Sample records for gateway solar thin

  1. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  2. Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Database: A Gateway to Experimental Data Monitoring Projects for PV at the Florida Solar Energy Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    This site is the gateway to experimental data monitoring projects for photovoltaic (PV) at the Florida Solar Energy Center. The website and the database were designed to facilitate and standardize the processes for archiving, analyzing and accessing data collected from dozens of operational PV systems and test facilities monitored by FSEC's Photovoltaics and Distributed Generation Division. [copied from http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/research/photovoltaics/data_monitoring/index.htm

  3. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-for thin-film a-si:h solar cells. Progress in Photovoltaics,in thin-film silicon solar cells. Optics Communications,

  4. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 86:207–216, 2005. [silicon thin films and solar cells. Journal of Appliedof a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-

  5. NERSC Science Gateways

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    QCD, Materials Science, Science Gateways About Science Gateways A science gateway is a web based interface to access HPC computers and storage systems. Gateways allow science...

  6. US polycrystalline thin film solar cells program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)) [Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cells Program, part of the United States National Photovoltaic Program, performs R D on copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride thin films. The objective of the Program is to support research to develop cells and modules that meet the US Department of Energy's long-term goals by achieving high efficiencies (15%-20%), low-cost ($50/m{sup 2}), and long-time reliability (30 years). The importance of work in this area is due to the fact that the polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells and modules have made rapid advances. They have become the leading thin films for PV in terms of efficiency and stability. The US Department of Energy has increased its funding through an initiative through the Solar Energy Research Institute in CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe with subcontracts to start in Spring 1990. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  8. A survey of thin-film solar photovoltaic industry & technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grama, Sorin

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of solar cell technology using so-called thin-film solar photovoltaic material has the potential to make a great impact on our lives. Because it uses very little or no silicon at all, thin- film (TF) solar ...

  9. Tax Credits Give Thin-Film Solar a Big Boost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California company will expand its capacity to make its thin-film solar panels by more than ten times, thanks to two Recovery Act tax credits.

  10. Modeling of thin-film solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinstein, Lee Adragon

    Recent advances in solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) performance have raised their prospect as a potential technology to convert solar energy into electricity. This paper presents an analysis of thin-film STEGs. ...

  11. GATEWAY Demonstrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE GATEWAY demonstrations showcase high-performance LED products for general illumination in a variety of commercial and residential applications. Demonstration results provide real-world experience and data on state-of-the-art solid-state lighting (SSL) product performance and cost effectiveness. These results connect DOE technology procurement efforts with large-volume purchasers and provide buyers with reliable data on product performance.

  12. Mode Splitting for Efficient Plasmoinc Thin-film Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tong; Jiang, Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an efficient plasmonic structure consisting of metal strips and thin-film silicon for solar energy absorption. We numerically demonstrate the absorption enhancement in symmetrical structure based on the mode coupling between the localized plasmonic mode in Ag strip pair and the excited waveguide mode in silicon slab. Then we explore the method of symmetry-breaking to excite the dark modes that can further enhance the absorption ability. We compare our structure with bare thin-film Si solar cell, and results show that the integrated quantum efficiency is improved by nearly 90% in such thin geometry. It is a promising way for the solar cell.

  13. GATEWAY ENTERPRISES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling7111AWell:F E ," POST 2,000LIST OFKC GATEWAY

  14. DISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Markus Gloeckler PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin-film solar cells have the potential to be an important

  15. Accounting for Localized Defects in the Optoelectronic Design of Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deceglie, Michael G.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    silicon thin film solar cells," Solar Energy, vol. 77, pp.nano-crystalline silicon n–i–p solar cells," Solar EnergyMaterials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, pp. H. Sakai, T.

  16. Efficient light trapping structure in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    Thin film silicon solar cells are believed to be promising candidates for continuing cost reduction in photovoltaic panels because silicon usage could be greatly reduced. Since silicon is an indirect bandgap semiconductor, ...

  17. Recent technological advances in thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Zwelbel, K.; Surek, T.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-efficiency, low-cost thin film solar cells are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. This paper reviews the substantial advances made by several thin film solar cell technologies, namely, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline silicon. Recent examples of utility demonstration projects of these emerging materials are also discussed. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  18. DISSERTATION ELECTRON-REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION ELECTRON-REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Kuo-Jui Hsiao ELECTRON- REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS-FILM SOLAR CELLS The CdTe thin-film solar cell has a large absorption coefficient and high theoretical

  19. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 58 (1999) 199}208 The behaviour of Na implanted into Mo thin "lms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 58 (1999) 199}208 The behaviour of Na implanted into Mo thin, As ngstro( m Solar Center, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden Department of Materials Science Mo thin "lms used as back contacts for Cu(In,Ga)Se solar cells. The samples were analysed

  20. Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effort to shift U.S. energy reliance from fossil fuels to renewable sources has spurred companies to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of their solar photovoltaics...

  1. EARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    materials for thin film solar cells such as CdTe and CIGS suffer from concerns over resource scarcity (eEARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS Yun Seog Lee 1 conversion efficiencies should be increased. In terms of reducing module cost, thin film solar cells

  2. Metal-black scattering centers to enhance light harvesting by thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    Metal-black scattering centers to enhance light harvesting by thin-film solar cells Deep Panjwania as scattering centers to increase the effective optical thickness of thin-film solar cells. The particular type. Gold-black was deposited on commercial thin-film solar cells using a thermal evaporator in nitrogen

  3. Science Gateway Databases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Databases Science Database Services NERSC supports the provisioning of databases to hold large scientific datasets, as part of the science gateways effort. Data-centric...

  4. Substrate for thin silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic device for converting solar energy into electrical signals comprises a substrate, a layer of photoconductive semiconductor material grown on said substrate, wherein the substrate comprises an alloy of boron and silicon, the boron being present in a range of from 0.1 to 1.3 atomic percent, the alloy having a lattice constant substantially matched to that of the photoconductive semiconductor material and a resistivity of less than 1.times.10.sup.-3 ohm-cm.

  5. Substrate for thin silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1995-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic device for converting solar energy into electrical signals comprises a substrate, a layer of photoconductive semiconductor material grown on said substrate, wherein the substrate comprises an alloy of boron and silicon, the boron being present in a range of from 0.1 to 1.3 atomic percent, the alloy having a lattice constant substantially matched to that of the photoconductive semiconductor material and a resistivity of less than 1{times}10{sup {minus}3} ohm-cm. 4 figures.

  6. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  7. Band Gap Energy of Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cell Absorbers Determined by Soft X-Ray Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    8] J.R. Tuttle et al. , Solar Cells 30, 21 (1991). [9] D.OF CHALCOPYRITE THIN FILM SOLAR CELL ABSORBERS DETERMINED BYchalcopyrite thin film solar cell absorbers significantly

  8. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L.; Zweibel, K.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R.L.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the recent technological advances in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules. Three thin film materials, namely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) and silicon films (Si-films) have made substantial technical progress, both in device and module performance. Early stability results for modules tested outdoors by various groups worldwide are also encouraging. The major global players actively involved in the development of the these technologies are discussed. Technical issues related to these materials are elucidated. Three 20-kW polycrystalline thin-film demonstration photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to be installed in Davis, CA in 1992 as part of the Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) project. This is a joint project between the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), California Energy Commission (CEC), and a utility consortium.

  9. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L.; Zweibel, K.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R.L.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the recent technological advances in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules. Three thin film materials, namely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) and silicon films (Si-films) have made substantial technical progress, both in device and module performance. Early stability results for modules tested outdoors by various groups worldwide are also encouraging. The major global players actively involved in the development of the these technologies are discussed. Technical issues related to these materials are elucidated. Three 20-kW polycrystalline thin-film demonstration photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to be installed in Davis, CA in 1992 as part of the Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) project. This is a joint project between the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG E), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), California Energy Commission (CEC), and a utility consortium.

  10. LBIC ANALYSIS OF THIN-FILM POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS James R. Sites and Timothy J. Nagle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    -film polycrystalline solar cells, such as CdTe and CIGS, and the overall performance of these cells. LBIC is uniquelyLBIC ANALYSIS OF THIN-FILM POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS James R. Sites and Timothy J. Nagle Physics response map, was developed and used to map defects in thin-film solar cells [4]. Improvements to the two

  11. Silicon epitaxy below 200C: Towards thin crystalline solar cells R. Carioua,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Silicon epitaxy below 200°C: Towards thin crystalline solar cells R. Carioua,b , R. Ruggeria,c , P spectroscopic ellipsometry and HRTEM measurements. Moreover, we build heterojunction solar cells with intrinsic of current devices. KEYWORDS Silicon epitaxy, RF-PECVD, low temperature, thin crystalline solar cells

  12. Optimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to bring down the cost of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells has gained huge momentum, and many strategiesOptimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell-wave approach was used to compute the plane-wave absorptance of a thin-film tandem solar cell with a metallic

  13. The ultra-thin solar cells that could generate power through windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    international companies are making thin-film solar cells, but they are typically less efficient at convertingThe ultra-thin solar cells that could generate power through windows By Claire Bates Last updated at 11:11 AM on 06th October 2008 Solar cells that are transparent enough to be used to tint windows

  14. Industrial Upscaling of CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells , A. Bosioa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    , these devices are already produced in modules of 60x120 cm2 by two companies, namely Antec Solar in GermanyIndustrial Upscaling of CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells N. Romeoa , A. Bosioa , A. Romeob , S, ABSTRACT: CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells, since they are made with easily scalable techniques

  15. DISSERTATION ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF NON-UNIFORMITIES ON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF NON-UNIFORMITIES ON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS AND MODULES WITH 2-D-FILM SOLAR CELLS AND MODULES WITH 2-D SIMULATIONS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS-UNIFORMITIES ON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS AND MODULES WITH 2-D SIMULATIONS Clean and environmentally friendly photovoltaic

  16. Extended light scattering model incorporating coherence for thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    Extended light scattering model incorporating coherence for thin-film silicon solar cells Thomas film solar cells. The model integrates coherent light propagation in thin layers with a direct, non efficiency spectra of state-of-the-art microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The simulations agree very well

  17. Focused ion beam specimen preparation for electron holography of electrically biased thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    solar cells M. Duchamp1 , M. den Hertog2 , R. Imlau1 , C. B. Boothroyd1 , A. Kovács1 , A. H. Tavabi1, biased TEM specimen, thin film solar cell, FIB Thin films of hydrogenated Si (Si:H) can be used as active absorber layers in solar cells deposited on low cost substrates using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour

  18. METAL BLACKS AS SCATTERING CENTERS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    METAL BLACKS AS SCATTERING CENTERS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS by DEEP R surface of thin-film solar cells to improve efficiency. The principle is that scattering, which film solar cell. The particular types of particles investigated here are known as "metal-black", well

  19. Methods for fabricating thin film III-V compound solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pan, Noren; Hillier, Glen; Vu, Duy Phach; Tatavarti, Rao; Youtsey, Christopher; McCallum, David; Martin, Genevieve

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention utilizes epitaxial lift-off in which a sacrificial layer is included in the epitaxial growth between the substrate and a thin film III-V compound solar cell. To provide support for the thin film III-V compound solar cell in absence of the substrate, a backing layer is applied to a surface of the thin film III-V compound solar cell before it is separated from the substrate. To separate the thin film III-V compound solar cell from the substrate, the sacrificial layer is removed as part of the epitaxial lift-off. Once the substrate is separated from the thin film III-V compound solar cell, the substrate may then be reused in the formation of another thin film III-V compound solar cell.

  20. High efficiency thin film silicon solar cells with novel light trapping : principle, design and processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Lirong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One major efficiency limiting factor in thin film solar cells is weak absorption of long wavelength photons due to the limited optical path length imposed by the thin film thickness. This is especially severe in Si because ...

  1. Anti-reflection zinc oxide nanocones for higher efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailoa, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film silicon solar cells, which are commonly made from microcrystalline silicon ([mu]c-Si) or amorphous silicon (a-Si), have been considered inexpensive alternatives to thick polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) solar ...

  2. 1. INTRODUCTION Polycrystalline CdTe thin films solar cells have shown long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    for the solar cell, therefore high specific power (ratio of out- put power to the weight) solar cells]. The high specific power is an important issue for space solar cells: if satellites are lighter1. INTRODUCTION Polycrystalline CdTe thin films solar cells have shown long term stable performance

  3. Identification, Characterization, and Implications of Shadow Degradation in Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    cells [4]. The problem of shadowing of solar panels has been studied for quite some time; however of a solar cell, showing the dark and light current components. (b) The series connection in a solar panelIdentification, Characterization, and Implications of Shadow Degradation in Thin Film Solar Cells

  4. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Final Technical Report for the Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Final Technical Report for the Period This is the final report covering approximately 42 months of this subcontract for research on high efficiency CdTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. Phases I and II have

  5. Thermodynamic limits of nanophotonic light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    with solar tracking may realize the predicted JSC improvement. PACS Nos.: 88.40.jj, 42.79.Dj, 88.05.De to a significant improvement in light-trapping for cells used with solar trackingARTICLE Thermodynamic limits of nanophotonic light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells1 Brian

  6. Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    conversion efficiency of solar cells made from this material [1]. One of the special qualities of the CIGS improve the solar cell performance. In many of the different CIGS fabrication techniques, an in depthDiffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells O. Lundberga,*, J. Lua , A

  7. How much can guided modes enhance absorption in thin solar cells?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    How much can guided modes enhance absorption in thin solar cells? Peter N. Saeta,1,2 Vivian E-backed solar cells caused by dipole scatterers embedded in the absorbing layer is studied using a semi limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510­519 (1961). 2. C. H. Henry

  8. Dual gratings for enhanced light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Ireland * christian.schuster@york.ac.uk Abstract: Thin film solar cells benefit significantly from; (350.6050) Solar energy. References and links 1. M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, and S. R. Wenham, "Progress and outlook for high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65

  9. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Manufacturer of Thin-Film Solar Modules (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    First Solar, Inc. has been collaborating with NREL since 1991, advancing its thin-film cadmium telluride solar technology to grow from a startup company to become one of the world's largest manufacturers of solar modules, and the world's largest manufacturer of thin-film solar modules.

  10. Flexible Solar-Energy Harvesting System on Plastic with Thin-film LC Oscillators Operating Above ft for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flexible Solar-Energy Harvesting System on Plastic with Thin-film LC Oscillators Operating Above ft- This paper presents an energy-harvesting system consisting of amorphous-silicon (a-Si) solar cells and thin of the energy-harvesting system. The solar module consists of solar cells in series operating at an output

  11. SiGe thin-film structures for solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bremond, G.; Daami, A.; Laugier, A. [Inst. National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. de Physique de la Matiere] [and others

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to study their applicability as the active base material in Si thin crystalline film solar cell technology, SiGe relaxed layers grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Si substrates are investigated by optical and electrical measurements (TEM, EXD, PL, EBIC). The main results of this work is to point out the improvement of the SiGe active base layer by using smooth Ge graded SiGe buffer layer and remote plasma hydrogenation. TEM, EXD, PL experiments show the effect of the Ge graded buffer layer grown using LPE, by confining the threading dislocations in the SiGe buffer layer close to the Si/SiGe interface. EBIC measurements reveal low recombination activity of dislocations at 300 K providing the diffusion length exceeds the 15 {micro}m layer thickness. The enhanced luminescence of SiGe near bandgap indicates that remote plasma hydrogenation induces a decrease of the non-radiative recombination pathways due to dislocations on CVD layers where defect recombinations dominate as indicated by EBIC measurements. This study points out the importance of controlling relaxed SiGe layers with good minority carrier recombination quality as a key issue for the optimization of new SiGe/Si based solar cells.

  12. Virtual Gateway Network Documentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segall, Adrian

    Virtual Gateway Network Documentation Composed By: Stiven Andre Nikolai Gukov #12;Table of contents.3) VGNET as a network manager 2) VGNET explained 2.1) One PC with multiple Internet access points. 2 both routers. 1.3) VGNET as a network manager Let's look at figure 3 again. The perfect scenario we may

  13. GATEWAY Demonstration Special Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE shares the results of completed GATEWAY demonstration projects, publishing detailed reports that include analysis of data collected, projected energy savings, economic analyses, and user feedback. Report briefs summarize key findings in a quick-scan format. Both the reports and briefs are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  14. Thin Film Solar Cells with Light Trapping Transparent Conducting Oxide Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Tianlin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film solar cells, if film thickness is thinner than the optical absorption length, typically give lower cell performance. For the thinner structure, electric current loss due to light penetration can offset the electric current gain obtained...

  15. Thin Film Solar Cells with Light Trapping Transparent Conducting Oxide Layer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Tianlin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film solar cells, if film thickness is thinner than the optical absorption length, typically give lower cell performance. For the thinner structure, electric current loss due to light penetration can offset the electric current gain obtained...

  16. Efficient Light Trapping in Inverted Nanopyramid Thin Crystalline Silicon Membranes for Solar Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavrokefalos, Anastassios

    Thin-film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells with light-trapping structures can enhance light absorption within the semiconductor absorber layer and reduce material usage. Here we demonstrate that an inverted nanopyramid ...

  17. Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We explore the mechanisms for an efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells. The design combines a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and periodic gratings. Using photonic band theories and numerical ...

  18. Earth abundant materials for high efficiency heterojunction thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buonassisi, Tonio

    We investigate earth abundant materials for thin-film solar cells that can meet tens of terawatts level deployment potential. Candidate materials are identified by combinatorial search, large-scale electronic structure ...

  19. Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed light trapping technology of Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) with Diffraction Grating (DG) and Anti-Reflection Coating (ARC) for thin film Si solar cell was analyzed from the technology, market, and ...

  20. Towards the efficiency limits of silicon solar cells: how thin is too thin?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalczewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is currently possible to fabricate crystalline silicon solar cells with the absorber thickness ranging from a few hundreds of micrometers (conventional wafer-based cells) to devices as thin as $1\\,\\mu\\mathrm{m}$. In this work, we use a model single-junction solar cell to calculate the limits of energy conversion efficiency and estimate the optimal absorber thickness. The limiting efficiency for cells in the thickness range between 40 and $500\\,\\mu\\mathrm{m}$ is very similar and close to 29%. In this regard, we argue that decreasing the thickness below around $40\\,\\mu\\mathrm{m}$ is counter-productive, as it significantly reduces the maximum achievable efficiency, even when optimal light trapping is implemented. We analyse the roles of incomplete light trapping and extrinsic (bulk and surface) recombination mechanisms. For a reasonably high material quality, consistent with present-day fabrication techniques, the optimal thickness is always higher than a few tens of micrometers. We identify incomplete light ...

  1. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3-6,3-7] Chalcopyrite CIGS solar cells, without introducingperformance CISS and CIGS solar cells with efficiencies uptellurium might impede CIGS/CdTe solar cells from reaching

  2. Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veronis, Georgios

    .1063/1.3377791 Thin-film organic solar cells OSCs are a promising candidate for low-cost energy conversion.1­6 HoweverEnhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation up to 50% for such solar cell structures. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. doi:10

  3. CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION ASSISTED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . An industrial exploitation of these properties for solar cell production currently lacks of a cost effectiveCRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer

  4. Enhanced efficiency of thin film solar cells using a shifted dual grating plasmonic structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Uriel

    .5403) Plasmonics; (310.2790) Guided waves. References and links 1. O. Morton, "Solar energy: A new day dawning Society of America OCIS codes: (350.6050) Solar energy; (050.2770) Gratings; (310.0310) Thin films; (250? Silicon valley sunrise," Nature 443(7107), 19­22 (2006). 2. M. A. Green and S. Pillai, "Harnessing

  5. innovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Low-bandgap cells can lose 25% of their power output and efficiency ratings as solar cell operating energy output than a low-bandgap cell with the same wattage or power rating. NREL is a nationalinnovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells Researchers

  6. NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

  7. Enhanced Efficiency of Light-Trapping Nanoantenna Arrays for Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simovski, Constantin R; Voroshilov, Pavel M; Guzhva, Michael E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a novel concept of efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film solar cells based on arrays of planar nanoantennas operating far from plasmonic resonances. The operation principle of our structures relies on the excitation of chessboard-like collective modes of the nanoantenna arrays with the field localized between the neighboring metal elements. We demonstrated theoretically substantial enhancement of solar-cell short-circuit current by the designed light-trapping structure in the whole spectrum range of the solar-cell operation compared to conventional structures employing anti-reflecting coating. Our approach provides a general background for a design of different types of efficient broadband light-trapping structures for thin-film solar-cell technologically compatible with large-area thin-film fabrication techniques.

  8. Gateway Design for Data Gathering Sensor Raluca Musaloiu-E.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir, Yair

    such a gateway requires special energy sources, such as rechargeable batteries coupled with solar panels become viable alternatives in terms of their cost/performance ratio. I. INTRODUCTION It is considerably, that increase the cost and complicate the deployment and maintenance of the network. We present an attempt

  9. Gateway Issue 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    other holders of STAR TREK copyri ghts. tE1JIo.TICN To the Me.o'1l o.f Rod Serling and to 'the other threesOMe' Miche!!e 11o!-.. (another Sp~-.fan - . !ove ya. IGATEWAY, where the Enterprise crew sails strange, uncharted regions of space, finding things they've never imagined... except maybe in their dreams ... uh, nightmares. This time, along with Kirk, Spock and McCoy, we share an adventure or two...

  10. Light Trapping for Thin Silicon Solar Cells by Femtosecond Laser Texturing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, B. G.; Lin, Y. T.; Sher, M. J.; Mazur, E.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Femtosecond laser texturing is used to create nano- to micron-scale surface roughness that strongly enhances light-trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells. Light trapping is crucial for thin solar cells where a single light-pass through the absorber is insufficient to capture the weakly absorbed red and near-infrared photons, especially with an indirect-gap semiconductor absorber layer such as crystalline Si which is less than 20 um thick. We achieve enhancement of the optical absorption from light-trapping that approaches the Yablonovitch limit.

  11. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structuresTowards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping February 2014; published online 3 March 2014) Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged

  12. Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells S. Dongaonkar,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells S. Dongaonkar,1,a J. D. Servaites thin-film solar cell types: hydrogenated amorphous silicon a-Si:H p-i-n cells, organic bulk heterojunction BHJ cells, and Cu In,Ga Se2 CIGS cells. All three device types exhibit a significant shunt leakage

  13. Recent improvements in materials for thin GaAs and multibandgap solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benner, J.P.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Efficiency Concepts Program at SERI supports research on III-V compound semiconductors with the objective of achieving the maximum attainable photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for terrestrial solar electric power. The outcome of this research may also affect the future of space photovoltaic cells. While the interest in thin-film, high-efficiency solar cells for terrestrial applications is driven principally by consideration of system costs, such cells would also improve the power density of space power arrays.

  14. Real time intelligent process control system for thin film solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Atanasoff

    2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addresses the problem of lower solar conversion efficiency and waste in the typical solar cell manufacturing process. The work from the proposed development will lead toward developing a system which should be able to increase solar panel conversion efficiency by an additional 12-15% resulting in lower cost panels, increased solar technology adoption, reduced carbon emissions and reduced dependency on foreign oil. All solar cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower solar energy adoption and extends the time solar cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film solar panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical control system for solar cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large solar panels, since it would require significant equipment refurbishing needed for installation of multiple separate ellipsometric systems, and development of customized software to control all of them simultaneously. The proposed optical monitoring system comprises AccuStrata’s fiber optics sensors installed inside the thin film deposition equipment, a hardware module of different components (beyond the scope of this project) and our software program with iterative predicting capability able to control material bandgap and surface roughness as films are deposited. Our miniature fiber optics monitoring sensors are installed inside the vacuum chamber compartments in very close proximity where the independent layers are deposited (an option patented by us in 2003). The optical monitoring system measures two of the most important parameters of the photovoltaic thin films during deposition on a moving solar panel - material bandgap and surface roughness. In this program each sensor array consists of two fiber optics sensors monitoring two independent areas of the panel under deposition. Based on the monitored parameters and their change in time and from position to position on the panel, the system is able to provide to the equipment operator immediate information about the thin films as they are deposited. This DoE Supply Chain program is considered the first step towards the development of intelligent optical control system capable of dynamically adjusting the manufacturing process “on-the-fly” in order to achieve better performance. The proposed system will improve the thin film solar cell manufacturing by improving the quality of the individual solar cells and will allow for the manufacturing of more consistent and uniform products resulting in higher solar conversion efficiency and manufacturing yield. It will have a significant impact on the multibillion-dollar thin film solar market. We estimate that the financial impact of these improvements if adopted by only 10% of the industry ($7.7 Billion) would result in about $1.5 Billion in savings by 2015 (at the assumed 20% improvement). This can b

  15. 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, 3-7 September 2007 Cu(InGa)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, 3-7 September 2007 Cu(InGa)Se2 THIN from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Global Solar Energy, we examined the life-cycle Cd-FILM SOLAR CELLS: COMPARATIVE LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS OF BUFFER LAYERS Vasilis M. Fthenakis and Hyung Chul Kim

  16. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  17. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PV�s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a mixture of solution and physical vapor deposition processing, but these films lacked the p-type doping levels that are required to make decent solar cells. Over the course of the project PLANT PV was able to fabricate efficient CIGS solar cells (8.7%) but could not achieve equivalent performance using AIGS. During the nine-month grant PLANT PV set up a variety of thin film characterization tools (e.g. drive-level capacitance profiling) at the Molecular Foundry, a Department of Energy User Facility, that are now available to both industrial and academic researchers via the grant process. PLANT PV was also able to develop the back end processing of thin film solar cells at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs to achieve 8.7% efficient CIGS solar cells. This processing development will be applied to other types of thin film PV cells at the Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. While PLANT PV was able to study AIGS film growth and optoelectronic properties we concluded that AIGS produced using these methods would have a limited efficiency and would not be commercially feasible. PLANT PV did not apply for the Phase II of this grant.

  18. Low cost and high performance light trapping structure for thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-scaled dielectric and metallic structures are popular light tapping structures in thin-film solar cells. However, a large parasitic absorption in those structures is unavoidable. Most schemes based on such structures also involve the textured active layers that may bring undesirable degradation of the material quality. Here we propose a novel and cheap light trapping structure based on the prism structured SiO2 for thin-film solar cells, and a flat active layer is introduced purposefully. Such a light trapping structure is imposed by the geometrical shape optimization to gain the best optical benefit. By examining our scheme, it is disclosed that the conversion efficiency of the flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted to exceed the currently certified highest value. As the cost of SiO2-based light trapping structure is much cheaper and easier to fabricate than other materials, this proposal would have essential impact and wide applications in thin-film solar cells.

  19. A Review of Thin Film Crystalline Silicon for Solar Cell Applications. Part 1 : Native Substrates.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Review of Thin Film Crystalline Silicon for Solar Cell Applications. Part 1 : Native Substrates. Michelle J. Mc Cann, Kylie R. Catchpole, Klaus J. Weber and Andrew W. Blakers Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems Engineering Department, The Australian National University, ACT 0200, Australia. Email : michelle

  20. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  1. Sputtered Molybdenum Bilayer Back Contact for Copper Indium Diselenide-Based Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    of the CIS or CIGS solar cell structure (not to scale). In these investigations, however, the metal layers-Film Solar Cells John H. Scofield1, A. Duda, and D. Albin National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole-of-the-art polycrystalline copper indium gallium diselenide solar cells with good results. Thin Solid Films, 260 (1), pp. 26

  2. INCREASED CELL EFFICIENCY IN InGaAs THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH DIELECTRIC AND METAL BACK REFLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    INCREASED CELL EFFICIENCY IN InGaAs THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH DIELECTRIC AND METAL BACK REFLECTORS solar cells enable very high photovoltaic efficiencies by virtue of employing different band gap materials in series- connected tandem cells to access the full solar spectrum. Researchers focused

  3. THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS AND A REVIEW OF RECENT RESULTS ON GaAs By PAUL RAPPAPORT,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    154. THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS AND A REVIEW OF RECENT RESULTS ON GaAs By PAUL RAPPAPORT, RCA PHYSIQUE APPLIQUÃ?E TOME 1, SEPTEMBRE 1966, PAGE ' Two of the most urgent requirements of future solar cells are lower cost and lighter weight. Pre- sent cost of solar cells is in the s 200 to $ 400/watt range, which

  4. Hot-Wire Deposition of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline SiGe Films for Thin-Film Si Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    Hot-Wire Deposition of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline SiGe Films for Thin-Film Si Based Solar Cells bandgap absorber in an a-Si/a-SiGe/nc-SiGe(nc- Si) triple-junction solar cell due to its higher optical in an a-Si based multiple- junction solar cell. 1. INTRODUCTION Narrow bandgap amorphous SiGe (a

  5. Thin-film solar cell fabricated on a flexible metallic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, John R.; Noufi, Rommel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  6. Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, J. R.; Noufi, R.; Hasoon, F. S.

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  7. Thin film solar cell configuration and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menezes, Shalini

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new photovoltaic device configuration based on an n-copper indium selenide absorber and a p-type window is disclosed. A fabrication method to produce this device on flexible or rigid substrates is described that reduces the number of cell components, avoids hazardous materials, simplifies the process steps and hence the costs for high volume solar cell manufacturing.

  8. Canada's Arctic Gateway: Discussion Paper Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeff

    Canada's Arctic Gateway: Discussion Paper Summary September 2010 The following summarizes key Canada's Arctic Gateway a reality in terms of both national public policy and international presence the Government of Canada's national gateway policy framework. This discussion paper's use of the term "Arctic

  9. Effects of Radiative Diffusion on Thin Flux Tubes in Turbulent Solar-like Convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Maria A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the combined effects of convection and radiative diffusion on the evolution of thin magnetic flux tubes in the solar interior. Radiative diffusion is the primary supplier of heat to convective motions in the lower convection zone, and it results in a heat input per unit volume of magnetic flux tubes that has been ignored by many previous thin flux tube studies. We use a thin flux tube model subject to convection taken from a rotating spherical shell of turbulent, solar-like convection as described by Weber, Fan, and Miesch (2011, Astrophys. J., 741, 11; 2013, Solar Phys., 287, 239), now taking into account the influence of radiative heating on flux tubes of large-scale active regions. Our simulations show that flux tubes of less than or equal to 60 kG subject to solar-like convective flows do not anchor in the overshoot region, but rather drift upward due to the increased buoyancy of the flux tube earlier in its evolution as a result of the inclusion of radiative diffusion. Flux tubes of magnetic fie...

  10. Damage mechanisms in thin film solar cells during sputtering deposition of transparent conductive coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Qihua; Liao Xianbo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Deng, Michael [Xunlight Corporation, 3145 Nebraska Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43607 (United States); Deng Xunming [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Xunlight Corporation, 3145 Nebraska Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43607 (United States)

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) based thin film solar cell grown on flexible stainless steel substrate is one of the most promising energy conversion devices in the future. This type of solar cell uses a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film as top electrode. It has been a widely accepted opinion that the radio frequency sputtering deposition of the TCO film produces a higher yield than direct current sputtering, and the reason is not clear. Here we show that the damage to the solar cell during the sputtering process is caused by a reverse bias applied to the n-i-p junction. This reverse bias is related to the characteristics of plasma discharge. The mechanism we reveal may significantly affect the solar cell process.

  11. Characterization of the Electronic and Chemical Structure at the Thin Film Solar Cell Interfaces: June 2005 -- June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heske, C.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study using photoelectron spectroscopy, inverse photoemission, and X-ray absorption and emission to derive the electronic structure of interfaces in CIGSS and CdTe thin-film solar cells.

  12. Low-cost, deterministic quasi-periodic photonic structures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    Light trapping has been an important issue for thin film silicon solar cells because of the low absorption coefficient in the near infrared range. In this paper, we present a photonic structure which combines anodic aluminum ...

  13. Atmospheric performance of the special-purpose Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) thin-airfoil family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tangler, J; Smith, B; Jager, D; Olsen, T

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), in cooperation with SeaWest Energy Group, has completed extensive atmospheric testing of the special-purpose SERI thin-airfoil family during the 1990 wind season. The purpose of this test program was to experimentally verify the predicted performance characteristics of the thin-airfoil family on a geometrically optimized blade, and to compare it to original-equipment blades under atmospheric wind conditions. The tests were run on two identical Micon 65/13 horizontal-axis wind turbines installed side-by-side in a wind farm. The thin-airfoil family 7.96 m blades were installed on one turbine, and AeroStar 7.41 m blades were installed on the other. This paper presents final performance results of the side-by-side comparative field test for both clean and dirty blade conditions. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Angular behavior of the absorption limit in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naqavi, Ali; Söderström, Karin; Battaglia, Corsin; Paeder, Vincent; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Ballif, Christophe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the angular behavior of the upper bound of absorption provided by the guided modes in thin film solar cells. We show that the 4n^2 limit can be potentially exceeded in a wide angular and wavelength range using two-dimensional periodic thin film structures. Two models are used to estimate the absorption enhancement; in the first one, we apply the periodicity condition along the thickness of the thin film structure but in the second one, we consider imperfect confinement of the wave to the device. To extract the guided modes, we use an automatized procedure which is established in this work. Through examples, we show that from the optical point of view, thin film structures have a high potential to be improved by changing their shape. Also, we discuss the nature of different optical resonances which can be potentially used to enhance light trapping in the solar cell. We investigate the two different polarization directions for one-dimensional gratings and we show that the transverse magnetic pola...

  15. 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition 1.BO11.2 DOWN CONVERTER DEVICE COMBINING RARE-EARTH DOPED THIN LAYER AND PHOTONIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COMBINING RARE-EARTH DOPED THIN LAYER AND PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FOR C-SI BASED SOLAR CELL Thierry Deschamps1 of the spectrum, hence demonstrating the relevance of such an approach. Keywords: Thin Film Solar Cell reducing the use of raw material, meaning the PV cell cost. Concerning the crystalline silicon-based solar

  16. DISORDER ENGINEERING FOR LIGHT-TRAPPING IN THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS P. Kowalczewski, M. Liscidini, and L.C. Andreani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at the significantly reduced computational cost. 3 TAILORING THE ROUGHNESS FOR LIGHT- TRAPPING Solar cell structureDISORDER ENGINEERING FOR LIGHT-TRAPPING IN THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS P. Kowalczewski, M. Liscidini: In this work we focus on randomly rough textures for light-trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells. We use

  17. An Unconventional Route to High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells via Embedding Graphitic Thin Films into TiO2 Nanoparticle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    An Unconventional Route to High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells via Embedding Graphitic Thin into the conventional dye- sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), resulting in a remarkably improved cell efficiency due to its followed by direct carbonization. For dye-sensitized TiO2 based solar cells containing carbon/TiO2 thin

  18. Structural and chemical investigations of CBD-and PVD-CdS buffer layers and interfaces in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    (In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells D. Abou-Rasa,b,*, G. Kostorza , A. Romeob,1 , D. Rudmannb , A Available online 8 December 2004 Abstract It is known that high-efficiency thin film solar cells based on Cu in efficiencies of solar cells with CBD- and PVD-CdS buffer layers can partly be explained by referring

  19. THE PERFORMANCE OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS EMPLOYING PHOTOVOLTAIC Cu22014x Te-CdTe HETEROJUNCTIONS (1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    195 THE PERFORMANCE OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS EMPLOYING PHOTOVOLTAIC Cu22014x Te the theore- tical optimum for conversion of solar energy by the intrinsic photovoltaic effect and lower degradation rates to penetrating radiation and 2) shorter minority carrier lifetimes are per

  20. Performance and Loss Analyses of High-Efficiency CBD-ZnS/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    1 Performance and Loss Analyses of High-Efficiency CBD-ZnS/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8572, Japan (Received ) KEYWORDS: ZnS buffer, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, thin-film solar cells alternative to CdS in polycrystalline thin-film Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. Cells with efficiency

  1. Thin Single Crystal Silicon Solar Cells on Ceramic Substrates: November 2009 - November 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Ravi, K. V.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this program we have been developing a technology for fabricating thin (< 50 micrometres) single crystal silicon wafers on foreign substrates. We reverse the conventional approach of depositing or forming silicon on foreign substrates by depositing or forming thick (200 to 400 micrometres) ceramic materials on high quality single crystal silicon films ~ 50 micrometres thick. Our key innovation is the fabrication of thin, refractory, and self-adhering 'handling layers or substrates' on thin epitaxial silicon films in-situ, from powder precursors obtained from low cost raw materials. This 'handling layer' has sufficient strength for device and module processing and fabrication. Successful production of full sized (125 mm X 125 mm) silicon on ceramic wafers with 50 micrometre thick single crystal silicon has been achieved and device process flow developed for solar cell fabrication. Impurity transfer from the ceramic to the silicon during the elevated temperature consolidation process has resulted in very low minority carrier lifetimes and resulting low cell efficiencies. Detailed analysis of minority carrier lifetime, metals analysis and device characterization have been done. A full sized solar cell efficiency of 8% has been demonstrated.

  2. Functional requirements for component films in a solar thin-film photovoltaic/thermal panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, David [Power and Energy Research Group, School of Engineering, Northumbria University, Ellison Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The functional requirements of the component films of a solar thin-film photovoltaic/thermal panel were considered. Particular emphasis was placed on the new functions, that each layer is required to perform, in addition to their pre-existing functions. The cut-off wavelength of the window layer, required for solar selectivity, can be achieved with charge carrier concentrations typical of photovoltaic devices, and thus does not compromise electrical efficiency. The upper (semiconductor) absorber layer has a sufficiently high thermal conductivity that there is negligible temperature difference across the film, and thus negligible loss in thermal performance. The lower (cermet) absorber layer can be fabricated with a high ceramic content, to maintain high solar selectivity, without significant increase in electrical resistance. A thin layer of molybdenum-based cermet at the top of this layer can provide an Ohmic contact to the upper absorber layer. A layer of aluminium nitride between the metal substrate and the back metal contact can provide electrical isolation to avoid short-circuiting of series-connected cells, while maintaining a thermal path to the metal substrate and heat extraction systems. Potential problems of differential contraction of heated films and substrates were identified, with a recommendation that fabrication processes, which avoid heating, are preferable. (author)

  3. The Smithsonian American Art Museum GATEWAY Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about using LEDs in a GATEWAY demonstration at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, DC, including an interview with lighting designer Scott Rosenfeld.

  4. Graphene 'gateway' discovery opens possibilities for improved...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dawn Levy Communications 865.576.6448 Graphene 'gateway' discovery opens possibilities for improved energy technologies Computer simulations show a single proton (pink) can cross...

  5. Electron and hole drift mobility measurements on thin film CdTe solar cells Qi Long, Steluta A. Dinca, E. A. Schiff, Ming Yu, and Jeremy Theil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    .1063/1.2220491 Lock-in thermography and nonuniformity modeling of thin-film CdTe solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 729

  6. T-663: Cisco Content Services Gateway ICMP Processing Flaw Lets...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Broadband Wireless Gateway and Cisco IP Transfer Point (ITP), and the Cisco Long Term Evolution (LTE) Gateway are not affected. This vulnerability is documented in Cisco bug ID...

  7. U-219: Symantec Web Gateway Input Validation Flaws Lets Remote...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9: Symantec Web Gateway Input Validation Flaws Lets Remote Users Inject SQL Commands, Execute Arbitrary Commands, and Change User Passwords U-219: Symantec Web Gateway Input...

  8. Thin Film Solar Cells Derived from Sintered Semiconductor Quantum Dots: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-07-00226

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginley, D. S.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NREL/Evident team will develop techniques to fabricate thin film solar cells where the absorption layers comprising the solar cells are derived from sintered semiconductor quantum dots.

  9. Investigation of porous alumina as a self-assembled diffractive element to facilitate light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coronel, Naomi (Naomi Cristina)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film solar cells are currently being investigated as an affordable alternative energy source because of the reduced material cost. However, these devices suffer from low efficiencies, compared to silicon wafer solar ...

  10. Identification of critical stacking faults in thin-film CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Su-Hyun; Walsh, Aron, E-mail: a.walsh@bath.ac.uk [Global E3 Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Butler, Keith T. [Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Soon, Aloysius [Global E3 Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Abbas, Ali; Walls, John M., E-mail: j.m.wall@loughborough.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type semiconductor used in thin-film solar cells. To achieve high light-to-electricity conversion, annealing in the presence of CdCl{sub 2} is essential, but the underlying mechanism is still under debate. Recent evidence suggests that a reduction in the high density of stacking faults in the CdTe grains is a key process that occurs during the chemical treatment. A range of stacking faults, including intrinsic, extrinsic, and twin boundary, are computationally investigated to identify the extended defects that limit performance. The low-energy faults are found to be electrically benign, while a number of higher energy faults, consistent with atomic-resolution micrographs, are predicted to be hole traps with fluctuations in the local electrostatic potential. It is expected that stacking faults will also be important for other thin-film photovoltaic technologies.

  11. Modeling of multilayer SiGe based thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christoffel, E.; Debarge, L.; Slaoui, A. [CNRS, Strasbourg (France). Lab. PHASE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations using PC1D have been performed to demonstrate the viability of crystalline SiGe alloys implementation in thin film solar cells. An optimized structure would consist of a p-type doped SiGe layer, capped with a Si p-n junction at the top, and a Si BSF at the bottom. Further refinements in such cell structure include a gradual compositional profile of the SiGe alloy layer. Compared to a conventional Si thin film cell, up to 5% relative efficiency gain is demonstrated, for a 20 {micro}m thick SiGe layer with less than 10% Ge content, p-type doped to more than 1 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}, and a realistic minority carriers diffusion length of the order of the layer thickness.

  12. A non-resonant dielectric metamaterial for enhancement of thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omelyanovich, Mikhail; Simovski, Constantin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, we have suggested dielectric metamaterial composed as an array of submicron dielectric spheres located on top of an amorphous thin-film solar cell. We have theoretically shown that this metamaterial can decrease the reflection and simultaneously can suppress the transmission through the photovoltaic layer because it transforms the incident plane wave into a set of focused light beams. This theoretical concept has been strongly developed and experimentally confirmed in the present paper. Here we consider the metamaterial for oblique angle illumination, redesign the solar cell and present a detailed experimental study of the whole structure. In contrast to our precedent theoretical study we show that our omnidirectional light-trapping structure may operate better than the optimized flat coating obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  13. Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    of energy. Reducing the overall cost per watt is thus one of the major challenges in solar cell research. The price of an installed solar cell includes both material and processing costs as well as system costs solar cells, material costs account for 40% of the final module price. Recently, thin- film solar cell

  14. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  15. The Roles of Cu Impurity States in CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells Ken K. Chin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , to a better p-type, to insulating, and then to n-type -- is all due to different levels of Cu involvement treatment temperature. #12;2 I. Introduction CdTe based solar panels have emerged in recent years1 The Roles of Cu Impurity States in CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells Ken K. Chin1 , T.A. Gessert2

  16. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledinský, M., E-mail: ledinsky@fzu.cz [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Moulin, E.; Bugnon, G.; Meillaud, F.; Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Ganzerová, K.; Vetushka, A.; Fejfar, A. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy is used as a tool to determine the light-trapping capability of textured ZnO front electrodes implemented in microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon films deposited on superstrates of various roughnesses are characterized by Raman micro-spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths of 442?nm, 514?nm, 633?nm, and 785?nm, respectively. The way to measure quantitatively and with a high level of reproducibility the Raman intensity is described in details. By varying the superstrate texture and with it the light trapping in the ?c-Si:H absorber layer, we find significant differences in the absolute Raman intensity measured in the near infrared wavelength region (where light trapping is relevant). A good agreement between the absolute Raman intensity and the external quantum efficiency of the ?c-Si:H solar cells is obtained, demonstrating the validity of the introduced method. Applications to thin-film solar cells, in general, and other optoelectronic devices are discussed.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL PRECURSOR FOR THE PREPARATION BY SELENIZATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY CuInGaSe2/CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    /CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS N. Romeo1 , A. Bosio1 , V. Canevari2 , R. Tedeschi1 , S. Sivelli1 , A. Solar cells prepared by depositing in sequence on top of the CuInGaSe2 film 60 nm of CdS, 100 nm of pure(InGa)Se2, Thin Films, Selenization 1 INTRODUCTION CuInGaSe2 based solar cells exhibit the highest

  18. Development of Commercial Technology for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Glass: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-209

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has conducted basic research relating to high efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and the method of making solar cells. Two patents have been issued to NREL in the above field. In addition, specific process and metrology tools have been developed by NREL. Applied Optical Sciences Corp. (AOS) has expertise in the manufacture of solar cells and has developed its own unique concentrator technology. AOS wants to complement its solar cell expertise and its concentrator technology by manufacturing flat panel thin film silicon solar cell panels. AOS wants to take NREL's research to the next level, using it to develop commercially viable flat pane, thin film silicon solar cell panels. Such a development in equipment, process, and metrology will likely produce the lowest cost solar cell technology for both commercial and residential use. NREL's fundamental research capability and AOS's technology and industrial background are complementary to achieve this product development.

  19. Micrometer-Thin Crystalline-Silicon Solar Cells Integrating Numerically Optimized 2-D Photonic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Depauw, V; Daif, O El; Gomard, G; Lalouat, L; Drouard, E; Trompoukis, C; Fave, A; Seassal, C; Gordon, I

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2-D photonic crystal was integrated experimentally into a thin-film crystalline-silicon solar cell of 1-{\\mu}m thickness, after numerical optimization maximizing light absorption in the active material. The photonic crystal boosted the short-circuit current of the cell, but it also damaged its open-circuit voltage and fill factor, which led to an overall decrease in performances. Comparisons between modeled and actual optical behaviors of the cell, and between ideal and actual morphologies, show the global robustness of the nanostructure to experimental deviations, but its particular sensitivity to the conformality of the top coatings and the spread in pattern dimensions, which should not be neglected in the optical model. As for the electrical behavior, the measured internal quantum efficiency shows the strong parasitic absorptions from the transparent conductive oxide and from the back-reflector, as well as the negative impact of the nanopattern on surface passivation. Our exemplifying case, thus, illustr...

  20. Spin Coated Plasmonic Nanoparticle Interfaces for Photocurrent Enhancement in Thin Film Si Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Israelowitz, Miriam; Cong, Tao; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticle (NP) arrays of noble metals strongly absorb light in the visible to infrared wavelengths through resonant interactions between the incident electromagnetic field and the metal's free electron plasma. Such plasmonic interfaces enhance light absorption and photocurrent in solar cells. We report a cost effective and scalable room temperature/pressure spin-coating route to fabricate broadband plasmonic interfaces consisting of silver NPs. The NP interface yields photocurrent enhancement (PE) in thin film silicon devices by up to 200% which is significantly greater than previously reported values. For coatings produced from Ag nanoink containing particles with average diameter of 40 nm, an optimal NP surface coverage of 7% was observed. Scanning electron microscopy of interface morphologies revealed that for low surface coverage, particles are well-separated, resulting in broadband PE. At higher surface coverage, formation of particle strings and clusters caused red-shifting of the PE peak and a narro...

  1. Copper and Transparent-Conductor Reflectarray Elements on Thin-Film Solar Cell Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreyer, Philippe; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work addresses the integration of reflectarray antennas (RA) on thin film Solar Cell (SC) panels, as a mean to save real estate, weight, or cost in platforms such as satellites or transportable autonomous antenna systems. Our goal is to design a good RA unit cell in terms of phase response and bandwidth, while simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and low microwave loss, to preserve good SC and RA energy efficiencies, respectively. Since there is a trade-off between the optical transparency and microwave surface conductivity of a conductor, here both standard copper and transparent conductors are considered. The results obtained at the unit cell level demonstrates the feasibility of integrating RA on a thin-film SC, preserving for the first time good performance in terms of both SC and RA efficiency. For instance, measurement at X-band demonstrate families of cells providing a phase range larger than 270{\\deg} with average microwave loss of -2.45dB (resp. -0.25dB) and average optical transpa...

  2. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA) [Bellevue, WA; Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA) [Seattle, WA

    1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order ot about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI{sub 2} chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin ``composition-graded`` layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ({approx_equal}2.5 {mu}m to {approx_equal}5.0 {mu}m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii) a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion occurs (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer. 16 figs.

  4. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI[sub 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1982-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (1) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI[sub 2] chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin composition-graded'' layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ([approx equal]2.5[mu]m to [approx equal]5.0[mu]m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (2), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, is allowed.

  5. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5.mu.m to .congruent.5.0.mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. The BUG BITBUS Universal Gateway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nawrocki, G.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BITBUS Universal Gateway (BUG) provides a unique, cost effective solution to many different computer interface problems. Each BUG node, utilizing ``on board`` intelligence, has the ability to provide a communication link between BITBUS protocol and other computer-signal interfaces. Among them, IEEE-488, RS232, and raw analog and binary signal 1/0. BITBUS is a multidrop, multinode link with the ability to communicate over great distances. By using this method of signal transfer, along with the communication conversion ability of the BUG, one could accomplish such things as the ability to run IEEE-488 instruments over great distances, extend a multidrop links to RS232 instruments, and provide a convenient interface point for remote analog and binary 1/0 signals, all on one homogeneous network. The BUG not only provides this through the wired ``twisted pair`` standard of BITBUS, but extends the ability to fiber optic communications for signal transfer over extreme distances and through electrically ``noisy`` environments.

  7. SSL GATEWAY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DANCE SHOWCASE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video showing side-by-side dance performances with halogen and LED sidelighting as part of the Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY demonstration at the University of Florida.

  8. Edge sharpness Dependence of MNP in plasmonic solar cell In this article we show that in a a-Si ultra thin plsmonic solar cell with silver nano-particle, the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    Edge sharpness Dependence of MNP in plasmonic solar cell *, , In this article we show that in a a-Si ultra thin plsmonic solar cell with silver nano-particle, the absorption of the light can-Si based plasmonic solar cells, the edge sharpness dependence of periodic silver nano-particle is analyzed

  9. Electroless (autocatalytic) nickel-cobalt thin films as solar control coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, S.; Srinivasan, K.N.; Selvam, M. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Tamilnadu (India); Anuradha, S.; Rajendran, S. [Alagappa Univ., Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the deposition of nickel-cobalt-phosphorus coatings by the electroless deposition technique for use as solar control coatings in architectural glazing of buildings. Electroless deposition is characterized by the autocatalytic deposition of a metal/alloy from an aqueous solution of its ions by interaction with a chemical reducing agent. The reducing agent provides electrons for the metal ions to be neutralized. The reduction is initiated by the catalyzed surface of the substrate and continued by the self catalytic activity of the deposited metal/alloy as long as the substrate is immersed in the electroless bath and operating conditions are maintained. Electroless nickel-cobalt-phosphorus thin films were deposited from a solution containing 15 g/l nickel sulphate, 5 g/l cobalt sulphate, 60 g/l ammonium citrate and 25 g/l sodium hypophosphite operating at 30 C, at a pH of 9.5 for two minutes. Electroless nickel-cobalt-phosphorus coatings are found to satisfy the basic requirements of solar control coatings. Autocatalytic deposition technique offers the possibilities of producing large area coatings with low capital investment, stability and good adhesion to glass substrates.

  10. New strategy to promote conversion efficiency using high-index nanostructures in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, DongLin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-scaled metallic or dielectric structures may provide various ways to trap light into thin-film solar cells for improving the conversion efficiency. In most schemes, the textured active layers are involved into light trapping structures that can provide perfect optical benefits but also bring undesirable degradation of electrical performance. Here we propose a novel approach to design high-performance thin-film solar cells. In our strategy, a flat active layer is adopted for avoiding electrical degradation, and an optimization algorithm is applied to seek for an optimized light trapping structure for the best optical benefit. As an example, we show that the efficiency of a flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted close to the certified highest value. It is also pointed out that, by choosing appropriate dielectric materials with high refractive index (>3) and high transmissivity in wavelength region of 350nm-800nm, the conversion efficiency of solar cells can be further enhanced.

  11. Design, fabrication, and analysis of crystalline Si-SiGe heterostructure thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Said, K.; Poortmans, J.; Caymax, M.; Nijs, J.; Debarge, L.; Christoffel, E.; Slaoui, A.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One possible method to improve the efficiency of crystalline silicon (Ci) solar cells is by alloying with germanium (Ge). Although the improved absorption of the alloy leads to a gain in the current, the reduction of the alloy bandgap causes a loss in voltage, which overrides the increased current of the SiGe alloy solar cell. There has been a number of theoretical studies to circumvent this behavior. However, to date there has been no detailed study, which discusses the technological implementation of these concepts in solar cells. In this paper, the design issues of crystalline Si-SiGe heterostructure will be dealt with in an attempt to reduce the effect of the increased dark current of the alloyed cells, while at the same time sustaining the enhancement in the current. The enhanced back surface field at the back p{sup +}-Si/p-SiGe interface reduces the base component of the recombination current of the heterostructure cell if recombination caused by dislocations is neglected. A higher infrared (IR) response which results in a higher short-circuit current (2 mA/cm{sup 2} higher than a reference Si cell) has been recorded for the Si-Si{sub .9}Ge{sub .1}-thin-film structure of 15 {micro}m thickness. The reduction in dark saturation current, which has been predicted based on the theoretical calculations could not be realized in the heterostructure SiGe/Si cell due to the degradation effect of the misfit dislocations that decreases the bulk lifetime, and increases the interface recombination velocity. In a structure which contains a p{sup +}-SiGe buffer layer, and efficiency of 12.5% is achieved for a SiGe cell with 15 {micro}m thickness without texturing or optical confinement, which is about the same as the Si reference cell with equal active thickness, but with a higher short-circuit current. These results, for the first time, experimentally prove that alloying with Ge offers a higher current and might have a room for improving the efficiency of the multijunction solar cells or dual bandgap cells when SiGe is used to convert the IR-part of the spectrum.

  12. Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power May 7, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In Tok, Alaska, the...

  13. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemmon, John P.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Bennett, Wendy D.; Kovarik, Libor

    2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices that contain a thin Ta2O5 film deposited onto the CdS window layer by sputtering. We show that for thicknesses below 5 nm, Ta2O5 films between CdS and CdTe positively affect the solar cell performance, improving JSC, VOC, and the cell power conversion efficiency despite the insulating nature of the interlayer material. Using the Ta2O5 interlayer, a VOC gain of over 100 mV was demonstrated compared to a CdTe/CdS baseline. Application of a 1nm Ta2O5 interlayer enabled the fabrication of CdTe solar cells with extremely thin (less than 30 nm) CdS window layers. The efficiency of these cells exceeded that of a base line cell with 95 nm of CdS.

  14. Text-Alternative Version: Smithsonian GATEWAY Demonstration Video

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Following is a text version of a video about the GATEWAY demonstration project at the Smithsonian American Art Museum.

  15. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CuInS x Se 2-x solar cells and its effect on defectabundant Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 solar cells”, submitted 5. B. K.Visibly transparent polymer solar cells produced by solution

  16. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cm 2 ) efficiency CIGS solar cells taken from reference [and 20.3% efficiency CIGS solar cells [6] through the use ofcm 2 ) efficiency CIGS solar cells taken from reference [6].

  17. Damp-Heat Induced Degradation of Transparent Conducting Oxides for Thin-Film Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.; Li, X.; DeHart, C.; To, B.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability of intrinsic and Al-doped single- and bi-layer ZnO for thin-film CuInGaSe2 solar cells, along with Al-doped Zn1-xMgxO alloy and Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) and F-doped SnO2, was evaluated by direct exposure to damp heat (DH) at 85oC and 85% relative humidity. The results show that the DH-induced degradation rates followed the order of Al-doped ZnO and Zn1-xMgxO >> ITO > F:SnO2. The degradation rates of Al:ZnO were slower for films of higher thickness, higher substrate temperature in sputter-deposition, and with dry-out intervals. As inferred from the optical micro-imaging showing the initiation and propagation of degrading patterns and regions, the degradation behavior appears similar for all TCOs, despite the obvious difference in the degradation rate. A degradation mechanism is proposed to explain the temporal process involving thermal hydrolysis.

  18. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  19. Bandgap-Graded Cu2Zn(Sn1-xGex)S4 Thin-Film Solar Cells Derived from Metal Chalcogenide Complex Ligand Capped Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    a power conversion efficiency of 6.3%. INTRODUCTION Kesterite, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), has received significant has demonstrated the potential for generating highly efficient CZTS-based thin-film solar cells, which be highly beneficial to develop a method for fabricating high-efficiency CZTS solar cells without

  20. Resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in flexible thin-film organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (310.7005) Transparent conductive coatings; (310.6845) Thin film

  1. Core-Shell Nanopillar Array Solar Cells using Cadmium Sulfide Coating on Indium Phosphide Nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Bor-An Clayton

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monocrystalline silicon solar cells, polycrystalline silicon solar cells, and amorphous silicon (thin-film) solar

  2. CuIn1-xGaxS2 thin film solar cells with ZnxCd1-xS as heterojunction partner Bhaskar Kumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    80523 ABSTRACT Copper indium gallium sulfide, CuIn1-xGaxS2 (CIGS2) solar cells prepared with chemicalCuIn1-xGaxS2 thin film solar cells with ZnxCd1-xS as heterojunction partner Bhaskar Kumar 1 , Parag/heterojunction partner/ ZnO/Cr/Ag contact fingers solar cells of area ~0.44 cm 2 were fabricated at FSEC

  3. Semiconductor heterostructures and optimization of light-trapping structures for efficient thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    applications. However, one of the most persistent issues in solar cell design continues to be how to most and integration of active and passive media in solar cells. Myriad photonic structures containing sub of semiconductor nanostructures have inspired a host of new solar cell structures, including designs based

  4. Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells; January 28, 2010 -- January 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slafer, D.; Dalal, V.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final subcontract report for PV Incubator project 'Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells.' The goal of this program was to produce tandem Si cells using photonic bandgap enhancement technology developed at ISU and Lightwave Power that would have an NREL-verified efficiency of 7.5% on 0.25 cm{sup 2} area tandem junction cell on plastic substrates. This goal was met and exceeded within the timeframe and budget of the program. On smaller area cells, the efficiency was even higher, {approx}9.5% (not verified by NREL). Appropriate polymers were developed to fabricate photonic and plasmonic devices on stainless steel, Kapton and PEN substrates. A novel photonic-plasmon structure was developed which shows a promise of improving light absorption in thin film cells, a better light absorption than by any other scheme.

  5. IBM/VAX Gateway user's guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, E.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ''Gateway User Guide'' describes the facility available for transferring files from the Data Processing Services IBM mainframe to the Computer Services VAX/VMS cluster. This guide will benefit both Data Processing Operations Staff and programmers who would like to know more about how the ''Gateway'' operates and how to take advantage of its capabilities. The main focus of discussion will be on ''how to'' after a brief overview of the hardware and software components. A special section concerning the IBMRJE login shows how to use the VAX/VMS system to advantage. Source codes for all the procedures and DCL programs is provided at the end, as well as references made in this document to other sources. This first section of document will present a hardware and software overview of the current configuration.

  6. BASSET: Scalable Gateway Finder in Large Graphs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, H; Papadimitriou, S; Faloutsos, C; Yu, P S; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2010-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Given a social network, who is the best person to introduce you to, say, Chris Ferguson, the poker champion? Or, given a network of people and skills, who is the best person to help you learn about, say, wavelets? The goal is to find a small group of 'gateways': persons who are close enough to us, as well as close enough to the target (person, or skill) or, in other words, are crucial in connecting us to the target. The main contributions are the following: (a) we show how to formulate this problem precisely; (b) we show that it is sub-modular and thus it can be solved near-optimally; (c) we give fast, scalable algorithms to find such gateways. Experiments on real data sets validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods, achieving up to 6,000,000x speedup.

  7. T-566: Citrix Secure Gateway Unspecified Vulnerability | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    has been reported in Citrix Secure Gateway, which can be exploited by malicious people to compromise a vulnerable system. reference LINKS: Citrix ID:CTX128168 Secunia...

  8. V-106: Citrix Access Gateway Unspecified Security Bypass Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability has been reported in Citrix Access Gateway, which can be exploited by malicious people to bypass certain security restrictions.

  9. DOE Publishes GATEWAY Report on LED Lighting in a Performing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    video, is available on the GATEWAY Demonstration Indoor Projects webpage. Addthis Related Articles DOE Releases Report on SSL Adoption in Museums DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on...

  10. Urban agriculture is a gateway to healthy foods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pérez, John A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    healthy tomorrow. Urban agriculture has multiple benefitsWestlake. 192 CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE • VOLUME 67 , NUMBER 4Editorial Urban agriculture is a gateway to healthy foods A

  11. Optimization-based design of surface textures for thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We numerically investigate the light-absorption behavior of thin-film silicon for normal-incident light, using surface textures to enhance absorption. We consider a variety of texture designs, such as simple periodic ...

  12. IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 11, NO. 1, JANUARY 2011 45 A Robust, Adaptive, Solar-Powered WSN Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alippi, Cesare

    IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 11, NO. 1, JANUARY 2011 45 A Robust, Adaptive, Solar-Powered WSN-step local transmission from sensor nodes to the gateway, a remote data transmission from the gateway carefully selected or de- signed to guarantee a high quality of service, optimal solar energy harvesting

  13. The Challenge Domestic solar panels produce electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    Sheffield Science Gateway. The Challenge Domestic solar panels produce electricity for homes materials to a wide range of optoelectronic devices, including solar panels. This project was one of 10 of renewable energy generated by solar panels. As a country with ambitious targets for renewable energy at both

  14. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Yasha (Somerville, MA); Kimerling, Lionel C. (Concord, MA); Duan, Xiaoman (Amesbury, MA); Zeng, Lirong (Cambridge, MA)

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

  15. Barrier Coatings for Thin Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, September 1, 2002 -- January 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, L. C.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program has involved investigations of the stability of CdTe and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells under damp heat conditions and effects of barrier coatings.

  16. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10MW Thin Film Solar Power Plant for Sempra Generation. ”2009). “Concentrating solar power plants of the southwest1.11. Concentrating solar power plants of the southwest

  17. High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film solar Cells by a Process Suitable for Large Scale Production. N. Romeo, A. Bosio, A. Romeo, M. Bianucci, L. Bonci, C. Lenti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film solar Cells by a Process Suitable for Large Scale Production. N-mail:Nicola.Romeo@fis.unipr.it ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells can exhibit an efficiency around 16 diffusor in CdTe and at a long run it can segregates at the grain boundaries damaging the solar cell

  18. Damp-Heat Induced Degradation of Transparent Conducting Oxides for Thin Film Solar Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, J.; Noufi, R.; Li, X.; DeHart, C.; To, B.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives are: (1) To achieve a high long-term performance reliability for the thin-film CIGS PV modules with more stable materials, device structure designs, and moisture-resistant encapsulation materials and schemes; (2) to evaluate the DH stability of various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs); (3) to identify the degradation mechanisms and quantify degradation rates; (4) to seek chemical and/or physical mitigation methods, and explore new materials. It's important to note that direct exposure to DH represents an extreme condition that a well-encapsulated thin film PV module may never experience.

  19. High-performance parallel interface to synchronous optical network gateway

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    St. John, Wallace B. (Los Alamos, NM); DuBois, David H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of sending and receiving gateways interconnects high speed data interfaces, e.g., HIPPI interfaces, through fiber optic links, e.g., a SONET network. An electronic stripe distributor distributes bytes of data from a first interface at the sending gateway onto parallel fiber optics of the fiber optic link to form transmitted data. An electronic stripe collector receives the transmitted data on the parallel fiber optics and reforms the data into a format effective for input to a second interface at the receiving gateway. Preferably, an error correcting syndrome is constructed at the sending gateway and sent with a data frame so that transmission errors can be detected and corrected in a real-time basis. Since the high speed data interface operates faster than any of the fiber optic links the transmission rate must be adapted to match the available number of fiber optic links so the sending and receiving gateways monitor the availability of fiber links and adjust the data throughput accordingly. In another aspect, the receiving gateway must have sufficient available buffer capacity to accept an incoming data frame. A credit-based flow control system provides for continuously updating the sending gateway on the available buffer capacity at the receiving gateway.

  20. ICMP: an Attack Vector against IPsec Gateways Ludovic Jacquin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ICMP: an Attack Vector against IPsec Gateways Ludovic Jacquin Inria, France ludovic Protocol (ICMP) can be used as an attack vector against IPsec gateways. The main contribution of this work is to demonstrate that an attacker having eavesdropping and traffic injection capabilities in the black untrusted

  1. High-performance parallel interface to synchronous optical network gateway

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    St. John, W.B.; DuBois, D.H.

    1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a system of sending and receiving gateways interconnects high speed data interfaces, e.g., HIPPI interfaces, through fiber optic links, e.g., a SONET network. An electronic stripe distributor distributes bytes of data from a first interface at the sending gateway onto parallel fiber optics of the fiber optic link to form transmitted data. An electronic stripe collector receives the transmitted data on the parallel fiber optics and reforms the data into a format effective for input to a second interface at the receiving gateway. Preferably, an error correcting syndrome is constructed at the sending gateway and sent with a data frame so that transmission errors can be detected and corrected in a real-time basis. Since the high speed data interface operates faster than any of the fiber optic links the transmission rate must be adapted to match the available number of fiber optic links so the sending and receiving gateways monitor the availability of fiber links and adjust the data throughput accordingly. In another aspect, the receiving gateway must have sufficient available buffer capacity to accept an incoming data frame. A credit-based flow control system provides for continuously updating the sending gateway on the available buffer capacity at the receiving gateway. 7 figs.

  2. UK Clinical Trials Gateway Public and Patient Survey 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diggle, Peter J.

    UK Clinical Trials Gateway Public and Patient Survey 2012 January 2013 #12;This is a report and recommendations of the UK Clinical Trials Gateway (UKCTG) Public and Patient Feedback Survey 2012 The report-to-date information about clinical trials, which are currently running or have run in the UK. The survey was hosted

  3. Defect physics of the kesterite thin-film solar cell absorber Cu2ZnSnS4 Shiyou Chen,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    Defect physics of the kesterite thin-film solar cell absorber Cu2ZnSnS4 Shiyou Chen,1,2 X. G. Gong Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China 2 Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, People's Republic of China 3

  4. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 17261732 Optical and structural properties of Ta2O5CeO2 thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thirumalai, Devarajan

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 1726­1732 Optical and structural properties of Ta2O5

  5. THINNING OF THE SUN'S MAGNETIC LAYER: THE PECULIAR SOLAR MINIMUM COULD HAVE BEEN PREDICTED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Broomhall, Anne-Marie; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar magnetic activity cycle causes changes in the Sun on timescales that are equivalent to human lifetimes. The minimum solar activity that preceded the current solar cycle (cycle 24) was deeper and quieter than any other recent minimum. Using data from the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON), we show that the structure of the solar sub-surface layers during the descending phase of the preceding cycle (cycle 23) was very different from that during cycle 22. This leads us to believe that a detailed examination of the data would have led to the prediction that the cycle 24 minimum would be out of the ordinary. The behavior of the oscillation frequencies allows us to infer that changes in the Sun that affected the oscillation frequencies in cycle 23 were localized mainly to layers above about 0.996 R{sub Sun }, depths shallower than about 3000 km. In cycle 22, on the other hand, the changes must have also occurred in the deeper-lying layers.

  6. TRIPLE-JUNCTION A-SI SOLAR CELLS WITH HEAVILY DOPED THIN INTERFACE LAYERS AT THE TUNNEL W. Wang, H. Povolny, W. Du, X.B. Liao and X. Deng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    TRIPLE-JUNCTION A-SI SOLAR CELLS WITH HEAVILY DOPED THIN INTERFACE LAYERS AT THE TUNNEL JUNCTIONS W of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 USA ABSTRACT Triple-junction a-Si based solar cells, having a structure of SS cells and between the middle and bottom component cells on the efficiency of triple- junction solar

  7. Thin film solar cells using impure polycrystalline silicon M. Rodot (1), M. Barbe (1), J. E. Bouree (1), V. Perraki (*) (1), G. Revel (2),R. Kishore (2) (**), J. L. Pastol (2), R. Mertens (3), M. Caymax (3) and M. Eyckmans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    687 Thin film solar cells using impure polycrystalline silicon M. Rodot (1), M. Barbe (1), J. E avec les autres aptes à l'utilisation de Si-UMG bon marché. Abstract. 2014 Epitaxial solar cells have and electron diffusion length adequate to produce good solar cells. 10.3 % efficiency cells have been obtained

  8. Mathematics 122 -Gateway Exam -Fall 96 The Gateway exam will consist of ten randomly chosen problems about integra-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres, Rodolfo

    Mathematics 122 - Gateway Exam - Fall 96 The Gateway exam will consist of ten randomly nine pro* *blems without any mistakes. You need not simplify your answers, but if you do, the si* *m- plification must be error-free. If you fail to pass the exam you will be allow* *ed to retake it. When you

  9. Gateway Energy (formerly Econnergy) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489InformationFrenchtown, NewG22 JumpGas Sampling JumpGateway

  10. Gateway Energy Services Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFifeGEXAGarnet VRX sro Jump to:Gateway Energy Services

  11. Gateway Energy Services Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865°,Park, Texas: EnergyGarvin County,|GasconadeOhio:Gateway Energy

  12. Gateway West Transmission Line | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865°,Park, Texas: EnergyGarvin County,|GasconadeOhio:Gateway

  13. Exploring the connection between coronal and footpoint sources in a thin-thick target solar flare model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marina Battaglia; Arnold O. Benz

    2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Context: Hard X-ray emission of coronal sources in solar flares has been observed and studied since its discovery in Yohkoh observations. Several models have been proposed to explain the physical mechanisms causing this emission and the relations between those sources and simultaneously observed footpoint sources. Aims: We investigate and test one of the models (intermediate thin-thick target model) developed on the basis of Yohkoh observations. The model makes precise predictions on the shape of coronal and footpoint spectra and the relations between them, that can be tested with new instruments such as RHESSI. Methods: RHESSI observations of well observed events are studied in imaging and spectroscopy and compared to the predictions from the intermediate thin-thick target model. Results: The results indicate that such a simple model cannot account for the observed relations between the non-thermal spectra of coronal and footpoint sources. Including non-collisional energy loss of the electrons in the flare loop due to an electric field can solve most of the inconsistencies.

  14. Optimization of processing and modeling issues for thin film solar cell devices: Final report, February 3, 1997--September 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkmire, R. W.; Phillips, J. E.; Shafarman, W. N.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E.

    2000-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes results achieved under a 20-month NREL subcontract to develop and understand thin-film solar cell technology associated to CuInSe{sub 2} and related alloys, a-Si and its alloys, and CdTe. Modules based on all these thin films are promising candidates to meet DOE's long-range efficiency, reliability and manufacturing cost goals. The critical issues being addressed under this program are intended to provide the science and engineering basis for the development of viable commercial processes and to improve module performance. The generic research issues addressed are: (1) quantitative analysis of processing steps to provide information for efficient commercial-scale equipment design and operation; (2) device characterization relating the device performance to materials properties and process conditions; (3) development of alloy materials with different bandgaps to allow improved device structures for stability and compatibility with module design; (4) development and improved window/heterojunction layers and contacts to improve device performance and reliability; and (5) evaluation of cell stability with respect to device structure and module encapsulation.

  15. Solar Space Density of the Red Clump Stars and the Scale-length of the Thin Disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gokce, E Yaz; Duran, S; Bilir, S; Yalcinkaya, A; Ak, S; Ak, T; Lopez-Corredoira, M; Cabrera-Lavers, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimated the scale-length of the thin disc with the J and W1 magnitudes of the most probable Red Clump (RC) stars in the Galactic plane, $-0\\overset{^\\circ}.5 \\leq b \\leq +0\\overset{^\\circ}.5$, in 19 equal sized fields with consecutive Galactic longitudes which cover the interval $90^\\circ \\leq l \\leq 270^\\circ$. Our results are constrained with respect to the solar space density ($D^*=5.95$), which indicates that the radial variation of the density is lower for higher Galactocentric distances. The scale-length of the thin disc is 2 kpc for the fields in the Galactic anticentre direction or close to this direction, while it decreases continuously in the second and third quadrants reaching to a lower limit of $h$ = 1.6 kpc at the Galactic longitudes $l$ = 90$^\\circ$ and $l$ = 270$^\\circ$. The distribution of the scale-length in 19 fields is consistent with the predictions from the Galaxia model and its variation with longitude is probably due to the inhomogeneity structure of the disc caused by the accrete...

  16. Photovoltaic mechanisms in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. Final report, 28 September 1978-28 September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanio, K.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies were undertaken to examine grain boundaries in polycrystalline material and apply these results to the development of thin-film solar cells using InP as the absorber layers. A model was developed which related material parameters to leakage currents in a thin-film polycrystalline p-n junction. In this model, the grain boundary was treated as a semiconductor with bandgap lower than that of the surrounding bulk. Since a leakage current at the grain boundary might decrease for a wider bandgap material, InGaP was considered and deposited by planar reactive deposition (PRD) on a single-crystal InP and lattice-matched GaAs. X-ray analysis and Hall measurements indicated that the quality of the epitaxy on GaAs was superior to that on InP, presumably due to a closer lattice match. Parallel etching studies to preferentially remove the grain boundaries showed that a 5HCl: 3HNO/sub 3/ : 4HF etch was highly selective in attacking the grain boundaries in bulk polycrystalline InP. Canyons with depths greater than 10 ..mu..m and widths on the order of 1 ..mu..m are the most common form of attack.

  17. Thin film solar cells by selenization sulfurization using diethyl selenium as a selenium precursor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kadam, Ankur A.

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a CIGSS absorber layer includes the steps of providing a metal precursor, and selenizing the metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form a selenized metal precursor layer (CIGSS absorber layer). A high efficiency solar cell includes a CIGSS absorber layer formed by a process including selenizing a metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form the CIGSS absorber layer.

  18. Configuration Optimization of a Nanosphere Array on Top of a Thin Film Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    solar cell fabrication. Index Terms -- Nanospheres, Whispering gallery modes, Photovoltaic systems is done. For a hexagonally close packed sphere configuration, we vary the size of the spheres as well in the photovoltaics industry [2]. II. DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL Our approach here is to consider an array

  19. Optimal design of one-dimensional photonic crystal back reflectors for thin-film silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Peizhuan; Hou, Guofu, E-mail: gfhou@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Jianjun, E-mail: jjzhang@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying [Institute of Photoelectronics and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic Thin-film Devices and Technique, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    For thin-film silicon solar cells (TFSC), a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC) is a good back reflector (BR) because it increases the total internal reflection at the back surface. We used the plane-wave expansion method and the finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm to simulate and analyze the photonic bandgap (PBG), the reflection and the absorption properties of a 1D PC and to further explore the optimal 1D PC design for use in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. With identified refractive index contrast and period thickness, we found that the PBG and the reflection of a 1D PC are strongly influenced by the contrast in bilayer thickness. Additionally, light coupled to the top three periods of the 1D PC and was absorbed if one of the bilayers was absorptive. By decreasing the thickness contrast of the absorptive layer relative to the non-absorptive layer, an average reflectivity of 96.7% was achieved for a 1D PC alternatively stacked with a-Si:H and SiO{sub 2} in five periods. This reflectivity was superior to a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structure with 93.5% and an Ag film with 93.4%. n-i-p a-Si:H solar cells with an optimal 1D PC-based BR offer a higher short-circuit current density than those with a DBR-based BR or an AZO/Ag-based BR. These results provide new design rules for photonic structures in TFSC.

  20. (Sr,Ba)(Si,Ge){sub 2} for thin-film solar-cell applications: First-principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: Kumar.Mukesh@nims.go.jp, E-mail: mkgarg79@gmail.com [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Umezawa, Naoto [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); TU-NIMS Joint Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin (China); Imai, Motoharu [Superconducting Properties Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to meet the increasing demand for electric power generation from solar energy conversion, the development of efficient light absorber materials has been awaited. To this end, the electronic and optical properties of advanced alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides (SrSi{sub 2}, BaSi{sub 2}, SrGe{sub 2}, and BaGe{sub 2}) are studied by means of the density functional theory using HSE06 exchange-correlation energy functional. Our calculations show that all these orthorhombic structured compounds have fundamental indirect band gaps in the range E{sub g} ? 0.89–1.25 eV, which is suitable for solar cell applications. The estimated lattice parameters and band gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculations show that the electronic band structures of all four compounds are very similar except in the vicinity of the ?-point. The valence band of these compounds is made up by Si(Ge)-p states, whereas the conduction band is composed of Sr(Ba)-d states. Their band alignments are carefully determined by estimating the work function of each compound using slab model. The optical properties are discussed in terms of the complex dielectric function ?(?)?=??{sub 1}(?)?+?i?{sub 2}(?). The static and high-frequency dielectric constants are calculated, taking into account the ionic contribution. The absorption coefficient ?(?) demonstrates that a low energy dispersion of the conduction band, which results in a flat conduction band minimum, leads to large optical activity in these compounds. Therefore, alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides possess great potential as light absorbers for applications in thin-film solar cell technologies.

  1. Institute of Photo Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300071 Sector: Solar Product: A thin-film solar cell research institute in China. References: Institute of Photo-Electronic Thin...

  2. Amorphous thin films for solar-cell applications. Final report, September 11, 1978-September 10, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, D E; Balberg, I; Crandall, R S; Goldstein, B C; Hanak, J J; Pankove, J I; Staebler, D L; Weakliem, H A; Williams, R

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Section II, Theoretical Modeling, theories for the capture of electrons by deep centers in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and for field-dependent quantum efficiency in a-Si:H are presented. In Section III, Deposition and Doping Studies, the optimization of phosphorus-doped a-Si:H carried out in four different discharge systems is described. Some details of the dc proximity and rf magnetron discharge systems are also provided. Preliminary mass spectroscopy studies of the rf magnetron discharge in both SiH/sub 4/ and SiF/sub 4/ are presented. In Section IV, Experimental Methods for Characterizing a-Si:H, recent work involving photoluminescence of fluorine-doped a-Si:H, photoconductivity spectra, the photoelectromagnetic effect, the photo-Hall effect and tunneling into a-Si:H is presented. Also, studies of the growth mechanism of Pt adsorbed on both crystalline Si and a-Si:H are described. Measurements of the surface photovoltage have been used to estimate the distribution of surface states of phosphorus-doped and undoped a-Si:H. Section V, Formation of Solar-Cell Structures, contains information on stacked or multiple-junction a-Si:H solar cells. In Section VI, Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Solar-Cell Parameters, an upper limit of approx. = 400 A is established for the hole diffusion length in undoped a-Si:H. A detailed description of carrier generation, recombination and transport in a-Si:H solar cells is given. Finally, some characteristics of Pd-Schottky-barrier cells are described for different processing histories.

  3. Creating CZTS Thin Films Via Stacked Metallic CVD and Sulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielecki, Anthony

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    film solar cells. CIGS solar cell efficiencies have beenCIGS, making it a favorable choice for thin-film solar cells.thin film solar cell [3]. However, use of CIGS has a number

  4. Identification and Analysis of Distinct Features in Imaging Thin-Film Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaunbrecher, K. N.; Johnston, S. W.; Sites, J. R.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroluminescence and photoluminescence (EL and PL) are two imaging techniques employed at NREL that are used to qualitatively evaluate solar cells. In this work, imaging lab-scale CdTe and CIGS devices provides information about small-area PV response, which will aid in determining the effects of non-uniformities on cell performance. EL, PL, and dark lock-in thermography signatures are first catalogued. Their responses to varying conditions are then studied. Further analysis includes acquiring spectral data, making microscopy measurements, and correlating luminescence to device performance. The goal of this work is to quantitatively determine non-uniformity effects on cell performance using rapid imaging techniques.

  5. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1994--January 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Buchanan, W.A.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Shafarman, W.N. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes results achieved during the second phase of a four year subcontract to develop and understand thin film solar cell technology related to a-Si and its alloys, CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, and CdTe. Accomplishments during this phase include, development of equations and reaction rates for the formation of CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} films by selenization, fabrication of a 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} cell, development of a reproducible, reliable Cu-diffused contact to CdTe, investigation of the role of CdTe-CdS interdiffusion on device operation, investigation of the substitution of HCl for CdCl{sub 2} in the post-deposition heat treatment of CdTe/CdS, demonstration of an improved reactor design for deposition of a-Si films, demonstration of improved process control in the fabrication of a ten set series of runs producing {approximately}8% efficient a-Si devices, demonstration of the utility of a simplified optical model for determining quantity and effect of current generation in each layer of a triple stacked a-Si cell, presentation of analytical and modeling procedures adapted to devices produced with each material system, presentation of baseline parameters for devices produced with each material system, and various investigations of the roles played by other layers in thin film devices including the Mo underlayer, CdS and ZnO in CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} devices, the CdS in CdTe devices, and the ZnO as window layer and as part of the back surface reflector in a-Si devices. In addition, collaborations with over ten research groups are briefly described. 73 refs., 54 figs., 34 tabs.

  6. T-701: Citrix Access Gateway Enterprise Edition Input Validation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to be executed by the target user's browser. The code will originate from the site running the Citrix Access Gateway software and will run in the security context of that site....

  7. Process for fabricating polycrystalline semiconductor thin-film solar cells, and cells produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate to a substantially single-phase material of a spinel crystal structure. Preferably, the cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, and the cadmium telluride layer is deposited by close space sublimation at an elevated temperature effective to convert the amorphous cadmium stannate to the polycrystalline cadmium stannate with single-phase spinel structure.

  8. Multilayer nanoparticle arrays for broad spectrum absorption enhancement in thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Aravind; Krishna, Siva Rama; Khan, Mohammed Zafar Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study on the absorption efficiency enhancement of a thin film amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic cell over a broad spectrum of wavelengths using multiple nanoparticle arrays. The light absorption efficiency is enhanced in the lower wavelengths by a nanoparticle array on the surface and in the higher wavelengths by another nanoparticle array embedded in the active region. The efficiency at intermediate wavelengths is enhanced by the constructive interference of plasmon coupled light. We optimize this design by tuning the radius of particles in both arrays, the period of the array and the distance between the two arrays. The optimization results in 61.44% increase in total quantum efficiency for a 500 nm thick a-Si substrate.

  9. 14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rance, W. L.; Burst, J. M.; Reese, M. O.; Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Barnes, T. M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Meysing, D. M.; Wolden, C. A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Garner, S.; Cimo, P. [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible glass enables high-temperature, roll-to-roll processing of superstrate devices with higher photocurrents than flexible polymer foils because of its higher optical transmission. Using flexible glass in our high-temperature CdTe process, we achieved a certified record conversion efficiency of 14.05% for a flexible CdTe solar cell. Little has been reported on the flexibility of CdTe devices, so we investigated the effects of three different static bending conditions on device performance. We observed a consistent trend of increased short-circuit current and fill factor, whereas the open-circuit voltage consistently dropped. The quantum efficiency under the same static bend condition showed no change in the response. After storage in a flexed state for 24 h, there was very little change in device efficiency relative to its unflexed state. This indicates that flexible glass is a suitable replacement for rigid glass substrates, and that CdTe solar cells can tolerate bending without a decrease in device performance.

  10. Core-Shell Nanopillar Array Solar Cells using Cadmium Sulfide Coating on Indium Phosphide Nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Bor-An Clayton

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monocrystalline silicon solar cells, polycrystalline silicon solar cells, and amorphous silicon (thin-film)

  11. Ultra-Thin, Triple-Bandgap GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs Monolithic Tandem Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M. W.; Ahrenkiel, S. P.; Albin, D. S.; Carapella, J. J.; Duda, A.; Emery, K.; Geisz, J. F.; Jones, K.; Kurtz, S.; Moriarty, T.; Romero, M. J.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of state-of-the-art, series-connected, lattice-matched (LM), triple-junction (TJ), III-V tandem solar cells could be improved substantially (10-12%) by replacing the Ge bottom subcell with a subcell having a bandgap of {approx}1 eV. For the last several years, research has been conducted by a number of organizations to develop {approx}1-eV, LM GaInAsN to provide such a subcell, but, so far, the approach has proven unsuccessful. Thus, the need for a high-performance, monolithically integrable, 1-eV subcell for TJ tandems has remained. In this paper, we present a new TJ tandem cell design that addresses the above-mentioned problem. Our approach involves inverted epitaxial growth to allow the monolithic integration of a lattice-mismatched (LMM) {approx}1-eV GaInAs/GaInP double-heterostructure (DH) bottom subcell with LM GaAs (middle) and GaInP (top) upper subcells. A transparent GaInP compositionally graded layer facilitates the integration of the LM and LMM components. Handle-mounted, ultra-thin device fabrication is a natural consequence of the inverted-structure approach, which results in a number of advantages, including robustness, potential low cost, improved thermal management, incorporation of back-surface reflectors, and possible reclamation/reuse of the parent crystalline substrate for further cost reduction. Our initial work has concerned GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs tandem cells grown on GaAs substrates. In this case, the 1-eV GaInAs experiences 2.2% compressive LMM with respect to the substrate. Specially designed GaInP graded layers are used to produce 1-eV subcells with performance parameters nearly equaling those of LM devices with the same bandgap (e.g., LM, 1-eV GaInAsP grown on InP). Previously, we reported preliminary ultra-thin tandem devices (0.237 cm{sup 2}) with NREL-confirmed efficiencies of 31.3% (global spectrum, one sun) (1), 29.7% (AM0 spectrum, one sun) (2), and 37.9% (low-AOD direct spectrum, 10.1 suns) (3), all at 25 C. Here, we include recent results of testing similar devices under the concentrated AMO spectrum, and also present the first demonstration of a high-efficiency, ultra-thin GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs tandem cell processed on a flexible kapton handle.

  12. AT&T U-verse Gateway Replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    /TV are not responding. Confirm that the Service light is solid green on the Wi-Fi Gateway. If it is, power down ______ Power Cord Need more help? Go online: Visit att.com/uversesupport Call us: Dial 800.288.2020 and ask click when secure. 2a. Check Power. If you have power and the Wi-Fi Gateway is turned on, the Power

  13. Picosecond and nanosecond laser annealing and simulation of amorphous silicon thin films for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodorakos, I.; Zergioti, I.; Tsoukalas, D.; Raptis, Y. S., E-mail: yraptis@central.ntua.gr [Physics Department, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zographou, Athens (Greece); Vamvakas, V. [Heliosphera SA, Industrial Area of Tripolis, 8th Building Block, 5th Road, GR-221 00 Tripolis (Greece)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a picosecond diode pumped solid state laser and a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser have been used for the annealing and the partial nano-crystallization of an amorphous silicon layer. These experiments were conducted as an alternative/complementary to plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method for fabrication of micromorph tandem solar cell. The laser experimental work was combined with simulations of the annealing process, in terms of temperature distribution evolution, in order to predetermine the optimum annealing conditions. The annealed material was studied, as a function of several annealing parameters (wavelength, pulse duration, fluence), as far as it concerns its structural properties, by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and micro-Raman techniques.

  14. A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue Kuo

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

  15. High efficiency low cost thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer.

  16. High efficiency low cost thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor device is described having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer. 9 figs.

  17. High efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer.

  18. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells: Annual Technical Report, 4 March 1999 - 3 March 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A. D.; Deng, X.; Bohn, R. G. (The University of Toledo)

    2001-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the research on high-efficiency CdTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high-efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. Implemented a diode-array spectrograph system and used optical emission spectroscopy to help optimize the reactive sputtering of N-doped ZnTe for CdTe back-contact structures. Identified the photoluminescence signatures of various defect states in CdTe related to Cd vacancies, CuCd acceptors, Cu-VCd complexes, and donor-acceptor pairs, and related these states to instabilities in the hole concentration at room temperature. Showed that Cu is an important non-radiative center in CdS, reducing the PL efficiency. Studied band tailing in CdS weakly alloyed with CdTe and CdTe weakly alloyed with CdS. Fabricated superstrate ITO/CdS/CdTe cells on Mo substrates with efficiencies above 7.5%. Collaborated in studies of EXAFS of Cu in CdTe which indicate a Cu-Te bond length of 2.62 {angstrom} or 6.7% shorter than the CdTe, bond in agreement with calculations of Wei et al. Provided assistance to two groups on laser scribing. Comparatively studied the performance of a-SiGe solar cells and properties of a-SiGe single-layer films deposited using a wide range of H dilution, observed transition from a-SiGe to {mu}c-SiGe at high H dilution and the impact on cell performances. Comparatively studied the performance of a-SiGe solar cells and properties of a-SiGe single-layer films with different Ge contents, suitable for use as component cells of triple-junction devices. Fabricated a-Si-based solar cells on ultra-thin stainless-steel substrate (7.5 micron) and obtained equivalent performance and yield as on the regular SS substrates (127 microns). Comparatively studied the performance of a-Si-based solar cells on SS substrates and on SnO2-coated glass substrates. Studied the performance of p-layers deposited under various deposition conditions for n-i-p type solar cells. Performed an analysis for the component cell current-matching within a triple-junction solar cell.

  19. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 (2008) 821829 Modeling the optical properties of WO3 and WO3SiO2 thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thirumalai, Devarajan

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 (2008) 821­829 Modeling the optical properties of WO3 the optical response of the films in the near-UV and visible region: two interband transitions for energies E

  20. Oxidation of In2S3 films to synthetize In2S3(1-x)O3x thin films as a buffer layer in solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Oxidation of In2S3 films to synthetize In2S3(1-x)O3x thin films as a buffer layer in solar cells S layers for solar cells. PACS : 68.55.ag Semiconductors, 68.55.J Morphology of films , 68.55.Nq for fabricating Cd-free CIGS solar cells [1, 2, 3]. One of its advantages is that it can be obtained from solution

  1. U-020: McAfee Web Gateway Web Access Cross Site Scripting Vulnerabilit...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    0: McAfee Web Gateway Web Access Cross Site Scripting Vulnerability U-020: McAfee Web Gateway Web Access Cross Site Scripting Vulnerability October 26, 2011 - 9:00am Addthis...

  2. OpenMSI: A Science Gateway to Sort Through Bio-Imaging's Big...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OpenMSI: A Science Gateway to Sort Through Bio-Imaging's Big Datasets OpenMSI: A Science Gateway to Sort Through Bio-Imaging's Big Datasets August 27, 2013 | Tags: Basic Energy...

  3. V-225: McAfee Email Gateway SMTP Processing Flaw Lets Remote...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    was reported in McAfee Email Gateway. A remote user can cause denial of service conditions. PLATFORM: McAfee Email Gateway (MEG) 7.5 ABSTRACT: A remote user can cause the SMTP...

  4. Development of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell Using Inkjet Printed Silicon and Other Inkjet Processes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-260

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cost of silicon photovoltaics (Si-PV) can be greatly lowered by developing thin-film crystalline Si solar cells on glass or an equally lower cost substrate. Typically, Si film is deposited by thermal evaporation, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and sputtering. NREL and Silexos have worked under a CRADA to develop technology to make very low cost solar cells using liquid organic precursors. Typically, cyclopentasilane (CPS) is deposited on a glass substrate and then converted into an a-Si film by UV polymerization followed by low-temperature optical process that crystallizes the amorphous layer. This technique promises to be a very low cost approach for making a Si film.

  5. CAN-Ethernet gateway (IoT) (IPsec)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jang, Ju-Wook

    (IoT) IPv6 Network IoT(interoperability) CAN LTE3G Home network RFID Industry network Metro , device IPv4 #12; Smart device IPv6 IPv6 network (Access Address Identifier(AAID) ) AAID gateway ­ AAID IPv6 mapping (hash AAID-IPv6 ) #12; industrial markets building automation market (CAN

  6. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--28 February 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objectives of this program were to continue advances of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The Program included work in the following areas. (1) Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations. (2) Developing wire saws to slice 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers on 290-..mu..m-centers. (3) Developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers. (4) Developing cell processes using 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%. (5) Expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control. (6) Establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology. (7) Facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock..

  7. Apparatus for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells employing materials selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for forming thin-film, large area solar cells having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n-type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer to evolve into p-type material, thereby defining a thin layer heterojunction device characterized by the absence of voids, vacancies and nodules which tend to reduce the energy conversion efficiency of the system.

  8. The Neutron Science TeraGrid Gateway, a TeraGrid Science Gateway to Support the Spallation Neutron Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vazhkudai, Sudharshan

    by a service oriented architecture for functional implementation. KEY WORDS: Portal, Neutron Scattering, TeraGrid, Science Gateway, Service Architecture, Grid 1. INTRODUCTION Neutron Science: Neutron scattering is used, earth science, and fundamental physics [3]. As a diagnostic tool, neutron scattering provides unique

  9. area solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells Lecture 6: Solar Cells Solar Cell Technologies A) Crystalline Silicon B) Thin Film C) Group III-IV Cells 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6:...

  10. aluminium arsenide solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells Lecture 6: Solar Cells Solar Cell Technologies A) Crystalline Silicon B) Thin Film C) Group III-IV Cells 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6:...

  11. Multi-resonant silver nano-disk patterned thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells for Staebler-Wronski effect compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vora, Ankit; Pearce, Joshua M; Bergstrom, Paul L; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study polarization independent improved light trapping in commercial thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar photovoltaic cells using a three-dimensional silver array of multi-resonant nano-disk structures embedded in a silicon nitride anti-reflection coating (ARC) to enhance optical absorption in the intrinsic layer (i-a-Si:H) for the visible spectrum for any polarization angle. Predicted total optical enhancement (OE) in absorption in the i-a-Si:H for AM-1.5 solar spectrum is 18.51% as compared to the reference, and producing a 19.65% improvement in short-circuit current density (JSC) over 11.7 mA/cm2 for a reference cell. The JSC in the nano-disk patterned solar cell (NDPSC) was found to be higher than the commercial reference structure for any incident angle. The NDPSC has a multi-resonant optical response for the visible spectrum and the associated mechanism for OE in i-a-Si:H layer is excitation of Fabry-Perot resonance facilitated by surface plasmon resonances. The detrimental Staebl...

  12. Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramanathan, Kannan V. (Lakewood, CA); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CA); Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CA); Keane, James (Lakewood, CA); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a conventional zinc oxide bilayer. A photovoltaic device according the present invention includes a first thin film layer of semiconductor material formed primarily from copper indium diselenide. Doping of the copper indium diselenide with zinc chloride is accomplished using either a zinc chloride solution or a solid zinc chloride material. Thermal diffusion of zinc chloride into the copper indium diselenide upper region creates the thin n-type copper indium diselenide surface. A second thin film layer of semiconductor material comprising zinc oxide is then applied in two layers. The first layer comprises a thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide. The second relatively thick layer of zinc oxide is doped to exhibit low resistivity.

  13. Thin Film Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research and development of four thin-film technologies on the path to achieving cost-competitive solar energy, including:

  14. A preliminary analysis of VAX gateway performance data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, M.J.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary analysis was performed on data collected from the system monitor file of the VAX Gateway System. The intent of the study was to determine whether simple statistical techniques might be useful in tracking performance of this critical node in the Central Computing Network. Initial results indicate that further research will be necessary to characterize the underlying process with sufficient accuracy to accomplish the objective providing simple real time performance monitoring tools. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Optical and electrical properties study of sol-gel derived Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films for solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, B. L.; Liu, X. J.; Li, A. D., E-mail: wcliu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: adli@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen, Y. H. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Photovoltaic Engineering Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, W. C., E-mail: wcliu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: adli@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Photovoltaic Engineering Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fabrication of environmental-friendly Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films with pure kesterite phase is always a challenge to researchers in the field of solar cells. We introduce a simple non-vacuum sol-gel method to fabricate kesterite CZTS films. Ethylenediamine is used as the chelating agent and stabilizer and plays an important role in preparing stable precursor. X-ray diffraction, Raman and scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the microstructure and optical properties of CZTS films depend strongly on annealing temperatures. The temperature dependence of conductivity of 500?°C annealed CZTS film shows that the Mott law dominates in the low temperature region and thermionic emission is predominant at high temperatures.

  16. Modeling of capacitance transients of thin-film solar cells: A valuable tool to gain information on perturbing layers or interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauwaert, Johan, E-mail: Johan.Lauwaert@UGent.be; Van Puyvelde, Lisanne; Vrielinck, Henk [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Lauwaert, Jeroen; Thybaut, Joris W. [Laboratory for Chemical Technology (LCT), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S5, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin-film electronic and photovoltaic devices often comprise, in addition to the anticipated p-n junctions, additional non-ideal ohmic contacts between layers. This may give rise to additional signals in capacitance spectroscopy techniques that are not directly related to defects in the structure. In this paper, we present a fitting algorithm for transient signals arising from such an additional junction. The fitting results are in excellent agreement with the diode characteristics extracted from static measurements on individual components. Finally, the algorithm is applied for determining the barriers associated with anomalous signals reported for selected CuIn{sub 1–x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells.

  17. Review by : Haris Volos Paper : Random Early Detection Gateways for Gongestion Avoidance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akella, Aditya

    Review by : Haris Volos Paper : Random Early Detection Gateways for Gongestion Avoidance Authors : Sally Floyd and Van Jacobson The paper presents an active queue management technique of preventing

  18. U-225: Citrix Access Gateway Plug-in for Windows nsepacom ActiveX...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in Citrix Access Gateway Plug-in for Windows can be exploited by malicious people to compromise a user's system. reference LINKS: Citrix Knowledge Center Secunia...

  19. Gateway:América Latina/Aprender más sobre las ERNC/Seleccion...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Federico Santa Mara Idioma: Espaol Kinetic Hydropower Systems Fuente: Thayer School Idioma: Ingls Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGateway:Amric...

  20. Research on polycrystalline thin-film CuGaInSe{sub 2} solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 3 May 1991--2 May 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanbery, B.J.; Chen, W.S.; Devaney, W.E.; Stewart, J.W. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States). Defense and Space Systems Group

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research to fabricate high-efficiency CdZnS/CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) thin-film solar cells, and to develop improved transparent conductor window layers such as ZnO. A specific technical milestone was the demonstration of an air mass (AM) 1.5 global, 13% efficient, 1-cm{sup 2}-total-area CIGS thin-film solar cell. Our activities focused on three areas. First, a CIGS deposition: system was modified to double its substrate capacity, thus increasing throughput, which is critical to speeding the process development by providing multiple substrates from the same CIGS run. Second, new tooling was developed to enable an investigation of a modified aqueous CdZnS process. The goal was to improve the yield of this critical step in the device fabrication process. Third, our ZnO sputtering system was upgraded to improve its reliability, and the sputtering parameters were further optimized to improve its properties as a transparent conducting oxide. The characterization of the new CIGS deposition system substrate fixturing was completed, and we produced good thermal uniformity and adequately high temperatures for device-quality CIGS deposition. Both the CIGS and ZnO deposition processes were refined to yield a ZnO//Cd{sub 0.82}Zn{sub 0.18}S/CuIn{sub 0.80}Ga{sub 0.20}Se{sub 2} cell that was verified at NREL under standard testing conditions at 13.1% efficiency with V{sub oc} = 0.581 V, J{sub sc} = 34.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.728, and a cell area of 0.979 cm{sup 2}.

  1. Optimization of Processing and Modeling Issues for Thin-Film Solar Cell Devices; Annual Report, 3 February 1997-2 February 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkmire, R. W.; Phillips, J. E.; Shafarman, W. N.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E. (IEC, University of Delaware)

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes results achieved during phase I of a four-phase subcontract to develop and understand thin-film solar cell technology associated with CuInSe2 and related alloys, a-Si and its alloys, and CdTe. Modules based on all these thin films are promising candidates to meet DOE long-range efficiency, reliability, and manufacturing cost goals. The critical issues being addressed under this program are intended to provide the science and engineering basis for developing viable commercial processes and to improve module performance. The generic research issues addressed are: (1) quantitative analysis of processing steps to provide information for efficient commercial-scale equipment design and operation; (2) device characterization relating the device performance to materials properties and process conditions; (3) development of alloy materials with different bandgaps to allow improved device structures for stability and compatibility with module design; (4) development of improved window/heterojunction layers and contacts to improve device performance and reliability; and (5) evaluation of cell stability with respect to illumination, temperature, and ambient and with respect to device structure and module encapsulation.

  2. Investigation of Solar Energy Transfer through Plasmonic Au Nanoparticle-doped Sol-derived TiO? Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SAN DIEGO Investigation of Solar Energy Transfer through20 Solar Energy Conversion ThroughOF THE THESIS Investigation of Solar Energy Transfer through

  3. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 06 · Solar Cell Materials & Structures 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar Cells Solar Cell Technologies · A) Crystalline Silicon · B) Thin Film · C) Group III-IV Cells 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar

  4. Impact of environmental conditions on the chemical surface properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin-film solar cell absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauschild, D., E-mail: dirk.hauschild@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de, E-mail: l.weinhardt@kit.edu; Meyer, F. [Experimental Physics VII, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Pohlner, S.; Lechner, R.; Dietmüller, R.; Palm, J. [AVANCIS GmbH and Co. KG, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); Heske, C. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engesserstr. 18/20, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weinhardt, L., E-mail: dirk.hauschild@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de, E-mail: l.weinhardt@kit.edu [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Reinert, F. [Experimental Physics VII, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Gemeinschaftslabor für Nanoanalytik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmentally driven aging effects play a crucial role in thin-film solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2}, both for long-term stability and short air exposure during production. For a better understanding of such effects, Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} absorber surfaces were investigated by x-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy after exposure to different environmental conditions. Identical absorbers were stored in a nitrogen atmosphere, in damp heat, and under ambient conditions for up to 14 days. We find varying degrees of diffusion of sulfur, copper, and sodium towards the surface, with potential impact on the electronic surface structure (band gap) and the properties of the interface to a buffer layer in a solar cell device. Furthermore, we observe an oxidation (in decreasing order) of indium, copper, and selenium (but no oxidation of sulfur). And finally, varying amounts of carbon- and oxygen-containing adsorbates are found. In particular, the findings suggest that, for ambient air exposure, sodium carbonate is formed at the surface.

  5. Enhancement of current collection in epitaxial lift-off InAs/GaAs quantum dot thin film solar cell and concentrated photovoltaic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sogabe, Tomah, E-mail: sogabe@mbe.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shoji, Yasushi; Tamayo, Efrain; Okada, Yoshitaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8504 (Japan); Mulder, Peter; Schermer, John [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the fabrication of a thin film InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cell (QD cell) by applying epitaxial lift-off (ELO) approach to the GaAs substrate. We confirmed significant current collection enhancement (?0.91?mA/cm{sup 2}) in the ELO-InAs QD cell within the wavelength range of 700?nm–900?nm when compared to the ELO-GaAs control cell. This is almost six times of the sub-GaAs bandgap current collection (?0.16?mA/cm{sup 2}) from the wavelength range of 900?nm and beyond, we also confirmed the ELO induced resonance cavity effect was able to increase the solar cell efficiency by increasing both the short circuit current and open voltage. The electric field intensity of the resonance cavity formed in the ELO film between the Au back reflector and the GaAs front contact layer was analyzed in detail by finite-differential time-domain (FDTD) simulation. We found that the calculated current collection enhancement within the wavelength range of 700?nm–900?nm was strongly influenced by the size and shape of InAs QD. In addition, we performed concentrated light photovoltaic study and analyzed the effect of intermediate states on the open voltage under varied concentrated light intensity for the ELO-InAs QD cell.

  6. Public release of optimization of metallization scheme for thin emitter wrap-through solar cells for higher efficiency, reduced precious metal costs, and reduced stress.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby, Douglas Scott; Murphy, Brian (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Meakin, David (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Jason (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Hacke, Peter (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Back-contact crystalline-silicon photovoltaic solar cells and modules offer a number of advantages, including the elimination of grid shadowing losses, reduced cost through use of thinner silicon substrates, simpler module assembly, and improved aesthetics. While the existing edge tab method for interconnecting and stringing edge-connected back contact cells is acceptably straightforward and reliable, there are further gains to be exploited when you have both contact polarities on one side of the cell. In this work, we produce 'busbarless' emitter wrap-through solar cells that use 41% of the gridline silver (Ag) metallization mass compared to the edge tab design. Further, series resistance power losses are reduced by extraction of current from more places on the cell rear, leading to a fill factor improvement of about 6% (relative) on the module level. Series resistance and current-generation losses associated with large rear bondpads and busbars are eliminated. Use of thin silicon (Si) wafers is enabled because of the reduced Ag metallization mass and by interconnection with conductive adhesives leading to reduced bow. The busbarless cell design interconnected with conductive adhesives passes typical International Electrotechnical Commission damp heat and thermal cycling test.

  7. Optically optimal wavelength-scale patterned ITO/ZnO composite coatings for thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreau, Antoine; Centeno, Emmanuel; Seassal, Christian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new methodology is proposed for finding structures that are, optically speaking, locally optimal : a physical analysis of much simpler structures is used to constrain the optimization process. The obtained designs are based on a flat amorphous silicon layer (to minimize recombination) with a patterned anti-reflective coating made of ITO or ZnO, or a composite ITO/ZnO coating. These latter structures are realistic and present good performances despite very thin active layers.

  8. Correlations of Capacitance-Voltage Hysteresis with Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cell Performance During Accelerated Lifetime Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, D.; del Cueto, J.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present the correlation of CdTe solar cell performance with capacitance-voltage hysteresis, defined presently as the difference in capacitance measured at zero-volt bias when collecting such data with different pre-measurement bias conditions. These correlations were obtained on CdTe cells stressed under conditions of 1-sun illumination, open-circuit bias, and an acceleration temperature of approximately 100 degrees C.

  9. RelateGateways: Using Spatial Context to Identify and Interact with Pervasive Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , UK 2 ETH Zurich / SAP Research, Switzerland 3 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit¨at, M¨unchen, Germany displays, multimedia systems, worksta- tions, etc. While on the run we should be able to use the mobileGateways project extends the mobile desktop with a new kind of widget: the gateways. These com- ponents

  10. Too Big or Too Small? The PTB-PTS ICMP-based Attack against IPsec Gateways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Too Big or Too Small? The PTB-PTS ICMP-based Attack against IPsec Gateways Ludovic Jacquin Inria the "Packet Too Big"-"Packet Too Small" ICMP based attack against IPsec gateways. We explain how an attacker in use, the attack either creates a Denial of Service or major performance penalties. This attack

  11. Psychological & Brain Sciences 10/2012 HOW TO PLACE AN ORDER IN GATEWAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Psychological & Brain Sciences 10/2012 1 HOW TO PLACE AN ORDER IN GATEWAY 1) Go to the Gateway above). All items need to be from the same vendor. #12;Psychological & Brain Sciences 10/2012 2 c on the Cart in the upper right hand corner to view your items. #12;Psychological & Brain Sciences 10/2012 3

  12. Prototyping a Residential Gateway Using Xilinx ISE S. W. Song, senior member, IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, William

    Prototyping a Residential Gateway Using Xilinx ISE S. W. Song, senior member, IEEE Department jzheng@uoguelph.ca, wgardner@cis.uoguelph.ca Abstract This paper presents a residential gateway (RG for broadband residential multiservices based on a SONET over DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

  13. Monitoring Scheduling for Home Gateways Stephane Frenot, Yvan Royon, Pierre Parrend and Denis Beras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on performance. I. INTRODUCTION During the last years, the Home Gateway market has evolved at a very fast pace model will move to multi-play [1], and enable the management of smart homes [2]. The ideaMonitoring Scheduling for Home Gateways St´ephane Fr´enot, Yvan Royon, Pierre Parrend and Denis

  14. Investigation of Solar Energy Transfer through Plasmonic Au Nanoparticle-doped Sol-derived TiO? Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TiO 2 Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics ATiO 2 Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics by

  15. Value Proposition for High Lifetime (p-type) and Thin Silicon Materials in Solar PV Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Hacke, P.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most silicon PV road maps forecast a continued reduction in wafer thickness, despite rapid declines in the primary incentive for doing so -- polysilicon feedstock price. Another common feature of most silicon-technology forecasts is the quest for ever-higher device performance at the lowest possible costs. The authors present data from device-performance and manufacturing- and system-installation cost models to quantitatively establish the incentives for manufacturers to pursue advanced (thin) wafer and (high efficiency) cell technologies, in an age of reduced feedstock prices. This analysis exhaustively considers the value proposition for high lifetime (p-type) silicon materials across the entire c-Si PV supply chain.

  16. Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films for solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Gabor, A.M.; Tuttle, J.R.; Tennant, A.L.; Contreras, M.A.; Albin, D.S.; Carapella, J.J.

    1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin film. 5 figs.

  17. NERSC's Science Gateways Pave Way for 'Team Science'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1AllocationsNOVAPlayedNERSC's Science Gateways Pave Way

  18. Gateway Energy Services Corporation (Maryland) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFifeGEXAGarnet VRX sro Jump to: navigation,Gateway

  19. Gateway:América Latina | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFifeGEXAGarnet VRX sro Jump to:Gateway Energy

  20. Gateway:Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFifeGEXAGarnet VRX sro Jump to:Gateway

  1. Gateway:Low Emission Development Strategies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFifeGEXAGarnet VRX sro Jump to:GatewayPathways Analysis)

  2. Clyde Gateway (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationin UrbanCity ofCityCleanInformation ClimateClioGateway (Smart

  3. User:GregZiebold/Gateway test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planning methodologies and tools | Open EnergyCalpakGateway test <

  4. High-performance solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector based on mixed-phase ZnMgO thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, M. M. [Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888 Dongnanhu Road, 130033 Changchun (China); Liu, K. W., E-mail: liukw@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: shendz@ciomp.ac.cn; Zhang, Z. Z.; Li, B. H.; Chen, X.; Zhao, D. X.; Shan, C. X.; Shen, D. Z., E-mail: liukw@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: shendz@ciomp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888 Dongnanhu Road, 130033 Changchun (China)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    High Mg content mixed-phase Zn{sub 0.38}Mg{sub 0.62}O was deposited on a-face sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, based on which a metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was fabricated. The dark current is only 0.25?pA at 5?V, which is much lower than that of the reported mixed-phase ZnMgO photodetectors. More interestingly, different from the other mixed-phase ZnMgO photodetectors containing two photoresponse bands, this device shows only one response peak and its ?3?dB cut-off wavelength is around 275?nm. At 10?V, the peak responsivity is as high as 1.664?A/W at 260?nm, corresponding to an internal gain of ?8. The internal gain is mainly ascribed to the interface states at the grain boundaries acting as trapping centers of photogenerated holes. In view of the advantages of mixed-phase ZnMgO photodetectors over single-phase ZnMgO photodetectors, including easy fabrication, high responsivity, and low dark current, our findings are anticipated to pave a new way for the development of ZnMgO solar-blind UV photodetectors.

  5. Sputtered Nickel Oxide Thin Film for Efficient Hole Transport Layer in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widjonarko, N. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Perkins, C. L.; Sigdel, A. K.; Zakutayev, A.; Ndione, P. F.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Ginley, D. S.; Olson, D. C.; Berry, J. J.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV) are very promising thin film renewable energy conversion technologies due to low production cost by high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing, an expansive list of compatible materials, and flexible device fabrication. An important aspect of OPV device efficiency is good contact engineering. The use of oxide thin films for this application offers increased design flexibility and improved chemical stability. Here we present our investigation of radio frequency magnetron sputtered nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) deposited from oxide targets as an efficient, easily scalable hole transport layer (HTL) with variable work-function, ranging from 4.8 to 5.8 eV. Differences in HTL work-function were not found to result in statistically significant changes in open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) for poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) BHJ device. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) characterization of the NiO{sub x} film and its interface with the polymer shows Fermi level alignment of the polymer with the NiO{sub x} film. UPS of the blend also demonstrates Fermi level alignment of the organic active layer with the HTL, consistent with the lack of correlation between V{sub oc} and HTL work-function. Instead, trends in j{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and thus overall device performance are related to the surface treatment of the HTL prior to active layer deposition through changes in active layer thickness.

  6. High efficiency cadmium telluride and zinc telluride based thin-film solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 March 1990--28 February 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S.A.; Chou, H.C. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work to improve the basic understanding of CdTe and ZnTe alloys by growing and characterizing these films along with cell fabrication. The major objective was to develop wide-band-gap (1.6--1.8 eV) material for the top cell, along with compatible window material and transparent ohmic contacts, so that a cascade cell design can be optimized. Front-wall solar cells were fabricated with a glass/SnO{sub 2}/CdS window, where the CdS film is thin to maximize transmission and current. Wide-band-gap absorber films (E{sub g} = 1.75 eV) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques, which provided excellent control for tailoring the film composition and properties. CdZnTe films were grown by both MBE and MOCVD. All the as-grown films were characterized by several techniques (surface photovoltage spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) for composition, bulk uniformity, thickness, and film and interface quality. Front-wall-type solar cells were fabricated in collaboration with Ametek Materials Research Laboratory using CdTe and CdZnTe polycrystalline absorber films. The effects of processing on ternary film were studied by AES and XPS coupled with capacitance voltage and current voltage measurements as a function of temperature. Bias-dependent spectral response and electrical measurements were used to test some models in order to identify and quantify dominant loss mechanisms.

  7. High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells Prepared by Treating CdTe Films with a Freon Gas in Substitution of CdCl2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells Prepared by Treating CdTe Films with a Freon Gas process. A further simplification has been done by substituting the CdCl2 step by treating CdTe films to treat CdTe. In this case CdCl2 vapor is obtained by a source facing the CdTe film or conveyed from

  8. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  9. Investigation of Solar Energy Transfer through Plasmonic Au Nanoparticle-doped Sol-derived TiO? Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticles in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. ACS Nano. 2012,to the operation of a Dye-Sensitized solar cell. Figure 13:gas sensors, Dye Sensitized Solar Cells, and optical

  10. RANDOM DEPOSITION MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THINFILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    THESIS RANDOM DEPOSITION MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Lei Chen LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS BE AC- CEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin­film solar cells are developing dramatically

  11. Down Converter Device Combining Rare-Earth Doped Thin Layer and Photonic Crystal for c-Si Based Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deschamps, Thierry; Peretti, Romain; Lalouat, Loïc; Fourmond, Erwann; Fave, Alain; Guille, Antoine; Pereira, António; Moine, Bernard; Seassal, Christian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the study is to develop ultra-compact structures enabling an efficient conversion of single high energy photon (UV) to two lower energy photons (IR). The proposed structure combines rare-earths doped thin layer allowing the down-conversion process with a photonic crystal (PhC), in order to control and enhance the down-conversion using optical resonances. On the top of the rare-earths doped layer, a silicon nitride (SiN) 2D planar PhC is synthesized. For that, SiN is first deposited by PECVD. After holographic lithography and reactive ion etching, a periodic square lattice of holes is generated on the SiN layer. The PhC topographical parameters as well as the layers thickness are optimized using Finite-Difference-Time-Domain simulations. The design and realization of such PhC-assisted down-converter structures is presented. Optical simulations demonstrate that the PhC leads to the establishment of resonant modes located in the underneath doped layer, allowing a drastic enhancement of the absorption ...

  12. Effective Optical Properties of Highly Ordered Mesoporous Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Neal J.; Coquil, Thomas; Navid, Ashcon; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells”, Thin Solid Films,tions include dye-sensitized solar cells [8– 10], low-ke?ciency solar cell based on dye- a sensitized colloidal

  13. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, 2009, pp.Solar energy materials and solar cells, vol. 91, 2007, pp.to integrate thin-film solar cells and batteries (2)

  14. Thin-film silicon triple-junction solar cell with 12.5% stable efficiency on innovative flat light-scattering substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221110 (2012) Error analysis for concentrated solar collectors JThin-film silicon triple-junction solar cell with 12.5% stable efficiency on innovative flat light of organic solar cells APL: Org. Electron. Photonics 5, 251 (2012) Effects of the Al cathode evaporation rate

  15. * Corresponding author. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 58 (1999) 209}218

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    * Corresponding author. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 58 (1999) 209}218 A highly e$cient and stable CdTe/CdS thin "lm solar cell N. Romeo, A. Bosio, R. Tedeschi*, A. Romeo, V. Canevari Dipartimento$cient and stable CdTe/CdS thin "lm solar cells. Our cells are prepared in three subsequent phases. Firstly, we

  16. The Construction Information Gateway Stephen R Lockley, Construction Informatics, Newcastle University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amor, Robert

    The Construction Information Gateway Stephen R Lockley, Construction Informatics, Newcastle University Robert Amor, Building Research Establishment Affiliations: Keith Montague, Construction Industry.K. construction industry by: improving the quality and efficiency of buildings and building projects by sharing

  17. Closing the gateways of democracy : cities and the militarization of protest policing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golan, Gan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the era of globalization, cities function as 'gateways of democracy,' the spaces and places where the civil society literally 'marches through' in order to deliver oppositional claims into the global arena. However, ...

  18. Webinar: 20K Hour GATEWAY Testing Results for I-35W Bridge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has released a GATEWAY Demonstration report on the longer-term performance of an LED lighting system that was installed on the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis in September...

  19. Manufacturing recovery : a networked approach to green job creation in Massachusetts Gateway cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leavy-Sperounis, Marianna (Marianna Breakstone)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I compare workforce development planning in Lawrence and Lowell, Massachusetts, two of the state's older industrial "Gateway" cities. I specifically examine local planning processes around job creation in ...

  20. VIDEO TRANSCODING GATEWAY FOR WIRELESS VIDEO ACCESS Zhijun Lei, Nicolas D. Georganas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ottawa, University of

    -000 - VIDEO TRANSCODING GATEWAY FOR WIRELESS VIDEO ACCESS Zhijun Lei, Nicolas D. Georganas several typical video transcoding architectures and major applications of video transcoding. We identify issues involved in access video streams through handheld devices and wireless networks. To handle

  1. Modeling and Detection of Content and Packet Flow Anomalies at Enterprise Network Gateway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Sheng-Ya

    2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation investigates modeling techniques and computing algorithms for detection of anomalous contents and traffic flows of ingress Internet traffic at an enterprise network gateway. Anomalous contents refer to a large volume of ingress...

  2. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for...

  3. al-ge nanocomposite thin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    des modles numriques simples (more) Eschbach, Julien 2009-01-01 388 Thin-film solar cells CiteSeer Summary: The main thin-film solar cell technologies are evaluated...

  4. New GATEWAY Report Monitors LED System Performance in a High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the light. The Yuma site is an extreme environment: high ambient temperatures and direct solar radiation heat up the luminaires throughout the day, and at sunset the LED...

  5. Mechanisms of Zinc Oxide Nanocrystalline Thin Film Formation by Thermal Degradation of Metal-Loaded Hydrogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electrode in flat- panel displays,1 solar cells, and thin-film transistors.2,3 Other recent reports account

  6. Solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  7. Smart M2M Gateway based Architecture for M2M Device and Endpoint Soumya Kanti Datta, Christian Bonnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gesbert, David

    of both ETSI and oneM2M standards. The internal structure of such a gateway along with its APIs and endpoints. The architecture is compliant with both ETSI and oneM2M standards recommendations. The resources of the gateway and APIs to manage the M2M devices, endpoints, their discovery and interaction with the mobile

  8. Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells and durabilityand durability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells lines · Thinfilm CIGS--not available in transparent form · Dye sensitized solar thin films· Dye.E. McCandless, W.A. Buchanan. "High throughput processing of CdTe/CdS solar cells with thin absorber

  9. The solar electric power outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, J.W.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The outlook for solar electric power plants is discussed. The following topics are discussed: Amoco/Envon solar vision, multi-megawatt solar power projects, global carbon dioxide emission estimates, pollution and electric power generation, social costs of pollution economies of scale, thin-film power module, rooftop market strategy, regulatory issues regarding rooftop systems, and where do we go from here?

  10. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. 1 fig.

  11. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.

  12. Ames Lab 101: Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Biswas, Rana

    2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Rana Biswas, a scientist with the Ames Laboratory, discusses his team's research in creating more efficient solar cells and working with Iowa Thin Film to produce these cells.

  13. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of thin- film Li-ion batteries under flexural deflection,”thin-film solar cells and batteries (2) Characterizesolar cells and batteries for multifunctional performance (

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cells. Sol Energ Mat Sol C. 2000;p/n-junction solar cells. Sol Energ Mat Sol C. Wohrle D,

  15. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  17. almgb14 thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  18. aggase2 thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  19. au crystalline thin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer for manufacturing high...

  20. area thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  1. aluminide thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  2. antiferroelectric thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  3. ain thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  4. advanced thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  5. applied type thin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer for manufacturing high...

  6. Project Profile: Development and Productization of High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Building-Integrated PV Shingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solexel-OC team is developing a BIPV roofing shingle product that includes low-profile solar modules and a unique attachment system that will be fastened directly to the roof and incorporates...

  7. Effective Optical Properties of Absorbing Nanoporous and Nanocomposite Thin-Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garahan, Anna; Pilon, Laurent; Yin, Juan; Saxena, Indu

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells”, Thin Solid Films,cations include dye-sensitized solar cells [5, 6, 7], low-ke?ciency solar cell based on dye- sensitized colloidal TiO

  8. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

  9. Influence of Gas Flow Rate for Formation of Aligned Nanorods in ZnO Thin Films for Solar-Driven Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shet, S.; Chen, L.; Tang, H.; Nuggehalli, R.; Wang, H.; Yan, Y.; Turner, J.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnO thin films have been deposited in mixed Ar/N{sub 2} gas ambient at substrate temperature of 500 C by radiofrequency sputtering of ZnO targets. We find that an optimum N{sub 2}-to-Ar ratio in the deposition ambient promotes the formation of well-aligned nanorods. ZnO thin films grown in ambient with 25% N{sub 2} gas flow rate promoted nanorods aligned along c-axis and exhibit significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) response, compared with ZnO thin films grown in an ambient with different N{sub 2}-to-Ar gas flow ratios. Our results suggest that chamber ambient is critical for the formation of aligned nanostructures, which offer potential advantages for improving the efficiency of PEC water splitting for H{sub 2} production.

  10. A Web-of-Things Gateway for KNX Networks Ger^ome Bovet (1,2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    jean.hennebert@hefr.ch Abstract--Smart buildings tend to democratize both in new and renovated and blinds control, and also security access systems. Buildings have become "smart" and are now including IP Gateway IPBackbone Fig. 1. Network heterogeneity in smart buildings Looking now at Internet

  11. U-244: McAfee Email Gateway Lets Remote Users Bypass Authentication...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    McAfee Email Gateway (MEG) 7.0.0 and 7.0.1 (MEG 6.7.x is NOT affected.) McAfee Email and Web Security (EWS) 5.6 Patch 3 and earlier McAfee Email and Web Security (EWS) 5.5 Patch 6...

  12. Compilation of Expenditures for the Hawai`i Gateway Energy Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    `i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security Subtask 2.2 Deliverable #3 By Hawai`i Natural`i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security project, the Hawai`i Natural Energy InstituteCompilation of Expenditures for the Hawai`i Gateway Energy Center Prepared for the U.S. Department

  13. Gateway Adaptive Pacing for TCP across Multihop Wireless Networks and the Internet*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindemann, Christoph

    Gateway Adaptive Pacing for TCP across Multihop Wireless Networks and the Internet* Sherif M. El introduce an effective congestion control scheme for TCP over hybrid wireless/wired networks comprising a multihop wireless IEEE 802.11 network and the wired Internet. We propose an adaptive pacing scheme

  14. The University of Oklahoma 2011-2012 Graduate College Bulletin GRADUATE GATEWAY EMBLEM BY HADLEY JERMAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forester, Max

    #12;The University of Oklahoma 2011-2012 Graduate College Bulletin Page | 1 GRADUATE GATEWAY EMBLEM BY HADLEY JERMAN Ms. Jerman graduated from the School of Art and Art History at the University of Oklahoma and was an Oklahoma State Regents Scholar and member of OU's Joe C. and Carole Kerr McClendon Honors College. While

  15. The role of ocean gateways on cooling climate on long time scales Willem P. Sijp a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sijp, Willem

    The role of ocean gateways on cooling climate on long time scales Willem P. Sijp a, , Anna S. von Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia b Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research (IMAU), Department of Physics and Astronomy

  16. THE MARMARA SEA GATEWAY SINCE ~16 KY BP: NON-CATASTROPHIC CAUSES OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminski, Michael A.

    than 1000 years. Sufficient Mediterranean water to change the Sr-isotopic composition of slope Gateway, Bosphorus Strait, Black Sea Flood Hypothesis, Outflow Hypothesis, climate change 1. INTRODUCTION of the Black Sea to the Eastern Mediterranean has been intensely debated. Ryan, Pitman and coworkers advocate

  17. Proc. of the 24th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, 1995), pp. 291-294. ADMITTANCE MEASUREMENTS ON Cu(In,Ga)Se2 POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    for approximately 30 CIS and CIGS polycrystalline thin film solar cells having efficiencies of 12% or better-294. ADMITTANCE MEASUREMENTS ON Cu(In,Ga)Se2 POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN- FILM SOLAR CELLS John H. Scofield Physics-16.4% efficient, 0.43 cm2 area, polycrystalline, thin-film solar cells solar cells from 16 different CuInSe2 (CIS

  18. Influence of different sulfur to selenium ratios on the structural and electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films and solar cells formed by the stacked elemental layer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B. J., E-mail: bjm.mueller@web.de [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials and Microsystems, D-70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Zimmermann, C.; Haug, V., E-mail: veronika.haug@de.bosch.com; Koehler, T.; Zweigart, S. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials and Microsystems, D-70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Hergert, F. [Bosch Solar CISTech GmbH, D-14772 Brandenburg (Germany); Herr, U., E-mail: ulrich.herr@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we investigate the effect of different elemental selenium to elemental sulfur ratios on the chalcopyrite phase formation in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films. The films are formed by the stacked elemental layer process. The structural and electronic properties of the thin films and solar cells are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, spectral photoluminescence as well as current-voltage, and quantum efficiency measurements. The influence of different S/(S+Se) ratios on the anion incorporation and on the Ga/In distribution is investigated. We find a homogenous sulfur concentration profile inside the film from the top surface to the bottom. External quantum efficiency measurements show that the band edge of the solar cell device is shifted to shorter wavelength, which enhances the open-circuit voltages. The relative increase of the open-circuit voltage with S/(S+Se) ratio is lower than expected from the band gap energy trend, which is attributed to the presence of S-induced defects. We also observe a linear decrease of the short-circuit current density with increasing S/(S+Se) ratio which can be explained by a reduced absorption. Above a critical S/(S+Se) ratio of around 0.61, the fill factor drops drastically, which is accompanied by a strong series resistance increase which may be attributed to changes in the back contact or p-n junction properties.

  19. Gateway Design for Data Gathering Sensor Raluca Musaloiu-E.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir, Yair

    batteries coupled with solar panels, that increase the cost and complicate the deployment and maintenance present several alternative platforms which could become viable alternatives in terms of their cost the Stargate is not the ideal platform for low-cost, low-power deployments. It is more expensive compared

  20. The reversal of the laser-beam-induced-current contrast with varying illumination density in a Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin-film solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Yong, E-mail: yong.zhang@uncc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Energy Production and Infrastructure Center (EPIC), The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Energy Production and Infrastructure Center (EPIC), The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply an array of correlated spatially-resolved techniques, including ?-Raman/photoluminescence/reflectance/laser-beam-induced-current in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, to study the impact of the microscopic-scale thickness inhomogeneity of CdS layer in a Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin-film solar cell. Thicker CdS regions are found to cause more light reflecting loss thus yield lower external quantum efficiencies and energy conversion efficiencies than the general area. However, these regions show much less efficiency degradation at high illumination intensity, leading to an inversion of laser-beam-induced-current contrast in the area mapping. While improving the CdS layer uniformity can boost the device performance, the finding further points out the possibility of operating thin-film photovoltaic devices based on the similar materials (such as CuInGaSe{sub 2}, CdTe, Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4}) under a substantially higher illumination density for concentrated photovoltaic and photo-detection.

  1. Quasi-Rheotaxy a new technique to grow large grain thin films on low cost amorphous substrates (*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , could be used to build low cost thin film solar cells. Revue Phys. Appl. 16 (1981) 11-14 JANVIER 1981 is required in thin film direct gap absorbers solar cells to overcome thebfficiency value of 10 % is about 2 comparable with the grain size, reports that a thin film solar cell based on GaAs with a resistivity of 10

  2. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307­312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted thin-film indium phosphide solar cell and its computer simulation Guohua Lia, *, Qingfen Yanga+ -i-p+ InP solar cell is developed. The total thickness of its epitaxial layer is only 0.22 mm

  3. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  4. Integrated All-silicon Thin-film Power Electronics on Flexible Sheets For Ubiquitous Wireless Charging Stations based on Solar-energy Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The blocks overcome these challenges and generate AC power using a power inverter and control circuits, all the power inverter circuit. To generate an AC output current, the two solar modules (S1/2) are used maximizes the current, and all of the S1/2 current is delivered to the load, yielding high power-inverter

  5. Joint Development of Coated Conductor and Low Cost Thin Film Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-007-213

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, R.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UES plans on developing CIGS thin films by using Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) technique as it is a low-cost, non-vacuum method for scale-up to large area PV modules. NREL will support UES, Inc. through expert processing, characterization and device fabrication. NREL scientists will also help develop a processing phase diagram which includes composition, film thickness, annealing temperature and ambient conditions. Routine measurements of devices and materials will be done under NREL's core support project.

  6. DISSERTATION ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    i DISSERTATION ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE THIN-FILM LIMIT Submitted ENTITLED `ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE THIN-FILM LIMIT' BE ACCEPTED(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE THIN-FILM LIMIT The demand for alternative sources of energy is rapidly

  7. Solar Cells in 2009 and Beyond Mike McGehee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    ;Inorganic Thin Film Solar Cells CdTe CIGS (CuInGaSe2) amorphous Si · A thin film of semiconductorSolar Cells in 2009 and Beyond Mike McGehee Materials Science and Engineering These slides parity cost depends on location #12;Conventional p-n junction photovoltaic (solar) cell #12;Efficiency

  8. Out of Storage and into the Classroom: Revealing the Spencer Museum of Art Collections through the KU Libraries Information Gateway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercer, Holly

    2007-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Out of Storage and into the Classroom: Revealing the Spencer Museum of Art Collection through the KU Libraries Information Gateway Holly Mercer University of Kansas Spencer Museum of Art More than 25,000 objects in permanent collection About 500...Holly Mercer June 24, 2007 hmercer@ku.edu Out?of?storage?and?into?the?classroom:?Revealing?the?Spencer?Museum?of? Art?Collection?through?the?KU?Libraries?information?Gateway? ? This?poster?introduces?a...

  9. Solar Chemical Peculiarities?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2006-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Several investigations of FGK stars in the solar neighborhood have suggested that thin-disk stars with an iron abundance similar to the Sun appear to show higher abundances of other elements, such as silicon, titanium, or nickel. Offsets could arise if the samples contain stars with ages, mean galactocentric distances, or kinematics, that differ on average from the solar values. They could also arise due to systematic errors in the abundance determinations, if the samples contain stars that are different from the Sun regarding their atmospheric parameters. We re-examine this issue by studying a sample of 80 nearby stars with solar-like colors and luminosities. Among these solar "analogs", the objects with solar iron abundances exhibit solar abundances of carbon, silicon, calcium, titanium and nickel.

  10. Broadband absorption enhancement in ultra-thin crystalline Si solar cells by incorporating metallic and dielectric nanostructures in the back reflector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Samart; Miljkovic, Vladimir D; Dmitriev, Alexamder; Trompoukis, Christos; Gordon, Ivan; van Dorpe, Pol; Daif, Ounsi El

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a back-reflecting scheme in order to enhance the maximum achievable current in one micron thick crystalline silicon solar cells. We perform 3-dimensional numerical investigations of the scattering properties of metallic nanostructures located at the back side, and optimize them for enhancing absorption in the silicon layer. We validate our numerical results experimentally and also compare the absorption enhancement in the solar cell structure, both with quasi-periodic and random metallic nanostructures. We have looked at the interplay between the metallic nanostructures and an integrated back-reflector. We show that the combination of metallic nanoparticles and a metallic reflector results in significant parasitic absorption. We compared this to another implementation based on titanium dioxide nanoparticles which act as a lambertian reflector of light. Our simulation and experimental results show that this proposed configuration results in reduced absorption losses and in broadband enhancement of a...

  11. Modeling and simulation of CuIn{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} based thin film solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumari, S., E-mail: sarita.kumari132@gmail.com; Verma, A. S. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, Rajasthan-304022 (India); Singh, P.; Gautam, R. [Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engg. and Tech., Ghaziabad-201206 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide) based solar cell structure has been simulated. We have been calculated short circuit current, open circuit voltage and efficiency of the cell. The thickness of the absorption layer is varied from 400 to 3000 nm, keeping the thickness of other layers unchanged. The effect of absorption layer thickness over cell performance has been analyzed and found that the efficiency increases upto 22% until the thickness of the absorption layer reaches around 2000 nm.

  12. Gateway:Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUK Place: Newport,Gate Solar Jump

  13. Gateway:Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUK Place: Newport,Gate Solar

  14. Design and fabrication of photonic crystal thin film photovoltaic cells Guillaume Gomarda,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design and fabrication of photonic crystal thin film photovoltaic cells Guillaume Gomarda,b , Ounsi of an absorbing planar photonic crystal within a thin film photovoltaic cell. The devices are based on a stack with large areas. Keywords: Photonic crystal, Photovoltaic solar cell, Thin film solar cell, Hydrogenated

  15. Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service (NPS) views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other NPS tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr for this tunnel to a much larger figure national

  16. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance of Thin Film, Solar Thermal Energy Converters",sts of Collectors of Solar Thermal Energy, A Steel Flat PlatA Comparison of Solar Thermal Coatings", Spie 85, Optics in

  17. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Thin Film, Solar Thermal Energy Converters", N7728613, PBsts of Collectors of Solar Thermal Energy, A Steel Flat Platcharacteristics a solar thermal energy utili ng water l1ed

  18. Guided optical modes in randomly textured ZnO thin films imaged by near-field scanning optical K. Bittkau* and R. Carius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    relevance. In particular, when designing thin-film solar cells and light emitting diodes LEDs , ran- domly

  19. High-Rate Fabrication of a-Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Large-Area VHF PECVD Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xunming [University of Toledo] [University of Toledo; Fan, Qi Hua

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Toledo (UT), working in concert with it’s a-Si-based PV industry partner Xunlight Corporation (Xunlight), has conducted a comprehensive study to develop a large-area (3ft x 3ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate uniform fabrication of silicon absorber layers, and the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high performance a-Si/a-SiGe or a-Si/nc-Si tandem junction solar cells during the period of July 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2011, under DOE Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18073. The project had two primary goals: (i) to develop and improve a large area (3 ft × 3 ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate fabrication of > = 8 Å/s a-Si and >= 20 Å/s nc-Si or 4 Å/s a-SiGe absorber layers with high uniformity in film thicknesses and in material structures. (ii) to develop and optimize the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high-performance a-Si/nc-Si or a-Si/a-SiGe tandem-junction solar cells with >= 10% stable efficiency. Our work has met the goals and is summarized in “Accomplishments versus goals and objectives”.

  20. area photovoltaic solar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    major technological challenge which demands suitable materials and fabrication processes. Thin film polycrystalline heterojunction solar (more) Ahmad, E 1995-01-01 304 Overcoming...

  1. amorphous solar cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The convergence Schiff, Eric A. 20 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  2. arsenide solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 92 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  3. alingap solar cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 84 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  4. automated solar cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 103 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  5. arsenide solar cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 92 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  6. alloy solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 91 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  7. Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, Sajeev [University of Toronto

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide designs of thin-film solar cells utilizing optimized photonic-crystal light-trapping and numerical simulations of their solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiencies.

  8. STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY BP SOLAR INTERNATIONAL...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    RATIONALE FOR DECISION DISPOSITION BP Solar Large-Scale PV Module Manufac- 58 percent cost sharing International, LLC turing Using Ultra-Thin Poly-Crystalline * Silicon Solar Cells...

  9. Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere´de´rale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics, photovoltaics, resonant dielectric structures, solar cells * Corresponding author: e-mail jgrandid

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Functional Nanostructured Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Lee

    and development of alternative energy technologies, such as low cost flat-panel solar cells thin film devices and structural requirements of their applications in gas sensors and solar cells. The rapid photothermalV) and GaN (21eV), is of interest for various high tech applications, such as optical devices (1), solar

  11. Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Weidong

    Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells Weidong to current crystalline silicon solar cells, as well as future thin film, quantum dot, and organic solar cells for light collection is vital in achieving high performance solar cells.1 An ideal antireflec- tion AR

  12. The use of Residential Gateways in Content Delivery Networking F.T.H. den Hartog, B.L.G. Bastiaans, M.A. Blom,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Mei, Rob

    The use of Residential Gateways in Content Delivery Networking F.T.H. den Hartog, B.L.G. Bastiaans-We have investigated and compared various aspects of the storage of multimedia content at residential. It is expected that the Residential Gateway (RG) will play a crucial role. In this paper, the RG is defined

  13. Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa...

  14. abrasion-resistant thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  15. al-cu-fe thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  16. alendronate-hydroxyapatite thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  17. amorphous-nanocrystalline silicon thin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer for manufacturing high...

  18. ag-in-se thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  19. 20K Hour GATEWAY Testing Results for I-35W Bridge Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy released a GATEWAY Demonstration report on the longer-term performance of an LED lighting system that was installed on the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis in September 2008 and represents one of the country’s oldest continuously operated exterior LED lighting installations. Prior to installation, two of the LED luminaires were tested, along with a third luminaire that was not installed on the bridge but was tested for 6,000 hours in a laboratory for comparison purposes.

  20. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 2010, Louisiana enacted solar rights legislation (HB 751) that prohibits certain entities from unreasonably restricting a property owner from installing a solar collector. Solar collectors...

  1. Enhancing solar cells with plasmonic nanovoids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lal, Niraj Narsey

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the use of plasmonic nanovoids for enhancing the efficiency of thin-film solar cells. Devices are fabricated inside plasmonically resonant nanostructures, demonstrating a new class of plasmonic photovoltaics. Novel cell...

  2. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  3. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  4. Performance of Ultrathin Silicon Solar Microcells with Nanostructures of Relief

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    of the materials. Solar cells based on thin films of amorphous or polycrystalline silicon require sub- stantially, Urbana, Illinois 61801 ABSTRACT Recently developed classes of monocrystalline silicon solar microcells systems that benefit from thin construction and efficient materials utilization. KEYWORDS Nanoimprint

  5. Antimony-Doped Tin(II) Sulfide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Rupak

    Thin-film solar cells made from earth-abundant, inexpensive, and nontoxic materials are needed to replace the current technologies whose widespread use is limited by their use of scarce, costly, and toxic elements. Tin ...

  6. OligoceneMiocene basin evolution in SE Anatolia, Turkey: constraints on the closure of the eastern Tethys gateway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    by major climate changes as well as changing plate configurations. The Middle Miocene Climate Transition and global climate change to a cooler mode, recorded in the Mi3b event (d18 O increase) dated at 13.82 Ma Tethys gateway, the marine connection between the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean. To address this idea

  7. Solar Cells from Earth-Abundant Semiconductors with Plasmon-Enhanced Light Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwater, Harry

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in these areas: Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin Film a-Si Solar Cells; Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin InGaN Quantum Well Solar Cells; and Earth Abundant Cu{sub 2}O and Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} Solar Cells.

  8. Modeling and experimental studies on a domestic solar dryer A. Saleh a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural circulation solar dryer Sun tracking Thin-layer drying models Drying characteristics a b s t r a cModeling and experimental studies on a domestic solar dryer A. Saleh a, *, I. Badran b Q1 t A domestic solar dryer with transparent external surfaces was designed, built and tested. Thin-layer drying

  9. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  10. Science Gateways

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook Twitter Principalfuel cells" Find Science

  11. The Effect of Offcut Angle on Electrical Conductivity of Direct Wafer-Bonded n-GaAs/n-GaAs Structures for Wafer-Bonded Tandem Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, King Wah Sunny

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of p?n Junction Solar Cells, J. Appl. Phys. 32,Inverted Triple- Junction Solar Cell with Two Independentlyof Thin-Film GaAs Solar Cells on Si Substrates, J. Appl.

  12. FMEA for Solar Cell Array DATE 23 Jan, 1969

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    " .- Astronaut Handle Central Station ·~ Solar Panel Deployment Linkage Eas~ ALSEPAXES z Carrying Handle Antenna Positioning Mechanism Antenna Mast _ Outboard Solar Panel "B" PSEP Deployed Configuration N'"CJtx w Pl >!'...t. 3 15 PAGE OF DATE 23 Jan. 1969 The solar panels are assembled by bonding a thin sheet of G-1 0 glass

  13. Solar: An Open Platform for Context-Aware Mobile Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotz, David

    Solar: An Open Platform for Context-Aware Mobile Applications Guanling Chen and David Kotz Dept the user state and the physical and computational environ- ment in which they run. Solar is a middleware into the in- frastructure, Solar allows applications to run on thin mo- bile clients more effectively

  14. Cardiff University Distinguished Lecture Symposium Advances in Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Cardiff University Distinguished Lecture Symposium Advances in Solar Energy Thursday 22nd March prospects for inorganic thin film photovoltaic solar cells for large scale energy generation 2:55 Dr Emyr:50 Professor James Durrant (Imperial College London, England) Photochemical approaches to solar energy

  15. Simulations of solar cell absorption enhancement using resonant modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    Simulations of solar cell absorption enhancement using resonant modes of a nanosphere array Jonathan Grandidier Michael G. Deceglie Dennis M. Callahan Harry A. Atwater #12;Simulations of solar cell for enhancing the absorption of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells using periodic arrangements of resonant

  16. Plasmonic Nanostructure Design for Efficient Light Coupling into Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Plasmonic Nanostructure Design for Efficient Light Coupling into Solar Cells Vivian E. Ferry, Luke sunlight into guided modes in thin film Si and GaAs plasmonic solar cells whose back interface is coated. These findings show promise for the design of ultrathin solar cells that exhibit enhanced absorption

  17. Substrate for thin silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A substrate is described for a photovoltaic device wherein the substrate is the base upon which photosensitive material is to be grown and the substrate comprises an alloy having boron in a range from 0.1 atomic % of the alloy to 1.3 atomic % of the alloy and the substrate has a resistivity less than 3{times}10{sup {minus}3} ohm-cm. 4 figs.

  18. Substrate for thin silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A substrate for a photovoltaic device wherein the substrate is the base upon which photosensitive material is to be grown and the substrate comprises an alloy having boron in a range from 0.1 atomic % of the alloy to 1.3 atomic % of the alloy and the substrate has a resistivity less than 3.times.10.sup.-3 ohm-cm.

  19. Solar Thin Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |RippeyInformationSodaAtlassource HistoryPower Place:

  20. Thin Film Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe yearThermalSoul Jump

  1. Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContractElectron-State HybridizationSecurityDaveArgonne Leadership

  2. NRG Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) NRG Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) NRG Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) NRG Solar (California Valley Solar Ranch) Location: San...

  3. Solar Easements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Virginia's solar easement law is similar to those in effect in other states. The Virginia Solar Easements Act of 1978 allows property owners to create binding solar easements for the purpose of...

  4. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT AMORPHOUS SILICON SOLAR CELLS DEPOSITED OIN 7.5pn-1 THICK STAINLESS STEEL SUBSTRATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT AMORPHOUS SILICON SOLAR CELLS DEPOSITED OIN 7.5pn-1 THICK STAINLESS STEEL specific power for space application, we deposited a-Si thin film solar cells on ultra-thin stainless steel-thin stainless steel (SS) substrates (down to 7.5 pm) for space power applications. In this paper, we report our

  5. amorphous-silicon solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    state of affairs Schiff, Eric A. 19 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  6. amorphous-silicon-based solar cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 89 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  7. amplified-efficiency solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 87 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  8. a-si solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the development of amorphous Si solar cells Seung May 2010 Keywords: a-Si:H Thin film Si solar cell Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) a b s t r a c t We Park, Byungwoo...

  9. a-si solar cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the development of amorphous Si solar cells Seung May 2010 Keywords: a-Si:H Thin film Si solar cell Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) a b s t r a c t We Park, Byungwoo...

  10. EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON SURFACE TEXTURING AND CRYSTALLIZATION ON A-SI:H THIN FILM IRRADIATED BY EXCIMER LASER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    considered for use in solar cell applications because of their significantly reduced cost compared-Si:H thin film solar cell applications. Introduction Many industrial solar cells in use today use bulk centers that severely reduce the carrier lifetime which results in the solar cell efficiency being below

  11. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Appendix C - Appendix 0 - Solar Radiation Glossary. ConversSolar Data a. Solar Radiation. , , . , . . , , , , . , . . .

  12. 62 Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian Site Suitability Analysis for a Solar Farm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    ]. The semiconductor materials typically used are crystalline-silicone, containing monocrystalline or polycrystalline cells, or thin-film, containing materials including CdTe and copper indium gal- lium selenide, solar modules [2]. Although thin- film solar panels are typically less expensive than c-Si solar panels

  13. Community Shared Solar with Solarize

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An overview of the concept behind The Solarize Guidebook, which offers neighborhoods a plan for getting volume discounts when making group purchases of rooftop solar energy systems.

  14. Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni- acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic: Three of central challenges in solar cells are high light coupling into solar cell, high light trapping and demonstration of a new ultra-thin high- efficiency organic solar cell (SC), termed "plasmonic cavity

  15. Organic solar cells: An overview focusing on active layer morphology Travis L. Benanti & D. Venkataraman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataraman, Dhandapani "DV"

    Review Organic solar cells: An overview focusing on active layer morphology Travis L. Benanti & D/acceptor blend, morphology, photovoltaic devices, plastic solar cells, thin films Abstract Solar cells heterojunction concept. This review provides an overview of organic solar cells. Topics covered include: a brief

  16. innovati nNREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    innovati nNREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells material. The upper TCO contact in a solar cell allows light to reach the absorber material below, which by the TCO to an external circuit, forming the negative terminal of the solar cell. TCOs used in this fashion

  17. Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxial free silicon for ultrathin solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design and fabrication of photonic crystals in epitaxial free silicon for ultrathin solar cells photovoltaic solar cell. Optical simulations performed on a complete solar cell revealed that patterning to obtain ultrathin patterned solar cells. Keywords: Photonic crystals; Epitaxial crystalline silicon; Thin

  18. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure),...

  19. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  20. Gateway:América Latina/Aprender más sobre las ERNC/Seleccion...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fotovoltaica Solar Energy: Essential Technologies for Test, Monitoring, and Control Fuente: : National Instruments Idioma: Ingls Trmica Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  1. A GATEWAY COMMUNITY AT UMORE PARK Jonathan Bartling Carlie Boudreau Chris Brenny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    to reduce energy use Apartments: LEED Gold, partner with DCTC Single Family: Passive solar homes Geos." Photovoltaic panels Local materials Geothermal heating Design tight building envelopes Encourage residents

  2. Gateway:América Latina/Aprender más sobre las ERNC/Seleccion...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Fotovoltaica Solar Electricity Basics Fuente: AltE Store Idioma: Ingls The PV Technology Landscape Fuente: Renewable Energy World Idioma: Ingls Photovoltaic...

  3. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 alloys are the leading choice for absorber layers in high-efficiency thin film solar cells due to their direct gap, high absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    film solar cells due to their direct gap, high absorption coefficient and excellent thermal stability Cu(In,Ga)Se2 are used to interpret PL results. ·No evidence of band-to-band transitions (rare in CIGS

  4. NREL: Solar STAT Blog -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency Visit |Infrastructure JohnEnergyThin FilmWorkingSolar

  5. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cities and counties in North Carolina generally may not adopt ordinances prohibiting the installation of "a solar collector that gathers solar radiation as a substitute for traditional energy for...

  6. The research field of thin-film photovoltaics of the department of energy-and semiconductor research (EHF) of the institute of physics at the Carl-von-Ossietzky University of Oldenburg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    The research field of thin-film photovoltaics of the department of energy- and semiconductor and calibration of an optical simulation for thin-film solar cells In recent years, the photovoltaic has become is necessary to let photovoltaic remain economical attractive. Thin-film solar cells on basis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2

  7. FLEXIBLE CdTe SOLAR CELLS BY A LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESS ON ITO/ZnO COATED A. Salavei, I. Rimmaudo, F. Piccinelli1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    FLEXIBLE CdTe SOLAR CELLS BY A LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESS ON ITO/ZnO COATED POLYMERS A. Salavei, I will be discussed. Keywords: Flexible Substrate, CdTe, ITO, Laser Processing, Thin Film Solar Cell 1 INTRODUCTION Thin film solar cells deposited on a flexible substrate are easier to integrate in buildings; they also

  8. Microscale solar cells for high concentration on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Myriam Paire,1,2,3,4,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Microscale solar cells for high concentration on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films Myriam experiments on polycrystalline thin film solar cells. High level regime is reached, thanks to the micrometric grids are used on concentrator solar cells. The grid coverage is a trade-off between the decreased

  9. Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewandowski, A.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry compete in the rapidly expanding global advanced materials marketplace. Breakthroughs in solar technology over the last 5 years have created exceptional new tools for developing advanced materials. Concentrated sunlight from solar furnaces can produce intensities that approach those on the surface of the sun and can generate temperatures well over 2000{degrees}C. Very thin layers of illuminated surfaces can be driven to remarkably high temperatures in a fraction of a second. Concentrated solar energy can be delivered over large areas, allowing for rapid processing and high production rates. By using this technology, researchers are transforming low-cost raw materials into high-performance products. Solar synthesis of advanced materials uses bulk materials and energy more efficiently, lowers processing costs, and reduces the need for strategic materials -- all with a technology that does not harm the environment. The Solar Industrial Program has built a unique, world class solar furnace at NREL to help meet the growing need for applied research in advanced materials. Many new advanced materials processes have been successfully demonstrated in this facility, including the following: Metalorganic deposition, ceramic powders, diamond-like carbon materials, rapid heat treating, and cladding (hard coating).

  10. Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr to a much larger figure nationally. Most of the energy savings in this application is attributable to the instant-restrike capability of LED products and to their high tolerance for frequent on/off switching, used here to separately control either end of the tunnel during daytime hours. Some LED luminaires rival or outperform their high-intensity discharge (HID) counterparts in terms of efficacy, but options are limited, and smaller lumen packages preclude true one-for-one equivalence. However, LED products continue to improve in efficacy and affordability at a rate unmatched by other light source technologies; the estimated simple payback period of eight years (excluding installation costs and maintenance savings) can be expected to improve with time. The proposed revisions to the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting system would require slightly increased controls complexity and significantly increased luminaire types and quantities. In exchange, substantial annual savings (from reduced maintenance and energy use) would be complemented by improved quantity and quality of illumination. Although advanced lighting controls could offer additional savings, it is unclear whether such a system would prove cost-effective; this topic may be explored in future work.

  11. SU-D-BRD-03: A Gateway for GPU Computing in Cancer Radiotherapy Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, X; Folkerts, M [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Ctr, Dallas, TX (United States); Shi, F; Yan, H; Yan, Y; Jiang, S [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Sivagnanam, S; Majumdar, A [University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has become increasingly important in radiotherapy. However, it is still difficult for general clinical researchers to access GPU codes developed by other researchers, and for developers to objectively benchmark their codes. Moreover, it is quite often to see repeated efforts spent on developing low-quality GPU codes. The goal of this project is to establish an infrastructure for testing GPU codes, cross comparing them, and facilitating code distributions in radiotherapy community. Methods: We developed a system called Gateway for GPU Computing in Cancer Radiotherapy Research (GCR2). A number of GPU codes developed by our group and other developers can be accessed via a web interface. To use the services, researchers first upload their test data or use the standard data provided by our system. Then they can select the GPU device on which the code will be executed. Our system offers all mainstream GPU hardware for code benchmarking purpose. After the code running is complete, the system automatically summarizes and displays the computing results. We also released a SDK to allow the developers to build their own algorithm implementation and submit their binary codes to the system. The submitted code is then systematically benchmarked using a variety of GPU hardware and representative data provided by our system. The developers can also compare their codes with others and generate benchmarking reports. Results: It is found that the developed system is fully functioning. Through a user-friendly web interface, researchers are able to test various GPU codes. Developers also benefit from this platform by comprehensively benchmarking their codes on various GPU platforms and representative clinical data sets. Conclusion: We have developed an open platform allowing the clinical researchers and developers to access the GPUs and GPU codes. This development will facilitate the utilization of GPU in radiation therapy field.

  12. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Solar Manufacturer (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thanks in part to years of collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a manufacturer of thin-film solar modules has grown from a small garage-type operation to become the world's largest manufacturer of solar modules. First Solar, Inc. now manufactures cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar modules throughout the world, but it began in Ohio as a small company called Solar Cells, Inc.

  13. Polymeric precursor derived nanocrystalline ZnO thin films using EDTA as chelating agent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    properties, ZnO has plausible electro-optical applications, such as, solar cells [1, 2], light- emitting diodes [3, 4], UV lasers [5], thin film transistors [6,7], and UV photodetectors [8]. Besides

  14. Enhanced absorption of thin-film photovoltaic cells using an optical cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wei-Chun

    We show via numerical simulations that the absorption and solar energy conversion efficiency of a thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cell can be significantly enhanced by embedding it into an optical cavity. A reflective ...

  15. Lateral heterojunction photodetector consisting of molecular organic and colloidal quantum dot thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    exception being the dye- sensitized solar cell.3 Owing to its unique geometry, the present device also and that is sensitized across visible wavelengths by a thin film of colloidal CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots QDs . High

  16. anti-reflective thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mailoa, Jonathan P 2012-01-01 3 Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell MIT - DSpace Summary: The proposed light trapping technology of...

  17. Defect engineering of cuprous oxide thin-films for photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yun Seog

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin-film solar cells are promising for renewable-energy applications due to their low material usage and inexpensive manufacturing potential, making them compatible with terawatts-level deployment. Cuprous oxide (Cu?O) ...

  18. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and forecasting of solar radiation data: a review,”forecasting of solar- radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol.sequences of global solar radiation data for isolated sites:

  19. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Weather Data . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . .Solar DataB. l'he Solar Constant. . . . . . C. Solar Time and Standard

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Facility NSTTF Nuclear Energy photovoltaic Photovoltaics PV Renewable Energy solar Solar Energy solar power Solar Research Solid-State Lighting SSLS Connect Contact Us RSS...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NSTTF Nuclear Energy photovoltaic Photovoltaics PV Renewable Energy solar Solar Energy solar power Solar Research Solid-State Lighting SSLS Connect Contact Us RSS Google+...

  2. Optimization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films using nitrilotriacetic acid as a complexing agent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Lee

    thin film solar cells based on CdTe or CIGS [1,2]. CdS has also been used in other applications. The highest efficiencies reported for both CdTe and CIGS solar cells were obtained when chemical bath is known to greatly enhance the performance of CdS windows used in the above mentioned solar cells

  3. Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  4. Optical Durability of Candidate Solar Reflectors for Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C. E.; Terwilliger, K.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use large mirrors to collect sunlight to convert thermal energy to electricity. The viability of CSP systems requires the development of advanced reflector materials that are low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. The long-standing goals for a solar reflector are specular reflectance above 90% into a 4 mrad half-cone angle for at least 10 years outdoors with a cost of less than $13.8/m{sup 2} (the 1992 $10.8/m{sup 2} goal corrected for inflation to 2002 dollars) when manufactured in large volumes. Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the CSP Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Test results to date for several candidate solar reflector materials will be presented. These include the optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, aluminized reflectors, front-surface mirrors, and silvered polymer mirrors. The development, performance, and durability of these materials will be discussed. Based on accelerated exposure testing the glass, silvered polymer, and front-surface mirrors may meet the 10 year lifetime goals, but at this time because of significant process changes none of the commercially available solar reflectors and advanced solar reflectors have demonstrated the 10 year or more aggressive 20 year lifetime goal.

  5. Solar Car

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Des Moines Central Academy Middle School students compete in the Solar Car Challenge at the National Science Bowl, May 2 in Washington D.C.

  6. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maine law requires that any municipal ordinance, bylaw, or regulation adopted after September 30, 2009 regulating solar energy devices on residential property follow certain requirements. The rules...

  7. An IoT Gateway Centric Architecture to Provide Novel M2M Services Soumya Kanti Datta, Christian Bonnet, Navid Nikaein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gesbert, David

    include smart home, e-health, smart grid and more. The resulting eco system is referred to Internet interaction between mobile clients and smart/legacy things (sensors and actuators) via a wireless gateway) managing connection with non-smart things connected over modbus, (iii) associate metadata to sensor

  8. Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Interior Y. Fan National the e ect of radiative heating on the evolution of thin magnetic ux tubes in the solar interior Solar Observatoryy, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719. G. H. Fisher Space Sciences Laboratory, Univ

  9. Light trapping in solar cells at the extreme coupling limit Ali Naqavi,1,2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petitpierre, Claude

    Light trapping in solar cells at the extreme coupling limit Ali Naqavi,1,2, * Franz-Josef Haug,1 thin film silicon solar cells in the low absorption regime. We consider simultaneously wavelength.1950, 130.2790. 1. INTRODUCTION Enhancing light absorption in solar cells has been a topic of research

  10. Effects of Series Resistance and Inductance on Solar Cell Admittance Measurements(a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    on a variety of 0.43 cm2 area, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) polycrystalline thin film solar cellsEffects of Series Resistance and Inductance on Solar Cell Admittance Measurements(a) John H Energy Materials and Solar Cells on April 17, 1994) Admittance measurements have been performed

  11. NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE M. Gloeckler, A important complications that are often found in experimental CIGS and CdTe solar cells. 1. INTRODUCTION Numerical modeling of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells is an important strategy to test the viability

  12. Coupled optical and electrical modeling of solar cell based on conical pore silicon photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Sajeev

    a significant part of silicon solar cell cost. Thin film technology is a promising way to avoid these costCoupled optical and electrical modeling of solar cell based on conical pore silicon photonic://jap.aip.org/authors #12;Coupled optical and electrical modeling of solar cell based on conical pore silicon photonic

  13. AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konezny, Steven J.

    AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion Steven J. Konezny% solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency) exploited the large surface area of nanoporous thin for solar photoconversion is analyzed using a model based on fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction (FITC

  14. Silicon Solar Cell Light-Trapping Using Defect Mode Photonic Kelsey A. Whitesell*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Silicon Solar Cell Light-Trapping Using Defect Mode Photonic Crystals Kelsey A. Whitesell to enhance performance of thin film solar cells because of their unique ability to control light. We show crystalline silicon solar cells of up to 205% from = 300nm to 1100nm compared to a planar cell

  15. Simulations of solar cell absorption enhancement using resonant modes of a nanosphere array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    Simulations of solar cell absorption enhancement using resonant modes of a nanosphere array an approach for enhancing the absorption of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells using periodic on the temporal coupled mode theory. Keywords: Resonant Dielectric Structures, Solar cells, Nanospheres

  16. Hydroxamate Anchors for Improved Photoconversion in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydroxamate Anchors for Improved Photoconversion in Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells Timothy P. Brewster-polypyridyl dyes to TiO2 surfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The study provides fundamental insight materials such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made of sensitized nano- particulate thin-films.4 Since

  17. Towards an understanding of light activation processes in titanium oxide based inverted organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    solar cells S. Chambon, E. Destouesse, B. Pavageau, L. Hirsch, and G. Wantz Citation: J. Appl. Phys. 112. Related Articles Power losses in bilayer inverted small molecule organic solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 233903 (2012) Thin-film encapsulation of inverted indium-tin-oxide-free polymer solar cells by atomic

  18. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ABSORBER ETCHING ON THE BACK CONTACT PERFORMANCE OF CDTE SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ABSORBER ETCHING ON THE BACK CONTACT PERFORMANCE OF CDTE SOLAR CELLS Ivan that has shown a remarkable market success in thin film solar cells. It is well known that deposition and defects are addressed. 2 EXPERIMENTAL CdTe solar cells, in our laboratory, are usually prepared as follows

  19. Stabilization of solar films against hi temperature deactivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ)

    1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a solar absorptive film consisting essentially of copper oxide, cobalt oxide and manganese oxide; (2) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass or a stainless steel; and (3) an interlayer of platinum, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of platinum to obtain a stable conductor-dielectric tandem.

  20. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer. 1 fig.

  1. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Kurtz, Sarah R. (Golden, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

  2. Ductility of thin metal films on polymer substrates modulated by interfacial adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    (Crawford, 2005), other macroelectronic products include X-ray imagers, thin-film solar cells, and thin. Introduction Flat-panel displays are rapidly replacing cathode-ray tubes as the monitors of choice transistors and other micro-components are integrated over large areas. In addition to the flat-panel displays

  3. Amorphous Si Thin Film Based Photocathodes with High Photovoltage for Efficient Hydrogen Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    thin film with TiO2 encapsulation layer is demonstrated as a highly promising and stable photo- cathode for solar hydrogen production. With platinum as prototypical cocatalyst, a photocurrent onset potential of 0 for solar hydrogen production. KEYWORDS: Water splitting, hydrogen production, photochemistry, high

  4. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 668 @ 2001 Materials Research Society Influence of proton irradiation and development of flexible CdTe solar cells on polyimide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    power (defined as the ratio of output electrical power to the solar module weight). Thin film solar cells on polymer films can yield more than 2- kW/kg specific power. CIGS solar cells of about 10 to 12 irradiation and development of flexible CdTe solar cells on polyimide A. Romeo, D.L. Bätzner, H. Zogg and A

  5. Radial mixing and the transition between the thick and thin Galactic discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misha Haywood

    2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of the kinematics of solar neighbourhood stars shows that the low and high metallicity tails of the thin disc are populated by objects which orbital properties suggest an origin in the outer and inner galactic disc, respectively. Signatures of radial migration are identified in various recent samples, and are shown to be responsible for the high metallicity dispersion in the age-metallicity distribution. Most importantly, it is shown that the population of low metallicity wanderers of the thin disc (-0.7disc (which terminal metallicity is about -0.2 dex). It implies that the thin disc at the solar circle has started to form stars at about this same metallicity. This is also consistent with the fact that 'transition' objects, which have alpha-element abundance intermediate between that of the thick and thin discs, are found in the range [-0.4,-0.2] dex. Once the metal-poor thin disc stars are recognised for what they are - wanderers from the outer thin disc - the parenthood between the two discs can be identified on stars genuinely formed at the solar circle through an evolutionary sequence in [alpha/Fe] and [Fe/H] . Another consequence is that stars that can be considered as truly resulting of the chemical evolution at the solar circle have a metallicity restricted to about [-0.2,+0.2] dex, confirming an old idea that most chemical evolution in the Milky Way have preceded the thin disc formation.

  6. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to state law, effective July 1, 2008, community associations in Virginia generally may not prohibit a homeowner from installing or using a solar energy collection device on their property...

  7. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  8. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Reno, Nevada . . . . . (Q) Solar Data for China Lake/using Nominal Solar Profiles China Lake/Inyokern ANGLE OFStations - China Lake, Edwards Monthly Latitude: Jan SOLAR

  9. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  10. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 6.3: Birds-eye view of solar array deployment siteBirds-eye 7. Birds-eye view of of solar solar array array

  11. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008, uses concentrated solar power to split water. Figurethe main reason the potential for solar power is boundless.a clean energy source, solar power is inexhaustible, fairly

  12. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Daily Solar Radiation Data. Proceedings of the 1977from total horizontal radiation data, they both suffer froma. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation data provide a measure of

  13. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)for supplementing solar radiation network data,” FinalEstimating incident solar radiation at the surface from geo-

  14. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)2.4 Evaluation of Solar Forecasting . . . . . . . . .2.4.1 Solar Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  15. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to...

  16. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Laboratory 1303 Engineering Research Building UniversitySolar Energy Laboratory 1303 Engineering Research laboratory UniversitySolar Energy Group, Energy and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory University

  17. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar Molten Salt Test Loop Commissioning On October 10, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, EC, Energy, News, News & Events, Renewable Energy, Solar The Molten Salt Test Loop...

  19. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data for San Vicente Reservoir (l) Solar Data for BarrettDiego Monthly Solar Data, Barrett Reservoir Latitude: Janmonth. (L) SOLAR DATA FOR BARRETT RESERVOIR Nearby Climate

  20. Control of morphology for enhanced electronic transport in PECVD-grown a-Si : H Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castro Galnares, Sebastián

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cells have become an increasingly viable alternative to traditional, pollution causing power generation methods. Although crystalline silicon (c-Si) modules make up most of the market, thin films such as hydrogenated ...

  1. Gateway:U.S. OpenLabs/Research Groups | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUK Place: Newport,Gate SolarGroups Jump to:

  2. Thin, thick and dark discs in LCDM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. I. Read; G. Lake; O. Agertz; Victor P. Debattista

    2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a LCDM cosmology, the Milky Way accretes satellites into the stellar disc. We use cosmological simulations to assess the frequency of near disc plane and higher inclination accretion events, and collisionless simulations of satellite mergers to quantify the final state of the accreted material and the effect on the thin disc. On average, a Milky Way-sized galaxy has 3 subhalos with vmax>80km/s; 7 with vmax>60km/s; and 15 with vmax>40km/s merge at redshift z>1. Assuming isotropic accretion, a third of these merge at an impact angle disc plane by dynamical friction. Their accreted stars and dark matter settle into a thick disc. The stellar thick disc qualitatively reproduces the observed thick disc at the solar neighbourhood, but is less massive by a factor ~2-10. The dark matter disc contributes 0.25-1 times the halo density at the solar position. Although not likely to be dynamically interesting, the dark disc has important implications for the direct detection of dark matter because of its low velocity with respect to the Earth. Higher inclination encounters (>20 degrees) are twice as likely as low inclination ones. These lead to structures that closely resemble the recently discovered inner/outer stellar halos. They also do more damage to the Milky Way stellar disc creating a more pronounced flare, and warp; both long-lived and consistent with current observations. The most massive mergers (vmax>80km/s) heat the thin disc enough to produce a thick disc. These heated thin disc stars are essential for obtaining a thick disc as massive as that seen in the Milky Way; they likely comprise some ~50-90% of the thick disc stars. The Milky Way thin disc must reform from fresh gas after z=1 [abridged].

  3. Simulation of Polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells in Two Dimensions Markus Gloeckler, Wyatt K. Metzger1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    10%­12% [2]. This work uses numerical simulations to predict the changes to CIGS solar-cell an electrostatic potential, which has been reported in the literature for CIGS solar cells [3­5]. A valence that a plausible reason behind highly efficient thin-film CIGS solar cells ( > 17%) is an inherent valence

  4. New top layer reduces the"wiggle"that degrades the conversion of light to electricity in solar cells by absorbing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cells by absorbing light within a specific wavelength. Today's thin-film solar cells could not function the solar cell, free electrons tend to resonate (or"wiggle") within a TCO, which can degrade a PV device into the infrared, where the solar cell is not designed to respond. NREL scientists believe that improved TCO films

  5. California Solar Initiative- Solar Thermal Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Originally restricted to just solar water heaters, the prorgam was expanded by CPUC Decision 13-02-018 in February 2013 to include other solar thermal technologies, including solar process heatin...

  6. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sletten, Carlyle J. (106 Nagog Hill Rd., Acton, MA 01720); Herskovitz, Sheldon B. (88 Hammond St., Acton, MA 01720); Holt, F. S. (46 Emerson Rd., Winchester, MA 01890); Sletten, E. J. (Chestnut Hill Rd. R.F.D. Rte. #4, Amherst, NH 03031)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  7. Black Silicon Enhanced Thin Film Silicon Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin U. Pralle; James E. Carey

    2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    SiOnyx has developed an enhanced thin film silicon photovoltaic device with improved efficiency. Thin film silicon solar cells suffer from low material absorption characteristics resulting in poor cell efficiencies. SiOnyx’s approach leverages Black Silicon, an advanced material fabricated using ultrafast lasers. The laser treated films show dramatic enhancement in optical absorption with measured values in excess of 90% in the visible spectrum and well over 50% in the near infrared spectrum. Thin film Black Silicon solar cells demonstrate 25% higher current generation with almost no impact on open circuit voltage as compared with representative control samples. The initial prototypes demonstrated an improvement of nearly 2 percentage points in the suns Voc efficiency measurement. In addition we validated the capability to scale this processing technology to the throughputs (< 5 min/m2) required for volume production using state of the art commercially available high power industrial lasers. With these results we clearly demonstrate feasibility for the enhancement of thin film solar cells with this laser processing technique.

  8. Case Study: Passive Solar Concepts Adapted to In-Fill Housing in a Hot, Humid Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQueen, T. M.; White, J. T.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in architectural proposals for contemporary housing design in these areas. Thin investigation considers the development of a case study that involves the planning and design of a compact, solar multi-family residential unit for a central city site condition...

  9. Charge recombination in organic small-molecule solar cells by Jiye Lee.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jiye

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To enhance the power conversion efficiency in organic solar cells, charge recombination loss needs to be minimized. First, we perform transient absorption spectroscopy to study the charge recombination dynamics of thin ...

  10. EEC 289-L Photovoltaics and Solar Cells 3 Units Winter Quarter (Alternate Years)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    %), midterm exam (20%), final exam (20%) Catalog Description: Physics and application of first, second strategies 4. Microcrystalline Si, and effects of defects on PV 5. Thin-Film Solar Cells a. -Si on glass b

  11. Case Study: Passive Solar Concepts Adapted to In-Fill Housing in a Hot, Humid Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQueen, T. M.; White, J. T.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in architectural proposals for contemporary housing design in these areas. Thin investigation considers the development of a case study that involves the planning and design of a compact, solar multi-family residential unit for a central city site condition...

  12. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

    1992-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

  13. NREL: Solar Research Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency Visit |Infrastructure JohnEnergyThin FilmWorkingSolar

  14. Investigation of polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells based on ZnSe windows. Annual subcontract report, 15 Febraury 1992--14 February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, L C [Washington State Univ. at Tri-Cities, Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations of ZnSe/CIS solar cells are being carried out in an effort to improve the efficiencies CIS cells and to determine if ZnSe is a viable alternative to CdS as a window material. MOCVD growth of ZnSe is accomplished in a SPIRE 500XT reactor housed in the Electronic Materials Laboratory at WSU Tri-Cities by reacting a zinc adduct with H{sub 2}Se. Conductive n-type ZnSe is grown by using iodine as a dopant. Ethyliodide was mixed with helium and installed on one of the gas lines to the system. ZnSe films have been grown on CIS substrates at 200{degrees}C to 250{degrees}C. ZnO is also being deposited by MOCVD by reacting tetrahydrofuran (THF) with a zinc adduct. ZnSe/CIS heterojunctions have been studied by growing n-ZnSe films onto 2 cm x 2 cm CIS substrates diced from materials supplied by Siemens and then depositing an array of aluminum circular areas 2.8.mm in diameter on top of the ZnSe to serve as contacts. Al films are deposited with a thickness of 80 to l00 {angstrom}so that light can pass through the film, thus allowing the illuminated characteristics of the ZnSe/CIS junction to be tested. Accounting for the 20 to 25 % transmittance through the Al film into the ZnSe/CIS structure, current devices have estimated, active-area AM1.5 efficiencies of 14 %. Open circuit voltages > 500 mV are often attained.

  15. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medernach, John W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR).

  16. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medernach, J.W.

    1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). 14 figures.

  17. Simulation and optimization of ultra thin photovoltaics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducts pioneering research and development in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and solar cell research. This dissertation project combines these two areas to create ultra-thin small-form-factor crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. These miniature solar cells create a new class of photovoltaics with potentially novel applications and benefits such as dramatic reductions in cost, weight and material usage. At the beginning of the project, unusually low efficiencies were obtained in the research group. The intention of this research was thus to investigate the main causes of the low efficiencies through simulation, design, fabrication, and characterization. Commercial simulation tools were used to find the main causes of low efficiency. Once the causes were identified, the results were used to create improved designs and build new devices. In the simulations, parameters were varied to see the effect on the performance. The researched parameters were: resistance, wafer lifetime, contact separation, implant characteristics (size, dosage, energy, ratio between the species), contact size, substrate thickness, surface recombination, and light concentration. Out of these parameters, it was revealed that a high quality surface passivation was the most important for obtaining higher performing cells. Therefore, several approaches for enhancing the passivation were tried, characterized, and tested on cells. In addition, a methodology to contact and test the performance of all the cells presented in the dissertation under calibrated light was created. Also, next generation cells that could incorporate all the optimized layers including the passivation was designed, built, and tested. In conclusion, through this investigation, solar cells that incorporate optimized designs and passivation schemes for ultrathin solar cells were created for the first time. Through the application of the methods discussed in this document, the efficiency of the solar cells increased from below 1% to 15% in Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaic (MEPV) devices.

  18. Solar Decathlon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2 Solar Background Document 2Solar

  19. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  20. Solar Easements & Local Option Solar Rights Laws

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utah's solar easement provisions are similar to easement provisions in many other states. Parties may voluntarily enter into written solar easement contracts that are enforceable by law. An...

  1. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology Advances in Thin Film PV: CIGS & CdTe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, Léonie

    and Photovoltaics Thin film solar cells based on compound semiconductor absorbers: CIGS and CdTe High efficiency and Photovoltaics Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology Key issues in high efficiency CIGSTe Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics Empa- Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science

  2. CUTTING SOLAR RED TAPECUTTING SOLAR RED TAPE Evergreen State Solar PartnershipEvergreen State Solar Partnership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CUTTING SOLAR RED TAPECUTTING SOLAR RED TAPE Evergreen State Solar PartnershipEvergreen State Solar Partnership Rooftop Solar Challenge 1 Sunshot #12;WASHINGTON PV CONTEXTWASHINGTON PV CONTEXT 285 cities, 39 Installations happen where process is easier #12;EVERGREEN STATE SOLAR PARTNERSHIP Commerce NWSEEDEdmonds

  3. CFN | Thin Films Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Synthesis and Characterization Facility Thin-Film Processing Facility Online Manager (FOM) website FOM manual ESR for lab 1L32 (High-Resolution SEM and x-ray...

  4. Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Truher, J.B.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Colella, N.J.

    1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells. 1 fig.

  5. Chemical surface deposition of ultra-thin semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCandless, Brian E. (243 W. Main St., Elkton, MD 21921); Shafarman, William N. (1905 N. Van Buren St., Wilmington, DE 19802)

    2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical surface deposition process for forming an ultra-thin semiconducting film of Group IIB-VIA compounds onto a substrate. This process eliminates particulates formed by homogeneous reactions in bath, dramatically increases the utilization of Group IIB species, and results in the formation of a dense, adherent film for thin film solar cells. The process involves applying a pre-mixed liquid coating composition containing Group IIB and Group VIA ionic species onto a preheated substrate. Heat from the substrate causes a heterogeneous reaction between the Group IIB and VIA ionic species of the liquid coating composition, thus forming a solid reaction product film on the substrate surface.

  6. Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred (Livermore, CA); Truher, Joel B. (San Rafael, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells.

  7. Solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peumans, Peter; Uchida, Soichi; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices are disclosed. The devises are thin-film crystalline organic optoelectronic devices capable of generating a voltage when exposed to light, and prepared by a method including the steps of: depositing a first organic layer over a first electrode; depositing a second organic layer over the first organic layer; depositing a confining layer over the second organic layer to form a stack; annealing the stack; and finally depositing a second electrode over the second organic layer.

  8. UMORE PARK -INTEGRATING SOLAR Overview, Solar Optimization & Technologies, & Recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    : Introduction 3 UMore Park Overview 4 Solar Optimization 7 Passive Solar 8 Solar Technologies 10 District Solar research and development of renewable resource technologies. Integrating passive design techniques as wellUMORE PARK - INTEGRATING SOLAR Overview, Solar Optimization & Technologies, & Recommendations

  9. Process Development for High Voc CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferekides, C. S.; Morel, D. L.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a cumulative and final report for Phases I, II and III of this NREL funded project (subcontract # XXL-5-44205-10). The main research activities of this project focused on the open-circuit voltage of the CdTe thin film solar cells. Although, thin film CdTe continues to be one of the leading materials for large-scale cost-effective production of photovoltaics, the efficiency of the CdTe solar cells have been stagnant for the last few years. This report describes and summarizes the results for this 3-year research project.

  10. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption--Gallium arsenide, nanospheres, photovoltaic systems, whispering gallery modes (WGMs). I. INTRODUCTION THE route as the active layer is thinned [2]. Thin-film photovoltaics offer the possibility to significantly reduce

  11. Characterization of CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using four different cadmium sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Lee

    efficiency thin film solar cells based on CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) [3,4]. It has also been used in other used in solar cell applications [6,7]. Deposition of CdS using CBD is based on the slow release of Cd2

  12. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  13. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  14. EA-1798: Abengoa Solar's Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, CA...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Abengoa Solar's Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, CA July 1, 2011 EA-1798: Final Environmental Assessment Loan Guarantee to Mojave Solar, LLC for the Abengoa Mojave Solar...

  15. Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  16. SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University..................................................................................................................... 1 2 Solar Resource Assessment ........................................................................................... 2 2.1 Solar Radiation

  17. China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Glass Solar (aka CG Solar, formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

  18. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ann Arbor, Michigan: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Ann Arbor, Michigan: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

  19. Berkeley, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Berkeley, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Berkeley, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

  20. Austin, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Austin, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Austin, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy...

  1. Knoxville, Tennessee: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Knoxville, Tennessee: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Knoxville, Tennessee: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

  2. Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

  3. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, S.; Margolis, R.; Barbose, G.; Bartlett, J.; Cory, K.; Couture, T.; DeCesaro, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Frickel, M.; Hemmeline, C.; Mendelsohn, T.; Ong, S.; Pak, A.; Poole, L.; Peterman, C.; Schwabe, P.; Soni, A.; Speer, B.; Wiser, R.; Zuboy, J.; James, T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts. Highlights of this report include: (1) The global PV industry has seen impressive growth rates in cell/module production during the past decade, with a 10-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 46% and a 5-year CAGR of 56% through 2008. (2) Thin-film PV technologies have grown faster than crystalline silicon over the past 5 years, with a 10-year CAGR of 47% and a 5-year CAGR of 87% for thin-film shipments through 2008. (3) Global installed PV capacity increased by 6.0 GW in 2008, a 152% increase over 2.4 GW installed in 2007. (4) The United States installed 0.34 GW of PV capacity in 2008, a 63% increase over 0.21 GW in 2007. (5) Global average PV module prices dropped 23% from $4.75/W in 1998 to $3.65/W in 2008. (6) Federal legislation, including the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA, October 2008) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA, February 2009), is providing unprecedented levels of support for the U.S. solar industry. (7) In 2008, global private-sector investment in solar energy technology topped $16 billion, including almost $4 billion invested in the United States. (8) Solar PV market forecasts made in early 2009 anticipate global PV production and demand to increase fourfold between 2008 and 2012, reaching roughly 20 GW of production and demand by 2012. (9) Globally, about 13 GW of CSP was announced or proposed through 2015, based on forecasts made in mid-2009. Regional market shares for the 13 GW are about 51% in the United States, 33% in Spain, 8% in the Middle East and North Africa, and 8% in Australasia, Europe, and South Africa. Of the 6.5-GW project pipeline in the United States, 4.3 GW have power purchase agreements (PPAs). The PPAs comprise 41% parabolic trough, 40% power tower, and 19% dish-engine systems.

  4. Solar Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. G. H. Robertson

    2006-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental work with solar neutrinos has illuminated the properties of neutrinos and tested models of how the sun produces its energy. Three experiments continue to take data, and at least seven are in various stages of planning or construction. In this review, the current experimental status is summarized, and future directions explored with a focus on the effects of a non-zero theta-13 and the interesting possibility of directly testing the luminosity constraint. Such a confrontation at the few-percent level would provide a prediction of the solar irradiance tens of thousands of years in the future for comparison with the present-day irradiance. A model-independent analysis of existing low-energy data shows good agreement between the neutrino and electromagnetic luminosities at the +/- 20 % level.

  5. Electron drift-mobility measurements in polycrystalline CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    .1063/1.3692165] The chalcopyrite alloys CuIn1ÀxGaxSe2 (CIGS) are the basis of very promising thin film solar cells, with solar con conduction band states.8,9 Empirical optimization of CIGS for solar cells thus appears to have led to lowElectron drift-mobility measurements in polycrystalline CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cells S. A. Dinca, E. A

  6. DISSERTATION IMPACT OF SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CuIn1-xGaxSe2 SOLAR-CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION IMPACT OF SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CuIn1-xGaxSe2 SOLAR-CELL OPERATION Submitted by Alexei Impact of Secondary Barriers on CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Solar-Cell Operation Thin-film solar cells based on CuInSe2 layers in p-n junctions of CIGS solar cells often improve photodiode properties of the devices. Several

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Solar Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Facility NSTTF Nuclear Energy photovoltaic Photovoltaics PV Renewable Energy solar Solar Energy solar power Solar Research Solid-State Lighting SSLS Connect Contact Us RSS...

  8. Solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dostrovsky, I.

    1981-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar collector unit comprises a body of rigid thermally insulating material having a surface in the shape of about half a cylindrical parabola, the parabolic surface being provided with a reflective surface, a conduit being positioned with its long axis in the median plane of the parabola, said conduit serving as conduit for the heat-exchange medium, the surface of said conduit facing the parabolic surface being a selective surface, a transparent cover being provided on top of the device.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of Zn(O,S) thin films with tunable electrical properties by oxygen annealing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CIGS-based solar cells use CdS,1,2 a toxic material, as an n-type buffer layer between the p-type CIGS(O,S) buffer layers in CIGS-based solar cells, much research has also been motivated to replace the expensive) is one of the most reliable materials used in thin-film solar cells, but currently the most efficient

  10. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generator coated with catalytic thin films produces electric current which drives the hydrogen and oxygen

  11. Energy transfer in nanowire solar cells with photon-harvesting shells C. H. Peters,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Energy transfer in nanowire solar cells with photon-harvesting shells C. H. Peters,a A. R. Guichard; published online 23 June 2009 The concept of a nanowire solar cell with photon-harvesting shells are bonded to the surface of the SiNWs forming a thin shell. They absorb the low-energy photons

  12. The following contribution was presented at the 28. European PV Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and monocrystalline and is mechanically thick due to a polycrystalline Si carrier deposited from the gas phase-Si solar cells on the module level in, so- called (v) thin-film/wafer-hybrid technologies is an attractiveThe following contribution was presented at the 28. European PV Solar Energy Conference

  13. Thin film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothwarf, Allen (Philadelphia, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell has as its transparent electrical contact a grid made from a non-noble metal by providing a layer of copper oxide between the transparent electrical contact and the absorber-generator.

  14. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Kenneth L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  17. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  18. Solar neutrinos and the solar composition problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Pena-Garay; Aldo Serenelli

    2008-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard solar models (SSM) are facing nowadays a new puzzle: the solar composition problem. New determinations of solar metal abundances lead SSM calculations to conflict with helioseismological measurements, showing discrepancies that extend from the convection zone to the solar core and can not be easily assigned to deficiencies in the modelling of the solar convection zone. We present updated solar neutrino fluxes and uncertainties for two SSM with high (old) and low (new) solar metallicity determinations. The uncertainties in iron and carbon abundances are the largest contribution to the uncertainties of the solar neutrino fluxes. The uncertainty on the ^14N+p -> ^15O+g rate is the largest of the non-composition uncertainties to the CNO neutrino fluxes. We propose an independent method to help identify which SSM is the correct one. Present neutrino data can not distinguish the solar neutrino predictions of both models but ongoing measurements can help to solve the puzzle.

  19. Investigations of CuInSe sub 2 thin films and contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolet, M.A. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research into electrical contacts for copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) polycrystalline thin films used for solar cell applications. Molybdenum contacts have historically been the most promising for heterojunction solar cells. This program studied contact stability by investigating thermally induced bilayer reactions between molybdenum and copper, indium, and selenium. Because selenization is widely used to fabricate CuInSe{sub 2} thin films for photovoltaic cells, a second part of the program investigated how the morphologies, phases, and reactions of pre-selenization Cu-In structures are affected by the deposition process and heat treatments. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Influence of sputtering power on the optical properties of ITO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K, Aijo John; M, Deepak, E-mail: manju.thankamoni@gmail.com; T, Manju, E-mail: manju.thankamoni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sree Sankara College, Kalady P. O., Ernakulam Dist., Kerala (India); Kumar, Vineetha V. [Dept. of Physics, K. E. College, Mannanam, Kottayam Dist., Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Tin doped indium oxide films are widely used in transparent conducting coatings such as flat panel displays, crystal displays and in optical devices such as solar cells and organic light emitting diodes due to the high electrical resistivity and optical transparency in the visible region of solar spectrum. The deposition parameters have a commendable influence on the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. In this study, ITO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The properties of the films prepared under varying sputtering power were compared using UV- visible spectrophotometry. Effect of sputtering power on the energy band gap, absorption coefficient and refractive index are investigated.