using a gauge invariant exact renormalization group, we show how to compute the effective action, and extract the physics, whilst manifestly preserving gauge invariance at each and every step. As an example we give an elegant computation of the one-loop SU(N) Yang-Mills beta function, for the first time at finite N without any gauge fixing or ghosts. It is also completely independent of the details put in by hand, e.g. the choice of covariantisation and the cutoff profile, and, therefore, guides us to a procedure for streamlined calculations.
Manifestly gauge invariant computations
Arnone, S; Morris, T R; Arnone, Stefano; Gatti, Antonio; Morris, Tim R.
2002-01-01
Using a gauge invariant exact renormalization group, we show how to compute the effective action, and extract the physics, whilst manifestly preserving gauge invariance at each and every step. As an example we give an elegant computation of the one-loop SU(N) Yang-Mills beta function, for the first time at finite N without any gauge fixing or ghosts. It is also completely independent of the details put in by hand, e.g. the choice of covariantisation and the cutoff profile, and, therefore, guides us to a procedure for streamlined calculations.
Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Borella, Henry M. (Santa Barbara, CA); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Turley, W. Dale (Santa Barbara, CA); MacArthur, Charles D. (Clayton, OH); Cala, Gregory C. (Dayton, OH)
1991-01-01
A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.
A. Lewis Licht
2008-02-03
We show that a rigorous path integral method of introducing gauge fields in the UnParticle lagrangian leads to somewhat different and more complicated vertexes than those currently used.
Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.
1991-04-09
A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.
Zygmunt Lalak; Stefan Pokorski; Krzysztof Turzynski
2008-08-18
We investigate O'Raifeartaigh-type models for F-term supersymmetry breaking in gauge mediation scenarios in the presence of gravity. It is pointed out that the vacuum structure of those models is such that in metastable vacua gravity mediation contribution to scalar masses is always suppressed to the level below 1 percent, almost sufficient for avoiding FCNC problem. Close to that limit, gravitino mass can be in the range 10-100 GeV, opening several interesting possibilities for gauge mediation models, including Giudice-Masiero mechanism for mu and Bmu generation. Gravity sector can include stabilized moduli.
Mehrabi, A; Kamali, V
2015-01-01
In this work, we introduce a new quintessence model associated with non-Abelian gauge fields, minimally coupled to Einstein gravity. This gauge theory has been originally introduced and studied as an inflationary model, called gauge-flation. Here, however, we are interested in the late time cosmology of the model in the presence of matter and radiation to explain the present time accelerating Universe. During the radiation and matter eras, the gauge field tracks radiation and basically acts like a dark radiation sector. As we approach lower redshifts, the dark component takes the form of a dark energy source which eventually becomes the dominate part of the energy budget of the Universe. Due to the tracking feature of our model, solutions with different initial values are attracted to a common trajectory. The existence of early dark radiation is a robust prediction of our model which contributes to the effective number of relativistic species, $N_{\\rm eff}$ and has its own interesting observational features.
Peter G. O. Freund
2010-08-24
Erik Verlinde's proposal of the emergence of the gravitational force as an entropic force is extended to abelian and non-abelian gauge fields and to matter fields. This suggests a picture with no fundamental forces or forms of matter whatsoever.
Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwal, Leslaw
2015-01-01
We explicitly compute the one-loop exact beta function for a nonlocal extension of the standard gauge theory, in particular Yang-Mills and QED. The theory, made of a weakly nonlocal kinetic term and a local potential of the gauge field, is unitary (ghost-free) and perturbatively super-renormalizable. Moreover, in the action we can always choose the potential (consisting of one "killer operator") to make zero the beta function of running gauge coupling constant. The outcome is "a UV finite theory for any gauge interaction". Our calculations are done in D=4, but the results can be generalized to even or odd spacetime dimensions. We compute the contribution to the beta function from two different killer operators by using two independent techniques, namely the Feynman diagrams and the Barvinsky-Vilkovisky traces. By making the theories finite we are able to solve also the Landau pole problems, in particular in QED. Without any potential the beta function of the one-loop super-renormalizable theory shows a univer...
Leonardo Modesto; Marco Piva; Leslaw Rachwal
2015-06-20
We explicitly compute the one-loop exact beta function for a nonlocal extension of the standard gauge theory, in particular Yang-Mills and QED. The theory, made of a weakly nonlocal kinetic term and a local potential of the gauge field, is unitary (ghost-free) and perturbatively super-renormalizable. Moreover, in the action we can always choose the potential (consisting of one "killer operator") to make zero the beta function of running gauge coupling constant. The outcome is "a UV finite theory for any gauge interaction". Our calculations are done in D=4, but the results can be generalized to even or odd spacetime dimensions. We compute the contribution to the beta function from two different killer operators by using two independent techniques, namely the Feynman diagrams and the Barvinsky-Vilkovisky traces. By making the theories finite we are able to solve also the Landau pole problems, in particular in QED. Without any potential the beta function of the one-loop super-renormalizable theory shows a universal Landau pole in the running coupling constant in the ultraviolet regime (UV), regardless of the specific higher-derivative structure. However, the dressed propagator shows neither the Landau pole in the UV, nor the singularities in the infrared regime (IR).
Chiral Gauge Theory for Graphene
R. Jackiw; S. -Y. Pi
2007-05-04
We construct a chiral gauge theory to describe fractionalization of fermions in graphene. Thereby we extend a recently proposed model, which relies on vortex formation. Our chiral gauge fields provide dynamics for the vortices and also couple to the fermions.
E. I. Guendelman; J. R. Morris
2003-07-01
Some of the peculiar electrodynamical effects associated with gauged ``dimension bubbles'' are presented. Such bubbles, which effectively enclose a region of 5d spacetime, can arise from a 5d theory with a compact extra dimension. Bubbles with thin domain walls can be stabilized against total collapse by the entrapment of light charged scalar bosons inside the bubble, extending the idea of a neutral dimension bubble to accommodate the case of a gauged U(1) symmetry. Using a dielectric approach to the 4d dilaton-Maxwell theory, it is seen that the bubble wall is almost totally opaque to photons, leading to a new stabilization mechanism due to trapped photons. Photon dominated bubbles very slowly shrink, resulting in a temperature increase inside the bubble. At some critical temperature, however, these bubbles explode, with a release of radiation.
Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA); Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA); Larsen, Greg J. (Brentwood, CA); Sanchez, Roberto J. (Pleasanton, CA)
2006-11-14
A lightweight, small size, high sensitivity gauge for indirectly measuring displacement or absolute gap width by measuring axial strain in an orthogonal direction to the displacement/gap width. The gap gauge includes a preferably titanium base having a central tension bar with springs connecting opposite ends of the tension bar to a pair of end connector bars, and an elongated bow spring connected to the end connector bars with a middle section bowed away from the base to define a gap. The bow spring is capable of producing an axial strain in the base proportional to a displacement of the middle section in a direction orthogonal to the base. And a strain sensor, such as a Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensor, is connected to measure the axial strain in the base, so that the displacement of the middle section may be indirectly determined from the measurement of the axial strain in the base.
A. Lewis Licht
2008-06-24
We show that the unparticle action that is made gauge invariant by the inclusion of an open Wilson line factor can be transformed into the integral-differential operator action that avoids the use of the Wilson line factor. The two forms of the action should therefore give the same Feynman diagrams. We also show that it is relatively easy to construct Feynman diagrams using the operator action.
John H. Schwarz
1998-09-01
Superstring theory, and a recent extension called M theory, are leading candidates for a quantum theory that unifies gravity with the other forces. As such, they are certainly not ordinary quantum field theories. However, recent duality conjectures suggest that a more complete definition of these theories can be provided by the large N limits of suitably chosen U(N) gauge theories associated to the asymptotic boundary of spacetime.
Polchinski, Joseph [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics
2010-09-01
Gauge theories, which describe the particle interactions, are well understood, while quantum gravity leads to many puzzles. Remarkably, in recent years we have learned that these are actually dual, the same system written in different variables. On the one hand, this provides our most precise description of quantum gravity, resolves some long-standing paradoxes, and points to new principles. On the other, it gives a new perspective on strong interactions, with surprising connections to other areas of physics. I describe these ideas, and discuss current and future directions.
DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report
Report REMS RF RL SLAC SNL SPEAR3 SPRU SRNS SRR SRS Sv TED TEqD TJNAF U-234 UMTRA USEC WIPP WVDP Y-12 Radiological Control Standard Roentgen equivalent in man Radiation Exposure...
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This scenario provides the planning instructions, guidance, and evaluation forms necessary to conduct an exercise involving a highway shipment of a soil moisture/density gauge (Class 7 -...
Gauge theories on noncommutative spaces
Albert Schwarz
2000-11-29
I review my results about noncommutative gauge theories and about the relation of these theories to M(atrix) theory following my lecture on ICMP 2000.
Cold cathode vacuum gauging system
Denny, Edward C. (Knoxville, TN)
2004-03-09
A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.
A manifestly gauge invariant exact renormalization group
Stefano Arnone; Antonio Gatti; Tim R. Morris
2002-07-16
A manifestly gauge invariant exact renormalization group for pure SU(N) Yang-Mills theory is proposed, allowing gauge invariant calculations, without any gauge fixing or ghosts. The necessary gauge invariant regularisation which implements the effective cutoff, is naturally incorporated by embedding the theory into a spontaneously broken SU(N|N) super-gauge theory. This guarantees finiteness to all orders in perturbation theory.
A manifestly gauge invariant exact renormalization group
Arnone, S; Morris, T R; Arnone, Stefano; Gatti, Antonio; Morris, Tim R.
2002-01-01
A manifestly gauge invariant exact renormalization group for pure SU(N) Yang-Mills theory is proposed, allowing gauge invariant calculations, without any gauge fixing or ghosts. The necessary gauge invariant regularisation which implements the effective cutoff, is naturally incorporated by embedding the theory into a spontaneously broken SU(N|N) super-gauge theory. This guarantees finiteness to all orders in perturbation theory.
Building Gauge Theories: The Natural Way
C. A. Garcia Canal; F. A. Schaposnik
2011-10-17
The construction of a gauge field theory for elementary particles usually starts by promoting global invariance of the matter action to a local one, this in turn implying the introduction of gauge fields. We present here a procedure that runs the other way: starting from the action for gauge fields, matter is gauge invariantly coupled on the basis of Lorentz invariance and charge conservation. This natural approach prevents using the concept of particles separated from gauge fields that mediate interactions.
Optical Abelian Lattice Gauge Theories
L. Tagliacozzo; A. Celi; A. Zamora; M. Lewenstein
2013-02-07
We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable to quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions originally proposed by Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4x4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground state. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) LGT and the model considered.
Energy-momentum conservation laws in gauge theory with broken gauge symmetries
G. Sardanashvily
2002-03-29
If a Lagrangian of gauge theory of internal symmetries is not gauge-invariant, the energy-momentum fails to be conserved in general.
Véronique Gayrard
2010-08-23
Applying the new tools developed in [G1], we investigate the arcsine aging regime of the random hopping time dynamics of the REM. Our results are optimal in several ways. They cover the full time-scale and temperature domain where this phenomenon occurs. On this domain the limiting clock process and associated time correlation function are explicitly constructed. Finally, all convergence statements w.r.t. the law of the random environment are obtained in the strongest sense possible, except perhaps on the very last scales before equilibrium.
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7, 2011
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudget ||Department of Energy52Building1SMALL BUSINESSnote:
Gauge Invariance and Fractional Statistics
A. R. P. Lima; R. R. Landim
2006-10-04
We present a new $(2+1)$-dimensional field theory showing exotic statistics and fractional spin. This theory is achieved through a redefinition of the gauge field $A_{\\mu}$. New properties are found. Another way to implement the field redefinition is used with the same results obtained.
Conformal Gauge Transformations in Thermodynamics
A. Bravetti; C. S. Lopez-Monsalvo; F. Nettel
2015-06-23
In this work we consider conformal gauge transformations of the geometric structure of thermodynamic fluctuation theory. In particular, we show that the Thermodynamic Phase Space is naturally endowed with a non-integrable connection, defined by all those processes that annihilate the Gibbs 1-form, i.e. reversible processes. Therefore the geometry of reversible processes is invariant under re-scalings, that is, it has a conformal gauge freedom. Interestingly, as a consequence of the non-integrability of the connection, its curvature is not invariant under conformal gauge transformations and, therefore, neither is the associated pseudo-Riemannian geometry. We argue that this is not surprising, since these two objects are associated with irreversible processes. Moreover, we provide the explicit form in which all the elements of the geometric structure of the Thermodynamic Phase Space change under a conformal gauge transformation. As an example, we revisit the change of the thermodynamic representation and consider the resulting change between the two metrics on the Thermodynamic Phase Space which induce Weinhold's energy metric and Ruppeiner's entropy metric. As a by-product we obtain a proof of the well-known conformal relation between Weinhold's and Ruppeiner's metrics along the equilibrium directions. Finally, we find interesting properties of the almost para-contact structure and of its eigenvectors which may be of physical interest.
Note on Discrete Gauge Anomalies
T. Banks; M. Dine
1991-10-02
We consider the probem of gauging discrete symmetries. All valid constraints on such symmetries can be understood in the low energy theory in terms of instantons. We note that string perturbation theory often exhibits global discrete symmetries, which are broken non-perturbatively.
Vacuum Instability in Topologically Massive Gauge Theory
Alex Lewis
1998-08-12
We find the critical charge for a topologically massive gauge theory for any gauge group, generalising our earlier result for SU(2). The relation between critical charges in TMGT, singular vectors in the WZNW model and logarithmic CFT is investigated.
Gauge theories on noncommutative euclidean spaces
Albert Schwarz
2001-11-30
We consider gauge theories on noncommutative euclidean space . In particular, we discuss the structure of gauge group following standard mathematical definitions and using the ideas of hep-th/0102182.
Energy-Momentum and Gauge Conservation Laws
G. Giachetta; L. Mangiarotti; G. Sardanashvily
1998-07-20
We treat energy-momentum conservation laws as particular gauge conservation laws when generators of gauge transformations are horizontal vector fields on fibre bundles. In particular, the generators of general covariant transformations are the canonical horizontal prolongations of vector fields on a world manifold. This is the case of the energy-momentum conservation laws in gravitation theories. We find that, in main gravitational models, the corresponding energy-momentum flows reduce to the generalized Komar superpotential. We show that the superpotential form of a conserved flow is the common property of gauge conservation laws if generators of gauge transformations depend on derivatives of gauge parameters. At the same time, dependence of conserved flows on gauge parameters make gauge conservation laws form-invariant under gauge transformations.
Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge
Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E
2014-10-14
An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.
Gauge Dressing of 2D Field Theories
Ian I. Kogan; Alex Lewis; Oleg A. Soloviev
1996-07-05
By using the gauge Ward identities, we study correlation functions of gauged WZNW models. We show that the gauge dressing of the correlation functions can be taken into account as a solution of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation. Our method is analogous to the analysis of the gravitational dressing of 2D field theories.
Gauge Configurations for Lattice QCD from The Gauge Connection
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
The Gauge Connection is an experimental archive for lattice QCD and a repository of gauge configurations made freely available to the community. Contributors to the archive include the Columbia QCDSP collaboration, the MILC collaboration, and others. Configurations are stored in QCD archive format, consisting of an ASCII header which defines various parameters, followed by binary data. NERSC has also provided some utilities and examples that will aid users in handling the data. Users may browse the archive, but are required to register for a password in order to download data. Contents of the archive are organized under four broad headings: Quenched (more than 1200 configurations); Dynamical, Zero Temperature (more than 300 configurations); MILC Improved Staggered Asqtad Lattices (more than 7000 configurations); and Dynamical, Finite Temperature (more than 1200 configurations)
Adding Gauge Fields to Kaplan's Fermions
T. Blum; Leo Karkkainen
1993-12-10
We experiment with adding dynamical gauge field to Kaplan (defect) fermions. In the case of U(1) gauge theory we use an inhomogenous Higgs mechanism to restrict the 3d gauge dynamics to a planar 2d defect. In our simulations the 3d theory produce the correct 2d gauge dynamics. We measure fermion propagators with dynamical gauge fields. They posses the correct chiral structure. The fermions at the boundary of the support of the gauge field (waveguide) are non-chiral, and have a mass two times heavier than the chiral modes. Moreover, these modes cannot be excited by a source at the defect; implying that they are dynamically decoupled. We have also checked that the anomaly relation is fullfilled for the case of a smooth external gauge field. This is an uuencoded ps-file. Use 'uudecode hepchiral.ps.Z' and 'uncompress hepchiral.ps.Z' to produce the psfile.
Optical Rain Gauge and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Comparisons
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996TechnologiesDistribution, and FilmRain Gauge and
Gauge-invariant signatures of spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking by the Hosotani mechanism
Oscar Akerlund; Philippe de Forcrand
2015-03-02
The Hosotani mechanism claims to achieve gauge-symmetry breaking, for instance $SU(3) \\to SU(2)\\times U(1)$. To verify this claim, we propose to monitor the stability of a topological defect stable under a gauge subgroup but not under the whole gauge group, like a $U(1)$ flux state or monopole in the case above. We use gauge invariant operators to probe the presence of the topological defect to avoid any ambiguity introduced by gauge fixing. Our method also applies to an ordinary gauge-Higgs system.
A Nonperturbative Regulator for Chiral Gauge Theories
Dorota M. Grabowska; David B. Kaplan
2015-11-30
We propose a nonperturbative gauge invariant regulator for $d$-dimensional chiral gauge theories on the lattice. The method involves simulating domain wall fermions in $d+1$ dimensions with quantum gauge fields that reside on one $d$-dimensional surface and are extended into the bulk via gradient flow. The result is a theory of gauged fermions plus mirror fermions, where the mirror fermions couple to the gauge fields via a form factor that becomes exponentially soft with the separation between domain walls. The resultant theory has a local $d$-dimensional interpretation only if the chiral fermion representation is anomaly free. A physical realization of this construction leads to mirror fermions in the Standard Model with soft form factors for gauge fields and possibly gravity. These mirror particles could evade detection and yet still be sensitive to vacuum topology, and could gravitate differently than conventional matter.
STABILITY OF THE GAUGE EQUIVALENT CLASSES IN ...
2009-05-10
scattering and the attenuating coefficients up to a gauge transformation. ...... [24] M. Mokhtar-Kharroubi, Mathematical Topics in Neutron Transport Theory, World ...
Towards the Natural Gauge Mediation
Ding, Ran; Wang, Liucheng; Zhu, Bin
2015-01-01
The sweet spot supersymmetry (SUSY) solves the mu problem in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) via the generalized Giudice-Masiero (GM) mechanism where only the mu-term and soft Higgs masses are generated at the unification scale of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) due to the approximate PQ symmetry. Because all the other SUSY breaking soft terms are generated via the GMSB below the GUT scale, there exists SUSY electroweak (EW) fine-tuning problem to explain the 125 GeV Higgs boson mass due to small trilinear soft term. Thus, to explain the Higgs boson mass, we propose the GMSB with both the generalized GM mechanism and Higgs-messenger interactions. The renormalization group equations are runnings from the GUT scale down to EW scale. So the EW symmetry breaking can be realized easier. We can keep the gauge coupling unification and solution to the flavor problem in the GMSB, as well as solve the \\mu/B_{\\mu}-problem. Moreover, there are only five free parame...
Boson stars from a gauge condensate
V. Dzhunushaliev; K. Myrzakulov; R. Myrzakulov
2006-12-28
The boson star filled with two interacting scalar fields is investigated. The scalar fields can be considered as a gauge condensate formed by SU(3) gauge field quantized in a non-perturbative manner. The corresponding solution is regular everywhere, has a finite energy and can be considered as a quantum SU(3) version of the Bartnik - McKinnon particle-like solution.
Operator Coupling of Gauge Fields and Unparticles
A. Lewis Licht
2008-01-08
We show that it is possible to couple gauge fields to unparticles without the use of path integrals in the unparticle effective action. This is done by treating the unparticle field as a vector in an abstract Hilbert space and the gauge field as an operator on that space.
Gauge invariant Lagrangian for non-Abelian tensor gauge fields of fourth rank
G. Savvidy; T. Tsukioka
2005-12-31
Using generalized field strength tensors for non-Abelian tensor gauge fields one can explicitly construct all possible Lorentz invariant quadratic forms for rank-4 non-Abelian tensor gauge fields and demonstrate that there exist only two linear combinations of them which form a gauge invariant Lagrangian. Together with the previous construction of independent gauge invariant forms for rank-2 and rank-3 tensor gauge fields this construction proves the uniqueness of early proposed general Lagrangian up to rank-4 tensor fields. Expression for the coefficients of the general Lagrangian is presented in a compact form.
Thread gauge for tapered threads
Brewster, A.L.
1994-01-11
The thread gauge permits the user to determine the pitch diameter of tapered threads at the intersection of the pitch cone and the end face of the object being measured. A pair of opposed anvils having lines of threads which match the configuration and taper of the threads on the part being measured are brought into meshing engagement with the threads on opposite sides of the part. The anvils are located linearly into their proper positions by stop fingers on the anvils that are brought into abutting engagement with the end face of the part. This places predetermined reference points of the pitch cone of the thread anvils in registration with corresponding points on the end face of the part being measured, resulting in an accurate determination of the pitch diameter at that location. The thread anvils can be arranged for measuring either internal or external threads. 13 figures.
Phases of chiral gauge theories
Appelquist, Thomas [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Conneticut 06520-8120 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Conneticut 06520-8120 (United States); Duan, Zhiyong [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Conneticut 06520-8120 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Conneticut 06520-8120 (United States); Sannino, Francesco [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Conneticut 06520-8120 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Conneticut 06520-8120 (United States)
2000-06-15
We discuss the behavior of two non-supersymmetric chiral SU(N) gauge theories, involving fermions in the symmetric and antisymmetric two-index tensor representations respectively. In addition to global anomaly matching, we employ a recently proposed inequality constraint on the number of effective low energy (massless) degrees of freedom of a theory, based on the thermodynamic free energy. Several possible zero temperature phases are consistent with the constraints. A simple picture for the phase structure emerges if these theories choose the phase, consistent with global anomaly matching, that minimizes the massless degree of freedom count defined through the free energy. This idea suggests that confinement with the preservation of the global symmetries through the formation of massless composite fermions is in general not preferred. While our discussion is restricted mainly to bilinear condensate formation, higher dimensional condensates are considered for one case. We conclude by commenting briefly on two related supersymmetric chiral theories. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Quantum Walks and discrete Gauge Theories
Pablo Arnault; Fabrice Debbasch
2015-10-19
A particular example is produced to prove that quantum walks can be used to simulate full-fledged discrete gauge theories. A new family of $(1 + 2)$-dimensional walks is introduced and its continuous limit is shown to coincide with the dynamics of a Dirac fermion coupled to arbitrary electromagnetic fields. The electromagnetic interpretation is extended beyond the continuous limit by proving that these DTQWs exhibit an exact discrete local $U(1)$ gauge invariance and possess a discrete gauge-invariant conserved current. A discrete gauge-invariant electromagnetic field is also constructed and that field is coupled to the conserved current by a discrete generalization of Maxwell equations. The dynamics of the DTQWs under crossed electric and magnetic fields is finally explored outside the continuous limit by numerical simulations. Bloch oscillations and the so-called ${\\bf E} \\times {\\bf B}$ drift are recovered in the weak-field limit. Localization is observed for some values of the gauge fields.
Can (Electric-Magnetic) Duality Be Gauged?
Claudio Bunster; Marc Henneaux
2014-03-13
There exists a formulation of the Maxwell theory in terms of two vector potentials, one electric and one magnetic. The action is then manifestly invariant under electric-magnetic duality transformations, which are rotations in the two-dimensional internal space of the two potentials, and local. We ask the question: can duality be gauged? The only known and battled-tested method of accomplishing the gauging is the Noether procedure. In its decanted form, it amounts to turn on the coupling by deforming the abelian gauge group of the free theory, out of whose curvatures the action is built, into a non-abelian group which becomes the gauge group of the resulting theory. In this article, we show that the method cannot be successfully implemented for electric-magnetic duality. We thus conclude that, unless a radically new idea is introduced, electric-magnetic duality cannot be gauged. The implication of this result for supergravity is briefly discussed.
Symplectic gauge fields and dark matter
Asorey, J; Garcia-Alvarez, D
2015-01-01
The dynamics of symplectic gauge fields provides a consistent framework for fundamental interactions based on spin three gauge fields. One remarkable property is that symplectic gauge fields only have minimal couplings with gravitational fields and not with any other field of the Standard Model. Interactions with ordinary matter and radiation can only arise from radiative corrections. In spite of the gauge nature of symplectic fields they acquire a mass by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism which generates Higgs-like mass terms where the gravitational field is playing the role of a Higgs field. Massive symplectic gauge fields weakly interacting with ordinary matter are natural candidates for the dark matter component of the Universe.
Symplectic gauge fields and dark matter
J. Asorey; M. Asorey; D. Garcia-Alvarez
2015-11-02
The dynamics of symplectic gauge fields provides a consistent framework for fundamental interactions based on spin three gauge fields. One remarkable property is that symplectic gauge fields only have minimal couplings with gravitational fields and not with any other field of the Standard Model. Interactions with ordinary matter and radiation can only arise from radiative corrections. In spite of the gauge nature of symplectic fields they acquire a mass by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism which generates Higgs-like mass terms where the gravitational field is playing the role of a Higgs field. Massive symplectic gauge fields weakly interacting with ordinary matter are natural candidates for the dark matter component of the Universe.
Towards the Natural Gauge Mediation
Ran Ding; Tianjun Li; Liucheng Wang; Bin Zhu
2015-06-01
The sweet spot supersymmetry (SUSY) solves the mu problem in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) via the generalized Giudice-Masiero (GM) mechanism where only the mu-term and soft Higgs masses are generated at the unification scale of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) due to the approximate PQ symmetry. Because all the other SUSY breaking soft terms are generated via the GMSB below the GUT scale, there exists SUSY electroweak (EW) fine-tuning problem to explain the 125 GeV Higgs boson mass due to small trilinear soft term. Thus, to explain the Higgs boson mass, we propose the GMSB with both the generalized GM mechanism and Higgs-messenger interactions. The renormalization group equations are runnings from the GUT scale down to EW scale. So the EW symmetry breaking can be realized easier. We can keep the gauge coupling unification and solution to the flavor problem in the GMSB, as well as solve the \\mu/B_{\\mu}-problem. Moreover, there are only five free parameters in our model. So we can determine the characteristic low energy spectra and explore its distinct phenomenology. The low-scale fine-tuning measure can be as low as 20 with the light stop mass below 1 TeV and gluino mass below 2 TeV. The gravitino dark matter can come from a thermal production with the correct relic density and be consistent with the thermal leptogenesis. Because gluino and stop can be relatively light in our model, how to search for such GMSB at the upcoming run II of the LHC experiment could be very interesting.
Unifying Geometrical Representations of Gauge Theory
Scott T Alsid; Mario A Serna
2014-10-28
We unify three approaches within the vast body of gauge-theory research that have independently developed distinct representations of a geometrical surface-like structure underlying the vector-potential. The three approaches that we unify are: those who use the compactified dimensions of Kaluza-Klein theory, those who use Grassmannian models (also called gauge theory embedding or $CP^{N-1}$ models) to represent gauge fields, and those who use a hidden spatial metric to replace the gauge fields. In this paper we identify a correspondence between the geometrical representations of the three schools.Each school was mostly independently developed, does not compete with other schools, and attempts to isolate the gauge-invariant geometrical surface-like structures that are responsible for the resulting physics. By providing a mapping between geometrical representations, we hope physicists can now isolate representation-dependent physics from gauge-invariant physical results and share results between each school. We provide visual examples of the geometrical relationships between each school for $U(1)$ electric and magnetic fields. We highlight a first new result: in all three representations a static electric field (electric field from a fixed ring of charge or a sphere of charge) has a hidden gauge-invariant time dependent surface that is underlying the vector potential.
A Higgs Boson Composed of Gauge Bosons
F. J. Himpsel
2015-02-24
It is proposed to replace the Higgs boson of the standard model by a Lorentz- and gauge-invariant combination of SU(2) gauge bosons. A pair of Higgs bosons is identified with pairs of gauge bosons by setting their mass Lagrangians equal to each other. That immediately determines the mass of the composite Higgs boson. It becomes simply half of the vacuum expectation value of the standard Higgs boson, which matches the observed mass with tree-level accuracy (2%). The two parameters of the standard Higgs potential are replaced by five one-loop self-interactions of the SU(2) gauge bosons, derived from the fundamental gauge couplings. The Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking is generalized from scalars to vectors. Their transverse components acquire finite vacuum expectation values which generate masses for both gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. This concept leads beyond the standard model by enabling calculations of the Higgs mass and its potential without adjustable parameters. It can be applied to non-abelian gauge theories in general, such as grand unified models and supersymmetry.
Gauge invariant regularisation in the ERG approach
S. Arnone; Yu. A. Kubyshin; T. R. Morris; J. F. Tighe
2001-02-02
A gauge invariant regularisation which can be used for non-perturbative treatment of Yang-Mills theories within the exact renormalization group approach is constructed. It consists of a spontaneously broken SU(N|N) super-gauge extension of the initial Yang-Mills action supplied with covariant higher derivatives. We demonstrate that the extended theory in four dimensions is ultra-violet finite perturbatively and argue that it has a sensible limit when the regularisation cutoff is removed.
A gauge invariant regulator for the ERG
S. Arnone; Yu. A. Kubyshin; T. R. Morris; J. F. Tighe
2001-02-09
A gauge invariant regularisation for dealing with pure Yang-Mills theories within the exact renormalization group approach is proposed. It is based on the regularisation via covariant higher derivatives and includes auxiliary Pauli-Villars fields which amounts to a spontaneously broken SU(N|N) super-gauge theory. We demonstrate perturbatively that the extended theory is ultra-violet finite in four dimensions and argue that it has a sensible limit when the regularization cutoff is removed.
Quantum communication, reference frames and gauge theory
S. J. van Enk
2006-04-26
We consider quantum communication in the case that the communicating parties not only do not share a reference frame but use imperfect quantum communication channels, in that each channel applies some fixed but unknown unitary rotation to each qubit. We discuss similarities and differences between reference frames within that quantum communication model and gauge fields in gauge theory. We generalize the concept of refbits and analyze various quantum communication protocols within the communication model.
Trace anomaly of the conformal gauge field
Sladkowski, J
1993-01-01
The proposed by Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen new method of calculations of trace anomalies is applied in the conformal gauge field case. The result is then reproduced by the heat equation method. An error in previous calculation is corrected. It is pointed out that the introducing gauge symmetries into a given system by a field-enlarging transformation can result in unexpected quantum effects even for trivial configurations.
Chaotic thermalization in classical gauge theories
Woitek, Marcio; Krein, Gastao [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz, 271 - Bloco II, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2013-05-06
We explore the idea that chaos concepts might be useful for understanding the thermalization in gauge theories. The SU(2) Higgs model is discussed as a prototype of system with gauge fields coupled to matter fields. Through the numerical solution of the equations of motion, we are able to characterize chaotic behavior via the corresponding Lyapunov exponent. Then it is demonstrated that the system's approach to equilibrium can be understood through direct application of the principles of Statistical Mechanics.
Electric-Magnetic Dualities in Gauge Theories
Jun-Kai Ho; Chen-Te Ma
2015-07-28
Electric-magnetic dualities are equivalence between strong and weak coupling constants. A standard way is to exchange electric and magnetic fields in the abelian gauge theory. We use three ways to perform electric-magnetic dualities in the case of the non-commutative $U(1)$ gauge theory. The first way is to use covariant field strengths to be the electric and magnetic fields. We find an invariant form of the equation of motion after performing the electric-magnetic duality. The second way is to use the Seiberg-Witten map to rewrite the non-commutative $U(1)$ gauge theory in terms of abelian field strength. The third way is that we use the large Neveu Schwarz-Neveu Schwarz (NS-NS) background limit (non-commutativity parameter only has one degree of freedom) to consider the non-commutative $U(1)$ gauge theory or D3-brane. In this limit, we introduce or dualize a new one-form gauge potential to get a D3-brane in a large Ramond-Ramond (R-R) background via field redefinition. We also use perturbation to study equivalence between two D3-brane theories. Comparison on three methods in the non-commutative $U(1)$ gauge theory gives different physical implications. This comparison reflects differences between the non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories in the electric-magnetic dualities. For a complete study, we also extend our studies to the simplest abelian and non-abelian $p$-form gauge theories, and a non-commutative theory with the non-abelian structure.
A Higgs Boson Composed of Gauge Bosons F. J. Himpsel
Himpsel, Franz J.
A Higgs Boson Composed of Gauge Bosons F. J. Himpsel Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin to replace the Higgs boson of the standard model by a Lorentz- and gauge- invariant combination of SU(2) gauge bosons. A pair of Higgs bosons is identified with pairs of gauge bosons by setting their mass
Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements
Edwards, D. Jr.
1984-09-18
In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge. 5 figs.
Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements
Edwards, Jr., David (7 Brown's La., Bellport, NY 11713)
1984-01-01
In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge.
Physical meaning of gauge and super-gauge in general-relativistic field theories
Treder, H.
1985-05-01
The physical meaning of gauge groups in bimetrical, Riemannian, and Hermitian theories of gravitation is discussed. In Hermitian relativity, Einstein's A-invariance means a super-gauge group which characterizes the Einstein-Schroedinger equations as the only nondegenerate general-relativistic field theory.
Electric-Magnetic Dualities in Gauge Theories
Ho, Jun-Kai
2015-01-01
Electric-magnetic dualities are equivalence between strong and weak coupling constants. A standard way is to exchange electric and magnetic fields in the abelian gauge theory. We use three ways to perform electric-magnetic dualities in the case of the non-commutative $U(1)$ gauge theory. The first way is to use covariant field strengths to be the electric and magnetic fields. We find an invariant form of the equation of motion after performing the electric-magnetic duality. The second way is to use the Seiberg-Witten map to rewrite the non-commutative $U(1)$ gauge theory in terms of abelian field strength. The third way is that we use the large Neveu Schwarz-Neveu Schwarz (NS-NS) background limit (non-commutativity parameter only has one degree of freedom) to consider the non-commutative $U(1)$ gauge theory or D3-brane. In this limit, we introduce or dualize a new one-form gauge potential to get a D3-brane in a large Ramond-Ramond (R-R) background via field redefinition. We also use perturbation to study equi...
Primordial anisotropies in gauged hybrid inflation
Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan E-mail: emami@ipm.ir
2014-05-01
We study primordial anisotropies generated in the model of gauged hybrid inflation in which the complex waterfall field is charged under a U(1)gauge field. Primordial anisotropies are generated either actively during inflation or from inhomogeneities modulating the surface of end of inflation during waterfall transition. We present a consistent ?N mechanism to calculate the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that the primordial anisotropies generated at the surface of end of inflation do not depend on the number of e-folds and therefore do not produce dangerously large anisotropies associated with the IR modes. Furthermore, one can find the parameter space that the anisotropies generated from the surface of end of inflation cancel the anisotropies generated during inflation, therefore relaxing the constrains on model parameters imposed from IR anisotropies. We also show that the gauge field fluctuations induce a red-tilted power spectrum so the averaged power spectrum from the gauge field can change the total power spectrum from blue to red. Therefore, hybrid inflation, once gauged under a U(1) field, can be consistent with the cosmological observations.
Singlet-Stabilized Minimal Gauge Mediation
David Curtin; Yuhsin Tsai
2011-04-27
We propose Singlet Stabilized Minimal Gauge Mediation as a simple ISS-based model of Direct Gauge Mediation which avoids both light gauginos and Landau poles. The hidden sector is a massive s-confining SQCD that is distinguished by a minimal SU(5) flavor group. The uplifted vacuum is stabilized by coupling the meson to an additional singlet sector with its own U(1) gauge symmetry via non-renormalizable interactions suppressed by a higher scale Lambda_UV in the electric theory. This generates a nonzero VEV for the singlet meson via the inverted hierarchy mechanism, but requires tuning to a precision ~ (Lambda/Lambda_UV)^2, which is ~ 10^{-4}. In the course of this analysis we also outline some simple model-building rules for stabilizing uplifted ISS models, which lead us to conclude that meson deformations are required (or at least heavily favored) to stabilize the adjoint component of the magnetic meson.
Singlet-Stabilized Minimal Gauge Mediation
Curtin, David
2010-01-01
We propose Singlet Stabilized Minimal Gauge Mediation as a simple ISS-based model of Direct Gauge Mediation which avoids both light gauginos and Landau poles. The hidden sector is a massive s-confining SQCD that is distinguished by a minimal SU(5) flavor group. The uplifted vacuum is stabilized by coupling the meson to an additional singlet sector with its own U(1) gauge symmetry via non-renormalizable interactions suppressed by a higher scale Lambda_UV in the electric theory. This generates a nonzero VEV for the singlet meson via the inverted hierarchy mechanism, but requires tuning to a precision ~ (Lambda/Lambda_UV)^2, which is ~ 10^{-4}. In the course of this analysis we also outline some simple model-building rules for stabilizing uplifted ISS models, which lead us to conclude that meson deformations are required (or at least heavily favored) to stabilize the adjoint component of the magnetic meson.
Gauge Orbit Types for Generalized Connections
Christian Fleischhack
2000-01-05
Different versions for defining Ashtekar's generalized connections are investigated depending on the chosen smoothness category for the paths and graphs -- the label set for the projective limit. Our definition covers the analytic case as well as the case of webs. Then the orbit types of the generalized connections are determined for compact structure groups. The stabilizer of a connection is homeomorphic to the holonomy centralizer, i.e. the centralizer of its holonomy group, and the homeomorphism class of the gauge orbit is completely determined by the holonomy centralizer. Furthermore, the stabilizers of two connections are conjugate in the gauge group if and only if their holonomy centralizers are conjugate in the structure group. Finally, the gauge orbit type of a connection is defined to be the conjugacy class of its holonomy centralizer equivalently to the standard definition via stabilizers.
Feynman rules for Coulomb gauge QCD
Andrasi, A.; Taylor, J.C.
2012-10-15
The Coulomb gauge in nonabelian gauge theories is attractive in principle, but beset with technical difficulties in perturbation theory. In addition to ordinary Feynman integrals, there are, at 2-loop order, Christ-Lee (CL) terms, derived either by correctly ordering the operators in the Hamiltonian, or by resolving ambiguous Feynman integrals. Renormalization theory depends on the sub-graph structure of ordinary Feynman graphs. The CL terms do not have a sub-graph structure. We show how to carry out renormalization in the presence of CL terms, by re-expressing these as 'pseudo-Feynman' integrals. We also explain how energy divergences cancel. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In Coulomb gauge QCD, we re-express Christ-Lee terms in the Hamiltonian as pseudo-Feynman integrals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This gives a subgraph structure, and allows the ordinary renormalization process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It also leads to cancellation of energy-divergences.
Solution of the Gribov problem from gauge invariance
Kurt Langfeld; Tom Heinzl; Anton Ilderton; Martin Lavelle; David McMullan
2008-12-12
A new approach to gauge fixed Yang-Mills theory is derived using the Polyakov-Susskind projection techniques to build gauge invariant states. In our approach, in contrast to the Faddeev-Popov method, the Gribov problem does not prevent the gauge group from being factored out of the partition function. Lattice gauge theory is used to illustrate the method via a calculation of the static quark-antiquark potential generated by the gauge fields in the fundamental modular region of Coulomb gauge.
SU(4) pure-gauge string tensions
Shigemi Ohta; Matthew Wingate
1998-08-19
In response to recently renewed interests in SU(N) pure-gauge dynamics with large N, both from M/string duality and from finite-temperature QCD phase structure, we calculate string tensions acting between the fundamental 4, diquark 6 and other color charges in SU(4) pure-gauge theory at temperatures below the deconfining phase change and above the bulk phase transition. Our results suggest 4 and 6 representations have different string tensions, with a ratio of about 1.3. We also found the deconfining phase change is not strong.
Uplifting non-compact gauged supergravities
Walter H. Baron; Gianguido Dall'Agata
2015-01-19
We provide the M-theory uplift of de Sitter vacua of SO(5,3) and SO(4,4) gaugings of maximal supergravity in 4 dimensions. We find new non-compact backgrounds that are squashed hyperboloids with non-trivial flux for the 3-form potential. The uplift requires a new non-linear ansatz for the 11-dimensional metric and for the 3-form potential that reduces to the known one leading to the 7-sphere solution in the case of the SO(8) gauging.
Uplifting non-compact gauged supergravities
Baron, Walter H
2014-01-01
We provide the M-theory uplift of de Sitter vacua of SO(5,3) and SO(4,4) gaugings of maximal supergravity in 4 dimensions. We find new non-compact backgrounds that are squashed hyperboloids with non-trivial flux for the 3-form potential. The uplift requires a new non-linear ansatz for the 11-dimensional metric and for the 3-form potential that reduces to the known one leading to the 7-sphere solution in the case of the SO(8) gauging.
Diffractive Scattering and Gauge/String Duality
Tan, Chung-I [Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States
2009-09-01
High-energy diffractive scattering will be discussed based on Gauge/String duality. As shown by Brower, Polchinski, Strassler and Tan, the ubiquitous Pomeron emerges naturally in gauge theories with string-theoretical descriptions. Its existence is intimately tied to gluons, and also to the energy-momentum tensor. With a confining dual background metric, the Pomeron can be interpreted as a 'massive graviton'. In a single unified step, both its infrared and ultraviolet properties are dealt with, reflecting confinement and conformal symmetry respectively. An effective field theory for high-energy scattering can be constructed. Applications based on this approach will also be described.
From Lattice Gauge Theories to Hydrogen Atoms
Manu Mathur; T. P. Sreeraj
2014-10-13
Using canonical transformations we obtain a complete and most economical realization of the loop or physical Hilbert space of pure $SU(2)_{2+1}$ lattice gauge theory in terms of Wigner coupled Hilbert spaces of hydrogen atoms. One hydrogen atom is assigned to every plaquette of the lattice. The SU(2) gauge theory loop basis states over a plaquette are the bound energy eigenstates $|n l m>$ of the corresponding hydrogen atom. The Wigner couplings of these hydrogen atom energy eigenstates on different plaquettes provide a complete SU(2) gauge theory loop basis on the entire lattice. The loop basis is invariant under simultaneous rotations of all hydrogen atoms. The dual description of this basis diagonalizes all Wilson loop operators and is given in terms of hyperspherical harmonics on the SU(2) group manifold $S^3$. The SU(2) loop dynamics is governed by a "SU(2) spin Hamiltonian" without any gauge fields. The relevance of the hydrogen atom basis and its dynamical symmetry group SO(4,2) in SU(2) loop dynamics in weak coupling continuum limit ($g^2\\rightarrow 0$) is emphasized.
National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory
Brower, Richard C.
2014-04-15
SciDAC-2 Project The Secret Life of Quarks: National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, from March 15, 2011 through March 14, 2012. The objective of this project is to construct the software needed to study quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions of sub-atomic physics, and other strongly coupled gauge field theories anticipated to be of importance in the energy regime made accessible by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It builds upon the successful efforts of the SciDAC-1 project National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, in which a QCD Applications Programming Interface (QCD API) was developed that enables lattice gauge theorists to make effective use of a wide variety of massively parallel computers. This project serves the entire USQCD Collaboration, which consists of nearly all the high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States engaged in the numerical study of QCD and related strongly interacting quantum field theories. All software developed in it is publicly available, and can be downloaded from a link on the USQCD Collaboration web site, or directly from the github repositories with entrance linke http://usqcd-software.github.io
Dyonic Instantons in Five Dimensional Gauge Theories
Neil. D. Lambert; David Tong
1999-07-13
We show that there exist finite energy, non-singular instanton solutions for five-dimensional theories with broken gauge symmetry. The soliton is supported against collapse by a non-zero electric charge. The low-energy dynamics of these solutions is described by motion on the ADHM moduli space with potential.
Lyapunov spectra in SU(2) lattice gauge theory
Gong, C. [Physics Department, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0305 (United States)] [Physics Department, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0305 (United States)
1994-03-01
We develop a method for calculating the Lyapunov characteristic exponents of lattice gauge theories. The complete Lyapunov spectrum of SU(2) gauge theory is obtained and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is calculated. Rapid convergence with lattice size is found.
Gauge-flation confronted with Planck
Namba, Ryo; Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Peloso, Marco E-mail: ema@physics.umn.edu
2013-11-01
Gauge-flation is a recently proposed model in which inflation is driven solely by a non-Abelian gauge field thanks to a specific higher order derivative operator. The nature of the operator is such that it does not introduce ghosts. We compute the cosmological scalar and tensor perturbations for this model, improving over an existing computation. We then confront these results with the Planck data. The model is characterized by the quantity ? ? g{sup 2}Q{sup 2}/H{sup 2} (where g is the gauge coupling constant, Q the vector vev, and H the Hubble rate). For ? < 2, the scalar perturbations show a strong tachyonic instability. In the stable region, the scalar power spectrum n{sub s} is too low at small ?, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio r is too high at large ?. No value of ? leads to acceptable values for n{sub s} and r, and so the model is ruled out by the CMB data. The same behavior with ? was obtained in Chromo-natural inflation, a model in which inflation is driven by a pseudo-scalar coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field. When the pseudo-scalar can be integrated out, one recovers the model of Gauge-flation plus corrections. It was shown that this identification is very accurate at the background level, but differences emerged in the literature concerning the perturbations of the two models. On the contrary, our results show that the analogy between the two models continues to be accurate also at the perturbative level.
An exact RG formulation of quantum gauge theory
Tim R. Morris
2001-02-19
A gauge invariant Wilsonian effective action is constructed for pure SU(N) Yang-Mills theory by formulating the corresponding flow equation. Manifestly gauge invariant calculations can be performed i.e. without gauge fixing or ghosts. Regularisation is implemented in a novel way which realises a spontaneously broken SU(N|N) supergauge theory. As an example we sketch the computation of the one-loop beta function, performed for the first time without any gauge fixing.
Why we started a Volunteer Rain Gauge Network
Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.
in their backyards #12;4-inch diameter High capacity rain gauges Aluminum foil-wrapped Styrofoam hail pads Snow
Coulomb gauge Green functions and Gribov copies in SU(2) lattice gauge theory
M. Quandt; G. Burgio; S. Chimchinda; H. Reinhardt
2007-10-02
We reconsider the lattice measurement of Green functions in Coulomb gauge, both in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions, using an improved gauge fixing scheme. The influence of Gribov copies is examined and we find clear indications that Green functions are more strongly affected than previously assumed, in particular for low momenta. Qualitatively, our improved lattice results in the infra-red compare more favourably with recent continuum calculations in the Hamiltonian approach.
Flux-induced Isometry Gauging in Heterotic Strings
Chuang, Wu-yen; Gao, Peng
2007-01-05
We study the effect of flux-induced isometry gauging of the scalar manifold in N = 2 heterotic string compactification with gauge fluxes. We show that a vanishing theorem by Witten provides the protection mechanism. The other ungauged isometries in hyper moduli space could also be protected, depending on the gauge bundle structure. We also discuss the related issue in IIB setting.
Operational improvement and mixed model value stream development for gauge production line
Lang, Xiaoling
2010-01-01
Gauge production line in Company X has an average daily demand of 13 gauges now. And the demand expects to rocket to 26 gauges per day in 2011. However, the current daily throughput is 10 gauges. The current state value ...
GAUGE INVARIANCE IN A Z2 HAMILTONIAN LATTICE GUAGE THEORY.
SUGIHARA, T.
2005-07-25
We propose an efficient variational method for Z{sub 2} lattice gauge theory based on the matrix product ansatz. The method is applied to ladder and square lattices. The Gauss law needs to be imposed on quantum states to guarantee gauge invariance when one studies gauge theory in hamiltonian formalism. On the ladder lattice, we identify gauge invariant low-lying states by evaluating expectation values of the Gauss law operator after numerical diagonalization of the gauge hamiltonian. On the square lattice, the second order phase transition is well reproduced.
Building Projected Entangled Pair States with a Local Gauge Symmetry
Erez Zohar; Michele Burrello
2015-11-26
Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states (PEPS), suggest an innovative approach for the study of lattice gauge theories, both from a pure theoretic point of view, and as a tool for the analysis of the recent proposals for quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories. In this paper we present a framework for describing locally gauge invariant states on lattices using PEPS. The PEPS constructed hereby shall include both bosonic and fermionic states, suitable for all combinations of matter and gauge fields in lattice gauge theories defined by either finite or compact Lie groups.
Aspects of 7d and 6d gauged supergravities
Jong, Der-Chyn
2009-05-15
to yield a matter coupled gauged supergravity in six dimensions with 8 real supersymmetry. Solving these conditions we nd that the SO(2;2) and SO(3;1) gauged 7D supergravities give a U(1)R, and the SO(2;1) gauged 7D supergravity gives an Sp(1)R gauged... such that a R-symmetry gauging survives. These are referred to as the SO(3;1);SO(2;1) and SO(2;2) models, in which these groups re- fer to isometries of manifolds parametrized by the scalar elds that arise in the 7D theory. The 6D models we obtain describe...
Review of Lattice Supersymmetry and Gauge-Gravity Duality
Joseph, Anosh
2015-01-01
We review the status of recent investigations on validating the gauge-gravity duality conjecture through numerical simulations of strongly coupled maximally supersymmetric thermal gauge theories. In the simplest setting, the gauge-gravity duality connects systems of D0-branes and black hole geometries at finite temperature to maximally supersymmetric gauged quantum mechanics at the same temperature. Recent simulations show that non-perturbative gauge theory results give excellent agreement with the quantum gravity predictions, thus proving strong evidence for the validity of the duality conjecture and more insight into quantum black holes and gravity.
Review of Lattice Supersymmetry and Gauge-Gravity Duality
Anosh Joseph
2015-09-04
We review the status of recent investigations on validating the gauge-gravity duality conjecture through numerical simulations of strongly coupled maximally supersymmetric thermal gauge theories. In the simplest setting, the gauge-gravity duality connects systems of D0-branes and black hole geometries at finite temperature to maximally supersymmetric gauged quantum mechanics at the same temperature. Recent simulations show that non-perturbative gauge theory results give excellent agreement with the quantum gravity predictions, thus proving strong evidence for the validity of the duality conjecture and more insight into quantum black holes and gravity.
Dark Matter and Gauged Flavor Symmetries
Bishara, Fady; Kamenik, Jernej F; Stamou, Emmanuel; Zupan, Jure
2015-01-01
We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental ${\\mathcal Z}_3$ symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly $0.5$ TeV and $5$ TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general, however, no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.
Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality
de Haro, Sebastian; Butterfield, Jeremy
2015-01-01
We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening Sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Section 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.
SHIELDING ANALYSIS FOR PORTABLE GAUGING COMBINATION SOURCES
J. TOMPKINS; L. LEONARD; ET AL
2000-08-01
Radioisotopic decay has been used as a source of photons and neutrons for industrial gauging operations since the late 1950s. Early portable moisture/density gauging equipment used Americium (Am)-241/Beryllium (Be)/Cesium (Cs)-137 combination sources to supply the required nuclear energy for gauging. Combination sources typically contained 0.040 Ci of Am-241 and 0.010 Ci of CS-137 in the same source capsule. Most of these sources were manufactured approximately 30 years ago. Collection, transportation, and storage of these sources once removed from their original device represent a shielding problem with distinct gamma and neutron components. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project is planning to use a multi-function drum (MFD) for the collection, shipping, and storage of AmBe sources, as well as the eventual waste package for disposal. The MFD is an approved TRU waste container design for DOE TRU waste known as the 12 inch Pipe Component Overpack. As the name indicates, this drum is based on a 12 inch ID stainless steel weldment approximately 25 inch in internal length. The existing drum design allows for addition of shielding within the pipe component up to the 110 kg maximum pay load weight. The 12 inch pipe component is packaged inside a 55-gallon drum, with the balance of the interior space filled with fiberboard dunnage. This packaging geometry is similar to the design of a DOT 6M, Type B shipping container.
Revisiting the gauge fields of strained graphene
Alfredo Iorio; Pablo Pais
2015-08-04
We join the on-going debate on the nature of the gauge fields arising when straining graphene, hopefully adding clarity to the debate, especially in view of the use of graphene as a table-top indirect laboratory for high energy physics. We identify two types of gauge fields: the first one arising from a trivial spin-connection of zero Riemann tensor, that gives a pure-gauge Weyl field; the second one originating from peculiar structure of the graphene honeycomb, whose non-triviality is encoded in a special rank-three tensor. The former cannot give a nonzero "pseudo-magnetic field", but the relativistic approach behind it explains non-isotropic, space-dependent Fermi velocity. The latter has, in general, nonzero associated field-strength, and gives an example of a low-energy (continuum limit) relic of a high-energy (lattice) structure, a feature that makes it interesting for explorations of fundamental physics scenarios with similar behaviors. We conclude by briefly pointing to some of those scenarios.
Revisiting the gauge fields of strained graphene
Iorio, Alfredo
2015-01-01
We join the on-going debate on the nature of the gauge fields arising when straining graphene, hopefully adding clarity to the debate, especially in view of the use of graphene as a table-top indirect laboratory for high energy physics. We identify two types of gauge fields: the first one arising from a trivial spin-connection of zero Riemann tensor, that gives a pure-gauge Weyl field; the second one originating from peculiar structure of the graphene honeycomb, whose non-triviality is encoded in a special rank-three tensor. The former cannot give a nonzero "pseudo-magnetic field", but the relativistic approach behind it explains non-isotropic, space-dependent Fermi velocity. The latter has, in general, nonzero associated field-strength, and gives an example of a low-energy (continuum limit) relic of a high-energy (lattice) structure, a feature that makes it interesting for explorations of fundamental physics scenarios with similar behaviors. We conclude by briefly pointing to some of those scenarios.
About consistence between pi N Delta spin-3/2 gauge couplings and electromagnetic gauge invariance
D. Badagnani; C. Barbero; A. Mariano
2015-03-05
We analyze the consistence between the recently proposed "spin 3/2 gauge" interaction for the Delta resonance with nucleons and pions, and the fundamental electromagnetic gauge invariance in any radiative amplitude. Chiral symmetric pion-derivative pi N Delta couplings can be substituted through a linear transformation to get Delta-derivative ones, which have the property of decoupling the 1/2 field components of the Delta propagator. Nevertheless, the electromagnetic gauge invariance introduced through minimal substitution in all derivatives, can only be fulfilled at a given order n without destroying the spin 3/2 one by dropping n+1 order terms within an effective field theory (EFT) framework with a defined power counting. In addition, we show that the Ward identity for the gamma Delta gamma vertex cannot be fulfilled with a trimmed 3/2 propagator, which should be necessary in order to keep the spin 3/2 gauge symmetry in the radiative case for the gamma Delta gamma amplitude. Finally, it is shown that radiative corrections of the spin 3/2 gauge strong vertexes at one loop, reintroduce the conventional interaction.
On the gauge independence of the fermion pole mass
Ashok K. Das; R. R. Francisco; J. Frenkel
2013-08-23
We study the question of complete gauge independence of the fermion pole mass by choosing a general class of gauge fixing which interpolates between the covariant, the axial and the Coulomb gauges for different values of the gauge fixing parameters. We derive the Nielsen identity describing the gauge parameter variation of the fermion two point function in this general class of gauges. Furthermore, we relate the denominator of the fermion propagator to the two point function. This then allows us to study directly the gauge parameter dependence of the denominator of the propa- gator using the Nielsen identity for the two point function. This leads to a simple proof that, when infrared divergences and mass shell singularities are not present at the pole, the fermion pole mass is gauge independent, in the complete sense, to all orders in perturbation theory. Namely, the pole is not only independent of the gauge fixing parameters, but has also the same value in both covariant and non-covariant gauges.
Ning Wu
2012-07-11
When we discuss problems on gravity, we can not avoid some fundamental physical problems, such as space-time, inertia, and inertial reference frame. The goal of this paper is to discuss the logic system of gravity theory and the problems of space-time, inertia, and inertial reference frame. The goal of this paper is to set up the theory on space-time in gauge theory of gravity. Based on this theory, it is possible for human kind to manipulate physical space-time on earth, and produce a machine which can physically prolong human's lifetime.
Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters
Brewster, A.L.
1985-11-19
A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts is disclosed. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade. 2 figs.
Noncommutative geometric gauge theory from superconnections
Lee, C Y
1996-01-01
Noncommutative geometric gauge theory is reconstructed based on the superconnection concept. The bosonic action of the Connes-Lott model including the symmetry breaking Higgs sector is obtained by using a new generalized derivative, which consists of the usual 1-form exterior derivative plus an extra element called {\\it matrix derivative}, for curvatures. We first derive the matrix derivative based on superconnections then show how the matrix derivative can give rise to spontaneous symmetry breaking. We comment on the correspondence between the generalized derivative and the generalized Dirac operator of the Connes-Lott model.
Continuum regularization of gauge theory with fermions
Chan, H.S.
1987-03-01
The continuum regularization program is discussed in the case of d-dimensional gauge theory coupled to fermions in an arbitrary representation. Two physically equivalent formulations are given. First, a Grassmann formulation is presented, which is based on the two-noise Langevin equations of Sakita, Ishikawa and Alfaro and Gavela. Second, a non-Grassmann formulation is obtained by regularized integration of the matter fields within the regularized Grassmann system. Explicit perturbation expansions are studied in both formulations, and considerable simplification is found in the integrated non-Grassmann formalism.
Noncommutative Geometric Gauge Theory from Superconnections
Chang-Yeong Lee
1997-09-02
Noncommutative geometric gauge theory is reconstructed based on the superconnection concept. The bosonic action of the Connes-Lott model including the symmetry breaking Higgs sector is obtained by using a new generalized derivative, which consists of the usual 1-form exterior derivative plus an extra element called the matrix derivative, for the curvatures. We first derive the matrix derivative based on superconnections and then show how the matrix derivative can give rise to spontaneous symmetry breaking. We comment on the correspondence between the generalized derivative and the generalized Dirac operator of the Connes-Lott model.
Massive Gauge Fields and the Planck Scale
Acosta, G D
2004-01-01
The present work is devoted to massive gauge fields in special relativity with two fundamental constants-the velocity of light, and the Planck length, so called doubly special relativity (DSR). The two invariant scales are accounted for by properly modified boost parameters. Within above framework we construct the vector potential as the (1/2,0)x(0,1/2) direct product, build the associated field strength tensor together with the Dirac spinors and use them to calculate various observables as functions of the Planck length.
Massive Gauge Fields and the Planck Scale
G. D. Acosta; M. Kirchbach
2004-11-09
The present work is devoted to massive gauge fields in special relativity with two fundamental constants-the velocity of light, and the Planck length, so called doubly special relativity (DSR). The two invariant scales are accounted for by properly modified boost parameters. Within above framework we construct the vector potential as the (1/2,0)x(0,1/2) direct product, build the associated field strength tensor together with the Dirac spinors and use them to calculate various observables as functions of the Planck length.
Cosmological String Backgrounds from Gauged WZW Models
C. Kounnas; D. Luest
1992-05-18
We discuss the four-dimensional target-space interpretation of bosonic strings based on gauged WZW models, in particular of those based on the non-compact coset space $SL(2,{\\bf R})\\times SO(1,1)^2 /SO(1,1)$. We show that these theories lead, apart from the recently broadly discussed black-hole type of backgrounds, to cosmological string backgrounds, such as an expanding Universe. Which of the two cases is realized depends on the sign of the level of the corresponding Kac-Moody algebra. We discuss various aspects of these new cosmological string backgrounds.
Light Front Quantization with the Light Cone Gauge
D. G. C. McKeon; Chenguang Zhao
2015-10-07
The Dirac procedure for dealing with constraints is applied to the quantization of gauge theories on the light front. The light cone gauge is used in conjunction with the first class constraints that arise and the resulting Dirac brackets are found. These gauge conditions are not used to eliminate degrees of freedom from the action prior to applying the Dirac constraint procedure. This approach is illustrated by considering Yang-Mills theory and the superparticle in a 2 + 1 dimensional target space.
Groot Nibbelink, S.; Hillenbach, M.
2005-12-02
We review an explicit calculation of the renormalization of a vector multiplet due to hyper multiplets on the orbifolds S1/Z2 and T2/ZN. We find that generically the fixed point gauge couplings renormalize except at Z2 fixed points. In the six dimensional case on T2/ZN also a bulk dimension six higher derivative operator is induced.
Yong Tang; Yue-Liang Wu
2011-10-30
We perform an explicit one-loop calculation for the gravitational contributions to the two-, three- and four-point gauge Green's functions with paying attention to the quadratic divergences. It is shown for the first time in the diagrammatic calculation that the Slavnov-Taylor identities are preserved even if the quantum graviton effects are included at one-loop level, such a conclusion is independent of the choice of regularization schemes. We also present a regularization scheme independent calculation based on the gauge condition independent background field framework of Vilkovisky-DeWitt's effective action with focusing on both the quadratic divergence and quartic divergence that is not discussed before. With the harmonic gauge condition, the results computed by using the traditional background field method can consistently be recovered from the Vilkovisky-DeWitt's effective action approach by simply taking a limiting case, and are found to be the same as the ones yielded by the diagrammatic calculation. As a consequence, in all the calculations, the symmetry-preserving and divergent-behavior-preserving loop regularization method can consistently lead to a nontrivial gravitational contribution to the gauge coupling constant with an asymptotic free power-law running at one loop near the Planck scale.
Hamiltonian analysis of self-dual gauge gravity
Steven Kerr
2015-04-15
The Hamiltonian analysis of the self-dual gauge gravity theory is carried out. The resulting canonical structure is equivalent to that of self-dual gravity.
Gauge Theories on an Interval: Unitarity Without a Higgs Boson
Csaki, Csaba; Grojean, Christophe; Murayama, Hitoshi; Luigi, Pilo; Terning, John
2004-01-01
breaking without a Higgs boson. Gauge Theories on anscattering amplitude. The Higgs boson is localized at y = ?Rreal scalar ?eld, the Higgs boson. At tree level, the
Grassmann dynamics of classical spin in nonabelian gauge fields
S. A. Pol'shin
2011-10-24
Using Grassmann variant of classical mechanics, we construct Lagrangian dynamics of classical spinning particle in (possibly non-abelian) gauge fields. Quantization of this model is briefly discussed.
Aspects of 7D and 6D gauged supergravities
Jong, Der-Chyn
2008-10-10
reduction to yield a matter coupled gauged supergravity in six dimensions with 8 real supersymmetry. Solving these conditions we nd that the SO(2;2) and SO(3;1) gauged 7D supergravities give a U(1)R, and the SO(2;1) gauged 7D supergravity gives an Sp(1)R... such that a R-symmetry gauging survives. These are referred to as the SO(3;1);SO(2;1) and SO(2;2) models, in which these groups re- fer to isometries of manifolds parametrized by the scalar elds that arise in the 7D theory. The 6D models we obtain describe...
Stability of the Gauge Equivalent Classes in Inverse Stationary ...
2011-06-28
mines the gauge equivalent class of the attenuation and scattering coefficients. ...... [18] M. Mokhtar-Kharroubi, Mathematical Topics in Neutron Transport Theory
Stability of the Gauge Equivalent Classes in Inverse Stationary ...
2009-12-02
scattering and the attenuating coefficients up to a gauge transformation. ...... [24] Mokhtar -K M 1997 Mathematical Topics in Neutron Transport Theory (World ...
Divergences of generalized quantum electrodynamics on the Lorenz gauge
Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E.
2013-03-25
In this paper we study the Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics (GQED4) on the Lorenz gauge condition and show that divergences are still present in the theory.
A luminescent nanocrystal stress gauge (Journal Article) | SciTech...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Details In-Document Search Title: A luminescent nanocrystal stress gauge Microscale mechanical forces can determine important outcomes ranging from the site of material...
Non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries in F-theory
Thomas W. Grimm; Tom G. Pugh; Diego Regalado
2015-04-23
The presence of non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries in four-dimensional F-theory compactifications is investigated. Such symmetries are shown to arise from seven-brane configurations in genuine F-theory settings without a weak string coupling description. Gauge fields on mutually non-local seven-branes are argued to gauge both R-R and NS-NS two-form bulk axions. The gauging is completed into a generalisation of the Heisenberg group with either additional seven-brane gauge fields or R-R bulk gauge fields. The former case relies on having seven-brane fluxes, while the latter case requires torsion cohomology and is analysed in detail through the M-theory dual. Remarkably, the M-theory reduction yields an Abelian theory that becomes non-Abelian when translated into the correct duality frame to perform the F-theory limit. The reduction shows that the gauge coupling function depends on the gauged scalars and transforms non-trivially as required for the groups encountered. This field dependence agrees with the expectations for the kinetic mixing of seven-branes and is unchanged if the gaugings are absent.
Anisotropic inflation with non-abelian gauge kinetic function
Murata, Keiju [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: K.Murata@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan)
2011-06-01
We study an anisotropic inflation model with a gauge kinetic function for a non-abelian gauge field. We find that, in contrast to abelian models, the anisotropy can be either a prolate or an oblate type, which could lead to a different prediction from abelian models for the statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of cosmological fluctuations. During a reheating phase, we find chaotic behaviour of the non-abelian gauge field which is caused by the nonlinear self-coupling of the gauge field. We compute a Lyapunov exponent of the chaos which turns out to be uncorrelated with the anisotropy.
CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation of arbitrary spin fields in AdS and modified de Donder gauge
R. R. Metsaev
2009-01-22
Using Poincare parametrization of AdS space, we study totally symmetric arbitrary spin massless fields in AdS space of dimension greater than or equal to four. CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation for such fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized similarly to the ones of Stueckelberg formulation of massive fields. We demonstrate that the curvature and radial coordinate contributions to the gauge transformation and Lagrangian of the AdS fields can be expressed in terms of ladder operators. Realization of the global AdS symmetries in the conformal algebra basis is obtained. Modified de Donder gauge leading to simple gauge fixed Lagrangian is found. The modified de Donder gauge leads to decoupled equations of motion which can easily be solved in terms of Bessel function. Interrelations between our approach to the massless AdS fields and the Stueckelberg approach to massive fields in flat space are discussed.
The role of gauge symmetry in spintronics
Sobreiro, R.F.
2011-12-15
In this work we employ a field theoretical approach to explain the nature of the non-conserved spin current in spintronics. In particular, we consider the usual U(1) gauge theory for the electromagnetism at classical level in order to obtain the broken continuity equation involving the spin current and spin-transfer torque. Inspired by the recent work of A. Vernes, B. L. Gyorffy and P. Weinberger where they obtain such an equation in terms of relativistic quantum mechanics, we formalize their result in terms of the well known currents of field theory such as the Bargmann-Wigner current and the chiral current. Thus, an interpretation of spintronics is provided in terms of Noether currents (conserved or not) and symmetries of the electromagnetism. In fact, the main result of the present work is that the non-conservation of the spin current is associated with the gauge invariance of physical observables where the breaking term is proportional to the chiral current. Moreover, we generalize their result by including the electromagnetic field as a dynamical field instead of an external one.
The role of gauge symmetry in spintronics
Sobreiro, R F
2011-01-01
In this work we employ a field theoretical approach to explain the nature of the non-conserved spin current in spintronics. In particular, we consider the usual U(1) gauge theory for the electromagnetism at classical level in order to obtain the broken continuity equation involving the spin current and spin-transfer torque. Inspired in the recent work of A. Vernes, B. L. Gyorffy and P. Weinberger where they obtain such equation in terms of relativistic quantum mechanics, we formalize their result in terms of the well known currents of field theory such as the Bargmann-Wigner current and the chiral current. Thus, an interpretation of spintronics is provided in terms of Noether currents (conserved or not) and symmetries of the electromagnetism. In fact, the main result of the present work is that the non-conservation of the spin current is associated to the gauge invariance of physical observables where the breaking term is proportional to the chiral current. Moreover, we generalize their result by including th...
The role of gauge symmetry in spintronics
R. F. Sobreiro; V. J. Vasquez Otoya
2011-08-31
In this work we employ a field theoretical approach to explain the nature of the non-conserved spin current in spintronics. In particular, we consider the usual U(1) gauge theory for the electromagnetism at classical level in order to obtain the broken continuity equation involving the spin current and spin-transfer torque. Inspired in the recent work of A. Vernes, B. L. Gyorffy and P. Weinberger where they obtain such equation in terms of relativistic quantum mechanics, we formalize their result in terms of the well known currents of field theory such as the Bargmann-Wigner current and the chiral current. Thus, an interpretation of spintronics is provided in terms of Noether currents (conserved or not) and symmetries of the electromagnetism. In fact, the main result of the present work is that the non-conservation of the spin current is associated to the gauge invariance of physical observables where the breaking term is proportional to the chiral current. Moreover, we generalize their result by including the electromagnetic field as a dynamical field instead of an external one.
From Lattice Gauge Theories to Hydrogen Atoms
Manu Mathur; T. P. Sreeraj
2015-08-21
We construct canonical transformations to obtain a complete and most economical realization of the physical Hilbert space ${\\cal H}^p$ of pure $SU(2)_{2+1}$ lattice gauge theory in terms of Wigner coupled Hilbert spaces of hydrogen atoms. One hydrogen atom is assigned to every plaquette of the lattice. A complete orthonormal description of the Wilson loop basis in ${\\cal H}^p$ is obtained by all possible angular momentum Wigner couplings of hydrogen atom energy eigenstates $\\vert n~l~m\\rangle$ describing electric fluxes on the loops. The SU(2) gauge invariance implies that the total angular momenta of all hydrogen atoms vanish. The canonical transformations also enable us to rewrite the Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian in terms of fundamental Wilson loop operators and their conjugate electric fields. The resulting loop Hamiltonian has a global SU(2) invariance and a simple weak coupling ($g^2\\rightarrow 0$) continuum limit. The canonical transformations leading to the loop Hamiltonian are valid for any SU(N). The ideas and techniques can also be extended to higher dimension.
Exact Results in Supersymmetric Gauge Theories
Saulius Valatka
2014-12-31
In this thesis we discuss supersymmetric gauge theories, focusing on exact results achieved using methods of integrability. For the larger portion of the thesis we study the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the planar limit, a recurring topic being the Konishi anomalous dimension, which is roughly the analogue for the mass of the proton in quantum chromodynamics. The N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is known to be integrable in the planar limit, which opens up a wealth of techniques one can employ in order to find results in this limit valid at any value of the coupling. We begin with perturbation theory where the integrability of the theory first manifests itself. Here we showcase the first exact result, the so-called slope function, which is the linear small spin expansion coefficient of the generalized Konishi anomalous dimension. We then move on to exact results mainly achieved using the novel quantum spectral curve approach, the method allowing one to find scaling dimensions of operators at arbitrary values of the coupling. As an example we find the second coefficient in the small spin expansion after the slope, which we call the curvature function. This allows us to extract non-trivial information about the Konishi operator. Methods of integrability are also applicable to other supersymmetric gauge theories such as ABJM, which in fact shares many similarities with N=4 super Yang-Mills. We briefly review these parallel developments in the last chapter of the thesis.
Disdrometer and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Handbook
Bartholomew. MJ
2009-12-01
The Distromet disdrometer model RD-80 and NovaLynx tipping bucket rain gauge model 260-2500E-12 are two devices deployed a few meters apart to measure the character and amount of liquid precipitation. The main purpose of the disdrometer is to measure drop size distribution, which it does over 20 size classes from 0.3 mm to 5.4 mm. The data from both instruments can be used to determine rain rate. The disdrometer results can also be used to infer several properties including drop number density, radar reflectivity, liquid water content, and energy flux. Two coefficients, N0 and ?, from an exponential fit between drop diameter and drop number density, are routinely calculated. Data are collected once a minute. The instruments make completely different kinds of measurements. Rain that falls on the disdrometer sensor moves a plunger on a vertical axis. The disdrometer transforms the plunger motion into electrical impulses whose strength is proportional to drop diameter. The rain gauge is the conventional tipping bucket type. Each tip collects an amount equivalent to 0.01 in. of water, and each tip is counted by a data acquisition system anchored by a Campbell CR1000 data logger.
Nonextensive lattice gauge theories: algorithms and methods
Rafael B. Frigori
2014-04-26
High-energy phenomena presenting strong dynamical correlations, long-range interactions and microscopic memory effects are well described by nonextensive versions of the canonical Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics. After a brief theoretical review, we introduce a class of generalized heat-bath algorithms that enable Monte Carlo lattice simulations of gauge fields on the nonextensive statistical ensemble of Tsallis. The algorithmic performance is evaluated as a function of the Tsallis parameter q in equilibrium and nonequilibrium setups. Then, we revisit short-time dynamic techniques, which in contrast to usual simulations in equilibrium present negligible finite-size effects and no critical slowing down. As an application, we investigate the short-time critical behaviour of the nonextensive hot Yang-Mills theory at q- values obtained from heavy-ion collision experiments. Our results imply that, when the equivalence of statistical ensembles is obeyed, the long-standing universality arguments relating gauge theories and spin systems hold also for the nonextensive framework.
Gauge - invariant fluctuations of the metric in stochastic inflation
Mauricio Bellini
2000-01-07
I derive the stochastic equation for the perturbations of the metric for a gauge - invariant energy - momemtum - tensor (EMT) in stochastic inflation. A quantization for the field that describes the gauge - invariant perturbations for the metric is developed. In a power - law expansion for the universe the amplitude for these perturbations on a background metric could be very important in the infrared sector.
Constraints on gauge-Higgs unification models at the LHC
Noriaki Kitazawa; Yuki Sakai
2015-09-16
We examine the possibility of observing the Kaluza-Klein gluons in gauge-Higgs unification models at the LHC with the energy sqrt{s}=14 TeV. We consider a benchmark model with the gauge symmetry SU(3)_C x SU(3)_W in five-dimensional space-time, where SU(3)_C is the gauge symmetry of the strong interaction and SU(3)_W is that for the electroweak interaction and a Higgs doublet field. It is natural in general to introduce SU(3)_C gauge symmetry in five-dimensional space-time as well as SU(3)_W gauge symmetry in gauge-Higgs unification models. Since the fifth dimension is compactified to S1/Z2 orbifold, there are Kaluza-Klein modes of gluons in low-energy effective theory in four-dimensional space-time. We investigate the resonance contribution of the first Kaluza-Klein gluon to dijet invariant mass distribution at the LHC, and provide signal-to-noise ratios in various cases of Kaluza-Klein gluon masses and kinematical cuts. Although the results are given in a specific benchmark model, we discuss their application to general gauge-Higgs unification models with Kaluza-Klein gluons. Gauge-Higgs unification models can be verified or constrained through the physics of the strong interaction, though they are proposed to solve the naturalness problem in electroweak symmetry breaking.
A review on SUSY gauge theories on $S^3$
Kazuo Hosomichi
2015-07-04
This is the 9th article in the collection of reviews "Exact results on N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories", ed. J.Teschner. We review the exact computations in 3D N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories on the round or squashed $S^3$ and the relation between 3D partition functions and 4D superconformal indices.
Non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries in F-theory
Grimm, Thomas W; Regalado, Diego
2015-01-01
The presence of non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries in four-dimensional F-theory compactifications is investigated. Such symmetries are shown to arise from seven-brane configurations in genuine F-theory settings without a weak string coupling description. Gauge fields on mutually non-local seven-branes are argued to gauge both R-R and NS-NS two-form bulk axions. The gauging is completed into a generalisation of the Heisenberg group with either additional seven-brane gauge fields or R-R bulk gauge fields. The former case relies on having seven-brane fluxes, while the latter case requires torsion cohomology and is analysed in detail through the M-theory dual. Remarkably, the M-theory reduction yields an Abelian theory that becomes non-Abelian when translated into the correct duality frame to perform the F-theory limit. The reduction shows that the gauge coupling function depends on the gauged scalars and transforms non-trivially as required for the groups encountered. This field dependence agrees with the exp...
Vector potentials in gauge theories in flat spacetime
C. W. Wong
2015-09-09
A recent suggestion that vector potentials in electrodynamics (ED) are nontensorial objects under 4D frame rotations is found to be both unnecessary and confusing. As traditionally used in ED, a vector potential $A$ always transforms homogeneously under 4D rotations in spacetime, but if the gauge is changed by the rotation, one can restore the gauge back to the original gauge by adding an inhomogeneous term. It is then "not a 4-vector", but two: one for rotation and one for translation. For such a gauge, it is much more important to preserve {\\it explicit} homogeneous Lorentz covariance by simply skipping the troublesome gauge-restoration step. A gauge-independent separation of $A$ into a dynamical term and a non-dynamical term in Abelian gauge theories is re-defined more generally as the terms caused by the presence and absence respectively of the 4-current term in the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations for $A$. Such a separation {\\it cannot} in general be extended to non-Abelian theories where $A$ satisfies nonlinear differential equations. However, in the linearized iterative solution that is perturbation theory, the usual Abelian quantizations in the usual gauges can be used. Some nonlinear complications are briefly reviewed.
On the WDVV equations in five-dimensional gauge theories
L. K. Hoevenaars; R. Martini
2003-01-15
It is well-known that the perturbative prepotentials of four-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories satisfy the generalized WDVV equations, regardless of the gauge group. In this paper we study perturbative prepotentials of the five-dimensional theories for some classical gauge groups and determine whether or not they satisfy the WDVV system.
Quiver gauge theories and integrable lattice models
Junya Yagi
2015-06-30
We discuss connections between certain classes of supersymmetric quiver gauge theories and integrable lattice models from the point of view of topological quantum field theories (TQFTs). The relevant classes include 4d $\\mathcal{N} = 1$ theories known as brane box and brane tilling models, 3d $\\mathcal{N} = 2$ and 2d $\\mathcal{N} = (2,2)$ theories obtained from them by compactification, and 2d $\\mathcal{N} = (0,2)$ theories closely related to these theories. We argue that their supersymmetric indices carry structures of TQFTs equipped with line operators, and as a consequence, are equal to the partition functions of lattice models. The integrability of these models follows from the existence of extra dimension in the TQFTs, which emerges after the theories are embedded in M-theory. The Yang-Baxter equation expresses the invariance of supersymmetric indices under Seiberg duality and its lower-dimensional analogs.
OTDR strain gauge for smart skins
Kercel, S.W.
1993-09-01
Optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) is a simple and rugged technique for measuring quantities such as strain that affect the propagation of light in an optical fiber. For engineering applications of OTDR, it is important to know the repeatable limits of its performance. The author constructed an OTDR-based, submillimeter resolution strain measurement system from off-the-shelf components. The systems repeatably resolves changes in time of flight to within {plus_minus}2 ps. Using a 1-m, single-mode fiber as a gauge and observing the time of flight between Fresnel reflections, a repeatable sensitivity of 400 microstrains was observed. Using the same fiber to connect the legs of a 3-dB directional coupler to form a loop, a repeatable sensitivity of 200 microstrains was observed. Realizable changes to the system that should improve the repeatable sensitivity to 20 microstrains or less are discussed.
Gauging the Relativistic Particle Model on the Noncommutative plane
Nejad, Salman Abarghouei; Monemzadeh, Majid
2015-01-01
We construct a new model for relativistic particle on the noncommutative surface in $(2+1)$ dimensions, using the symplectic formalism of constrained systems and embedding the model on an extended phase space. We suggest a short cut to construct the gauged Lagrangian, using the Poisson algebra of constraints, without calculating the whole procedure of symplectic formalism. We also propose an approach for the systems, in which the symplectic formalism is not applicable, due to truncation of secondary constraints appearing at the first level. After gauging the model, we obtained generators of gauge transformations of the model. Finally, by extracting the corresponding Poisson structure of all constraints, we show the effect of gauging on the canonical structure of the phase spaces of both primary and gauged models.
Electric-magnetic deformations of D=4 gauged supergravities
Inverso, Gianluca
2015-01-01
We discuss duality orbits and symplectic deformations of D=4 gauged supergravity theories, with focus on N$\\ge$2. We provide a general constructive framework for computing symplectic deformations starting from a reference gauging, and apply it to many interesting examples. We prove that no continuous deformations are allowed for Fayet-Iliopoulos gaugings of the N=2 STU model and in particular that any $\\omega$ deformation is classically trivial. We further show that although in the N=6 truncation of SO(8) maximal supergravity the $\\omega$ parameter can be dualized away, in the 'twin' N=2 truncation $\\omega$ is preserved and a second, new deformation appears. We further provide a full classification and appropriate duality orbits of certain N=4 gauged supergravities, including all inequivalent SO(4)$^2$ gaugings and several non-compact forms.
Coulomb gauge Gribov copies and the confining potential
Tom Heinzl; Kurt Langfeld; Martin Lavelle; David McMullan
2007-09-05
We study the approach, initiated by Marinari et al., to the static inter-quark potential based on Polyakov lines of finite temporal extent, evaluated in Coulomb gauge. We show that, at small spatial separations, the potential can be understood as being between two separately gauge invariant colour charges. At larger separations Gribov copies obstruct the non-perturbative identification of individually gauge invariant colour states. We demonstrate, for the first time, how gauge invariance can be maintained quite generally by averaging over Gribov copies. This allows us to extend the analysis of the Polyakov lines and the corresponding, gauge invariant quark-antiquark state to all distance scales. Using large scale lattice simulations, we show that this interpolating state possesses a good overlap with the ground state in the quark-antiquark sector and yields the full static inter-quark potential at all distances. A visual representation of the Gribov copies on the lattice is also presented.
Non-Abelian Lattice Gauge Theories in Superconducting Circuits
Mezzacapo, A; Sabín, C; Egusquiza, I L; Lamata, L; Solano, E
2015-01-01
We propose a digital quantum simulator of non-Abelian pure-gauge models with a superconducting circuit setup. Within the framework of quantum link models, we build a minimal instance of a pure $SU(2)$ gauge theory, using triangular plaquettes involving geometric frustration. This realization is the least demanding, in terms of quantum simulation resources, of a non-Abelian gauge dynamics. We present two superconducting architectures that can host the quantum simulation, estimating the requirements needed to run possible experiments. The proposal establishes a path to the experimental simulation of non-Abelian physics with solid-state quantum platforms.
On the defect induced gauge and Yukawa fields in graphene
Corneliu Sochichiu
2011-03-08
We consider lattice deformations (both continuous and topological) in the hexagonal lattice Hubbard model in the tight binding approximation to graphene, involving operators with the range up to next-to-neighbor. In the low energy limit, we find that these deformations give rise to couplings of the electronic Dirac field to an external scalar (Yukawa) and gauge fields. The fields are expressed in terms of original defects. As a by-product we establish that the next-to-nearest order is the minimal range of deformations which produces the complete gauge and scalar fields. We consider an example of Stone--Wales defect, and find the associated gauge field.
Quantized gauge-affine gravity in the superfiber bundle approach
A. Meziane; M. Tahiri
2005-11-10
The quantization of gauge-affine gravity within the superfiber bundle formalism is proposed. By introducing an even pseudotensorial 1-superform over a principal superfibre bundle with superconnection, we obtain the geometrical Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST transformations of the fields occurring in such a theory. Reducing the four-dimensional general affine group double-covering to the Poincare group double-covering we also find the BRST and anti-BRST transformations of the fields present in Einstein's gravity. Furthermore, we give a prescription leading to the construction of both BRST-invariant gauge-fixing action for gauge-affine gravity and Einstein's gravity.
Is SU(2) lattice gauge theory a spin glass?
Michael Grady
2010-03-26
A new order parameter is constructed for SU(2) lattice gauge theory in the context of the two-real-replica method normally used for spin glasses. The order parameter is sensitive to a global Z2 subgroup of the gauge symmetry which is seen to break spontaneously at $\\beta = 4/g^2 = 1.96\\pm 0.01$. No gauge fixing is required. Finite size scaling is consistent with a high-order paramagnet to spin glass transition with a critical exponent $\
Gauge Symmetry and Supersymmetry of Multiple M2-Branes
Jonathan Bagger; Neil Lambert
2007-12-20
In previous work we proposed a field theory model for multiple M2-branes based on an algebra with a totally antisymmetric triple product. In this paper we gauge a symmetry that arises from the algebra's triple product. We then construct a supersymmetric theory that is consistent with all the symmetries expected of a multiple M2-brane theory: 16 supersymmetries, conformal invariance, and an SO(8) R-symmetry that acts on the eight transverse scalars. The gauge field is not dynamical. The result is a new type of maximally supersymmetric gauge theory in three dimensions.
Remark on the Consistent Gauge Anomaly in Supersymmetric Theories
Ohshima, Y; Suzuki, H; Yasuta, H; Ohshima, Yoshihisa; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yasuta, Hirofumi
1999-01-01
We present a direct field theoretical calculation of the consistent gauge anomaly in the superfield formalism, on the basis of a definition of the effective action through the covariant gauge current. The scheme is conceptually and technically simple and the gauge covariance in intermediate steps reduces calculational labors considerably. The resultant superfield anomaly, being proportional to the anomaly $d^{abc}=\\tr T^a\\{T^b,T^c\\}$, is minimal even without supplementing any counterterms. Our anomaly coincides with the anomaly obtained by Marinkovi\\'c as the solution of the Wess-Zumino consistency condition.
SU{sub {ital q}}(2) lattice gauge theory
Bimonte, G.; Stern, A.; Vitale, P.
1996-07-01
We reformulate the Hamiltonian approach to lattice gauge theories such that, at the classical level, the gauge group does not act canonically, but instead as a Poisson-Lie group. At the quantum level, the symmetry gets promoted to a quantum group gauge symmetry. The theory depends on two parameters: the deformation parameter {lambda} and the lattice spacing {ital a}. We show that the system of Kogut and Susskind is recovered when {lambda}{r_arrow}0, while QCD is recovered in the continuum limit (for any {lambda}). We, thus, have the possibility of having a two-parameter regularization of QCD. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory using operators and states
J. B. Bronzan
2006-10-13
We study pure SU(3) gauge theory on a large lattice, using Schrodinger's equation. Our approximate solution uses a basis of roughly 1000 states. Gauge invariance is recovered when the color content of the ground state is extrapolated to zero. We are able to identify the gauge invariant excitations that remain when the extrapolation is performed. In the weak coupling limit, we obtain promising results when we compare the excitation energies (masses) to known results, which we derive. We discuss the application of our nonperturbative method to the regime where glueballs are present.
Local gauge theory and coarse graining
Jose A. Zapata
2012-03-11
Within the discrete gauge theory which is the basis of spin foam models, the problem of macroscopically faithful coarse graining is studied. Macroscopic data is identified; it contains the holonomy evaluation along a discrete set of loops and the homotopy classes of certain maps. When two configurations share this data they are related by a local deformation. The interpretation is that such configurations differ by "microscopic details". In many cases the homotopy type of the relevant maps is trivial for every connection; two important cases in which the homotopy data is composed by a set of integer numbers are: (i) a two dimensional base manifold and structure group U(1), (ii) a four dimensional base manifold and structure group SU(2). These cases are relevant for spin foam models of two dimensional gravity and four dimensional gravity respectively. This result suggests that if spin foam models for two-dimensional and four-dimensional gravity are modified to include all the relevant macroscopic degrees of freedom -the complete collection of macroscopic variables necessary to ensure faithful coarse graining-, then they could provide appropriate effective theories at a given scale.
Gauge symmetry breaking in orbifold model building
Michele Trapletti
2006-11-02
We review the gauge symmetry breaking mechanism due to orbifold projections in orbifold model building. We explicitly show the existence of a scale of breaking if such a symmetry breaking is due to freely-acting orbifold operators only, i.e. in case the breaking is realized non-locally in the internal space. We show that such a scale is related to the compactification moduli only, and that there are no extra continuous parameters, at least in semirealistic models with N=1 SUSY in four dimensions. In this sense, the mechanism is peculiarly different from the standard Higgs (or Hosotani) symmetry breaking mechanism. We show that the mechanism also differs from that present in standard orbifold models where, even in presence of discrete Wilson lines, a scale of breaking is generically missing, since the breaking is localized in specific points in the internal space. We review a set of background geometries where the described non-local breaking is realized, both in the case of two and six extra dimensions. In the latter case, relevant in string model building, we consider both heterotic and open string compactifications.
Quantized vortices in interacting gauge theories
Salvatore Butera; Manuel Valiente; Patrik Öhberg
2015-09-21
We consider a two-dimensional weakly interacting ultracold Bose gas whose constituents are two-level atoms. We study the effects of a synthetic density-dependent gauge field that arises from laser-matter coupling in the adiabatic limit with a laser configuration such that the single-particle zero-order vector potential corresponds to a constant synthetic magnetic field. We find a new exotic type of current non-linearity in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation which affects the dynamics of the order parameter of the condensate. We investigate the rotational properties of this system, focusing in particular on the physical conditions that make the nucleation of a quantized vortex in the system energetically favourable with respect to the non rotating solution. We point out that two different physical interpretations can be given to this new non linearity: firstly it can be seen as a local modification of the mean field coupling constant, whose value depends on the angular momentum of the condensate. Secondly, it can be interpreted as a density modulated angular velocity given to the cloud. Looking at the problem from both of these viewpoints, we analyze the physical conditions that make a single vortex state energetically favourable. In the Thomas-Fermi limit, we show that the effect of the new nonlinearity is to induce a rotation to the condensate, where the transition from non-rotating to rotating states depends on the density of the cloud.
Manifestly gauge-covariant representation of scalar and fermion propagators
Latosi?ski, Adam
2015-01-01
A new way to write the massive scalar and fermion propagators on a background of a weak gauge field is presented. They are written in a form that is manifestly gauge-covariant up to several additional terms that can be written as boundary terms in momentum space. These additional terms violate Ward-Takahashi identities and need to be renormalized by appropriate counterterms if the complete theory is to be gauge-covariant. This form makes it possible to calculate many amplitudes in a manifestly gauge-covariant way (at the same time reducing the number of Feynman diagrams). It also allows to express some counterterms in a way independent of the regularization scheme and provides an easy way to derive the anomalous term affecting the chiral current conservation.
The gauge algebra of double field theory and Courant brackets
Hull, Chris
We investigate the symmetry algebra of the recently proposed field theory on a doubled torus that describes closed string modes on a torus with both momentum and winding. The gauge parameters are constrained fields on the ...
Gauge-invariant Green function dynamics: A unified approach
Swiecicki, Sylvia D., E-mail: sswiecic@physics.utoronto.ca; Sipe, J.E., E-mail: sipe@physics.utoronto.ca
2013-11-15
We present a gauge-invariant description of Green function dynamics introduced by means of a generalized Peirels phase involving an arbitrary differentiable path in space–time. Two other approaches to formulating a gauge-invariant description of systems, the Green function treatment of Levanda and Fleurov [M. Levanda, V. Fleurov, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 (1994) 7889] and the usual multipolar expansion for an atom, are shown to arise as special cases of our formalism. We argue that the consideration of paths in the generalized Peirels phase that do not lead to introduction of an effective gauge-invariant Hamiltonian with polarization and magnetization fields may prove useful for the treatment of the response of materials with short electron correlation lengths. -- Highlights: •Peirels phase for an arbitrary path in space–time established. •Gauge-invariant Green functions and the Power–Zienau–Wooley transformation connected. •Limitations on possible polarization and magnetization fields established.
The Higgs boson as a gauge field in extra dimensions
Marco Serone
2005-08-29
I review, at a general non-technical level, the main properties of models in extra dimensions where the Higgs field is identified with some internal component of a gauge field.
A gauge invariant cluster algorithm for the Ising spin glass
K. Langfeld; M. Quandt; W. Lutz; H. Reinhardt
2006-06-14
The frustrated Ising model in two dimensions is revisited. The frustration is quantified in terms of the number of non-trivial plaquettes which is invariant under the Nishimori gauge symmetry. The exact ground state energy is calculated using Edmond's algorithm. A novel cluster algorithm is designed which treats gauge equivalent spin glasses on equal footing and allows for efficient simulations near criticality. As a first application, the specific heat near criticality is investigated.
Load cell having strain gauges of arbitrary location
Spletzer, Barry (Albuquerque, NM)
2007-03-13
A load cell utilizes a plurality of strain gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-strain relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-strain sensitivity matrix to a measured strain vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting strains. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the strain gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.
N=4 Supersymmetric Gauge Theory in the Derivative Expansion
Chalmers, G
2002-01-01
Maximally supersymmetric gauge theories have experienced renewed interest due to the AdS/CFT correspondence and its conjectured S-duality. These gauge theories possess a large amount of symmetry and have quasi-integrable properties. We derive the amplitudes in the derivative expansion of the spontaneously broken examples and perform all loop integrations. The S-matrix is found via an algebraic recursion and at each order is SL(2,Z) invariant.
Chisholm, J S R
1984-01-01
Spin gauge theory of the first generation ; 2, basic theory of strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions
Low-energy U(1) x USp(2M) gauge theory from simple high-energy gauge group
Sven Bjarke Gudnason; Kenichi Konishi
2010-05-17
We give an explicit example of the embedding of a near BPS low-energy (U(1) x USp(2M))/Z_2 gauge theory into a high-energy theory with a simple gauge group and adjoint matter content. This system possesses degenerate monopoles arising from the high-energy symmetry breaking as well as non-Abelian vortices due to the symmetry breaking at low energies. These solitons of different codimensions are related by the exact homotopy sequences.
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, Dénes
2014-07-28
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
Gasenzer, Thomas [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretische Physik; GSI-Darmstadt (Germany). ExtreMe Matter Inst. (EMMI); McLerran, Larry [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). RIKEN Research Center and Physics Dept.; China Central Normal Univ., Wuhan (China). Physics Dept.; Pawlowski, Jan M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretische Physik; GSI-Darmstadt (Germany). ExtreMe Matter Inst. (EMMI); Sexty, Dénes [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretische Physik; GSI-Darmstadt (Germany). ExtreMe Matter Inst. (EMMI)
2014-10-01
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, Dénes
2014-07-28
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixedmore »point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.« less
Matrix product states for Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories
Boye Buyens; Karel Van Acoleyen; Jutho Haegeman; Frank Verstraete
2014-10-31
Over the last decade tensor network states (TNS) have emerged as a powerful tool for the study of quantum many body systems. The matrix product states (MPS) are one particular case of TNS and are used for the simulation of 1+1 dimensional systems. In [1] we considered the MPS formalism for the simulation of the Hamiltonian lattice gauge formulation of 1+1 dimensional one flavor quantum electrodynamics, also known as the massive Schwinger model. We deduced the ground state and lowest lying excitations. Furthermore, we performed a full quantum real-time simulation for a quench with a uniform background electric field. In this proceeding we continue our work on the Schwinger model. We demonstrate the advantage of working with gauge invariant MPS by comparing with MPS simulations on the full Hilbert space, that includes numerous non-physical gauge variant states. Furthermore, we compute the chiral condensate and recover the predicted UV-divergent behavior.
Color gauge invariance in the Drell-Yan process
Daniel Boer; P. J. Mulders
1999-11-22
We consider the color gauge invariance of a factorized description of the Drell-Yan process cross section. In particular, we focus on the next-to-leading twist contributions for polarized scattering and on the cross section differential in the transverse momentum of the lepton pair in the region where the transverse momentum is small compared to the hard scale. The hadron tensor is expressed in terms of manifestly color gauge invariant, nonlocal operator matrix elements and a color gauge invariant treatment of soft gluon poles is given. Also, we clarify the discrepancy between two published results for a single spin asymmetry in the Drell-Yan cross section. This asymmetry arises if such a soft gluon pole is present in a specific twist-three hadronic matrix element.
Tree Level Metastability and Gauge Mediation in Baryon Deformed SQCD
Barnard, James
2009-01-01
We investigate supersymmetric QCD with gauge group SU(2) and a baryon deformation to the superpotential. The existence of an uplifted vacuum at the origin with tree level metastability is demonstrated. When this model is implemented in a direct gauge mediation scenario we therefore find gaugino masses which are comparable to sfermion masses and parameterised by an effective number of messengers 1/8. All deformations are well motivated by appealing to the electric theory and an R-symmetry. This R-symmetry is explicitly broken by the same term responsible for supersymmetry breaking. Moreover, the model does not suffer from the Landau pole problem and we find that it can be described in terms of just two scales: the weak scale and a high scale like the Planck or GUT scale. The model can be tested by searching for new particles at the TeV scale charged under the visible sector gauge group.
Tree Level Metastability and Gauge Mediation in Baryon Deformed SQCD
James Barnard
2010-02-15
We investigate supersymmetric QCD with gauge group SU(2) and a baryon deformation to the superpotential. The existence of an uplifted vacuum at the origin with tree level metastability is demonstrated. When this model is implemented in a direct gauge mediation scenario we therefore find gaugino masses which are comparable to sfermion masses and parameterised by an effective number of messengers 1/8. All deformations are well motivated by appealing to the electric theory and an R-symmetry. This R-symmetry is explicitly broken by the same term responsible for supersymmetry breaking. Moreover, the model does not suffer from the Landau pole problem and we find that it can be described in terms of just two scales: the weak scale and a high scale like the Planck or GUT scale. The model can be tested by searching for new particles at the TeV scale charged under the visible sector gauge group.
Hall viscosity from elastic gauge fields in Dirac crystals
Cortijo, Alberto; Landsteiner, Karl; Vozmediano, María A H
2015-01-01
The combination of Dirac physics and elasticity has been explored at length in graphene where the so--called "elastic gauge fields" have given rise to an entire new field of research and applications: Straintronics. The fact that these elastic fields couple to fermions as the electromagnetic field, implies that many electromagnetic responses will have elastic counterparts not explored before. In this work we will first show that the presence of elastic gauge fields will be the rule rather than the exception in most of the topologically non--trivial materials in two and three dimensions. In particular we will extract the elastic gauge fields associated to the recently observed Weyl semimetals, the "three dimensional graphene". As it is known, quantum electrodynamics suffers from the chiral anomaly whose consequences have been recently explored in matter systems. We will show that, associated to the physics of the anomalies, and as a counterpart of the Hall conductivity, elastic materials will have a Hall visco...
Gauge Theory of the Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field
Robert D. Bock
2015-05-26
We develop a gauge theory of the combined gravitational-electromagnetic field by expanding the Poincar\\'e group to include clock synchronization transformations. We show that the electromagnetic field can be interpreted as a local gauge theory of the synchrony group. According to this interpretation, the electromagnetic field equations possess nonlinear terms and electromagnetic gauge transformations acquire a space-time interpretation as local synchrony transformations. The free Lagrangian for the fields leads to the usual Einstein-Maxwell field equations with additional gravitational-electromagnetic coupling terms. The connection between the electromagnetic field and the invariance properties of the Lagrangian under clock synchronization transformations provides a strong theoretical argument in favor of the thesis of the conventionality of simultaneity. This suggests that clock synchronization invariance (or equivalently, invariance under transformations of the one-way speed of light) is a fundamental invariance principle of physics.
Universality of Gauge Thresholds in Non-Supersymmetric Heterotic Vacua
Carlo Angelantonj; Ioannis Florakis; Mirian Tsulaia
2015-06-26
We compute one-loop threshold corrections to non-abelian gauge couplings in four-dimensional heterotic vacua with spontaneously broken $\\cal N = 2 \\to \\cal N = 0$ supersymmetry, obtained as Scherk-Schwarz reductions of six-dimensional K3 compactifications. As expected, the gauge thresholds are no-longer BPS protected, and receive contributions also from the excitations of the RNS sector. Remarkably, the difference of thresholds for non-abelian gauge couplings is BPS saturated and exhibits a universal behaviour independently of the orbifold realisation of K3. Moreover, the thresholds and their difference develop infra-red logarithmic singularities whenever charged BPS-like states, originating from the twisted RNS sector, become massless at special loci in the classical moduli space.
Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge
Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM)
1993-01-01
A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge.
Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge
Noel, B.W.
1993-12-28
A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge. 3 figures.
New ways to leptogenesis with gauged B-L symmetry
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Babu, K.S.; Meng, Yanzhi; Tavartkiladze, Zurab
2009-10-01
We show that in supersymmetric models with gauged B-L symmetry, there is a new source for cosmological lepton asymmetry. The Higgs bosons responsible for B-L gauge symmetry breaking decay dominantly into right-handed sneutrinos N~ and N~* producing an asymmetry in N~ over N~*. This can be fully converted into ordinary lepton asymmetry in the decays of N~. In simple models with gauged B-L symmetry we show that resonant/soft leptogenesis is naturally realized. Supersymmetry guarantees quasi-degenerate scalar states, while soft breaking of SUSY provides the needed CP violation. Acceptable values of baryon asymmetry are obtained without causing serious problems with gravitinomore »abundance.« less
A. A. Reshetnyak
2003-05-21
The basic theorem of the Lagrangian formulation for general superfield theory of fields (GSTF) is proved. The gauge transformations of general type (GTGT) and gauge algebra of generators of GTGT (GGTGT) as the consequences of the above theorem are studied. It is established the gauge algebra of GGTGT contains the one of generators of gauge transformations of special type (GGTST) as one's subalgebra. In the framework of Lagrangian formulation for GSTF the nontrivial superfield model generalizing the model of Quantum Electrodynamics and belonging to the class of gauge theory of general type (GThGT) with Abelian gauge algebra of GGTGT is constructed.
Unified spin gauge model and the top quark mass
Chisholm, J.S.R.; Farwell, R.S.
1995-10-01
Spin gauge models use a real Clifford algebraic structure R{sub p,q} associated with a real manifold of dimension p + q to describe the fundamental interactions of elementary particles. This review provides a comparison between those models and the standard model, indicating their similarities and differences. By contrast with the standard model, the spin gauge model based on R{sub 3,8} generates intermediate boson mass terms without the need to use the Higgs-Kibble mechanism and produces a precise prediction for the mass of the top quark. The potential of this model to account for exactly three families of fermions is considered.
Gauge Invariant Effective Stress-Energy Tensors for Gravitational Waves
Paul R. Anderson
1996-09-09
It is shown that if a generalized definition of gauge invariance is used, gauge invariant effective stress-energy tensors for gravitational waves and other gravitational perturbations can be defined in a much larger variety of circumstances than has previously been possible. In particular it is no longer necessary to average the stress-energy tensor over a region of spacetime which is larger in scale than the wavelengths of the waves and it is no longer necessary to restrict attention to high frequency gravitational waves.
A Maxwell's equations, Coulomb gauge analysis of two scatterers
Crowell, Kelly Jean
1990-01-01
for Wedges (P, g 180') Page 31 36 vn LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9 - 10. Geometry for a scatterer in the presence of a wedge of angle Po Straight wire segmentation scheme Segmentation scheme for scatterer in wedge geometry...'s method. In the Lorentz gauge this procedure is well documented[21], therefore our discussion below will exclusively describe a, method for obtaining the Coulomb gauge vector and scalar potentials. To determine A" we introduce the Green's dyadic Gz...
Gauge theories on hyperbolic spaces and dual wormhole instabilities
Buchel, Alex
2004-09-15
We study supergravity duals of strongly coupled four-dimensional gauge theories formulated on compact quotients of hyperbolic spaces. The resulting background geometries are represented by Euclidean wormholes, which complicate establishing the precise gauge theory/string theory correspondence dictionary. These backgrounds suffer from the nonperturbative instabilities arising from the D3D3-bar pair-production in the background four-form potential. We discuss conditions for suppressing this Schwingerlike instability. We find that Euclidean wormholes arising in this construction develop a naked singularity before they can be stabilized.
Preserving Local Gauge Invariance with t-Channel Regge Exchange
Haberzettl, Helmut; He, Jun
2015-01-01
Considering single-meson photo- and electroproduction off a baryon, it is shown how to restore local gauge invariance that was broken by replacing standard Feynman-type meson exchange in the t-channel by exchange of a Regge trajectory. This is achieved by constructing a contact current whose four-divergence cancels the gauge-invariance-violating contributions resulting from all states above the base state on the Regge trajectory. To illustrate the procedure, modifications necessary for the process $\\gamma +p \\to K^+ + \\Sigma^{*0}$ are discussed in some detail. We also provide the general expression for the contact current for an arbitrary reaction.
N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories and quantum integrable systems
Yuan Luo; Meng-Chwan Tan; Junya Yagi
2014-04-01
We study N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories on the product of a two-sphere and a cylinder. We show that the low-energy dynamics of a BPS sector of such a theory is described by a quantum integrable system, with the Planck constant set by the inverse of the radius of the sphere. If the sphere is replaced with a hemisphere, then our system reduces to an integrable system of the type studied by Nekrasov and Shatashvili. In this case we establish a correspondence between the effective prepotential of the gauge theory and the Yang-Yang function of the integrable system.
Multiple Higgs-Portal and Gauge-Kinetic Mixings
S. Y. Choi; C. Englert; P. M. Zerwas
2013-10-29
We develop a phenomenological formalism for mixing effects between the Standard Model and hidden-sector fields, motivated by dark matter in the Universe as well as string theories. The scheme includes multiple Higgs-portal interactions in the scalar sector as well as multiple gauge-kinetic mixings in the abelian gauge sector. While some of the mixing effects can be cast in closed form, other elements can be controlled analytically only by means of perturbative expansions in the ratio of standard scales over large hidden scales. Higgs and vector-boson masses and mixings are illustrated numerically for characteristic processes.
Gauge and Higgs Boson Masses from an Extra Dimension
Graham Moir; Peter Dziennik; Nikos Irges; Francesco Knechtli; Kyoko Yoneyama
2014-11-03
We present novel calculations of the mass hierarchy of the $SU(2)$ pure gauge theory on a space-time lattice with an orbifolded fifth dimension. This theory has three parameters; the gauge coupling $\\beta$, the anisotropy $\\gamma$, which is a measure of the ratio of the lattice spacing in the four dimensions to that in the fifth dimension, and the extent of the extra dimension $N_{5}$. Using a large basis of scalar and vector operators we explore in detail the spectrum along the $\\gamma = 1$ line, and for the first time we investigate the spectrum for $\\gamma \
Direct Gauge Mediation of Uplifted Metastable Supersymmetry Breaking in Supergravity
Nobuhito Maru
2010-08-11
We propose a direct gauge mediation model based on an uplifted metastable SUSY breaking coupled to supergravity. A constant superpotential plays an essential role to fix the moduli as well as breaking SUSY and R-symmetry and the cancellation of the cosmological constant. Gaugino masses are generated at leading order of SUSY breaking scale, and comparable to the sfermion masses as in the ordinary gauge mediation. Landau pole problem for QCD coupling can be easily solved since more than half of messengers become superheavy, which are heavier than the GUT scale.
Uplifted Metastable Vacua and Gauge Mediation in SQCD
Amit Giveon; Andrey Katz; Zohar Komargodski
2009-05-21
Anomalously small gaugino masses are a common feature of various models of direct gauge mediation. This problem is closely related to the vacuum structure of the theory. In this paper we show that massive SQCD can have SUSY-breaking vacua which are qualitatively different from the ISS vacuum. These novel vacua are metastable with respect to decay to the ISS vacuum. We demonstrate the possibility of addressing the gaugino mass problem in this framework. We study the properties of these vacua and construct an example of a model of direct gauge mediation.
Muon g-2 Anomaly and Dark Leptonic Gauge Boson
Lee, Hye-Sung [W& M
2014-11-01
One of the major motivations to search for a dark gauge boson of MeV-GeV scale is the long-standing muon g-2 anomaly. Because of active searches such as fixed target experiments and rare meson decays, the muon g-2 favored parameter region has been rapidly reduced. With the most recent data, it is practically excluded now in the popular dark photon model. We overview the issue and investigate a potentially alternative model based on the gauged lepton number or U(1)_L, which is under different experimental constraints.
Janis-Newman algorithm: simplifications and gauge field transformation
Harold Erbin
2015-02-16
The Janis-Newman algorithm is an old but very powerful tool to generate rotating solutions from static ones through a set of complex coordinate transformations. Several solutions have been derived in this way, including solutions with gauge fields. However, the transformation of the latter was so far always postulated as an ad hoc result. In this paper we propose a generalization of the procedure, extending it to the transformation of the gauge field. We also present a simplification of the algorithm due to G. Giampieri. We illustrate our prescription on the Kerr-Newman solution.
Exact results on N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories
Jörg Teschner
2015-03-10
This is the introduction to the collection of review articles "Exact results on N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories". The first three sections are intended to give a general overview over the physical motivations behind this direction of research, and some of the developments that initiated this project. These sections are written for a broad audience of readers with interest in quantum field theory, assuming only very basic knowledge of supersymmetric gauge theories and string theory. This will be followed by a brief overview over the different chapters collected in this volume, while the last section indicates some related developments that we were unfortunately not able to cover.
A note on Gauge Theories Coupled to Gravity
Tom Banks; Matt Johnson; Assaf Shomer
2006-06-29
We analyze the bound on gauge couplings $e\\geq m/m_p$, suggested by Arkani-Hamed et.al. We show this bound can be derived from simple semi-classical considerations and holds in spacetime dimensions greater than or equal to four. Non abelian gauge symmetries seem to satisfy the bound in a trivial manner. We comment on the case of discrete symmetries and close by performing some checks for the bound in higher dimensions in the context of string theory.
Holographic Gauge Mediation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect
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Wormholes, Emergent Gauge Fields, and the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Harlow, Daniel
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the question of reconstructing bulk gauge fields as boundary operators in AdS/CFT. In the presence of the wormhole dual to the thermofield double state of two CFTs, the existence of bulk gauge fields is in some tension with the microscopic tensor factorization of the Hilbert space. I explain how this tension can be resolved by splitting the gauge field into charged constituents, and I argue that this leads to a new argument for the "principle of completeness", which states that the charge lattice of a gauge theory coupled to gravity must be fully populated. I also claim that it leads to a new motivation for (and a clarification of) the "weak gravity conjecture", which I interpret as a strengthening of this principle. This setup gives a simple example of a situation where describing low-energy bulk physics in CFT language requires knowledge of high-energy bulk physics. This contradicts to some extent the notion of "effective conformal field theory", but in fact is an expected feature of the...
Gauge cooling in complex Langevin for QCD with heavy quarks
Erhard Seiler; Dénes Sexty; Ion-Olimpiu Stamatescu
2012-11-20
We employ a new method, "gauge cooling", to stabilize complex Langevin simulations of QCD with heavy quarks. The results are checked against results obtained with reweigthing; we find agreement within the estimated errors. The method allows us to go to previously unaccessible high densities.
Towards a Unified Theory of Gauge and Yukawa Interactions
Roepstorff, G; Vehns, Ch.
2000-01-01
It is suggested to combine gauge and Yukawa interactions into one expression involving the generalized Dirac operator associated with a superconnection $D+L$, $L$ being linked to the Higgs field (one doublet). We advocate a version of the Minimal Standard Model where the Higgs field gives masses to the neutrinos and a CKM matrix to the leptons.
Towards a unified theory of gauge and Yukawa interactions
G. Roepstorff; Ch. Vehns
2001-10-12
It is suggested to combine gauge and Yukawa interactions into one expression involving the generalized Dirac operator associated with a superconnection $D+L$, $L$ being linked to the Higgs field (one doublet). We advocate a version of the Minimal Standard Model where the Higgs field gives masses to the neutrinos and a CKM matrix to the leptons.
A new fermion Hamiltonian for lattice gauge theory
Michael Creutz; Ivan Horváth; Herbert Neuberger
2001-10-04
We formulate Hamiltonian vector-like lattice gauge theory using the overlap formula for the spatial fermionic part, $H_f$. We define a chiral charge, $Q_5$ which commutes with $H_f$, but not with the electric field term. There is an interesting relation between the chiral charge and the fermion energy with consequences for chiral anomalies.
Coulomb gauge approach for charmonium meson and hybrid radiative transitions
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Gou, Peng; Yepez-Martínez, Tochtli; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-01-22
We consider the lowest order interaction of the Foldy-Wouthuysen QED and QCD Hamiltonian in the Coulomb gauge approach, to describe radiative transitions between conventional and hybrids charmonium mesons. The results are compared to potential quark models and lattices calculations.
Symplectic quantum mechanics and Chern-Simons gauge theory. I
Jeffrey, Lisa C.
2013-05-15
In this article we describe the relation between the Chern-Simons gauge theory partition function and the partition function defined using the symplectic action functional as the Lagrangian. We show that the partition functions obtained using these two Lagrangians agree, and we identify the semiclassical formula for the partition function defined using the symplectic action functional.
Tracking Dark Energy from Axion-Gauge Field Couplings
Alexander, Stephon; Froehlich, Juerg
2016-01-01
We propose a model of Dark Energy in which the field currently dominating the energy density of the universe is an "axion field" linearly coupled to the Pontryagin density, $ \\text{tr}(F \\wedge F)$, (i.e., the exterior derivative of the Chern-Simons form) of a massive gauge field. We assume that the axion has self-interactions corresponding to a non-trivial (exponential) potential. We argue that a non-vanishing magnetic helicity of the gauge field triggers slow-rolling of the axion at field values far below the Planck scale. Our proposal leads to a "Tracking Dark Energy Scenario" in which the contribution of the axion energy density to the total energy density is constant (and small) during the early radiation phase, until a secular growth term proportional to the Pontryagin density of the gauge field becomes dominant. The initially small contribution of the axion field to the total energy density is related to the observed small baryon-to-entropy ratio. Some speculations concerning the nature of the gauge fi...
Trace extensions, determinant bundles, and gauge group cocycles
Joakim Arnlind; Jouko Mickelsson
2002-09-04
We study the geometry of determinant line bundles associated to Dirac operators on compact odd dimensional manifolds. Physically, these arise as (local) vacuum line bundles in quantum gauge theory. We give a simplified derivation of the commutator anomaly formula using a construction based on noncyclic trace extensions and associated multiplicative renormalized determinants.
Maxwell equations and the redundant gauge degree of freedom
Chun Wa Wong
2009-07-17
On transformation to the Fourier space $({\\bf k}, \\omega)$, the partial differential Maxwell equations simplify to algebraic equations, and the Helmholtz theorem of vector calculus reduces to vector algebraic projections. Maxwell equations and their solutions can then be separated readily into longitudinal and transverse components relative to the direction of the wave vector {\\bf k}. The concepts of wave motion, causality, scalar and vector potentials and their gauge transformations in vacuum and in materials can also be discussed from an elementary perspective. In particular, the excessive freedom of choice associated with the gauge dependence of the scalar and the longitudinal vector potentials stands out with clarity in Fourier spaces. Since these potentials are introduced to represent the instantaneous longitudinal electric field, the actual cancellation in the latter of causal contributions arising from these potentials separately in most velocity gauges becomes an important issue. This cancellation is explicitly demonstrated both in the Fourier space, and for pedagogical reasons again in space-time. The physical origin of the gauge degree of freedom in the masslessness of the photon, the quantum of electromagnetic wave, is elucidated with the help of special relativity and quantum mechanics.
Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-type equations for gauged WZNW models
I. I. Kogan; A. Lewis; O. A. Soloviev
1997-03-13
We study correlation functions of coset constructions by utilizing the method of gauge dressing. As an example we apply this method to the minimal models and to the Witten 2D black hole. We exhibit a striking similarity between the latter and the gravitational dressing. In particular, we look for logarithmic operators in the 2D black hole.
Generalized Chern-Simons action and maximally supersymmetric gauge theories
M. V. Movshev; A. Schwarz
2013-04-28
We study observables and deformations of generalized Chern-Simons action and show how to apply these results to maximally supersymmetric gauge theories. We describe a construction of large class of deformations based on some results on the cohomology of super Lie algebras proved in the Appendix.
Force measurements in magnetic bearings using fiber optic strain gauges
Raymer, Stephen Geoffrey
2000-01-01
The research presented here develops a new method for measuring forces in magnetic bearings. Fiber-optic strain gauges (FOSGs) mounted to the side of the magnet poles are used to detect the small levels of strain that the metal experiences...
Apparatus and method for field calibration of nuclear surface density gauges
Regimand, A.; Gilbert, A.B.
1999-07-01
Nuclear gauge density measurements are routinely used for compliance verification with specifications for road and construction projects. The density of construction materials is an important indicator of structural performance and quality. Due to speed of measurement, flexibility and accuracy, nuclear gauge density measurement methods are becoming the preferred standard around the world. Requirements dictate that gauges be verified or calibrated once every 12 to 18 months. Presently, there are no field portable devices available for verification of the gauge calibration. Also, the density references used for calibration of gauges, are large and not designed for field portability. Therefore, to meet the present standards, users are required to ship gauges back to a service facility for calibration. This paper presents results obtained by a newly developed device for field verification and calibration of nuclear density gauges from three different manufacturers. The calibrations obtained by this device are compared to the factory calibration methods and accuracies are reported for each gauge model.
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Using leverages for objective analysis of PSMSL tide gauges in Arctic Ocean sea level reconstruction
applied to the tide gauges, using the Peltier ICE-5G model (Peltier, 2004). For this preliminary analysis
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Gauge Non-Invariant Higher-Spin Currents in $AdS_4$
Smirnov, P A
2015-01-01
Conserved currents of any spin $t>0$ built from bosonic symmetric massless gauge fields of arbitrary integer spins in $AdS_4$ are found. Analogously to the case of $4d$ Minkowski space, currents considered in this paper are not gauge invariant but generate gauge invariant conserved charges.
Cartan gravity, matter fields, and the gauge principle
Westman, Hans F.; Zlosnik, Tom G.
2013-07-15
Gravity is commonly thought of as one of the four force fields in nature. However, in standard formulations its mathematical structure is rather different from the Yang–Mills fields of particle physics that govern the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. This paper explores this dissonance with particular focus on how gravity couples to matter from the perspective of the Cartan-geometric formulation of gravity. There the gravitational field is represented by a pair of variables: (1) a ‘contact vector’ V{sup A} which is geometrically visualized as the contact point between the spacetime manifold and a model spacetime being ‘rolled’ on top of it, and (2) a gauge connection A{sub ?}{sup AB}, here taken to be valued in the Lie algebra of SO(2,3) or SO(1,4), which mathematically determines how much the model spacetime is rotated when rolled. By insisting on two principles, the gauge principle and polynomial simplicity, we shall show how one can reformulate matter field actions in a way that is harmonious with Cartan’s geometric construction. This yields a formulation of all matter fields in terms of first order partial differential equations. We show in detail how the standard second order formulation can be recovered. In particular, the Hodge dual, which characterizes the structure of bosonic field equations, pops up automatically. Furthermore, the energy–momentum and spin-density three-forms are naturally combined into a single object here denoted the spin-energy–momentum three-form. Finally, we highlight a peculiarity in the mathematical structure of our first-order formulation of Yang–Mills fields. This suggests a way to unify a U(1) gauge field with gravity into a SO(1,5)-valued gauge field using a natural generalization of Cartan geometry in which the larger symmetry group is spontaneously broken down to SO(1,3)×U(1). The coupling of this unified theory to matter fields and possible extensions to non-Abelian gauge fields are left as open questions. -- Highlights: •Develops Cartan gravity to include matter fields. •Coupling to gravity is done using the standard gauge prescription. •Matter actions are manifestly polynomial in all field variables. •Standard equations recovered on-shell for scalar, spinor and Yang–Mills fields. •Unification of a U(1) field with gravity based on the orthogonal group SO(1,5)
A proposal for a manifestly gauge invariant and universal calculus in Yang-Mills theory
Arnone, S; Morris, T R; Arnone, Stefano; Gatti, Antonio; Morris, Tim R.
2003-01-01
We uncover a method of calculation that proceeds at every step without fixing the gauge or specifying details of the regularisation scheme. Results are obtained by iterated use of integration by parts and gauge invariance identities. The initial stages can even be computed diagrammatically. The method is formulated within the framework of an exact renormalization group for SU(N) Yang-Mills gauge theory, incorporating an effective cutoff through a manifest spontaneously broken SU(N|N) gauge invariance. We demonstrate the technique with a compact calculation of the one-loop beta function, achieving a manifestly universal result, and without gauge fixing, for the first time at finite N.
A proposal for a manifestly gauge invariant and universal calculus in Yang-Mills theory
Stefano Arnone; Antonio Gatti; Tim R. Morris
2002-09-20
We uncover a method of calculation that proceeds at every step without fixing the gauge or specifying details of the regularisation scheme. Results are obtained by iterated use of integration by parts and gauge invariance identities. The initial stages can even be computed diagrammatically. The method is formulated within the framework of an exact renormalization group for SU(N) Yang-Mills gauge theory, incorporating an effective cutoff through a manifest spontaneously broken SU(N|N) gauge invariance. We demonstrate the technique with a compact calculation of the one-loop beta function, achieving a manifestly universal result, and without gauge fixing, for the first time at finite N.
All-order Finiteness of the Higgs Boson Mass in the Dynamical Gauge-Higgs Unification
Yutaka Hosotani
2006-07-06
In the dynamical gauge-Higgs unification, it is shown that the mass of the Higgs boson (4D scalar field) in U(1) gauge theory in $M^4 \\times T^n$ ($n=1,2,3,...$) is finite to all order in perturbation theory as a consequence of the large gauge invariance. It is conjectured that the Higgs boson mass is finite in non-Abelian gauge theory in $M^4 \\times S^1$, $M^4 \\times (S^1/Z_2)$ and the Randall-Sundrum warped spacetime to all order in the rearranged perturbation theory where the large gauge invariance is maintained.
Gauge invariant regularisation via SU(N|N)
Stefano Arnone; Yuri A. Kubyshin; Tim R. Morris; John F. Tighe
2001-11-25
We construct a gauge invariant regularisation scheme for pure SU(N) Yang-Mills theory in fixed dimension four or less (for N = infinity in all dimensions), with a physical cutoff scale Lambda, by using covariant higher derivatives and spontaneously broken SU(N|N) supergauge invariance. Providing their powers are within certain ranges, the covariant higher derivatives cure the superficial divergence of all but a set of one-loop graphs. The finiteness of these latter graphs is ensured by properties of the supergroup and gauge invariance. In the limit Lambda tends to infinity, all the regulator fields decouple and unitarity is recovered in the renormalized pure SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. By demonstrating these properties, we prove that the regularisation works to all orders in perturbation theory.
Chiral symmetry of graphene and strong coupling lattice gauge theory
Yasufumi Araki; Tetsuo Hatsuda
2010-10-28
We model the electrons on a monolayer graphene in terms of the compact and non-compact U(1) lattice gauge theories. The system is analyzed by the strong coupling expansion and is shown to be an insulator due to dynamical gap formation in/around the strong coupling limit. This is similar to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong coupling gauge theories. The results from the compact and non-compact formulations are compared up to the next-to-leading order of the strong coupling expansion. Excitonic modes and their dispersion relations in the insulating phase are also investigated: it is found that there arises a pseudo-Nambu--Goldstone mode obeying the Gell-Mann--Oakes--Renner type formula.
Thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory at fixed lattice spacing
T. Umeda; S. Ejiri; S. Aoki; T. Hatsuda; K. Kanaya; Y. Maezawa; H. Ohno
2008-10-09
We study thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory at fixed scales on the lattice, where we vary temperature by changing the temporal lattice size N_t=(Ta_t)^{-1}. In the fixed scale approach, finite temperature simulations are performed on common lattice spacings and spatial volumes. Consequently, we can isolate thermal effects in observables from other uncertainties, such as lattice artifact, renormalization factor, and spatial volume effect. Furthermore, in the EOS calculations, the fixed scale approach is able to reduce computational costs for zero temperature subtraction and parameter search to find lines of constant physics, which are demanding in full QCD simulations. As a test of the approach, we study the thermodynamics of the SU(3) gauge theory on isotropic and anisotropic lattices. In addition to the equation of state, we calculate the critical temperature and the static quark free energy at a fixed scale.
The Electromagnetic Field as a Synchrony Gauge Field
Robert D. Bock
2015-09-24
Building on our previous work, we investigate the identification of the electromagnetic field as a local gauge field of a restricted group of synchrony transformations. We begin by arguing that the inability to measure the one-way speed of light independent of a synchronization scheme necessitates that physical laws must be reformulated without distant simultaneity. As a result, we are forced to introduce a new operational definition of time which leads to a fundamental space-time invariance principle that is related to a subset of the synchrony group. We identify the gauge field associated with this new invariance principle with the electromagnetic field. Consequently, the electromagnetic field acquires a space-time interpretation, as suggested in our previous work. In addition, we investigate the static, spherically symmetric solution of the resulting field equations. Also, we discuss implications of the present work for understanding the tension between classical and quantum theory.
The Electromagnetic Field as a Synchrony Gauge Field
Bock, Robert D
2015-01-01
Building on our previous work, we investigate the identification of the electromagnetic field as a local gauge field of a restricted group of synchrony transformations. We begin by arguing that the inability to measure the one-way speed of light independent of a synchronization scheme necessitates that physical laws must be reformulated without distant simultaneity. As a result, we are forced to introduce a new operational definition of time which leads to a fundamental space-time invariance principle that is related to a subset of the synchrony group. We identify the gauge field associated with this new invariance principle with the electromagnetic field. Consequently, the electromagnetic field acquires a space-time interpretation, as suggested in our previous work. In addition, we investigate the static, spherically symmetric solution of the resulting field equations. Also, we discuss implications of the present work for understanding the tension between classical and quantum theory.
Torus partition functions and spectra of gauged linear sigma models
Stefan Groot Nibbelink; Fabian Ruehle
2014-08-27
Worldsheet (0,2) gauged linear sigma models are often used to study supersymmetric heterotic string compactifications with non-trivial vector bundles. We make use of supersymmetric localization techniques to determine their one-loop partition functions. In particular we derive conditions which ensure that the full partition function is modular invariant and we propose a method to determine the massless and massive target space matter spectrum.
Gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and axionic QCD string
Chi Xiong
2014-12-30
We propose an axionic QCD string scenario based on the original flux-tube model by Kogut and Susskind, and then incorporate it into a gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. Axial anomaly is studied by a new topological coupling from the string side, and by the 't Hooft vortex from the NJL side, respectively. The nontrivial phase distribution of the quark condensate plays an important role in this scenario.
Covariant formulations of BSSN and the standard gauge
J. David Brown
2009-05-22
The BSSN and standard gauge equations are written in covariant form with respect to spatial coordinate transformations. The BSSN variables are defined as tensors with no density weights. This allows us to evolve a given set of initial data using two different coordinate systems and to relate the results using the familiar tensor transformation rules. Two variants of the covariant equations are considered. These differ from one another in the way that the determinant of the conformal metric is evolved.
Continuum Thermodynamics of the SU(N) Gauge Theory
Saumen Datta; Sourendu Gupta
2010-12-30
The thermodynamics of the deconfined phase of the SU(N) gauge theory is studied. Careful study is made of the approach to the continuum limit. The latent heat of the deconfinement transition is studied, for the theories with 3, 4 and 6 colors. Continuum estimates of various thermodynamic quantities are studied, and the approach to conformality investigated. The bulk thermodynamic quantities at different N are compared, to investigate the validity of 't Hooft scaling at these values of N.
Light quark spectrum with improved gauge and fermion actions
MILC Collaboration; Claude Bernard; Tom DeGrand; Carleton DeTar; Steven Gottlieb; Urs M. Heller; Jim Hetrick; Craig McNeile; Kari Rummukainen; Bob Sugar; Doug Toussaint; Matthew Wingate
1997-11-08
We report on a study of the light quark spectrum using an improved gauge action and both Kogut-Susskind and Naik quark actions. We have studied six different lattice spacings, corresponding to plaquette couplings ranging from 6.8 to 7.9, with five to six quark masses per coupling. We compare the two quark actions in terms of the spectrum and restoration of flavor symmetry. We also compare these results with those from the conventional action.
Revolving D-branes and Spontaneous Gauge Symmetry Breaking
Satoshi Iso; Noriaki Kitazawa
2015-10-07
We propose a new mechanism of spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking in the world-volume theory of revolving D-branes around a fixed point of orbifolds. In this paper, we consider a simple model of the T6/Z3 orbifold on which we put D3-branes, D7-branes and their anti-branes. The configuration breaks supersymmetry, but the R-R tadpole cancellation conditions are satisfied. A set of three D3-branes at an orbifold fixed point can separate from the point, but when they move perpendicular to the anti-D7-branes put on the fixed point, they are forced to be pulled back due to an attractive interaction between the D3 and anti-D7 branes. In order to stabilize the separation of the D3-branes at nonzero distance, we consider revolution of the D3-branes around the fixed point. Then the gauge symmetry on D3-branes is spontaneously broken, and the rank of the gauge group is reduced. The distance can be set at our will by appropriately choosing the angular momentum of the revolving D3-branes, which should be determined by the initial condition of the cosmological evolution of D-brane configurations. The distance corresponds to the vacuum expectation values of brane moduli fields in the world-volume theory and, if it is written as M/Ms^2 in terms of the string scale Ms, the scale of gauge symmetry breaking is given by M. Angular momentum conservation of revolving D3-branes assures the stability of the scale M against Ms.
Self-avoiding effective strings in lattice gauge theories
M. Caselle; F. Gliozzi
1991-11-28
It is shown that the effective string recently introduced to describe the long distance dynamics of 3D gauge systems in the confining phase has an intriguing description in terms of models of 2D self-avoiding walks in the dense phase. The deconfinement point, where the effective string becomes N=2 supersymmetric, may then be interpreted as the tricritical Theta point where the polymer chain undergoes a collapse transition. As a consequence, a universal value of the deconfinement temperature is predicted.
Two-dimensional Lattice Gauge Theories with Superconducting Quantum Circuits
D. Marcos; P. Widmer; E. Rico; M. Hafezi; P. Rabl; U. -J. Wiese; P. Zoller
2014-10-26
A quantum simulator of U(1) lattice gauge theories can be implemented with superconducting circuits. This allows the investigation of confined and deconfined phases in quantum link models, and of valence bond solid and spin liquid phases in quantum dimer models. Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well. Here we show how state-of-the-art superconducting technology allows us to simulate these phenomena in relatively small circuit lattices. By exploiting the strong non-linear couplings between quantized excitations emerging when superconducting qubits are coupled, we show how to engineer gauge invariant Hamiltonians, including ring-exchange and four-body Ising interactions. We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories. The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability.
Two-dimensional lattice gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits
Marcos, D.; Widmer, P.; Rico, E.; Hafezi, M.; Rabl, P.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.
2014-12-15
A quantum simulator of U(1) lattice gauge theories can be implemented with superconducting circuits. This allows the investigation of confined and deconfined phases in quantum link models, and of valence bond solid and spin liquid phases in quantum dimer models. Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well. Here we show how state-of-the-art superconducting technology allows us to simulate these phenomena in relatively small circuit lattices. By exploiting the strong non-linear couplings between quantized excitations emerging when superconducting qubits are coupled, we show how to engineer gauge invariant Hamiltonians, including ring-exchange and four-body Ising interactions. We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories. The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability.
M5-branes, toric diagrams and gauge theory duality
Ling Bao; Elli Pomoni; Masato Taki; Futoshi Yagi
2012-02-03
In this article we explore the duality between the low energy effective theory of five-dimensional N=1 SU(N)^{M-1} and SU(M)^{N-1} linear quiver gauge theories compactified on S^1. The theories we study are the five-dimensional uplifts of four-dimensional superconformal linear quivers. We study this duality by comparing the Seiberg-Witten curves and the Nekrasov partition functions of the two dual theories. The Seiberg-Witten curves are obtained by minimizing the worldvolume of an M5-brane with nontrivial geometry. Nekrasov partition functions are computed using topological string theory. The result of our study is a map between the gauge theory parameters, i.e., Coulomb moduli, masses and UV coupling constants, of the two dual theories. Apart from the obvious physical interest, this duality also leads to compelling mathematical identities. Through the AGTW conjecture these five-dimentional gauge theories are related to q-deformed Liouville and Toda SCFTs in two-dimensions. The duality we study implies the relations between Liouville and Toda correlation functions through the map we derive.
Observation of the Chern-Simons gauge anomaly
Sunil Mittal; Sriram Ganeshan; Jingyun Fan; Abolhassan Vaezi; Mohammad Hafezi
2015-04-22
Topological Quantum Field Theories (TQFTs) are powerful tools to describe universal features of topological orders. A hallmark example of a TQFT is the 2+1 D Chern-Simons (CS) theory which describes topological properties of both integer and fractional quantum Hall effects. The gauge invariant form of the CS theory with boundaries, encompassing both edge and bulk terms, provides an unambiguous way to relate bulk topological invariants to the edge dynamics. This bulk-edge correspondence is manifested as a gauge anomaly of the chiral dynamics at the edge, and provides a direct insight into the bulk topological order. Such an anomaly has never been directly observed in an experiment. In this work, we experimentally implement the integer quantum Hall model in a photonic system, described by the corresponding CS theory. By selectively manipulating and probing the edge, we exploit the gauge anomaly of the CS theory, for the first time. The associated spectral edge flow allows us to unambiguously measure topological invariants, i.e., the winding number of the edge states. This experiment provides a new approach for direct measurement of topological invariants, independent of the microscopic details, and thus could be extended to probe strongly correlated topological orders.
Anomaly of Tensionless String in Light-cone Gauge
Kenta Murase
2015-03-04
The classical tensionless string theory has the spacetime conformal symmetry. We expect and require that the quantum tensionless string theory has it too. In the BRST quantization method, the theory has no spacetime conformal anomaly in two dimensions. On the other hand, in the light-cone gauge quantization without the mode expansion, the theory in $D>3$ has the spacetime conformal anomaly in the traceless part of $[\\mathcal{J}^{-I}, \\mathcal{K}^{J}]$ in some operator order. In this paper, we consider a tensionless closed bosonic string in the light-cone gauge and investigate the spacetime conformal anomaly in the theory with the mode expansion. The appearance of the spacetime conformal anomaly in the light-cone gauge is different between the case of $D>3$ and the case of $D=3$ and depends on the choice of the operator order. Therefore we must consider dangerous commutators in the spacetime conformal symmetry of $D>3$ and $D=3$ in each operator order separately. Specifically we calculate dangerous commutators, $[\\mathcal{J}^{-I},\\mathcal{K}^{K}]$ in $D>3$ and $\\tilde{\\mathcal{K}}^{-}\\equiv -i[\\mathcal{J}^{-}, \\tilde{\\mathcal{K}}^{-}]$ and $[\\mathcal{J}^{-}, \\tilde{\\mathcal{K}}^{-}]$ in $D=3$, in two types of the operator order.
Anomaly of Tensionless String in Light-cone Gauge
Murase, Kenta
2015-01-01
The classical tensionless string theory has the spacetime conformal symmetry. We expect and require that the quantum tensionless string theory has it too. In the BRST quantization method, the theory has no spacetime conformal anomaly in two dimensions. On the other hand, in the light-cone gauge quantization without the mode expansion, the theory in $D>3$ has the spacetime conformal anomaly in the traceless part of $[\\mathcal{J}^{-I}, \\mathcal{K}^{J}]$ in some operator order. In this paper, we consider a tensionless closed bosonic string in the light-cone gauge and investigate the spacetime conformal anomaly in the theory with the mode expansion. The appearance of the spacetime conformal anomaly in the light-cone gauge is different between the case of $D>3$ and the case of $D=3$ and depends on the choice of the operator order. Therefore we must consider dangerous commutators in the spacetime conformal symmetry of $D>3$ and $D=3$ in each operator order separately. Specifically we calculate dangerous commutators...
Hamilton-Dirac systems for charged particles in gauge fields
Fernando Jimenez
2015-04-07
In this work, we use the Sternberg phase space (which may be considered as the classical phase space of particles in gauge fields) in order to explore the dynamics of such particles in the context of Hamilton-Dirac systems and their associated Hamilton-Pontryagin variational principles. For this, we develop an analogue of the Pontryagin bundle in the case of the Sternberg phase space. Moreover, we show the link of this new bundle to the so-called magnetized Tulczyjew triple, which is an analogue of the link between the Pontryagin bundle and the usual Tulczyjew triple. Taking advantage of the symplectic nature of the Sternberg space, we induce a Dirac structure on the Sternberg-Pontryagin bundle which leads to the Hamilton-Dirac structure that we are looking for. We also analyze the intrinsic and variational nature of the equations of motion of particles in gauge fields in regards of the defined new geometry. Lastly, we illustrate our theory through the case of a $U(1)$ gauge group, leading to the paradigmatic example of an electrically charged particle in an electromagnetic field.
Hall viscosity from elastic gauge fields in Dirac crystals
Alberto Cortijo; Yago Ferreirós; Karl Landsteiner; María A. H. Vozmediano
2015-06-16
The combination of Dirac physics and elasticity has been explored at length in graphene where the so--called "elastic gauge fields" have given rise to an entire new field of research and applications: Straintronics. The fact that these elastic fields couple to fermions as the electromagnetic field, implies that many electromagnetic responses will have elastic counterparts not explored before. In this work we will first show that the presence of elastic gauge fields will be the rule rather than the exception in most of the topologically non--trivial materials in two and three dimensions. In particular we will extract the elastic gauge fields associated to the recently observed Weyl semimetals, the "three dimensional graphene". As it is known, quantum electrodynamics suffers from the chiral anomaly whose consequences have been recently explored in matter systems. We will show that, associated to the physics of the anomalies, and as a counterpart of the Hall conductivity, elastic materials will have a Hall viscosity in two and three dimensions with a coefficient orders of magnitude bigger than the previously studied response. The magnitude and generality of the new effect will greatly improve the chances for the experimental observation of this topological, non dissipative response.
Fault-Tolerant Error Correction with the Gauge Color Code
Benjamin J. Brown; Naomi H. Nickerson; Dan E. Browne
2015-08-03
The gauge color code is a quantum error-correcting code with local syndrome measurements that, remarkably, admits a universal transversal gate set without the need for resource-intensive magic state distillation. A result of recent interest, proposed by Bomb\\'{i}n, shows that the subsystem structure of the gauge color code admits an error-correction protocol that achieves tolerance to noisy measurements without the need for repeated measurements, so called single-shot error correction. Here, we demonstrate the promise of single-shot error correction by designing a two-part decoder and investigate its performance. We simulate fault-tolerant error correction with the gauge color code by repeatedly applying our proposed error-correction protocol to deal with errors that occur continuously to the underlying physical qubits of the code over the duration that quantum information is stored. We estimate a sustainable error rate, i.e. the threshold for the long time limit, of $ \\sim 0.31\\%$ for a phenomenological noise model using a simple decoding algorithm.
Supersymmetric black holes and attractors in gauged supergravity with hypermultiplets
Samuele Chimento; Dietmar Klemm; Nicolò Petri
2015-04-13
We consider four-dimensional $N=2$ supergravity coupled to vector- and hypermultiplets, where abelian isometries of the quaternionic K\\"ahler hypermultiplet scalar manifold are gauged. Using the recipe given by Meessen and Ort\\'{\\i}n in arXiv:1204.0493, we analytically construct a supersymmetric black hole solution for the case of just one vector multiplet with prepotential ${\\cal F}=-i\\chi^0\\chi^1$, and the universal hypermultiplet. This solution has a running dilaton, and it interpolates between $\\text{AdS}_2\\times\\text{H}^2$ at the horizon and a hyperscaling-violating type geometry at infinity, conformal to $\\text{AdS}_2\\times\\text{H}^2$. It carries two magnetic charges that are completely fixed in terms of the parameters that appear in the Killing vector used for the gauging. In the second part of the paper, we extend the work of Bellucci et al. on black hole attractors in gauged supergravity to the case where also hypermultiplets are present. The attractors are shown to be governed by an effective potential $V_{\\text{eff}}$, which is extremized on the horizon by all the scalar fields of the theory. Moreover, the entropy is given by the critical value of $V_{\\text{eff}}$. In the limit of vanishing scalar potential, $V_{\\text{eff}}$ reduces (up to a prefactor) to the usual black hole potential.
Supersymmetric black holes and attractors in gauged supergravity with hypermultiplets
Chimento, Samuele; Petri, Nicolò
2015-01-01
We consider four-dimensional $N=2$ supergravity coupled to vector- and hypermultiplets, where abelian isometries of the quaternionic K\\"ahler hypermultiplet scalar manifold are gauged. Using the recipe given by Meessen and Ort\\'{\\i}n in arXiv:1204.0493, we analytically construct a supersymmetric black hole solution for the case of just one vector multiplet with prepotential ${\\cal F}=-i\\chi^0\\chi^1$, and the universal hypermultiplet. This solution has a running dilaton, and it interpolates between $\\text{AdS}_2\\times\\text{H}^2$ at the horizon and a hyperscaling-violating type geometry at infinity, conformal to $\\text{AdS}_2\\times\\text{H}^2$. It carries two magnetic charges that are completely fixed in terms of the parameters that appear in the Killing vector used for the gauging. In the second part of the paper, we extend the work of Bellucci et al. on black hole attractors in gauged supergravity to the case where also hypermultiplets are present. The attractors are shown to be governed by an effective potent...
Non-linear power spectra in the synchronous gauge
Jai-chan Hwang; Hyerim Noh; Donghui Jeong; Jinn-Ouk Gong; Sang Gyu Biern
2014-08-20
We study the non-linear corrections to the matter and velocity power spectra in the synchronous gauge (SG). We consider the perturbations up to third order in a zero-pressure fluid in flat cosmological background, which is relevant for the non-linear growth of cosmic structure. As a result, we point out that the SG is an inappropriate coordinate choice when handling the non-linear growth of the large-scale structure. Although the equations in the SG happen to coincide with those in the comoving gauge (CG) to linear order, they differ from second order. In particular, the second order hydrodynamic equations in the the SG are apparently in the Lagrangian form, whereas those in the CG are in the Eulerian form. Thus, the non-linear power spectra naively presented in the original SG show strange behavior quite different from the result of the Newtonian theory even on sub-horizon scales. The power spectra in the SG show regularized behaviors only after we introduce convective terms in the second order so that the equations in two gauges coincide to the second order.
Enhanced gauge symmetry and winding modes in Double Field Theory
G. Aldazabal; M. Graña; S. Iguri; M. Mayo; C. Nuñez; J. A. Rosabal
2015-10-26
We provide an explicit example of how the string winding modes can be incorporated in double field theory. Our guiding case is the closed bosonic string compactified on a circle of radius close to the self-dual point, where some modes with non-zero winding or discrete momentum number become massless and enhance the $U(1) \\times U(1)$ symmetry to $SU(2) \\times SU(2)$. We compute three-point string scattering amplitudes of massless and slightly massive states, and extract the corresponding effective low energy gauge field theory. The enhanced gauge symmetry at the self-dual point and the Higgs-like mechanism arising when changing the compactification radius are examined in detail. The extra massless fields associated to the enhancement are incorporated into a generalized frame with $\\frac{O(d+3,d+3)}{O(d+3)\\times O(d+3)}$ structure, where $d$ is the number of non-compact dimensions. We devise a consistent double field theory action that reproduces the low energy string effective action with enhanced gauge symmetry. The construction requires a truly non-geometric frame which explicitly depends on both the compact coordinate along the circle and its dual.
Testing numerical relativity with the shifted gauge wave
Maria C. Babiuc; Bela Szilagyi; Jeffrey Winicour
2006-02-17
Computational methods are essential to provide waveforms from coalescing black holes, which are expected to produce strong signals for the gravitational wave observatories being developed. Although partial simulations of the coalescence have been reported, scientifically useful waveforms have so far not been delivered. The goal of the AppleswithApples (AwA) Alliance is to design, coordinate and document standardized code tests for comparing numerical relativity codes. The first round of AwA tests have now being completed and the results are being analyzed. These initial tests are based upon periodic boundary conditions designed to isolate performance of the main evolution code. Here we describe and carry out an additional test with periodic boundary conditions which deals with an essential feature of the black hole excision problem, namely a non-vanishing shift. The test is a shifted version of the existing AwA gauge wave test. We show how a shift introduces an exponentially growing instability which violates the constraints of a standard harmonic formulation of Einstein's equations. We analyze the Cauchy problem in a harmonic gauge and discuss particular options for suppressing instabilities in the gauge wave tests. We implement these techniques in a finite difference evolution algorithm and present test results. Although our application here is limited to a model problem, the techniques should benefit the simulation of black holes using harmonic evolution codes.
Revolving D-branes and Spontaneous Gauge Symmetry Breaking
Iso, Satoshi
2015-01-01
We propose a new mechanism of spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking in the world-volume theory of revolving D-branes around a fixed point of orbifolds. In this paper, we consider a simple model of the T6/Z3 orbifold on which we put D3-branes, D7-branes and their anti-branes. The configuration breaks supersymmetry, but the R-R tadpole cancellation conditions are satisfied. A set of three D3-branes at an orbifold fixed point can separate from the point, but when they move perpendicular to the anti-D7-branes put on the fixed point, they are forced to be pulled back due to an attractive interaction between the D3 and anti-D7 branes. In order to stabilize the separation of the D3-branes at nonzero distance, we consider revolution of the D3-branes around the fixed point. Then the gauge symmetry on D3-branes is spontaneously broken, and the rank of the gauge group is reduced. The distance can be set at our will by appropriately choosing the angular momentum of the revolving D3-branes, which should be determined by the...
Rate of gravitational inflaton decay via gauge trace anomaly
Yuki Watanabe
2011-04-26
We analyze decay processes of the inflaton field, phi, during the coherent oscillation phase after inflation in f(phi)R gravity. It is inevitable that the inflaton decays gravitationally into gauge fields in the presence of f(phi)R coupling. We show a concrete calculation of the rate that the inflaton field decays into a pair of gauge fields via the trace anomaly. Comparing this new decay channel via the anomaly with the channels from the tree-level analysis, we find that the branching ratio crucially depends on masses and the internal multiplicities (flavor quantum number) of decay product particles. While the inflaton decays exclusively into light fields, heavy fields still play a role in quantum loops. We argue that this process in principle allows us to constrain the effects of arbitrary heavy particles in the reheating. We also apply our analysis to Higgs inflation, and find that the gravitational decay rate would never exceed gauge interaction decay rates if quantum gravity is unimportant.
The Static Quark Potential from the Gauge Independent Abelian Decomposition
Nigel Cundy; Y. M. Cho; Weonjong Lee
2015-03-24
We investigate the relationship between colour confinement and the gauge independent Cho-Duan-Ge Abelian decomposition. The decomposition is defined in terms of a colour field $n$; the principle novelty of our study is that we have defined this field in terms of the eigenvectors of the Wilson Loop. This establishes an equivalence between the path ordered integral of the non-Abelian gauge fields with an integral over an Abelian restricted gauge field which is tractable both theoretically and numerically in lattice QCD. We circumvent path ordering without needing an additional path integral. By using Stokes' theorem, we can compute the Wilson Loop in terms of a surface integral over a restricted field strength, and show that the restricted field strength may be dominated by certain structures, which occur when one of the quantities parametrising the colour field $n$ winds itself around a non-analyticity in the colour field. If they exist, these structures will lead to a area law scaling for the Wilson Loop and provide a mechanism for quark confinement. We search for these structures in quenched lattice QCD. We perform the Abelian decomposition, and compare the electric and magnetic fields with the patterns expected theoretically. We find that the restricted field strength is dominated by objects which may be peaks a single lattice spacing in size or extended string-like lines of electromagnetic flux. The objects are not isolated monopoles, as they generate electric fields in addition to magnetic fields, and the fields are not spherically symmetric, but may be either caused by a monopole/anti-monopole condensate, some other types of topological objects or a combination of these. Removing these peaks removes the area law scaling of the string tension, suggesting that they are responsible for confinement.
Dualities and Emergent Gravity: Gauge/Gravity Duality
Sebastian de Haro
2015-09-09
In this paper I develop a framework for relating dualities and emergence: two notions that are close to each other but also exclude one another. I adopt the conception of duality as 'isomorphism', cashing it out in terms of three conditions. These three conditions prompt two conceptually different ways in which a duality can be modified to make room for emergence; and I argue that this exhausts the possibilities for combining dualities and emergence (via coarse-graining). I apply this framework to gauge/gravity dualities, considering in detail three examples: AdS/CFT, Verlinde's scheme, and black holes. My main point about gauge/gravity dualities is that the theories involved, qua theories of gravity, must be background-independent. I distinguish two senses of background-independence: (i) minimalistic and (ii) extended. The former is sufficiently strong to allow for a consistent theory of quantum gravity; and AdS/CFT is background-independent on this account; while Verlinde's scheme best fits the extended sense. I argue that this extended sense should be applied with some caution: on pain of throwing the baby (general relativity) out with the bath-water (extended background-independence). Nevertheless, it is an interesting and potentially fruitful heuristic principle for quantum gravity theory construction. The interpretation of dualities is articulated in terms of: (i) epistemic and metaphysical commitments; (ii) parts vs. wholes. I then analyse the emergence of gravity in gauge/gravity dualities in terms of the two available conceptualisations of emergence; and I show how emergence in AdS/CFT and in Verlinde's scenario differ from each other. Finally, I give a novel derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula based on Verlinde's scheme; the derivation sheds light on several aspects of Verlinde's scheme and how it compares to Bekenstein's original calculation.
Gauge-Invariant Perturbations in Hybrid Quantum Cosmology
Laura Castelló Gomar; Mercedes Martín-Benito; Guillermo A. Mena Marugán
2015-03-12
We consider cosmological perturbations around homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes minimally coupled to a scalar field and present a formulation which is designed to preserve covariance. We truncate the action at quadratic perturbative order and particularize our analysis to flat compact spatial sections and a field potential given by a mass term, although the formalism can be extended to other topologies and potentials. The perturbations are described in terms of Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, linear perturbative constraints, and variables canonically conjugate to them. This set is completed into a canonical one for the entire system, including the homogeneous degrees of freedom. We find the global Hamiltonian constraint of the model, in which the contribution of the homogeneous sector is corrected with a term quadratic in the perturbations, that can be identified as the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian in our formulation. We then adopt a hybrid approach to quantize the model, combining a quantum representation of the homogeneous sector with a more standard field quantization of the perturbations. Covariance is guaranteed in this approach inasmuch as no gauge fixing is adopted. Next, we adopt a Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for physical states and show how to obtain a Schr\\"odinger-like equation for the quantum evolution of the perturbations. This evolution is governed by the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian, with the dependence on the homogeneous geometry evaluated at quantum expectation values, and with a time parameter defined also in terms of suitable expectation values on that geometry. Finally, we derive effective equations for the dynamics of the Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, that include quantum contributions, but have the same ultraviolet limit as the classical equations. They provide the master equation to extract predictions about the power spectrum of primordial scalar perturbations.
Numerical studies of light-matter interaction driven by plasmonic fields: the velocity gauge
Chacón, A; Ciappina, M F
2015-01-01
Theoretical approaches to strong field phenomena driven by plasmonic fields are based on the length gauge formulation of the laser-matter coupling. From the theoretical viewpoint it is known there exists no preferable gauge and consequently the predictions and outcomes should be independent of this choice. The use of the length gauge is mainly due to the fact that the quantity obtained from finite elements simulations of plasmonic fields is the plasmonic enhanced laser electric field rather than the laser vector potential. In this paper we develop, from first principles, the velocity gauge formulation of the problem and we apply it to the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in atoms. A comparison to the results obtained with the length gauge is made. It is analytically and numerically demonstrated that both gauges give equivalent descriptions of the emitted HHG spectra resulting from the interaction of a spatially inhomogeneous field and the single active electron (SAE) model of the helium atom. We discuss, ...
A Bicycle Built for Two: The Galilean and U(1) Gauge Invariance of the Schrödinger Field
V. Colussi; S. Wickramasekara
2008-03-04
This paper undertakes a study of the nature of the force associated with the local U (1) gauge symmetry of a non-relativistic quantum particle. To ensure invariance under local U (1) symmetry, a matter field must couple to a gauge field. We show that such a gauge field necessarily satisfies the Maxwell equations, whether the matter field coupled to it is relativistic or non-relativistic. This result suggests that the structure of the Maxwell equations is determined by gauge symmetry rather than the symmetry transformation properties of space-time. In order to assess the validity of this notion, we examine the transformation properties of the coupled matter and gauge fields under Galilean transformations. Our main technical result is the Galilean invariance of the full equations of motion of the U (1) gauge field.
Emergent gravity/Non-linear U(1) gauge theory correspondence
Supriya Kar; K. Priyabrat Pandey; Abhishek K. Singh; Sunita Singh
2010-02-21
Kaluza-Klein gravity is revisted, with renewed interest, in a type IIB string theory on $S^1\\times K3$. The irreducible curvature tensors are worked out in the, T-dual, emergent gravity in 4D to yield a non-linear U(1) gauge theory. Interestingly, the T-duality may be seen to describe an open/closed string duality at a self-dual string coupling. The obtained deformation in $AdS_5$ black hole is analyzed to introduce the notion of temperature in the emergent gravity underlying the recent idea of entropic force.
Lorentz covariance and gauge invariance in the proton spin problem
S. C. Tiwari
2014-09-01
In this brief note insightful remarks are made on the controversy on the decomposition of the proton spin into the spin and orbital angular momenta of quarks and gluons. It is argued that the difference in the perception on the nature of the problem is the main reason for the persistent disputes. There is no decomposition that simultaneously satisfies the twin principles of manifest Lorentz covariance and gauge invariance, and partial considerations hide likely inconsistencies. It is suggested that field equations and matter (i. e. electron in QED and quarks in QCD) equations must be analyzed afresh rather than beginning with the expressions of total angular momentum; canonical or otherwise.
Chaotic Hybrid Inflation with a Gauged B - L
Linda M. Carpenter; Stuart Raby
2014-09-03
In this paper we present a novel formulation of chaotic hybrid inflation in supergravity. The model includes a waterfall field which spontaneously breaks a gauged $U_1(B-L)$ at a GUT scale. This allows for the possibility of future model building which includes the standard formulation of baryogenesis via leptogenesis with the waterfall field decaying into right-handed neutrinos. We have not considered the following issues in this short paper, i.e. supersymmetry breaking, dark matter or the gravitino or moduli problems. Our focus is on showing the compatibility of the present model with Planck, WMAP and Bicep2 data.
Aspects of the confinement mechanism in Landau gauge QCD
Kai Schwenzer
2008-11-21
I analyze the IR fixed point structure of Landau gauge QCD. Precisely the fixed point with a strong kinematic singularity of the quark-gluon vertex that proved crucial for the recently proposed confinement mechanism in the quenched approximation is absent in dynamical QCD. Therefore, the IR singularities do not induce asymptotic quark confinement but the long-range interaction is screened by unquenching loops at scales of the order of the quark mass. This provides the prerequisite for a microscopic description of deconfinement and string breaking. The fixed points determine the qualitative form of the heavy quark potential and may be relevant for hot and dense matter.
The Standard Model is Natural as Magnetic Gauge Theory
Francesco Sannino
2011-06-27
We suggest that the Standard Model can be viewed as the magnetic dual of a gauge theory featuring only fermionic matter content. We show this by first introducing a Pati-Salam like extension of the Standard Model and then relating it to a possible dual electric theory featuring only fermionic matter. The absence of scalars in the electric theory indicates that the associated magnetic theory is free from quadratic divergences. Our novel solution to the Standard Model hierarchy problem leads also to a new insight on the mystery of the observed number of fundamental fermion generations by naturally explaining why it has to be at least three.
The Standard Model is Natural as Magnetic Gauge Theory
Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
We suggest that the Standard Model can be viewed as the magnetic dual of a gauge theory featuring only fermionic matter content. We show this by first introducing a Pati-Salam like extension of the Standard Model and then relating it to a possible dual electric theory featuring only fermionic matter. The absence of scalars in the electric theory indicates that the associated magnetic theory is free from quadratic divergences. Our novel solution to the Standard Model hierarchy problem leads also to a new insight on the mystery of the observed number of fundamental fermion generations by naturally explaining why it has to be at least three.
PDF uncertainties at large x and gauge boson production
Accardi, Alberto
2012-10-01
I discuss how global QCD fits of parton distribution functions can make the somewhat separated fields of high-energy particle physics and lower energy hadronic and nuclear physics interact to the benefit of both. In particular, I will argue that large rapidity gauge boson production at the Tevatron and the LHC has the highest short-term potential to constrain the theoretical nuclear corrections to DIS data on deuteron targets necessary for up/down flavor separation. This in turn can considerably reduce the PDF uncertainty on cross section calculations of heavy mass particles such as W' and Z' bosons.
Instanton Operators in Five-Dimensional Gauge Theories
N. Lambert; C. Papageorgakis; M. Schmidt-Sommerfeld
2015-06-04
We discuss instanton operators in five-dimensional gauge theories. These are defined as disorder operators which create a non-vanishing second Chern class on a four-sphere surrounding their insertion point. As such they may be thought of as higher-dimensional analogues of three-dimensional monopole (or `t Hooft) operators. We argue that they play an important role in the enhancement of the Lorentz symmetry for maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills to SO(1,5) at strong coupling.
Lattice Gauge Theory and the Origin of Mass
Kronfeld, Andreas S.
2013-08-01
Most of the mass of everyday objects resides in atomic nuclei/ the total of the electrons' mass adds up to less than one part in a thousand. The nuclei are composed of nucleons---protons and neutrons---whose nuclear binding energy, though tremendous on a human scale, is small compared to their rest energy. The nucleons are, in turn, composites of massless gluons and nearly massless quarks. It is the energy of these confined objects, via $M=E/c^2$, that is responsible for everyday mass. This article discusses the physics of this mechanism and the role of lattice gauge theory in establishing its connection to quantum chromodynamics.
Finite Temperature Sum Rules in Lattice Gauge Theory
Harvey B. Meyer
2007-11-05
We derive non-perturbative sum rules in SU($N$) lattice gauge theory at finite temperature. They relate the susceptibilities of the trace anomaly and energy-momentum tensor to temperature derivatives of the thermodynamic potentials. Two of them have been derived previously in the continuum and one is new. In all cases, at finite latttice spacing there are important corrections to the continuum sum rules that are only suppressed by the bare coupling $g_0^2$. We also show how the discretization errors affecting the thermodynamic potentials can be controlled by computing these susceptibilities.
U(1) Gauge Theory with Villain Action on Spherical Lattices
C. B. Lang; P. Petreczky
1996-07-19
We have studied the U(1) gauge field theory with Villain (periodic Gaussian) action on spherelike lattices. The effective size of the systems studied ranges from 6 to 16. We do not observe any 2-state signal in the distribution function of the plaquette expectation value at the deconfining phase transition. The observed finite-size scaling behavior is consistent with a second order phase transition. The obtained value of the critical exponent is nu =0.366(12) and thus neither Gaussian (nu = 0.5) nor discontinuous (nu=0.25) type, indicating a nontrivial continuum limit.
Hamiltonian lattice gauge theory: wavefunctions on large lattices
J. B. Bronzan
1992-11-10
We discuss an algorithm for the approximate solution of Schrodinger's equation for lattice gauge theory, using lattice SU(3) as an example. A basis is generated by repeatedly applying an effective Hamiltonian to a ``starting state.'' The resulting basis has a cluster decomposition and long-range correlations. One such basis has about 10^4 states on a 10X10X10 lattice. The Hamiltonian matrix on the basis is sparse, and the elements can be calculated rapidly. The lowest eigenstates of the system are readily calculable.
Bounding gauged skyrmion masses (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing Bacteria (Technical Report) | SciTechReport)(TechnicalArticle) |Bounding gauged
Bounding gauged skyrmion masses (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing Bacteria (Technical Report) | SciTechReport)(TechnicalArticle) |Bounding gaugedBounding
Holographic Gauge Mediation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (JournalArchitectures. (Journal Article) |Gauge Mediation
G. DiCecio; A. Hart; R. W. Haymaker
1997-09-22
We derive an Ehrenfest theorem for SU(2) lattice gauge theory which, after Abelian projection, relates the Abelian field strength and a dynamical electric current and defines these operators for finite lattice spacing. Preliminary results from the ongoing numerical test of the relation are presented, including the contributions from gauge fixing and the Faddeev-Popov determinant (the ghost fields) in the maximally Abelian gauge.
Chiral Imprint of a Cosmic Gauge Field on Primordial Gravitational Waves
Jannis Bielefeld; Robert R. Caldwell
2014-12-18
A cosmological gauge field with isotropic stress-energy introduces parity violation into the behavior of gravitational waves. We show that a primordial spectrum of inflationary gravitational waves develops a preferred handedness, left- or right-circularly polarized, depending on the abundance and coupling of the gauge field during the radiation era. A modest abundance of the gauge field would induce parity-violating correlations of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization patterns that could be detected by current and future experiments.
National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory SciDAC-2 Closeout Report
Mackenzie, Paul; Brower, Richard; Karsch, Frithjof; Christ, Norman; Gottlieb, Steven; Negele, John; Richards, David; Toussaint, Doug; Sugar, Robert; DeTar, Carleton; Sharpe, Stephen; DiPierro, Massimo; Sun, Xian-He; Fowler, Rob; Dubey, Abhishek
2013-07-19
Under its SciDAC-1 and SciDAC-2 grants, the USQCD Collaboration developed software and algorithmic infrastructure for the numerical study of lattice gauge theories.
Effect of the scalar condensate on the linear gauge field response in the Abelian Higgs model
Jakovác, A; Szép, Z; Szep, Zs.
2001-01-01
The effective equations of motion for low-frequency mean gauge fields in the Abelian Higgs model are investigated in the presence of a scalar condensate, near the high temperature equilibrium. We determine the current induced by an inhomogeneous background gauge field in the linear response approximation up to order $e^4$, assuming adiabatic variation of the scalar fields. The physical degrees of freedom are found and a physical gauge choice for the numerical study of the combined Higgs+gauge evolution is proposed.
Numerical test of the Gribov-Zwanziger scenario in Landau gauge
Attilio Cucchieri; Tereza Mendes
2010-01-14
We review the status of lattice simulations of gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge, testing predictions of the Gribov-Zwanziger confinement scenario.
The M-theory origin of global properties of gauge theories
Antonio Amariti; Claudius Klare; Domenico Orlando; Susanne Reffert
2015-07-16
We show that global properties of gauge groups can be understood as geometric properties in M-theory. Different wrappings of a system of N M5-branes on a torus reduce to four-dimensional theories with $A_{N-1}$ gauge algebra and different unitary groups. The classical properties of the wrappings determine the global properties of the gauge theories without the need to impose any quantum conditions. We count the inequivalent wrappings as they fall into orbits of the modular group of the torus, which correspond to the S-duality orbits of the gauge theories.
Screening in (2+1)D pure gauge theory at high temperatures
E. Laermann; C. Legeland; B. Petersson
1995-01-23
We compute heavy quark potentials in pure gauge $SU(3)$ at high temperatures in $2+1$ dimensions and confront them with expectations emerging from perturbative calculations.
Localization via Automorphisms of the CARs. Local gauge invariance
Hendrik Grundling; Karl-Hermann Neeb
2010-01-07
The classical matter fields are sections of a vector bundle E with base manifold M. The space L^2(E) of square integrable matter fields w.r.t. a locally Lebesgue measure on M, has an important module action of C_b^\\infty(M) on it. This module action defines restriction maps and encodes the local structure of the classical fields. For the quantum context, we show that this module action defines an automorphism group on the algebra A, of the canonical anticommutation relations on L^2(E), with which we can perform the analogous localization. That is, the net structure of the CAR, A, w.r.t. appropriate subsets of M can be obtained simply from the invariance algebras of appropriate subgroups. We also identify the quantum analogues of restriction maps. As a corollary, we prove a well-known "folk theorem," that the algebra A contains only trivial gauge invariant observables w.r.t. a local gauge group acting on E.
Quiver Gauge Models in F-Theory on Local Tetrahedron
Lalla Btissam Drissi; Leila Medari; El Hassan Saidi
2009-08-03
We study a class of 4D $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric GUT- type models in the framework of the Beasley-Heckman-Vafa theory. We first review general results on MSSM and supersymmetric GUT; and we describe useful tools on 4D quiver gauge theories in F- theory set up. Then we study the effective supersymmetric gauge theory in the 7-brane wrapping 4-cycles in F-theory on local elliptic CY4s based on a complex tetrahedral surface $\\mathcal{T}$ and its blown ups $\\mathcal{T}_{n}$. The complex 2d geometries $\\mathcal{T}$ and $\\mathcal{T}_{n}$ are \\emph{non planar} projective surfaces that extend the projective plane $\\mathbb{P}^{2}$ and the del Pezzos. Using the power of toric geometry encoding the toric data of the base of the local CY4, we build a class of \\emph{4D} $\\mathcal{N}=1$ non minimal GUT- type models based on $\\mathcal{T}$ and $\\mathcal{T}_{n}$. An explicit construction is given for the SU$(5) $ GUT-type model.
Study of the thermal abelian monopoles with proper gauge fixing
V. G. Bornyakov; V. V. Braguta
2011-10-28
The properties of the thermal abelian monopoles are studied in the deconfinement phase of the SU(2) gluodynamics. To remove effects of Gribov copies the simulated annealing algorithm is applied to fix the maximally abelian gauge. Computing the density of the thermal abelian monopoles in the temperature range between 1.5T_c and 6.9T_c we show, by comparison with earlier results, that the Gribov copies effects might be as high as 20% making proper gauge fixing mandatory. We find that in the infinite temperature limit the monopole density converges to its value in 3-dimensional theory. To study the interaction between monopoles we calculate the monopole-monopole and monopole-antimonopole correlators at different temperatures in the region (1.5T_c, 6.9T_c). Using the result of this study we determine the screening mass, monopole-monopole coupling constant, monopole size and monopole mass. In addition we check the continuum limit of our results.
Quark masses, the Dashen phase, and gauge field topology
Creutz, Michael
2013-12-15
The CP violating Dashen phase in QCD is predicted by chiral perturbation theory to occur when the up–down quark mass difference becomes sufficiently large at fixed down-quark mass. Before reaching this phase, all physical hadronic masses and scattering amplitudes are expected to behave smoothly with the up-quark mass, even as this mass passes through zero. In Euclidean space, the topological susceptibility of the gauge fields is positive at positive quark masses but diverges to negative infinity as the Dashen phase is approached. A zero in this susceptibility provides a tentative signal for the point where the mass of the up quark vanishes. I discuss potential ambiguities with this determination. -- Highlights: •The CP violating Dashen phase in QCD occurs when the up quark mass becomes sufficiently negative. •Before reaching this phase, all physical hadronic masses and scattering amplitudes behave smoothly with the up-quark mass. •The topological susceptibility of the gauge fields diverges to negative infinity as the Dashen phase is approached. •A zero in the topological susceptibility provides a tentative signal for the point where the mass of the up quark vanishes. •The universality of this definition remains unproven. Potential ambiguities are discussed.
http://www.hss.energy.gov/csa/analysis/rems/rems/ri.htm
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
7th 8th 9th Year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Program Office All Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Civilian Radioactive...
A new formulation of higher parallel transport in higher gauge theory
Emanuele Soncini; Roberto Zucchini
2014-10-03
In this technical paper, we present a new formulation of higher parallel transport in strict higher gauge theory required for the rigorous construction of Wilson lines and surfaces. Our approach is based on an original notion of Lie crossed module cocycle and cocycle 1- and 2-gauge transformation with a non standard double category theoretic interpretation. We show its equivalence to earlier formulations.
Vortex free energies in SO(3) and SU(2) lattice gauge theory
Philippe de Forcrand; Oliver Jahn
2002-09-04
Lattice gauge theories with gauge groups SO(3) and SU(2) are compared. The free energy of electric twist, an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition which does not rely on centre-symmetry breaking, is measured in both theories. The results are used to calibrate the scale in SO(3).
Free energy for parameterized Polyakov loops in SU(2) and SU(3) lattice gauge theory
Rossak, Wilhelm R.
Free energy for parameterized Polyakov loops in SU(2) and SU(3) lattice gauge theory [arXiv:1205 by analyzing the free energy of static quarks in pure SU(2) and SU(3) lattice gauge theory. The Polyakov loop P is introduced as a parameterized source for the quarks. Calculation of the free energy F as a function
The Dyson-Schwinger equation of a link variable in lattice Landau gauge theory
Andre Sternbeck; Martin Schaden; Valentin Mader
2015-05-11
We derive the Dyson-Schwinger equation of a link variable in SU(n) lattice gauge theory in minimal Landau gauge and confront it with Monte-Carlo data for the different terms. Preliminary results for the lattice analog of the Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion is also shown.
Observations of the 2004 and 2006 Indian Ocean tsunamis from a pressure gauge array in Indonesia
Sprintall, Janet
Observations of the 2004 and 2006 Indian Ocean tsunamis from a pressure gauge array in Indonesia located in straits in the southern Indonesian islands were used to evaluate tsunami signals triggered. Tsunami waves reached the pressure gauges around 5 to 6 hours after the 2004 earthquake; the largest waves
STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONING OF SEA LEVEL GAUGES TO AID IN EARLY DETECTION OF TSUNAMIS IN THE
Meyers, Steven D.
STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONING OF SEA LEVEL GAUGES TO AID IN EARLY DETECTION OF TSUNAMIS. University Blvd Melbourne, FL 32901 United States ABSTRACT The potential impact of past Caribbean tsunamis for coastal sea level gauges intended to serve as elements of a regional tsunami warning system. The goal
A nanocrystal strain gauge for luminescence detection of mechanical forces
Choi, Charina; Koski, Kristie; Olson, Andrew; Alivisatos, Paul
2010-07-26
Local microscale stresses play a crucial role in inhomogeneous mechanical processes from cell motility to material failure. However, it remains difficult to spatially resolve stress at these small length scales. While contact-probe and non-contact based techniques have been used to quantify local mechanical behavior in specific systems with high stiffness or stress and spatial resolution, these methods cannot be used to study a majority of micromechanical systems due to spectroscopic and geometrical constraints. We present here the design and implementation of a luminescent nanocrystal strain gauge, the CdSe/CdS core/shell tetrapod. The tetrapod can be incorporated into many materials, yielding a local stress measurement through optical fluorescence spectroscopy of the electronically confined CdSe core states. The stress response of the tetrapod is calibrated and utilized to study mechanical behavior in single polymer fibers. We expect that tetrapods can be used to investigate local stresses in many other mechanical systems.
Five-dimensional Gauge Theories in a warped background
Richard D. Kenway; Eliana Lambrou
2015-10-26
The phase diagram of five-dimensional anisotropic gauge theories in a flat background has been extensively explored during the last decade. Here, we present novel results for the phase structure of the five-dimensional anisotropic SU(2) model embedded in a warped background. The static potential in the deconfining region of the phase diagram, close to the transition to the layered phase, provides evidence of a Yukawa mass, suggesting that the system is in a 4D Higgs-like phase. As no symmetry has been broken by the boundary conditions, this phase appears to be due to the warp factor. Whether the system is dimensionally reduced from a 5D phase to this 4D Higgs-like phase, which would provide a mechanism for dimensional reduction via localization, remains open.
Constraint Correlation Dynamics of SU(N) Gauge Theories
S. J. Wang; W. Cassing; J. M. Haeuser; A. Peter; M. H. Thoma
1994-07-14
A constraint correlation dynamics up to 4-point Green functions is proposed for SU(N) gauge theories which reduces the N-body quantum field problem to the two-body level. The resulting set of nonlinear coupled equations fulfills all conservation laws including fermion number, linear and angular momenta as well as the total energy. Apart from the conservation laws in the space-time degrees of freedom the Gauss law is conserved as a quantum expectation value identically for all times. The same holds for the Ward identities as generated by commutators of Gauss operators. The constraint dynamical equations are highly non-perturbative and thus applicable also in the strong coupling regime, as e.g. low-energy QCD problems.
Multilepton signals of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking at the LHC
D'Hondt, Jorgen; Fuks, Benjamin; Mariotti, Alberto; Mawatari, Kentarou; Petersson, Christoffer; Redigolo, Diego
2014-01-01
We investigate multilepton LHC signals arising from electroweak processes involving sleptons. We consider the framework of general gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, focusing on models where the low mass region of the superpartner spectrum consists of the three generations of charged sleptons and the nearly massless gravitino. We demonstrate how such models can provide an explanation for the anomalous four lepton events recently observed by the CMS collaboration, while satisfying other existing experimental constraints. The best fit to the CMS data is obtained for a selectron/smuon mass of around 145 GeV and a stau mass of around 90 GeV. These models also give rise to final states with more than four leptons, offering alternative channels in which they can be probed and we estimate the corresponding production rates at the LHC.
Zero modes, gauge fixing, monodromies, $?$-functions and all that
A. O. Barvinsky; D. V. Nesterov
2012-04-15
We discuss various issues associated with the calculation of the reduced functional determinant of a special second order differential operator $\\boldmath${F}$ =-d^2/d\\tau^2+\\ddot g/g$, $\\ddot g\\equiv d^2g/d\\tau^2$, with a generic function $g(\\tau)$, subject to periodic and Dirichlet boundary conditions. These issues include the gauge-fixed path integral representation of this determinant, the monodromy method of its calculation and the combination of the heat kernel and zeta-function technique for the derivation of its period dependence. Motivations for this particular problem, coming from applications in quantum cosmology, are also briefly discussed. They include the problem of microcanonical initial conditions in cosmology driven by a conformal field theory, cosmological constant and cosmic microwave background problems.
Glueball Wave Functions in U(1) Lattice Gauge Theory
Mushtaq Loan; Yi Ying
2006-06-26
Standard Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for 3-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge model on improved lattices to measure the wavefunction and size of the scalar and the tensor glueballs. Our results show the radii of ~ 0.60 and ~ 1.12 in the units of string tension, or ~0.28 and ~0.52 fm, for the scalar and tensor glueballs, respectively. At finite temperature we see clear evidence of the deconfined phase, and the transition appears to be similar to that of the two-dimensional XY model as expected from universality arguments. Preliminary results show no significant changes in the glueball wave functions and the masses in the deconfined phase.
M-Theory and Maximally Supersymmetric Gauge Theories
Neil Lambert
2012-05-21
In this informal review for non-specalists we discuss the construction of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories that arise on the worldvolumes branes in String Theory and M-Theory. Particular focus is made on the relatively recent construction of M2-brane worldvolume theories. In a formal sense, the existence of these quantum field theories can be viewed as predictions of M-Theory. Their construction is therefore a reinforcement of the ideas underlying String Theory and M-Theory. We also briefly discuss the six-dimensional conformal field theory that is expected to arise on M5-branes. The construction of this theory is not only an important open problem for M-Theory but also a significant challenge to our current understanding of quantum field theory more generally.
Gauge Invariance and Symmetry Breaking by Topology and Energy Gap
Heissenberg, Carlo
2015-01-01
For the description of observables and states of a quantum system, it may be convenient to use a canonical Weyl algebra of which only a subalgebra $\\mathcal A$, with a non-trivial center $\\mathcal Z$, describes observables, the other Weyl operators playing the role of intertwiners between inequivalent representations of $\\mathcal A$. In particular, this gives rise to a gauge symmetry described by the action of $\\mathcal Z$. A distinguished case is when the center of the observables arises from the fundamental group of the manifold of the positions of the quantum system. Symmetries which do not commute with the topological invariants represented by elements of $\\mathcal Z$ are then spontaneously broken in each irreducible representation of the observable algebra, compatibly with an energy gap; such a breaking exhibits a mechanism radically different from Goldstone and Higgs mechanisms. This is clearly displayed by the quantum particle on a circle, the Bloch electron and the two body problem.
Testing Topology Conserving Gauge Actions for Lattice QCD
K. -i. Nagai; K. Jansen; W. Bietenholz; L. Scorzato; S. Necco; S. Shcheredin
2005-09-29
We explore gauge actions for lattice QCD, which are constructed such that the occurrence of small plaquette values is strongly suppressed. Such actions originate from the admissibility condition in order to conserve the topological charge. The suppression of small plaquette values is expected to be advantageous for numerical studies in the $\\epsilon$-regime and also for simulations with dynamical quarks. Performing simulations at a lattice spacing of about 0.1 fm, we present numerical results for the static potential, the physical scale $r_0$, the stability of the topological charge history, the condition number of the kernel of the overlap operator and the acceptance rate against the step size in the local HMC algorithm.
SU(N) Gauge Theories Near $T_c$
B. Lucini; M. Teper; U. Wenger
2003-09-02
We study the deconfinement phase transition in SU(N) gauge theories for $N$=2,3,4,6,8. The transition is first order for $N \\ge 3$, with the strength increasing as $N$ increases. We extrapolate $T_c/\\sqrt{\\sigma}$ to the continuum limit for each $N$, and observe a rapid approach to the large $N$ limit. As $N$ increases the phase transition becomes clear-cut on smaller spatial volumes, indicating the absence of (non-singular) finite volume corrections at $N=\\infty$ -- reminiscent of large $N$ reduction. The observed rapid increase of the inter-phase surface tension with $N$ may indicate that for $N=\\infty$ the deconfinement transition cannot, in practise, occur.
Eliminating spurious poles from gauge-theoretic amplitudes
Andrew Hodges
2009-05-11
This note addresses the problem of spurious poles in gauge-theoretic scattering amplitudes. New twistor coordinates for the momenta are introduced, based on the concept of dual conformal invariance. The cancellation of spurious poles for a class of NMHV amplitudes is greatly simplified in these coordinates. The poles are eliminated altogether by defining a new type of twistor integral, dual to twistor diagrams as previously studied, and considerably simpler. The geometric features indicate a supersymmetric extension of the formalism at least to all NMHV amplitudes, allowing the dihedral symmetry of the super-amplitude to be made manifest. More generally, the definition of `momentum-twistor' coordinates suggests a powerful new approach to the study of scattering amplitudes.
PRODUCTION PROCESS MONITORING OF MULTILAYERED MATERIALS USING TIME-DOMAIN TERAHERTZ GAUGES
Zimdars, David; Duling, Irl; Fichter, Greg; White, Jeffrey
2010-02-22
The results of both a laboratory and factory trial of a time-domain terahertz (TD-THz) multi-layer gauge for on-line process monitoring are presented. The TD-THz gauge is demonstrated on a two layer laminated plastic insulation material. The TD-THz gauge simultaneously measured the total and the individual layer thicknesses. Measurements were made while transversely scanning across a 12 foot wide sheet extruded at high speed in a factory environment. The results were analyzed for precision, accuracy, and repeatability; and demonstrated that the TD-THz gauge performed in an equivalent or superior manner to existing ionizing radiation gauges (which measure only one layer). Many dielectric materials (e.g., plastic, rubber, paper, paint) are transparent to THz pulses, and the measurement of a wide range of samples is possible.
Towards a manifestly gauge invariant and universal calculus for Yang-Mills theory
Arnone, S; Morris, T R; Arnone, Stefano; Gatti, Antonio; Morris, Tim R.
2002-01-01
A manifestly gauge invariant exact renormalization group for pure SU(N) Yang-Mills theory is proposed, along with the necessary gauge invariant regularisation which implements the effective cutoff. The latter is naturally incorporated by embedding the theory into a spontaneously broken SU(N|N) super-gauge theory, which guarantees finiteness to all orders in perturbation theory. The effective action, from which one extracts the physics, can be computed whilst manifestly preserving gauge invariance at each and every step. As an example, we give an elegant computation of the one-loop SU(N) Yang-Mills beta function, for the first time at finite N without any gauge fixing or ghosts. It is also completely independent of the details put in by hand, e.g. the choice of covariantisation and the cutoff profile, and, therefore, guides us to a procedure for streamlined calculations.
Towards a manifestly gauge invariant and universal calculus for Yang-Mills theory
Stefano Arnone; Antonio Gatti; Tim R. Morris
2002-09-16
A manifestly gauge invariant exact renormalization group for pure SU(N) Yang-Mills theory is proposed, along with the necessary gauge invariant regularisation which implements the effective cutoff. The latter is naturally incorporated by embedding the theory into a spontaneously broken SU(N|N) super-gauge theory, which guarantees finiteness to all orders in perturbation theory. The effective action, from which one extracts the physics, can be computed whilst manifestly preserving gauge invariance at each and every step. As an example, we give an elegant computation of the one-loop SU(N) Yang-Mills beta function, for the first time at finite N without any gauge fixing or ghosts. It is also completely independent of the details put in by hand, e.g. the choice of covariantisation and the cutoff profile, and, therefore, guides us to a procedure for streamlined calculations.
Low scale quantum gravity in gauge-Higgs unified models
Jubin Park
2015-01-19
We consider the scale at which gravity becomes strong in linearized General Relativity coupled to the gauge-Higgs unified(GHU) model. We also discuss the unitarity of S-matrix in the same framework. The Kaluza-Klein(KK) gauge bosons, KK scalars and KK fermions in the GHU models can drastically change the strong gravity scale and the unitarity violation scale. In particular we consider two models GHU_SM and GHU_MSSM which have the zero modes corresponding to the particle content of the Standard Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, respectively. We find that the strong gravity scale could be lowered as much as 10^13 (10^14) GeV in the GHU_SM (GHU_MSSM) for one extra dimension taking 1 TeV as the compactification scale. It is also shown that these scales are proportional to the inverse of the number of extra dimensions d. In the d=10 case, they could be lowered up to 10^5 GeV for both models. We also find that the maximum compactification scales of extra dimensions quickly converge into one special scale M_O near Planck scale or equivalently into one common radius R_0 irrespectively of d as the number of zero modes increases. It may mean that all extra dimensions emerge with the same radius near Planck scale. In addition, it is shown that the supersymmetry can help to remove the discordance between the strong gravity scale and the unitarity violation scale.
Justification of the complex Langevin method with the gauge cooling procedure
Keitaro Nagata; Jun Nishimura; Shinji Shimasaki
2015-09-18
Recently there has been remarkable progress in the complex Langevin method, which aims at solving the complex action problem by complexifying the dynamical variables in the original path integral. In particular, a new technique called the gauge cooling was introduced and the full QCD simulation at finite density has been made possible in the high temperature (deconfined) phase or with heavy quarks. Here we provide a rigorous justification of the complex Langevin method including the gauge cooling procedure. We first show that the gauge cooling can be formulated as an extra term in the complex Langevin equation involving a gauge transformation parameter, which is chosen appropriately as a function of the configuration before cooling. The probability distribution of the complexified dynamical variables is modified by this extra term. However, this modification is shown not to affect the Fokker-Planck equation for the corresponding complex weight as far as observables are restricted to gauge invariant ones. Thus we demonstrate explicitly that the gauge cooling can be used as a viable technique to satisfy the convergence conditions for the complex Langevin method. We also discuss the "gauge cooling" in 0-dimensional systems such as vector models or matrix models.
Analysis of the Z^0 Resonant Amplitude in General R_?Gauges
M. Passera; A. Sirlin
1996-10-15
The Z^0 resonant amplitude is discussed in general R_\\xi gauges. When the original on-shell definition of the Z^0 mass M is employed, a gauge dependence of M emerges in the next-to-leading approximation which, although small, is of the same magnitude as the current experimental error. In the following order of expansion, these unphysical effects are unbounded. The gauge dependence of M disappears when modified, previously proposed definitions of mass or self-energies, are used. The relevance of these considerations to the concept of the mass of unstable particles is pointed out.
Gauge-Higgs Unification: Stable Higgs Bosons as Cold Dark Matter
Yutaka Hosotani
2010-03-17
In the gauge-Higgs unification the 4D Higgs field becomes a part of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge potentials. In the $SO(5) \\times U(1)$ gauge-Higgs unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped spacetime the electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken through the Hosotani mechanism. The Higgs bosons become absolutely stable, and become the dark matter of the universe. The mass of the Higgs boson is determined from the WMAP data to be about 70 GeV.
The cost of gauge coupling unification in the SU(5) model at three loops
L. Mihaila
2013-05-14
The non-supersymmetric SU(5) model can accommodate heavy neutrinos and gauge coupling unification when augmented with an adjoint fermionic multiplet 24_F. Among the most important phenomenological implications of the model is the prediction of light fermions and scalars, charged under the SU(2) gauge group, in the reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this talk, we report on the recent calculation of the correlation function between the mass scale of the new electroweak multiplets and the gauge coupling unification scale at three loop accuracy.
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
None
2011-10-06
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher
Thermodynamics of SU(3) Gauge Theory in 2 + 1 Dimensions
P. Bialas; L. Daniel; A. Morel; B. Petersson
2008-07-21
The pressure, and the energy and entropy densities are determined for the SU(3) gauge theory in $2 + 1$ dimensions from lattice Monte Carlo calculations in the interval $0.6 \\leq T/T_c \\leq 15$. The finite temperature lattices simulated have temporal extent $N_\\tau = 2, 4, 6$ and 8, and spatial volumes $N_S^2$ such that the aspect ratio is $N_S/N_\\tau = 8$. To obtain the thermodynamical quantities, we calculate the averages of the temporal plaquettes $P_\\tau$ and the spatial plaquettes $P_S$ on these lattices. We also need the zero temperature averages of the plaquettes $P_0$, calculated on symmetric lattices with $N_\\tau = N_S$. We discuss in detail the finite size ($N_S$-dependent) effects. These disappear exponentially. For the zero temperature lattices we find that the coefficient of $N_S$ in the exponent is of the order of the glueball mass. On the finite temperature lattices it lies between the two lowest screening masses. For the aspect ratio equal to eight, the systematic errors coming from the finite size effects are much smaller than our statistical errors. We argue that in the continuum limit, at high enough temperature, the pressure can be parametrized by the very simple formula $p=a-bT_c/T$ where $a$ and $b$ are two constants. Using the thermodynamical identities for a large homogeneous system, this parametrization then determines the other thermodynamical variables in the same temperature range.
On the gauge features of gravity on a Lie algebroid structure
Fabi, S. Harms, B. Hou, S.
2014-03-15
We present the geometric formulation of gravity based on the mathematical structure of a Lie Algebroid. We show that this framework provides the geometrical setting to describe the gauge propriety of gravity.
T. P. Shestakova
2008-01-30
In "extended phase space" approach to quantum geometrodynamics numerical solutions to Schrodinger equation corresponding to various choice of gauge conditions are obtained for the simplest isotropic model. The "extended phase space" approach belongs to those appeared in the last decade in which, as a result of fixing a reference frame, the Wheeler - DeWitt static picture of the world is replaced by evolutionary quantum geometrodynamics. Some aspects of this approach were discussed at two previous PIRT meetings. We are interested in the part of the wave function depending on physical degrees of freedom. Three gauge conditions having a clear physical meaning are considered. They are the conformal time gauge, the gauge producing the appearance of Lambda-term in the Einstein equations, and the one covering the two previous cases as asymptotic limits. The interpretation and discussion of the obtained solutions is given.
Supersymmetric N=1 Spin(10) Gauge Theory with Two Spinors via a-Maximization
Teruhiko Kawano; Futoshi Yagi
2007-05-28
We give a detailed analysis of the superconformal fixed points of four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric Spin(10) gauge theory with two spinors and vectors by using a-maximization procedure.
Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- EnergyGauge Summit version 3.11
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Provides required documentation that EnergyGauge Summit version 3.11 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.
Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- EnergyGauge Summit version 3.13
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Provides required documentation that EnergyGauge Summit version 3.13 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.
Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- EnergyGauge Summit version 3.14
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Provides required documentation that EnergyGauge Summit version 3.14 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.
Electric/magnetic duality for chiral gauge theories with anomaly cancellation
Jan De Rydt; Torsten T. Schmidt; Mario Trigiante; Antoine Van Proeyen; Marco Zagermann
2009-02-07
We show that 4D gauge theories with Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation and possible generalized Chern-Simons terms admit a formulation that is manifestly covariant with respect to electric/magnetic duality transformations. This generalizes previous work on the symplectically covariant formulation of anomaly-free gauge theories as they typically occur in extended supergravity, and now also includes general theories with (pseudo-)anomalous gauge interactions as they may occur in global or local N=1 supersymmetry. This generalization is achieved by relaxing the linear constraint on the embedding tensor so as to allow for a symmetric 3-tensor related to electric and/or magnetic quantum anomalies in these theories. Apart from electric and magnetic gauge fields, the resulting Lagrangians also feature two-form fields and can accommodate various unusual duality frames as they often appear, e.g., in string compactifications with background fluxes.
July 20, 2001; rev. August 16, 2001 General Covariance, Gauge Theories and the Kretschmann
1 July 20, 2001; rev. August 16, 2001 General Covariance, Gauge Theories and the Kretschmann of Parma, June 21-23, 2001, organized by Massimo Pauri. #12;2 1. Introduction Two views... When Einstein
EnergyGauge USA: A Residential Building Energy Simulation Design Tool
Fairey, P.; Vieira, R. K.; Parker, D. S.; Hanson, B.; Broman, P. A.; Grant, J. B.; Fuehrlein, B.; Gu, L.
2002-01-01
The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has developed new software (EnergyGauge USA) which allows simple calculation and rating of energy use of residential buildings around the United States. In the past, most residential analysis and rating...
Coordinate/Field Duality in Gauge Theories: Emergence of Matrix Coordinates
Amir H. Fatollahi
2015-11-13
The proposed coordinate/field duality [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 163] is applied to the gauge and matter sectors of gauge theories. In the non-Abelian case, due to indices originated from the internal space, the dual coordinates appear to be matrices. The dimensions and the transformations of the matrix coordinates of gauge and matter sectors are different and are consistent to expectations from lattice gauge theory and the theory of open strings equipped with the Chan-Paton factors. It is argued that in the unbroken symmetry phase, where only proper collections of field components as colorless states are detected, it is logical to assume that the same happens for the dual coordinates, making matrix coordinates the natural candidates to capture the internal dynamics of baryonic confined states. The proposed matrix coordinates happen to be the same appearing in the bound-state of D0-branes of string theory.
Testing volume independence of large N gauge theories on the lattice
Antonio Gonzalez-Arroyo; Masanori Okawa
2014-11-12
For a pure SU(N) gauge theory on the lattice we test if the expectation values of small Wilson loops become volume independent in the large N limit.
From gauge-string duality to strong interactions: a Pedestrian's Guide
Steven S. Gubser; Andreas Karch
2009-05-27
We survey recent progress in understanding the relation of string theory to quantum chromodynamics, focusing on holographic models of gauge theories similar to QCD and applications to heavy-ion collisions.
Kaizen events implementation for cycle time reduction in gauge production line
Liu, Ren, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2010-01-01
This thesis describes the implementation of three Kaizen events designed to improve efficiency on a gauge production line which consists of both semiconductor and mechanical equipment for manufacturing complex products ...
Zutavern, Zachary Scott
2004-09-30
Historical attempts to measure forces in magnetic bearings have been unsuccessful as a result of relatively high uncertainties. Recent advances in the strain-gauge technology have provided a new method for measuring magnetic bearing forces. Fiber...
The Effective String of 3D Gauge Systems at the Deconfining Transition
M. Caselle; F. Gliozzi
1991-10-01
It is argued that the effective string of whatever 3D gauge system at the deconfining transition is universally described by the minimal $N=2$ extended superconformal theory at $c=1$. A universal value of the critical temperature is predicted.
Transport coefficients in high temperature gauge theories: (I) Leading-log results
Peter Arnold; Guy D. Moore; Laurence G. Yaffe
2000-10-16
Leading-log results are derived for the shear viscosity, electrical conductivity, and flavor diffusion constants in both Abelian and non-Abelian high temperature gauge theories with various matter field content.
Thermodynamics and reference scale of SU(3) gauge theory from gradient flow on fine lattices
Masakiyo Kitazawa; Masayuki Asakawa; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Takumi Iritani; Etsuko Itou; Hiroshi Suzuki
2015-11-17
We study the parametrization of lattice spacing and thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory on the basis of the Yang-Mills gradient flow on fine lattices. The lattice spacing of the Wilson gauge action is determined over a wide range $6.3\\le\\beta\\le7.5$ with high accuracy. The measurements of the flow time and lattice spacing dependences of the expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor are performed on fine lattices.
Probing Extra Matter in Gauge Mediation Through the Lightest Higgs Boson Mass
Jason L. Evans; Masahiro Ibe; Tsutomu T. Yanagida
2011-08-17
We discuss the implications of the excesses in LHC Higgs boson searches on the gauge mediated supersymmetric standard model, for the mass range 120-140\\,GeV. We find that a relatively heavy lightest Higgs boson mass in this range can be reconciled with light SUSY particles, $m_{\\rm gluino}Higgs boson. We also find that the mass of this extra matter can be predicted rather precisely in gauge mediation for a given Higgs boson and gluino mass.
Thermodynamics and reference scale of SU(3) gauge theory from gradient flow on fine lattices
Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Iritani, Takumi; Itou, Etsuko; Suzuki, Hiroshi
2015-01-01
We study the parametrization of lattice spacing and thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory on the basis of the Yang-Mills gradient flow on fine lattices. The lattice spacing of the Wilson gauge action is determined over a wide range $6.3\\le\\beta\\le7.5$ with high accuracy. The measurements of the flow time and lattice spacing dependences of the expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor are performed on fine lattices.
Grande Ronde Subbasin Gauging Station Operations, 2007-2008 Reporting Period.
Menton, R. Coby [Grande Ronde Model Watershed
2008-11-10
The Grande Ronde Basin (GRB) in Northeast Oregon is a moderately dry climate receiving between 10 and 20 inches of precipitation per year with surrounding mountains accumulating up to 100 inches. Irrigated agriculture is a major part of the economy with water being diverted or pumped from surface and ground sources from April through October. Several ESA listed species exist in the basin including Chinook, steelhead, and bulltrout. Agriculture and ESA (Endangered Species Act) listed aquatic species combined with a dry climate demonstrate the need for a network of stream gauges. The GRB covers over 5,000 square miles and includes several thousand miles of perennial flowing streams. This project is in place to operate 12 existing stream gauges in combination with USGS (4 gauges) and OWRD (one gauge) who, independent of this project, operate five additional gauges (Grande Ronde at Troy, Imnaha R. at Imnaha, Minam R. at Minam, Lookingglass Creek, and Upper Catherine Cr.) to characterizes flow in both the Grande Ronde and Imnaha subbasins. These gauges are intended to assist in irrigation water management, fisheries management, long term flow and trend analysis, TMDL and SB1010 water quality management plan effectiveness, subbasin plan implementation, and provide essential information regarding cumulative effects response to conservation in the GRB. Headwater characteristics, land management influence, and basin outlet data are all selectively collected in this network of 17 flow gauges. Prior to the 2007 water year there were three separate stream gauging programs with similar objectives, protocol, and funding sources in the GRB. Each of these programs for the past ten years has operated under separate administration consuming more time and administrative money than is necessary to accomplish stated objectives. By combining all programs into one project costs have been reduced, each funding source has one contract instead of three, and the same amount of work has been done accomplishing the same objectives. This objective has been continued and realized in the 2008 water year.
CP invariance of chiral gauge theories and Majorana-Yukawa couplings on the lattice
Yuji Igarashi; Jan M. Pawlowski
2009-11-11
The construction of CP-invariant lattice chiral gauge theories and the construction of lattice Majorana fermions with chiral Yukawa couplings is subject to topological obstructions. In the present work we suggest lattice extensions of charge and parity transformation for Weyl fermions. This enables us to construct lattice chiral gauge theories that are CP invariant. For the construction of Majorana-Yukawa couplings, we discuss two models with symplectic Majorana fermions: a model with two symplectic doublets, and one with an auxiliary doublet.
Derived Category Structure and Non-linear Potential of Gauged S-Duality
Eiji Konishi
2012-04-05
Based on the modeling of type IIB string theory vacua using gauged S-duality and the Chan-Paton symmetries by introducing an infinite number of open string charges (affinization), we derive the derived category formulation of the quantum mechanical world including gravity. This leads to the concept of a non-linear potential of gauged and affinized S-duality which specifies the morphism structure of this derived category.
On the dangers of using the growth equation on large scales in the Newtonian gauge
James B. Dent; Sourish Dutta
2009-02-20
We examine the accuracy of the growth equation $\\ddot{\\delta} + 2H\\dot{\\delta} - 4\\pi G\\rho\\delta = 0$, which is ubiquitous in the cosmological literature, in the context of the Newtonian gauge. By comparing the growth predicted by this equation to a numerical solution of the linearized Einstein equations in the $\\Lambda$CDM scenario, we show that while this equation is a reliable approximation on small scales ($k\\gtrsim $h Mpc$^{-1}$), it can be disastrously inaccurate ($\\sim 10^4% $) on larger scales in this gauge. We propose a modified version of the growth equation for the Newtonian gauge, which while preserving the simplicity of the original equation, provides considerably more accurate results. We examine the implications of the failure of the growth equation on a few recent studies, aimed at discriminating general relativity from modified gravity, which use this equation as a starting point. We show that while the results of these studies are valid on small scales, they are not reliable on large scales or high redshifts, if one works in the Newtonian gauge. Finally, we discuss the growth equation in the synchronous gauge and show that the corrections to the Poisson equation are exactly equivalent to the difference between the overdensities in the synchronous and Newtonian gauges.
Phase structure and the gluon propagator of SU(2) gauge-Higgs model in two dimensions
Shinya Gongyo; Daniel Zwanziger
2015-01-26
We study numerically the phase structure and the gluon propagator of the SU(2) gauge-Higgs model in two dimensions. First, we calculate gauge-invariant quantities, in particular the static potential from Wilson Loop, the W propagator, and the plaquette expectation value. Our results suggest that a confinement-like region and a Higgs-like region appear even in two dimensions. In the confinement-like region, the static potential rises linearly, with string breaking at large distances, while in the Higgs-like region, it is of Yukawa type, consistent with a Higgs-type mechanism. The correlation length obtained from the W propagator has a finite maximum between these regions. The plaquette expectation value shows a smooth cross-over consistent with the Fradkin-Shenker-Osterwalder-Seiler theorem. From these results, we suggest that there is no phase transition in two dimensions. We also calculate a gauge-dependent order parameter in Landau gauge. Unlike gauge invariant quantities, the gauge non-invariant order parameter has a line of discontinuity separating these two regions. Finally we calculate the gluon propagtor. We infer from its infrared behavior that the gluon propagator would vanish at zero momentum in the infinite-volume limit, consistent with an analytical study.
Is it possible to accommodate massive photons in the framework of a gauge-invariant electrodynamics?
M. V. S. Fonseca; A. A. Vargas-Paredes
2010-05-19
The construction of an alternative electromagnetic theory that preserves Lorentz and gauge symmetries, is considered. We start off by building up Maxwell electrodynamics in (3+1)D from the assumption that the associated Lagrangian is a gauge-invariant functional that depends on the electron and photon fields and their first derivatives only. In this scenario, as well-known, it is not possible to set up a Lorentz invariant gauge theory containing a massive photon. We show nevertheless that there exist two radically different electrodynamics, namely, the Chern-Simons and the Podolsky formulations, in which this problem can be overcome. The former is only valid in odd space-time dimensions, while the latter requires the presence of higher-order derivatives of the gauge field in the Lagrangian. This theory, usually known as Podolsky electrodynamics, is simultaneously gauge and Lorentz invariant; in addition, it contains a massive photon. Therefore, a massive photon, unlike the popular belief, can be adequately accommodated within the context of a gauge-invariant electrodynamics.
A search for a new gauge boson A'
Jensen, Eric L.
2013-08-01
In the Standard Model, gauge bosons mediate the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces. New forces could have escaped detection only if their mediators are either heavier than order(TeV) or weakly coupled to charged matter. New vector bosons with small coupling {alpha}' arise naturally from a small kinetic mixing with the photon and have received considerable attention as an explanation of various dark matter related anomalies. Such particles can be produced in electron-nucleus fixed-target scattering and then decay to e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs. New light vector bosons and their associated forces are a common feature of Standard Model extensions, but existing constraints are remarkably sparse. The APEX experiment will search for a new vector boson A' with coupling {alpha}'/{alpha}{sub fs} > 6 × 10{sup -8} to electrons in the mass range 65MeV < mass A' < 550MeV. The experiment will study e{sup +}e{sup -} production off an electron beam incident on a high-Z target in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The e{sup -} and e{sup +} will be detected in the High Resolution Spectrometers (HRSs). The invariant mass spectrum of the e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs will be scanned for a narrow resonance corresponding to the mass of the A'. A test run for the APEX experiment was held in the summer of 2010. Using the test run data, an A' search was performed in the mass range 175-250 MeV. The search found no evidence for an A' --> e{sup +}e{sup -} reaction, and set an upper limit of {alpha}'/{alpha}{sub fs} ~ 10{sup -6}.
T. P. Shestakova
2005-12-09
In the earlier works on quantum geometrodynamics in extended phase space it has been argued that a wave function of the Universe should satisfy a Schrodinger equation. Its form, as well as a measure in Schrodinger scalar product, depends on a gauge condition (a chosen reference frame). It is known that the geometry of an appropriate Hilbert space is determined by introducing the scalar product, so the Hilbert space structure turns out to be in a large degree depending on a chosen gauge condition. In the present work we analyse this issue from the viewpoint of the path integral approach. We consider how the gauge condition changes as a result of gauge transformations. In this respect, three kinds of gauge transformations can be singled out: Firstly, there are residual gauge transformations, which do not change the gauge condition. The second kind is the transformations whose parameters can be related by homotopy. Then the change of gauge condition could be described by smoothly changing function. In particular, in this context time dependent gauges could be discussed. We also suggest that this kind of gauge transformations leads to a smooth changing of solutions to the Schrodinger equation. The third kind of the transformations includes those whose parameters belong to different homotopy classes. They are of the most interest from the viewpoint of changing the Hilbert space structure. In this case the gauge condition and the very form of the Schrodinger equation would change in discrete steps when we pass from a spacetime region with one gauge condition to another region with another gauge condition. In conclusion we discuss the relation between quantum gravity and fundamental problems of ordinary quantum mechanics.
A Bicycle Built for Two: The Galilean and U(1) Gauge Invariance of the Schr\\"odinger Field
Colussi, V
2008-01-01
This paper undertakes a study of the nature of the force associated with the local U (1) gauge symmetry of a non-relativistic quantum particle. To ensure invariance under local U (1) symmetry, a matter field must couple to a gauge field. We show that such a gauge field necessarily satisfies the Maxwell equations, whether the matter field coupled to it is relativistic or non-relativistic. This result suggests that the structure of the Maxwell equations is determined by gauge symmetry rather than the symmetry transformation properties of space-time. In order to assess the validity of this notion, we examine the transformation properties of the coupled matter and gauge fields under Galilean transformations. Our main technical result is the Galilean invariance of the full equations of motion of the U (1) gauge field.
L. D Lantsman
2012-05-01
The goal of this note is to give a description of Dirac variables in Abelian as well as non-Abelian gauge models in terms of gauge-invariant and Poincare-covariant states sweeping a Hilbert space ${\\cal H}_{\\rm vac}$. The next our conjecture concerns the spontaneous breakdown of the Abelian U(1) symmetry in the 'discrete' $U(1)\\to {\\bf Z}$ wise. We suppose that gauge charges are preserved in this case.
Finding the effective Polyakov line action for SU(3) gauge theories at finite chemical potential
Jeff Greensite; Kurt Langfeld
2014-05-22
Motivated by the sign problem, we calculate the effective Polyakov line action corresponding to certain SU(3) lattice gauge theories on a ${16^3 \\times 6}$ lattice via the "relative weights" method introduced in our previous articles. The calculation is carried out at $\\beta=5.6,5.7$ for the pure gauge theory, and at $\\beta=5.6$ for the gauge field coupled to a relatively light scalar particle. In the latter example we determine the effective theory also at finite chemical potential, and show how observables relevant to phase structure can be computed in the effective theory via mean field methods. In all cases a comparison of Polyakov line correlators in the effective theory and the underlying lattice gauge theory, computed numerically at zero chemical potential, shows accurate agreement down to correlator magnitudes of order $10^{-5}$. We also derive the effective Polyakov line action corresponding to a gauge theory with heavy quarks and large chemical potential, and apply mean field methods to extract observables.
Cosmological consequences of classical flavor-space locked gauge field radiation
Jannis Bielefeld; Robert R. Caldwell
2015-05-28
We propose a classical SU(2) gauge field in a flavor-space locked configuration as a species of radiation in the early universe, and show that it would have a significant imprint on a primordial stochastic gravitational wave spectrum. In the flavor-space locked configuration, the electric and magnetic fields of each flavor are parallel and mutually orthogonal to other flavors, with isotropic and homogeneous stress-energy. Due to the non-Abelian coupling, the gauge field breaks the symmetry between left- and right-circularly polarized gravitational waves. This broken chiral symmetry results in a unique signal: non-zero cross correlation of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization, $TB$ and $EB$, both of which should be zero in the standard, chiral symmetric case. We forecast the ability of current and future CMB experiments to constrain this model. Furthermore, a wide range of behavior is shown to emerge, depending on the gauge field coupling, abundance, and allocation into electric and magnetic field energy density. The fluctuation power of primordial gravitational waves oscillates back and forth into fluctuations of the gauge field. In certain cases, the gravitational wave spectrum is shown to be suppressed or amplified by up to an order of magnitude depending on the initial conditions of the gauge field.
H. B. Thacker
2010-01-24
Lattice Monte Carlo studies in SU(3) gauge theory have shown that the topological charge distribution in the vacuum is dominated by thin coherent membranes of codimension one arranged in a layered, alternating-sign sandwich. A similar lamination of topological charge occurs in the 2D $CP^{N-1}$ model. In holographic QCD, the observed topological charge sheets are naturally interpreted as $D6$ branes wrapped around an $S_4$.. With this interpretation, the laminated array of topological charge membranes observed on the lattice can be identified as a "tachyonic crystal", a regular, alternating-sign array of $D6$ and $\\bar{D6}$ branes that arises as the final state of the decay of a non-BPS $D7$ brane via the tachyonic mode of the attached string. In the gauge theory, the homogeneous, space-filling $D7$ brane represents the perturbative gauge vacuum, which is unstable toward lamination associated with a marginal tachyonic boundary perturbation $\\propto \\cos(X/\\sqrt{2\\alpha'})$. For the $CP^{N-1}$ model, the cutoff field theory can be cast as the low energy limit of an open string theory in background gauge and tachyon fields $A_{\\mu}(x)$ and $\\lambda(x)$. This allows a detailed comparison with large $N$ field theory results and provides strong support for the tachyonic crystal interpretation of the gauge theory vacuum.
On Gauge Enhancement and Singular Limits in $G_2$ Compactifications of M-theory
Halverson, James
2015-01-01
We study the physics of singular limits of $G_2$ compactifications of M-theory, which are necessary to obtain a compactification with non-abelian gauge symmetry or massless charged particles. This is more difficult than for Calabi-Yau compactifications, due to the absence of calibrated two-cycles that would have allowed for direct control of W-boson masses as a function of moduli. Instead, we study the relationship between gauge enhancement and singular limits in $G_2$ moduli space where an associative or coassociative submanifold shrinks to zero size; this involves the physics of topological defects and sometimes gives indirect control over particle masses, even though they are not BPS. We show how a lemma of Joyce associates the class of a three-cycle to any $U(1)$ gauge theory in a smooth $G_2$ compactification. If there is an appropriate associative submanifold in this class then in the limit of nonabelian gauge symmetry it may be interpreted as a gauge theory worldvolume and provides the location of the ...
Quantum Simulations of Lattice Gauge Theories using Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices
Erez Zohar; J. Ignacio Cirac; Benni Reznik
2015-03-08
Can high energy physics can be simulated by low-energy, nonrelativistic, many-body systems, such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective, low energy, symmetry, or as an "exact" symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to new type of (table-top) experiments, that shall be used to study various QCD phenomena, as the con?nement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions, and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
The Shifted Coupled Cluster Method: A New Approach to Hamiltonian Lattice Gauge Theories
C. H. Llewellyn Smith; N. J. Watson
1992-12-18
It is shown how to adapt the non-perturbative coupled cluster method of many-body theory so that it may be successfully applied to Hamiltonian lattice $SU(N)$ gauge theories. The procedure involves first writing the wavefunctions for the vacuum and excited states in terms of linked clusters of gauge invariant excitations of the strong coupling vacuum. The fundamental approximation scheme then consists of i) a truncation of the infinite set of clusters in the wavefunctions according to their geometric {\\em size}, with all larger clusters appearing in the Schr\\"odinger equations simply discarded, ii) an expansion of the truncated wavefunctions in terms of the remaining clusters rearranged, or ``shifted'', to describe gauge invariant {\\em fluctuations} about their vacuum expectation values. The resulting non-linear truncated Schr\\"odinger equations are then solved self-consistently and exactly. Results are presented for the case of $SU(2)$ in $d=3$ space-time dimensions.
An Interacting Gauge Field Theoretic Model for the Hodge Theory: Basic Canonical Brackets
R. Kumar; S. Gupta; R. P. Malik
2014-05-29
We derive the basic canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators for a two (1 + 1)-dimensional (2D) gauge field theoretic model of an interacting Hodge theory where a U(1) gauge field (A_\\mu) is coupled with the fermionic Dirac fields (\\psi and \\bar \\psi). In this derivation, we exploit the spin-statistics theorem, normal ordering and the strength of the underlying six infinitesimal continuous symmetries (and the concept of their generators) that are present in the theory. We do not use the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta (corresponding to the basic fields of the theory) anywhere in our whole discussion. Thus, we conjecture that our present approach provides an alternative to the canonical method of quantization for a class of gauge field theories that are physical examples of Hodge theory where the continuous symmetries (and corresponding generators) provide the physical realizations of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry at the algebraic level.
A Superconnection for Riemannian Gravity as Spontaneously Broken SL(4,R) Gauge Theory
Yuval Ne'eman
1997-08-10
A superconnection is a supermatrix whose even part contains the gauge-potential one-forms of a local gauge group, while the odd parts contain the (0-form) Higgs fields; the combined grading is thus odd everywhere. We demonstrate that the simple supergroup ${\\bar P}(4,R)$ (rank=3) in Kac' classification (even subgroup $\\bar {SL}(4,R)$) prverline {SL}(4,R)$) provides for the most economical spontaneous breaking of $\\bar{SL}(4,R)$ as gauge group, leaving just local $\\bar{SO}(1,3)$ unbroken. As a result, post-Riemannian SKY gravity yields Einstein's theory as a low-energy (longer range) effective theory. The theory is renormalizable and may be unitary.
A Superconnection for Riemannian Gravity as Spontaneously Broken SL(4,R) Gauge Theory
Ne'eman, Yuval
1998-01-01
A superconnection is a supermatrix whose even part contains the gauge-potential one-forms of a local gauge group, while the odd parts contain the (0-form) Higgs fields; the combined grading is thus odd everywhere. We demonstrate that the simple supergroup ${\\bar P}(4,R)$ (rank=3) in Kac' classification (even subgroup $\\bar {SL}(4,R)$) prverline {SL}(4,R)$) provides for the most economical spontaneous breaking of $\\bar{SL}(4,R)$ as gauge group, leaving just local $\\bar{SO}(1,3)$ unbroken. As a result, post-Riemannian SKY gravity yields Einstein's theory as a low-energy (longer range) effective theory. The theory is renormalizable and may be unitary.
Renormalization of composite operators in Yang-Mills theories using a general covariant gauge
Collins, J.C.; Scalise, R.J. (The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, 104 Davey Laboratory, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States))
1994-09-15
Essential to QCD applications of the operator product expansion, etc., is a knowledge of those operators that mix with gauge-invariant operators. A standard theorem asserts that the renormalization matrix is triangular: Gauge-invariant operators have alien'' gauge-variant operators among their counterterms, but, with a suitably chosen basis, the necessary alien operators have only themselves as counterterms. Moreover, the alien operators are supposed to vanish in physical matrix elements. A recent calculation by Hamberg and van Neerven apparently contradicts these results. By explicit calculations with the energy-momentum tensor, we show that the problems arise because of subtle infrared singularities that appear when gluonic matrix elements are taken on shell at zero momentum transfer.
Quantum Moduli Space of the Cascading Sp(p+M) x Sp(p) Gauge Theory
Fumikazu Koyama; Futoshi Yagi
2006-12-27
We extend the detailed analysis of the quantum moduli space of the cascading SU(p+M) x SU(p) gauge theory in the recent paper of Dymarsky, Klebanov, and Seiberg for the Sp(p+M) x Sp(p) cascading gauge theory, which lives on the world volume of p D3-branes and M fractional D3-branes at the tip of the orientifolded conifold. As in their paper, we also find in this case that the ratio of the deformation parameters of the quantum constraint on the different branches in the gauge theory can be reproduced by the ratio of the deformation parameters of the conifold with different numbers of mobile D3-branes.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking, and strings defects in hypercomplex gauge field theories
Cartas-Fuentevilla, R
2015-01-01
Inspired by the appearance of split-complex structures in the dimensional reduction of string theory, and in the theories emerging as byproducts, we study the hyper-complex formulation of Abelian gauge field theories, by incorporating a new complex unit to the usual complex one. The hypercomplex version of the traditional Mexican hat potential associated with the $U(1)$ gauge field theory, corresponds to a {\\it hybrid} potential with two real components, and with $U(1)\\times SO(1,1)$ as symmetry group. Each component corresponds to a deformation of the hat potential, with the appearance of a new degenerate vacuum. Hypercomplex electrodynamics will show novel properties, such as the spontaneous symmetry breaking scenarios with running masses for the vectorial and scalar Higgs fields, and the Aharonov-Bohm type strings defects as exact solutions; these topological defects may be detected only by quantum interference of charged particles through gauge invariant loop integrals. In a particular limit, the {\\it hyp...
Topological gauge theories from supersymmetric quantum mechanics on spaces of connections
M Blau; G Thompson
1991-12-20
We rederive the recently introduced $N=2$ topological gauge theories, representing the Euler characteristic of moduli spaces ${\\cal M}$ of connections, from supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the infinite dimensional spaces ${\\cal A}/{\\cal G}$ of gauge orbits. To that end we discuss variants of ordinary supersymmetric quantum mechanics which have meaningful extensions to infinite-dimensional target spaces and introduce supersymmetric quantum mechanics actions modelling the Riemannian geometry of submersions and embeddings, relevant to the projections ${\\cal A}\\rightarrow {\\cal A}/{\\cal G}$ and inclusions ${\\cal M}\\subset{\\cal A}/{\\cal G}$ respectively. We explain the relation between Donaldson theory and the gauge theory of flat connections in $3d$ and illustrate the general construction by other $2d$ and $4d$ examples.
Sexton, Aisha M.; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Srinivasan, Ragahvan; Shirmohammadi, Adel
2010-05-10
The value of watershed?scale, hydrologic and water quality models to ecosystem management is increasingly evident as more programs adopt these tools to evaluate the effectiveness of different management scenarios and their impact on the environment. Quality of precipitation data is critical for appropriate application of watershed models. In small watersheds, where no dense rain gauge network is available, modelers are faced with a dilemma to choose between different data sets. In this study, we used the German Branch (GB) watershed (~50 km2), which is included in the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), to examine the implications of using surface rain gauge and next?generation radar (NEXRAD) precipitation data sets on the performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The GB watershed is located in the Coastal Plain of Maryland on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. Stream flow estimation results using surface rain gauge data seem to indicate the importance of using rain gauges within the same direction as the storm pattern with respect to the watershed. In the absence of a spatially representative network of rain gauges within the watershed, NEXRAD data produced good estimates of stream flow at the outlet of the watershed. Three NEXRAD datasets, including (1)*non?corrected (NC), (2) bias?corrected (BC), and (3) inverse distance weighted (IDW) corrected NEXRAD data, were produced. Nash?Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients for daily stream flow simulation using these three NEXRAD data ranged from 0.46 to 0.58 during calibration and from 0.68 to 0.76 during validation. Overall, correcting NEXRAD with rain gauge data is promising to produce better hydrologic modeling results. Given the multiple precipitation datasets and corresponding simulations, we explored the combination of the multiple simulations using Bayesian model averaging.
Deep inelastic scattering cross sections from the gauge/string duality
Ezequiel Koile; Nicolas Kovensky; Martin Schvellinger
2015-07-28
Differential cross sections of deep inelastic scattering of charged leptons from hadrons are investigated by using the gauge/string duality. We consider vector mesons derived from different holographic dual models obtaining a general expression. We focus on the strongly coupled regime of dual gauge theories for different values of the Bjorken parameter. We find new predictions which are particularly interesting for differential scattering cross sections of polarized leptons scattered off polarized vector mesons. We also carry out a detailed comparison of the moments of the structure functions with lattice QCD results.
Z2 electric strings and center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory
M. I. Polikarpov; P. V. Buividovich
2008-01-01
We study the representations of SU(2) lattice gauge theory in terms of sums over the worldsheets of center vortices and Z2 electric strings, i.e. surfaces which open on the Wilson loop. It is shown that in contrast to center vortices the density of electric Z2 strings diverges in the continuum limit of the theory independently of the gauge fixing, however, their contribution to the Wilson loop yields physical string tension due to non-positivity of their statistical weight in the path integral, which is in turn related to the presence of Z2 topological monopoles in the theory.
Cooling, smearing and Dirac eigenmodes - A comparison of filtering methods in lattice gauge theory
Christof Gattringer; E. -M. Ilgenfritz; Stefan Solbrig
2006-01-16
Starting from thermalized quenched SU(2) configurations we apply cooling or iterated smearing, respectively, to produce sequences of gauge configurations with less and less fluctuations. We compute the low lying spectrum and eigenmodes of the lattice Dirac operator and compare them for the two types of smoothing. Many characteristic properties of the eigensystem remain invariant for all configurations in our sequences. We also find that cooling and smearing produce surprisingly similar results. Both observations could be indications that the two filtering methods do not drastically alter the long range structures in the gauge field.
Program package for multicanonical simulations of U(1) lattice gauge theory
Alexei Bazavov; Bernd A. Berg
2009-03-23
We document our Fortran 77 code for multicanonical simulations of 4D U(1) lattice gauge theory in the neighborhood of its phase transition. This includes programs and routines for canonical simulations using biased Metropolis heatbath updating and overrelaxation, determination of multicanonical weights via a Wang-Landau recursion, and multicanonical simulations with fixed weights supplemented by overrelaxation sweeps. Measurements are performed for the action, Polyakov loops and some of their structure factors. Many features of the code transcend the particular application and are expected to be useful for other lattice gauge theory models as well as for systems in statistical physics.
Fiber-optic strain gauge with attached ends and unattached microbend section
Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)
1992-01-01
A strain gauge is made of an optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. The permanent microbends cause a reduction in the fiber's optical transmission, but, when the gauge is attached to a substrate that is subsequently strained, the amplitude of the deformations will diminish and the optical transmission through the fiber will increase. An apparatus and process for manufacturing these microbends into the optical fiber through a heat-set process is employed; this apparatus and process includes a testing and calibration system.
Fiber-optic strain gauge with attached ends and unattached microbend section
Weiss, J.D.
1992-07-21
A strain gauge is made of an optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. The permanent microbends cause a reduction in the fiber's optical transmission, but, when the gauge is attached to a substrate that is subsequently strained, the amplitude of the deformations will diminish and the optical transmission through the fiber will increase. An apparatus and process for manufacturing these microbends into the optical fiber through a heat-set process is employed; this apparatus and process includes a testing and calibration system. 5 figs.
Mariano Anabitarte; Mauricio Bellini
2009-01-06
We revisit an extension of the well-known formalism for gauge-invariant scalar metric fluctuations, to study the spectrums for both, the inflaton and gauge invariant (scalar) metric fluctuations in the framework of a single field inflationary model where the quasi-exponential expansion is driven by an inflation which is minimally coupled to gravity. The proposal here examined is valid also for fluctuations with large amplitude, but for cosmological scales, where vector and tensor perturbations can be neglected and the fluid is irrotacional.
Lagrangians with electric and magnetic charges of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories
Mathijs de Vroome; Bernard de Wit
2007-07-18
General Lagrangians are constructed for N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories in four space-time dimensions involving gauge groups with (non-abelian) electric and magnetic charges. The charges induce a scalar potential, which, when the charges are regarded as spurionic quantities, is invariant under electric/magnetic duality. The resulting theories are especially relevant for supergravity, but details of the extension to local supersymmetry will be discussed elsewhere. The results include the coupling to hypermultiplets. Without the latter, it is demonstrated how an off-shell representation can be constructed based on vector and tensor supermultiplets.
Static quark anti-quark pair in SU(2) gauge theory
A. Bazavov; P. Petreczky; A. Velytsky
2008-09-11
We study singlet and triplet correlation functions of static quark anti-quark pair defined through gauge invariant time-like Wilson loops and Polyakov loop correlators in finite temperature SU(2) gauge theory. We use the Luescher-Weisz multilevel algorithm, which allows to calculate these correlators at very low temperatures. We observe that the naive separation of singlet and triplet states in general does not hold non-perturbatively, however, is recovered in the limit of small separation and the temperature dependence of the corresponding correlators is indeed very different.
Ioannis Florakis
2015-06-26
I review recent work on computing radiative corrections to non-abelian gauge couplings in four-dimensional heterotic vacua with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. The prototype models can be considered as K3 surfaces with additional Scherk-Schwarz fluxes inducing the spontaneous $\\mathcal{N}=2 \\to \\mathcal{N}=0$ breaking. Remarkably, although the gauge thresholds are no longer BPS protected and receive contributions also from the excitations of the RNS sector, their difference is still exactly computable and universal. Based on a talk presented at the DISCRETE 2014 conference at King's College London.
Florakis, Ioannis
2015-01-01
I review recent work on computing radiative corrections to non-abelian gauge couplings in four-dimensional heterotic vacua with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. The prototype models can be considered as K3 surfaces with additional Scherk-Schwarz fluxes inducing the spontaneous $\\mathcal{N}=2 \\to \\mathcal{N}=0$ breaking. Remarkably, although the gauge thresholds are no longer BPS protected and receive contributions also from the excitations of the RNS sector, their difference is still exactly computable and universal. Based on a talk presented at the DISCRETE 2014 conference at King's College London.
Gauged B-xiL origin of R parity and its implications
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Lee, Hye-Sung; Ma, Ernest
2010-05-01
Gauged B-L is a popular candidate for the origin of the conservation of R parity, i.e.R=(-)3B+L+2j, in supersymmetry, but it fails to forbid the effective dimension-five terms arising from the superfield combinations QQQL, ucucdcec, and ucdcdcNc, which allow the proton to decay. Changing it to B-xiL, where xe+x?+x?=3 (with xi?1) for the three families, would forbid these terms while still serving as a gauge origin of Rparity. We show how this is achieved in two minimal models with realistic neutrino mass matrices, and discuss their phenomenological implications.
Gauge fields in graphene with nonuniform elastic deformations: A quantum field theory approach
Arias, Enrique; Lewenkopf, Caio
2015-01-01
We investigate the low energy continuum limit theory for electrons in a graphene sheet under strain. We use the quantum field theory in curved spaces to analyze the effect of the system deformations into an effective gauge field. We study both in-plane and out-of-plane deformations and obtain a closed expression for the effective gauge field due to arbitrary nonuniform sheet deformations. The obtained results reveal a remarkable relation between the local-pseudo magnetic field and the Riemann curvature, so far overlooked.
Gauge fields in graphene with nonuniform elastic deformations: A quantum field theory approach
Enrique Arias; Alexis R. Hernández; Caio Lewenkopf
2015-11-27
We investigate the low energy continuum limit theory for electrons in a graphene sheet under strain. We use the quantum field theory in curved spaces to analyze the effect of the system deformations into an effective gauge field. We study both in-plane and out-of-plane deformations and obtain a closed expression for the effective gauge field due to arbitrary nonuniform sheet deformations. The obtained results reveal a remarkable relation between the local-pseudo magnetic field and the Riemann curvature, so far overlooked.
Effective field theory for a heavy Higgs boson: A manifestly gauge-invariant approach
Nyffeler, A.; Schenk, A.
1996-02-01
For large values of the Higgs boson mass the low energy structure of the gauged linear {sigma} model in the spontaneously broken phase can adequately be described by an effective field theory. In this work we present a manifestly gauge-invariant technique to explicitly evaluate the corresponding effective Langrangian from the underlying theory. In order to demonstrate the application of this functional method, the effective field theory of the Abelian Higgs model is thoroughly analyzed. We stress that this technique does not rely on any particular property of the Abelian case. The application to the non-Abelian theory is outlined. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Ferreira, Miguel Jorge Bernabé; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Sobrinho, Paulo Teôtonio
2015-01-01
State sum models can be used to obtain partition functions of physical systems in various dimensions. Their construction proceeds by associating local tensors or weights to different parts of a closed triangulated manifold. One such approach is the Kuperberg's algorithm for finding 3-manifold invariants. In terms of physics an analogous construction results in the partition functions of three dimensional lattice gauge theories based on involutory Hopf algebras $\\mathcal{A}$. For the familiar case of group algebras we obtain the partition functions of lattice gauge theories. Here we extend this construction to one with gauge and matter fields in two and three dimensions. The additional ingredients are the matter fields located on the vertices which are acted upon by the gauge fields living on the edges. The matter fields correspond to Potts spin configurations. They can be described by a vector space, carrying the representation of the gauge fields, with an inner product. Performing this construction on a tria...
Thermodynamics of a rotating black hole in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity
Grunau, Saskia
2015-01-01
In this article we study the thermodynamics of a general non-extremal rotating black hole in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity. We analyse the entropy-temperature diagram and the free energy. Additionally we consider the thermodynamic stability by calculating the specific heat, the isothermal moment of inertia tensor and the adiabatic compressibility.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Combining hydraulic knowledge and uncertain gaugings in the estimation of hydrometric rating curves HHLY, Hydrology-Hydraulics 5 rue de la Doua CS70077 69626 Villeurbanne cedex, France bCETE Ile analysis of rating curves arises from the quantitative as- sessment of (i) the hydraulic controls
Phase transitions in ZN gauge theory and twisted ZN topological phases
Barkeshli, Maissam
We find a series of non-Abelian topological phases that are separated from the deconfined phase of Z[subscript N] gauge theory by a continuous quantum phase transition. These non-Abelian states, which we refer to as the ...
Gottlieb, Steven Arthur [Indiana University; DeTar, Carleton [University of Utah; Tousaint, Doug [University of Arizona
2014-07-24
This is the closeout report for the Indiana University portion of the National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory project supported by the United States Department of Energy under the SciDAC program. It includes information about activities at Indian University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Utah, as those three universities coordinated their activities.
Evolution of the coupling constant in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two adjoint fermions
Ari J. Hietanen; Kari Rummukainen; Kimmo Tuominen
2009-11-24
We measure the evolution of the coupling constant using the Schroedinger functional method in the lattice formulation of SU(2) gauge theory with two massless Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. We observe strong evidence for an infrared fixed point, where the theory becomes conformal. We measure the continuum beta-function and the coupling constant as a function of the energy scale.
Gauge-invariant metric fluctuations from NKK theory of gravity: de Sitter expansion
Jose Edgar Madriz Aguilar; Mariano Anabitarte; Mauricio Bellini
2005-10-20
In this paper we study gauge-invariant metric fluctuations from a Noncompact Kaluza-Klein (NKK) theory of gravity in a de Sitter expansion. We recover the well known result $\\delta\\rho/\\rho \\simeq 2\\Phi$, obtained from the standard 4D semiclassical approach to inflation. The spectrum for these fluctuations should be dependent of the fifth (spatial-like) coordinate.
Final Report for "Infrared Fixed Points in Multiflavor Lattice Gauge Theory"
Meurice, Yannick; Sinclair, Donald K.
2013-09-27
The goal of the grant was to apply methods that we have developed with spin and pure gauge models to models with dynamical fermions which are considered as candidates for an alternative to the Higgs mechanism. The work on SU(3) with fundamental quarks and with sextet quarks is described.
2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement
Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.
2012-08-16
We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.
Exceptional thermodynamics: The equation of state of G(2) gauge theory
Mattia Bruno; Michele Caselle; Marco Panero; Roberto Pellegrini
2015-03-12
We present a lattice study of the equation of state in Yang-Mills theory based on the exceptional G(2) gauge group. As is well-known, at zero temperature this theory shares many qualitative features with real-world QCD, including the absence of colored states in the spectrum and dynamical string breaking at large distances. In agreement with previous works, we show that at finite temperature this theory features a first-order deconfining phase transition, whose nature can be studied by a semi-classical computation. We also show that the equilibrium thermodynamic observables in the deconfined phase bear striking quantitative similarities with those found in SU(N) gauge theories: in particular, these quantities exhibit nearly perfect proportionality to the number of gluon degrees of freedom, and the trace anomaly reveals a characteristic quadratic dependence on the temperature, also observed in SU(N) Yang-Mills theories (both in four and in three spacetime dimensions). We compare our lattice data with analytical predictions from effective models, and discuss their implications for the deconfinement mechanism and high-temperature properties of strongly interacting, non-supersymmetric gauge theories. Our results give strong evidence for the conjecture that the thermal deconfining transition is governed by a universal mechanism, common to all simple gauge groups.
Electric-Magnetic duality and the "Loop Representation" in Abelian Gauge Theories
Lorenzo Leal
1996-03-01
Abelian Gauge Theories are quantized in a geometric representation that generalizes the Loop Representation and treates electric and magnetic operators on the same footing. The usual canonical algebra is turned into a topological algebra of non local operators that resembles the order-disorder dual algebra of 't Hooft. These dual operators provide a complete description of the physical phase space of the theories.
Thermodynamics of a rotating black hole in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity
Saskia Grunau; Hendrik Neumann
2015-02-24
In this article we study the thermodynamics of a general non-extremal rotating black hole in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity. We analyse the entropy-temperature diagram and the free energy. Additionally we consider the thermodynamic stability by calculating the specific heat, the isothermal moment of inertia tensor and the adiabatic compressibility.
for a range of sensors used in process industries. In particular, the paper industry is a large user and performance information on systems, and interviewing personnel involved with the paper industry, sensor are widely used in the paper industry for this purpose · multiple manufacturers of basis weight gauges exist
Search for Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry in the gamma gamma missing ET Channel
Kesisoglou, Stilianos Isaak
2004-12-01
We present results on a search for Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry in the di-photon final state using Run II data collected by the D0 Experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We discuss event selection, Standard Model backgrounds, and the lower limits on the lightest neutralino and chargino masses resulted from this analysis.
PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 032107 (2010) Gauge invariance and reciprocity in quantum mechanics
Leung, Pui-Tak "Peter"
2010-01-01
to the modern concept of particle interactions. The general concepts are of partiPHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 032107 (2010) Gauge invariance and reciprocity in quantum mechanics P. T, Keelung, Taiwan 2 Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic
Gauge Transformations in String Field Theory and canonical Transformation in String Theory
J. Maharana; S. mukherji
1992-01-24
We study how canonical transfomations in first quantized string theory can be understood as gauge transformations in string field theory. We establish this fact by working out some examples. As a by product, we could identify some of the fields appearing in string field theory with their counterparts in the $\\sigma$-model.
Left-Right Gauge Symmetry at the TeV Energy Scale
Ernest Ma
1994-11-28
Two first examples beyond the standard model are given which exhibit left-right symmetry (g_L = g_R) and supersymmetry at a few TeV, together with gauge-coupling unification at around 10^{16} GeV.
Solid precipitation on a tropical glacier in Bolivia measured with an ultrasonic depth gauge
Berthier, Etienne
Solid precipitation on a tropical glacier in Bolivia measured with an ultrasonic depth gauge Jean effect produces precipitation at midday in the Andean valleys and in the afternoon in the high mountains the main source of melting energy. INDEX TERMS: 3354 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Precipitation
Tokman, M. D. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ulyanov Street, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2009-05-15
We discuss specific features of the electrodynamic characteristics of quantum systems within the framework of models that include a phenomenological description of the relaxation processes. As is shown by W. E. Lamb, Jr., R. R. Schlicher, and M. O. Scully [Phys. Rev. A 36, 2763 (1987)], the use of phenomenological relaxation operators, which adequately describe the attenuation of eigenvibrations of a quantum system, may lead to incorrect solutions in the presence of external electromagnetic fields determined by the vector potential for different resonance processes. This incorrectness can be eliminated by giving a gauge-invariant form to the relaxation operator. Lamb, Jr., et al. proposed the corresponding gauge-invariant modification for the Weisskopf-Wigner relaxation operator, which is introduced directly into the Schroedinger equation within the framework of the two-level approximation. In the present paper, this problem is studied for the von Neumann equation supplemented by a relaxation operator. First, we show that the solution of the equation for the density matrix with the relaxation operator correctly obtained ''from the first principles'' has properties that ensure gauge invariance for the observables. Second, we propose a common recipe for transformation of the phenomenological relaxation operator into the correct (gauge-invariant) form in the density-matrix equations for a multilevel system. Also, we discuss the methods of elimination of other inaccuracies (not related to the gauge-invariance problem) which arise if the electrodynamic response of a dissipative quantum system is calculated within the framework of simplified relaxation models (first of all, the model corresponding to constant relaxation rates of coherences in quantum transitions). Examples illustrating the correctness of the results obtained within the framework of the proposed methods in contrast to inaccuracy of the results of the standard calculation techniques are given.
Noncompact gauging of N=2 7D supergravity and AdS/CFT holography
Parinya Karndumri
2015-02-02
Half-maximal gauged supergravity in seven dimensions coupled to $n$ vector multiplets contains $n+3$ vectors and $3n+1$ scalars parametrized by $\\mathbb{R}^+\\times SO(3,n)/SO(3)\\times SO(n)$ coset manifold. The two-form field in the gravity multiplet can be dualized to a three-form field which admits a topological mass term. Possible non-compact gauge groups take the form of $G_0\\times H\\subset SO(3,n)$ with a compact group $H$. $G_0$ is one of the five possibilities; $SO(3,1)$, $SL(3,\\mathbb{R})$, $SO(2,2)$, $SO(2,1)$ and $SO(2,2)\\times SO(2,1)$. We investigate all of these possible non-compact gauge groups and classify their vacua. Unlike the gauged supergravity without a topological mass term, there are new supersymmetric $AdS_7$ vacua in the $SO(3,1)$ and $SL(3,\\mathbb{R})$ gaugings. These correspond to new $N=(1,0)$ superconformal field theories (SCFT) in six dimensions. Additionally, we find a class of $AdS_5\\times S^2$ and $AdS_5\\times H^2$ backgrounds with $SO(2)$ and $SO(2)\\times SO(2)$ symmetries. These should correspond to $N=1$ SCFTs in four dimensions obtained from twisted compactifications of six-dimensional field theories on $S^2$ or $H^2$. We also study RG flows from six-dimensional $N=(1,0)$ SCFT to $N=1$ SCFT in four dimensions and RG flows from a four-dimensional $N=1$ SCFT to a six-dimensional SYM in the IR. The former are driven by a vacuum expectation value of a dimension-four operator dual to the supergravity dilaton while the latter are driven by vacuum expectation values of marginal operators.
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7, 2011 |1Administration~I.OJ)REFFPARTNERSHIP11Program
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudget ||Department of Energy52Building1SMALL BUSINESS
Yoshihito Kuno; Kenichi Kasamatsu; Yoshiro Takahashi; Ikuo Ichinose; Tetsuo Matsui
2015-06-05
Lattice gauge theory has provided a crucial non-perturbative method in studying canonical models in high-energy physics such as quantum chromodynamics. Among other models of lattice gauge theory, the lattice gauge-Higgs model is a quite important one because it describes wide variety of phenomena/models related to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism such as superconductivity, the standard model of particle physics, and inflation process of the early universe. In this paper, we first show that atomic description of the lattice gauge model allows us to explore real time dynamics of the gauge variables by using the Gross-Pitaevskii equations. Numerical simulations of the time development of an electric flux reveal some interesting characteristics of dynamical aspect of the model and determine its phase diagram. Next, to realize a quantum simulator of the U(1) lattice gauge-Higgs model on an optical lattice filled by cold atoms, we propose two feasible methods: (i) Wannier states in the excited bands and (ii) dipolar atoms in a multilayer optical lattice. We pay attentions to respect the constraint of Gauss's law and avoid nonlocal gauge interactions.
rate variability (HRV) of preterm neonates undergoing a polysomnography in relation to the occurrence: To quantify nonlinear HRV, the numerical noise titration technique is used, adapted to neonatal heart rate data. HRV is calculated for 30 preterm neonates with mean post-conceptional age of 36.4 weeks, divided
of the particular biases of tide gauges such as sensor drift or appreciable land movement. We aim to perform to make a dedicated data and metadata base (technical, historical, statistics, altimetric products) which
The light-front gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensor
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Lorce, Cedric
2015-08-11
In this study, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization for the matrix elements of the generic asymmetric, non-local and gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor, generalizing therefore former works on the symmetric, local and gauge-invariant kinetic energy-momentum tensor also known as the Belinfante-Rosenfeld energy-momentum tensor. We discuss in detail the various constraints imposed by non-locality, linear and angular momentum conservation. We also derive the relations with two-parton generalized and transverse-momentum dependent distributions, clarifying what can be learned from the latter. In particular, we show explicitly that two-parton transverse-momentum dependent distributions cannot provide any model-independent information about the parton orbitalmore »angular momentum. On the way, we recover the Burkardt sum rule and obtain similar new sum rules for higher-twist distributions.« less
SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory- Local Dynamics on Non-intersecting Electric flux Loops
Ramesh Anishetty; Indrakshi Raychowdhury
2014-11-12
We use Schwinger Bosons as prepotentials for lattice gauge theory to de?ne local linking oper- ators and calculate their action on linking states for 2 + 1 dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory. We develop a diagrammatic technique and associate a set of (lattice Feynman) rules to compute the entire loop dynamics diagrammatically. The physical loop space is shown to contain only non- intersecting loop con?gurations after solving the Mandelstam constraint. The smallest plaquette loops are contained in the physical loop space and other con?gurations are generated by the action of a set of fusion operators on this basic loop states enabling one to charaterize any arbitrary loop by the basic plaquette together with the fusion variables. Consequently, the full Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian and the dynamics of all possible non-intersecting physical loops are formulated in terms of these fusion variables.
Magnetic monopole versus vortex as gauge-invariant topological objects for quark confinement
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shinohara, Toru; Shibata, Akihiro; Kato, Seikou
2015-01-01
First, we give a gauge-independent definition of chromomagnetic monopoles in $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory which is derived through a non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator. Then we discuss how such magnetic monopoles can give a nontrivial contribution to the Wilson loop operator for understanding the area law of the Wilson loop average. Next, we discuss how the magnetic monopole condensation picture are compatible with the vortex condensation picture as another promising scenario for quark confinement. We analyze the profile function of the magnetic flux tube as the non-Abelian vortex solution of $U(N)$ gauge-Higgs model, which is to be compared with numerical simulations of the $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory on a lattice. This analysis gives an estimate of the string tension based on the vortex condensation picture, and possible interactions between two non-Abelian vortices.
Magnetic monopole versus vortex as gauge-invariant topological objects for quark confinement
Kei-Ichi Kondo; Takaaki Sasago; Toru Shinohara; Akihiro Shibata; Seikou Kato
2015-08-08
First, we give a gauge-independent definition of chromomagnetic monopoles in $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory which is derived through a non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator. Then we discuss how such magnetic monopoles can give a nontrivial contribution to the Wilson loop operator for understanding the area law of the Wilson loop average. Next, we discuss how the magnetic monopole condensation picture are compatible with the vortex condensation picture as another promising scenario for quark confinement. We analyze the profile function of the magnetic flux tube as the non-Abelian vortex solution of $U(N)$ gauge-Higgs model, which is to be compared with numerical simulations of the $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory on a lattice. This analysis gives an estimate of the string tension based on the vortex condensation picture, and possible interactions between two non-Abelian vortices.
Partially twisted superconformal M5 brane in R-symmetry gauge field backgrounds
Bak, Dongsu
2015-01-01
We obtain the action for a curved superconformal abelian M5 brane with the background R-symmetry gauge field turned on. We then restrict ourselves to superconformal M5 brane on a sphere times flat Minkowski space. We choose R-symmetry SO(1,4) instead of SO(5), which enables us to partially twist on Minkowski space and replace it by some curved Lorentzian manifold. We obtain M5 brane actions on $M_{1,1} \\times S^4$ and $M_{1,2} \\times S^3$ where actions and all fields, including the background gauge field, are real. Dimensional reduction along time gives real 5d SYM actions with nonabelian generalizations.
Translational Symmetry Breaking in Higgs & Gauge Theory, and the Cosmological Constant
Evans, Nick; Scott, Marc
2015-01-01
We argue, at a very basic effective field theory level, that higher dimension operators in scalar theories that break symmetries at scales close to their ultraviolet completion cutoff, include terms that favour the breaking of translation (Lorentz) invariance, potentially resulting in striped, chequered board or general crystal-like phases. Such descriptions can be thought of as the effective low energy description of QCD-like gauge theories near their strong coupling scale where terms involving higher dimension operators are generated. Our low energy theory consists of scalar fields describing operators such as $\\bar{q} q$ and $\\bar{q} F^{(2n)} q$. Such scalars can have kinetic mixing terms that generate effective momentum dependent contributions to the mass matrix. We show that these can destabilize the translationally invariant vacuum. It is possible that in some real gauge theory such operators could become sufficiently dominant to realize such phases and it would be interesting to look for them in lattic...
Nakajima, Hiraku
2015-01-01
Consider the $3$-dimensional $\\mathcal N=4$ supersymmetric gauge theory associated with a compact Lie group $G$ and its quaternionic representation $\\mathbf M$. Physicists study its Coulomb branch, which is a noncompact hyper-K\\"ahler manifold, such as instanton moduli spaces on $\\mathbb R^4$, $SU(2)$-monopole moduli spaces on $\\mathbb R^3$, etc. In this paper and its sequel, we propose a mathematical definition of the coordinate ring of the Coulomb branch, using the vanishing cycle cohomology group of a certain moduli space for a gauged $\\sigma$-model on the $2$-sphere associated with $(G,\\mathbf M)$. In this first part, we check that the cohomology group has the correct graded dimensions expected from the monopole formula proposed by Cremonesi, Hanany and Zaffaroni arXiv:1309.2657. A ring structure (on the cohomology of a modified moduli space) will be introduced in the sequel of this paper.
Restoration of the covariant gauge ? in the initial field of gravity in de Sitter spacetime
Cheong, Lee Yen; Yan, Chew Xiao [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750, Perak (Malaysia)
2014-03-05
The gravitational field generated by a mass term and the initial surface through covariant retarded Green's function for linearized gravity in de Sitter spacetime was studied recently [4, 5] with the covariant gauges set to ? = 2/3 and ? = 5/3. In this paper we extend the work to restore the gauge parameter ? in the field coming from the initial data using the method of shifting the parameter. The ? terms in the initial field cancels exactly with the one coming from the source term. Consequently, the correct field configuration, with two equal mass points moving in its geodesic, one located at the North pole and another one located at the South pole, is reproduced in the whole manifold of de Sitter spacetime.
On the zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator in the Landau gauge
Landim, R. R.; Vilar, L. C. Q. Lemes, V. E. R.; Ventura, O. S.
2014-02-15
Following Henyey procedure [Phys. Rev. D 20, 1460 (1979)], we construct examples of zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator in the Landau gauge in Euclidean space in D dimensions, for both SU(2) and SU(3) groups. We obtain gauge field configurations A{sub ?}{sup a} which give rise to a field strength, F{sub ??}{sup a}=?{sub ?}A{sub ?}{sup a}??{sub ?}A{sub ?}{sup a}+f{sup abc}A{sub ?}{sup b}A{sub ?}{sup c}, whose nonlinear term, f{sup abc}A{sub ?}{sup b}A{sub ?}{sup c}, turns out to be non-vanishing. To our knowledge, this is the first time where such a non-abelian configuration is explicitly obtained in the case of SU(3) in 4D.
Wave functions of $SU(3)$ pure gauge glueballs on the lattice
Jian Liang; Ying Chen; Wei-Feng Chiu; Long-Cheng Gui; Ming Gong; Zhaofeng Liu
2015-06-30
The Bethe-Salpeter wave functions of $SU(3)$ pure gauge glueballs are revisited in this study. The ground and the first excited states of scalar and tensor glueballs are identified unambiguously by using the variational method on the basis of large operator sets. We calculate their wave functions in the Coulomb gauge and use two lattices with different lattice spacings to check the discretization artifacts. For ground states, the radial wave functions are approximately Gaussian and the size of the tensor is twice as large as that of the scalar. For the first excited states, the radial nodes are clearly observed for both the scalar and the tensor glueballs, such that they can be interpreted as the first radial excitations. These observations may shed light on the theoretical understanding of the inner structure of glueballs.
Nucleon axial charge from quenched lattice QCD with domain wall fermions and improved gauge action
Shoichi Sasaki; Tom Blum; Shigemi Ohta; Kostas Orginos
2001-10-12
In our previous DWF calculation with the Wilson gauge action at $\\beta=6.0$ ($a^{-1}\\simeq$ 1.9 GeV) on a $16^3 \\times 32 \\times 16$ lattice, we found that $\\Ga$ had a fairly strong dependence on the quark mass. A simple linear extrapolation of $\\Ga$ to the chiral limit yielded a value that was almost a factor of two smaller than the experimental one. Here we report our recent study of this issue. In particular, we investigate possible errors arising from finite lattice volume, especially in the lighter quark mass region. We employ a RG-improved gauge action (DBW2), which maintains very good chiral behavior even on a coarse lattice ($a^{-1}\\simeq$ 1.3 GeV), in order to perform simulations at large physical volume ($> (2{\\rm fm})^3$). Our preliminary results suggest that the finite volume effect is significant.
Gauge/Gravity Duality, Green Functions of N=2 SYM and Radial/Energy-Scale Relation
Xiao-Jun Wang; Seng Hu
2002-07-19
We consider supergravity configuration of D5 branes wrapped on supersymmetric 2-cycles and use it to calculate one-point and two-point Green functions of some special operators in N=2 super Yang-Mills theory. We show that Green functions obtained from supergravity include two very different parts. One of them corresponds to perturbative results of quantum field theory, and another is a non-perturbative effect which corresponds to contribution from instantons with fractional charge. Comparing Green functions obtained from supergravity and gauge theory, we obtain radial/energy-scale relation for this gauge/gravity correspondence with N=2 supersymmetry. This relation leads right beta-function of N=2 SYM from supergravity configuration.
Reaching the continuum limit in lattice gauge theory - without a computer
John A. L. McIntosh; Lloyd C. L. Hollenberg
2001-11-30
The scaling slope of the anti-symmetric mass gap M of compact U(1)_{2+1} lattice gauge theory is obtained analytically in the Hamiltonian formalism using the plaquette expansion. Based on the first four moments of the Hamiltonian with respect to a one-plaquette mean field state the results demonstrate clear scaling of M at and beyond the transition from strong to weak coupling. The scaling parameters determined agree well with the range of numerical determinations available.
Heavy Quark Free Energies and Screening in SU(2) Gauge Theory
S. Digal; S. Fortunato; P. Petreczky
2002-11-17
We investigate the singlet, triplet and colour average heavy quark free energies in SU(2) pure gauge theory at various temperatures T. We focus on the long distance behaviour of the free energies, studying in particular the temperature dependence of the string tension and the screening masses. The results are qualitatively similar to the SU(3) scenario, except near the critical temperature Tc of the deconfining transition. Finally we test a recently proposed method to renormalize the Polyakov loop.
SYM N=4 in light-cone gauge and the "bridge" identities
A. Bassetto; G. De Pol
2007-12-17
The light-cone gauge allows to single out a set of ``transverse'' fields (TF), whose Green functions are free from UV divergences in SYM N=4. Green functions with external lines involving the remaining fields do instead exhibit divergences: indeed those fields can be expressed, by solving their equations of motion, as composite operators in terms of ``transverse'' fields. A set of exact identities (bridge identities) automatically realize their insertions in a path-integral formulation.
Cogenerating and Pre-annihilating Dark Matter by a New Gauge Interaction
S. M. Barr; Robert J. Scherrer
2015-12-12
In asymmetric dark matter scenarios, there must be a mechanism to annihilate the anti-dark matter. It is proposed here that a new non-abelian gauge interaction can both cogenerate asymmetric dark matter with baryonic matter through its sphaleron processes, and can pre-annihilate the anti-dark matter efficiently. The resulting scenario can naturally generate either cold or warm dark matter.
Cogenerating and Pre-annihilating Dark Matter by a New Gauge Interaction
Barr, S M
2015-01-01
In asymmetric dark matter scenarios, there must be a mechanism to annihilate the anti-dark matter. It is proposed here that a new non-abelian gauge interaction can both cogenerate asymmetric dark matter with baryonic matter through its sphaleron processes, and can pre-annihilate the anti-dark matter efficiently. The resulting scenario can naturally generate either cold or warm dark matter.
The Excited-state Spectrum of QCD through Lattice Gauge Theory Calculations
David Richards
2012-12-01
I describe recent progress at understanding the excited state spectrum of QCD through lattice gauge calculations. I begin by outlining the evolution of the lattice effort at JLab. I detail the impact of recent lattice calculations on the present and upcoming experimental programs, and in particular that of the 12 GeV upgrade of Jefferson Laboratory. I conclude with the prospect for future calculations.
Basic canonical brackets in the gauge field theoretic models for the Hodge theory
S. Gupta; R. Kumar; R. P. Malik
2014-01-12
We deduce the canonical brackets for a two (1 + 1)-dimensional (2D) free Abelian 1-form as well as a four (3 + 1)-dimensional (4D) 2-form gauge theory by exploiting the beauty and strength of the continuous symmetries of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) invariant Lagrangian densities that respect, in totality, six continuous symmetries. These symmetries entail upon these models to become the field theoretic examples for the Hodge theory. Taken together, these symmetries enforce the existence of exactly the same canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators that appear in the canonical method of quantization for the normal mode expansion of the basic fields of these theories. In other words, we provide an alternative to the canonical method of quantization for our present gauge field theoretic models for the Hodge theory where the continuous symmetries play a decisive role. We conjecture that our method of quantization would be valid for any arbitrary gauge field theoretic model for the Hodge theory in any arbitrary dimension of spacetime.
Cosmological solutions for the Universe filled with matter in various states and gauge invariance
T. P. Shestakova
2006-05-11
We explore at phenomenological level a model of the Universe filled with various kinds of matter characterized by different equations of state. We show that introducing of each kind of matter is equivalent to a certain choice of a gauge condition, the gauge condition describing a medium with a given equation of state. The case of a particular interest is when one kind of matter (de Sitter false vacuum) dominates at the early stage of the Universe evolution while another kind (radiation, or ultrarelativistic gas) dominates at its later stage. We can, therefore, consider different asymptotic regimes for the early and later stages of the Universe existence. These regimes are described by solutions to the Wheeler - DeWitt equation for the Universe with matter in that given state, and, at the same time, in the "extended phase space" approach to quantum geometrodynamics the regimes are described by solutions to a Schrodinger equation associated with a choice of some gauge condition. It is supposed that, from the viewpoint of the observer located at the later stage of the Universe evolution, solutions for a Lambda-dominated early Universe would decay.
A Performance Estimator for Quantum Annealers: Gauge selection and Parameter Setting
Alejandro Perdomo-Ortiz; Joseph Fluegemann; Rupak Biswas; Vadim N. Smelyanskiy
2015-03-03
With the advent of large-scale quantum annealing devices, several challenges have emerged. For example, it has been shown that the performance of a device can be significantly affected by several degrees of freedom when programming the device; a common example being gauge selection. To date, no experimentally-tested strategy exists to select the best programming specifications. We developed a score function that can be calculated from a number of readouts much smaller than the number of readouts required to find the desired solution. We show how this performance estimator can be used to guide, for example, the selection of the optimal gauges out of a pool of random gauge candidates and how to select the values of parameters for which we have no a priori knowledge of the optimal value. For the latter, we illustrate the concept by applying the score function to set the strength of the parameter intended to enforce the embedding of the logical graph into the hardware architecture, a challenge frequently encountered in the implementation of real-world problem instances. Since the harder the problem instances, the more useful the strategies proposed in this work are, we expect the programming strategies proposed to significantly reduce the time of future benchmark studies and in help finding the solution of hard-to-solve real-world applications implemented in the next generation of quantum annealing devices.
Compaction comparison testing using a modified impact soil tester and nuclear density gauge
Erchul, R.A.
1999-07-01
The purpose of this paper is to compare test results of a modified Impact Soil Tester (IST) on compacted soil with data obtained from the same soil using a nuclear density gauge at the US Army Corp of Engineer's Buena Vista Flood Wall project in Buena Vista, Virginia. The tests were run during construction of the earth flood wall during the summer of 1996. This comparison testing demonstrated the credibility of the procedure developed for the IST as a compacting testing device. The comparison data was obtained on a variety of soils ranging from silty sands to clays. The Flood Wall comparison compaction data for 90% Standard Proctor shows that the results of the IST as modified are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 89% of the time for all types of soil tested. However, if the soils are more cohesive than the results are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 97% of the time. In addition these comparison tests are in general agreement with comparison compaction testing using the same testing techniques and methods of compacted backfill in utility trenches conducted earlier for the Public Works Department, Chesterfield County, Virginia.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking, and strings defects in hypercomplex gauge field theories
R. Cartas-Fuentevilla; O. Meza-Aldama
2015-06-14
Inspired by the appearance of split-complex structures in the dimensional reduction of string theory, and in the theories emerging as byproducts, we study the hyper-complex formulation of Abelian gauge field theories, by incorporating a new complex unit to the usual complex one. The hypercomplex version of the traditional Mexican hat potential associated with the $U(1)$ gauge field theory, corresponds to a {\\it hybrid} potential with two real components, and with $U(1)\\times SO(1,1)$ as symmetry group. Each component corresponds to a deformation of the hat potential, with the appearance of a new degenerate vacuum. Hypercomplex electrodynamics will show novel properties, such as the spontaneous symmetry breaking scenarios with running masses for the vectorial and scalar Higgs fields, and the Aharonov-Bohm type strings defects as exact solutions; these topological defects may be detected only by quantum interference of charged particles through gauge invariant loop integrals. In a particular limit, the {\\it hyperbolic} electrodynamics does not admit topological defects associated with continuous symmetries
Canonical Transformations and Loop Formulation of SU(N) Lattice Gauge Theories
Manu Mathur; T. P. Sreeraj
2015-09-14
We construct canonical transformations to reformulate SU(N) Kogut-Susskind lattice gauge theory in terms of a set of fundamental loop & string flux operators along with their canonically conjugate loop & string electric fields. We show that as a consequence of SU(N) Gauss laws all SU(N) string degrees of freedom become cyclic and decouple from the physical Hilbert space ${\\cal H}^p$. The canonical relations between the initial SU(N) link operators and the final SU(N) loop & string operators over the entire lattice are worked out in a self consistent manner. The Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian rewritten in terms of the fundamental physical loop operators has global SU(N) invariance. There are no gauge fields. We further show that the $(1/g^2)$ magnetic field terms on plaquettes create and annihilate the fundamental plaquette loop fluxes while the $(g^2)$ electric field terms describe all their interactions. In the weak coupling ($g^2 \\rightarrow 0$) continuum limit the SU(N) loop dynamics is described by SU(N) spin Hamiltonian with nearest neighbour interactions. In the simplest SU(2) case, where the canonical transformations map the SU(2) loop Hilbert space into the Hilbert spaces of hydrogen atoms, we analyze the special role of the hydrogen atom dynamical symmetry group $SO(4,2)$ in the loop dynamics and the spectrum. A simple tensor network ansatz in the SU(2) gauge invariant hydrogen atom loop basis is discussed.
Universal consistent truncation for 6d/7d gauge/gravity duals
Achilleas Passias; Andrea Rota; Alessandro Tomasiello
2015-06-17
Recently, AdS_7 solutions of IIA supergravity have been classified; there are infinitely many of them, whose expression is known analytically, and with internal space of S^3 topology. Their field theory duals are six-dimensional (1,0) SCFT's. In this paper we show that for each of these AdS_7 solutions there exists a consistent truncation from massive IIA supergravity to minimal gauged supergravity in seven dimensions. This theory has an SU(2) gauge group, and a single scalar, whose value is related to a certain distortion of the internal S^3. This explains the universality observed in recent work on AdS_5 and AdS_4 solutions dual to compactifications of the (1,0) SCFT_6's. Thanks to previous work on the minimal gauged supergravity, the truncation also implies the existence of holographic RG-flows connecting those solutions to the AdS_7 vacuum, as well as new classes of IIA AdS_3 solutions.
Universal consistent truncation for 6d/7d gauge/gravity duals
Passias, Achilleas; Tomasiello, Alessandro
2015-01-01
Recently, AdS_7 solutions of IIA supergravity have been classified; there are infinitely many of them, whose expression is known analytically, and with internal space of S^3 topology. Their field theory duals are six-dimensional (1,0) SCFT's. In this paper we show that for each of these AdS_7 solutions there exists a consistent truncation from massive IIA supergravity to minimal gauged supergravity in seven dimensions. This theory has an SU(2) gauge group, and a single scalar, whose value is related to a certain distortion of the internal S^3. This explains the universality observed in recent work on AdS_5 and AdS_4 solutions dual to compactifications of the (1,0) SCFT_6's. Thanks to previous work on the minimal gauged supergravity, the truncation also implies the existence of holographic RG-flows connecting those solutions to the AdS_7 vacuum, as well as new classes of IIA AdS_3 solutions.
Metal-Insulator Transition Revisited for Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials
Indubala I. Satija; Daniel C. Dakin; Charles W. Clark
2006-07-10
We discuss the possibility of realizing metal-insulator transitions with ultracold atoms in two-dimensional optical lattices in the presence of artificial gauge potentials. Such transitions have been extensively studied for magnetic fields corresponding to Abelian gauges; they occur when the magnetic flux penetrating the lattice plaquette is an irrational multiple of the magnetic flux quantum. Here we present the first study of these transitions for non-Abelian U(2) gauge fields, which can be realized with atoms with two pairs of degenerate internal states. In contrast to the Abelian case, the spectrum and localization transition in the non-Abelian case is strongly influenced by atomic momenta. In addition to determining the localization boundary, the momentum fragments the spectrum and the minimum energy viewed as a function of momentum exhibits a step structure. Other key characteristics of the non-Abelian case include the absence of localization for certain states and satellite fringes around the Bragg peaks in the momentum distribution and an interesting possibility that the transition can be tuned by the atomic momenta.
Gauge Field Theory of Horizontal Symmetry Generated by a Central Extension of the Pauli Algebra
Ikuo S. Sogami
2009-07-07
The standard model of particle physics is generalized so as to be furnished with a horizontal symmetry generated by an intermediary algebra between simple Lie algebras $\\mathfrak{su}(2)$ and $\\mathfrak{su}(3)$. Above a certain high energy scale $\\breve{\\Lambda}$, the horizontal gauge symmetry is postulated to hold so that the basic fermions, quarks and leptons, form its fundamental triplets, and a triplet and singlet of the horizontal gauge fields distinguish generational degrees of freedom. A horizontal scalar triplet is introduced to make the gauge fields super-massive by breaking the horizontal symmetry at $\\breve{\\Lambda}$. From this scalar triplet, there emerge real scalar fields which do not interact with fermions except for neutrino species and may give substantial influence on evolution of the universe. Another horizontal scalar triplet which breaks the electroweak symmetry at a low energy scale $\\Lambda\\simeq 2\\times 10^2$GeV reproduces all of the results of the Weinberg-Salam theory, produces hierarchical mass matrices with less numbers of unknown parameters in a unified way and predicts six massive scalar particles, some of which might be observed by the future LHC experiment.
Quantum dynamics and state-dependent affine gauge fields on CP(N-1)
Peter Leifer
2008-04-11
Gauge fields frequently used as an independent construction additional to so-called wave fields of matter. This artificial separation is of course useful in some applications (like Berry's interactions between the "heavy" and "light" sub-systems) but it is restrictive on the fundamental level of "elementary" particles and entangled states. It is shown that the linear superposition of action states and non-linear dynamics of the local dynamical variables form an oscillons of energy representing non-local particles - "lumps" arising together with their "affine gauge potential" agrees with Fubini-Study metric. I use the conservation laws of local dynamical variables (LDV's) during affine parallel transport in complex projective Hilbert space $CP(N-1)$ for twofold aim. Firstly, I formulate the variation problem for the ``affine gauge potential" as system of partial differential equations \\cite{Le1}. Their solutions provide embedding quantum dynamics into dynamical space-time whose state-dependent coordinates related to the qubit spinor subjected to Lorentz transformations of "quantum boosts" and "quantum rotations". Thereby, the problem of quantum measurement being reformulated as the comparison of LDV's during their affine parallel transport in $CP(N-1)$, is inherently connected with space-time emergences. Secondly, the important application of these fields is the completeness of quantum theory. The EPR and Schr\\"odinger's Cat paradoxes are discussed from the point of view of the restored Lorentz invariance due to the affine parallel transport of local Hamiltonian of the soliton-like field.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Provides required documentation that EnergyGauge Summit version 3.1 build 2 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated January 31, 2007, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.
Lattice QCD gauge ensemble: USQCD/MILC/asqtad/2064f21b678m010m050
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Aubin, Christopher Alan [Fordham U.; Bernard, Claude W. [Washington U. St. Louis; Burch, Tommy [U. Regensburg; Datta, Saumen [Tata Institute; DeGrand, Thomas Alan [Colorado U., Boulder; DeTar, Carleton E. [Utah U.; Gottlieb, Steven A. [Indiana U., Bloomington; Gregory, Eric Brittain [Wuppertal U.; Heller, Urs M. [American Physical Society; Hetrick, James Edward [U. Pacific, Stockton; Orginos, Kostas Nikolaou [William-Mary Coll.; Osborn, James C. [Argonne National Laboratory, ALCF; Toussaint, W. Doug [Arizona U.; Sugar, Robert L. [U. C., Santa Barbara
MILC asqtad QCD SU(3) gauge ensemble; series=a; a=0.11fm minus 0.0022fm ; Ls=2.16fm; Nf=2+1; u0.m0=(0.010,0.050)
Lattice QCD gauge ensemble: USQCD/MILC/asqtad/2064f21b678m010m050b
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Aubin, Christopher Alan [Fordham U.; Bernard, Claude W. [Washington U. St. Louis; Burch, Tommy [U. Regensburg; Datta, Saumen [Tata Institute; DeGrand, Thomas Alan [Colorado U., Boulder; DeTar, Carleton E. [Utah U.; Gottlieb, Steven A. [Indiana U., Bloomington; Gregory, Eric Brittain [Wuppertal U.; Heller, Urs M. [American Physical Society; Hetrick, James Edward [U. Pacific, Stockton; Orginos, Kostas Nikolaou [William-Mary Coll.; Osborn, James C. [Argonne National Laboratory, ALCF; Toussaint, W. Doug [Arizona U.; Sugar, Robert L. [U. C., Santa Barbara
MILC asqtad QCD SU(3) gauge ensemble; series=b; a=0.11fm minus 0.0022fm; Ls=2.16fm; Nf=2+1; u0.m0=(0.010,0.050)
Lattice QCD gauge ensemble: USQCD/MILC/asqtad/2064f21b678m010m050b
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Aubin, Christopher Alan [Fordham U.; Bernard, Claude W. [Washington U. St. Louis; Burch, Tommy [U. Regensburg; Datta, Saumen [Tata Institute; DeGrand, Thomas Alan [Colorado U., Boulder; DeTar, Carleton E. [Utah U.; Gottlieb, Steven A. [Indiana U., Bloomington; Gregory, Eric Brittain [Wuppertal U.; Heller, Urs M. [American Physical Society; Hetrick, James Edward [U. Pacific, Stockton; Orginos, Kostas Nikolaou [William-Mary Coll.; Osborn, James C. [Argonne National Laboratory, ALCF; Toussaint, W. Doug [Arizona U.; Sugar, Robert L. [U. C., Santa Barbara
2015-01-01
MILC asqtad QCD SU(3) gauge ensemble; series=b; a=0.11fm minus 0.0022fm; Ls=2.16fm; Nf=2+1; u0.m0=(0.010,0.050)
Lattice QCD gauge ensemble: USQCD/MILC/asqtad/2064f21b678m010m050
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Aubin, Christopher Alan [Fordham U.; Bernard, Claude W. [Washington U. St. Louis; Burch, Tommy [U. Regensburg; Datta, Saumen [Tata Institute; DeGrand, Thomas Alan [Colorado U., Boulder; DeTar, Carleton E. [Utah U.; Gottlieb, Steven A. [Indiana U., Bloomington; Gregory, Eric Brittain [Wuppertal U.; Heller, Urs M. [American Physical Society; Hetrick, James Edward [U. Pacific, Stockton; Orginos, Kostas Nikolaou [William-Mary Coll.; Osborn, James C. [Argonne National Laboratory, ALCF; Toussaint, W. Doug [Arizona U.; Sugar, Robert L. [U. C., Santa Barbara
2015-01-01
MILC asqtad QCD SU(3) gauge ensemble; series=a; a=0.11fm minus 0.0022fm ; Ls=2.16fm; Nf=2+1; u0.m0=(0.010,0.050)
T. P. Shestakova
2003-09-24
In the context of the recently proposed formulation of quantum geometrodynamics in extended phase space we discuss the problem how the behavior of the Universe, initially managed by quantum laws, has become classical. In this version of quantum geometrodynamics we quantize gauge gravitational degrees of freedom on an equal basis with physical degrees of freedom. As a consequence of this approach, a wave function of the Universe depends not only on physical fields but also on gauge degrees of freedom. From this viewpoint, one should regard the physical Universe as a subsystem whose properties are formed in interaction with the subsystem of gauge degrees of freedom. We argue that the subsystem of gauge degrees of freedom may play the role of environment, which, being taken into account, causes the density matrix to be diagonal. We show that under physically reasonable fixing of gauge condition the density matrix describing the physical subsystem of the Universe may have a Gaussian peak in some variable, but it could take the Gaussian form only within a spacetime region where a certain gauge condition is imposed. If spacetime manifold consists of regions covered by different coordinate charts the Universe cannot behave in a classical manner nearby borders of these regions. Moreover, in this case the Universe could not stay in the same quantum state, but its state would change in some irreversible way.
Twisted compactification of N=2 5D SCFTs to three and two dimensions from F(4) gauged supergravity
Karndumri, Parinya
2015-01-01
We study supersymmetric $AdS_4\\times \\Sigma_2$ and $AdS_3\\times \\Sigma_3$ solutions in half-maximal gauged supergravity in six dimensions with $SU(2)_R\\times SU(2)$ gauge group. The gauged supergravity is obtained by coupling three vector multiplets to the pure $F(4)$ gauged supergravity. The $SU(2)_R$ R-symmetry together with the $SO(3)\\sim SU(2)$ symmetry of the vector multiplets are gauged. The resulting gauged supergravity admits supersymmetric $AdS_6$ critical points with $SO(4)\\sim SU(2)\\times SU(2)$ and $SO(3)\\sim SU(2)_{\\textrm{diag}}$ symmetries. The former corresponds to five-dimensional $N=2$ superconformal field theories (SCFTs) with $E_1\\sim SU(2)$ symmetry. We find new classes of supersymmetric $AdS_4\\times \\Sigma_2$ and $AdS_3\\times \\Sigma_3$ solutions with $\\Sigma_{2,3}$ being $S^{2,3}$ and $H^{2,3}$. These solutions describe SCFTs in three and two dimensions obtained from twisted compactifications of the aforementioned five-dimensional SCFTs with different numbers of unbroken supersymmetry an...
Gauge Freedom and Relativity: A Unified Treatment of Electromagnetism, Gravity and the Dirac Field
Clifford E. Chafin
2015-01-18
The geometric properties of General Relativity are reconsidered as a particular nonlinear interaction of fields on a flat background where the perceived geometry and coordinates are "physical" entities that are interpolated by a patchwork of observable bodies with a nonintuitive relationship to the underlying fields. This more general notion of gauge in physics opens an important door to put all fields on a similar standing but requires a careful reconsideration of tensors in physics and the conventional wisdom surrounding them. The meaning of the flat background and the induced conserved quantities are discussed and contrasted with the "observable" positive definite energy and probability density in terms of the induced physical coordinates. In this context, the Dirac matrices are promoted to dynamic proto-gravity fields and the keeper of "physical metric" information. Independent sister fields to the wavefunctions are utilized in a bilinear rather than a quadratic lagrangian in these fields. This construction greatly enlarges the gauge group so that now proving causal evolution, relative to the physical metric, for the gauge invariant functions of the fields requires both the stress-energy conservation and probability current conservation laws. Through a Higgs-like coupling term the proto-gravity fields generate a well defined physical metric structure and gives the usual distinguishing of gravity from electromagnetism at low energies relative to the Higgs-like coupling. The flat background induces a full set of conservation laws but results in the need to distinguish these quantities from those observed by recording devices and observers constructed from the fields.
Continuity equation and local gauge invariance for the N3LO nuclear Energy Density Functionals
F. Raimondi; B. G. Carlsson; J. Dobaczewski; J. Toivanen
2011-10-13
Background: The next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N3LO) nuclear energy density functional extends the standard Skyrme functional with new terms depending on higher-order derivatives of densities, introduced to gain better precision in the nuclear many-body calculations. A thorough study of the transformation properties of the functional with respect to different symmetries is required, as a step preliminary to the adjustment of the coupling constants. Purpose: Determine to which extent the presence of higher-order derivatives in the functional can be compatible with the continuity equation. In particular, to study the relations between the validity of the continuity equation and invariance of the functional under gauge transformations. Methods: Derive conditions for the validity of the continuity equation in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory. The conditions apply separately to the four spin-isospin channels of the one-body density matrix. Results: We obtained four sets of constraints on the coupling constants of the N3LO energy density functional that guarantee the validity of the continuity equation in all spin-isospin channels. In particular, for the scalar-isoscalar channel, the constraints are the same as those resulting from imposing the standard U(1) local-gauge-invariance conditions. Conclusions: Validity of the continuity equation in the four spin-isospin channels is equivalent to the local-gauge invariance of the energy density functional. For vector and isovector channels, such validity requires the invariance of the functional under local rotations in the spin and isospin spaces.
Finite size analysis of the pseudo specific heat in SU(2) gauge theory
J. Engels; T. Scheideler
1996-07-19
We investigate the pseudo specific heat of SU(2) gauge theory near the crossover point on $4^4$ to $16^4$ lattices. Several different methods are used to determine the specific heat. The curious finite size dependence of the peak maximum is explained from the interplay of the crossover phenomenon with the deconfinement transition occurring due to the finite extension of the lattice. In this context we calculate the modulus of the lattice average of the Polyakov loop on symmetric lattices and compare it to the prediction from a random walk model.
Partitioning of electric and magnetic energy in SU(2) gauge theory
Clifford H. Taubes
2002-01-22
This article provides some estimates for the relative sizes of the electric and magnetic contributions to the energy functional for the minimum energy configuration of an SU(2) gauge field on R^3 in the presence of an source in a fixed ball. The surprising fact is that the contribution to both energies from the free field region increases at worst linearly with the coupling, rather than quadratically. Moreover, the external electric field is severly surpressed outside the source at large coupling while the magnetic field is concentrated in a shell surrounding the source suggesting a classical mechanism for the formation of the 'MIT bag'.
MSSM soft terms from supergravity with gauged R-symmetry in de Sitter vacuum
Antoniadis, Ignatios
2015-01-01
We work out the phenomenology of a model of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of a tiny (tunable) positive cosmological constant, proposed by the authors in arXiv:1403.1534. It utilises a single chiral multiplet with a gauged shift symmetry, that can be identi?ed with the string dilaton (or an appropriate compacti?cation modulus). The model is coupled to the MSSM, leading to calculable soft supersymmetry breaking masses and a distinct low energy phenomenology that allows to di?erentiate it from other models of supersymmetry breaking and mediation mechanisms.
Transport coefficients of strongly coupled gauge theories: insights from string theory
Andrei O. Starinets
2005-11-26
The transport properties of certain strongly coupled thermal gauge theories can be determined from their effective description in terms of gravity or superstring theory duals. Here we provide a short summary of the results for the shear and bulk viscosity, charge diffusion constant, and the speed of sound in supersymmetric strongly interacting plasmas. We also outline a general algorithm for computing transport coefficients in any gravity dual. The algorithm relates the transport coefficients to the coefficients in the quasinormal spectrum of five-dimensional black holes in asymptotically anti de Sitter space.
General Nonextremal Rotating Black Holes in Minimal Five-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity
Chong, Z.-W.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.; Cvetic, M.
2005-10-14
We construct the general solution for nonextremal charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. They are characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass, the charge, and the two independent rotation parameters. The metrics in general describe regular rotating black holes, providing the parameters lie in appropriate ranges so that naked singularities and closed timelike curves (CTCs) are avoided. We calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions, and show how supersymmetric solutions arise in a Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield limit. These have naked CTCs in general, but for special choices of the parameters we obtain new regular supersymmetric black holes or smooth topological solitons.
Volume scaling of Dirac eigenvalues in SU(3) lattice gauge theory with color sextet fermions
Thomas DeGrand
2009-06-24
I observe a rough volume-dependent scaling of the low eigenvalues of a chiral Dirac operator in lattice studies of SU(3) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of color sextet fermions, in its weak-coupling phase. The mean value of the ith eigenvalue scales with the simulation volume V=L^4 as L^p ~zeta_i, where zeta_i is a volume-independent constant. The exponent p is about 1.4. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that p is the leading relevant exponent associated with the fermion mass dependence of correlation functions in a theory whose zero-mass limit is conformal.
?-deformation of B-twisted gauge theories and the 3d-3d correspondence
Yuan Luo; Meng-Chwan Tan; Junya Yagi; Qin Zhao
2015-02-07
We study \\Omega-deformation of B-twisted gauge theories in two dimensions. As an application, we construct an \\Omega-deformed, topologically twisted five-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on the product of a Riemann surface $\\Sigma$ and a three-manifold $M$, and show that when $\\Sigma$ is a disk, this theory is equivalent to analytically continued Chern-Simons theory on $M$. Based on these results, we establish a correspondence between three-dimensional $\\mathcal{N} = 2$ superconformal theories and analytically continued Chern-Simons theory. Furthermore, we argue that there is a mirror symmetry between {\\Omega}-deformed two-dimensional theories.
a-Maximization in N=1 Supersymmetric Spin(10) Gauge Theories
Teruhiko Kawano; Futoshi Yagi
2010-10-01
A summary is reported on our previous publications about four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric Spin(10) gauge theory with chiral superfields in the spinor and vector representations in the non-Abelian Coulomb phase. Carrying out the method of a-maximization, we studied decoupling operators in the infrared and the renormalization flow of the theory. We also give a brief review on the non-Abelian Coulomb phase of the theory after recalling the unitarity bound and the a-maximization procedure in four-dimensional conformal field theory. This is a review article invited to International Journal of Modern Physics A.
Dirac or inverse seesaw neutrino masses with B – L gauge symmetry and S? flavor symmetry
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Ma, Ernest; Srivastava, Rahul
2015-02-01
Many studies have been made on extensions of the standard model with B – L gauge symmetry. The addition of three singlet (right-handed) neutrinos renders it anomaly-free. It has always been assumed that the spontaneous breaking of B – L is accomplished by a singlet scalar field carrying two units of B – L charge. This results in a very natural implementation of the Majorana seesaw mechanism for neutrinos. However, there exists in fact another simple anomaly-free solution which allows Dirac or inverse seesaw neutrino masses. We show for the first time these new possibilities and discuss an application tomore »neutrino mixing with S? flavor symmetry.« less
A Gauge Field Theory of Chirally Folded Homopolymers with Applications to Folded Proteins
Ulf H. Danielsson; Martin Lundgren; Antti J. Niemi
2010-08-26
We combine the principle of gauge invariance with extrinsic string geometry to develop a lattice model that can be employed to theoretically describe properties of chiral, unbranched homopolymers. We find that in its low temperature phase the model is in the same universality class with proteins that are deposited in the Protein Data Bank, in the sense of the compactness index. We apply the model to analyze various statistical aspects of folded proteins. Curiously we find that it can produce results that are a very good good match to the data in the Protein Data Bank.
Colorful plane vortices and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in $SU(2)$ Lattice Gauge Theory
Seyed Mohsen Hosseini Nejad; Manfried Faber; Roman Höllwieser
2015-08-11
We investigate plane vortices with color structure. The topological charge and gauge action of such colorful plane vortices are studied in the continuum and on the lattice. These configurations are vacuum to vacuum transitions changing the winding number between the two vacua, leading to a topological charge $Q=-1$ in the continuum. After growing temporal extent of these vortices, the lattice topological charge approaches $-1$ and the index theorem is fulfilled. We analyze the low lying modes of the overlap Dirac operator in the background of these colorful plane vortices and compare them with those of spherical vortices. They show characteristic properties for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.
Colorful plane vortices and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in $SU(2)$ Lattice Gauge Theory
Seyed Mohsen Hosseini Nejad; Manfried Faber; Roman Höllwieser
2015-08-05
We investigate plane vortices with color structure. The topological charge and gauge action of such colorful plane vortices are studied in the continuum and on the lattice. These configurations are vacuum to vacuum transitions changing the winding number between the two vacua, leading to a topological charge $Q=-1$ in the continuum. After growing temporal extent of these vortices, the lattice topological charge approaches $-1$ and the index theorem is fulfilled. We analyze the low lying modes of the overlap Dirac operator in the background of these colorful plane vortices and compare them with those of spherical vortices. They show characteristic properties for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.
Dark matter and Higgs boson collider implications of fermions in an abelian-gauged hidden sector
Shrihari Gopalakrishna; Seung J. Lee; James D. Wells
2009-04-13
We add fermions to an abelian-gauged hidden sector. We show that the lightest can be the dark matter with the right thermal relic abundance, and discovery is within reach of upcoming dark matter detectors. We also show that these fermions change Higgs boson phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and in particular could induce a large invisible width to the lightest Higgs boson state. Such an invisibly decaying Higgs boson can be discovered with good significance in the vector boson fusion channel at the LHC.
Bulk Thermodynamics of SU(N) Lattice Gauge Theories at Large-N
Barak Bringoltz
2005-11-04
We present a study of bulk thermodynamical quantities in the deconfined phase of pure lattice SU(N) gauge theories. We find that the deficit in pressure and entropy with respect to their free-gas values, for N=4,8, is remarkably close to that of SU(3). Th is suggests that understanding the strongly interacting nature of the deconfined phase, which is crucial for RHIC physics, can be done at large N. There, different analytical approaches simplify or become soluble, and one can check their predictions and point to their important ingredients.
Zero-Discharge Fluid-Dynamic Gauging for Studying the Swelling of Soft Solid Layers
Wang, Shiyao; Wilson, D. Ian
2015-07-29
TM), which also controls the nozzle location and syringe pump motion. The apparatus is designed to move the nozzle and tank separately: the lateral position was adjusted manually in these tests. Aqueous gauging solutions were prepared using deionised... liquid density. For a given geometry and flow rate, Cd is a function of h/dt alone: measuring Cd allows the distance h to be calculated. By alternatively ejecting or sucking liquid at a fixed, low flow rate through the nozzle, measurements of ?P can...
Colorful plane vortices and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in $SU(2)$ Lattice Gauge Theory
Seyed Mohsen Hosseini Nejad; Manfried Faber; Roman Höllwieser
2015-09-25
We investigate plane vortices with color structure. The topological charge and gauge action of such colorful plane vortices are studied in the continuum and on the lattice. These configurations are vacuum to vacuum transitions changing the winding number between the two vacua, leading to a topological charge $Q=-1$ in the continuum. After growing temporal extent of these vortices, the lattice topological charge approaches $-1$ and the index theorem is fulfilled. We analyze the low lying modes of the overlap Dirac operator in the background of these colorful plane vortices and compare them with those of spherical vortices. They show characteristic properties for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.
Stress Tensor of Static Dipoles in strongly coupled $\\cal{N}$=4 Gauge Theory
Shu Lin; Edward Shuryak
2007-08-16
In the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence we calculate the induced stress tensor of static dipoles (electric-electric and electric-magnetic) in a strongly coupled ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM gauge theory, by solving the linearized Einstein equation with Maldecena string as a source. Analytic expressions are given for the far-field and a near-field close to one charge, and compared to what one has in weak coupling. The result can be compared to lattice results for QCD-like theories in a deconfined but strongly coupled regime.
Correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in SU(2) gauge theory at finite temperature
Huebner, K; Pica, C
2008-01-01
We calculate correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition of (3+1)-dimensional SU(2) gauge theory and discuss their critical behavior in the vicinity of the second order deconfinement transition. We show that correlation functions of the trace of the energy momentum tensor diverge uniformly at the critical point in proportion to the specific heat singularity. Correlation functions of the pressure, on the other hand, stay finite at the critical point. We discuss the consequences of these findings for the analysis of transport coefficients, in particular the bulk viscosity, in the vicinity of a second order phase transition point.
New Fuzzy Extra Dimensions from $SU({\\cal N})$ Gauge Theories
Seckin Kurkcuoglu
2015-05-18
We start with an $SU(\\cal {N})$ Yang-Mills theory on a manifold ${\\cal M}$, suitably coupled to two distinct set of scalar fields in the adjoint representation of $SU({\\cal N})$, which are forming a doublet and a triplet, respectively under a global $SU(2)$ symmetry. We show that a direct sum of fuzzy spheres $S_F^{2 \\, Int} := S_F^2(\\ell) \\oplus S_F^2 (\\ell) \\oplus S_F^2 \\left ( \\ell + \\frac{1}{2} \\right ) \\oplus S_F^2 \\left ( \\ell - \\frac{1}{2} \\right )$ emerges as the vacuum solution after the spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry and lay the way for us to interpret the spontaneously broken model as a $U(n)$ gauge theory over ${\\cal M} \\times S_F^{2 \\, Int}$. Focusing on a $U(2)$ gauge theory we present complete parameterizations of the $SU(2)$-equivariant, scalar, spinor and vector fields characterizing the effective low energy features of this model. Next, we direct our attention to the monopole bundles $S_F^{2 \\, \\pm} := S_F^2 (\\ell) \\oplus S_F^2 \\left ( \\ell \\pm \\frac{1}{2} \\right )$ over $S_F^2 (\\ell)$ with winding numbers $\\pm 1$, which naturally come forth through certain projections of $S_F^{2 \\, Int}$, and discuss the low energy behaviour of the $U(2)$ gauge theory over ${\\cal M} \\times S_F^{2 \\, \\pm}$. We study models with $k$-component multiplet of the global $SU(2)$, give their vacuum solutions and obtain a class of winding number $\\pm (k-1)$ monopole bundles $S_F^{2 \\,, \\pm (k-1)}$ as certain projections of these vacuum solutions. We make the observation that $S_F^{2 \\, Int}$ is indeed the bosonic part of the $N=2$ fuzzy supersphere with $OSP(2,2)$ supersymmetry and construct the generators of the $osp(2,2)$ Lie superalgebra in two of its irreducible representations using the matrix content of the vacuum solution $S_F^{2 \\, Int}$. Finally, we show that our vacuum solutions are stable by demonstrating that they form mixed states with non-zero von Neumann entropy.
Magnetic Monopoles as Agents of Chiral Symmetry Breaking in U(1) Lattice Gauge Theory
Tom Bielefeld; Simon Hands; John D. Stack; Roy J. Wensley
1997-09-16
We present results suggesting that magnetic monopoles can account for chiral symmetry breaking in abelian gauge theory. Full U(1) configurations from a lattice simulation are factorized into magnetic monopole and photon contributions. The expectation is computed using the monopole configurations and compared to results for the full U(1) configurations. It is shown that excellent agreement between the two values of is obtained if the effect of photons, which "dress" the composite operator psibarpsi, is included. This can be estimated independently by measurements of the physical fermion mass in the photon background.
Calculating the Jet Quenching Parameter $\\hat{q}$ in Lattice Gauge Theory
Abhijit Majumder
2013-03-01
We present a framework where first principles calculations of jet modification may be carried out in a non-perturbative thermal environment. As an example of this approach, we compute the leading order contribution to the transverse momentum broadening of a high energy (near on-shell) quark in a thermal medium. This involves a factorization of a non-perturbative operator product from the perturbative process of scattering of the quark. An operator product expansion of the non-perturbative operator product is carried out and related via dispersion relations to the expectation of local operators. These local operators are then evaluated in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory.
Brane webs, $5d$ gauge theories and $6d$ $\\mathcal{N}$$=(1,0)$ SCFT's
Gabi Zafrir
2015-09-07
We study $5d$ gauge theories that go in the UV to $6d$ $\\mathcal{N}$$=(1,0)$ SCFT. We focus on these theories that can be engineered in string theory by brane webs. Given a theory in this class, we propose a method to determine the $6d$ SCFT it goes to. We also discuss the implication of this to the compactification of the resulting $6d$ SCFT on a torus to $4d$. We test and demonstrate this method with a variety of examples.
The CP(N-1) Affine Gauge Theory in the Dynamical Space-time
Peter Leifer
2006-05-25
An attempt to build quantum theory of field (extended) objects without a priori space-time geometry has been represented. Space-time coordinates are replaced by the intrinsic coordinates in the tangent fibre bundle over complex projective Hilbert state space $CP(N-1)$. The fate of a quantum system modeled by the generalized coherent states is rooted in this manifold. Dynamical (state-dependent) space-time arises only at the stage of the quantum "yes/no" measurement. The quantum measurement of the gauge ``field shell'' of the generalized coherent state is described in terms of the affine parallel transport of the local dynamical variables in $CP(N-1)$.
Effective actions in ${\\cal N}$=1, D5 supersymmetric gauge theories: harmonic superspace approach
I. L. Buchbinder; N. G. Pletnev
2015-11-04
We consider the off-shell formulation of the 5D, $ {\\cal N}$=1 super Yang-Mills and super Chern-Simons theories in harmonic superspace. Using such a formulation we develop a manifestly supersymmetric and gauge invariant approach to constructing the one-loop effective action both in super Yang-Mills and super Chern-Simons models. On the base of this approach we compute the leading low-energy quantum contribution to the effective action on the Abelian vector multiplet background. This contribution corresponds to $F^4$ invariant which is given in 5D superfield form.
Effective actions in ${\\cal N}$=1, D5 supersymmetric gauge theories: harmonic superspace approach
Buchbinder, I L
2015-01-01
We consider the off-shell formulation of the 5D, $ {\\cal N}$=1 super Yang-Mills and super Chern-Simons theories in harmonic superspace. Using such a formulation we develop a manifestly supersymmetric and gauge invariant approach to constructing the one-loop effective action both in super Yang-Mills and super Chern-Simons models. On the base of this approach we compute the leading low-energy quantum contribution to the effective action on the Abelian vector multiplet background. This contribution corresponds to $F^4$ invariant which is given in 5D superfield form.
The First Order Signal in Pure U(1) Gauge Theory May be Fake
C. B. Lang; T. Neuhaus
1993-11-22
We study the deconfinement phase transition of compact $U(1)$ pure lattice gauge theory with the Wilson action on {\\em closed topology} lattices. In contrast to studies of compact QED on {\\em hypercubic lattices with periodic boundary conditions}, we find no metastability signal at the phase transition on the lattices with the topology of a sphere. Thus the determination of the order of this phase transition has to be reconsidered. We argue that different properties of closed monopole loops on these topological inequivalent lattices might be responsible for the effect.
Compact U(1) Gauge Theory on Lattices with Trivial Homotopy Group
C. B. Lang; T. Neuhaus
1994-07-13
We study the pure gauge model on a lattice manifold with trivial fundamental homotopy group, homotopically equivalent to an $S_4$. Monopole loops may fluctuate freely on that lattice without restrictions due to the boundary conditions. For the original Wilson action on the hypertorus there is an established two-state signal in energy distribution functions which disappears for the new geometry. Our finite size scaling analysis suggests stringent upper bounds on possible discontinuities in the plaquette action. However, no consistent asymptotic finite size scaling behaviour is observed.
Pitts, J. Brian
2014-12-15
In Dirac–Bergmann constrained dynamics, a first-class constraint typically does not alone generate a gauge transformation. By direct calculation it is found that each first-class constraint in Maxwell’s theory generates a change in the electric field E{sup ?} by an arbitrary gradient, spoiling Gauss’s law. The secondary first-class constraint p{sup i},{sub i}=0 still holds, but being a function of derivatives of momenta (mere auxiliary fields), it is not directly about the observable electric field (a function of derivatives of A{sub ?}), which couples to charge. Only a special combination of the two first-class constraints, the Anderson–Bergmann–Castellani gauge generator G, leaves E{sup ?} unchanged. Likewise only that combination leaves the canonical action invariant—an argument independent of observables. If one uses a first-class constraint to generate instead a canonical transformation, one partly strips the canonical coordinates of physical meaning as electromagnetic potentials, vindicating the Anderson–Bergmann Lagrangian orientation of interesting canonical transformations. The need to keep gauge-invariant the relation q-dot ?(?H)/(?p) =?E{sub i}?p{sup i}=0 supports using the gauge generator and primary Hamiltonian rather than the separate first-class constraints and the extended Hamiltonian. Partly paralleling Pons’s criticism, it is shown that Dirac’s proof that a first-class primary constraint generates a gauge transformation, by comparing evolutions from identical initial data, cancels out and hence fails to detect the alterations made to the initial state. It also neglects the arbitrary coordinates multiplying the secondary constraints inside the canonical Hamiltonian. Thus the gauge-generating property has been ascribed to the primaries alone, not the primary–secondary team G. Hence the Dirac conjecture about secondary first-class constraints as generating gauge transformations rests upon a false presupposition about primary first-class constraints. Clarity about Hamiltonian electromagnetism will be useful for an analogous treatment of GR. - Highlights: • A first-class constraint changes the electric field E, spoiling Gauss’s law. • A first-class constraint does not leave the action invariant or preserve q,0?dH/dp. • The gauge generator preserves E,q,0?dH/dp, and the canonical action. • The error in proofs that first-class primaries generating gauge is shown. • Dirac’s conjecture about secondary first-class constraints is blocked.
Wu, Yue-Liang
2015-01-01
Treating the gravitational force on the same footing as the electroweak and strong forces, we present a quantum field theory (QFT) of gravity based on spinnic and scaling gauge symmetries. The so-called Gravifield sided on both locally flat non-coordinate space-time and globally flat Minkowski space-time is an essential ingredient for gauging global spinnic and scaling symmetries. The locally flat Gravifield space-time spanned by the Gravifield is associated with a non-commutative geometry characterized by a gauge-type field strength of Gravifield. A gauge invariant and coordinate independent action for the quantum gravity is built in the Gravifield basis, we derive equations of motion for all quantum fields with including the gravitational effect and obtain basic conservation laws for all symmetries. The equation of motion for Gravifield tensor is deduced in connection directly with the energy-momentum tensor. When the spinnic and scaling gauge symmetries are broken down to a background structure that posses...
Somoza, R D; Novo, E M L; Rennó, C D
2013-01-01
Gauge stations are distributed along the Solim\\~oes/Amazonas main channel to monitor water level changes over time. Those measurements help quantify both the water movement and its variability from one gauge station to the next downstream. The objective of this study is to detect changes in the water level relationship between consecutive gauge stations along the Solim\\~oes/Amazonas main channel, since 1980. To carry out the analyses, data spanning from 1980 to 2010 from three consecutive gauges (Tefe, Manaus and Obidos) were used to compute standardized daily anomalies. In particular for infra-annual periods it was possible to detect changes for the water level variability along the Solim\\~oes/Amazonas main channel, by applying the Morlet Wavelet Transformation (WT) and Wavelet Cross Coherence (WCC) methods. It was possible to quantify the waves amplitude for the WT infra-annual scaled-period and were quite similar to the three gauge stations denoting that the water level variability are related to the same ...
B. J. Wundt; U. D. Jentschura
2015-08-14
We investigate the coupling of the electromagnetic sources (charge and current densities) to the scalar and vector potentials in classical electrodynamics, using Green function techniques. As is well known, the scalar potential shows an action-at-a-distance behavior in Coulomb gauge. The conundrum generated by the instantaneous interaction has intrigued physicists for a long time. Starting from the differential equations that couple the sources to the potentials, we here show in a concise derivation, using the retarded Green function, how the instantaneous interaction cancels in the calculation of the electric field. The time derivative of a specific additional term in the vector potential, present only in Coulomb gauge, yields a supplementary contribution to the electric field which cancels the gradient of the instantaneous Coulomb gauge scalar potential, as required by gauge invariance. This completely eliminates the contribution of the instantaneous interaction from the electric field. It turns out that a careful formulation of the retarded Green function, inspired by field theory, is required in order to correctly treat boundary terms in partial integrations. Finally, compact integral representations are derived for the Lienard-Wiechert potentials (scalar and vector) in Coulomb gauge which manifestly contain two compensating action-at-a-distance terms.
Mariano Anabitarte; Mauricio Bellini
2008-02-20
We study our non-perturbative formalism to describe scalar gauge-invariant metric fluctuations by extending the Ponce de Leon metric.
Status of the Lambda Lattice Scale for the SU(3) Wilson gauge action
Bernd A. Berg
2015-01-31
With the emergence of the Yang-Mills gradient flow technique there is renewed interest in the issue of scale setting in lattice gauge theory. Here I compare for the SU(3) Wilson gauge action non-perturbative scale functions of Edwards, Heller and Klassen (EHK), Necco and Sommer (NS), both relying on Sommer's method using the quark potential, and the scale function derived by Bazavov, Berg and Velytsky (BBV) from a deconfining phase transition investigation by the Bielefeld group. It turns out that the scale functions are based on mutually inconsistent data, though the BBV scale function is consistent with the EHK data when their low $\\beta$ ($\\beta=5.6$) data point is removed. Besides, only the BBV scale function is consistent with three data points calculated from the gradient flow by L\\"uscher. In the range for which data exist the discrepancies between the scale functions are only up to $\\pm 2$\\% of their values, but clearly visible within the statistical accuracy.
Velocity-induced Heavy Quarkonium Dissociation using the gauge-gravity correspondence
Binoy Krishna Patra; Himanshu Khanchandani; Lata Thakur
2015-09-24
Using the gauge-gravity duality we have obtained the potential between a heavy quark and an antiquark pair, which is moving perpendicular to the direction of orientation, in a strongly-coupled supersymmetric hot plasma. For the purpose we work on a metric in the gravity side, {\\em viz.} OKS-BH geometry, whose dual in the gauge theory side runs with the energy and hence proves to be a better background for thermal QCD. The potential obtained has confining term both in vacuum and in medium, in addition to the Coulomb term alone, usually reported in the literature. As the velocity of the pair is increased the screening of the potential gets weakened, which may be understood by the decrease of effective temperature with the increase of velocity. The crucial observation of our work is that beyond a critical separation of the heavy quark pair, the potential develops an imaginary part which is nowadays understood to be the main source of dissociation. The imaginary part is found to vanish at small $r$, thus agrees with the perturbative result. Finally we have estimated the thermal width for the ground and first excited states and found that non-zero rapidities lead to an increase of thermal width. This implies that the moving quarkonia dissociate easier than the static ones, which agrees with other calculations. However, the width in our case is larger than other calculations due to the presence of confining terms.
Proton Stability, Gauge Coupling Unification and a Light $Z^\\prime$ in Heterotic-string Models
Alon E. Faraggi; Viraf M. Mehta
2013-06-11
We explore the phenomenological viability of a light Z' in heterotic-string models, whose existence has been motivated by proton stability arguments. A class of quasi-realistic string models that produce such a viable Z' are the Left-Right Symmetric (LRS) heterotic-string models in the free fermionic formulation. A key feature of these models is that the matter charges under U(1)_Z' do not admit an E6 embedding. The light Z' in the LRS heterotic-string models forbids baryon number violating operators, while allowing lepton number violating operators, hence suppressing proton decay yet allowing for sufficiently small neutrino masses via a seesaw mechanism. We show that the constraints imposed by the gauge coupling data and heterotic-string coupling unification nullify the viability of a light Z' in these models. We further argue that agreement with the gauge coupling data necessitates that the U(1)_Z' charges admit an E6 embedding. We discuss how viable string models with this property may be constructed.
Igor R. Klebanov; Matthew J. Strassler
2000-09-11
We revisit the singular IIB supergravity solution describing M fractional 3-branes on the conifold [hep-th/0002159]. Its 5-form flux decreases, which we explain by showing that the relevant \\NN=1 SUSY SU(N+M)xSU(N) gauge theory undergoes repeated Seiberg-duality transformations in which N -> N-M. Far in the IR the gauge theory confines; its chiral symmetry breaking removes the singularity of hep-th/0002159 by deforming the conifold. We propose a non-singular pure-supergravity background dual to the field theory on all scales, with small curvature everywhere if the `t Hooft coupling g_s M is large. In the UV it approaches that of hep-th/0002159, incorporating the logarithmic flow of couplings. In the IR the deformation of the conifold gives a geometrical realization of chiral symmetry breaking and confinement. We suggest that pure \\NN=1 Yang-Mills may be dual to strings propagating at small g_s M on a warped deformed conifold. We note also that the standard model itself may lie at the base of a duality cascade.
The iPEPS algorithm, improved: fast full update and gauge fixing
Ho N. Phien; Johann A. Bengua; Hoang D. Tuan; Philippe Corboz; Roman Orus
2015-08-10
The infinite Projected Entangled Pair States (iPEPS) algorithm [J. Jordan et al, PRL 101, 250602 (2008)] has become a useful tool in the calculation of ground state properties of 2d quantum lattice systems in the thermodynamic limit. Despite its many successful implementations, the method has some limitations in its present formulation which hinder its application to some highly-entangled systems. The purpose of this paper is to unravel some of these issues, in turn enhancing the stability and efficiency of iPEPS methods. For this, we first introduce the fast full update scheme, where effective environment and iPEPS tensors are both simultaneously updated (or evolved) throughout time. As we shall show, this implies two crucial advantages: (i) dramatic computational savings, and (ii) improved overall stability. Besides, we extend the application of the \\emph{local gauge fixing}, successfully implemented for finite-size PEPS [M. Lubasch, J. Ignacio Cirac, M.-C. Ba\\~{n}uls, PRB 90, 064425 (2014)], to the iPEPS algorithm. We see that the gauge fixing not only further improves the stability of the method, but also accelerates the convergence of the alternating least squares sweeping in the (either "full" or "fast full") tensor update scheme. The improvement in terms of computational cost and stability of the resulting "improved" iPEPS algorithm is benchmarked by studying the ground state properties of the quantum Heisenberg and transverse-field Ising models on an infinite square lattice.
Placement accuracy gauge for electrical components and method of using same
Biggs, P.M.; Dancer, L.K.; Yerganian, S.S.
1987-11-12
Surface mounted electrical components are typically assembled on printed wiring board by automatic machines. It is important that the machines accurately move with respect to both X and Y rotational axes in order to insure that components are positioned precisely on connector pads of the printed wiring board being assembled. In accordance with the instant invention, a gauge is used to facilitate convenient accuracy checks. The gauge is a glass substrate on which grids of 0.005 inch lines are scribed to form location and orientation fields where components are to be placed. The grids are referenced from ether fiducial marks or the edge of the substrate to establish known positions within the grids. The equipment to be evaluated is programmed to place components in known positions and the components are held in place by tacky adhesive that is sprayed on the substrate prior to placing the components. The accuracy of the component position is then compared to the programmed position by placing the substrate on a light table and observing the component location. If a significant inaccuracy with respect to any of the axes exists, the inaccuracy is apparent because the component is not aligned properly with the grid. If a precise measurement of an axis inaccuracy is desired, a measuring microscope may be utilized. 6 figs.
Lattice Gauge Theory for Condensed Matter Physics: Ferromagnetic Superconductivity as its Example
Ikuo Ichinose; Tetsuo Matsui
2014-09-07
Recent theoretical studies of various strongly-correlated systems in condensed matter physics reveal that the lattice gauge theory(LGT) developed in high-energy physics is quite a useful tool to understand physics of these systems. Knowledges of LGT are to become a necessary item even for condensed matter physicists. In the first part of this paper, we present a concise review of LGT for the reader who wants to understand its basics for the first time. For illustration, we choose the abelian Higgs model, a typical and quite useful LGT, which is the lattice verison of the Ginzburg-Landau model interacting with a U(1) gauge field (vector potential). In the second part, we present an account of the recent progress in the study of ferromagnetic superconductivity (SC) as an example of application of LGT to topics in condensed matter physics, . As the ferromagnetism (FM) and SC are competing orders with each other, large fluctuations are expected to take place and therefore nonperturbative methods are required for theoretical investigation. After we introduce a LGT describing the FMSC, we study its phase diagram and topological excitations (vortices of Cooper pairs) by Monte-Carlo simulations.
Gauge-invariant implementation of the Abelian Higgs model on optical lattices
Alexei Bazavov; Yannick Meurice; Shan-Wen Tsai; Judah Unmuth-Yockey; Jin Zhang
2015-03-28
We present a gauge-invariant effective action for the Abelian Higgs model (scalar electrodynamics) with a chemical potential $\\mu$ on a 1+1 dimensional lattice. This formulation provides an expansion in the hopping parameter $\\kappa$ which we test with Monte Carlo simulations for a broad range of the inverse gauge coupling $\\beta_{pl}$ and small values of the scalar self-coupling $\\lambda$. In the opposite limit of infinitely large $\\lambda$, the partition function can be written as a traced product of local tensors which allows us to write exact blocking formulas. Their numerical implementation requires truncations but there is no sign problem for arbitrary values of $\\mu$. We show that the time continuum limit of the blocked transfer matrix can be obtained numerically and, in the limit of infinite $\\beta_{pl}$ and with a spin-1 truncation, the small volume energy spectrum is identical to the low energy spectrum of a two-species Bose-Hubbard model in the limit of large onsite repulsion. We extend this procedure for finite $\\beta_{pl}$ and derive a spin-1 approximation of the Hamiltonian. It involves new terms corresponding to transitions among the two species in the Bose-Hubbard model. We propose an optical lattice implementation involving a ladder structure.
Coulomb-gauge ghost and gluon propagators in SU(3) lattice Yang-Mills theory
Nakagawa, Y.; Toki, H. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki-shi, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Voigt, A. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Ilgenfritz, E.-M. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Physik, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Mueller-Preussker, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Nakamura, A. [Research Institute for Information Science and Education, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Saito, T. [Integrated Information Center, Kochi University, Akebono-cho, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Sternbeck, A. [CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)
2009-06-01
We study the momentum dependence of the ghost propagator and of the space and time components of the gluon propagator at equal time in pure SU(3) lattice Coulomb-gauge theory carrying out a joint analysis of data collected independently at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka and Humboldt University, Berlin. We focus on the scaling behavior of these propagators at {beta}=5.8,...,6.2 and apply a matching technique to relate the data for the different lattice cutoffs. Thereby, lattice artifacts are found to be rather strong for both instantaneous gluon propagators at a large momentum. As a byproduct we obtain the respective lattice scale dependences a({beta}) for the transversal gluon and the ghost propagator which indeed run faster with {beta} than two-loop running, but slightly slower than what is known from the Necco-Sommer analysis of the heavy quark potential. The abnormal a({beta}) dependence as determined from the instantaneous time-time gluon propagator, D{sub 44}, remains a problem, though. The role of residual gauge-fixing influencing D{sub 44} is discussed.
Canonical Transformations and Loop Formulation of SU(N) Lattice Gauge Theories
Mathur, Manu
2015-01-01
We construct canonical transformations to reformulate SU(N) Kogut-Susskind lattice gauge theory in terms of a set of fundamental loop & string flux operators along with their canonically conjugate loop & string electric fields. We show that as a consequence of SU(N) Gauss laws all SU(N) string degrees of freedom become cyclic and decouple from the physical Hilbert space ${\\cal H}^p$. The canonical relations between the initial SU(N) link operators and the final SU(N) loop & string operators over the entire lattice are worked out in a self consistent manner. The Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian rewritten in terms of the fundamental physical loop operators has global SU(N) invariance. There are no gauge fields. We further show that the $(1/g^2)$ magnetic field terms on plaquettes create and annihilate the fundamental plaquette loop fluxes while the $(g^2)$ electric field terms describe all their interactions. In the weak coupling ($g^2 \\rightarrow 0$) continuum limit the SU(N) loop dynamics is described b...
Becker, Maurice; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
The ATLAS collaboration has carried a set of measurements that provide stringent tests of the electroweak sector of Standard Model, specifically on di- and multi-boson production cross sections and on triple and quartic gauge-boson couplings. Such measurements include cross sections for WV (V=W or Z) production in the leptonic or semileptonic channels, the production of a W or Z boson in association with photons, a Z boson in the vector-boson fusion channel and two same-charge W bosons in the vector-boson scattering channel. These measurements are compared to (N)NLO predictions of the Standard Model and provide model-independent constraints on new physics, by setting limits on anomalous gauge-boson couplings. First LHC Run-2 results will be included if available. An analysis of the inclusive four-lepton lineshape has been carried out in the mass range from 80 to 1000 GeV, where several distinct physics processes give rise to the production of 4-lepton final state, namely the single Z resonant processes, the H...
Dismantling of Radium-226 Coal Level Gauges: Encountered Problems and How to Solve
Punnachaiya, M.; Nuanjan, P.; Moombansao, K.; Sawangsri, T.; Pruantonsai, P.; Srichom, K.
2006-07-01
This paper describes the techniques for dismantling of disused-sealed Radium-226 (Ra-226) coal level gauges which the source specifications and documents were not available, including problems occurred during dismantling stage and the decision making in solving all those obstacles. The 2 mCi (20 pieces), 6 mCi (20 pieces) and 6.6 mCi (30 pieces) of Ra-226 hemi-spherically-shaped with lead-filled coal level gauges were used in industrial applications for electric power generation. All sources needed to be dismantled for further conditioning as requested by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). One of the 2 mCi Ra-226 source was dismantled under the supervision of IAEA expert. Before conditioning period, each of the 6 mCi and 6.6 mCi sources were dismantled and inspected. It was found that coal level gauges had two different source types: the sealed cylindrical source (diameter 2 cm x 2 cm length) locked with spring in lead housing for 2 mCi and 6.6 mCi; while the 6 mCi was an embedded capsule inside source holder stud assembly in lead-filled housing. Dismantling Ra-226 coal level gauges comprised of 6 operational steps: confirmation of the surface dose rate on each source activity, calculation of working time within the effective occupational dose limit, cutting the weld of lead container by electrical blade, confirmation of the Ra-226 embedded capsule size using radiation scanning technique and gamma radiography, automatic sawing of the source holder stud assembly, and transferring the source to store in lead safe box. The embedded length of 6 mCi Ra-226 capsule in its diameter 2 cm x 14.7 cm length stud assembly was identified, the results from scanning technique and radiographic film revealed the embedded source length of about 2 cm, therefore all the 6 mCi sources were safely cut at 3 cm using the automatic saw. Another occurring problem was one of the 6.6 mCi spring type source stuck inside its housing because the spring was deformed and there was previously a leakage on inner source housing. Thus, during manufacturing the filled-lead for shielding passed through this small hole and fixed the deformed spring together with the source. The circular surface of inner hole was measured and slowly drilled at a diameter 2.2 cm behind shielding, till the spring and the fixed lead sheet were cut, therefore the source could be finally hammered out. The surface dose rate of coal level gauges before weld cutting was 10-15 mR/hr and the highest dose rate at the position of the weld cutter was 2.5 mR/hr. The total time for each weld cutting and automatic sawing was 2-3 minutes and 1 minute, respectively. The source was individually and safely transferred to store in lead safe box using a 1-meter length tong and a light container with 1 meter length handle. The total time for Ra-226 (70 pieces) dismantling, including the encountered problems and their troubles shooting took 4 days operation in which the total dose obtained by 18 operators were ranged from 1-38 {mu}Sv. The dismantling team safely completed the activities within the effective dose limit for occupational exposure of 20 mSv/year (80 {mu}Sv/day). (authors)
Saeki, Hiroshi Magome, Tamotsu
2014-10-06
To compensate pressure-measurement errors caused by a synchrotron radiation environment, a precise method using a hot-cathode-ionization-gauge head with correcting electrode, was developed and tested in a simulation experiment with excess electrons in the SPring-8 storage ring. This precise method to improve the measurement accuracy, can correctly reduce the pressure-measurement errors caused by electrons originating from the external environment, and originating from the primary gauge filament influenced by spatial conditions of the installed vacuum-gauge head. As the result of the simulation experiment to confirm the performance reducing the errors caused by the external environment, the pressure-measurement error using this method was approximately less than several percent in the pressure range from 10{sup ?5} Pa to 10{sup ?8} Pa. After the experiment, to confirm the performance reducing the error caused by spatial conditions, an additional experiment was carried out using a sleeve and showed that the improved function was available.
Miguel Jorge Bernabé Ferreira; Juan Pablo Ibieta Jimenez; Pramod Padmanabhan; Paulo Teotonio-Sobrinho
2015-10-05
State sum constructions, such as Kuperberg's algorithm, give partition functions of physical systems, like lattice gauge theories, in various dimensions by associating local tensors or weights, to different parts of a closed triangulated manifold. Here we extend this construction by including matter fields to build partition functions in both two and three space-time dimensions. The matter fields introduces new weights to the vertices and they correspond to Potts spin configurations described by an $\\mathcal{A}$-module with an inner product. Performing this construction on a triangulated manifold with a boundary we obtain the transfer matrices which are decomposed into a product of local operators acting on vertices, links and plaquettes. The vertex and plaquette operators are similar to the ones appearing in the quantum double models (QDM) of Kitaev. The link operator couples the gauge and the matter fields, and it reduces to the usual interaction terms in known models such as $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ gauge theory with matter fields. The transfer matrices lead to Hamiltonians that are frustration-free and are exactly solvable. According to the choice of the initial input, that of the gauge group and a matter module, we obtain interesting models which have a new kind of ground state degeneracy that depends on the number of equivalence classes in the matter module under gauge action. Some of the models have confined flux excitations in the bulk which become deconfined at the surface. These edge modes are protected by an energy gap provided by the link operator. These properties also appear in "confined Walker-Wang" models which are 3D models having interesting surface states. Apart from the gauge excitations there are also excitations in the matter sector which are immobile and can be thought of as defects like in the Ising model. We only consider bosonic matter fields in this paper.
Miguel Jorge Bernabé Ferreira; Juan Pablo Ibieta Jimenez; Pramod Padmanabhan; Paulo Teôtonio Sobrinho
2015-09-07
State sum constructions, such as Kuperberg's algorithm, give partition functions of physical systems, like lattice gauge theories, in various dimensions by associating local tensors or weights, to different parts of a closed triangulated manifold. Here we extend this construction by including matter fields to build partition functions in both two and three space-time dimensions. The matter fields introduces new weights to the vertices and they correspond to Potts spin configurations described by an $\\mathcal{A}$-module with an inner product. Performing this construction on a triangulated manifold with a boundary we obtain the transfer matrices which are decomposed into a product of local operators acting on vertices, links and plaquettes. The vertex and plaquette operators are similar to the ones appearing in the quantum double models (QDM) of Kitaev. The link operator couples the gauge and the matter fields, and it reduces to the usual interaction terms in known models such as $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ gauge theory with matter fields. The transfer matrices lead to Hamiltonians that are frustration-free and are exactly solvable. According to the choice of the initial input, that of the gauge group and a matter module, we obtain interesting models which have a new kind of ground state degeneracy that depends on the number of equivalence classes in the matter module under gauge action. Some of the models have confined flux excitations in the bulk which become deconfined at the surface. These edge modes are protected by an energy gap provided by the link operator. These properties also appear in "confined Walker-Wang" models which are 3D models having interesting surface states. Apart from the gauge excitations there are also excitations in the matter sector which are immobile and can be thought of as defects like in the Ising model. We only consider bosonic matter fields in this paper.
G. Belanger; F. Boudjema; J. Fujimoto; T. Ishikawa; T. Kaneko; K. Kato; Y. Shimizu
2006-04-18
We describe the main building blocks of a generic automated package for the calculation of Feynman diagrams. These blocks include the generation and creation of a model file, the graph generation, the symbolic calculation at an intermediate level of the Dirac and tensor algebra, implementation of the loop integrals, the generation of the matrix elements or helicity amplitudes, methods for the phase space integrations and eventually the event generation. The report focuses on the fully automated systems for the calculation of physical processes based on the experience in developing GRACE-loop. As such, a detailed description of the renormalisation procedure in the Standard Model is given emphasizing the central role played by the non-linear gauge fixing conditions for the construction of such automated codes. The need for such gauges is better appreciated when it comes to devising efficient and powerful algorithms for the reduction of the tensorial structures of the loop integrals. A new technique for these reduction algorithms is described. Explicit formulae for all two-point functions in a generalised non-linear gauge are given, together with the complete set of counterterms. We also show how infrared divergences are dealt with in the system. We give a comprehensive presentation of some systematic test-runs which have been performed at the one-loop level for a wide variety of two-to-two processes to show the validity of the gauge check. These cover fermion-fermion scattering, gauge boson scattering into fermions, gauge bosons and Higgs bosons scattering processes. Comparisons with existing results on some one-loop computation in the Standard Model show excellent agreement. We also briefly recount some recent development concerning the calculation of mutli-leg one-loop corrections.
J. R. Morris
1995-11-10
A supersymmetric extension of the $U(1)\\times U(1)^{\\prime }$-Higgs bosonic superconducting cosmic string model is considered,and the constraints imposed upon such a model due to renormalizability, supersymmetry, and gauge invariance are examined. For a simple model with a single $U(1)$ chiral superfield and a single $% U(1)^{\\prime }$ chiral superfield, the Witten mechanism for bosonic superconductivity (giving rise to long range gauge fields outside of the string) does not exist. The simplest model that can accommodate the requisite interactions requires five chiral supermultiplets. This superconducting cosmic string solution is investigated.
S. G. Tan; M. B. A. Jalil; X. -J. Liu; T. Fujita
2007-11-14
We describe formally the precession of spin vector about the k-space effective magnetic field in condensed matter system with spin orbital effects as constituting a local transformation of the electron wavefunction which necessarily invokes the SU(2) transformation rule to ensure covariance. We showed a "no-precession" condition as pre-requisite for the spin gauge field to exert its influence on spin particle motion. The effects of the spin gauge field on spin particle motion were shown to be consistent in both classical and quantum pictures, which hence should underpin theoretical explanations for important effects in anomalous Hall, spin Hall, spin torque, optical Magnus, geometric quantum computation.
$SU(2)\\times U(1)$ gauge invariance and the shape of new physics in rare $B$ decays
Rodrigo Alonso; Benjamin Grinstein; Jorge Martin Camalich
2014-07-25
New physics effects in $B$ decays are routinely modeled through operators invariant under the strong and electromagnetic gauge symmetries. Assuming the scale for new physics is well above the electro-weak scale, we further require invariance under the full Standard-Model gauge symmetry group. Retaining up to dimension-6 operators, we unveil new constraints between different new-physics operators that are assumed to be independent in the standard phenomenological analyses. We illustrate this approach by analyzing the constraints on new physics from rare $B_{q}$ (semi-)leptonic decays.
G. Konisi; T. Saito; Z. Maki; M. Nakahara
1998-12-08
The left-right symmetric model (LRSM) with gauge group $SU(2)_{L} \\times SU(2)_{R} \\times U(1)_{B-L}$ is reconstructed from the geometric formulation of gauge theory in $M_4 \\times Z_2 \\times Z_2$ where $M_4$ is the four-dimensional Minkowski space and $Z_2 \\times Z_2$ the discrete space with four points. The geometrical structure of this model becomes clearer compared with other works based on noncommutative geometry. As a result, the Yukawa coupling terms and the Higgs potential are derived in more restricted forms than in the standard LRSM.
A new approach to analytic, non-perturbative and gauge-invariant QCD
Fried, H.M.; Grandou, T.; Sheu, Y.-M.
2012-11-15
Following a previous calculation of quark scattering in eikonal approximation, this paper presents a new, analytic and rigorous approach to the calculation of QCD phenomena. In this formulation a basic distinction between the conventional 'idealistic' description of QCD and a more 'realistic' description is brought into focus by a non-perturbative, gauge-invariant evaluation of the Schwinger solution for the QCD generating functional in terms of the exact Fradkin representations of Green's functional G{sub c}(x,y|A) and the vacuum functional L[A]. Because quarks exist asymptotically only in bound states, their transverse coordinates can never be measured with arbitrary precision; the non-perturbative neglect of this statement leads to obstructions that are easily corrected by invoking in the basic Lagrangian a probability amplitude which describes such transverse imprecision. The second result of this non-perturbative analysis is the appearance of a new and simplifying output called 'Effective Locality', in which the interactions between quarks by the exchange of a 'gluon bundle'-which 'bundle' contains an infinite number of gluons, including cubic and quartic gluon interactions-display an exact locality property that reduces the several functional integrals of the formulation down to a set of ordinary integrals. It should be emphasized that 'non-perturbative' here refers to the effective summation of all gluons between a pair of quark lines-which may be the same quark line, as in a self-energy graph-but does not (yet) include a summation over all closed-quark loops which are tied by gluon-bundle exchange to the rest of the 'Bundle Diagram'. As an example of the power of these methods we offer as a first analytic calculation the quark-antiquark binding potential of a pion, and the corresponding three-quark binding potential of a nucleon, obtained in a simple way from relevant eikonal scattering approximations. A second calculation, analytic, non-perturbative and gauge-invariant, of a nucleon-nucleon binding potential to form a model deuteron, will appear separately. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An analytic, non-perturbative and gauge-invariant formulation for QCD processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new property called Effective Locality appears in the QCD fermionic amplitudes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An effective quark-antiquark and 3-quark binding potential is obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A single 'gluon bundle' replaces the sum of an infinite number of Feynman graphs.
Rutledge, Steven
, and Rain Gauges on Global, Regional, and Storm Scales STEPHEN W. NESBITT1 AND EDWARD J. ZIPSER Department TRMM rainfall products with Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) global rain gauge analyses is done to evaluate the overall biases of the TMI and PR to "ground truth" to examine regional differences
Poincare invariant gravity with local supersymmetry as a gauge theory for the M-algebra
Mokhtar Hassaine; Ricardo Troncoso; Jorge Zanelli
2004-07-30
Here we consider a gravitational action having local Poincare invariance which is given by the dimensional continuation of the Euler density in ten dimensions. It is shown that the local supersymmetric extension of this action requires the algebra to be the maximal extension of the N=1 super-Poincare algebra. The resulting action is shown to describe a gauge theory for the M-algebra, and is not the eleven-dimensional supergravity theory of Cremmer-Julia-Scherk. The theory admits a class of vacuum solutions of the form S^{10-d} x Y_{d+1}, where Y_{d+1} is a warped product of R with a d-dimensional spacetime. It is shown that a nontrivial propagator for the graviton exists only for d=4 and positive cosmological constant. Perturbations of the metric around this solution reproduce linearized General Relativity around four-dimensional de Sitter spacetime.
Topological susceptibility near $T_{c}$ in SU(3) gauge theory
Guang-Yi Xiong; Jian-Bo Zhang; Ying Chen; Chuan Liu; Yu-Bin Liu; Jian-Ping Ma
2015-11-05
Topological charge susceptibility $\\chi_{t}$ for pure gauge SU(3) theory at finite temperature is studied using anisotropic lattices. The over-improved stout-link smoothing method is utilized to calculate the topological charge. Near the phase transition point we find a rapid declining behavior for $\\chi_{t}$ with values decreasing from $(188(1)\\mathrm{MeV})^{4}$ to $(67(3)\\mathrm{MeV})^{4}$ as the temperature increased from zero temperature to $1.9T_{c}$ which demonstrates the existence of topological excitations far above $T_{c}$. The 4th order cumulant $c_4$ of topological charge, as well as the ratio $c_4/\\chi_t$ are also investigated. Results of $c_4$ show step-like behavior near $T_c$ while the ratio at high temperature agrees with the value as predicted by the diluted instanton gas model.
Quarks in an External Electric Field in Finite Temperature Large N Gauge Theory
Tameem Albash; Veselin Filev; Clifford V. Johnson; Arnab Kundu
2008-09-21
We use a ten dimensional dual string background to aspects of the physics large N four dimensional SU(N) gauge theory, where its fundamental quarks are charged under a background electric field. The theory is N=2 supersymmetric for vanishing temperature and electric field. At zero temperature, we observe that the electric field induces a phase transition associated with the dissociation of the mesons into their constituent quarks. This is an analogue of an insulator-metal transition, since the system goes from being an insulator with zero current (in the applied field) to a conductor with free charge carriers (the quarks). At finite temperature this phenomenon persists, with the dissociation transition become subsumed into the more familiar meson melting transition. Here, the dissociation phenomenon reduces the critical melting temperature.
Bashinsky, Sergei
2015-01-01
We study a finite basic structure that possibly underlies the observed elementary quantum fields with gauge and gravitational interactions. Realistic wave functions of locally interacting quantum fields emerge naturally as fitting functions for the generic distribution of many quantifiable properties of arbitrary static objects. We prove that in any quantum theory with the superposition principle, evolution of a current state of fields unavoidably continues along alternate routes with every conceivable Hamiltonian for the fields. This applies to the emergent quantum fields too. Yet the Hamiltonian is unambiguous for isolated emergent systems with sufficient local symmetry. The other emergent systems, without specific physical laws, cannot be inhabitable. The acceptable systems are eternally inflating universes with reheated regions. We see how eternal inflation perpetually creates new short-scale physical degrees of freedom and why they are initially in the ground state. In the emergent quantum worlds probabi...
Determination of Reference Scales for Wilson Gauge Action from Yang--Mills Gradient Flow
Masayuki Asakawa; Takumi Iritani; Masakiyo Kitazawa; Hiroshi Suzuki
2015-10-08
A parametrization of the lattice spacing ($a$) in terms of the bare coupling ($\\beta$) for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory with the Wilson gauge action is given in a wide range of~$\\beta$. The Yang--Mills gradient flow with respect to the flow time~$t$ for the dimensionless observable, $t\\frac{d}{dt}t^2\\langle E(t)\\rangle$, is utilized to determine the parametrization. With fine lattice spacings ($6.3\\le\\beta\\le7.5$) and large lattice volumes ($N_{\\rm s}=64$--$128$), the discretization and finite-volume errors are significantly reduced to the same level as the statistical error.
Proton Decay, Yukawa Couplings and Underlying Gauge Symmetry in String Theory
Radu Tatar; Taizan Watari
2006-03-20
In string theory, massless particles often originate from a symmetry breaking of a large gauge symmetry G to its subgroup H. The absence of dimension-4 proton decay in supersymmetric theories suggests that (\\bar{D},L) are different from \\bar{H}(\\bar{\\bf 5}) in their origins. In this article, we consider a possibility that they come from different irreducible components in $\\mathfrak{g}/\\mathfrak{h}$. Requiring that all the Yukawa coupling constants of quarks and leptons be generated from the super Yang--Mills interactions of G, we found in the context of Georgi--Glashow H=SU(5) unification that the minimal choice of G is E_7 and E_8 is the only alternative. This idea is systematically implemented in Heterotic String, M theory and F theory, confirming the absence of dimension 4 proton decay operators. Not only H=SU(5) but also G constrain operators of effective field theories, providing non-trivial information.
The Faraday effect in rippled graphene -- magneto-optics and random gauge fields
Schiefele, Jürgen; Guinea, Francisco
2015-01-01
A beam of linearly polarized light transmitted through magnetically biased graphene can have its axis of polarization rotated by several degrees after passing the graphene sheet. This large Faraday effect is due to the action of the magnetic field on graphene's charge carriers. As deformations of the graphene membrane result in pseudomagnetic fields acting on the charge carriers, the effect of random mesoscopic corrugations (ripples) can be described as the exposure of graphene to a random pseudomagnetic field. We aim to clarify the interplay of these typically sample inherent fields with the external magnetic bias field and the resulting effect on the Faraday rotation. Our results suggest that a measurement of the Faraday angle, while being sensitive to the amount of disorder, does not allow for an unambiguous identification of the underlying disorder mechanism as either scalar- or pseudomagnetic gauge potential. In particular, our calculations do not predict a shift of the observable effective cyclotron fre...
Quiver Gauge Theory of Nonabelian Vortices and Noncommutative Instantons in Higher Dimensions
Alexander D. Popov; Richard J. Szabo
2006-02-16
We construct explicit BPS and non-BPS solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on the noncommutative space R^{2n}_\\theta x S^2 which have manifest spherical symmetry. Using SU(2)-equivariant dimensional reduction techniques, we show that the solutions imply an equivalence between instantons on R^{2n}_\\theta x S^2 and nonabelian vortices on R^{2n}_\\theta, which can be interpreted as a blowing-up of a chain of D0-branes on R^{2n}_\\theta into a chain of spherical D2-branes on R^{2n} x S^2. The low-energy dynamics of these configurations is described by a quiver gauge theory which can be formulated in terms of new geometrical objects generalizing superconnections. This formalism enables the explicit assignment of D0-brane charges in equivariant K-theory to the instanton solutions.
N=2 gauge theories on toric singularities, blow-up formulae and W-algebrae
Giulio Bonelli; Kazunobu Maruyoshi; Alessandro Tanzini; Futoshi Yagi
2013-02-05
We compute the Nekrasov partition function of gauge theories on the (resolved) toric singularities C^2/\\Gamma in terms of blow-up formulae. We discuss the expansion of the partition function in the \\epsilon_1,\\epsilon_2 \\to 0 limit along with its modular properties and how to derive them from the M-theory perspective. On the two-dimensional conformal field theory side, our results can be interpreted in terms of representations of the direct sum of Heisenberg plus W_N-algebrae with suitable central charges, which can be computed from the fan of the resolved toric variety.We provide a check of this correspondence by computing the central charge of the two-dimensional theory from the anomaly polynomial of M5-brane theory. Upon using the AGT correspondence our results provide a candidate for the conformal blocks and three-point functions of a class of the two-dimensional CFTs which includes parafermionic theories.
Higgs portal dark matter in the minimal gauged $U(1)_{B-L}$ model
Nobuchika Okada; Osamu Seto
2010-02-13
We propose a scenario of the right-handed neutrino dark matter in the context of the minimal gauged $U(1)_{B-L}$ model by introducing an additional parity which ensures the stability of dark matter particle. The annihilation of this right-handed neutrino takes place dominantly through the s-channel Higgs boson exchange, so that this model can be called Higgs portal dark matter model. We show that the thermal relic abundance of the right-handed neutrino dark matter with help of Higgs resonance can match the observed dark matter abundance. In addition we estimate the cross section with nucleon and show that the next generation direct dark matter search experiments can explore this model.
Can thermal inflation be consistent with baryogenesis in gauge-mediated SUSY breaking models?
Hayakawa, Taku; Yamada, Masaki
2015-01-01
Thermal inflation is an attractive idea to dilute cosmic density of unwanted particles such as moduli fields which cause cosmological difficulties. However, it also dilutes preexisting baryon asymmetry and some viable baryogenesis is necessary for a cosmologically consistent scenario. We investigate whether the Affleck-Dine mechanism can produce baryon asymmetry enough to survive after the dilution in gauge-mediated SUSY breaking models. Flat directions except for $LH_u$ flat direction cannot provide such huge baryon number because of Q-ball formation. We show that although the $LH_u$ flat direction is special in terms of having $\\mu$-term which prevents Q-ball formation, it cannot explain the observed baryon asymmetry either.