Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters
Brewster, A.L.
1985-11-19
A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts is disclosed. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade. 2 figs.
Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters
Brewster, Albert L.
1985-01-01
A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade.
Tests gauge LED sensors for fuel-dye measurements
Ozanich, Richard M.; Lucke, Richard B.; Melville, Angela M.; Wright, Bob W.
2009-10-19
The goal of this work was to develop a low cost, robust sensor to allow direct measurement of Solvent Red 164 dye concentration in off-road fuel at refineries and fuel terminals. Optical absorption sensors based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) are rugged, low-cost, have low power consumption, and can be designed to be intrinsically safe.LED-based systems have been used in a variety of chemical detection applications including heavy metals, pH, CO2, and O2. The approach for this work was to develop a sensor that could be mounted on a pipeline sight glass, precluding the need for direct contact of the sensor with the fuel. Below is described the design and testing of three different LED/photodiode sensors utilizing reflectance spectrometry for the measurement of dye concentration.
Bartholomew, M. J.
2016-01-01
To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed rain gauges located near disdrometers (DISD and VDIS data streams). This handbook deals specifically with the rain gauges that make the observations for the RAIN data stream. Other precipitation observations are made by the surface meteorology instrument suite (i.e., MET data stream).
Optical Rain Gauge and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Comparisons
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
1. Introduction Measurement of rainfall and precipitation is a difficult task even in the best of circumstances. Different types of gauges are used depending on the type of...
High-speed non-contact measuring apparatus for gauging the thickness of moving sheet material
Grann, Eric B.; Holcomb, David E.
2000-01-01
An optical measurement apparatus is provided for measuring the thickness of a moving sheet material (18). The apparatus has a pair of optical measurement systems (21, 31) attached to opposing surfaces (14, 16) of a rigid support structure (10). A pair of high-power laser diodes (20,30) and a pair of photodetector arrays (22,32) are attached to the opposing surfaces. Light emitted from the laser diodes is reflected off of the sheet material surfaces (17, 19) and received by the respective photodetector arrays. An associated method for implementing the apparatus is also provided.
Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.
1989-04-04
An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.
Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.
1989-01-01
An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.
Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.
1989-04-04
An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.
Kirk, J.E.; Seacord, D.F.; Newman, R.W.
1985-04-01
This project was charged with the responsibility of conducting tests on static aircraft panels mounted on the ground at various ranges from the blast. Pressure-versus-time data were obtained using interferometer gauges. The gauge proved to be reliable and easy to operate. Its high-frequency response enabled it to record data to the pressure rise at the front of the blast wave which had not been noted previously. These results show, from measurements taken by pressure instruments mounted flush with the ground, that the rise times at the front of the blast waves were on gamma-radiation intensity by the smple expedient of stacking a few layers of lead breic around the gauge mounts.
Cold cathode vacuum gauging system
Denny, Edward C.
2004-03-09
A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.
Wood, Billy E.; Groves, Scott E.; Larsen, Greg J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.
2006-11-14
A lightweight, small size, high sensitivity gauge for indirectly measuring displacement or absolute gap width by measuring axial strain in an orthogonal direction to the displacement/gap width. The gap gauge includes a preferably titanium base having a central tension bar with springs connecting opposite ends of the tension bar to a pair of end connector bars, and an elongated bow spring connected to the end connector bars with a middle section bowed away from the base to define a gap. The bow spring is capable of producing an axial strain in the base proportional to a displacement of the middle section in a direction orthogonal to the base. And a strain sensor, such as a Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensor, is connected to measure the axial strain in the base, so that the displacement of the middle section may be indirectly determined from the measurement of the axial strain in the base.
Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements
Edwards, D. Jr.
1984-09-18
In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge. 5 figs.
Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements
Edwards, Jr., David
1984-01-01
In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge.
Viotti, Matias R.; Armando Albertazzi, G. Jr.; Kapp, Walter A.
2011-03-01
This paper shows the optical setup of a radial in-plane digital speckle pattern interferometer which uses an axis-symmetrical diffractive optical element (DOE) to obtain double illumination. The application of the DOE gives in-plane sensitivity which only depends on the grating period of the DOE instead of the wavelength of the laser used as illumination source. A compact optical layout was built in order to have a portable optical strain sensor with a circular measurement area of about 5 mm in diameter. In order to compare its performance with electrical strain sensors (strain gauges), mechanical loading was generated by a four-point bending device and simultaneously monitored by the optical strain sensor and by two-element strain gauge rosettes. Several mechanical stress levels were measured showing a good agreement between both sensors. Results showed that the optical sensor could measure applied mechanical strains with a mean uncertainty of about 5% and 4% for the maximum and minimum principal strains, respectively.
McPherson, M.J.; Bellman, R.A.
1982-09-27
A precision manometer gauge which locates a zero height and a measured height of liquid using an open tube in communication with a reservoir adapted to receive the pressure to be measured. The open tube has a reference section carried on a positioning plate which is moved vertically with machine tool precision. Double scales are provided to read the height of the positioning plate accurately, the reference section being inclined for accurate meniscus adjustment, and means being provided to accurately locate a zero or reference position.
McPherson, Malcolm J. (Lafayette, CA); Bellman, Robert A. (Berkeley, CA)
1984-01-01
A precision manometer gauge which locates a zero height and a measured height of liquid using an open tube in communication with a reservoir adapted to receive the pressure to be measured. The open tube has a reference section carried on a positioning plate which is moved vertically with machine tool precision. Double scales are provided to read the height of the positioning plate accurately, the reference section being inclined for accurate meniscus adjustment, and means being provided to accurately locate a zero or reference position.
Khachatryan, V.
2015-04-29
The cross section for the production of Z? in proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV is measured based on data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb?¹. Events with an oppositely-charged pair of muons or electrons together with an isolated photon are selected. The differential cross section as a function of the photon transverse momentum is measured inclusively and exclusively, where the exclusive selection applies a veto on central jets. The observed cross sections are compatible with the expectations of next-to-next-to-leading-order quantum chromodynamics. Limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings of ZZ? and Z?? are set that improve on previous experimental results obtained with the charged lepton decay modes of the Z boson.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Khachatryan, V.
2015-04-29
The cross section for the production of Z? in proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV is measured based on data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb?¹. Events with an oppositely-charged pair of muons or electrons together with an isolated photon are selected. The differential cross section as a function of the photon transverse momentum is measured inclusively and exclusively, where the exclusive selection applies a veto on central jets. The observed cross sections are compatible with the expectations of next-to-next-to-leading-order quantum chromodynamics. Limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings of ZZ? andmore »Z?? are set that improve on previous experimental results obtained with the charged lepton decay modes of the Z boson.« less
Cooke, Michael P.; /Rice U.
2008-04-01
The cross section for WW production is measured and limits on anomalous WW{gamma} and WWZ trilinear gauge couplings are set using WW {yields} ee/e{mu}/{mu}{mu} events collected by the Run II D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Across the three final states, 108 candidate events are observed with 40.8 {+-} 3.8 total background expected, consistent with {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} WW) = 11.6 {+-} 1.8(stat) {+-} 0.7(syst) {+-} 0.7(lumi) pb. Using a set of SU(2){sub L} {direct_product} U(1){sub Y} conserving constraints, the one-dimensional 95% C.L. limits on trilinear gauge couplings are -0.63 < {Delta}{kappa}{sub {gamma}} < 0.99, -0.15 < {lambda}{sub {gamma}} < 0.19, and -0.14 < {Delta}g{sub 1}{sup Z} < 0.34.
Lopez, Carlos; Wente, William Baker; Figueroa, Victor G.
2014-01-01
In an effort to improve the current state of the art in fire probabilistic risk assessment methodology, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Regulatory Research, contracted Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to conduct a series of scoping tests to identify thermal and mechanical probes that could be used to characterize the zone of influence (ZOI) during high energy arc fault (HEAF) testing. For the thermal evaluation, passive and active probes were exposed to HEAF-like heat fluxes for a period of 2 seconds at the SNLs National Solar Thermal Test Facility to determine their ability to survive and measure such an extreme environment. Thermal probes tested included temperature lacquers (passive), NANMAC thermocouples, directional flame thermometers, modified plate thermometers, infrared temperature sensors, and a Gardon heat flux gauge. Similarly, passive and active pressure probes were evaluated by exposing them to pressures resulting from various high-explosive detonations at the Sandia Terminal Ballistic Facility. Pressure probes included bikini pressure gauges (passive) and pressure transducers. Results from these tests provided good insight to determine which probes should be considered for use during future HEAF testing.
Strain gauge installation tool
Conard, Lisa Marie
1998-01-01
A tool and a method for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool.
Ruggles, C.A.
1957-08-27
A swinging arm gage designed to measure radial angles, tapering, sloping, or arcuate concave surfaces is described. The principle of the swinging arm gage is that in any spherical system, radii and radial lines established by them pass through the center of the sphere. Thus if an arm be made to pivot at the sphere center, the path of the swinging end can be guided by a can so set as to establish the proper center angle, and dial indicators on the arm can be zeroed on a master object, angular and dimensional manufacturing errors can be determined on a duplicate object. This device makes possible a considerable saving of time in measuring complex arcuate contours.
Interferometry with synthetic gauge fields
Anderson, Brandon M.; Taylor, Jacob M.; Galitski, Victor M.
2011-03-15
We propose a compact atom interferometry scheme for measuring weak, time-dependent accelerations. Our proposal uses an ensemble of dilute trapped bosons with two internal states that couple to a synthetic gauge field with opposite charges. The trapped gauge field couples spin to momentum to allow time-dependent accelerations to be continuously imparted on the internal states. We generalize this system to reduce noise and estimate the sensitivity of such a system to be S{approx}10{sup -7}(m/s{sup 2}/{radical}(Hz)).
Self-modulating pressure gauge
Edwards, D. Jr.; Lanni, C.P.
1979-08-07
An ion gauge is disclosed having a reduced x-ray limit and means for measuring that limit. The gauge comprises an ion gauge of the Bayard-Alpert type having a short collector and having means for varying the grid-collector voltage. The x-ray limit (i.e. the collector current resulting from x-rays striking the collector) may then be determined by the formula: I/sub x/ = ..cap alpha..I/sub l/ - I/sub h//..cap alpha.. - l where: I/sub x/ = x-ray limit, I/sub l/ and I/sub h/ = the collector current at the lower and higher grid voltage respectively; and, ..cap alpha.. = the ratio of the collector current due to positive ions at the higher voltage to that at the lower voltage.
Strain gauge installation tool
Conard, L.M.
1998-06-16
A tool and a method are disclosed for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maintaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool. 6 figs.
High temperature pressure gauge
Echtler, J. Paul; Scandrol, Roy O.
1981-01-01
A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.
Khachatryan, Vardan
2015-07-14
A measurement of the W boson pair production cross section in proton-proton collisions at ā s = 8 TeV is presented. The data we collected with the CMS detector at the LHC correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.4 fb^{-1} . The W^{+}W^{-} candidates are selected from events with two charged leptons, electrons or muons, and large missing transverse energy. The measured W^{+}W^{-} cross section is 60.1 Ā± 0.9 (stat) Ā± 3.2 (exp) Ā± 3.1 (theo) Ā± 1.6 (lumi) pb = 60.1 Ā± 4.8 pb, consistent with the standard model prediction. The W^{+}W^{-}cross sections are also measured in two different fiducial phase space regions. The normalized differential cross section is measured as a function of kinematic variables of the final-state charged leptons and compared with several perturbative QCD predictions. Limits on anomalous gauge couplings associated with dimension-six operators are also given in the framework of an effective field theory. Finally, the corresponding 95% confidence level intervals are -5.7 < c_{WWW}/Ī^{2} < 5.9 TeV^{-2} , -11.4 < c_{W}/Ī^{2} < 5.4 TeV^{-2} , -29.2 < c_{B}/Ī^{2} < 23.9 TeV^{-2} , in the HISZ basis.
Rain Gauges Handbook (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Title: Rain Gauges Handbook To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research ...
Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.
1991-04-09
A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.
Radiation attenuation gauge with magnetically coupled source
Wallace, Steven A.
1978-01-01
A radiaton attenuation gauge for measuring thickness and density of a material comprises, in combination, a source of gamma radiation contained within a housing comprising magnetic or ferromagnetic material, and a means for measuring the intensity of gamma radiation. The measuring means has an aperture and magnetic means disposed adjacent to the aperture for attracting and holding the housed source in position before the aperture. The material to be measured is disposed between the source and the measuring means.
Thread gauge for tapered threads
Brewster, A.L.
1994-01-11
The thread gauge permits the user to determine the pitch diameter of tapered threads at the intersection of the pitch cone and the end face of the object being measured. A pair of opposed anvils having lines of threads which match the configuration and taper of the threads on the part being measured are brought into meshing engagement with the threads on opposite sides of the part. The anvils are located linearly into their proper positions by stop fingers on the anvils that are brought into abutting engagement with the end face of the part. This places predetermined reference points of the pitch cone of the thread anvils in registration with corresponding points on the end face of the part being measured, resulting in an accurate determination of the pitch diameter at that location. The thread anvils can be arranged for measuring either internal or external threads. 13 figures.
Thread gauge for tapered threads
Brewster, Albert L.
1994-01-11
The thread gauge permits the user to determine the pitch diameter of tapered threads at the intersection of the pitch cone and the end face of the object being measured. A pair of opposed anvils having lines of threads which match the configuration and taper of the threads on the part being measured are brought into meshing engagement with the threads on opposite sides of the part. The anvils are located linearly into their proper positions by stop fingers on the anvils that are brought into abutting engagement with the end face of the part. This places predetermined reference points of the pitch cone of the thread anvils in registration with corresponding points on the end face of the part being measured, resulting in an accurate determination of the pitch diameter at that location. The thread anvils can be arranged for measuring either internal or external threads.
Rain Gauge Instrument Handbook
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
10 Rain Gauge Instrument Handbook MJ Bartholomew January 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.
Apparatus and method for field calibration of nuclear surface density gauges
Regimand, A.; Gilbert, A.B.
1999-07-01
Nuclear gauge density measurements are routinely used for compliance verification with specifications for road and construction projects. The density of construction materials is an important indicator of structural performance and quality. Due to speed of measurement, flexibility and accuracy, nuclear gauge density measurement methods are becoming the preferred standard around the world. Requirements dictate that gauges be verified or calibrated once every 12 to 18 months. Presently, there are no field portable devices available for verification of the gauge calibration. Also, the density references used for calibration of gauges, are large and not designed for field portability. Therefore, to meet the present standards, users are required to ship gauges back to a service facility for calibration. This paper presents results obtained by a newly developed device for field verification and calibration of nuclear density gauges from three different manufacturers. The calibrations obtained by this device are compared to the factory calibration methods and accuracies are reported for each gauge model.
Gauge fields out of equilibrium: A gauge invariant formulation...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
The additional degrees of freedom, which arise in gauge theories, influence the behavior of the system dramatically. A comparison with results in the 't Hooft--Feynman background ...
Ault, Stanley K. (Antioch, CA)
1993-01-01
A gauge for detecting the impulse generated in sample materials by X-rays or other impulse producing mechanisms utilizes a pair of flat annular springs to support a plunger relative to a housing which may itself be supported by a pair of flat annular springs in a second housing. The plunger has a mounting plate mounted on one end and at the other, a position or velocity transducer is mounted. The annular springs consist of an outer ring and an inner ring with at least three arcuate members connecting the outer ring with the inner ring.
Polchinski, Joseph [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics
2010-09-01
Gauge theories, which describe the particle interactions, are well understood, while quantum gravity leads to many puzzles. Remarkably, in recent years we have learned that these are actually dual, the same system written in different variables. On the one hand, this provides our most precise description of quantum gravity, resolves some long-standing paradoxes, and points to new principles. On the other, it gives a new perspective on strong interactions, with surprising connections to other areas of physics. I describe these ideas, and discuss current and future directions.
Ault, S.K.
1993-12-21
A gauge for detecting the impulse generated in sample materials by X-rays or other impulse producing mechanisms utilizes a pair of flat annular springs to support a plunger relative to a housing which may itself be supported by a pair of flat annular springs in a second housing. The plunger has a mounting plate mounted on one end and at the other, a position or velocity transducer is mounted. The annular springs consist of an outer ring and an inner ring with at least three arcuate members connecting the outer ring with the inner ring. 4 figures.
Optical Abelian lattice gauge theories
Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Zamora, A.; Lewenstein, M.; ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, 08010 Barcelona
2013-03-15
We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of Abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable for quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, originally proposed by P. Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices, where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground-state. We propose two key experimental tests that can be used as smoking gun of the proper implementation of a gauge theory in optical lattices. These tests consist in verifying the absence of spontaneous (gauge) symmetry breaking of the ground-state and the presence of charge confinement. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) lattice gauge theory and the model considered in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the quantum simulation of dynamical gauge theories in optical lattices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on digital simulation of abelian lattice gauge theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We rediscover and discuss the puzzling phase diagram of gauge magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detail the protocol for time evolution and ground-state preparation in any phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide two experimental tests to validate gauge theory quantum simulators.
Load cell having strain gauges of arbitrary location
Spletzer, Barry
2007-03-13
A load cell utilizes a plurality of strain gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-strain relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-strain sensitivity matrix to a measured strain vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting strains. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the strain gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.
Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M
2012-02-01
This Letter describes the current most precise measurement of the WZ production cross section as well as limits on anomalous WWZ couplings at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV in proton-antiproton collisions. The WZ candidates are reconstructed from decays containing three charged leptons and missing energy from a neutrino, where the charged leptons are either electrons or muons. Using data collected by the CDF II detector (7.1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity), 64 candidate events are observed with the expected background contributing 8 {+-} 1 events. The measured total cross section {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} WZ) = 3.93{sub -0.53}{sup +0.60}(stat){sub -0.46}{sup +0.59}(syst) pb is in good agreement with the standard model prediction of 3.50 {+-} 0.21. The same sample is used to set limits on anomalous WWZ couplings.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Khachatryan, Vardan
2015-04-29
The cross section for the production of ZĪ³ in proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV is measured based on data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb-1. Events with an oppositely-charged pair of muons or electrons together with an isolated photon are selected. Furthermore, the differential cross section as a function of the photon transverse momentum is measured inclusively and exclusively, where the exclusive selection applies a veto on central jets. These observed cross sections are compatible with the expectations of next-to-next-to-leading-order quantum chromodynamics. As a result, limits on anomalous triple gaugemoreĀ Ā» couplings of ZZĪ³ and ZĪ³Ī³ are set that improve on previous experimental results obtained with the charged lepton decay modes of the Z boson.Ā«Ā less
Measurement of the WZ cross section and triple gauge couplings in pp? collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV
Aaltonen, T.; Įlvarez Gonzįlez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; dAscenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; DellOrso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; dErrico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; DOnofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gonzįlez, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martķnez, M.; Mastrandrea, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.
2012-08-01
This article describes the current most precise measurement of the WZ production cross section as well as limits on anomalous WWZ couplings at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV in proton-antiproton collisions for the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). WZ candidates are reconstructed from decays containing three charged leptons and missing energy from a neutrino, where the charged leptons are either electrons or muons. Using data collected by the CDF II detector (7.1 fb?¹ of integrated luminosity), 63 candidate events are observed with the expected background contributing 8±1 events. The measured total cross section ?(pp??WZ)=3.93^{+0.60}_{0.53}(stat)^{+0.59}_{0.46}(syst) pb is in good agreement with the standard model prediction of 3.50±0.21. The same sample is used to set limits on anomalous WWZ couplings.
Measurement of the WZ cross section and triple gauge couplings in ppĢ collisions at ās=1.96 TeV
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Aaltonen, T.; Ćlvarez GonzĆ”lez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; et al
2012-08-23
This article describes the current most precise measurement of the WZ production cross section as well as limits on anomalous WWZ couplings at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV in proton-antiproton collisions for the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). WZ candidates are reconstructed from decays containing three charged leptons and missing energy from a neutrino, where the charged leptons are either electrons or muons. Using data collected by the CDF II detector (7.1 fbā»Ā¹ of integrated luminosity), 63 candidate events are observed with the expected background contributing 8Ā±1 events. The measured total cross section Ļ(ppĢāWZ)=3.93+0.60ā0.53(stat)+0.59ā0.46(syst) pb is in good agreementmoreĀ Ā» with the standard model prediction of 3.50Ā±0.21. The same sample is used to set limits on anomalous WWZ couplings.Ā«Ā less
Gauge Theories of Vector Particles
DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]
Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.
1961-04-24
The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.
Dynamics of gauge field inflation
Alexander, Stephon; Jyoti, Dhrubo; Kosowsky, Arthur; MarcianĆ², Antonino
2015-05-05
We analyze the existence and stability of dynamical attractor solutions for cosmological inflation driven by the coupling between fermions and a gauge field. Assuming a spatially homogeneous and isotropic gauge field and fermion current, the interacting fermion equation of motion reduces to that of a free fermion up to a phase shift. Consistency of the model is ensured via the StĆ¼ckelberg mechanism. We prove the existence of exactly one stable solution, and demonstrate the stability numerically. Inflation arises without fine tuning, and does not require postulating any effective potential or non-standard coupling.
Remarks on the Topology of Gauge Fields
DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]
Nambu, Y.
1978-03-01
The topology of gauge fields including vortices, monopoles, and instantons is considered. Action versus free action, a class of almost pure gauges, and the Wilson criteria are discussed. (JFP)
PRODUCTION PROCESS MONITORING OF MULTILAYERED MATERIALS USING TIME-DOMAIN TERAHERTZ GAUGES
Zimdars, David; Duling, Irl; Fichter, Greg; White, Jeffrey
2010-02-22
The results of both a laboratory and factory trial of a time-domain terahertz (TD-THz) multi-layer gauge for on-line process monitoring are presented. The TD-THz gauge is demonstrated on a two layer laminated plastic insulation material. The TD-THz gauge simultaneously measured the total and the individual layer thicknesses. Measurements were made while transversely scanning across a 12 foot wide sheet extruded at high speed in a factory environment. The results were analyzed for precision, accuracy, and repeatability; and demonstrated that the TD-THz gauge performed in an equivalent or superior manner to existing ionizing radiation gauges (which measure only one layer). Many dielectric materials (e.g., plastic, rubber, paper, paint) are transparent to THz pulses, and the measurement of a wide range of samples is possible.
Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge
Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E
2014-10-14
An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.
Gauge Configurations for Lattice QCD from The Gauge Connection
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
The Gauge Connection is an experimental archive for lattice QCD and a repository of gauge configurations made freely available to the community. Contributors to the archive include the Columbia QCDSP collaboration, the MILC collaboration, and others. Configurations are stored in QCD archive format, consisting of an ASCII header which defines various parameters, followed by binary data. NERSC has also provided some utilities and examples that will aid users in handling the data. Users may browse the archive, but are required to register for a password in order to download data. Contents of the archive are organized under four broad headings: Quenched (more than 1200 configurations); Dynamical, Zero Temperature (more than 300 configurations); MILC Improved Staggered Asqtad Lattices (more than 7000 configurations); and Dynamical, Finite Temperature (more than 1200 configurations)
Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities
Kodama, Hideo; Nozawa, Masato
2015-05-18
We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter critical point. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the 36 and 36ā representations of SL(8), we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the SO(3)ĆSO(3)-invariant subsectors of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the SO(4,4) gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in this sector near the DallāAgata-Inverso de Sitter critical point at which the negative eigenvalue of the scalar mass square with the largest modulus goes to zero as the deformation parameter s approaches a critical value s{sub c}. We find that when the deformation parameter s is taken sufficiently close to the critical value, inflation lasts more than 60 e-folds even if the initial point of the inflaton allows an O(0.1) deviation in Planck units from the DallāAgata-Inverso critical point. It turns out that the spectral index n{sub s} of the curvature perturbation at the time of the 60 e-folding number is always about 0.96 and within the 1Ļ range n{sub s}=0.9639Ā±0.0047 obtained by Planck, irrespective of the value of the Ī· parameter at the critical saddle point. The tensor-scalar ratio predicted by this model is around 10{sup ā3} and is close to the value in the Starobinsky model.
Optical Rain Gauge Instrument Handbook
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3 Optical Rain Gauge Instrument Handbook MJ Bartholomew April 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned
Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories. I
DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]
Wilczek, Frank; Gross, David J.
1973-07-01
Asymptotically free gauge theories of the strong interactions are constructed and analyzed. The reasons for doing this are recounted, including a review of renormalization group techniques and their application to scaling phenomena. The renormalization group equations are derived for Yang-Mills theories. The parameters that enter into the equations are calculated to lowest order and it is shown that these theories are asymptotically free. More specifically the effective coupling constant, which determines the ultraviolet behavior of the theory, vanishes for large space-like momenta. Fermions are incorporated and the construction of realistic models is discussed. We propose that the strong interactions be mediated by a "color" gauge group which commutes with SU(3)xSU(3). The problem of symmetry breaking is discussed. It appears likely that this would have a dynamical origin. It is suggested that the gauge symmetry might not be broken, and that the severe infrared singularities prevent the occurrence of non-color singlet physical states. The deep inelastic structure functions, as well as the electron position total annihilation cross section are analyzed. Scaling obtains up to calculable logarithmic corrections, and the naive lightcone or parton model results follow. The problems of incorporating scalar mesons and breaking the symmetry by the Higgs mechanism are explained in detail.
Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge
Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM)
1993-01-01
A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge.
Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge
Noel, B.W.
1993-12-28
A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge. 3 figures.
Not Available
1985-04-01
Aerial motion pictures from manned aircraft were taken of the Dog, Easy, and George Shots and from a drone aircraft on Dog Shot to determine whether asymmetries in the blast waves could be detected and measured. Only one film, that taken of Dog Shot from a drone, was considered good enough to warrant detailed analysis, but this failed to yield any positive information on asymmetries. The analysis showed that failure to obtain good arrival-time data arose from a number of cases, but primarily from uncertainities in magnification and timing. Results could only be matched with reliable data from blast-velocity switches by use of large corrections. Asymnetries, if present, were judged to have been too small or to have occurred too early to be detected with the slow-frame speed used. Recommendations for better results include locating the aircraft directly overhead at the time of burst and using a camera having greater frame speed and provided with timing marks.
S-duality of nonsupersymmetric gauge theories (Journal Article...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
S-duality of nonsupersymmetric gauge theories Citation Details In-Document Search Title: S-duality of nonsupersymmetric gauge theories You are accessing a document from the ...
Gauge natural formulation of conformal gravity
Campigotto, M.; Fatibene, L.
2015-03-15
We consider conformal gravity as a gauge natural theory. We study its conservation laws and superpotentials. We also consider the Mannheim and Kazanas spherically symmetric vacuum solution and discuss conserved quantities associated to conformal and diffeomorphism symmetries.
Physical meaning of gauge and super-gauge in general-relativistic field theories
Treder, H.
1985-05-01
The physical meaning of gauge groups in bimetrical, Riemannian, and Hermitian theories of gravitation is discussed. In Hermitian relativity, Einstein's A-invariance means a super-gauge group which characterizes the Einstein-Schroedinger equations as the only nondegenerate general-relativistic field theory.
Primordial anisotropies in gauged hybrid inflation
Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan E-mail: emami@ipm.ir
2014-05-01
We study primordial anisotropies generated in the model of gauged hybrid inflation in which the complex waterfall field is charged under a U(1)gauge field. Primordial anisotropies are generated either actively during inflation or from inhomogeneities modulating the surface of end of inflation during waterfall transition. We present a consistent ?N mechanism to calculate the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that the primordial anisotropies generated at the surface of end of inflation do not depend on the number of e-folds and therefore do not produce dangerously large anisotropies associated with the IR modes. Furthermore, one can find the parameter space that the anisotropies generated from the surface of end of inflation cancel the anisotropies generated during inflation, therefore relaxing the constrains on model parameters imposed from IR anisotropies. We also show that the gauge field fluctuations induce a red-tilted power spectrum so the averaged power spectrum from the gauge field can change the total power spectrum from blue to red. Therefore, hybrid inflation, once gauged under a U(1) field, can be consistent with the cosmological observations.
Feynman rules for Coulomb gauge QCD
Andrasi, A.; Taylor, J.C.
2012-10-15
The Coulomb gauge in nonabelian gauge theories is attractive in principle, but beset with technical difficulties in perturbation theory. In addition to ordinary Feynman integrals, there are, at 2-loop order, Christ-Lee (CL) terms, derived either by correctly ordering the operators in the Hamiltonian, or by resolving ambiguous Feynman integrals. Renormalization theory depends on the sub-graph structure of ordinary Feynman graphs. The CL terms do not have a sub-graph structure. We show how to carry out renormalization in the presence of CL terms, by re-expressing these as 'pseudo-Feynman' integrals. We also explain how energy divergences cancel. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In Coulomb gauge QCD, we re-express Christ-Lee terms in the Hamiltonian as pseudo-Feynman integrals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This gives a subgraph structure, and allows the ordinary renormalization process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It also leads to cancellation of energy-divergences.
Diffractive Scattering and Gauge/String Duality
Tan, Chung-I [Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States
2009-09-01
High-energy diffractive scattering will be discussed based on Gauge/String duality. As shown by Brower, Polchinski, Strassler and Tan, the ubiquitous Pomeron emerges naturally in gauge theories with string-theoretical descriptions. Its existence is intimately tied to gluons, and also to the energy-momentum tensor. With a confining dual background metric, the Pomeron can be interpreted as a 'massive graviton'. In a single unified step, both its infrared and ultraviolet properties are dealt with, reflecting confinement and conformal symmetry respectively. An effective field theory for high-energy scattering can be constructed. Applications based on this approach will also be described.
Signatures of confinement in axial gauge QCD
Lenz, F.; Moniz, Ernest J.; Thies, M.
1995-09-01
A comparative dynamical study of axial gauge QED and QCD is presented. Elementary excitations associated with particular field configurations are investigated. Gluonic excitations analogous to linearly polarized photons are shown to acquire infinite energy. Suppression of this class of excitations in QCD results from quantization of the chromo-electric flux and is interpreted as a dual Meissner effect, i.e., as expulsion from the QCD vacuum of chromo-electric fields which are constant over significant distances. This interpretation is supported by a comparative evaluation of the interaction energy of static charges in the axial gauge representation of QED and QCD. {copyright} 1995 Academic Press, Inc.
National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory
Brower, Richard C.
2014-04-15
SciDAC-2 Project The Secret Life of Quarks: National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, from March 15, 2011 through March 14, 2012. The objective of this project is to construct the software needed to study quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions of sub-atomic physics, and other strongly coupled gauge field theories anticipated to be of importance in the energy regime made accessible by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It builds upon the successful efforts of the SciDAC-1 project National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, in which a QCD Applications Programming Interface (QCD API) was developed that enables lattice gauge theorists to make effective use of a wide variety of massively parallel computers. This project serves the entire USQCD Collaboration, which consists of nearly all the high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States engaged in the numerical study of QCD and related strongly interacting quantum field theories. All software developed in it is publicly available, and can be downloaded from a link on the USQCD Collaboration web site, or directly from the github repositories with entrance linke http://usqcd-software.github.io
Exotic Gauge Bosons in the 331 Model
Romero, D.; Ravinez, O.; Diaz, H.; Reyes, J.
2009-04-30
We analize the bosonic sector of the 331 model which contains exotic leptons, quarks and bosons (E,J,U,V) in order to satisfy the weak gauge SU(3){sub L} invariance. We develop the Feynman rules of the entire kinetic bosonic sector which will let us to compute some of the Z(0)' decays modes.
Gauge-flation confronted with Planck
Namba, Ryo; Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Peloso, Marco E-mail: ema@physics.umn.edu
2013-11-01
Gauge-flation is a recently proposed model in which inflation is driven solely by a non-Abelian gauge field thanks to a specific higher order derivative operator. The nature of the operator is such that it does not introduce ghosts. We compute the cosmological scalar and tensor perturbations for this model, improving over an existing computation. We then confront these results with the Planck data. The model is characterized by the quantity ? ? g{sup 2}Q{sup 2}/H{sup 2} (where g is the gauge coupling constant, Q the vector vev, and H the Hubble rate). For ? < 2, the scalar perturbations show a strong tachyonic instability. In the stable region, the scalar power spectrum n{sub s} is too low at small ?, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio r is too high at large ?. No value of ? leads to acceptable values for n{sub s} and r, and so the model is ruled out by the CMB data. The same behavior with ? was obtained in Chromo-natural inflation, a model in which inflation is driven by a pseudo-scalar coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field. When the pseudo-scalar can be integrated out, one recovers the model of Gauge-flation plus corrections. It was shown that this identification is very accurate at the background level, but differences emerged in the literature concerning the perturbations of the two models. On the contrary, our results show that the analogy between the two models continues to be accurate also at the perturbative level.
Geometrical gauge factor of directional electric potential drop sensors for creep monitoring
Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.
2011-06-23
Directional electric potential drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This technique can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical and indirect material effects of creep. Initially, this ratio is roughly proportional to the axial creep strain, while at later stages, the resistance ratio increases even faster with creep strain because of the formation of directional discontinuities such as preferentially oriented grain boundary cavities and multiple-site cracks in the material. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as a sum of geometrical and material parts. This work investigated the geometrical gauge factor by analytical and experimental means. We found that under uniaxial stress square-electrode sensors exhibit geometrical gauge factors of about 4 and 5 in the elastic and plastic regimes, respectively, i.e., more than twice those of conventional strain gauges. Experimental results obtained on 304 stainless steel using a square-electrode electric potential drop creep sensor agree well with our theoretical predictions.
Uterine caliper and depth gauge
King, Loyd L.; Wheeler, Robert G.; Fish, Thomas M.
1977-01-01
A uterine caliper and sound consisting of an elongated body having outwardly biased resilient caliper wings and a spring-loaded slidable cervical stop. A slide on the body is operatively connected to the wings by a monofilament and operates with respect to a first scale on the body as a width indicator. A rod extending longitudinally on the body is connected to the cervical stop and cooperates with a second scale on the body as a depth indicator. The instrument can be positioned to measure the distance from the outer cervical ostium to the fundus, as read on said second scale. The wings may be allowed to open by moving the slide, and when the wings engage the utero-tubal junctions, the width may be read on said first scale. By adjustment of the caliper wings the instrument may be retracted until the resistance of the inner ostium of the cervix is felt, enabling the length of the cervical canal to be read directly by the position of the longitudinal indicator rod with respect to said second scale. The instrument may be employed to measure the width of the uterine cavity at any position between the inner ostium of the cervix and the fundus.
Flux-induced Isometry Gauging in Heterotic Strings
Chuang, Wu-yen; Gao, Peng
2007-01-05
We study the effect of flux-induced isometry gauging of the scalar manifold in N = 2 heterotic string compactification with gauge fluxes. We show that a vanishing theorem by Witten provides the protection mechanism. The other ungauged isometries in hyper moduli space could also be protected, depending on the gauge bundle structure. We also discuss the related issue in IIB setting.
A luminescent nanocrystal stress gauge
Choi, Charina; Koski, Kristie; Olson, Andrew; Alivisatos, Paul
2010-10-25
Microscale mechanical forces can determine important outcomes ranging from the site of material fracture to stem cell fate. However, local stresses in a vast majority of systems cannot be measured due to the limitations of current techniques. In this work, we present the design and implementation of the CdSe/CdS core/shell tetrapod nanocrystal, a local stress sensor with bright luminescence readout. We calibrate the tetrapod luminescence response to stress, and use the luminescence signal to report the spatial distribution of local stresses in single polyester fibers under uniaxial strain. The bright stress-dependent emission of the tetrapod, its nanoscale size, and its colloidal nature provide a unique tool that may be incorporated into a variety of micromechanical systems including materials and biological samples to quantify local stresses with high spatial resolution.
Dark matter and gauged flavor symmetries
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Bishara, Fady; Greljo, Admir; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Stamou, Emmanuel; Zupan, Jure
2015-12-21
We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental Z3 symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly 0.5 TeV and 5 TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general, however,moreĀ Ā» no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.Ā«Ā less
Dark matter and gauged flavor symmetries
Bishara, Fady; Greljo, Admir; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Stamou, Emmanuel; Zupan, Jure
2015-12-21
We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental Z_{3} symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly 0.5 TeV and 5 TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general, however, no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.
Supersymmetry Breaking, Gauge Mediation, and the LHC
Shih, David
2015-04-14
Gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) is a promising class of supersymmetric models that automatically satisfies the precision constraints. Prior work of Meade, Seiberg and Shih in 2008 established the full, model-independent parameter space of GMSB, which they called "General Gauge Mediation" (GGM). During the first half of 2010-2015, Shih and his collaborators thoroughly explored the parameter space of GGM and established many well-motivated benchmark models for use by the experimentalists at the LHC. Through their work, the current constraints on GGM from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC were fully elucidated, together with the possible collider signatures of GMSB at the LHC. This ensured that the full discovery potential for GGM could be completely realized at the LHC.
SHIELDING ANALYSIS FOR PORTABLE GAUGING COMBINATION SOURCES
J. TOMPKINS; L. LEONARD; ET AL
2000-08-01
Radioisotopic decay has been used as a source of photons and neutrons for industrial gauging operations since the late 1950s. Early portable moisture/density gauging equipment used Americium (Am)-241/Beryllium (Be)/Cesium (Cs)-137 combination sources to supply the required nuclear energy for gauging. Combination sources typically contained 0.040 Ci of Am-241 and 0.010 Ci of CS-137 in the same source capsule. Most of these sources were manufactured approximately 30 years ago. Collection, transportation, and storage of these sources once removed from their original device represent a shielding problem with distinct gamma and neutron components. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project is planning to use a multi-function drum (MFD) for the collection, shipping, and storage of AmBe sources, as well as the eventual waste package for disposal. The MFD is an approved TRU waste container design for DOE TRU waste known as the 12 inch Pipe Component Overpack. As the name indicates, this drum is based on a 12 inch ID stainless steel weldment approximately 25 inch in internal length. The existing drum design allows for addition of shielding within the pipe component up to the 110 kg maximum pay load weight. The 12 inch pipe component is packaged inside a 55-gallon drum, with the balance of the interior space filled with fiberboard dunnage. This packaging geometry is similar to the design of a DOT 6M, Type B shipping container.
Method of determining the x-ray limit of an ion gauge
Edwards, Jr., David; Lanni, Christopher P.
1981-01-01
An ion gauge having a reduced "x-ray limit" and means for measuring that limit. The gauge comprises an ion gauge of the Bayard-Alpert type having a short collector and having means for varying the grid-collector voltage. The "x-ray limit" (i.e. the collector current resulting from x-rays striking the collector) may then be determined by the formula: ##EQU1## where: I.sub.x ="x-ray limit", I.sub.l and I.sub.h =the collector current at the lower and higher grid voltage respectively; and, .alpha.=the ratio of the collector current due to positive ions at the higher voltage to that at the lower voltage.
A nanocrystal strain gauge for luminescence detection of mechanical forces
Choi, Charina; Koski, Kristie; Olson, Andrew; Alivisatos, Paul
2010-07-26
Local microscale stresses play a crucial role in inhomogeneous mechanical processes from cell motility to material failure. However, it remains difficult to spatially resolve stress at these small length scales. While contact-probe and non-contact based techniques have been used to quantify local mechanical behavior in specific systems with high stiffness or stress and spatial resolution, these methods cannot be used to study a majority of micromechanical systems due to spectroscopic and geometrical constraints. We present here the design and implementation of a luminescent nanocrystal strain gauge, the CdSe/CdS core/shell tetrapod. The tetrapod can be incorporated into many materials, yielding a local stress measurement through optical fluorescence spectroscopy of the electronically confined CdSe core states. The stress response of the tetrapod is calibrated and utilized to study mechanical behavior in single polymer fibers. We expect that tetrapods can be used to investigate local stresses in many other mechanical systems.
Groot Nibbelink, S.; Hillenbach, M.
2005-12-02
We review an explicit calculation of the renormalization of a vector multiplet due to hyper multiplets on the orbifolds S1/Z2 and T2/ZN. We find that generically the fixed point gauge couplings renormalize except at Z2 fixed points. In the six dimensional case on T2/ZN also a bulk dimension six higher derivative operator is induced.
Saeki, Hiroshi Magome, Tamotsu
2014-10-06
To compensate pressure-measurement errors caused by a synchrotron radiation environment, a precise method using a hot-cathode-ionization-gauge head with correcting electrode, was developed and tested in a simulation experiment with excess electrons in the SPring-8 storage ring. This precise method to improve the measurement accuracy, can correctly reduce the pressure-measurement errors caused by electrons originating from the external environment, and originating from the primary gauge filament influenced by spatial conditions of the installed vacuum-gauge head. As the result of the simulation experiment to confirm the performance reducing the errors caused by the external environment, the pressure-measurement error using this method was approximately less than several percent in the pressure range from 10{sup ?5} Pa to 10{sup ?8} Pa. After the experiment, to confirm the performance reducing the error caused by spatial conditions, an additional experiment was carried out using a sleeve and showed that the improved function was available.
Phases of N=1 Supersymmetric Chiral Gauge Theories (Journal Article...
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are characterized by an infinite family of magnetic duals with arbitrarily large gauge groups describing the same fixed point, correlated with arbitrarily large classical global...
Divergences of generalized quantum electrodynamics on the Lorenz gauge
Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E.
2013-03-25
In this paper we study the Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics (GQED4) on the Lorenz gauge condition and show that divergences are still present in the theory.
A luminescent nanocrystal stress gauge (Journal Article) | SciTech...
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Details In-Document Search Title: A luminescent nanocrystal stress gauge Microscale mechanical forces can determine important outcomes ranging from the site of material...
Observable non-Gaussianity from gauge field production in slow...
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Observable non-Gaussianity from gauge field production in slow roll inflation, and a challenging connection with magnetogenesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...
Gauge field production in axion inflation: Consequences for monodromy...
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Gauge field production in axion inflation: Consequences for monodromy, non-Gaussianity in the CMB, and gravitational waves at interferometers Citation Details In-Document Search ...
The role of gauge symmetry in spintronics
Sobreiro, R.F.
2011-12-15
In this work we employ a field theoretical approach to explain the nature of the non-conserved spin current in spintronics. In particular, we consider the usual U(1) gauge theory for the electromagnetism at classical level in order to obtain the broken continuity equation involving the spin current and spin-transfer torque. Inspired by the recent work of A. Vernes, B. L. Gyorffy and P. Weinberger where they obtain such an equation in terms of relativistic quantum mechanics, we formalize their result in terms of the well known currents of field theory such as the Bargmann-Wigner current and the chiral current. Thus, an interpretation of spintronics is provided in terms of Noether currents (conserved or not) and symmetries of the electromagnetism. In fact, the main result of the present work is that the non-conservation of the spin current is associated with the gauge invariance of physical observables where the breaking term is proportional to the chiral current. Moreover, we generalize their result by including the electromagnetic field as a dynamical field instead of an external one.
Gas safety roof gauging control hatch adapter
Overstreet, R.J.
1980-04-15
A gas safety control hatch is disclosed which is attached to the top of a crude oil storage or stock tank. The hatch has a lid which can be opened to enable the contents of the stock tank to be gauged. A liquid lock apparatus is provided between the interior of the hatch and the interior of the stock tank. The liquid lock comprises a downwardly extending conduit having one end opened into the hatch and the other end opened in proximity of the bottom of the stock tank so that liquid always covers the lower, marginal end of the conduit whenever any appreciable amount of crude is stored in the stock tank. Accordingly, when the lid of the hatch is opened, no obnoxious fumes from the vapor space within the tank can flow into the hatch; and accordingly, the tank can be safely gauged by running a sampling apparatus down through the conduit and into communication with the liquid phase of the tank contents.
Gauge and averaging in gravitational self-force
Gralla, Samuel E.
2011-10-15
A difficulty with previous treatments of the gravitational self-force is that an explicit formula for the force is available only in a particular gauge (Lorenz gauge), where the force in other gauges must be found through a transformation law once the Lorenz-gauge force is known. For a class of gauges satisfying a 'parity condition' ensuring that the Hamiltonian center of mass of the particle is well-defined, I show that the gravitational self-force is always given by the angle average of the bare gravitational force. To derive this result I replace the computational strategy of previous work with a new approach, wherein the form of the force is first fixed up to a gauge-invariant piece by simple manipulations, and then that piece is determined by working in a gauge designed specifically to simplify the computation. This offers significant computational savings over the Lorenz gauge, since the Hadamard expansion is avoided entirely and the metric perturbation takes a very simple form. I also show that the rest mass of the particle does not evolve due to first-order self-force effects. Finally, I consider the 'mode sum regularization' scheme for computing the self-force in black hole background spacetimes, and use the angle-average form of the force to show that the same mode-by-mode subtraction may be performed in all parity-regular gauges. It appears plausible that suitably modified versions of the Regge-Wheeler and radiation gauges (convenient to Schwarzschild and Kerr, respectively) are in this class.
SU{sub {ital q}}(2) lattice gauge theory
Bimonte, G.; Stern, A.; Vitale, P.
1996-07-01
We reformulate the Hamiltonian approach to lattice gauge theories such that, at the classical level, the gauge group does not act canonically, but instead as a Poisson-Lie group. At the quantum level, the symmetry gets promoted to a quantum group gauge symmetry. The theory depends on two parameters: the deformation parameter {lambda} and the lattice spacing {ital a}. We show that the system of Kogut and Susskind is recovered when {lambda}{r_arrow}0, while QCD is recovered in the continuum limit (for any {lambda}). We, thus, have the possibility of having a two-parameter regularization of QCD. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Sterile neutrino dark matter with gauged U(1){sub B-L} and a low reheating temperature
Khalil, Shaaban; Seto, Osamu
2009-04-17
Sterile right-handed neutrinos can be naturally embedded in a low scale gauged U(1){sub B-L} extension of the standard model. We show that, within a low reheating scenario, such a neutrino can be produced via a novel manner, namely scattering through Z' gauge boson, and becomes an interesting dark matter candidate. In addition, we show that if the neutrino mass is of the order of MeV, then it accounts for the measured dark matter relic density and also accommodates the observed flux of 511 keV photons from the galactic bulge.
Bounding gauged skyrmion masses (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect
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Bounding gauged skyrmion masses Citation Details In-Document ... OSTI Identifier: 1151557 Report Number(s): ANL-HEP-PR-04-89 DOE Contract Number: AC02-07CH11359 Resource Type: Journal ...
Gauge-invariant Green function dynamics: A unified approach
Swiecicki, Sylvia D. Sipe, J.E.
2013-11-15
We present a gauge-invariant description of Green function dynamics introduced by means of a generalized Peirels phase involving an arbitrary differentiable path in spacetime. Two other approaches to formulating a gauge-invariant description of systems, the Green function treatment of Levanda and Fleurov [M. Levanda, V. Fleurov, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 (1994) 7889] and the usual multipolar expansion for an atom, are shown to arise as special cases of our formalism. We argue that the consideration of paths in the generalized Peirels phase that do not lead to introduction of an effective gauge-invariant Hamiltonian with polarization and magnetization fields may prove useful for the treatment of the response of materials with short electron correlation lengths. -- Highlights: Peirels phase for an arbitrary path in spacetime established. Gauge-invariant Green functions and the PowerZienauWooley transformation connected. Limitations on possible polarization and magnetization fields established.
Large-N volume independence in conformal and confining gauge...
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In particular, this implies that a large N gauge theory which, on Rsup d, flows to an IR fixed point, retains the infinite correlation length and other scale invariant...
S-duality of nonsupersymmetric gauge theories (Journal Article...
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S-duality of nonsupersymmetric gauge theories Citation Details ... Publication Date: 2014-07-11 OSTI Identifier: 1140163 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15726 Journal ID: ISSN ...
Large field inflation models from higher-dimensional gauge theories
Furuuchi, Kazuyuki; Koyama, Yoji
2015-02-23
Motivated by the recent detection of B-mode polarization of CMB by BICEP2 which is possibly of primordial origin, we study large field inflation models which can be obtained from higher-dimensional gauge theories. The constraints from CMB observations on the gauge theory parameters are given, and their naturalness are discussed. Among the models analyzed, Danteās Inferno model turns out to be the most preferred model in this framework.
Vortex operators in gauge field theories
Polchinski, J.
1980-07-01
Several related aspects of the 't Hooft vortex operator are studied. The current picture of the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics, the idea of dual field theories, and the idea of the vortex operator are reviewed first. The Abelian vortex operator written in terms of elementary fields and the calculation of its Green's functions are considered. A two-dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string is presented. The expression of the Green's functions more neatly in terms of Wu and Yang's geometrical idea of sections is addressed. The renormalization of the Green's functions of two kinds of Abelian looplike operators, the Wilson loop and the vortex operator, is studied; for both operators only an overall multiplicative renormalization is needed. In the case of the vortex this involves a surprising cancellation. Next, the dependence of the Green's functions of the Wilson and 't Hooft operators on the nature of the vacuum is discussed. The cluster properties of the Green's functions are emphasized. It is seen that the vortex operator in a massive Abelian theory always has surface-like clustering. The form of Green's functions in terms of Feynman graphs is the same in Higgs and symmetric phases; the difference appears in the sum over all tadpole trees. Finally, systems having fields in the fundamental representation are considered. When these fields enter only weakly into the dynamics, a vortex-like operator is anticipated. Any such operator can no longer be local looplike, but must have commutators at long range. A U(1) lattice gauge theory with two matter fields, one singly charged (fundamental) and one doubly charged (adjoint), is examined. When the fundamental field is weakly coupled, the expected phase transitions are found. When it is strongly coupled, the operator still appears to be a good order parameter, a discontinuous change in its behavior leads to a new phase transition. 18 figures.
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magnetic fluctuation-induced particle flux "invited... a... W. X. Ding, D. L. Brower, and T. Y. Yates Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA ĶPresented 13 May 2008; received 12 May 2008; accepted 16 May 2008; published online 31 October 2008Ķ Magnetic field fluctuation-induced particle transport has been directly measured in the high-temperature core of the MST reversed field pinch plasma. Measurement of radial
Unification of gauge, family, and flavor symmetries illustrated in gauged SU(12) models
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.
2016-04-25
In this study, to explain quark and lepton masses and mixing angles, one has to extend the standard model, and the usual practice is to put the quarks and leptons into irreducible representations of discrete groups. We argue that discrete flavor symmetries (and their concomitant problems) can be avoided if we extend the gauge group. In the framework of SU(12) we give explicit examples of models having varying degrees of predictability obtained by scanning over groups and representations and identifying cases with operators contributing to mass and mixing matrices that need little fine- tuning of prefactors. Fitting with quark andmoreĀ Ā» lepton masses run to the GUT scale and known mixing angles allows us to make predictions for the neutrino masses and hierarchy, the octant of the atmospheric mixing angle, leptonic CP violation, Majorana phases, and the effective mass observed in neutrinoless double beta decay.Ā«Ā less
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, DĆ©nes
2014-07-28
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of YangāMills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, DĆ©nes
2014-07-28
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixedmoreĀ Ā» point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of YangāMills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.Ā«Ā less
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Neutrino Induced, Charged Current, Charged Pion Production by Michael Joseph Wilking B.Ch.E., University of Minnesota, 2001 M.S., University of Colorado, 2007 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Physics 2009 This thesis entitled: Measurement of Neutrino Induced, Charged Current, Charged Pion Production written by Michael Joseph Wilking has been
New ways to leptogenesis with gauged B-L symmetry
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Babu, K.S.; Meng, Yanzhi; Tavartkiladze, Zurab
2009-10-01
We show that in supersymmetric models with gauged B-L symmetry, there is a new source for cosmological lepton asymmetry. The Higgs bosons responsible for B-L gauge symmetry breaking decay dominantly into right-handed sneutrinos N~ and N~* producing an asymmetry in N~ over N~*. This can be fully converted into ordinary lepton asymmetry in the decays of N~. In simple models with gauged B-L symmetry we show that resonant/soft leptogenesis is naturally realized. Supersymmetry guarantees quasi-degenerate scalar states, while soft breaking of SUSY provides the needed CP violation. Acceptable values of baryon asymmetry are obtained without causing serious problems with gravitinomoreĀ Ā» abundance.Ā«Ā less
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core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch * D. J. Den Hartog, ā ,a) J. T. Chapman, b) D. Craig, G. Fiksel, P. W. Fontana, S. C. Prager, and J. S. Sarff Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ĶReceived 16 November 1998; accepted 20 January 1999Ķ Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high-temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus ĶMSTĶ
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1 H( 7 Be, 8 B)Ī³ cross section by Ryan P. Fitzgerald A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Physics & Astronomy. Chapel Hill 2005 Approved: A. E. Champagne, Advisor J. C. Blackmon, Reader C. Iliadis, Reader ABSTRACT Ryan P. Fitzgerald: Measurement of the 1 H( 7 Be, 8 B)Ī³ cross section (Under the Direction of A. E. Champagne) The fusion
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interpretation of micro benchmark and application energy use on the Cray XC30 Brian Austin, and Nicholas J. Wright ā¤ August 29, 2014 Abstract Understanding patterns of application energy use is key to reaching future HPC e ciency goals. We have measured the sensitivity of en- ergy use to CPU frequency for several microbenchmarks and applications on a Cray XC30. First order fits to the performance and power data are su cient to describe the energy used by these applications. Exam- ination of
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Electronegative Contaminants and Drift Electron Lifetime in the MicroBooNE Experiment The MicroBooNE Collaboration May 19, 2016 Abstract High-purity liquid argon is critical for the operation of a liquid argon time projec- tion chamber (LArTPC). At MicroBooNE, we have achieved an electron drift lifetime of at least 6 ms without evacuation of the detector vessel. Measurements of the elec- tronegative contaminants oxygen and water are described and shown as the gas and liquid argon stages of
Unified spin gauge model and the top quark mass
Chisholm, J.S.R.; Farwell, R.S.
1995-10-01
Spin gauge models use a real Clifford algebraic structure R{sub p,q} associated with a real manifold of dimension p + q to describe the fundamental interactions of elementary particles. This review provides a comparison between those models and the standard model, indicating their similarities and differences. By contrast with the standard model, the spin gauge model based on R{sub 3,8} generates intermediate boson mass terms without the need to use the Higgs-Kibble mechanism and produces a precise prediction for the mass of the top quark. The potential of this model to account for exactly three families of fermions is considered.
Gauge theories on hyperbolic spaces and dual wormhole instabilities
Buchel, Alex
2004-09-15
We study supergravity duals of strongly coupled four-dimensional gauge theories formulated on compact quotients of hyperbolic spaces. The resulting background geometries are represented by Euclidean wormholes, which complicate establishing the precise gauge theory/string theory correspondence dictionary. These backgrounds suffer from the nonperturbative instabilities arising from the D3D3-bar pair-production in the background four-form potential. We discuss conditions for suppressing this Schwingerlike instability. We find that Euclidean wormholes arising in this construction develop a naked singularity before they can be stabilized.
Muon g-2 Anomaly and Dark Leptonic Gauge Boson
Lee, Hye-Sung
2014-11-01
One of the major motivations to search for a dark gauge boson of MeV-GeV scale is the long-standing muon g-2 anomaly. Because of active searches such as fixed target experiments and rare meson decays, the muon g-2 favored parameter region has been rapidly reduced. With the most recent data, it is practically excluded now in the popular dark photon model. We overview the issue and investigate a potentially alternative model based on the gauged lepton number or U(1)_L, which is under different experimental constraints.
Observational constraints on gauge field production in axion inflation
Meerburg, P.D.; Pajer, E. E-mail: enrico.pajer@gmail.com
2013-02-01
Models of axion inflation are particularly interesting since they provide a natural justification for the flatness of the potential over a super-Planckian distance, namely the approximate shift-symmetry of the inflaton. In addition, most of the observational consequences are directly related to this symmetry and hence are correlated. Large tensor modes can be accompanied by the observable effects of a the shift-symmetric coupling ĻF F-tilde to a gauge field. During inflation this coupling leads to a copious production of gauge quanta and consequently a very distinct modification of the primordial curvature perturbations. In this work we compare these predictions with observations. We find that the leading constraint on the model comes from the CMB power spectrum when considering both WMAP 7-year and ACT data. The bispectrum generated by the non-Gaussian inverse-decay of the gauge field leads to a comparable but slightly weaker constraint. There is also a constraint from Ī¼-distortion using TRIS plus COBE/FIRAS data, but it is much weaker. Finally we comment on a generalization of the model to massive gauge fields. When the mass is generated by some light Higgs field, observably large local non-Gaussianity can be produced.
Coulomb gauge approach for charmonium meson and hybrid radiative transitions
Gou, Peng; Yepez-MartĆnez, Tochtli; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-01-22
We consider the lowest order interaction of the Foldy-Wouthuysen QED and QCD Hamiltonian in the Coulomb gauge approach, to describe radiative transitions between conventional and hybrids charmonium mesons. The results are compared to potential quark models and lattices calculations.
Symplectic quantum mechanics and Chern-Simons gauge theory. I
Jeffrey, Lisa C.
2013-05-15
In this article we describe the relation between the Chern-Simons gauge theory partition function and the partition function defined using the symplectic action functional as the Lagrangian. We show that the partition functions obtained using these two Lagrangians agree, and we identify the semiclassical formula for the partition function defined using the symplectic action functional.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; et al
2015-07-16
Here we report evidence of triple gauge boson production ppāW(āĪ½)Ī³Ī³+X, which is accessible for the first time with the 8 TeV LHC data set. The fiducial cross section for this process is measured in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fbā1, collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012. Events are selected using the W boson decay to eĪ½ or Ī¼Ī½ as well as requiring two isolated photons. The measured cross section is used to set limits on anomalous quartic gauge couplings in the high diphoton mass region.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O.āS.; Abramowicz, H.; et al
2015-07-16
This Letter reports evidence of triple gauge boson production pp ā W (lĪ½)Ī³Ī³ + X, which is accessible for the first time with the 8 TeV LHC data set. The fiducial cross section for this process is measured in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1, collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012. Events are selected using the W boson decay to eĪ½ or Ī¼Ī½ as well as requiring two isolated photons. The measured cross section is used to set limits on anomalous quartic gauge couplings in the high diphoton mass region.
Non-Abelian S U ( 2 ) gauge fields through density wave order...
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Non-Abelian S U ( 2 ) gauge fields through density wave order and strain in graphene Title: Non-Abelian S U ( 2 ) gauge fields through density wave order and strain in graphene ...
Lyapunov exponent and plasmon damping rate in non-Abelian gauge theories
Biro, T.S.; Gong, C.; Mueller, B.
1995-07-15
We explain why the maximal positive Lyapunov exponent of classical SU({ital N}) gauge theory coincides with (twice) the damping rate of a plasmon at rest in the leading order of thermal gauge theory.
Ruby and Sm:YAG fluorescence pressure gauges up to 120 GPa and...
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Ruby and Sm:YAG fluorescence pressure gauges up to 120 GPa and 700 K Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ruby and Sm:YAG fluorescence pressure gauges up to 120 GPa and 700 K ...
Multi-Higgs doublet models with local U(1){sub H} gauge symmetry...
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with local U(1)sub H gauge symmetry and neutrino physics therein Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multi-Higgs doublet models with local U(1)sub H gauge symmetry and ...
Non-AbelianSU(2)gauge fields through density wave order and strain...
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Non-AbelianSU(2)gauge fields through density wave order and strain in graphene Prev Next Title: Non-AbelianSU(2)gauge fields through density wave order and strain in graphene...
Han, Yong-Chang; Madsen, Lars Bojer
2010-06-15
We solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for atomic hydrogen in an intense field using spherical coordinates with a radial grid and a spherical harmonic basis for the angular part. We present the high-order harmonic spectra based on three different forms, the dipole, dipole velocity, and acceleration forms, and two gauges, the length and velocity gauges. The relationships among the harmonic phases obtained from the Fourier transform of the three forms are discussed in detail. Although quantum mechanics is gauge invariant and the length and velocity gauges should give identical results, the two gauges present different computation efficiencies, which reflects the different behavior in terms of characteristics of the physical couplings acting in the two gauges. In order to obtain convergence, more angular momentum states are required in the length gauge, while more grid points are required in the velocity gauge. At lower laser intensity, the calculation in the length gauge is faster than that in the velocity gauge, while at high laser intensity, the calculation in the velocity gauge is more efficient. The velocity gauge is also expected to be more efficient in higher-dimensional calculations.
Placement accuracy gauge for electrical components and method of using same
Biggs, P.M.; Dancer, L.K.; Yerganian, S.S.
1987-11-12
Surface mounted electrical components are typically assembled on printed wiring board by automatic machines. It is important that the machines accurately move with respect to both X and Y rotational axes in order to insure that components are positioned precisely on connector pads of the printed wiring board being assembled. In accordance with the instant invention, a gauge is used to facilitate convenient accuracy checks. The gauge is a glass substrate on which grids of 0.005 inch lines are scribed to form location and orientation fields where components are to be placed. The grids are referenced from ether fiducial marks or the edge of the substrate to establish known positions within the grids. The equipment to be evaluated is programmed to place components in known positions and the components are held in place by tacky adhesive that is sprayed on the substrate prior to placing the components. The accuracy of the component position is then compared to the programmed position by placing the substrate on a light table and observing the component location. If a significant inaccuracy with respect to any of the axes exists, the inaccuracy is apparent because the component is not aligned properly with the grid. If a precise measurement of an axis inaccuracy is desired, a measuring microscope may be utilized. 6 figs.
Placement accuracy gauge for electrical components and method of using same
Biggs, Peter M.; Dancer, Linda K.; Yerganian, Simon S.
1988-10-11
Surface mounted electrical components are typically assembled on printed wiring boards by automatic machines. It is important that the machines accurately move with respect to both X and Y rotational axes in order to insure that components are positioned precisely on connector pads of the printed wiring board being assembled. In accordance with the instant invention, a gauge is used to facilitate convenient accuracy checks. The gauge is a glass substrate on which grids of 0.005 inch lines are scribed to form location and orientation fields where components are to be placed. The grids are referenced from either fiducial marks or the edge of the substrate to establish known positions within the grids. The equipment to be evaluated is programmed to place components in known positions and the components are held in place by tacky adhesive that is sprayed on the substrate prior to placing the components. The accuracy of the component position is then compared to the programmed position by placing the substrate on a light table and observing the component location. If a significant inaccuracy with respect to any of the axes exists, the inaccuracy is apparent because the component is not aligned properly with the grid. If a precise measurement of an axis inaccuracy is desired, a measuring microscope may be utilized.
Cartan gravity, matter fields, and the gauge principle
Westman, Hans F.; Zlosnik, Tom G.
2013-07-15
Gravity is commonly thought of as one of the four force fields in nature. However, in standard formulations its mathematical structure is rather different from the YangMills fields of particle physics that govern the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. This paper explores this dissonance with particular focus on how gravity couples to matter from the perspective of the Cartan-geometric formulation of gravity. There the gravitational field is represented by a pair of variables: (1) a contact vector V{sup A} which is geometrically visualized as the contact point between the spacetime manifold and a model spacetime being rolled on top of it, and (2) a gauge connection A{sub ?}{sup AB}, here taken to be valued in the Lie algebra of SO(2,3) or SO(1,4), which mathematically determines how much the model spacetime is rotated when rolled. By insisting on two principles, the gauge principle and polynomial simplicity, we shall show how one can reformulate matter field actions in a way that is harmonious with Cartans geometric construction. This yields a formulation of all matter fields in terms of first order partial differential equations. We show in detail how the standard second order formulation can be recovered. In particular, the Hodge dual, which characterizes the structure of bosonic field equations, pops up automatically. Furthermore, the energymomentum and spin-density three-forms are naturally combined into a single object here denoted the spin-energymomentum three-form. Finally, we highlight a peculiarity in the mathematical structure of our first-order formulation of YangMills fields. This suggests a way to unify a U(1) gauge field with gravity into a SO(1,5)-valued gauge field using a natural generalization of Cartan geometry in which the larger symmetry group is spontaneously broken down to SO(1,3)×U(1). The coupling of this unified theory to matter fields and possible extensions to non-Abelian gauge fields are left as open questions
MAS 10.2 Control of Measuring and Test Equipment, 3/9/95
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
The objective of this surveillance is to verify that the contractor maintains adequate control of tools, gauges, instruments, devices or systems used to inspect, test, calibrate, measure or...
Phases of N=1 Supersymmetric Chiral Gauge Theories
Craig, Nathaniel; Essig, Rouven; Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2012-02-17
We analyze the phases of supersymmetric chiral gauge theories with an antisymmetric tensor and (anti)fundamental flavors, in the presence of a classically marginal superpotential deformation. Varying the number of flavors that appear in the superpotential reveals rich infrared chiral dynamics and novel dualities. The dualities are characterized by an infinite family of magnetic duals with arbitrarily large gauge groups describing the same fixed point, correlated with arbitrarily large classical global symmetries that are truncated nonperturbatively. At the origin of moduli space, these theories exhibit a phase with confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, an interacting nonabelian Coulomb phase, and phases where an interacting sector coexists with a sector that either s-confines or is in a free magnetic phase. Properties of these intriguing 'mixed phases' are studied in detail using duality and a-maximization, and the presence of superpotential interactions provides further insights into their formation.
N >= 4 Supergravity Amplitudes from Gauge Theory at Two Loops
Boucher-Veronneau, C.; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC
2012-02-15
We present the full two-loop four-graviton amplitudes in N = 4, 5, 6 supergravity. These results were obtained using the double-copy structure of gravity, which follows from the recently conjectured color-kinematics duality in gauge theory. The two-loop four-gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 0, 1, 2 supersymmetric gauge theory are a second essential ingredient. The gravity amplitudes have the expected infrared behavior: the two-loop divergences are given in terms of the squares of the corresponding one-loop amplitudes. The finite remainders are presented in a compact form. The finite remainder for N = 8 supergravity is also presented, in a form that utilizes a pure function with a very simple symbol.
Two-dimensional lattice gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits
Marcos, D.; Widmer, P.; Rico, E.; Hafezi, M.; Rabl, P.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.
2014-12-15
A quantum simulator of U(1) lattice gauge theories can be implemented with superconducting circuits. This allows the investigation of confined and deconfined phases in quantum link models, and of valence bond solid and spin liquid phases in quantum dimer models. Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well. Here we show how state-of-the-art superconducting technology allows us to simulate these phenomena in relatively small circuit lattices. By exploiting the strong non-linear couplings between quantized excitations emerging when superconducting qubits are coupled, we show how to engineer gauge invariant Hamiltonians, including ring-exchange and four-body Ising interactions. We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories. The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability.
Automatic ball bar for a coordinate measuring machine
Jostlein, H.
1997-07-15
An automatic ball bar for a coordinate measuring machine determines the accuracy of a coordinate measuring machine having at least one servo drive. The apparatus comprises a first and second gauge ball connected by a telescoping rigid member. The rigid member includes a switch such that inward radial movement of the second gauge ball relative to the first gauge ball causes activation of the switch. The first gauge ball is secured in a first magnetic socket assembly in order to maintain the first gauge ball at a fixed location with respect to the coordinate measuring machine. A second magnetic socket assembly secures the second gauge ball to the arm or probe holder of the coordinate measuring machine. The second gauge ball is then directed by the coordinate measuring machine to move radially inward from a point just beyond the length of the ball bar until the switch is activated. Upon switch activation, the position of the coordinate measuring machine is determined and compared to known ball bar length such that the accuracy of the coordinate measuring machine can be determined. 5 figs.
Automatic ball bar for a coordinate measuring machine
Jostlein, Hans
1997-01-01
An automatic ball bar for a coordinate measuring machine determines the accuracy of a coordinate measuring machine having at least one servo drive. The apparatus comprises a first and second gauge ball connected by a telescoping rigid member. The rigid member includes a switch such that inward radial movement of the second gauge ball relative to the first gauge ball causes activation of the switch. The first gauge ball is secured in a first magnetic socket assembly in order to maintain the first gauge ball at a fixed location with respect to the coordinate measuring machine. A second magnetic socket assembly secures the second gauge ball to the arm or probe holder of the coordinate measuring machine. The second gauge ball is then directed by the coordinate measuring machine to move radially inward from a point just beyond the length of the ball bar until the switch is activated. Upon switch activation, the position of the coordinate measuring machine is determined and compared to known ball bar length such that the accuracy of the coordinate measuring machine can be determined.
Integral equation for gauge invariant quark Green's function
Sazdjian, H.
2008-08-29
We consider gauge invariant quark two-point Green's functions in which the gluonic phase factor follows a skew-polygonal line. Using a particular representation for the quark propagator in the presence of an external gluon field, functional relations between Green's functions with different numbers of segments of the polygonal lines are established. An integral equation is obtained for the Green's function having a phase factor along a single straight line. The related kernels involve Wilson loops with skew-polygonal contours and with functional derivatives along the sides of the contours.
Lattice Gauge Theory and the Origin of Mass
Kronfeld, Andreas S.
2013-08-01
Most of the mass of everyday objects resides in atomic nuclei/ the total of the electrons' mass adds up to less than one part in a thousand. The nuclei are composed of nucleons---protons and neutrons---whose nuclear binding energy, though tremendous on a human scale, is small compared to their rest energy. The nucleons are, in turn, composites of massless gluons and nearly massless quarks. It is the energy of these confined objects, via $M=E/c^2$, that is responsible for everyday mass. This article discusses the physics of this mechanism and the role of lattice gauge theory in establishing its connection to quantum chromodynamics.
PDF uncertainties at large x and gauge boson production
Accardi, Alberto
2012-10-01
I discuss how global QCD fits of parton distribution functions can make the somewhat separated fields of high-energy particle physics and lower energy hadronic and nuclear physics interact to the benefit of both. In particular, I will argue that large rapidity gauge boson production at the Tevatron and the LHC has the highest short-term potential to constrain the theoretical nuclear corrections to DIS data on deuteron targets necessary for up/down flavor separation. This in turn can considerably reduce the PDF uncertainty on cross section calculations of heavy mass particles such as W' and Z' bosons.
Scattering of composite particles in a gauge theory with confinement
Briere, J.F.; Kroger, H. )
1989-08-21
In order to model positronium-positronium scattering in QED or meson-meson scattering in QCD, we consider QED{sub 1+1}, which is a gauge theory and confines single fermions. We present first numerical results of a lattice calculation on scattering of two composite particles. The composite particles are taken as neutral, fermion-antifermion, lowest-mass eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. We use the light-cone momentum representation on a lattice and employ a nonperturbative time-dependent method to compute the {ital S} matrix.
Dismantling of Radium-226 Coal Level Gauges: Encountered Problems and How to Solve
Punnachaiya, M.; Nuanjan, P.; Moombansao, K.; Sawangsri, T.; Pruantonsai, P.; Srichom, K.
2006-07-01
previously a leakage on inner source housing. Thus, during manufacturing the filled-lead for shielding passed through this small hole and fixed the deformed spring together with the source. The circular surface of inner hole was measured and slowly drilled at a diameter 2.2 cm behind shielding, till the spring and the fixed lead sheet were cut, therefore the source could be finally hammered out. The surface dose rate of coal level gauges before weld cutting was 10-15 mR/hr and the highest dose rate at the position of the weld cutter was 2.5 mR/hr. The total time for each weld cutting and automatic sawing was 2-3 minutes and 1 minute, respectively. The source was individually and safely transferred to store in lead safe box using a 1-meter length tong and a light container with 1 meter length handle. The total time for Ra-226 (70 pieces) dismantling, including the encountered problems and their troubles shooting took 4 days operation in which the total dose obtained by 18 operators were ranged from 1-38 {mu}Sv. The dismantling team safely completed the activities within the effective dose limit for occupational exposure of 20 mSv/year (80 {mu}Sv/day). (authors)
Robustness of fractional quantum Hall states with dipolar atoms in artificial gauge fields
Grass, T.; Baranov, M. A.; Lewenstein, M.
2011-10-15
The robustness of fractional quantum Hall states is measured as the energy gap separating the Laughlin ground state from excitations. Using thermodynamic approximations for the correlation functions of the Laughlin state and the quasihole state, we evaluate the gap in a two-dimensional system of dipolar atoms exposed to an artificial gauge field. For Abelian fields, our results agree well with the results of exact diagonalization for small systems but indicate that the large value of the gap predicted [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 070404 (2005)] was overestimated. However, we are able to show that the small gap found in the Abelian scenario dramatically increases if we turn to non-Abelian fields squeezing the Landau levels.
High vacuum measurements and calibrations, molecular flow fluidĀ transient effects
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Leishear, Robert A.; Gavalas, Nickolas A.
2015-04-29
High vacuum pressure measurements and calibrations below 1 Ć 10-8 Torr are problematic. Specifically, measurement accuracies change drastically for vacuum gauges when pressures are suddenly lowered in vacuum systems. How can gauges perform like this? A brief system description is first required to answer this question. Calibrations were performed using a vacuum calibration chamber with attached vacuum gauges. To control chamber pressures, vacuum pumps decreased the chamber pressure while nitrogen tanks increased the chamber pressure. By balancing these opposing pressures, equilibrium in the chamber was maintained at selected set point pressures to perform calibrations. When pressures were suddenly decreased duringmoreĀ Ā» set point adjustments, a sudden rush of gas from the chamber also caused a surge of gas from the gauges to decrease the pressures in those gauges. Gauge pressures did not return to equilibrium as fast as chamber pressures due to the sparse distribution of gas molecules in the system. This disparity in the rate of pressure changes caused the pressures in different gauges to be different than expected. This discovery was experimentally proven to show that different gauge designs return to equilibrium at different rates, and that gauge accuracies vary for different gauge designs due to fluid transients in molecular flow.Ā«Ā less
High vacuum measurements and calibrations, molecular flow fluidĀ transient effects
Leishear, Robert A.; Gavalas, Nickolas A.
2015-04-29
High vacuum pressure measurements and calibrations below 1 Ć 10^{-8} Torr are problematic. Specifically, measurement accuracies change drastically for vacuum gauges when pressures are suddenly lowered in vacuum systems. How can gauges perform like this? A brief system description is first required to answer this question. Calibrations were performed using a vacuum calibration chamber with attached vacuum gauges. To control chamber pressures, vacuum pumps decreased the chamber pressure while nitrogen tanks increased the chamber pressure. By balancing these opposing pressures, equilibrium in the chamber was maintained at selected set point pressures to perform calibrations. When pressures were suddenly decreased during set point adjustments, a sudden rush of gas from the chamber also caused a surge of gas from the gauges to decrease the pressures in those gauges. Gauge pressures did not return to equilibrium as fast as chamber pressures due to the sparse distribution of gas molecules in the system. This disparity in the rate of pressure changes caused the pressures in different gauges to be different than expected. This discovery was experimentally proven to show that different gauge designs return to equilibrium at different rates, and that gauge accuracies vary for different gauge designs due to fluid transients in molecular flow.
High vacuum measurements and calibrations, molecular flow fluid transient effects
Leishear, Robert A.; Gavalas, Nickolas A.
2015-04-29
High vacuum pressure measurements and calibrations below 1 × 10^{-8} Torr are problematic. Specifically, measurement accuracies change drastically for vacuum gauges when pressures are suddenly lowered in vacuum systems. How can gauges perform like this? A brief system description is first required to answer this question. Calibrations were performed using a vacuum calibration chamber with attached vacuum gauges. To control chamber pressures, vacuum pumps decreased the chamber pressure while nitrogen tanks increased the chamber pressure. By balancing these opposing pressures, equilibrium in the chamber was maintained at selected set point pressures to perform calibrations. When pressures were suddenly decreased during set point adjustments, a sudden rush of gas from the chamber also caused a surge of gas from the gauges to decrease the pressures in those gauges. Gauge pressures did not return to equilibrium as fast as chamber pressures due to the sparse distribution of gas molecules in the system. This disparity in the rate of pressure changes caused the pressures in different gauges to be different than expected. This discovery was experimentally proven to show that different gauge designs return to equilibrium at different rates, and that gauge accuracies vary for different gauge designs due to fluid transients in molecular flow.
Lectures on the gauge/string duality with emphasis on spectroscopy
Mateos, David
2010-11-12
I review recent progress on the connection between string theory and quantum chromo-dynamics in the context of the gauge/string duality. Emphasis is placed on conciseness and conceptual aspects rather than on technical details. Topics covered include the large-N{sub c} limit of gauge theories, the gravitational description of gauge theory thermodynamics and hydrodynamics, and the physics of quarks and mesons in the quark-gluon plasma.
Topological fermionic string representation for Chern-Simons non-Abelian gauge theories
Botelho, L.C.L. )
1990-05-15
We show that loop wave equations in non-Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theory are exactly solved by a conformally invariant topological fermionic string theory.
National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory SciDAC-2 Closeout Report
Mackenzie, Paul; Brower, Richard; Karsch, Frithjof; Christ, Norman; Gottlieb, Steven; Negele, John; Richards, David; Toussaint, Doug; Sugar, Robert; DeTar, Carleton; Sharpe, Stephen; DiPierro, Massimo; Sun, Xian-He; Fowler, Rob; Dubey, Abhishek
2013-07-19
Under its SciDAC-1 and SciDAC-2 grants, the USQCD Collaboration developed software and algorithmic infrastructure for the numerical study of lattice gauge theories.
The energy-momentum tensor(s) in classical gauge theories
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Gieres, Francois; Blaschke, Daniel N.; Reboud, Meril; Schweda, Manfred
2016-07-12
We give an introduction to, and review of, the energyāmomentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved spaceātime. For the canonical energyāmomentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energyāmomentum tensor. Here, the relationship with the EinsteināHilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.
Quark masses, the Dashen phase, and gauge field topology
Creutz, Michael
2013-12-15
The CP violating Dashen phase in QCD is predicted by chiral perturbation theory to occur when the upādown quark mass difference becomes sufficiently large at fixed down-quark mass. Before reaching this phase, all physical hadronic masses and scattering amplitudes are expected to behave smoothly with the up-quark mass, even as this mass passes through zero. In Euclidean space, the topological susceptibility of the gauge fields is positive at positive quark masses but diverges to negative infinity as the Dashen phase is approached. A zero in this susceptibility provides a tentative signal for the point where the mass of the up quark vanishes. I discuss potential ambiguities with this determination. -- Highlights: ā¢The CP violating Dashen phase in QCD occurs when the up quark mass becomes sufficiently negative. ā¢Before reaching this phase, all physical hadronic masses and scattering amplitudes behave smoothly with the up-quark mass. ā¢The topological susceptibility of the gauge fields diverges to negative infinity as the Dashen phase is approached. ā¢A zero in the topological susceptibility provides a tentative signal for the point where the mass of the up quark vanishes. ā¢The universality of this definition remains unproven. Potential ambiguities are discussed.
A new approach to analytic, non-perturbative and gauge-invariant QCD
Fried, H.M.; Grandou, T.; Sheu, Y.-M.
2012-11-15
Following a previous calculation of quark scattering in eikonal approximation, this paper presents a new, analytic and rigorous approach to the calculation of QCD phenomena. In this formulation a basic distinction between the conventional 'idealistic' description of QCD and a more 'realistic' description is brought into focus by a non-perturbative, gauge-invariant evaluation of the Schwinger solution for the QCD generating functional in terms of the exact Fradkin representations of Green's functional G{sub c}(x,y|A) and the vacuum functional L[A]. Because quarks exist asymptotically only in bound states, their transverse coordinates can never be measured with arbitrary precision; the non-perturbative neglect of this statement leads to obstructions that are easily corrected by invoking in the basic Lagrangian a probability amplitude which describes such transverse imprecision. The second result of this non-perturbative analysis is the appearance of a new and simplifying output called 'Effective Locality', in which the interactions between quarks by the exchange of a 'gluon bundle'-which 'bundle' contains an infinite number of gluons, including cubic and quartic gluon interactions-display an exact locality property that reduces the several functional integrals of the formulation down to a set of ordinary integrals. It should be emphasized that 'non-perturbative' here refers to the effective summation of all gluons between a pair of quark lines-which may be the same quark line, as in a self-energy graph-but does not (yet) include a summation over all closed-quark loops which are tied by gluon-bundle exchange to the rest of the 'Bundle Diagram'. As an example of the power of these methods we offer as a first analytic calculation the quark-antiquark binding potential of a pion, and the corresponding three-quark binding potential of a nucleon, obtained in a simple way from relevant eikonal scattering approximations. A second calculation, analytic, non-perturbative and
Probing new gauge-boson couplings via three-body decays
Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G. )
1993-06-01
We examine the possibility of using rare, three-body decays of a new neutral gauge boson [ital Z][sub 2] to probe its gauge couplings at hadron colliders. Specifically, we study the decays [ital Z][sub 2][r arrow][ital Wl][nu] and [ital Z][sub 2][r arrow][ital Z][nu][bar [nu
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
None
2011-10-06
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher
Electroweak measurements at the Tevatron
Garcia, Jose E.; /INFN, Pisa
2006-06-01
Recent Electroweak measurements by the CDF and D0 collaborations in p{bar p} collisions {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are presented here. Measurements of W, Z and diboson production cross sections as well as W asymmetry using integrated luminosities up to 800 pb{sup -1} are reviewed. Limits on triple gauge anomalous couplings on diboson production are discussed elsewhere.
On the gauge features of gravity on a Lie algebroid structure
Fabi, S. Harms, B. Hou, S.
2014-03-15
We present the geometric formulation of gravity based on the mathematical structure of a Lie Algebroid. We show that this framework provides the geometrical setting to describe the gauge propriety of gravity.
Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- EnergyGauge Summit version 3.11
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Provides required documentation that EnergyGauge Summit version 3.11 meets Internal Revenue Code Ā§179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.
Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- EnergyGauge Summit version 3.13
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Provides required documentation that EnergyGauge Summit version 3.13 meets Internal Revenue Code Ā§179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.
Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- EnergyGauge Summit version 3.14
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Provides required documentation that EnergyGauge Summit version 3.14 meets Internal Revenue Code Ā§179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.
Chaos, scaling and existence of a continuum limit in classical non-Abelian lattice gauge theory
Nielsen, H.B.; Rugh, H.H.; Rugh, S.E.
1996-12-31
We discuss space-time chaos and scaling properties for classical non-Abelian gauge fields discretized on a spatial lattice. We emphasize that there is a {open_quote}no go{close_quotes} for simulating the original continuum classical gauge fields over a long time span since there is a never ending dynamical cascading towards the ultraviolet. We note that the temporal chaotic properties of the original continuum gauge fields and the lattice gauge system have entirely different scaling properties thereby emphasizing that they are entirely different dynamical systems which have only very little in common. Considered as a statistical system in its own right the lattice gauge system in a situation where it has reached equilibrium comes closest to what could be termed a {open_quotes}continuum limit{close_quotes} in the limit of very small energies (weak non-linearities). We discuss the lattice system both in the limit for small energies and in the limit of high energies where we show that there is a saturation of the temporal chaos as a pure lattice artifact. Our discussion focuses not only on the temporal correlations but to a large extent also on the spatial correlations in the lattice system. We argue that various conclusions of physics have been based on monitoring the non-Abelian lattice system in regimes where the fields are correlated over few lattice units only. This is further evidenced by comparison with results for Abelian lattice gauge theory. How the real time simulations of the classical lattice gauge theory may reach contact with the real time evolution of (semi-classical aspects of) the quantum gauge theory (e.g. Q.C.D.) is left an important question to be further examined.
A search for a new gauge boson A'
Jensen, Eric L.
2013-08-01
In the Standard Model, gauge bosons mediate the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces. New forces could have escaped detection only if their mediators are either heavier than order(TeV) or weakly coupled to charged matter. New vector bosons with small coupling {alpha}' arise naturally from a small kinetic mixing with the photon and have received considerable attention as an explanation of various dark matter related anomalies. Such particles can be produced in electron-nucleus fixed-target scattering and then decay to e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs. New light vector bosons and their associated forces are a common feature of Standard Model extensions, but existing constraints are remarkably sparse. The APEX experiment will search for a new vector boson A' with coupling {alpha}'/{alpha}{sub fs} > 6 Ć 10{sup -8} to electrons in the mass range 65MeV < mass A' < 550MeV. The experiment will study e{sup +}e{sup -} production off an electron beam incident on a high-Z target in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The e{sup -} and e{sup +} will be detected in the High Resolution Spectrometers (HRSs). The invariant mass spectrum of the e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs will be scanned for a narrow resonance corresponding to the mass of the A'. A test run for the APEX experiment was held in the summer of 2010. Using the test run data, an A' search was performed in the mass range 175-250 MeV. The search found no evidence for an A' --> e{sup +}e{sup -} reaction, and set an upper limit of {alpha}'/{alpha}{sub fs} ~ 10{sup -6}.
Hydrogen atom excitation in intense attosecond laser field: Gauge dependence of dipole approximation
Aldarmaa, Ch. E-mail: l-xemee@yahoo.com; Khenmedekh, L. E-mail: l-xemee@yahoo.com; Lkhagva, O.
2014-03-24
It is assumed that, the atomic excitations probability can be calculated using first order perturbation theory and dipole approximations. The validity of the dipole approximations had been examined by comparing the results with the results obtained by exact calculations within the first order perturbation theory[2]. Figure 1 shows the time dependence of the transition probability in the dipole approximation. From these plots it is obvious that, the probabilities obtained in the length gauge are higher than that in the velocity gauge, in the interaction period (??/2
Not Available
1986-03-14
A rigorous proof is given on the isomorphism between gauge groups before and after renormalization, in the presence of Abel subgroups and Higgs fields.
Fiber-optic strain gauge with attached ends and unattached microbend section
Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)
1992-01-01
A strain gauge is made of an optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. The permanent microbends cause a reduction in the fiber's optical transmission, but, when the gauge is attached to a substrate that is subsequently strained, the amplitude of the deformations will diminish and the optical transmission through the fiber will increase. An apparatus and process for manufacturing these microbends into the optical fiber through a heat-set process is employed; this apparatus and process includes a testing and calibration system.
Fiber-optic strain gauge with attached ends and unattached microbend section
Weiss, J.D.
1992-07-21
A strain gauge is made of an optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. The permanent microbends cause a reduction in the fiber's optical transmission, but, when the gauge is attached to a substrate that is subsequently strained, the amplitude of the deformations will diminish and the optical transmission through the fiber will increase. An apparatus and process for manufacturing these microbends into the optical fiber through a heat-set process is employed; this apparatus and process includes a testing and calibration system. 5 figs.
Effective field theory for a heavy Higgs boson: A manifestly gauge-invariant approach
Nyffeler, A.; Schenk, A.
1996-02-01
For large values of the Higgs boson mass the low energy structure of the gauged linear {sigma} model in the spontaneously broken phase can adequately be described by an effective field theory. In this work we present a manifestly gauge-invariant technique to explicitly evaluate the corresponding effective Langrangian from the underlying theory. In order to demonstrate the application of this functional method, the effective field theory of the Abelian Higgs model is thoroughly analyzed. We stress that this technique does not rely on any particular property of the Abelian case. The application to the non-Abelian theory is outlined. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Gauged B-xiL origin of R parity and its implications
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Lee, Hye-Sung; Ma, Ernest
2010-05-01
Gauged B-L is a popular candidate for the origin of the conservation of R parity, i.e.R=(-)3B+L+2j, in supersymmetry, but it fails to forbid the effective dimension-five terms arising from the superfield combinations QQQL, ucucdcec, and ucdcdcNc, which allow the proton to decay. Changing it to B-xiL, where xe+xĪ¼+xĻ=3 (with xiā 1) for the three families, would forbid these terms while still serving as a gauge origin of Rparity. We show how this is achieved in two minimal models with realistic neutrino mass matrices, and discuss their phenomenological implications.
Eddy current gauge for monitoring displacement using printed circuit coil
Visioli, Jr., Armando J.
1977-01-01
A proximity detection system for non-contact displacement and proximity measurement of static or dynamic metallic or conductive surfaces is provided wherein the measurement is obtained by monitoring the change in impedance of a flat, generally spiral-wound, printed circuit coil which is excited by a constant current, constant frequency source. The change in impedance, which is detected as a corresponding change in voltage across the coil, is related to the eddy current losses in the distant conductive material target. The arrangement provides for considerable linear displacement range with increased accuracies, stability, and sensitivity over the entire range.
Search for Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry in the gamma gamma missing ET Channel
Kesisoglou, Stilianos Isaak
2004-12-01
We present results on a search for Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry in the di-photon final state using Run II data collected by the D0 Experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We discuss event selection, Standard Model backgrounds, and the lower limits on the lightest neutralino and chargino masses resulted from this analysis.
Two Soliton Interactions of BD.I Multicomponent NLS Equations and Their Gauge Equivalent
Gerdjikov, V. S.; Grahovski, G. G.
2010-11-25
Using the dressing Zakharov-Shabat method we re-derive the effects of the two-soliton interactions for the MNLS equations related to the BD.I-type symmetric spaces. Next we generalize this analysis for the Heisenberg ferromagnet type equations, gauge equivalent to MNLS.
Gottlieb, Steven Arthur; DeTar, Carleton; Tousaint, Doug
2014-07-24
This is the closeout report for the Indiana University portion of the National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory project supported by the United States Department of Energy under the SciDAC program. It includes information about activities at Indian University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Utah, as those three universities coordinated their activities.
Jostlein, Hans
1994-01-01
A non-contact, omni-directional capacitive probe for use in dimensional gauging includes an electrically conductive spherical sensing tip that forms a capacitor with a workpiece, the capacitance of the capacitor being indicative of the distance between the spherical sensing tip and the workpiece.
Semiclassical circular strings in AdS{sub 5} and 'long' gauge field strength operators
Park, I.Y.; Tirziu, A.; Tseytlin, A.A.
2005-06-15
We consider circular strings rotating with equal spins S{sub 1}=S{sub 2}=S in two orthogonal planes in AdS{sub 5} and suggest that they may be dual to long gauge-theory operators built out of self-dual components of gauge field strength. As was found in hep-th/0404187, the one-loop anomalous dimensions of the such gauge-theory operators are described by an antiferromagnetic XXX{sub 1} spin chain and scale linearly with length L>>1. We find that in the case of rigid rotating string both the classical energy E{sub 0} and the 1-loop string correction E{sub 1} depend linearly on the spin S (within the stability region of the solution). This supports the identification of the rigid rotating string with the gauge-theory operator corresponding to the maximal-spin (ferromagnetic) state of the XXX{sub 1} spin chain. The energy of more general rotating and pulsating strings also happens to scale linearly with both the spin and the oscillation number. Such solutions should be dual to other lower-spin states of the spin chain, with the antiferromagnetic ground state presumably corresponding to the string pulsating in two planes with no rotation.
Some Cosmological Models for Poincare Gauge Gravity and Accelerated Expansion of the Universe
Mebarki, N.
2010-10-31
Two cosmological Models for the Poincare Gauge Gravity theory with a non vanishing torsion are proposed. It is shown that the torsion plays an important role in explaining the accelerated expansion of the universe. Some of the cosmological parameters are also expressed in terms of the redshift and the dark energy scenarios are discussed.
2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement
Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.
2012-08-16
We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.
How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
... For that, we need a better method for steam cost accounting. How To Calculate The T1 rue ... if the consumption of low-pressure steam, at 12 pounds per square inch gauge (psig), in ...
Tokman, M. D. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ulyanov Street, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2009-05-15
We discuss specific features of the electrodynamic characteristics of quantum systems within the framework of models that include a phenomenological description of the relaxation processes. As is shown by W. E. Lamb, Jr., R. R. Schlicher, and M. O. Scully [Phys. Rev. A 36, 2763 (1987)], the use of phenomenological relaxation operators, which adequately describe the attenuation of eigenvibrations of a quantum system, may lead to incorrect solutions in the presence of external electromagnetic fields determined by the vector potential for different resonance processes. This incorrectness can be eliminated by giving a gauge-invariant form to the relaxation operator. Lamb, Jr., et al. proposed the corresponding gauge-invariant modification for the Weisskopf-Wigner relaxation operator, which is introduced directly into the Schroedinger equation within the framework of the two-level approximation. In the present paper, this problem is studied for the von Neumann equation supplemented by a relaxation operator. First, we show that the solution of the equation for the density matrix with the relaxation operator correctly obtained ''from the first principles'' has properties that ensure gauge invariance for the observables. Second, we propose a common recipe for transformation of the phenomenological relaxation operator into the correct (gauge-invariant) form in the density-matrix equations for a multilevel system. Also, we discuss the methods of elimination of other inaccuracies (not related to the gauge-invariance problem) which arise if the electrodynamic response of a dissipative quantum system is calculated within the framework of simplified relaxation models (first of all, the model corresponding to constant relaxation rates of coherences in quantum transitions). Examples illustrating the correctness of the results obtained within the framework of the proposed methods in contrast to inaccuracy of the results of the standard calculation techniques are given.
Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.
1984-01-31
This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.
On the zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator in the Landau gauge
Landim, R. R.; Vilar, L. C. Q. Lemes, V. E. R.; Ventura, O. S.
2014-02-15
Following Henyey procedure [Phys. Rev. D 20, 1460 (1979)], we construct examples of zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator in the Landau gauge in Euclidean space in D dimensions, for both SU(2) and SU(3) groups. We obtain gauge field configurations A{sub ?}{sup a} which give rise to a field strength, F{sub ??}{sup a}=?{sub ?}A{sub ?}{sup a}??{sub ?}A{sub ?}{sup a}+f{sup abc}A{sub ?}{sup b}A{sub ?}{sup c}, whose nonlinear term, f{sup abc}A{sub ?}{sup b}A{sub ?}{sup c}, turns out to be non-vanishing. To our knowledge, this is the first time where such a non-abelian configuration is explicitly obtained in the case of SU(3) in 4D.
The light-front gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensor
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Lorce, Cedric
2015-08-11
In this study, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization for the matrix elements of the generic asymmetric, non-local and gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor, generalizing therefore former works on the symmetric, local and gauge-invariant kinetic energy-momentum tensor also known as the Belinfante-Rosenfeld energy-momentum tensor. We discuss in detail the various constraints imposed by non-locality, linear and angular momentum conservation. We also derive the relations with two-parton generalized and transverse-momentum dependent distributions, clarifying what can be learned from the latter. In particular, we show explicitly that two-parton transverse-momentum dependent distributions cannot provide any model-independent information about the parton orbitalmoreĀ Ā» angular momentum. On the way, we recover the Burkardt sum rule and obtain similar new sum rules for higher-twist distributions.Ā«Ā less
The light-front gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensor
Lorce, Cedric
2015-08-11
In this study, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization for the matrix elements of the generic asymmetric, non-local and gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor, generalizing therefore former works on the symmetric, local and gauge-invariant kinetic energy-momentum tensor also known as the Belinfante-Rosenfeld energy-momentum tensor. We discuss in detail the various constraints imposed by non-locality, linear and angular momentum conservation. We also derive the relations with two-parton generalized and transverse-momentum dependent distributions, clarifying what can be learned from the latter. In particular, we show explicitly that two-parton transverse-momentum dependent distributions cannot provide any model-independent information about the parton orbital angular momentum. On the way, we recover the Burkardt sum rule and obtain similar new sum rules for higher-twist distributions.
The Excited-state Spectrum of QCD through Lattice Gauge Theory Calculations
David Richards
2012-12-01
I describe recent progress at understanding the excited state spectrum of QCD through lattice gauge calculations. I begin by outlining the evolution of the lattice effort at JLab. I detail the impact of recent lattice calculations on the present and upcoming experimental programs, and in particular that of the 12 GeV upgrade of Jefferson Laboratory. I conclude with the prospect for future calculations.
Chiu Juiyu; Fuhrer, Andreas; Kelley, Randall; Manohar, Aneesh V.
2009-11-01
Previous work on electroweak radiative corrections to high-energy scattering using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) has been extended to include external transverse and longitudinal gauge bosons and Higgs bosons. This allows one to compute radiative corrections to all parton-level hard scattering amplitudes in the standard model to next-to-leading-log order, including QCD and electroweak radiative corrections, mass effects, and Higgs exchange corrections, if the high-scale matching, which is suppressed by two orders in the log counting, and contains no large logs, is known. The factorization structure of the effective theory places strong constraints on the form of gauge theory amplitudes at high energy for massless and massive gauge theories, which are discussed in detail in the paper. The radiative corrections can be written as the sum of process-independent one-particle collinear functions, and a universal soft function. We give plots for the radiative corrections to qq{yields}W{sub T}W{sub T}, Z{sub T}Z{sub T}, W{sub L}W{sub L}, and Z{sub L}H, and gg{yields}W{sub T}W{sub T} to illustrate our results. The purely electroweak corrections are large, ranging from 12% at 500 GeV to 37% at 2 TeV for transverse W pair production, and increasing rapidly with energy. The estimated theoretical uncertainty to the partonic (hard) cross section in most cases is below 1%, smaller than uncertainties in the parton distribution functions. We discuss the relation between SCET and other factorization methods, and derive the Magnea-Sterman equations for the Sudakov form factor using SCET, for massless and massive gauge theories, and for light and heavy external particles.
Compaction comparison testing using a modified impact soil tester and nuclear density gauge
Erchul, R.A.
1999-07-01
The purpose of this paper is to compare test results of a modified Impact Soil Tester (IST) on compacted soil with data obtained from the same soil using a nuclear density gauge at the US Army Corp of Engineer's Buena Vista Flood Wall project in Buena Vista, Virginia. The tests were run during construction of the earth flood wall during the summer of 1996. This comparison testing demonstrated the credibility of the procedure developed for the IST as a compacting testing device. The comparison data was obtained on a variety of soils ranging from silty sands to clays. The Flood Wall comparison compaction data for 90% Standard Proctor shows that the results of the IST as modified are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 89% of the time for all types of soil tested. However, if the soils are more cohesive than the results are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 97% of the time. In addition these comparison tests are in general agreement with comparison compaction testing using the same testing techniques and methods of compacted backfill in utility trenches conducted earlier for the Public Works Department, Chesterfield County, Virginia.
Lattice QCD gauge ensemble: USQCD/MILC/asqtad/2064f21b678m010m050b
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Aubin, Christopher Alan [Fordham U.; Bernard, Claude W. [Washington U. St. Louis; Burch, Tommy [U. Regensburg; Datta, Saumen [Tata Institute; DeGrand, Thomas Alan [Colorado U., Boulder; DeTar, Carleton E. [Utah U.; Gottlieb, Steven A. [Indiana U., Bloomington; Gregory, Eric Brittain [Wuppertal U.; Heller, Urs M. [American Physical Society; Hetrick, James Edward [U. Pacific, Stockton; Orginos, Kostas Nikolaou [William-Mary Coll.; Osborn, James C. [Argonne National Laboratory, ALCF; Toussaint, W. Doug [Arizona U.; Sugar, Robert L. [U. C., Santa Barbara
2015-01-01
MILC asqtad QCD SU(3) gauge ensemble; series=b; a=0.11fm minus 0.0022fm; Ls=2.16fm; Nf=2+1; u0.m0=(0.010,0.050)
Lattice QCD gauge ensemble: USQCD/MILC/asqtad/2064f21b678m010m050
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Aubin, Christopher Alan [Fordham U.; Bernard, Claude W. [Washington U. St. Louis; Burch, Tommy [U. Regensburg; Datta, Saumen [Tata Institute; DeGrand, Thomas Alan [Colorado U., Boulder; DeTar, Carleton E. [Utah U.; Gottlieb, Steven A. [Indiana U., Bloomington; Gregory, Eric Brittain [Wuppertal U.; Heller, Urs M. [American Physical Society; Hetrick, James Edward [U. Pacific, Stockton; Orginos, Kostas Nikolaou [William-Mary Coll.; Osborn, James C. [Argonne National Laboratory, ALCF; Toussaint, W. Doug [Arizona U.; Sugar, Robert L. [U. C., Santa Barbara
2015-01-01
MILC asqtad QCD SU(3) gauge ensemble; series=a; a=0.11fm minus 0.0022fm ; Ls=2.16fm; Nf=2+1; u0.m0=(0.010,0.050)
Lattice QCD gauge ensemble: USQCD/MILC/asqtad/2064f21b678m010m050
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Aubin, Christopher Alan [Fordham U.; Bernard, Claude W. [Washington U. St. Louis; Burch, Tommy [U. Regensburg; Datta, Saumen [Tata Institute; DeGrand, Thomas Alan [Colorado U., Boulder; DeTar, Carleton E. [Utah U.; Gottlieb, Steven A. [Indiana U., Bloomington; Gregory, Eric Brittain [Wuppertal U.; Heller, Urs M. [American Physical Society; Hetrick, James Edward [U. Pacific, Stockton; Orginos, Kostas Nikolaou [William-Mary Coll.; Osborn, James C. [Argonne National Laboratory, ALCF; Toussaint, W. Doug [Arizona U.; Sugar, Robert L. [U. C., Santa Barbara
MILC asqtad QCD SU(3) gauge ensemble; series=a; a=0.11fm minus 0.0022fm ; Ls=2.16fm; Nf=2+1; u0.m0=(0.010,0.050)
Lattice QCD gauge ensemble: USQCD/MILC/asqtad/2064f21b678m010m050b
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Aubin, Christopher Alan [Fordham U.; Bernard, Claude W. [Washington U. St. Louis; Burch, Tommy [U. Regensburg; Datta, Saumen [Tata Institute; DeGrand, Thomas Alan [Colorado U., Boulder; DeTar, Carleton E. [Utah U.; Gottlieb, Steven A. [Indiana U., Bloomington; Gregory, Eric Brittain [Wuppertal U.; Heller, Urs M. [American Physical Society; Hetrick, James Edward [U. Pacific, Stockton; Orginos, Kostas Nikolaou [William-Mary Coll.; Osborn, James C. [Argonne National Laboratory, ALCF; Toussaint, W. Doug [Arizona U.; Sugar, Robert L. [U. C., Santa Barbara
MILC asqtad QCD SU(3) gauge ensemble; series=b; a=0.11fm minus 0.0022fm; Ls=2.16fm; Nf=2+1; u0.m0=(0.010,0.050)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Provides required documentation that EnergyGauge Summit version 3.1 build 2 meets Internal Revenue Code Ā§179D, Notice 2006-52, dated January 31, 2007, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.
Topics in phenomenology of unified gauge theories of weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions
Kang, Y.S.
1982-11-01
Three phenomenological analyses on the current unification theories of elementary particle interactions are presented. In Chapter I, the neutral current phenomenology of a class of supersymmetric SU(2) x U(1) x U tilde(1) models is analyzed. A model with the simplest fermion and Higgs structure allowing a realistic mass spectrum is considered first. Its neutral current sector is parametrized in terms of two mixing angles and the strength of the new U tilde(1) interactions. Expressions for low-energy model-independent parameters are derived and compared with those of the standard model. Bounds on the neutral gauge boson masses are obtained from the data for various neutrino interactions, eD scattering, and the asymmetry in e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/. In Chapter II, the evolution of fermion mass in grand unified theories is reexamined. In particular, the question of gauge invariance of mass ratios in left-right asymmetric theories is considered. A simple expression is derived for the evolution of the Higgs-fermion-fermion coupling which essentially governs the scale dependence of fermion mass. At the one loop level the expression is gauge invariant and involves only the representation content of left- and right-handed fermions but not that of Higgs. The corresponding expression for supersymmetric theories is also given. In Chapter III, the production and the subsequent decays of a heavy lepton pair L/sup + -/ near the Z peak in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation are considered as a test of the standard model. The longitudinal polarization is derived from the spin-dependent production cross-section, and the decays L ..-->.. ..pi.. nu and L ..-->.. l nu nu are used as helicity analyzers.
Evaluation of methods to measure surface level in waste storage tanks
Peters, T.J.; Park, W.R.; Cuta, F.M.
1993-06-01
This report describes the results of a program conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to identify alternative methods to measure the surface level in the waste tanks. This program examined commercially available devices for measuring the distance to a target. Test were performed with five devices to determine their applicability to measure the surface level in the waste tanks. The devices were the Enraf-Nonius{sup {trademark}} 872 Radar Gauge, the Enraf-Nonius{sup {trademark}} 854 Advanced Technology Gauge, the Stanley Tool Laser Measuring Device, the Robertshaw Inven-Tel{sup {reg_sign}} Precision Level Gauge, and the Micro Switch 942 Acoustic Sensor. In addition, discussions were held with several manufacturer representatives regarding other potential devices.
Measuring explosive non-ideality
Souers, P C
1999-02-17
The sonic reaction zone length may be measured by four methods: (1) size effect, (2) detonation front curvature, (3) crystal interface velocity and (4) in-situ gauges. The amount of data decreases exponentially from (1) to (4) with there being almost no gauge data for prompt detonation at steady state. The ease and clarity of obtaining the reaction zone length increases from (1) to (4). The method of getting the reaction zone length,
Dirac or inverse seesaw neutrino masses with B L gauge symmetry and S? flavor symmetry
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Ma, Ernest; Srivastava, Rahul
2015-02-01
Many studies have been made on extensions of the standard model with B L gauge symmetry. The addition of three singlet (right-handed) neutrinos renders it anomaly-free. It has always been assumed that the spontaneous breaking of B L is accomplished by a singlet scalar field carrying two units of B L charge. This results in a very natural implementation of the Majorana seesaw mechanism for neutrinos. However, there exists in fact another simple anomaly-free solution which allows Dirac or inverse seesaw neutrino masses. We show for the first time these new possibilities and discuss an application tomore »neutrino mixing with S? flavor symmetry.« less
General Nonextremal Rotating Black Holes in Minimal Five-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity
Chong, Z.-W.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.; Cvetic, M.
2005-10-14
We construct the general solution for nonextremal charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. They are characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass, the charge, and the two independent rotation parameters. The metrics in general describe regular rotating black holes, providing the parameters lie in appropriate ranges so that naked singularities and closed timelike curves (CTCs) are avoided. We calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions, and show how supersymmetric solutions arise in a Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield limit. These have naked CTCs in general, but for special choices of the parameters we obtain new regular supersymmetric black holes or smooth topological solitons.
Hidden conformal symmetry of rotating black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity
Setare, M. R.; Kamali, V.
2010-10-15
In the present paper we show that for a low frequency limit the wave equation of a massless scalar field in the background of nonextremal charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional minimal gauged and ungauged supergravity can be written as the Casimir of an SL(2,R) symmetry. Our result shows that the entropy of the black hole is reproduced by the Cardy formula. Also the absorption cross section is consistent with the finite temperature absorption cross section for a two-dimensional conformal field theory.
Neutrino masses in SU(4){sub L}āU(1){sub X} gauge models
Palcu, Adrian
2013-11-13
Neutrino masses are obtained within SU(4){sub L}āU(1){sub X} electroweak gauge models with spontaneous symmetry breaking by simply exploiting the tree level realization of certain dimension-five effective operators. The scalar sector needs not to be enlarged, since these operators are constructed as direct products among scalar multiplets already existing in the model. There is a unique generic matrix for Yukawa couplings in the neutrino sector, while the charged leptons are already in their diagonal basis. The experimentally observed phenomenology in the neutrino sector is obtained as a natural consequence of this particular approach.
TeV-scale gauged B-L symmetry with inverse seesaw mechanism
Khalil, Shaaban
2010-10-01
We propose a modified version of the TeV-scale B-L extension of the standard model, where neutrino masses are generated through the inverse seesaw mechanism. We show that heavy neutrinos in this model can be accessible via clean signals at the LHC. The search for the extra gauge boson Z{sub B-L}{sup '} through the decay into dileptons or two dileptons plus missing energy is studied. We also show that the B-L extra Higgs boson can be directly probed at the LHC via a clean dilepton and missing energy signal.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
govMeasurementsAerosols
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
govMeasurementsRadiometric
Pitts, J. Brian
2014-12-15
In DiracBergmann constrained dynamics, a first-class constraint typically does not alone generate a gauge transformation. By direct calculation it is found that each first-class constraint in Maxwells theory generates a change in the electric field E{sup ?} by an arbitrary gradient, spoiling Gausss law. The secondary first-class constraint p{sup i},{sub i}=0 still holds, but being a function of derivatives of momenta (mere auxiliary fields), it is not directly about the observable electric field (a function of derivatives of A{sub ?}), which couples to charge. Only a special combination of the two first-class constraints, the AndersonBergmannCastellani gauge generator G, leaves E{sup ?} unchanged. Likewise only that combination leaves the canonical action invariantan argument independent of observables. If one uses a first-class constraint to generate instead a canonical transformation, one partly strips the canonical coordinates of physical meaning as electromagnetic potentials, vindicating the AndersonBergmann Lagrangian orientation of interesting canonical transformations. The need to keep gauge-invariant the relation q-dot ?(?H)/(?p) =?E{sub i}?p{sup i}=0 supports using the gauge generator and primary Hamiltonian rather than the separate first-class constraints and the extended Hamiltonian. Partly paralleling Ponss criticism, it is shown that Diracs proof that a first-class primary constraint generates a gauge transformation, by comparing evolutions from identical initial data, cancels out and hence fails to detect the alterations made to the initial state. It also neglects the arbitrary coordinates multiplying the secondary constraints inside the canonical Hamiltonian. Thus the gauge-generating property has been ascribed to the primaries alone, not the primarysecondary team G. Hence the Dirac conjecture about secondary first-class constraints as generating gauge transformations rests upon a false presupposition about primary first-class constraints
A quantum measure of the multiverse
Vilenkin, Alexander
2014-05-01
It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the ''watcher''). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
govMeasurementsCloud Properties
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
govMeasurementsSurface Properties
Charged nontopological soliton of the SU(2) Multiplication-Sign U(1) gauge model
Loginov, A. Yu.
2012-01-15
The SU(2) Multiplication-Sign U(1) gauge model that is the bosonic sector of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions is considered. The existence of electrically charged nontopological solitons is shown to be possible in this model. Some properties of a charged nontopological soliton are investigated. Asymptotic expressions are derived for the soliton radius, energy, and phase frequency in the thin-wall regime by the method of trial functions. Numerical solutions of the model field equations corresponding to electrically charged non-topological solitions have been obtained. The dependences of the soliton energy and charge on phase frequency are given for several model parameters. It follows from the data obtained that there exists a domain of parameters in which a charged nontopological soliton is stable to the transition to a plane-wave field configuration.
Bound on Z{sup '} mass from CDMS II in the dark left-right gauge model II
Khalil, Shaaban; Lee, Hye-Sung; Ma, Ernest
2010-03-01
With the recent possible signal of dark matter from the CDMS II experiment, the Z{sup '} mass of a new version of the dark left-right gauge model (DLRM II) is predicted to be at around a TeV. As such, it has an excellent discovery prognosis at the operating Large Hadron Collider.
Nakos, James Thomas
2010-12-01
The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.
Aaltonen, T.; Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR
2011-03-01
Using Z{gamma} candidate events collected by the CDF detector at the Tevatron Collider, we search for potential anomalous (non-standard-model) couplings between the Z boson and the photon. At the hard scatter energies typical of the Tevatron, standard model Z{gamma} couplings are too weak to be detected by current experiments; hence any evidence of couplings indicates new physics. Measurements are performed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb{sup -1} in the Z {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}} decay channel and 5.1 fb{sup -1} in the Z {yields} l{sup +}l{sup -} (l = {mu}, e) decay channels. The combination of these measurements provides the most stringent limits to date on Z{gamma} trilinear gauge couplings. Using an energy scale of {Lambda} = 1.5 TeV to allow for a direct comparison with previous measurements, we find limits on the CP-conserving parameters that describe Z{gamma} couplings to be |h{sub 3}{sup {gamma},Z}| < 0.017 and |h{sub 4}{sup {gamma},Z}| < 0.0006. These results are consistent with standard model predictions.
Andreev, Vas. V.; Pankov, A. A.
2012-01-15
An analysis of effects induced by new neutral gauge Z Prime bosons was performed on the basis of data from the OPAL, DELPHI, ALEPH, and L3 experiments devoted to measuring differential cross sections for the process of the annihilation production of pairs of charged gauge W{sup {+-}} bosons at the LEP2 collider. By using these experimental data, constraints on the Z Prime -boson mass and on the angle of Z-Z Prime mixing were obtained for a number of extended gauge models.
Simplifying Multi-loop Integrands of Gauge Theory and Gravity Amplitudes
Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.M.; Dixon, L.J.; Johansson, H.; Roiban, R.
2012-02-15
We use the duality between color and kinematics to simplify the construction of the complete four-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, including the nonplanar contributions. The duality completely determines the amplitude's integrand in terms of just two planar graphs. The existence of a manifestly dual gauge-theory amplitude trivializes the construction of the corresponding N = 8 supergravity integrand, whose graph numerators are double copies (squares) of the N = 4 super-Yang-Mills numerators. The success of this procedure provides further nontrivial evidence that the duality and double-copy properties hold at loop level. The new form of the four-loop four-point supergravity amplitude makes manifest the same ultraviolet power counting as the corresponding N = 4 super-Yang-Mills amplitude. We determine the amplitude's ultraviolet pole in the critical dimension of D = 11/2, the same dimension as for N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. Strikingly, exactly the same combination of vacuum integrals (after simplification) describes the ultraviolet divergence of N = 8 supergravity as the subleading-in-1/N{sub c}{sup 2} single-trace divergence in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.
Searching for MeV-scale gauge bosons with IceCube
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
DiFranzo, Anthony; Hooper, Dan
2015-11-05
Light gauge bosons can lead to resonant interactions between high-energy astrophysical neutrinos and the cosmic neutrino background. We study this possibility in detail, considering the ability of IceCube to probe such scenarios. We also find the most dramatic effects in models with a very light Z' (mZ'ā²10 MeV), which can induce a significant absorption feature at EĪ½~5ā10 TeVĆ(mZ'/MeV)2. In the case of the inverted hierarchy and a small sum of neutrino masses, such a light Z' can result in a broad and deep spectral feature at ~0.1ā10 PeVĆ(mZ'/MeV)2. Current IceCube data already excludes this case for a Z' lighter thanmoreĀ Ā» a few MeV and couplings greater than g~10-4. Furthermore, we emphasize that the ratio of neutrino flavors observed by IceCube can be used to further increase their sensitivity to Z' models and to other exotic physics scenarios.Ā«Ā less
Gauge bosons and heavy quarks: Proceedings of Summer Institute on Particle Physics
Hawthorne, J.F.
1991-01-01
This report contains papers on the following topics: Z decays and tests of the standard model; future possibilities for LEP; studies of the interactions of electroweak gauge bosons; top quark topics; the next linear collider; electroweak processes in hadron colliders; theoretical topics in B-physics; experimental aspects of B-physics; B-factory storage ring design; rare kaon decays; CP violation in K{sup 0} decays at CERN; recent K{sup 0} decay results from Fermilab E-731; results from LEP on heavy quark physics; review of recent results on heavy flavor production; weak matrix elements and the determination of the weak mixing angles; recent results from CLEO I and a glance at CLEO II data; recent results from ARGUS; neutrino lepton physics with the CHARM 2 detector; recent results from the three TRISTAN experiments; baryon number violation at high energy in the standard model: fact or fiction New particle searches at LEP; review of QCD at LEP; electroweak interactions at LEP; recent results on W physics from the UA2 experiment at the CERN {rho}{bar {rho}} collider; B physics at CDF; and review of particle astrophysics.
The massive fermion phase for the U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory in D=3 at large N
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Bardeen, William A.
2014-10-07
We explore the phase structure of fermions in the U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge theory in three dimensions using the large N limit where N is the number of colors and the fermions are taken to be in the fundamental representation of the U(N) gauge group. In the large N limit, the theory retains its classical conformal behavior and considerable attention has been paid to possible AdS/CFT dualities of the theory in the conformal phase. In this paper we present a solution for the massive phase of the fermion theory that is exact to the leading order of āt Hooftās large NmoreĀ Ā» expansion. We present evidence for the spontaneous breaking of the exact scale symmetry and analyze the properties of the dilaton that appears as the Goldstone boson of scale symmetry breaking.Ā«Ā less
The massive fermion phase for the U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory in D=3 at large N
Bardeen, William A.
2014-10-07
We explore the phase structure of fermions in the U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge theory in three dimensions using the large N limit where N is the number of colors and the fermions are taken to be in the fundamental representation of the U(N) gauge group. In the large N limit, the theory retains its classical conformal behavior and considerable attention has been paid to possible AdS/CFT dualities of the theory in the conformal phase. In this paper we present a solution for the massive phase of the fermion theory that is exact to the leading order of t Hoofts large N expansion. We present evidence for the spontaneous breaking of the exact scale symmetry and analyze the properties of the dilaton that appears as the Goldstone boson of scale symmetry breaking.
Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements
Zonca, Fulvio; Cohen, Samuel A.; Bennett, Timothy; Timberlake, John R.
1993-01-01
Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.
Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H. ); Pidcoe, S.V. . Space Systems Div.); Zink, R.A. )
1990-03-01
A magnetic field alignment gauge is used to measure the field angle as a function of axial position in each of the magnets for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Present measurements are made by manually pushing the through the magnet bore tube and stopping at intervals to record field measurements. Gauge location is controlled through graduation marks and alignment pins on the push rods. Field measurements are recorded on a logging multimeter with tape output. Described is a computerized control system being developed to replace the manual procedure for field alignment measurements. The automated system employs a pneumatic walking device to move the measurement gauge through the bore tube. Movement of the device, called the Self-Propelled In-Tube Shuttle (SPITS), is accomplished through an integral, gas driven, double-acting cylinder. The motion of the SPITS is transferred to the bore tube by means of a pair of controlled, retractable support feet. Control of the SPITS is accomplished through an RS-422 interface from an IBM-compatible computer to a series of solenoid-actuated air valves. Direction of SPITS travel is determined by the air-valve sequence, and is managed through the control software. Precise axial position of the gauge within the magnet is returned to the control system through an optically-encoded digital position transducer attached to the shuttle. Discussed is the performance of the transport device and control system during preliminary testing of the first prototype shuttle. 1 ref., 7 figs.
Pangilinan, Monica; /Brown U.
2010-02-01
The top quark produced through the electroweak channel provides a direct measurement of the V{sub tb} element in the CKM matrix which can be viewed as a transition rate of a top quark to a bottom quark. This production channel of top quark is also sensitive to different theories beyond the Standard Model such as heavy charged gauged bosons termed W{prime}. This thesis measures the cross section of the electroweak produced top quark using a technique based on using the matrix elements of the processes under consideration. The technique is applied to 2.3 fb{sup -1} of data from the D0 detector. From a comparison of the matrix element discriminants between data and the signal and background model using Bayesian statistics, we measure the cross section of the top quark produced through the electroweak mechanism {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.30{sub -1.20}{sup +0.98} pb. The measured result corresponds to a 4.9{sigma} Gaussian-equivalent significance. By combining this analysis with other analyses based on the Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) and Boosted Decision Tree (BDT) method, the measured cross section is 3.94 {+-} 0.88 pb with a significance of 5.0{sigma}, resulting in the discovery of electroweak produced top quarks. Using this measured cross section and constraining |V{sub tb}| < 1, the 95% confidence level (C.L.) lower limit is |V{sub tb}| > 0.78. Additionally, a search is made for the production of W{prime} using the same samples from the electroweak produced top quark. An analysis based on the BDT method is used to separate the signal from expected backgrounds. No significant excess is found and 95% C.L. upper limits on the production cross section are set for W{prime} with masses within 600-950 GeV. For four general models of W{prime} boson production using decay channel W{prime} {yields} t{bar b}, the lower mass limits are the following: M(W{prime}{sub L} with SM couplings) > 840 GeV; M(W{prime}{sub R}) > 880 GeV or 890 GeV if the right
Spontaneous Breaking of Scale Invariance in U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge Theories in Three Dimensions
Bardeen, William
2014-10-24
I explore the existence of a massive phase in a conformally invariant U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theories in D = 3 with matter fields in the fundamental representation. These models have attracted recent attention as being dual, in the conformal phase, to theories of higher spin gravity on AdS 4. Using the 1t Hooft large N expansion, exact solutions are obtained for scalar current correlators in the massive phase where the conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. A massless dilaton appears as a composite state, and its properties are discussed. Solutions exist for matters field that are either bosons or fermions.
Spontaneous Breaking of Scale Invariance in U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge Theories in Three Dimensions
Bardeen, William A.
2015-09-24
I explore the existence of a massive phase in a conformally invariant U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theories in D = 3 with matter fields in the fundamental representation. These models have attracted recent attention as being dual, in the conformal phase, to theories of higher spin gravity on AdS 4. Using the 0t Hooft large N expansion, exact solutions are obtained for scalar current correlators in the massive phase where the conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. A massless dilaton appears as a composite state, and its properties are discussed. Solutions exist for matters field that are either bosons or fermions.
Capri, M.A.L. Fiorentini, D. Sorella, S.P.
2015-05-15
The inverse of the FaddeevāPopov operator plays a pivotal role within the GribovāZwanziger approach to the quantization of Euclidean YangāMills theories in Landau gauge. Following a recent proposal (Capri etĀ al., 2014), we show that the inverse of the FaddeevāPopov operator can be consistently coupled to quark fields. Such a coupling gives rise to a local action while reproducing the behaviour of the quark propagator observed in lattice numerical simulations in the non-perturbative infrared region. By using the algebraic renormalization framework, we prove that the aforementioned local action is multiplicatively renormalizable to all orders.
Nakayama, Yu; Nakayama, Yu
2007-12-17
We show a calculable example of stable supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking modelswith O(10) eV gravitino mass based on the combination of D-term gauge mediationand U(1)' mediation. A potential problem of the negative mass squared for theSUSY standard model (SSM) sfermions in the D-term gauge mediation is solvedby the contribution from the U(1)' mediation. On the other hand, the splittingbetween the SSM gauginos and sfermions in the U(1)' mediation iscircumvented bythe contributions from the D-term gauge mediation. Since the U(1)' mediation doesnot introduce any new SUSY vacua, we achieve a completely stable model underthermal effects. Our model, therefore, has no cosmological difficulty.
Ko, P.; Tang, Yong
2015-01-16
We show that hidden sector dark matter (DM) models with local dark gauge symmetries make a natural playground for the possible Ī³-ray excess from the galactic center (GC). We first discuss in detail the GC Ī³-ray excess in a scalar dark matter (DM) model with local Z{sub 3} symmetry which was recently proposed by the present authors. Within this model, scalar DM with mass 30ā70 GeV is allowed due to the newly-opened (semi-)annihilation channels of a DM pair into dark Higgs Ļ and/or dark photon Zā² pair, and the Ī³-ray spectrum from the GC can be fit within this model. Then we argue that the GC gamma ray excess can be easily accommodated within hidden sector dark matter models where DM is stabilized by local gauge symmetries, due to the presence of dark Higgs (and also dark photon for Abelian dark gauge symmetry)
Ko, P.; Tang, Yong E-mail: ytang@kias.re.kr
2015-01-01
We show that hidden sector dark matter (DM) models with local dark gauge symmetries make a natural playground for the possible Ī³-ray excess from the galactic center (GC). We first discuss in detail the GC Ī³-ray excess in a scalar dark matter (DM) model with local Z{sub 3} symmetry which was recently proposed by the present authors. Within this model, scalar DM with mass 30ā70 GeV is allowed due to the newly-opened (semi-)annihilation channels of a DM pair into dark Higgs Ļ and/or dark photon Z' pair, and the Ī³-ray spectrum from the GC can be fit within this model. Then we argue that the GC gamma ray excess can be easily accommodated within hidden sector dark matter models where DM is stabilized by local gauge symmetries, due to the presence of dark Higgs (and also dark photon for Abelian dark gauge symmetry)
Pasti, Paolo; Tonin, Mario; Samsonov, Igor; Sorokin, Dmitri
2009-10-15
We reveal nonmanifest gauge and SO(1,5) Lorentz symmetries in the Lagrangian description of a six-dimensional free chiral field derived from the Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson model in [P.-M. Ho and Y. Matsuo, J. High Energy Phys. 06 (2008) 105.] and make this formulation covariant with the use of a triplet of auxiliary scalar fields. We consider the coupling of this self-dual construction to gravity and its supersymmetrization. In the case of the nonlinear model of [P.-M. Ho, Y. Imamura, Y. Matsuo, and S. Shiba, J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2008) 014.] we solve the equations of motion of the gauge field, prove that its nonlinear field strength is self-dual and find a gauge-covariant form of the nonlinear action. Issues of the relation of this model to the known formulations of the M5-brane worldvolume theory are discussed.
Sheffield, Stephen A; Dattelbaum, Dana M; Stahl, David B; Gibson, L Lee; Bartram, Brian D; Engelke, Ray
2010-01-01
Concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has been known to detonate for many years. However, because of its reactivity and the difficulty in handling and confining it, along with the large critical diameter, few studies providing basic information about the initiation and detonation properties have been published. We are conducting a study to understand and quantify the initiation and detonation properties of highly concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} using a gas-driven two-stage gun to produce well defined shock inputs. Multiple magnetic gauges are used to make in-situ measurements of the growth of reaction and subsequent detonation in the liquid. These experiments are designed to be one-dimensional to eliminate any difficulties that might be encountered with large critical diameters. Because of the concern of the reactivity of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the confining materials, a remote loading system has been developed. The gun is pressurized, then the cell is filled and the experiment shot within less than three minutes. Several experiments have been completed on {approx}98 wt % H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O mixtures; homogeneous shock initiation behavior has been observed in the experiments where reaction is observed. The initial shock pressurizes and heats the mixture. After an induction time, a thermal explosion type reaction produces an evolving reactive wave that strengthens and eventually overdrives the first wave producing a detonation. From these experiments, we have determined unreacted Hugoniot points, times-to-detonation points that indicate low sensitivity (an input of 13.5 GPa produces detonation in 1 {micro}s compared to 9.5 GPa for neat nitromethane), and detonation velocities of high concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O solutions of over 6.6 km/s.
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govMeasurements ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Categories Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments UV-MFRSR : Ultraviolet
Acciarri, R.; et al.
2015-11-03
The ArgoNeuT collaboration reports the first measurement of neutral current $\\pi^{0}$ production in $\
Sun, Shan C.; Chaprnka, Anthony G.
1977-01-11
An automatic gain control circuit functions to adjust the magnitude of an input signal supplied to a measuring circuit to a level within the dynamic range of the measuring circuit while a log-ratio circuit adjusts the magnitude of the output signal from the measuring circuit to the level of the input signal and optimizes the signal-to-noise ratio performance of the measuring circuit.
Waters, Thomas J.; Nolan, Brien C.
2009-04-15
In this paper we consider gauge invariant linear perturbations of the metric and matter tensors describing the self-similar Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (timelike dust) spacetime containing a naked singularity. We decompose the angular part of the perturbation in terms of spherical harmonics and perform a Mellin transform to reduce the perturbation equations to a set of ordinary differential equations with singular points. We fix initial data so the perturbation is finite on the axis and the past null cone of the singularity, and follow the perturbation modes up to the Cauchy horizon. There we argue that certain scalars formed from the modes of the perturbation remain finite, indicating linear stability of the Cauchy horizon.
Fu Zhengkun; Wang Pengjun; Chai Shijie; Huang Lianghui; Zhang Jing
2011-10-15
Using two crossed 1064-nm optical-dipole-trap lasers to be the Raman beams, an effective vector gauge potential for Bose-Einstein condensed {sup 87}Rb in the F=2 hyperfine ground state is experimentally created. The moderate strength of the Raman coupling still can be achieved when the detuning from atomic resonance is larger than the excited-state fine structure, since rubidium has 15 nm energy-level spitting. The atoms at the far detuning of the Raman coupling are loaded adiabatically into the dressed states by ramping the homogeneous bias magnetic field with different paths and the dressed states with different energies are studied experimentally. The experimental scheme can be easily extended to produce the synthetic magnetic or electric field by means of a spatial or time dependence of the effective vector potential.
Datta, Saumen; Gupta, Sourendu
2009-12-01
We investigated the finite temperature (T) phase transition for SU(N{sub c}) gauge theory with N{sub c}=4, 6, 8 and 10 at lattice spacing, a, of 1/(6T) or less. We checked that these theories have first-order transitions at such small a. In many cases we were able to find the critical couplings with precision as good as a few parts in 10{sup 4}. We also investigated the use of two-loop renormalization group equations in extrapolating the lattice results to the continuum, thus fixing the temperature scale in units of the phase transition temperature, T{sub c}. We found that when a{<=}1/(8T{sub c}) the two-loop extrapolation was accurate to about 1%-2%. However, we found that trading T{sub c} for the QCD scale, {lambda}{sub MS}, increases uncertainties significantly, to the level of about 5%-10%.
Final Report Full-Scale Test of DWPF Advanced Liquid-Level and Density Measurement Bubblers
Duignan, M.R.; Weeks, G.E.
1999-07-01
may be too labor intensive for practical use.All of the large diameter bubbler tubes tested could be readily cleaned in place by either blowing them down with justhigh pressure air or water (approx. 90 psig). While the use of both air and water produced the cleanest bubbler, using justair removed most of the slurry build-up, and the use of water resulted in basically a slurry free surface. For the smalldiameter bubbler tubes it was necessary to use high pressure air and water (approx. 90 psig) to effectively clean them. The water was only sent through the porous jacket and not introduced down the air line. However, even under these conditions there was one case where a plug was not removed when both air and water were used.Primary recommendation: The large diameter probe is the best choice since none of the three tested plugged during the2-mouth test period to the point which compromised liquid-level measure. However, after a week`s operation at boilingtemperatures several inches of a soft sludge builds up within the tubes. This sludge can be easily removed in place witheither high pressure air or water (approx. 90 psig). A full-scale verifi-cation test should be carried out in S-area to confirm the conclusion.Secondary recommendation: The small-diameter porous tube bubbler is recommended when an access port cannot accommodate thelarger diameter probe. Bubbler {number_sign}1 operated accurately during most of the test period. This probe had the highest water flowrate (approx. 1.6 gallons/day) and had the least distance from the slurry upper surface (37 inches). This probe can be made to accurately operate at lower depths if the 8-inch-long porous tube is made longer and the water flow rate made higher.Substituting the current level and density probes (Holledge) with bubbler probes will result in a significant cost savings (inexpensive materials, less labor to manufacture, less labor to maintain, less down time due to less frequent instrument replacement).
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
wins 2016 Joseph F. Keithley Award for Advances in Measurement Science October 15, 2015 Honors to Albert Migliori, developer of resonant ultrasound spectroscopy LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Oct. 15, 2015-Los Alamos National Laboratory physicist Albert Migliori, having led the development of a powerful tool for important measurements in condensed matter physics including superconductivity, is being given the Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science, the top instrumentation prize of the
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Measurements Related Links MC3E Home News News & Press MC3E Backgrounder (PDF, 1.61MB) SGP Images ARM flickr site Field Blog ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Deployment Operations Measurements Science Plan (PDF, 3.85 MB) Featured Data Plots SGP Data Plots (all) Experiment Planning Steering Committee Science Questions MC3E Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns Meetings Cloud Life Cycle Working Group Contacts Michael Jensen, Lead Scientist Measurements Ground-based Instruments Category
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Measurements Related Links SPARTICUS Home AAF Home Deployment Operations Measurements SGP Data Plots NASA Data Plots ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Experiment Planning SPARTICUS Proposal Abstract Science Questions Science and Operations (PDF, 1.01M) SPARTICUS Wiki News News & Press Backgrounder (PDF, 269K) Contacts Gerald Mace, Lead Scientist Measurements The SPARTICUS field campaign seeks to collect a substantial series of data sets-profiling cirrus ice crystal size and distribution-during
Tube curvature measuring probe and method
Sokol, George J.
1990-01-01
The present invention is directed to a probe and method for measuring the radius of curvature of a bend in a section of tubing. The probe includes a member with a pair of guide means, one located at each end of the member. A strain gauge is operatively connected to the member for detecting bending stress exrted on the member as the probe is drawn through and in engagement with the inner surface of a section of tubing having a bend. The method of the present invention includes steps utilizing a probe, like the aforementioned probe, which can be made to detect bends only in a single plane when having a fixed orientation relative the section of tubing to determine the maximum radius of curvature of the bend.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Chatrchyan, Serguei
2014-08-07
Measurements are reported of the WZ and ZZ production cross sections in proton-proton collisions atmoreĀ Ā» $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 8 TeV in final states where one Z boson decays to b-tagged jets. The other gauge boson, either W or Z, is detected through its leptonic decay (either $$W \\to e\
Franck, J.V.; Broadhead, P.S.; Skiff, E.W.
1959-07-14
A semiautomatic measuring projector particularly adapted for measurement of the coordinates of photographic images of particle tracks as prcduced in a bubble or cloud chamber is presented. A viewing screen aids the operator in selecting a particle track for measurement. After approximate manual alignment, an image scanning system coupled to a servo control provides automatic exact alignment of a track image with a reference point. The apparatus can follow along a track with a continuous motion while recording coordinate data at various selected points along the track. The coordinate data is recorded on punched cards for subsequent computer calculation of particle trajectory, momentum, etc.
Mahoney, J.R.
1963-01-29
A measuring and balancing arrangement for mass spectrometers permits the ready determination of isotopic ratios and mole and weight percentages by employing a selection of amplifier input resistors to vary sensitivity in a bridge arrangement. (AEC)
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Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Measurement Activity: How Much Is Present? The size or weight of a container or shipment does not indicate how much radioactivity is in it. The amount of radioactivity in a quantity of material can be determined by noting how many curies of the material are present. This information should be found on labels and/or shipping
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Project (BBOP)Measurements Related Links BBOP Home Outreach News & Press Backgrounder (PDF, 2.1MB) Images ARM flickr site ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Deployment Operations Airborne Measurements Science Plan (PDF, 2.2MB) BBOP wiki Login Required Data Sets Experiment Planning Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns BBOP Breakout Session, ASR Science Team Meeting, March 2014 BBOP Breakout Session, ASR Science Team Meeting, March 2013 BNL BBOP Website Contacts Larry Kleinman, Lead Scientist
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Measurements Related Links RACORO Home AAF Home ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Post-Campaign Data Sets Data Guide (PDF, 1.4MB) Campaign Journal Flight Details Images ARM flickr site Deployment Operations Measurements Science & Operations Plan (PDF, 640K) SGP Data Plots RACORO wiki Login Required Experiment Planning Steering Committee Science Questions RACORO Proposal Abstract Full Proposal (PDF, 886K) Collaborations Meetings CLOWD Working Group News Discovery Channel Earth Live Blog News
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Measurements Related Links TCAP Home Outreach News & Press WCAI Interview with Dr. Berg (YouTube) Frequently Asked Questions Brochure Backgrounder (PDF, 1.5MB) AMF Poster, 2012 Images ARM flickr site ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Deployment Operations Data Sets Baseline Instruments and Data Plots at the Archive Airborne Measurements Airborne Data Sets Science Plan (PDF, 1.6 MB) G-1 Cabin Layout TCAP wiki Login Required Experiment Planning Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns Poster at
Highly stretchable miniature strain sensor for large dynamic strain measurement
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Song, Bo; Yao, Shurong; Nie, Xu; Yu, Xun; Blecke, Jill
2016-01-01
In this paper, a new type of highly stretchable strain sensor was developed to measure large strains. The sensor was based on the piezo-resistive response of carbon nanotube (CNT)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite thin films. The piezo-resistive response of CNT composite gives accurate strain measurement with high frequency response, while the ultra-soft PDMS matrix provides high flexibility and ductility for large strain measurement. Experimental results show that the CNT/PDMS sensor measures large strains (up to 8 %) with an excellent linearity and a fast frequency response. The new miniature strain sensor also exhibits much higher sensitivities than the conventional foil strain gages,moreĀ Ā» as its gauge factor is 500 times of that of the conventional foil strain gages.Ā«Ā less
Highly stretchable miniature strain sensor for large dynamic strain measurement
Song, Bo; Yao, Shurong; Nie, Xu; Yu, Xun; Blecke, Jill
2016-01-01
In this paper, a new type of highly stretchable strain sensor was developed to measure large strains. The sensor was based on the piezo-resistive response of carbon nanotube (CNT)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite thin films. The piezo-resistive response of CNT composite gives accurate strain measurement with high frequency response, while the ultra-soft PDMS matrix provides high flexibility and ductility for large strain measurement. Experimental results show that the CNT/PDMS sensor measures large strains (up to 8 %) with an excellent linearity and a fast frequency response. The new miniature strain sensor also exhibits much higher sensitivities than the conventional foil strain gages, as its gauge factor is 500 times of that of the conventional foil strain gages.
Single field inflation in supergravity with a U(1) gauge symmetry
Heurtier, L.; Khalil, S.; Moursy, A.
2015-10-19
A single field inflation based on a supergravity model with a shift symmetry and U(1) extension of the MSSM is analyzed. We show that one of the real components of the two U(1) charged scalar fields plays the role of inflaton with an effective scalar potential similar to the ānew chaotic inflationā scenario. Both non-anomalous and anomalous (with Fayet-Iliopoulos term) U(1) are studied. We show that the non-anomalous U(1) scenario is consistent with data of the cosmic microwave background and recent astrophysical measurements. A possible kinetic mixing between U(1) and U(1){sub BāL} is considered in order to allow for natural decay channels of the inflaton, leading to a reheating epoch. Upper limits on the reheating temperature thus turn out to favour an intermediate (ā¼O(10{sup 13}) GeV) scale BāL symmetry breaking.
A Study of Future Measurements of W Boson Helicity in t -> Wb at CDF
Tweedie, Brock; /Rochester U.
2002-02-01
The interactions of the top quark will soon be coming under greater scrutiny at CDF with Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This investigation gauges CDF's improved ability to measure the helicity of W bosons produced in top quark decays. Such measurements will provide a direct indication of the spin structure of the weak interaction responsible for the top decay process. Simulated CDF Run II data is used to study the W helicity sensitivity of the muon momentum in {mu} + jets events, as limited by both statistical and systematic uncertainties. Optimization of helicity measurements via appropriate choices of event variables and data criteria is also addressed.
A model for dark matter, naturalness and a complete gauge unification
Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; VirkajĆ¤rvi, Jussi
2015-07-21
We consider dark matter in a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) which breaks electroweak symmetry dynamically and leads to a complete unification of the SM and technicolor coupling constants. The unification scale is determined to be M{sub U}ā2.2Ć10{sup 15} GeV and the unified coupling Ī±{sub U}ā0.0304. Moreover, unification strongly suggest that the technicolor sector of the model must become strong at the scale of O(TeV). The model also contains a tightly constrained sector of mixing neutral fields stabilized by a discrete symmetry. We find the lightest of these states can be DM with a mass in the range m{sub DM}ā30ā800 GeV. We find a large set of parameters that satisfy all available constraints from colliders and from dark matter search experiments. However, most of the available parameter space is within the reach of the next generation of DM search experiments. The model is also sensitive to a modest improvement in the measurement of the precision electroweak parameters.
Cao Qinghong; Khalil, Shaaban; Ma, Ernest; Okada, Hiroshi
2011-10-01
We discuss how {theta}{sub 13}{ne}0 is accommodated in a recently proposed renormalizable model of neutrino mixing using the non-Abelian discrete symmetry T{sub 7} in the context of a supersymmetric extension of the standard model with gauged U(1){sub B-L}. We predict a correlation between {theta}{sub 13} and {theta}{sub 23}, as well as the effective neutrino mass m{sub ee} in neutrinoless double beta decay.
Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; /Yale U. /Columbia U.
2010-10-01
MiniBooNE reports the first absolute cross sections for neutral current single {pi}{sup 0} production on CH{sub 2} induced by neutrino and antineutrino interactions measured from the largest sets of NC {pi}{sup 0} events collected to date. The principal result consists of differential cross sections measured as functions of {pi}{sup 0} momentum and {pi}{sup 0} angle averaged over the neutrino flux at MiniBooNE. We find total cross sections of (4.76 {+-} 0.05{sub stat} {+-} 0.76{sub sys}) x 10{sup -40} cm{sup 2}/nucleon at a mean energy of E{sub {nu}} = 808 MeV and (1.48 {+-} 0.05{sub stat} {+-} 0.23{sub sys}) x 10{sup -40} cm{sup 2}/nucleon at a mean energy of E{sub {nu}} = 664 MeV for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} induced production, respectively. In addition, we have included measurements of the neutrino and antineutrino total cross sections for incoherent exclusive NC 1{pi}{sup 0} production corrected for the effects of final state interactions to compare to prior results.
Woolley, R.D.
1998-09-08
A method and apparatus are disclosed for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators. 6 figs.
Woolley, Robert D.
1998-01-01
A method and apparatus for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators.
Price, G.W.
1954-08-01
A protector device is described for use in controlling the pressure within a cyclotron. In particular, an electrical circuit functions to actuate a vacuum pump when a predetermined low pressure is reached and disconnect the pump when the pressure increases abcve a certain value. The principal feature of the control circuit lies in the use of a voltage divider network at the input to a relay control tube comprising two parallel, adjustable resistances wherein one resistor is switched into the circuit when the relay connects the pump to a power source. With this arrangement the relay is energized at one input level received from a sensing element within the cyclotron chamber and is de-energized when a second input level, representing the higher pressure limit, is reached.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Corrective Measures Process Corrective Measures Process We follow a stringent corrective measures process for legacy cleanup. August 1, 2013 Corrective measures process Corrective measures process
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Corrective Measures Process Corrective Measures Process We follow a stringent corrective measures process for legacy cleanup. August 1, 2013 Corrective measures process Corrective...
Moisture measurement for high-level-waste tanks using copper activation probe in cone penetrometer
Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Reeves, J.H.; Wilson, W.E.
1995-10-01
Laboratory tests have established the feasibility of using neutron activation of copper as a means for measuring the moisture in Hanford`s high-level radioactive waste tanks. The performance of the neutron activation technique to measure moisture is equivalent to the neutron moisture gauges or neutron logs commonly used in commercial well-logging. The principle difference is that the activation of {sup 64}Cu (t{sub 1/2} = 12.7 h) replaces the neutron counters used in moisture gauges or neutron logs. For application to highly radioactive waste tanks, the Cu activation technique has the advantage that it is insensitive to very strong gamma radiation fields or high temperatures. In addition, this technique can be deployed through tortuous paths or in confined spaces such as within the bore of a cone penetrometer. However, the results are not available in ``real-time``. The copper probe`s sensitivity to moisture was measured using simulated tank waste of known moisture content. This report describes the preparation of the simulated waste mixtures and the experiments performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the neutron activation technique. These experiments included determination of the calibration curve of count rate versus moisture content using a single copper probe, measurement of the calibration curve based on ``near-field `` to ``far-field`` counting ratios using a multiple probe technique, and profiling the activity of the copper probe as a function of the vertical height within a simulated waste barrel.
Boroski, W.N.; Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.
1989-09-01
Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) were conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) under three experimental test arrangements. Each experiment measured the thermal performance of a 32-layer MLI blanket instrumented with twenty foil sensors to measure interstitial layer temperatures. Heat leak values and sensor temperatures were monitored during transient and steady state conditions under both design and degraded insulating vacuums. Heat leak values were measured using a heatmeter. MLI interstitial layer temperatures were measured using Cryogenic Linear Temperature Sensors (CLTS). Platinum resistors monitored system temperatures. High vacuum was measured using ion gauges; degraded vacuum employed thermocouple gauges. A four-wire system monitored instrumentation sensors and calibration heaters. An on-line computerized data acquisition system recorded and processes data. This paper reports on the instrumentation and experimental preparation used in carrying out these measurements. In complement with this paper is an associate paper bearing the same title head, but with the title extension Part 2: Laboratory results (300K--80K). 13 refs., 7 figs.
NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Measurement Process
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Measurement Process For devices that come to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for performance measurement, we typically follow a procedure that ensures quality measurement and follow-up. After logging in the device based on information from a cover letter or request form, we measure its area, which is crucial for determining its efficiency. We then obtain its spectral responsivity. For cells, we measure the spectral responsivity with one of two systems. For modules, however,
Vacuum Systems Consensus Guideline for Department of Energy Accelerator Laboratories
Casey,R.; Haas, E.; Hseuh, H-C.; Kane, S.; Lessard, E.; Sharma, S.; Collins, J.; Toter, W. F.; Olis, D. R.; Pushka, D. R.; Ladd, P.; Jobe, R. K.
2008-09-09
Vacuum vessels, including evacuated chambers and insulated jacketed dewars, can pose a potential hazard to equipment and personnel from collapse, rupture due to back-fill pressurization, or implosion due to vacuum window failure. It is therefore important to design and operate vacuum systems in accordance with applicable and sound engineering principles. 10 CFR 851 defines requirements for pressure systems that also apply to vacuum vessels subject to back-fill pressurization. Such vacuum vessels are potentially subject to the requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII (hereafter referred to as the 'Code'). However, the scope of the Code excludes vessels with internal or external operating pressure that do not exceed 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). Therefore, the requirements of the Code do not apply to vacuum systems provided that adequate pressure relief assures that the maximum internal pressure within the vacuum vessel is limited to less than 15 psig from all credible pressure sources, including failure scenarios. Vacuum vessels that cannot be protected from pressurization exceeding 15 psig are subject to the requirements of the Code. 10 CFR 851, Appendix A, Part 4, Pressure Safety, Section C addresses vacuum system requirements for such cases as follows: (c) When national consensus codes are not applicable (because of pressure range, vessel geometry, use of special materials, etc.), contractors must implement measures to provide equivalent protection and ensure a level of safety greater than or equal to the level of protection afforded by the ASME or applicable state or local code. Measures must include the following: (1) Design drawings, sketches, and calculations must be reviewed and approved by a qualified independent design professional (i.e., professional engineer). Documented organizational peer review is acceptable. (2) Qualified personnel must be used to perform examinations and
Kim, Minsuk
2004-12-01
The authors present the results of a search for anomalous production of diphoton events with large missing transverse energy using the Collider Detector at Fermilab. In 202 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV they observe no candidate events, with an expected standard model background of 0.27 {+-} 0.07(stat) {+-} 0.10(syst) events. The results exclude a lightest chargino of mass less than 167 GeV/c{sup 2}, and lightest neutralino of 93 GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% confidence level in a gauge-mediated supersymmetry-breaking model with a light gravitino.