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Sample records for gate imports wellhead

  1. Natural Gas Wellhead Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Quantity of Production Imputed Wellhead Value Wellhead Price Marketed Production Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes ...

  2. Mudline subsea wellhead system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milberger, L.J.; Thames, E.E.

    1993-08-31

    In a subsea wellhead system, an improved means is described for allowing the well to be drilled with a mudline suspension system and completed with a subsea pressure control system, comprising in combination: an outer wellhead housing for location on a subsea floor, having a lower end adapted to be secured to a conductor pipe extending into the well; conductor connector means for releasably securing a string of conductor riser to the outer wellhead housing to extend to the surface; a cement return port extending through the outer wellhead housing; an inner wellhead housing having a lower end adapted to be secured to a string of outer casing, the inner wellhead housing having a bore containing an internal landing shoulder; outer casing connector means for connecting the inner wellhead housing to outer casing riser and for lowering the outer casing riser and inner wellhead housing through the conductor riser with the inner wellhead housing landing in the outer wellhead housing; seal means for sealing the inner wellhead housing to the outer wellhead housing above the cement return port; a first casing hanger having an internal mudline latch profile; intermediate casing connector means; a second casing hanger having an external latch that latches into the internal mudline latch profile in the first casing hanger; inner casing connector means; and the conductor riser, outer casing riser, intermediate casing riser, and inner casing riser allowing the well to be drilled with a mudline suspension system and pressure control equipment at the surface, the inner casing connector means, intermediate casing connector means, outer casing connector means, and conductor connector means being subsequently releasable to remove the inner casing riser, intermediate casing riser, outer casing riser and conductor riser for subsea pressure control completion.

  3. Simplified subsea production wellhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, H.R.

    1980-10-28

    A simplified subsea production wellhead which permits (1) pumpdown tool operations for routine well maintenance and (2) vertical entry to the wellbore for major workover operations. The wellhead can be lowered by the production pipeline to a wellhead site on the sea floor. The production wellhead includes a diverter spool for releasably attaching to a subsea well. Pumpdown tools can be used with the diverter spool. If vertical entry of the subsea well is required, the diverter spool can be released, raised and moved horizontally to one side of the subsea well, giving vertical entry. After workover operations, the diverter spool is again moved over the subsea well and reattached.

  4. Subsea wellhead seal assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gullion, S.D.

    1988-07-26

    An annular subsea wellhead seal assembly is described for sealing against the walls in a subsea wellhead annulus above a landing seat at the lower end of the annulus comprising: an annular body having an outwardly and downwardly flaring outer skirt and an inwardly and downwardly flaring inner skirt extending from it slower surface, a landing ring having lower landing surface for landing on a landing seat at the lower end of the subsea wellhead annulus in which the assembly is to seal, and an upper flat reaction surface which is positioned immediately under and engagable with the lower ends of the skirts; and means connecting the body and the landing ring for relative movement toward each other; downward movement of the body with respect to the landing ring spreading the skirts outward and inward, respectively, into a substantially horizontal digging engagement set position with the walls of the annulus to be sealed.

  5. Natural Gas Wellhead Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price Marketed Production Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973-2016

  6. Wellhead with non-ferromagnetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hinson, Richard A [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2009-05-19

    Wellheads for coupling to a heater located in a wellbore in a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one wellhead may include a heater located in a wellbore in a subsurface formation; and a wellhead coupled to the heater. The wellhead may be configured to electrically couple the heater to one or more surface electrical components. The wellhead may include at least one non-ferromagnetic material such that ferromagnetic effects are inhibited in the wellhead. Systems and methods for using such wellheads for treating a subsurface formation are described herein.

  7. New York Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Wellhead Price ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Wellhead Price New York Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  8. New Mexico Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Wellhead Price ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Wellhead Price New Mexico Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  9. West Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Price ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Wellhead Price West Virginia Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  10. North Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Wellhead Price North Dakota Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  11. Natural Gas Wellhead Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010

  12. New York Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) New ... Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value New York ...

  13. New Mexico Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) New ... Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value New Mexico ...

  14. Imputed Wellhead Value of Natural Gas Marketed Production

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Thousand Dollars) Data Series: Quantity of Production Imputed Wellhead Value Wellhead Price Marketed Production Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History...

  15. U.S. Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade...

  16. Virginia Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) ...

  17. Utah Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade ...

  18. Nevada Natural Gas Wellhead (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value Nevada Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed Production

  19. Seal integrity and connector clamping force at the subsea wellhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, J.H.

    1983-05-01

    The importance of the relative stiffness of the hydraulic connector and the wellhead hub for subsea wellhead connections is demonstrated using existing design principles for bolted flanges and clamps. Connector stiffness is determined experimentally for one design, and a method utilizing finite element analysis is demonstrated for another. A 3-D finite element model is used to determine wellhead seal radial loading after hub separation has occurred on one side of the hub interface, as it might under a severe moment. The results suggest that the normal load between hub seal pocket and seal OD reduces markedly as the gap increases, and more of the internal pressure loading on the seal is resisted by hoop stresses in the seal itself. However, even at a gap of 0.090 inches, the loading on the seal appears to be uniform around the seal pocket. At a hub separation 0.090 to 0.120 inches, all OD normal load is lost on a portion of the seal near the separation.

  20. ,"Nevada Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per ... 1:10:15 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Nevada Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per ...

  1. ,"New York Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars ... 8:33:11 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars ...

  2. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars ... 8:33:11 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars ...

  3. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per ... 7:03:09 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Kansas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per ...

  4. ,"North Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars ... 9:04:04 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: North Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars ...

  5. ,"Texas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per ... 7:03:13 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Texas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per ...

  6. Standardized wellheads proven economical for subsea operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreira, C.C.; Silva Paulo, C.A. )

    1994-05-02

    A standardization program for subsea wellheads and completion equipment has made development of Brazil's offshore fields more economical and efficient. The resulting operational flexibility associated with the use of field-proven equipment and procedures saves rig time and can reduce production loss during workovers. Additionally, investments can be rationalized economically by installing part of the completion equipment at the end of the drilling job and then delaying purchase and installation of the christmas tree and the flow lines until installation of the production platform. Savings are also realized from the reduction in the number of spare parts and tools. Moreover, the savings related to improved operations exceed considerably those from equipment acquisition and storage. Thus, the greatest benefit is the operational flexibility. The paper discusses initial standards, the subsea programs, philosophy, implementation, diver-assisted trees, diverless trees, and economics.

  7. Independent load support in an 18 3/4-in. , 15,000-psi subsea wellhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, W.S.

    1993-03-01

    Previous-generation subsea wellhead equipment was conceived as an extension of well-known surface wellhead equipment. Contemporary performance criteria for subsea wellhead equipment require new technology from the designer/manufacturer. This paper describes the role of a single design concept, independent load support, in addressing these criteria and illustrates the resulting configuration of a severe-service subsea wellhead system.

  8. Montana Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's ...

  9. Hybrid Rotor Compression for Multiphase and Liquids-Rich Wellhead

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    but also allows for compression of wet gas, or gas that contains liquid content. At many natural gas wellheads, liquids-typically heavier hydrocarbons and water-are present in the...

  10. Nevada Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Wellhead Price Nevada Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas Wellhead Price

  11. Wellhead monitors automate Lake Maracaibo gas lift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adjunta, J.C. ); Majek, A. )

    1994-11-28

    High-performance personal computer (PC) and intelligent remote terminal unit (IRTU) technology have optimized the remote control of gas lift injection and surveillance of over 1,000 offshore production wells at Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela. In its 3-year program, Maraven expects a 27,000 b/d increase in oil production by reducing deferred production and optimizing gas lift injection by as much as 20%. In addition, real time data on well performance will enhance production management as well as allocation of operational and maintenance resources. The remote control system consists of a solar-powered wellhead monitor (WHM) installed on each well platform. At each flow gathering station within a 2-mile range of a family of wells, a host terminal unit polls and stores the well data with low power, 250-mw radios. From a remote location, 60 miles onshore, an operator interface polls the host units for real time data with 5-watt radios operating in the 900-megahertz band. The paper describes the design, optimization, telemetry management, and selection of a single vendor for this system. The economic impact of this system to Maraven is also discussed.

  12. Indiana Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 135 394 367 365 217 412 416 1990's 399 232 174 192 107 249 360 526 615 855 2000's 899 1,064 1,309 1,464 3,401 3,135 2,921 3,606 4,701 4,927 2010's 6,802 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available;

  13. Maryland Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 31 60 39 20 44 29 34 1990's 22 29 33 28 26 22 0 118 63 18 2000's 34 32 22 48 34 46 NA NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  14. Missouri Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4 4 4 4 4 4 1990's 7 19 27 14 8 16 25 5 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  15. Imputed Wellhead Value of Natural Gas Marketed Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thousand Dollars) Data Series: Quantity of Production Imputed Wellhead Value Wellhead Price Marketed Production Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 View History U.S. 1989-2006 Alabama 2,489,704 1,020,599 994,688 0 0 0 1989-2013 Alaska 2,944,546 1,163,554 1,185,249 0 0 0 1989-2013 Arizona 3,710 2,269 753 0 0 0 1989-2013 Arkansas 3,891,921

  16. Arizona Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 26 10 0 0 0 0 1,360 1990's 2,125 1,225 730 548 691 500 405 401 411 439 2000's 332 266 243 426 306 211 588 634 503 695 2010's 165 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  17. Illinois Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,030 1,530 1,324 1,887 1,371 1,338 1,477 1990's 677 466 346 250 333 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 NA 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  18. Using geographic information systems in the delineation of wellhead protection areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, J.M. . Earth Sciences and Resources Inst.); Horton, C.A. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    The 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act established the nationwide wellhead protection program to be administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Although individual states have the responsibility to implement wellhead protection, the US EPA provides technical guidance, and approves each wellhead protection plan prepared by the states. A major aspect of wellhead protection strategies is the delineation of wellhead protection areas. These are zones around municipal water supply wells that receive special land use considerations intended to minimize the threat of contamination of the wells. The US EPA has recommended several technical approaches to delineating wellhead protection areas, ranging in sophistication from simple concentric circles around wells to irregular areas determined from groundwater flow and transport analyses. Regardless of the wellhead protection area delineation technique, the resulting area surrounding the municipal well must be accurately mapped. A geographic information system (GIS) approach to mapping the results of wellhead protection area delineation is demonstrated. Using hypothetical groundwater flow regimes, each EPA recommended approach to wellhead protection area delineation is presented in a GIS format. A visual comparison of delineation techniques in terms of area and configuration of the resulting wellhead protection areas is made. Finally, the advantages of using a GIS for representing wellhead protection areas is provided.

  19. Nebraska Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,091 2,300 1,944 1,403 1,261 910 878 1990's 793 785 1,177 1,375 2,098 1,538 1,332 1,194 1,285 1,049 2000's 879 883 892 1,168 1,172 1,172 NA 1,555 3,082 2,908 2010's 2,231 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  20. Ohio Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 149,096 184,651 180,458 180,287 164,960 166,690 159,730 1990's 154,619 146,189 143,381 135,939 130,855 125,085 119,251 116,246 108,542 102,505 2000's 98,551 97,272 103,158 120,081 119,847 83,523 86,315 88,095 84,858

  1. Oklahoma Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,730,061 1,985,869 1,936,341 1,917,493 2,004,797 2,106,632 2,185,204 1990's 2,186,153 2,119,161 1,937,224 2,005,971 1,879,257 1,765,788 1,751,487 1,452,233 1,644,531 1,577,961 2000's 1,612,890 1,477,058 1,456,375

  2. Oregon Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3 2,790 4,080 4,600 3,800 4,000 2,500 1990's 2,815 2,741 2,580 4,003 3,221 1,923 1,439 1,173 1,067 1,291 2000's 1,214 1,069 837 688 467 433 NA 390 751 751 2010's 1,376 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  3. Pennsylvania Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 118,372 166,342 150,234 159,889 163,318 167,089 191,774 1990's 177,609 152,500 138,675 189,443 187,113 177,139 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  4. Florida Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.15 0.15 0.16 1970's 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.54 0.97 0.98 1.09 1.39 1.57 1980's 1.73 2.71 2.46 2.33 2.57 2.43 1.20 1.68 1.53 2.05 1990's 2.25 2.46 2.51 2.17 1.28 1.24 2000's NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  5. Illinois Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.12 0.13 0.14 1970's 0.16 0.18 0.28 0.35 0.40 0.70 0.99 1.20 1.29 1.86 1980's 1.90 2.47 2.62 2.84 2.78 2.77 2.57 2.24 2.19 2.15 1990's 2.11 2.17 2.15 2.30 2.40 2000's NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  6. Kentucky Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 46,720 61,518 73,126 80,195 70,125 44,725 72,417 1990's 75,333 78,904 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 79,547 81,868 76,770 2000's 81,545 81,723 88,259 87,609 94,259 92,795 95,320 95,437 114,116 NA 2010's 135,355

  7. Michigan Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 138,910 144,537 131,855 127,287 146,996 146,145 155,988 1990's 106,193 189,497 190,637 199,746 216,268 238,203 245,740 305,950 278,076 277,364 2000's 296,556 275,036 274,476 236,987 259,681 261,112 NA NA 153,130

  8. Mississippi Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 211,116 206,871 178,426 197,217 195,299 196,912 148,167 1990's 149,012 126,637 129,340 131,450 105,646 95,349 88,805 98,075 88,723 83,232 2000's 70,965 76,986 112,979 133,901 145,692 52,923 60,531 73,460 96,641

  9. Wyoming Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 395,656 447,615 416,565 352,858 407,863 471,095 623,915 1990's 690,356 711,799 765,254 63,667 14,283 12,449 27,821 719,933 1,004,020 1,079,375 2000's 1,240,038 1,359,868 1,533,724 1,561,322 1,724,725 1,729,760

  10. Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.30 0.30 0.30 1970's 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.51 0.51 1.14 1.26 1.31 1.68 1980's 2.85 2.15 3.69 3.30 3.00 3.02 2.45 2.08 2.08 2.19 1990's 2.30 1.88 1.85 2.29 2.15 1.72 2000's NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  11. Missouri Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.25 0.29 0.13 1970's 0.24 0.23 0.22 0.24 0.30 0.33 0.34 0.40 1980's 3.75 3.50 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.50 1990's 1.57 1.32 1.56 1.57 1.49 1.70 1.56 1.70 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016

  12. Alaska Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 211,569 211,579 222,637 304,841 271,120 228,284 192,760 1990's 191,798 200,557 206,259 224,786 201,891 227,797 193,278 191,017 192,982 186,727 2000's 189,896 197,735 200,871 199,616 413,667 502,887 494,323

  13. Arkansas Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 78,097 75,575 86,552 68,206 42,688 102,046 42,226 1990's 99,456 83,864 85,177 122,596 24,326 180,117 76,671 71,449 61,012 54,382 2000's 55,057 16,901 161,871 166,329 183,299 190,533 193,491 269,886 446,551 680,613

  14. California Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) California Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 282,639 343,079 361,739 329,366 346,720 327,399 283,509 1990's 275,738 211,841 195,515 76,381 199,649 263 37,823 219,216 264,810 382,715 2000's 323,864 328,778 309,399 293,691 276,520 274,817 278,933 268,016

  15. Colorado Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 139,820 143,552 126,037 163,684 164,557 191,544 216,737 1990's 242,997 271,159 314,105 388,016 441,343 511,513 559,473 637,375 696,321 705,477 2000's 735,332 800,712 819,205 989,678 1,058,383 1,106,993 1,170,819

  16. Florida Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 25,630 18,897 13,162 3,004 1,893 1,883 1,437 1990's 1,443 2,096 3,849 2,612 4,940 3,545 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 NA 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld

  17. Oregon Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2.00 1980's 2.40 2.60 3.33 3.33 2.78 2.40 2.00 1.45 1.60 1.40 1990's 1.39 1.42 1.29 1.70 2.06 0.93 2.26 2.19 2.38 2.52 2000's 2.69 3.66 3.97 4.48 3.89 4.25 NA 5.27 5.33 4.00 2010's 4.92 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  18. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.28 0.28 0.28 1970's 0.28 0.27 0.30 0.42 0.44 0.67 0.68 0.80 0.86 1.33 1980's 2.13 2.33 2.80 3.00 3.25 3.16 2.50 2.25 2.15 2.40 1990's 2.35 2.20 1.95 2.71 2.76 2.84 2000's NA NA NA NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  19. Tennessee Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,950 5,022 4,686 3,464 2,707 2,100 1,900 1990's 2,067 1,856 1,770 1,660 1,990 1,820 1,690 1,510 1,420 1,230 2000's 1,150 2,000 2,050 1,803 2,100 2,200 2,663 3,942 4,700 5,478 2010's 5,144 - = No Data Reported; --

  20. Texas Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6,227,995 6,630,246 6,367,936 6,465,964 6,414,021 6,386,544 6,276,968 1990's 6,476,032 6,066,256 5,893,069 5,769,437 5,834,671 5,592,323 4,684,140 4,716,304 4,777,945 5,719,128 2000's 5,869,901 5,159,233 5,166,315

  1. Alabama Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.13 0.13 0.13 1970's 0.14 0.15 0.35 0.38 0.74 0.87 0.99 1.47 1.50 2.04 1980's 3.19 4.77 3.44 4.28 3.73 3.71 2.89 2.97 2.65 2.72 1990's 2.75 2.33 2.29 2.46 2.17 1.82 2.62 2.67 2.21 2.32 2000's 3.99 4.23 3.48 5.93 6.66 9.28 7.57 7.44 9.65 4.32 2010's 4.46 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  2. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.

  3. Alaska Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.25 0.25 0.25 1970's 0.25 0.24 0.15 0.15 0.17 0.30 0.39 0.40 0.52 0.52 1980's 0.73 0.62 0.63 0.73 0.73 0.74 0.50 0.94 1.27 1.36 1990's 1.38 1.48 1.41 1.42 1.27 1.64 1.61 1.82 1.32 1.37 2000's 1.76 1.99 2.13 2.41 3.42 4.75 5.79 5.63 7.39 2.93 2010's 3.17 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  4. Arizona Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.15 0.16 0.18 1970's 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.20 0.28 0.28 0.33 0.37 0.41 1980's 2.59 3.08 2.90 1.80 1990's 1.20 1.50 1.85 1.30 1.40 1.20 1.65 2.40 1.88 2.08 2000's 3.50 4.12 2.60 4.33 5.12 6.86 5.70 5.98 7.09 3.19 2010's 4.11 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  5. Arkansas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.15 0.16 0.16 1970's 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.18 0.26 0.35 0.53 0.58 0.75 0.96 1980's 0.70 1.81 2.13 2.29 2.54 2.55 2.51 2.29 1.94 2.41 1990's 2.06 1.92 2.15 2.81 2.65 3.02 3.82 4.03 3.92 4.10 2000's 5.23 4.99 4.43 5.17 5.68 7.26 6.43 6.61 8.72 3.43 2010's 3.84 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  6. California Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.30 0.31 0.31 1970's 0.32 0.33 0.37 0.37 0.44 0.70 0.94 1.17 1.36 1.70 1980's 2.17 2.57 3.09 3.57 3.80 3.36 2.89 2.37 2.39 2.32 1990's 2.36 2.46 2.34 2.38 1.50 1.73 1.82 2.41 1.97 2.36 2000's 4.81 6.93 2.92 5.04 5.65 7.45 6.47 6.62 8.38 3.96 2010's 4.87 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  7. Colorado Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.13 0.13 0.14 1970's 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.26 0.48 0.81 0.84 1.41 1980's 1.47 1.97 3.17 3.38 3.43 2.90 2.05 1.76 1.59 1.52 1990's 1.55 1.41 1.37 1.61 1.39 0.95 1.37 2.23 1.90 2.18 2000's 3.67 3.84 2.41 4.54 5.21 7.43 6.12 4.57 6.94 3.21 2010's 3.96 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  8. Indiana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.23 0.24 0.23 1970's 0.24 0.25 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.39 0.52 0.69 0.71 1.05 1980's 1.35 2.08 1.55 2.09 3.38 2.51 1.23 1.71 1.57 1.71 1990's 2.01 1.72 2.01 2.09 1.97 1.90 2.30 2.18 2.09 2.19 2000's 3.51 3.28 3.11 5.41 6.30 9.11 6.01 5.78 7.58 4.05 2010's 4.13 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  9. Kansas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.13 0.14 0.14 1970's 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.42 0.48 0.57 0.76 1980's 0.77 0.92 1.51 1.57 1.49 1.27 1.21 1.15 1.36 1.44 1990's 1.56 1.37 1.54 1.80 1.60 1.36 1.92 2.05 1.70 1.80 2000's 3.21 3.66 2.61 4.33 4.94 6.51 5.61 5.69 6.85 3.16 2010's 4.23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  10. Kentucky Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.24 0.25 0.25 1970's 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.35 0.50 0.54 0.55 0.55 0.58 0.95 1980's 0.89 1.01 1.52 1.51 1.70 2.39 1.88 1.82 2.56 2.13 1990's 2.24 2.03 1.92 2.28 2.24 1.64 2.55 2.66 2.39 2.07 2000's 3.16 4.78 3.01 4.54 5.26 6.84 8.83 7.35 8.42 NA 2010's 4.47 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  11. Tennessee Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.19 0.19 0.19 1970's 0.20 0.22 0.32 0.30 0.35 0.44 0.51 0.74 1.64 1.70 1980's 1.76 2.55 3.00 2.50 3.50 2.48 1.78 1.31 1.50 1.65 1990's 1.65 1.72 1.79 2.65 2.16 1.54 2.54 2.55 2.15 2.28 2000's 4.09 3.60 3.41 5.22 6.90 9.55 6.78 6.63 8.85 3.83 2010's 4.35 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  12. Texas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.13 0.14 0.14 1970's 0.14 0.16 0.16 0.20 0.31 0.52 0.72 0.90 0.99 1.23 1980's 1.56 1.87 2.17 2.36 2.45 2.33 1.65 1.47 1.51 1.53 1990's 1.57 1.59 1.77 2.09 1.89 1.61 2.29 2.48 2.06 2.31 2000's 3.93 4.12 3.16 5.18 5.83 7.55 6.60 6.98 8.51 3.81 2010's 4.70 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  13. Utah Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.13 0.16 0.15 1970's 0.15 0.17 0.17 0.19 0.41 0.48 0.50 0.61 0.64 0.72 1980's 1.12 1.10 3.06 3.40 4.08 3.52 2.90 1.88 2.39 1.58 1990's 1.70 1.54 1.63 1.77 1.54 1.15 1.39 1.86 1.73 1.93 2000's 3.28 3.52 1.99 4.11 5.24 7.16 5.49 NA 6.15 3.38 2010's 4.23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  14. Wyoming Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.15 0.15 0.15 1970's 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.25 0.34 0.41 0.64 0.79 1.13 1980's 1.92 2.77 3.22 3.18 3.32 3.01 2.52 1.76 1.53 1.24 1990's 1.16 1.06 1.13 1.99 2.05 1.78 2.57 2.42 1.78 1.97 2000's 3.34 3.49 2.70 4.13 4.96 6.86 5.85 4.65 6.86 3.40 2010's 4.30 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  15. Louisiana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.19 0.19 0.19 1970's 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.22 0.31 0.42 0.46 0.70 0.84 1.11 1980's 1.61 2.07 2.60 2.67 2.73 2.66 2.21 1.78 1.81 1.82 1990's 1.83 1.73 1.73 2.14 2.08 1.58 2.33 2.36 2.02 2.22 2000's 3.68 3.99 3.20 5.64 5.96 8.72 6.93 7.02 8.73 3.82 2010's 4.23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  16. Maryland Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.26 0.26 0.25 1970's 0.25 0.24 0.21 0.23 0.24 0.27 0.32 0.39 0.61 1.04 1980's 0.46 0.48 0.78 0.55 0.55 0.59 0.65 0.55 0.93 0.85 1990's 1.14 1.55 1.91 2.44 1.37 1.42 2.23 2.60 2.73 2000's 3.75 4.15 5.98 4.50 6.25 7.43 NA NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  17. Michigan Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.25 0.25 0.26 1970's 0.27 0.26 0.31 0.39 0.50 0.63 0.89 1.01 1.20 1.74 1980's 2.35 2.86 3.19 3.58 3.76 3.60 3.60 3.24 3.18 3.16 1990's 3.00 2.79 2.71 2.38 1.96 1.67 2.21 2.19 1.77 1.77 2000's 2.44 3.47 2.16 4.01 3.85 5.30 NA NA 5.63 3.92 2010's 3.79 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  18. Mississippi Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.17 0.17 0.18 1970's 0.18 0.21 0.27 0.23 0.29 0.50 0.71 0.73 1.15 1.60 1980's 2.32 3.21 3.91 3.78 3.47 3.17 2.13 1.94 1.86 1.97 1990's 1.76 1.66 1.64 1.73 1.49 1.24 1.66 1.73 1.42 1.63 2000's 3.30 3.93 3.06 5.13 5.83 8.54 6.84 6.70 8.80 3.73 2010's 4.17 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  19. Montana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.08 0.09 0.10 1970's 0.10 0.12 0.12 0.24 0.25 0.43 0.45 0.72 0.85 1.21 1980's 1.45 1.91 2.15 2.41 2.46 2.39 2.05 1.80 1.70 1.55 1990's 1.79 1.66 1.62 1.55 1.46 1.36 1.41 1.59 1.53 1.68 2000's 2.84 3.12 2.39 3.73 4.51 6.57 5.53 5.72 7.50 3.16 2010's 3.64 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  20. Nebraska Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.17 0.18 0.17 1970's 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.34 0.54 0.51 0.65 0.68 0.85 1980's 0.83 1.45 1.99 2.93 2.24 3.01 2.82 2.42 2.66 2.23 1990's 2.26 2.06 1.78 1.81 1.60 1.19 1.43 1.53 1.30 1.36 2000's 2.26 2.16 1.52 3.17 3.22 4.29 NA 4.86 6.22 2.97 2010's 3.98 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  1. Ohio Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.24 0.25 0.26 1970's 0.27 0.34 0.39 0.43 0.48 0.71 1.02 1.40 1.57 1.81 1980's 1.98 2.17 2.71 3.24 3.19 3.08 2.84 2.58 2.55 2.55 1990's 2.54 2.38 2.35 2.46 2.43 2.33 2.63 2.70 2.95 2.43 2000's 4.06 4.54 4.52 5.90 6.65 9.03 7.75 7.59 7.88 4.36 2010's 4.63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  2. Oklahoma Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.14 0.14 0.15 1970's 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.19 0.28 0.32 0.50 0.79 0.90 1.12 1980's 1.51 1.88 2.74 2.83 2.72 2.47 1.71 1.47 1.55 1.59 1990's 1.57 1.47 1.70 1.88 1.70 1.44 2.21 2.32 1.77 2.05 2000's 3.63 4.03 2.94 4.97 5.52 7.21 6.32 6.24 7.56 3.53 2010's 4.71 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  3. System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, R.L.; Snow, N.J. Jr.

    1983-12-06

    A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a well-head; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; and separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for cooling the compressed gases therefrom; and a product separator downstream of the refrigeration unit for receiving cooled and compressed gases discharged from the refrigeration unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form.

  4. INITIAL CHEMICAL AND RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AT LOS AZUFRES WELLHEAD POWER PLANT STARTUP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, P.; Semprini, L.; Verma, S.; Barragan, R.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, C.

    1985-01-22

    One of the major concerns of electric utilities in installing geothermal power plants is not only the longevity of the steam supply, but also the potential for changes in thermodynamic properties of the resource that might reduce the conversion efficiency of the design plant equipment. Production was initiated at Los Azufres geothermal field with wellhead generators not only to obtain electric energy at a relatively early date, but also to acquire needed information about the resource so that plans for large central power plants could be finalized. Commercial electric energy production started at Los Azufres during the summer of 1982 with five 5-MWe wellhead turbine-generator units. The wells associated with these units had undergone extensive testing and have since been essentially in constant production. The Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is a complex structural and thermodynamic system, intersected by at least 4 major parallel faults and producing geothermal fluids from almost all water to all steam. The five wellhead generators are associated with wells of about 30%, 60%, and 100% steam fraction. A study to compile existing data on the chemical and reservoir conditions during the first two years of operation has been completed. Data have been compiled on mean values of wellhead and separator pressures, steam and liquid flowrates, steam fraction, enthalpy, and pertinent chemical components. The compilation serves both as a database of conditions during the start-up period and as an initial point to observe changes with continued and increased production. Current plans are to add additional wellhead generators in about two years followed by central power plants when the data have been sufficiently evaluated for optimum plant design. During the next two years, the data acquired at the five 5-MWe wellhead generator units can be compared to this database to observe any significant changes in reservoir behavior at constant production.

  5. Non intrusive sensors -- An answer to annulus pressure monitoring in subsea wellhead equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamek, F.C.; Jennings, C.; Aarskog, A.

    1995-12-01

    On offshore platform and jackup surface wellhead completions, there is the potential for leakage from the high pressure production tubing and casing strings into the low pressure outer casing string, or from poor cementing jobs. Historically, these completions maintain the capability of regularly monitoring wellhead annulus pressure so that appropriate action can be taken should a leak be detected. In the past, subsea completions have been oil producers, however, gas production, extreme reservoir pressures, and deeper waters are becoming common place. Although subsea wellhead technology and reliability have significantly improved with the introduction of the metal-to-metal sealing system, the potential for annulus pressure buildup still exists. Up to the present, the ability to monitor pressure beyond the first casing string has been virtually non-existent. This paper describes the design, development, testing, and application of non intrusive sensor technology for pressure measurement in subsea wellheads and production trees. The data and test results define and describe the phenomenon of ``inverse magnetostriction``. This phenomenon allows magnetic sensors to non intrusively penetrate three to four inches of steel in a subsea wellhead housing and measure annulus pressure from less than 30 psi to more than 15,000 psi. In addition, test data, charts, and graphs illustrate the sensor`s capability of differentiating between pressure, tension, compression, and bending stress imposed on the wellhead. The electronic interface description details how the data is obtained from the sensors, stored, and later transmitted to existing control systems or to the user interface at the surface via an ROV.

  6. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  7. ,"Maryland Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  8. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  9. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  10. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Missouri Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",1997 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  11. ,"Montana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  12. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  13. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  14. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  15. ,"Oregon Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oregon Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  16. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  17. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  18. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  19. ,"Utah Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  20. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  1. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  2. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  3. ,"Alaska Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  4. ,"Arizona Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arizona Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  5. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  6. ,"California Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  7. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  8. ,"Florida Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  9. ,"Illinois Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Illinois Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  10. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  11. Gate Access

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gate Access Gate Access Print When you first arrive at the ALS, gate clearance will have been arranged for you by the User Office. Berkeley Lab employees and visiting researchers (participating guests) may arrange for gate clearance for their visitors through the Lab's Site Access Office . Please notify the Site Office by submitting a Visitor Pass Request before 3:00 p.m. on the day before the expected visit. Include the name(s) of any visitors, the time you expect them, and your name and

  12. System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, R.L.; Sinclair, B.W.

    1984-07-31

    A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a wellhead; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas; storing the separated LPG in a storage tank with a vapor space therein; and recirculating a portion of the LPG vapors in the storage tank with the natural gas exiting the wellhead to enhance recovery of LPG. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for refrigerating the compressed gases therefrom; at least one product separator downstream of the refrigerator unit for receiving refrigerated and compressed gases discharged from the refrigerator unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form; and a storage tank for receiving and storing the separated LPG therein, the storage tank having a vapor space therein connected upstream of the gas compressor through a pressure regulator allowing recirculation of some LPG vapors with the natural gases through said system.

  13. CNEEC - Electrolyte Gating by David Goldhaber-Gordon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolyte Gating

  14. South Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2.11 1980's 2.75 3.08 3.37 3.67 2.51 2.46 2.71 1.95 1.11 1990's 1.56 1.12 1.79 2.13 1.73 1.59 2.09 2.47 2.13 2000's 3.56 3.42 2.95 4.98 5.49 7.44 6.40 7.22 7.94 NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  15. Geothermal rotary separator turbine: wellhead power system tests at Milford, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, E.E.

    1983-08-01

    Through development of a separator/expander engine EPRI is improving the efficiency of single flash geothermal power systems. Under cost-shared contracts with Biphase Energy Systems and Utah Power and Light Company (UP and L), a wellhead power generating system has been built and tested. The wellhead unit has been operated for 4000 hours at Roosevelt Hot Springs near Milford, Utah. Phillips Petroleum Company operates the geothermal field at this site. The rotary separator turbine (RST) is a separating expander that increases the resource utilization efficiency by extracting power upstream of a steam turbine in either a 1-stage or 2-stage flash power system. The first power output was achieved October 28, 1981, six weeks after arrival of the RST at the site. The RST system produced 3270 MWh(e) gross and 2770 MWh(e) net to the UP and L grid. Total equivalent power produced by the wellhead RST (actual power output of the RST plus the power obtainable from the steam flow out of the RST) is 15 to 20 percent above the power that would be produced by an optimum 1-stage direct flash plant operated on the same geothermal well.

  16. Stage Gate Management Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stage Gate Management in the Biomass Program February 2005 Revision 2 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS OVERVIEW............................................................................................................................. 4 STAGE GATE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................... 4 STAGE GATE PROCESS AND LONG RANGE STRATEGIC PROGRAM PLANNING ........................ 5 GATE REVIEWS

  17. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Value and Marketed Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed Production",4,"Annual",2015,"06/30/1900" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","09/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  18. Response of the Los Azufres Geothermal Field to Four Years of 25 MW Wellhead Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, P.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, G.; Gallardo, M.

    1987-01-20

    Production and chemical data have been compiled and analyzed on a six-month averaged basis for the first four years of electric energy generation with five 5-MW wellhead generators at the Los Azufres geothermal field. The data were evaluated with respect to the extent of observable thermal drawdown of the reservoir from 25 MW of generation in relation to the estimated capacity of the field of several hundred megawatts of power. The analysis updates the previous one compiled after the first two years of continuous production, at which time the results indicated that differences in reservoir temperature estimated from geochemical thermometers and wellhead production data were not statistically significant based on the number of data and the standard deviations. Analysis of the data after four years of operation were made for the larger number of data and smaller standard deviations. The results review the adequacy of the sampling frequency and the reliability of the measurements from statistical t-Test of the means of the first and second two-year periods. 3 figs., 5 tabs., 20 refs.

  19. Latest design of gate valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurzhofer, U.; Stolte, J.; Weyand, M.

    1996-12-01

    Babcock Sempell, one of the most important valve manufacturers in Europe, has delivered valves for the nuclear power industry since the beginning of the peaceful application of nuclear power in the 1960s. The latest innovation by Babcock Sempell is a gate valve that meets all recent technical requirements of the nuclear power technology. At the moment in the United States, Germany, Sweden, and many other countries, motor-operated gate and globe valves are judged very critically. Besides the absolute control of the so-called {open_quotes}trip failure,{close_quotes} the integrity of all valve parts submitted to operational forces must be maintained. In case of failure of the limit and torque switches, all valve designs have been tested with respect to the quality of guidance of the gate. The guidances (i.e., guides) shall avoid a tilting of the gate during the closing procedure. The gate valve newly designed by Babcock Sempell fulfills all these characteristic criteria. In addition, the valve has cobalt-free seat hardfacing, the suitability of which has been proven by friction tests as well as full-scale blowdown tests at the GAP of Siemens in Karlstein, West Germany. Babcock Sempell was to deliver more than 30 gate valves of this type for 5 Swedish nuclear power stations by autumn 1995. In the presentation, the author will report on the testing performed, qualifications, and sizing criteria which led to the new technical design.

  20. Coalbed Methane Procduced Water Treatment Using Gas Hydrate Formation at the Wellhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BC Technologies

    2009-12-30

    Water associated with coalbed methane (CBM) production is a significant and costly process waste stream, and economic treatment and/or disposal of this water is often the key to successful and profitable CBM development. In the past decade, advances have been made in the treatment of CBM produced water. However, produced water generally must be transported in some fashion to a centralized treatment and/or disposal facility. The cost of transporting this water, whether through the development of a water distribution system or by truck, is often greater than the cost of treatment or disposal. To address this economic issue, BC Technologies (BCT), in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC), proposed developing a mechanical unit that could be used to treat CBM produced water by forming gas hydrates at the wellhead. This process involves creating a gas hydrate, washing it and then disassociating hydrate into water and gas molecules. The application of this technology results in three process streams: purified water, brine, and gas. The purified water can be discharged or reused for a variety of beneficial purposes and the smaller brine can be disposed of using conventional strategies. The overall objectives of this research are to develop a new treatment method for produced water where it could be purified directly at the wellhead, to determine the effectiveness of hydrate formation for the treatment of produced water with proof of concept laboratory experiments, to design a prototype-scale injector and test it in the laboratory under realistic wellhead conditions, and to demonstrate the technology under field conditions. By treating the water on-site, producers could substantially reduce their surface handling costs and economically remove impurities to a quality that would support beneficial use. Batch bench-scale experiments of the hydrate formation process and research conducted at ORNL

  1. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1985-02-19

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  2. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.

    1987-01-01

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  3. Range gated imaging experiments using gated intensifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Yates, G.J.; Cverna, F.H.; Gallegos, R.A.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Numkena, D.M.; Payton, J.; Pena-Abeyta, C.R.

    1999-03-01

    A variety of range gated imaging experiments using high-speed gated/shuttered proximity focused microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPII) are reported. Range gated imaging experiments were conducted in water for detection of submerged mines in controlled turbidity tank test and in sea water for the Naval Coastal Sea Command/US Marine Corps. Field experiments have been conducted consisting of kilometer range imaging of resolution targets and military vehicles in atmosphere at Eglin Air Force Base for the US Air Force, and similar imaging experiments, but in smoke environment, at Redstone Arsenal for the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). Wavelength of the illuminating laser was 532 nm with pulse width ranging from 6 to 12 ns and comparable gate widths. These tests have shown depth resolution in the tens of centimeters range from time phasing reflected LADAR images with MCPII shutter opening.

  4. Sliding-gate valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Usnick, George B.; Ward, Gene T.; Blair, Henry O.; Roberts, James W.; Warner, Terry N.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is a novel valve of the slidable-gate type. The valve is designed especially for long-term use with highly abrasive slurries. The sealing surfaces of the gate are shielded by the valve seats when the valve is fully open or closed, and the gate-to-seat clearance is swept with an inflowing purge gas while the gate is in transit. A preferred form of the valve includes an annular valve body containing an annular seat assembly defining a flow channel. The seat assembly comprises a first seat ring which is slidably and sealably mounted in the body, and a second seat ring which is tightly fitted in the body. These rings cooperatively define an annular gap which, together with passages in the valve body, forms a guideway extending normal to the channel. A plate-type gate is mounted for reciprocation in the guideway between positions where a portion of the plate closes the channel and where a circular aperture in the gate is in register with the channel. The valve casing includes opposed chambers which extend outwardly from the body along the axis of the guideway to accommodate the end portions of the gate. The chambers are sealed from atmosphere; when the gate is in transit, purge gas is admitted to the chambers and flows inwardly through the gate-to-seat-ring, clearance, minimizing buildup of process solids therein. A shaft reciprocated by an external actuator extends into one of the sealed chambers through a shaft seal and is coupled to an end of the gate. Means are provided for adjusting the clearance between the first seat ring and the gate while the valve is in service.

  5. Optical NAND gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogen, Erik J.; Raring, James; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

    2011-08-09

    An optical NAND gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator and a photodetector. One pair of the optical waveguide devices is electrically connected in parallel to operate as an optical AND gate; and the other pair of the optical waveguide devices is connected in series to operate as an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter). The optical NAND gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NAND function output. The optical NAND gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  6. Optical XOR gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2013-11-12

    An optical XOR gate is formed as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) from two sets of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each set of the optical waveguide devices including an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical XOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs to generate an XOR function digital optical output. The optical XOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  7. Optical NOR gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogen, Erik J.; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

    2011-09-06

    An optical NOR gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical NOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NOR function digital optical output. The optical NOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  8. Advanced insulated gate bipolar transistor gate drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Short, James Evans; West, Shawn Michael; Fabean, Robert J.

    2009-08-04

    A gate drive for an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) includes a control and protection module coupled to a collector terminal of the IGBT, an optical communications module coupled to the control and protection module, a power supply module coupled to the control and protection module and an output power stage module with inputs coupled to the power supply module and the control and protection module, and outputs coupled to a gate terminal and an emitter terminal of the IGBT. The optical communications module is configured to send control signals to the control and protection module. The power supply module is configured to distribute inputted power to the control and protection module. The control and protection module outputs on/off, soft turn-off and/or soft turn-on signals to the output power stage module, which, in turn, supplies a current based on the signal(s) from the control and protection module for charging or discharging an input capacitance of the IGBT.

  9. SU-E-T-350: Verification of Gating Performance of a New Elekta Gating Solution: Response Kit and Catalyst System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, X; Cao, D; Housley, D; Mehta, V; Shepard, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this work, we have tested the performance of new respiratory gating solutions for Elekta linacs. These solutions include the Response gating and the C-RAD Catalyst surface mapping system.Verification measurements have been performed for a series of clinical cases. We also examined the beam on latency of the system and its impact on delivery efficiency. Methods: To verify the benefits of tighter gating windows, a Quasar Respiratory Motion Platform was used. Its vertical-motion plate acted as a respiration surrogate and was tracked by the Catalyst system to generate gating signals. A MatriXX ion-chamber array was mounted on its longitudinal-moving platform. Clinical plans are delivered to a stationary and moving Matrix array at 100%, 50% and 30% gating windows and gamma scores were calculated comparing moving delivery results to the stationary result. It is important to note that as one moves to tighter gating windows, the delivery efficiency will be impacted by the linac's beam-on latency. Using a specialized software package, we generated beam-on signals of lengths of 1000ms, 600ms, 450ms, 400ms, 350ms and 300ms. As the gating windows get tighter, one can expect to reach a point where the dose rate will fall to nearly zero, indicating that the gating window is close to beam-on latency. A clinically useful gating window needs to be significantly longer than the latency for the linac. Results: As expected, the use of tighter gating windows improved delivery accuracy. However, a lower limit of the gating window, largely defined by linac beam-on latency, exists at around 300ms. Conclusion: The Response gating kit, combined with the C-RAD Catalyst, provides an effective solution for respiratorygated treatment delivery. Careful patient selection, gating window design, even visual/audio coaching may be necessary to ensure both delivery quality and efficiency. This research project is funded by Elekta.

  10. Compact gate valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bobo, Gerald E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a double-disc gate valve which is compact, comparatively simple to construct, and capable of maintaining high closing pressures on the valve discs with low frictional forces. The valve casing includes axially aligned ports. Mounted in the casing is a sealed chamber which is pivotable transversely of the axis of the ports. The chamber contains the levers for moving the valve discs axially, and an actuator for the levers. When an external drive means pivots the chamber to a position where the discs are between the ports and axially aligned therewith, the actuator for the levers is energized to move the discs into sealing engagement with the ports.

  11. ONE SHAKE GATE FORMER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalibjian, R.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1957-08-20

    An improved circuit for forming square pulses having substantially short and precise durations is described. The gate forming circuit incorporates a secondary emission R. F. pentode adapted to receive input trigger pulses amd having a positive feedback loop comnected from the dynode to the control grid to maintain conduction in response to trigger pulses. A short circuited pulse delay line is employed to precisely control the conducting time of the tube and a circuit for squelching spurious oscillations is provided in the feedback loop.

  12. Penn State DOE GATE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anstrom, Joel

    2012-08-31

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) was established in October 1998 pursuant to an award from the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). The focus area of the Penn State GATE Program is advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  13. Gate Hours & Services | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    personnel contactdirectory (SLAC phone directory) assistance, and directions and maps. ... Satellite view | Aerial view detail Gate 17 Sector 30 Gate 247 proximity access for ...

  14. Natural Gas Wellhead Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 4.48 3.95 2.66 NA NA NA 1922-2015 Alabama 4.46 1967-2010 Alaska 3.17 1967-2010 Arizona 4.11 1967-2010 Arkansas 3.84 1967-2010 California 4.87 1967-2010 Colorado 3.96 1967-2010 Florida NA 1967-2010 Illinois NA 1967-2010 Indiana 4.13 1967-2010 Kansas 4.23 1967-2010 Kentucky 4.47 1967-2010

  15. Natural Gas Wellhead Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973

  16. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson; Singh, Anup K.

    2012-04-24

    We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from the pores of nanoporous polymer exclusion membranes. The pores are small enough that proteins are excluded from passage with low applied electric fields, but increasing the field enables proteins to pass through. The requisite field necessary for a change in exclusion is protein-specific with a correlation to protein size. The field-dependence of exclusion is important to consider for preconcentration applications. The ability to selectively gate proteins at exclusion membranes is also a promising means for manipulating and characterizing proteins. We show that field-gated exclusion can be used to selectively remove proteins from a mixture, or to selectively trap protein at one exclusion membrane in a series.

  17. Gate Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spain Sector: Solar Product: JV set up for the promotion, exploitation and sale of photovoltaic solar power plants. References: Gate Solar1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  18. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Imports - Total Imports - Crude Oil Imports - Crude Oil, Commercial Imports - by SPR Imports - into SPR by Others Imports - Total Products Imports - Total Motor Gasoline Imports - Finished Motor Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Other Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Conventional Gasoline Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & < Imports -

  19. Radial gate evaluation: Olympus Dam, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The report presents a structural analysis of the radial gates of Olympus Dam in eastern Colorado. Five 20-foot wide by 17-foot high radial gates are used to control flow through the spillway at Olympus Dam. The spillway gates were designed in 1947. The gate arm assemblies consist of two separate wide flange beams, with a single brace between the arms. The arms pivot about a 4.0-inch diameter pin and bronze graphite-insert bushing. The pin is cantilevered from the pier anchor girder. The radial gates are supported by a pin bearing on a pier anchor birder bolted to the end of the concrete pier. The gates are operated by two-part wire rope 15,000-pound capacity hoise. Stoplog slots upstream of the radial gates are provided in the concrete piers. Selected drawings of the gates and hoists are located in appendix A.

  20. Stage-Gate Innovation Management Guidelines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Stage-Gate Innovation Management Guidelines Managing risk through structured project decision-making February 2007 Version 1.3 Table of Contents Overview of ITP Stage-Gate Innovation Management........................................................ 1 Background............................................................................................................................................. 1 Process

  1. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Initiative Awards |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Initiative Awards Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Initiative Awards September 8, 2011 - 11:46am Addthis Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Initiative Awards DOE's Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) initiative will award $6.4 million over the course of five years to support seven Centers of Excellence at American colleges, universities, and university-affiliated research

  2. Dynamic gating window for compensation of baseline shift in respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepin, Eric W.; Wu Huanmei; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To analyze and evaluate the necessity and use of dynamic gating techniques for compensation of baseline shift during respiratory-gated radiation therapy of lung tumors. Methods: Motion tracking data from 30 lung tumors over 592 treatment fractions were analyzed for baseline shift. The finite state model (FSM) was used to identify the end-of-exhale (EOE) breathing phase throughout each treatment fraction. Using duty cycle as an evaluation metric, several methods of end-of-exhale dynamic gating were compared: An a posteriori ideal gating window, a predictive trend-line-based gating window, and a predictive weighted point-based gating window. These methods were evaluated for each of several gating window types: Superior/inferior (SI) gating, anterior/posterior beam, lateral beam, and 3D gating. Results: In the absence of dynamic gating techniques, SI gating gave a 39.6% duty cycle. The ideal SI gating window yielded a 41.5% duty cycle. The weight-based method of dynamic SI gating yielded a duty cycle of 36.2%. The trend-line-based method yielded a duty cycle of 34.0%. Conclusions: Dynamic gating was not broadly beneficial due to a breakdown of the FSM's ability to identify the EOE phase. When the EOE phase was well defined, dynamic gating showed an improvement over static-window gating.

  3. Ligand-gated Diffusion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B Lepore; M Indic; H Pham; E Hearn; D Patel; B van den Berg

    2011-12-31

    Ligand-gated channels, in which a substrate transport pathway is formed as a result of the binding of a small-molecule chemical messenger, constitute a diverse class of membrane proteins with important functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Despite their widespread nature, no ligand-gated channels have yet been found within the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Here we show, using in vivo transport assays, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and X-ray crystallography, that high-affinity (submicromolar) substrate binding to the OM long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL from Escherichia coli causes conformational changes in the N terminus that open up a channel for substrate diffusion. The OM long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL from E. coli is a unique paradigm for OM diffusion-driven transport, in which ligand gating within a {beta}-barrel membrane protein is a prerequisite for channel formation.

  4. Double-disc gate valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, Seth J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to an improvement in a conventional double-disc gate valve having a vertically movable gate assembly including a wedge, spreaders slidably engaged therewtih, a valve disc carried by the spreaders. When the gate assembly is lowered to a selected point in the valve casing, the valve discs are moved transversely outward to close inlet and outlet ports in the casing. The valve includes hold-down means for guiding the disc-and-spreader assemblies as they are moved transversely outward and inward. If such valves are operated at relatively high differential pressures, they sometimes jam during opening. Such jamming has been a problem for many years in gate valves used in gaseous diffusion plants for the separtion of uranium isotopes. The invention is based on the finding that the above-mentioned jamming results when the outlet disc tilts about its horizontal axis in a certain way during opening of the valve. In accordance with the invention, tilting of the outlet disc is maintained at a tolerable value by providing the disc with a rigid downwardly extending member and by providing the casing with a stop for limiting inward arcuate movement of the member to a preselected value during opening of the valve.

  5. Test and demonstration of a 1-MW wellhead generator: helical screw expander power plant, Model 76-1. Final report to the International Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-07-04

    A 1-MW geothermal wellhead power plant incorporating a Lysholm or helical screw expander (HSE) was field tested between 1980 and 1983 by Mexico, Italy, and New Zealand with technical assistance from the United States. The objectives were to provide data on the reliability and performance of the HSE and to assess the costs and benefits of its use. The range of conditions under which the HSE was tested included loads up to 933 kW, mass flowrates of 14,600 to 395, 000 lbs/hr, inlet pressures of 64 to 220 psia, inlet qualities of 0 to 100%, exhaust pressures of 3.1 to 40 psia, total dissolved solids up to 310,000 ppM, and noncondensible gases up to 38% of the vapor mass flow. Typical machine efficiencies of 40 to 50% were calculated. For most operations efficiency increased approximately logarithmically with shaft power, while inlet quality and rotor speed had only small effects. The HSE was designed with oversized internal clearances in the expectation that adherent scale would form during operation. Improvements in machine efficiency of 3.5 to 4 percentage points were observed over some test periods with some scale deposition. A comparison with a 1-MW back-pressure turbine showed that the HSE can compete favorably under certain conditions. The HSE was found to be a rugged energy conversion machine for geothermal applications, but some subsystems were found to require further development. 7 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Gating of the proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Gating of the proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus at pH 4 as revealed by X-ray crystallography Authors: Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Giovanni ; Cuello, Luis G. ; ...

  7. David A Gates | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physicist, Stellerator Physics Lead, Advanced Projects Division, Science Focus Group Leader for Macroscopic Stability David Gates is a principal research physicist for the...

  8. Optimal gate-width setting for passive neutrons multiplicity counting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    When setting up a passive neutron coincidence counter it is natural to ask what coincidence gate settings should be used to optimize the counting precision. If the gate width is too short then signal is lost and the precision is compromised because in a given period only a few coincidence events will be observed. On the other hand if the gate is too large the signal will be maximized but it will also be compromised by the high level of random pile-up or Accidental coincidence events which must be subtracted. In the case of shift register electronics connected to an assay chamber with an exponential dieaway profile operating in the regime where the Accidentals rate dominates the Reals coincidence rate but where dead-time is not a concern, simple arguments allow one to show that the relative precision on the net Reals rate is minimized when the coincidence gate is set to about 1.2 times the lie dieaway time of the system. In this work we show that making the same assumptions it is easy to show that the relative precision on the Triples rates is also at a minimum when the relative precision of the Doubles (or Reals) is at a minimum. Although the analysis is straightforward to our knowledge such a discussion has not been documented in the literature before. Actual measurement systems do not always behave in the ideal we choose to model them. Fortunately however the variation in the relative precision as a function of gate width is rather flat for traditional safeguards counters and so the performance is somewhat forgiving of the exact choice. The derivation further serves to delineate the important parameters which determine the relative counting precision of the Doubles and Triples rates under the regime considered. To illustrate the similarities and differences we consider the relative standard deviation that might be anticipated for a passive correlation count of an axial section of a spent nuclear fuel assembly under practically achievable conditions.

  9. Optimization efforts in gated x-ray intensifiers (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimization efforts in gated x-ray intensifiers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optimization efforts in gated x-ray intensifiers Gated x-ray intensifiers are often ...

  10. Transparently wrap-gated semiconductor nanowire arrays for studies of gate-controlled photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nylund, Gustav; Storm, Kristian; Torstensson, Henrik; Wallentin, Jesper; Borgstrm, Magnus T.; Hessman, Dan; Samuelson, Lars

    2013-12-04

    We present a technique to measure gate-controlled photoluminescence (PL) on arrays of semiconductor nanowire (NW) capacitors using a transparent film of Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) wrapping around the nanowires as the gate electrode. By tuning the wrap-gate voltage, it is possible to increase the PL peak intensity of an array of undoped InP NWs by more than an order of magnitude. The fine structure of the PL spectrum reveals three subpeaks whose relative peak intensities change with gate voltage. We interpret this as gate-controlled state-filling of luminescing quantum dot segments formed by zincblende stacking faults in the mainly wurtzite NW crystal structure.

  11. Retaining latch for a water pit gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beale, A.R.

    1997-11-18

    A retaining latch is described for use in a hazardous materials storage or handling facility to adjustably retain a water pit gate in a gate frame. A retaining latch is provided comprising a latch plate which is rotatably mounted to each end of the top of the gate and a recessed opening, formed in the gate frame, for engaging an edge of the latch plate. The latch plate is circular in profile with one side cut away or flat, such that the latch plate is D-shaped. The remaining circular edge of the latch plate comprises steps of successively reduced thickness. The stepped edge of the latch plate fits inside a recessed opening formed in the gate frame. As the latch plate is rotated, alternate steps of the latch plate are engaged by the recessed opening. When the latch plate is rotated such that the flat portion of the latch plate faces the recessed opening in the gate frame, there is no connection between the opening and the latch plate and the gate is unlatched from the gate frame. 4 figs.

  12. Automatically closing swing gate closure assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Chih; Schuck, William J.; Gilmore, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    A swing gate closure assembly for nuclear reactor tipoff assembly wherein the swing gate is cammed open by a fuel element or spacer but is reliably closed at a desired closing rate primarily by hydraulic forces in the absence of a fuel charge.

  13. Retaining latch for a water pit gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beale, Arden R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A retaining latch for use in a hazardous materials storage or handling facility to adjustably retain a water pit gate in a gate frame. A retaining latch is provided comprising a latch plate which is rotatably mounted to each end of the top of the gate and a recessed opening, formed in the gate frame, for engaging an edge of the latch plate. The latch plate is circular in profile with one side cut away or flat, such that the latch plate is D-shaped. The remaining circular edge of the latch plate comprises steps of successively reduced thickness. The stepped edge of the latch plate fits inside a recessed opening formed in the gate frame. As the latch plate is rotated, alternate steps of the latch plate are engaged by the recessed opening. When the latch plate is rotated such that the flat portion of the latch plate faces the recessed opening in the gate frame, there is no connection between the opening and the latch plate and the gate is unlatched from the gate frame.

  14. AgraGate Carbon Credits Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgraGate Carbon Credits Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: AgraGate Carbon Credits Corporation Place: Des Moines, Iowa Zip: 50266 Product: Offset aggregators that work...

  15. Unbalanced edge modes and topological phase transition in gated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unbalanced edge modes and topological phase transition in gated trilayer graphene Title: Unbalanced edge modes and topological phase transition in gated trilayer graphene Authors: ...

  16. Development of Dual-Gated Bilayer Graphene Device Structures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of Dual-Gated Bilayer Graphene Device Structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of Dual-Gated Bilayer Graphene Device Structures. Abstract not ...

  17. PENN STATE DOE GRADUATE AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION (GATE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PENN STATE DOE GRADUATE AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION (GATE) PROGRAM FOR PENN STATE DOE GRADUATE AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION (GATE) PROGRAM FOR 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and ...

  18. Repeat-until-success cubic phase gate for universal continuous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    phase gate for universal continuous-variable quantum computation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Repeat-until-success cubic phase gate for universal ...

  19. GATE Center of Excellence in Sustainable Vehicle Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications GATE Center of Excellence in Sustainable Vehicle Systems Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: GATE Center of Excellence in Sustainable ...

  20. GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility Vehicle ...

  1. Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE PAGES Search Results Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on graphene Title: Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt ...

  2. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation Title: Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from ...

  3. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's GATE Center for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Champaign's GATE Center for Advanced Automotive Bio-Fuel Combustion Engines University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's GATE Center for Advanced Automotive Bio-Fuel Combustion ...

  4. Locking apparatus for gate valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fabyan, Joseph; Williams, Carl W.

    1988-01-01

    A locking apparatus for fluid operated valves having a piston connected to the valve actuator which moves in response to applied pressure within a cylinder housing having a cylinder head, a catch block is secured to the piston, and the cylinder head incorporates a catch pin. Pressure applied to the cylinder to open the valve moves the piston adjacent to the cylinder head where the catch pin automatically engages the catch block preventing futher movement of the piston or premature closure of the valve. Application of pressure to the cylinder to close the valve, retracts the catch pin, allowing the valve to close. Included are one or more selector valves, for selecting pressure application to other apparatus depending on the gate valve position, open or closed, protecting such apparatus from damage due to premature closing caused by pressure loss or operational error.

  5. Locking apparatus for gate valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fabyan, J.; Williams, C.W.

    A locking apparatus for fluid operated valves having a piston connected to the valve actuator which moves in response to applied pressure within a cylinder housing having a cylinder head, a catch block is secured to the piston, and the cylinder head incorporates a catch pin. Pressure applied to the cylinder to open the valve moves the piston adjacent to the cylinder head where the catch pin automatically engages the catch block preventing further movement of the piston or premature closure of the valve. Application of pressure to the cylinder to close the valve, retracts the catch pin, allowing the valve to close. Included are one or more selector valves, for selecting pressure application to other apparatus depending on the gate valve position, open or closed, protecting such apparatus from damage due to premature closing caused by pressure loss or operational error.

  6. GRD Import

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-11-01

    Imports RAW data (*.GRD) files created by Ion-TOF’s SurfaceLab version 6.1 or later into Matlab and saves the resulting variables to a file.

  7. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Hodgson; David Irick

    2005-09-30

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has completed its sixth year of operation. During this period the Center has involved thirteen GATE Fellows and ten GATE Research Assistants in preparing them to contribute to advanced automotive technologies in the center's focus area: hybrid drive trains and control systems. Eighteen GATE students have graduated, and three have completed their course work requirements. Nine faculty members from three departments in the College of Engineering have been involved in the GATE Center. In addition to the impact that the Center has had on the students and faculty involved, the presence of the center has led to the acquisition of resources that probably would not have been obtained if the GATE Center had not existed. Significant industry interaction such as internships, equipment donations, and support for GATE students has been realized. The value of the total resources brought to the university (including related research contracts) exceeds $4,000,000. Problem areas are discussed in the hope that future activities may benefit from the operation of the current program.

  8. Gates, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Gates is a city in Linn County and Marion County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 4th congressional district and Oregon's 5th...

  9. Digital gate pulse generator for cycloconverter control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klein, Frederick F.; Mutone, Gioacchino A.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention provides a digital gate pulse generator which controls the output of a cycloconverter used for electrical power conversion applications by determining the timing and delivery of the firing pulses to the switching devices in the cycloconverter. Previous gate pulse generators have been built with largely analog or discrete digital circuitry which require many precision components and periodic adjustment. The gate pulse generator of the present invention utilizes digital techniques and a predetermined series of values to develop the necessary timing signals for firing the switching device. Each timing signal is compared with a reference signal to determine the exact firing time. The present invention is significantly more compact than previous gate pulse generators, responds quickly to changes in the output demand and requires only one precision component and no adjustments.

  10. Gate valve and motor-operator research findings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).

  11. GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Burger, Arnold; Mandal, Krishna C.

    2009-06-23

    GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

  12. Gate fidelity fluctuations and quantum process invariants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magesan, Easwar; Emerson, Joseph [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Blume-Kohout, Robin [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We characterize the quantum gate fidelity in a state-independent manner by giving an explicit expression for its variance. The method we provide can be extended to calculate all higher order moments of the gate fidelity. Using these results, we obtain a simple expression for the variance of a single-qubit system and deduce the asymptotic behavior for large-dimensional quantum systems. Applications of these results to quantum chaos and randomized benchmarking are discussed.

  13. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  14. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  15. Sliding-gate valve for use with abrasive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Jr., William J.; Carter, Charles R.; Griffith, Richard A.; Loomis, Richard B.; Notestein, John E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a flow and pressure-sealing valve for use with abrasive solids. The valve embodies special features which provide for long, reliable operating lifetimes in solids-handling service. The valve includes upper and lower transversely slidable gates, contained in separate chambers. The upper gate provides a solids-flow control function, whereas the lower gate provides a pressure-sealing function. The lower gate is supported by means for (a) lifting that gate into sealing engagement with its seat when the gate is in its open and closed positions and (b) lowering the gate out of contact with its seat to permit abrasion-free transit of the gate between its open and closed positions. When closed, the upper gate isolates the lower gate from the solids. Because of this shielding action, the sealing surface of the lower gate is not exposed to solids during transit or when it is being lifted or lowered. The chamber containing the lower gate normally is pressurized slightly, and a sweep gas is directed inwardly across the lower-gate sealing surface during the vertical translation of the gate.

  16. Gated IR Images of Shocked Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. S. Lutz; W. D. Turley; P. M. Rightley; L. E. Primas

    2001-06-01

    Gated infrared (IR) images have been taken of a series of shocked surface geometries in tin. Metal coupons machined with steps and flats were mounted directly to the high explosive. The explosive was point-initiated and 500-ns to 1-microsecond-wide gated images of the target were taken immediately following shock breakout using a Santa Barbara Focalplane InSb camera (SBF-134). Spatial distributions of surface radiance were extracted from the images of the shocked samples and found to be non-single-valued. Several geometries were modeled using CTH, a two-dimensional Eulerian hydrocode.

  17. Chi-Nu "Gate Review" (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chi-Nu "Gate Review" Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chi-Nu "Gate Review" You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This...

  18. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 range (1-2...

  19. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is ... Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained real-time oxidation results ...

  20. Designing robust unitary gates: Application to concatenated composite pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Bando, Masamitsu; Kondo, Yasushi; Nakahara, Mikio

    2011-12-15

    We propose a simple formalism to design unitary gates robust against given systematic errors. This formalism generalizes our previous observation [Y. Kondo and M. Bando, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 80, 054002 (2011)] that vanishing dynamical phase in some composite gates is essential to suppress pulse-length errors. By employing our formalism, we derive a composite unitary gate which can be seen as a concatenation of two known composite unitary operations. The obtained unitary gate has high fidelity over a wider range of error strengths compared to existing composite gates.

  1. Gated beam imager for heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahle, Larry; Hopkins, Harvey S.

    1998-12-10

    As part of the work building a small heavy-ion induction accelerator ring, or recirculator, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a diagnostic device measuring the four-dimensional transverse phase space of the beam in just a single pulse has been developed. This device, the Gated Beam Imager (GBI), consists of a thin plate filled with an array of 100-micron diameter holes and uses a Micro Channel Plate (MCP), a phosphor screen, and a CCD camera to image the beam particles that pass through the holes after they have drifted for a short distance. By time gating the MCP, the time evolution of the beam can also be measured, with each time step requiring a new pulse.

  2. Gated beam imager for heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahle, L.; Hopkins, H.S.

    1998-12-01

    As part of the work building a small heavy-ion induction accelerator ring, or recirculator, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a diagnostic device measuring the four-dimensional transverse phase space of the beam in just a single pulse has been developed. This device, the Gated Beam Imager (GBI), consists of a thin plate filled with an array of 100-micron diameter holes and uses a Micro Channel Plate (MCP), a phosphor screen, and a CCD camera to image the beam particles that pass through the holes after they have drifted for a short distance. By time gating the MCP, the time evolution of the beam can also be measured, with each time step requiring a new pulse. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Gated monochromatic x-ray imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J.A.; Archuleta, T.; Clark, L.

    1995-09-01

    We have recently developed a gated monochromatic x-ray imaging diagnostic for the national Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This new imaging system will be one of the primary diagnostics to be utilized on University of Rochester`s Omega laser fusion facility. The new diagnostic is based upon a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope dispersed by diffraction crystals, as first described by Marshall and Su. The dispersed images are gated by four individual proximity focused microchannel plates and recorded on film. Spectral coverage is tunable up to 8 keV, spectral resolution has been measured at 20 eV, temporal resolution is 80 ps, and spatial resolution is better than 10 {mu}m.

  4. Cluster computing software for GATE simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beenhouwer, Jan de; Staelens, Steven; Kruecker, Dirk; Ferrer, Ludovic; D'Asseler, Yves; Lemahieu, Ignace; Rannou, Fernando R.

    2007-06-15

    Geometry and tracking (GEANT4) is a Monte Carlo package designed for high energy physics experiments. It is used as the basis layer for Monte Carlo simulations of nuclear medicine acquisition systems in GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE). GATE allows the user to realistically model experiments using accurate physics models and time synchronization for detector movement through a script language contained in a macro file. The downside of this high accuracy is long computation time. This paper describes a platform independent computing approach for running GATE simulations on a cluster of computers in order to reduce the overall simulation time. Our software automatically creates fully resolved, nonparametrized macros accompanied with an on-the-fly generated cluster specific submit file used to launch the simulations. The scalability of GATE simulations on a cluster is investigated for two imaging modalities, positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Due to a higher sensitivity, PET simulations are characterized by relatively high data output rates that create rather large output files. SPECT simulations, on the other hand, have lower data output rates but require a long collimator setup time. Both of these characteristics hamper scalability as a function of the number of CPUs. The scalability of PET simulations is improved here by the development of a fast output merger. The scalability of SPECT simulations is improved by greatly reducing the collimator setup time. Accordingly, these two new developments result in higher scalability for both PET and SPECT simulations and reduce the computation time to more practical values.

  5. GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technologies | Department of Energy 6_vaidya_2012_p.pdf (4.01 MB) More Documents & Publications GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing Technologies Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing for Automotive, Truck and Mass Transit

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Gate Driver Optimizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gate Driver Optimization for WBG Applications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review ... Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  7. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and ...

  8. Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts Associated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts Associated with Fertilizer used for Corn, Soybean, and Stover Production Fertilizer use can cause environmental problems, ...

  9. Gates County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gates County, North Carolina: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 36.4202077, -76.6874701 Show Map Loading map......

  10. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah...

  11. Penn State DOE Graduate Automotive Technology Education (Gate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Penn State DOE Graduate Automotive Technology Education (Gate) Program for In-Vehicle, High-Power Energy Storage Systems Penn State DOE Graduate Automotive Technology Education ...

  12. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon ape003tolbert2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart ...

  13. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape03marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module ...

  14. Thermosensitive gating effect and selective gas adsorption in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermosensitive gating effect and selective gas adsorption in a porous coordination nanocage Previous Next List Dan Zhao , Daqiang Yuan , Rajamani Krishna , Jasper M. van Baten and...

  15. GATE Global Alternative Energy Holding AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Holding AG Place: Wrzburg, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 97080 Product: Germany-based biodiesel producer. References: GATE Global Alternative Energy Holding AG1 This article...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office: Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Centers of Excellence to provide future generations of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills in advanced automotive...

  17. Stage Gate Review Guide for the Industrial Technologies Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Stage-Gate Innovation Management Guidelines: Managing Risk Through Structured Project Decision-Making, February 2007. From the Industrial Technologies Program (now the Advanced Manufacturing Office).

  18. GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing for Automotive, Truck and Mass Transit...

  19. Speed control system for an access gate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2012-03-20

    An access control apparatus for an access gate. The access gate typically has a rotator that is configured to rotate around a rotator axis at a first variable speed in a forward direction. The access control apparatus may include a transmission that typically has an input element that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input element is generally configured to rotate at an input speed that is proportional to the first variable speed. The transmission typically also has an output element that has an output speed that is higher than the input speed. The input element and the output element may rotate around a common transmission axis. A retardation mechanism may be employed. The retardation mechanism is typically configured to rotate around a retardation mechanism axis. Generally the retardation mechanism is operatively connected to the output element of the transmission and is configured to retard motion of the access gate in the forward direction when the first variable speed is above a control-limit speed. In many embodiments the transmission axis and the retardation mechanism axis are substantially co-axial. Some embodiments include a freewheel/catch mechanism that has an input connection that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input connection may be configured to engage an output connection when the rotator is rotated at the first variable speed in a forward direction and configured for substantially unrestricted rotation when the rotator is rotated in a reverse direction opposite the forward direction. The input element of the transmission is typically operatively connected to the output connection of the freewheel/catch mechanism.

  20. Modeling gated neutron images of THD capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Douglas Carl; Grim, Gary P; Tregillis, Ian L; Wilke, Mark D; Morgan, George L; Loomis, Eric N; Wilde, Carl H; Oertel, John A; Fatherley, Valerie E; Clark, David D; Schmitt, Mark J; Merrill, Frank E; Wang, Tai - Sen F; Danly, Christopher R; Batha, Steven H; Patel, M; Sepke, S; Hatarik, R; Fittinghoff, D; Bower, D; Marinak, M; Munro, D; Moran, M; Hilko, R; Frank, M; Buckles, R

    2010-01-01

    Time gating a neutron detector 28m from a NIF implosion can produce images at different energies. The brighter image near 14 MeV reflects the size and symmetry of the capsule 'hot spot'. Scattered neutrons, {approx}9.5-13 MeV, reflect the size and symmetry of colder, denser fuel, but with only {approx}1-7% of the neutrons. The gated detector records both the scattered neutron image, and, to a good approximation, an attenuated copy of the primary image left by scintillator decay. By modeling the imaging system the energy band for the scattered neutron image (10-12 MeV) can be chosen, trading off the decayed primary image and the decrease of scattered image brightness with energy. Modeling light decay from EJ399, BC422, BCF99-55, Xylene, DPAC-30, and Liquid A leads to a preference from BCF99-55 for the first NIF detector, but DPAC 30 and Liquid A would be preferred if incorporated into a system. Measurement of the delayed light from the NIF scintillator using implosions at the Omega laser shows BCF99-55 to be a good choice for down-scattered imaging at 28m.

  1. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigns GATE Center for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Champaigns GATE Center for Advanced Automotive Bio-Fuel Combustion Engines University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigns GATE Center for Advanced Automotive Bio-Fuel Combustion ...

  2. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print Wednesday, 25 June 2008 00:00 The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under

  3. Stage Gate Review Guide for the Biomass Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Program Stage Gate Review Guide for the Biomass Program Stage Gate Management in the Biomass Program (now the Bioenergy Technologies Office), a document from February 2005. Stage Gate Review Guide (282.61 KB) More Documents & Publications Stage Gate Review Guide for the Industrial Technologies Program 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report 2009 Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

  4. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. ... Publication Date: 2004-03-30 OSTI Identifier: 822451 DOE Contract Number: FC36-01ID13983 ...

  5. Ultrafast terahertz gating of the polarization and giant nonlinear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Ultrafast terahertz gating of the polarization and giant nonlinear optical response in BiFeO3 thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast ...

  6. Liquid-based gating mechanism with tunable multiphase selectivity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    uses a capillary-stabilized liquid as a reversible, reconfigurable gate that fills and seals pores in the closed state, and creates a non-fouling, liquid-lined pore in the open ...

  7. PENN STATE DOE GRADUATE AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION (GATE) PROGRAM FOR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy PENN STATE DOE GRADUATE AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION (GATE) PROGRAM FOR PENN STATE DOE GRADUATE AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION (GATE) PROGRAM FOR 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. ti_01_anstrom.pdf (1.33 MB) More Documents & Publications IN-VEHICLE, HIGH-POWER ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Penn State DOE Graduate

  8. Final Technical GATE Report, 1998-2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GATE Fuel Cell Vehicle Center

    2006-09-30

    In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded 10 proposals to establish graduate automotive technology education (GATE) centers of excellence at nine universities, each addressing a specific technological area. The University of California, Davis was chosen for two centers: Fuel Cell Center and Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (power drivetrains and control strategies). This report is specific to the Fuel Cell Center only, which was housed at the UC Davis Institute of Transportation Studies (ITS-Davis). ITS-Davis created the Fuel Cell Vehicle Center, with the following goals: (1) create an interdisciplinary fuel cell vehicle curriculum that cuts across engineering, the physical sciences and, to a lesser extent, the social sciences; (2) expand and strengthen the then-emerging multidisciplinary fuel cell vehicle research program; (3) strengthen links with industry; (4) create an active public outreach program; and (5) serve as neutral ground for interactions between academia, the auto, energy, and technology industries, government, and public-interest non-governmental organizations. At the time of proposal, the Center had a solid track record in fuel cell research, strong connections with industry, strong campus support, a core group of distinguished and motivated faculty, and an established institutional foundation for fuel cell vehicle research and education.

  9. Impulse radar with swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-09-08

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. The antennas can be arranged in a side-by-side parallel spaced apart configuration or in a coplanar opposed configuration which significantly reduces main bang coupling. 25 figs.

  10. Impulse radar with swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-08

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna (10), so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive (24) and transmit cavities (22) by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. The antennas can be arranged in a side-by-side parallel spaced apart configuration or in a coplanar opposed configuration which significantly reduces main bang coupling.

  11. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, X.

    1996-12-17

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window. 5 figs.

  12. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Xucheng

    1996-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window.

  13. Rapidly reconfigurable all-optical universal logic gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goddard, Lynford L.; Bond, Tiziana C.; Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2010-09-07

    A new reconfigurable cascadable all-optical on-chip device is presented. The gate operates by combining the Vernier effect with a novel effect, the gain-index lever, to help shift the dominant lasing mode from a mode where the laser light is output at one facet to a mode where it is output at the other facet. Since the laser remains above threshold, the speed of the gate for logic operations as well as for reprogramming the function of the gate is primarily limited to the small signal optical modulation speed of the laser, which can be on the order of up to about tens of GHz. The gate can be rapidly and repeatedly reprogrammed to perform any of the basic digital logic operations by using an appropriate analog optical or electrical signal at the gate selection port. Other all-optical functionality includes wavelength conversion, signal duplication, threshold switching, analog to digital conversion, digital to analog conversion, signal routing, and environment sensing. Since each gate can perform different operations, the functionality of such a cascaded circuit grows exponentially.

  14. Company Level Imports Archives

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Company Level Imports Company Level Imports Archives 2015 Imports by Month January XLS February XLS March XLS April XLS May XLS June XLS July XLS August XLS September XLS October...

  15. Innovative secondary support systems for gate roads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barczak, T.; Molinda, G.M.; Zelanko, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    With the development of the shield support, the primary requirement for successful ground control in longwall mining is to provide stable gate road and bleeder entries. Wood cribbing has been the dominant form of secondary and supplemental support. However, the cost and limited availability of timber, along with the poor performance of softwood crib supports, has forced western U.S. mines to explore the utilization of support systems other than conventional wood cribbing. The recent success of cable bolts has engendered much interest from western operators. Eastern U.S. coal operators are also now experimenting with various intrinsic and freestanding alternative support systems that provide effective ground control while reducing material handling costs and injuries. These innovative freestanding support systems include (1) {open_quotes}The Can{close_quotes} support by Burrell Mining Products International, Inc., (2) Hercules and Link-N-Lock wood cribs and Propsetter supports by Strata Products (USA) Inc., (3) Variable Yielding Crib and Power Crib supports by Mountainland Support Systems, (4) the Confined Core Crib developed by Southern Utah Fuels Corporation; and (5) the MEGA prop by MBK Hydraulik. This paper assesses design considerations and compares the performance and application of these alternative secondary support systems. Support performance in the form of load-displacement behavior is compared to conventional wood cribbing. Much of the data was developed through full-scale tests conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at the Strategic Structures Testing Laboratory in the unique Mine Roof Simulator load frame at the Pittsburgh Research Center. A summary of current mine experience with these innovative supports is also documented.

  16. Note: The design of thin gap chamber simulation signal source based on field programmable gate array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Kun; Wang, Xu; Li, Feng; Jin, Ge; Lu, Houbing; Liang, Futian

    2015-01-15

    The Thin Gap Chamber (TGC) is an important part of ATLAS detector and LHC accelerator. Targeting the feature of the output signal of TGC detector, we have designed a simulation signal source. The core of the design is based on field programmable gate array, randomly outputting 256-channel simulation signals. The signal is generated by true random number generator. The source of randomness originates from the timing jitter in ring oscillators. The experimental results show that the random number is uniform in histogram, and the whole system has high reliability.

  17. Deterministic and cascadable conditional phase gate for photonic qubits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudzicki, Christopher; Chuang, Isaac; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2014-12-04

    Previous analyses of conditional ?{sub NL}-phase gates for photonic qubits that treat crossphase modulation (XPM) in a causal, multimode, quantum field setting suggest that a large (?? rad) nonlinear phase shift is always accompanied by fidelity-degrading noise [J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 73, 062305 (2006); J. Gea-Banacloche, Phys. Rev. A 81, 043823 (2010)]. Using an atomic V-system to model an XPM medium, we present a conditional phase gate that, for sufficiently small nonzero ?{sub NL}, has high fidelity. The gate is made cascadable by using a special measurement, principal mode projection, to exploit the quantum Zeno effect and preclude the accumulation of fidelity-degrading departures from the principal-mode Hilbert space when both control and target photons illuminate the gate. The nonlinearity of the V-system we study is too weak for this particular implementation to be practical. Nevertheless, the idea of cascading through principal mode projection is of potential use to overcome fidelity degrading noise for a wide variety of nonlinear optical primitive gates.

  18. Effects of breathing variation on gating window internal target volume in respiratory gated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai Jing; McLawhorn, Robert; Read, Paul W.; Larner, James M.; Yin, Fang-fang; Benedict, Stanley H.; Sheng, Ke

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of breathing variation on gating window internal target volume (ITV{sub GW}) in respiratory gated radiation therapy. Method and Materials: Two-dimensional dynamic MRI (dMRI) of lung motion was acquired in ten volunteers and eight lung cancer patients. Resorted dMRI using 4DCT acquisition method (RedCAM) was generated for selected subjects by simulating the image rebinning process. A dynamic software generated phantom (dSGP) was created by moving a solid circle (to mimic the ''tumor'') with dMRI-determined motion trajectories. The gating window internal target area (ITA{sub GW}, 2D counterpart of ITV{sub GW}) was determined from both RedCAM and dSGP/dMRI. Its area (A), major axis (L1), minor axis (L2), and similarity (S) were calculated and compared. Results: In the phantom study of 3 cm tumor, measurements of the ITA{sub GW} from dSGP (A=10.0{+-}1.3 cm{sup 2}, L1=3.8{+-}0.4 cm, and L2=3.3{+-}0.1 cm) are significantly (p<0.001) greater than those from RedCAM (A=8.5{+-}0.7 cm{sup 2}, L1=3.5{+-}0.2 cm, and L2=3.1{+-}0.1 cm). Similarly, the differences are significantly greater (p<0.001) for the 1 cm tumor (A=1.9{+-}0.5 cm{sup 2}, L1=1.9{+-}0.4 cm, and L2=1.3{+-}0.1 cm in dSGP; A=1.3{+-}0.1 cm{sup 2}, L1=1.5{+-}0.2 cm, and L2=1.1{+-}0.1 cm in RedCAM). In patient studies, measurements of the ITA{sub GW} from dMRI (A=15.5{+-}8.2 cm{sup 2}, L1=5.0{+-}1.1 cm, and L2=3.8{+-}1.2 cm) are also significantly greater (p<0.05) than those from RedCAM (A=13.2{+-}8.5 cm{sup 2}, L1=4.3{+-}1.4 cm, and L2=3.7{+-}1.2 cm). Similarities were 0.9{+-}0.1, 0.8{+-}0.1, and 0.8{+-}0.1 in the 3 cm tumor phantom, 1 cm tumor phantom, and patient studies, respectively. Conclusion: ITV{sub GW} can be underestimated by 4DCT due to breathing variations. An additional margin may be needed to account for this potential error in generating a PTV{sub GW}. Cautions need to be taken when generating ITV{sub GW} from 4DCT in respiratory gated radiation therapy, especially

  19. Nonlinear transport in ionic liquid gated strontium titanate nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bretz-Sullivan, Terence M.; Goldman, A. M.

    2015-09-14

    Measurements of the current-voltage (I–V) characteristics of ionic liquid gated nanometer scale channels of strontium titanate have been carried out. At low gate voltages, the I–V characteristics exhibit a large voltage threshold for conduction and a nonlinear power law behavior at all temperatures measured. The source-drain current of these nanowires scales as a power law of the difference between the source-drain voltage and the threshold voltage. The scaling behavior of the I–V characteristic is reminiscent of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots. At large gate voltages, the narrow channel acts as a quasi-1D wire whose conductance follows Landauer's formula for multichannel transport.

  20. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  1. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  2. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  3. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  4. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  5. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  6. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  7. Company Level Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Company Level Imports With Data for June 2016 | Release Date: August 31, 2016 | Next Release Date: September 30, 2016 | XLS Previous Issues Month: June 2016 May 2016 April 2016 March 2016 February 2016 January 2016 December 2015 November 2015 October 2015 September 2015 August 2015 July 2015 June 2015 prior issues Go June 2016 Import Highlights Monthly data on the origins of crude oil imports in June 2016 show that two countries, Canada and Saudi Arabia, exported more than one million barrels

  8. Electrolyte Gate-Controlled Kondo Effect in SrTiO3 (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolyte Gate-Controlled Kondo Effect in SrTiO3 Prev Next Title: Electrolyte Gate-Controlled Kondo Effect in SrTiO3 Authors: Lee, Menyoung ; Williams, J. R. ; Zhang, Sipei ...

  9. Radiation Hardening of Gated X-ray Imagers for the National Ignition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Hardening of Gated X-ray Imagers for the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiation Hardening of Gated X-ray Imagers for the National ...

  10. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-12-15

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga{sup +} beam etching process.

  11. Fast Out of the Gate: How Developing Asian Countries can Prepare...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from Fast Out of the Gate: How Developing Asian Countries can Prepare to Access International Green Growth Financing)...

  12. Technical Feasibility Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting on the Golden Gate Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuenge, J. R.

    2012-09-01

    GATEWAY program report on the technical feasibility of LED roadway lighting on the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, CA.

  13. Controlled phase gate for solid-state charge-qubit architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Oi, D.K.L.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a mechanism for realizing a controlled phase gate for solid-state charge qubits. By augmenting the positionally defined qubit with an auxiliary state, and changing the charge distribution in the three-dot system, we are able to effectively switch the Coulombic interaction, effecting an entangling gate. We consider two architectures, and numerically investigate their robustness to gate noise.

  14. Temperature-controlled molecular depolarization gates in nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroder, Leif; Schroder, Leif; Chavez, Lana; Meldrum, Tyler; Smith, Monica; Lowery, Thomas J.; E. Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander

    2008-02-27

    Down the drain: Cryptophane cages in combination with selective radiofrequency spin labeling can be used as molecular 'transpletor' units for transferring depletion of spin polarization from a hyperpolarized 'source' spin ensemble to a 'drain' ensemble. The flow of nuclei through the gate is adjustable by the ambient temperature, thereby enabling controlled consumption of hyperpolarization.

  15. Gating of high-mobility InAs metamorphic heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabani, J.; McFadden, A. P.; Shojaei, B.; Palmstrøm, C. J.

    2014-12-29

    We investigate the performance of gate-defined devices fabricated on high mobility InAs metamorphic heterostructures. We find that heterostructures capped with In{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}As often show signs of parallel conduction due to proximity of their surface Fermi level to the conduction band minimum. Here, we introduce a technique that can be used to estimate the density of this surface charge that involves cool-downs from room temperature under gate bias. We have been able to remove the parallel conduction under high positive bias, but achieving full depletion has proven difficult. We find that by using In{sub 0.75}Al{sub 0.25}As as the barrier without an In{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}As capping, a drastic reduction in parallel conduction can be achieved. Our studies show that this does not change the transport properties of the quantum well significantly. We achieved full depletion in InAlAs capped heterostructures with non-hysteretic gating response suitable for fabrication of gate-defined mesoscopic devices.

  16. SU-C-210-03: Impact of Breathing Irregularities On Gated Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiuma, D; Arheit, M; Schmelzer, P; Scheib, S; Buchsbaum, T; Pemler, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of breathing irregularities on target location in gated treatments using amplitude and phase gating. Methods: 111 breathing patterns acquired using RPM system were categorized based on period and amplitude STD as regular (STD period ≤ 0.5 s, STD amplitude ≤ 1.5 mm), medium (0.5 s < STD period ≤ 1 s, 1.5 mm < STD amplitude ≤ 3 mm) and irregular (STD period > 1 s, STD amplitude > 3 mm). One pattern representative of the average defined population was selected per category and corresponding target motion reproduced using Quasar Respiratory Motion Phantom. Phantom in motion underwent 4D-CT scan with phase reconstruction. Gated window was defined at end of exhale and DRRs reconstructed in treatment planning at 40% (beam on) and 60% phase (beam off). Target location uncertainty was assessed by comparing gated kV triggered images continuously acquired at beam on/off on a True Beam 2.0 with corresponding DRRs. Results: Average target uncertainty with amplitude gating was in [0.4 – 1.9] mm range for the different scenarios with maximum STD of 1.2 mm for the irregular pattern. Average target uncertainty with phase gating was [1.1 – 2.2] mm for regular and medium patterns, while it increased to [3.6 – 9.6] mm for the irregular pattern. Live gated motion was stable with amplitude gating, while increasing with phase gating for the irregular pattern. Treatment duration range was [68 – 160] s with amplitude and [70 – 74] s with phase gating. Conclusion: Breathing irregularities were found to affect gated treatments only when using phase gating. For regular and medium patterns no significant difference was found between the two gating strategies. Amplitude gating ensured stable gated motion within the different patterns, thus reducing intra-fraction target location variability for the irregular pattern and resulting in longer treatment duration.

  17. American coal imports 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Kolojeski

    2007-09-15

    As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

  18. Negative differential transconductance in electrolyte-gated ruthenate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Dhoot, Anoop Singh; Wimbush, Stuart C.

    2015-01-19

    We report on a study of electric field-induced doping of the highly conductive ruthenate SrRuO{sub 3} using an ionic liquid as the gate dielectric in a field-effect transistor configuration. Two distinct carrier transport regimes are identified for increasing positive gate voltage in thin (10 nm) films grown heteroepitaxially on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. For V{sub g} = 2 V and lower, the sample shows an increased conductivity of up to 13%, as might be expected for electron doping of a metal. At higher V{sub g} = 2.5 V, we observe a large decrease in electrical conductivity of >20% (at 4.2 K) due to the prevalence of strongly blocked conduction pathways.

  19. Unitary-gate synthesis for continuous-variable systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2003-08-01

    We investigate the synthesis of continuous-variable two-mode unitary gates in the setting where two modes A and B are coupled by a fixed quadratic Hamiltonian H. The gate synthesis consists of a sequence of evolutions governed by Hamiltonian H, which are interspaced by local phase shifts applied to A and B. We concentrate on protocols that require the minimum number of necessary steps and we show how to implement the beam splitter and the two-mode squeezer in just three steps. Particular attention is paid to Hamiltonian x{sub A}p{sub B} that describes the effective off-resonant interaction of light with the collective atomic spin.

  20. Quantum gate using qubit states separated by terahertz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toyoda, Kenji; Urabe, Shinji [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); JST-CREST, 4-1-8 Honmachi, Kawaguchi, Saitama 331-0012 (Japan); Haze, Shinsuke [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Yamazaki, Rekishu [JST-CREST, 4-1-8 Honmachi, Kawaguchi, Saitama 331-0012 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    A two-qubit quantum gate is realized using electronically excited states in a single ion with an energy separation on the order of a terahertz times the Planck constant as a qubit. Two phase-locked lasers are used to excite a stimulated Raman transition between two metastable states D{sub 3/2} and D{sub 5/2} separated by 1.82 THz in a single trapped {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ion to construct a qubit, which is used as the target bit for the Cirac-Zoller two-qubit controlled NOT gate. Quantum dynamics conditioned on a motional qubit is clearly observed as a fringe reversal in Ramsey interferometry.

  1. A Compact Reactor Gate Discharge Monitor for Spent Fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, J. B.; Menlove, Howard O.; Eccleston, G. W.; Miller, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new design for a reactor gate discharge monitor that has evolved from the baseline discharge monitors used at the Fugen and Tokai-1 reactors in Japan. The main design innovation is the ability to determine direction-of-motion of spent fuel using a single sensor module, as opposed to the two modules used in both baseline design systems. Use of a single module reduces the final system complexity and weight significantly without compromising functionality. The reactor gate discharge monitor uses standard International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hardware and software components. The requirements to determine direction-of-motion from a single module precipitated several development efforts described herein in both the MiniGRAND data acquisition hardware and in the uninterruptible power supply source.

  2. Operating experience feedback report -- Pressure locking and thermal binding of gate valves. Commercial power reactors: Volume 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.

    1993-03-01

    The potential for valve inoperability caused by pressure locking and thermal binding has been known for many years in the nuclear industry. Pressure locking or thermal binding is a common-mode failure mechanism that can prevent a gate valve from opening, and could render redundant trains of safety systems or multiple safety systems inoperable. In spite of numerous generic communications issued in the past by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry, pressure locking and thermal binding continues to occur to gate valves installed in safety-related systems of both boding water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The generic communications to date have not led to effective industry action to fully identify, evaluate, and correct the problem. This report provides a review of operating events involving these failure mechanisms. As a result of this review this report: (1) identifies conditions when the failure mechanisms have occurred, (2) identifies the spectrum of safety systems that have been subjected to the failure mechanisms, and (3) identifies conditions that may introduce the failure mechanisms under both normal and accident conditions. On the basis of the evaluation of the operating events, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the NRC concludes that the binding problems with gate valves are an important safety issue that needs priority NRC and industry attention. This report also provides AEOD`s recommendation for actions to effectively prevent the occurrence of valve binding failures.

  3. Amorphorized tantalum-nickel binary films for metal gate applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Jiaomin; Wongpiya, Ranida; Clemens, Bruce M.; Deal, Michael D.; Nishi, Yoshio

    2015-04-13

    Amorphous metal gates have the potential to eliminate the work function variation due to grain orientation for poly-crystalline metal gate materials, which is a leading contributor to threshold voltage variation for small transistors. Structural and electrical properties of TaNi alloys using co-sputtering with different compositions and multilayer structures with different thicknesses are investigated in this work. It is found that TaNi films are amorphous for a wide range of compositions as deposited, and the films stay amorphous after annealing at 400?C in RTA for 1?min and up to at least 700?C depending on the composition. The amorphous films eventually crystallize into Ni, Ta, and TaNi{sub 3} phases at high enough temperature. For multilayer Ta/Ni structures, samples with individual layer thickness of 0.12?nm and 1.2?nm are amorphous as deposited due to intermixing during deposition, and stay amorphous until annealed at 500?C. The resistivity of the films as-deposited are around 200 ??cm. The work function of the alloy is fixed at close to the Ta work function of 4.6?eV for a wide range of compositions. This is attributed to the segregation of Ta at the metal-oxide interface, which is confirmed by XPS depth profile. Overall, the excellent thermal stability and low resistivity makes this alloy system a promising candidate for eliminating work function variation for gate last applications, as compared to crystalline Ta or TiN gates.

  4. Website Policies / Important Links | Geothermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Website Policies Important Links Website Policies Important Links Javascript Not Enabled OSTI Security Website Policies and Important Links

  5. Website Policies / Important Links | sciencecinema

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Website Policies / Important Links Website Policies / Important Links Javascript Not Enabled OSTI Security Website Policies and Important Links

  6. GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Douglas

    2011-09-30

    The Virginia Tech GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems (CAFCS) achieved the following objectives in support of the domestic automotive industry: Expanded and updated fuel cell and vehicle technologies education programs; Conducted industry directed research in three thrust areas development and characterization of materials for PEM fuel cells; performance and durability modeling for PEM fuel cells; and fuel cell systems design and optimization, including hybrid and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles; Developed MS and Ph.D. engineers and scientists who are pursuing careers related to fuel cells and automotive applications; Published research results that provide industry with new knowledge which contributes to the advancement of fuel cell and vehicle systems commercialization. With support from the Dept. of Energy, the CAFCS upgraded existing graduate course offerings; introduced a hands-on laboratory component that make use of Virginia Tech's comprehensive laboratory facilities, funded 15 GATE Fellowships over a five year period; and expanded our program of industry interaction to improve student awareness of challenges and opportunities in the automotive industry. GATE Center graduate students have a state-of-the-art research experience preparing them for a career to contribute to the advancement fuel cell and vehicle technologies.

  7. Gate dielectric degradation: Pre-existing vs. generated defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veksler, Dmitry E-mail: gennadi.bersuker@sematech.org; Bersuker, Gennadi E-mail: gennadi.bersuker@sematech.org

    2014-01-21

    We consider the possibility that degradation of the electrical characteristics of high-k gate stacks under low voltage stresses of practical interest is caused primarily by activation of pre-existing defects rather than generation of new ones. In nFETs in inversion, in particular, defect activation is suggested to be associated with the capture of an injected electron: in this charged state, defects can participate in a fast exchange of charge carriers with the carrier reservoir (substrate or gate electrode) that constitutes the physical process underlying a variety of electrical measurements. The degradation caused by the activation of pre-existing defects, as opposed to that of new defect generation, is both reversible and exhibits a tendency to saturate through the duration of stress. By using the multi-phonon assisted charge transport description, it is demonstrated that the trap activation concept allows reproducing a variety of experimental results including stress time dependency of the threshold voltage, leakage current, charge pumping current, and low frequency noise. Continuous, long-term degradation described by the power law time dependency is shown to be determined by the activation of defects located in the interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer of the high-k gate stacks. The findings of this study can direct process optimization efforts towards reduction of as-grown precursors of the charge trapping defects as the major factor affecting reliability.

  8. Electric actuator for the sempell gate valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbstritt, E.C.

    1996-12-01

    The automation of valves has a primary importance in the scope of central control and regulation of power generation processes in power plants and especially in nuclear power plants. AUMA WERNER RIESTER GmbH & Co. KG is considered a leading manufacturer of electric actuators for the automation of valves. More than 30 years experience in designing, developing, and manufacturing provide a sound basis for offering reliable products, especially for nuclear applications. The quality assurance system of AUMA was developed according to 10 CFR 50, Appendix B and has been consistently accomplished. The program was certified by the TUV Germany (Technical Authorized Inspection Agency), according to ISO-9001, in 1994. AUMA offers two actuator type ranges for application in nuclear power plants. The range SAI is qualified according to IEEE 382-1978 and is designed for inside containment. The range SAN is qualified according to IEEE 382-1985 and KTA 3504-1988 for use in non-radioactive applications in the nuclear power plants.

  9. Use of a hard mask for formation of gate and dielectric via nanofilament field emission devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Contolini, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a nanofilament field emission device in which a via in a dielectric layer is self-aligned to gate metal via structure located on top of the dielectric layer. By the use of a hard mask layer located on top of the gate metal layer, inert to the etch chemistry for the gate metal layer, and in which a via is formed by the pattern from etched nuclear tracks in a trackable material, a via is formed by the hard mask will eliminate any erosion of the gate metal layer during the dielectric via etch. Also, the hard mask layer will protect the gate metal layer while the gate structure is etched back from the edge of the dielectric via, if such is desired. This method provides more tolerance for the electroplating of a nanofilament in the dielectric via and sharpening of the nanofilament.

  10. Technical Feasibility Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting on the Golden Gate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bridge (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Technical Feasibility Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting on the Golden Gate Bridge Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Technical Feasibility Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting on the Golden Gate Bridge Subsequent to preliminary investigations by the Golden Gate Bridge Highway & Transportation District (GGB), in coordination with Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the GATEWAY Demonstration program was asked to

  11. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) | Department of Energy MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System

  12. Comparison of gate dielectric plasma damage from plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited and magnetron sputtered TiN metal gates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, Christopher J.; Neumann, Christopher M.; Vitale, Steven A.

    2015-07-28

    Fully depleted silicon-on-insulator transistors were fabricated using two different metal gate deposition mechanisms to compare plasma damage effects on gate oxide quality. Devices fabricated with both plasma-enhanced atomic-layer-deposited (PE-ALD) TiN gates and magnetron plasma sputtered TiN gates showed very good electrostatics and short-channel characteristics. However, the gate oxide quality was markedly better for PE-ALD TiN. A significant reduction in interface state density was inferred from capacitance-voltage measurements as well as a 1200× reduction in gate leakage current. A high-power magnetron plasma source produces a much higher energetic ion and vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) photon flux to the wafer compared to a low-power inductively coupled PE-ALD source. The ion and VUV photons produce defect states in the bulk of the gate oxide as well as at the oxide-silicon interface, causing higher leakage and potential reliability degradation.

  13. Reduction of skin effect losses in double-level-T-gate structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikulics, M. Hardtdegen, H.; Arango, Y. C.; Adam, R.; Fox, A.; Grützmacher, D.; Gregušová, D.; Novák, J.; Stanček, S.; Kordoš, P.; Sofer, Z.; Juul, L.; Marso, M.

    2014-12-08

    We developed a T-gate technology based on selective wet etching yielding 200 nm wide T-gate structures used for fabrication of High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT). Major advantages of our process are the use of only standard photolithographic process and the ability to generate T-gate stacks. A HEMT fabricated on AlGaN/GaN/sapphire with gate length L{sub g} = 200 nm and double-stacked T-gates exhibits 60 GHz cutoff frequency showing ten-fold improvement compared to 6 GHz for the same device with 2 μm gate length. HEMTs with a double-level-T-gate (DLTG) structure exhibit up to 35% improvement of f{sub max} value compared to a single T-gate device. This indicates a significant reduction of skin effect losses in DLTG structure compared to its standard T-gate counterpart. These results agree with the theoretical predictions.

  14. Day Two of 2012 ARPA-E Summit Will Feature Bill Gates, Secretary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Bart Gordon, K&L Gates, Partner; Former Representative from Tennessee Stefan Heck, McKinsey & Co., Director, Leader of Global Cleantech Practice Carrie Houtman, The Dow Chemical...

  15. Sandia Energy - ECIS and i-GATE: Innovation Hub Connects Clean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    support system to accelerate the commercialization of innovative technologies related to green transportation and clean energy. There are now eight i-GATE clients developing fuel...

  16. Bill Gates and Deputy Secretary Poneman Discuss the Energy Technology Landscape

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bill Gates and Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman discuss the future of energy technology during the twenty-second Plenary Meeting of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.

  17. Computer assisted design of poly-silicon gated enhancement-mode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    design of poly-silicon gated enhancement-mode lateral double quantum dot devices for quantum computing. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Computer assisted design of ...

  18. Nonadiabatic molecular orientation by polarization-gated ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Cheng; Wu Jian; Zeng Heping [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2010-09-15

    We show that the nonadiabatic orientation of diatomic polar molecules can be controlled by polarization-gated ultrashort laser pulses. By finely adjusting the time interval between two circularly polarized pulses of different wavelengths but the same helicity, the orientation direction of the molecules can be twirled. A cloverlike potential is created by using two circularly polarized laser pulses of different wavelengths and opposite helicity, leading to multidirectional molecular orientation along the potential wells, which can be well revealed by a high-order statistics metric of <>.

  19. Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    U.S. dependence on imported oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on imports in terms of both measures.

  20. SU-E-J-45: Design and Study of An In-House Respiratory Gating Phantom Platform for Gated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senthilkumar, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this work was to develop an in-house low cost respiratory motion phantom platform for testing the accuracy of the gated radiotherapy system and analyze the dosimetric difference during gated radiotherapy. Methods: An in-house respiratory motion platform(RMP) was designed and constructed for testing the targeting accuracy of respiratory tracking system. The RMP consist of acrylic Chest Wall Platform, 2 DC motors, 4 IR sensors, speed controller circuit, 2 LED and 2 moving rods inside the RMP. The velocity of the movement can be varied from 0 to 30 cycles per minute. The platform mounted to a base using precision linear bearings. The base and platform are made of clear, 15mm thick polycarbonate plastic and the linear ball bearings are oriented to restrict the platform to a movement of approximately 50mm up and down with very little friction. Results: The targeting accuracy of the respiratory tracking system was evaluated using phantom with and without respiratory movement with varied amplitude. We have found the 5% dose difference to the PTV during the movement in comparison with stable PTV. The RMP can perform sinusoidal motion in 1D with fixed peak to peak motion of 5 to 50mm and cycle interval from 2 to 6 seconds. The RMP was designed to be able to simulate the gross anatomical anterior posterior motion attributable to respiration-induced motion of the thoracic region. Conclusion: The unique RMP simulates breathing providing the means to create a comprehensive program for commissioning, training, quality assurance and dose verification of gated radiotherapy treatments. Create the anterior/posterior movement of a target over a 5 to 50 mm distance to replicate tumor movement. The targeting error of the respiratory tracking system is less than 1.0 mm which shows suitable for clinical treatment with highly performance.

  1. Workshop on gate valve pressure locking and thermal binding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.J.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on Gate Valve Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding was to discuss pressure locking and thermal binding issues that could lead to inoperable gate valves in both boiling water and pressurized water reactors. The goal was to foster exchange of information to develop the technical bases to understand the phenomena, identify the components that are susceptible, discuss actual events, discuss the safety significance, and illustrate known corrective actions that can prevent or limit the occurrence of pressure locking or thermal binding. The presentations were structured to cover U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff evaluation of operating experience and planned regulatory activity; industry discussions of specific events, including foreign experience, and efforts to determine causes and alleviate the affects; and valve vendor experience and recommended corrective action. The discussions indicated that identifying valves susceptible to pressure locking and thermal binding was a complex process involving knowledge of components, systems, and plant operations. The corrective action options are varied and straightforward.

  2. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.; Kimmel, M.W.; Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-10

    A system for detecting objects in a turbid media utilizes an optical parametric amplifier as an amplifying gate for received light from the media. An optical gating pulse from a second parametric amplifier permits the system to respond to and amplify only ballistic photons from the object in the media. 13 figs.

  3. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cameron, Stewart M.; Bliss, David E.; Kimmel, Mark W.; Neal, Daniel R.

    1999-01-01

    A system for detecting objects in a turbid media utilizes an optical parametric amplifier as an amplifying gate for received light from the media. An optical gating pulse from a second parametric amplifier permits the system to respond to and amplify only ballistic photons from the object in the media.

  4. Coherent molecular transistor: Control through variation of the gate wave function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernzerhof, Matthias

    2014-03-21

    In quantum interference transistors (QUITs), the current through the device is controlled by variation of the gate component of the wave function that interferes with the wave function component joining the source and the sink. Initially, mesoscopic QUITs have been studied and more recently, QUITs at the molecular scale have been proposed and implemented. Typically, in these devices the gate lead is subjected to externally adjustable physical parameters that permit interference control through modifications of the gate wave function. Here, we present an alternative model of a molecular QUIT in which the gate wave function is directly considered as a variable and the transistor operation is discussed in terms of this variable. This implies that we specify the gate current as well as the phase of the gate wave function component and calculate the resulting current through the source-sink channel. Thus, we extend on prior works that focus on the phase of the gate wave function component as a control parameter while having zero or certain discrete values of the current. We address a large class of systems, including finite graphene flakes, and obtain analytic solutions for how the gate wave function controls the transistor.

  5. A proposal for the realization of universal quantum gates via superconducting qubits inside a cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obada, A.-S.F.; Hessian, H.A.; Mohamed, A.-B.A.; Community College, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Aflaj ; Homid, Ali H.

    2013-07-15

    A family of quantum logic gates is proposed via superconducting (SC) qubits coupled to a SC-cavity. The Hamiltonian for SC-charge qubits inside a single mode cavity is considered. Three- and two-qubit operations are generated by applying a classical magnetic field with the flux. Therefore, a number of quantum logic gates are realized. Numerical simulations and calculation of the fidelity are used to prove the success of these operations for these gates. -- Highlights: A family of quantum logic gates is proposed via SC-qubits coupled to a cavity. Three- and two-qubit operations are generated via a classical field with the flux. Numerical simulations and calculation of the fidelity are used to prove the success of these operations for these gates.

  6. Quantum gates controlled by spin chain soliton excitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuccoli, Alessandro; Nuzzi, Davide; Vaia, Ruggero; Verrucchi, Paola

    2014-05-07

    Propagation of soliton-like excitations along spin chains has been proposed as a possible way for transmitting both classical and quantum information between two distant parties with negligible dispersion and dissipation. In this work, a somewhat different use of solitons is considered. Solitons propagating along a spin chain realize an effective magnetic field, well localized in space and time, which can be exploited as a means to manipulate the state of an external spin (i.e., a qubit) that is weakly coupled to the chain. We have investigated different couplings between the qubit and the chain, as well as different soliton shapes, according to a Heisenberg chain model. It is found that symmetry properties strongly affect the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, and the most suitable setups for implementing single qubit quantum gates are singled out.

  7. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1994-06-07

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber.

  8. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  9. A voltage-gated pore for translocation of tRNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koley, Sandip; Adhya, Samit

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: A tRNA translocating complex was assembled from purified proteins. The complex translocates tRNA at a membrane potential of ?60 mV. Translocation requires Cys and His residues in the FeS center of RIC6 subunit. -- Abstract: Very little is known about how nucleic acids are translocated across membranes. The multi-subunit RNA Import Complex (RIC) from mitochondria of the kinetoplastid protozoon Leishmania tropica induces translocation of tRNAs across artificial or natural membranes, but the nature of the translocation pore remains unknown. We show that subunits RIC6 and RIC9 assemble on the membrane in presence of subunit RIC4A to form complex R3. Atomic Force Microscopy of R3 revealed particles with an asymmetric surface groove of ?20 nm rim diameter and ?1 nm depth. R3 induced translocation of tRNA into liposomes when the pH of the medium was lowered to ?6 in the absence of ATP. R3-mediated tRNA translocation could also be induced at neutral pH by a K{sup +} diffusion potential with an optimum of 6070 mV. Point mutations in the Cys{sub 2}His{sub 2} Fe-binding motif of RIC6, which is homologous to the respiratory Complex III FeS protein, abrogated import induced by low pH but not by K{sup +} diffusion potential. These results indicate that the R3 complex forms a pore that is gated by a proton-generated membrane potential and that the FeS binding region of RIC6 has a role in proton translocation. The tRNA import complex of L. tropica thus contains a novel macromolecular channel distinct from the mitochondrial protein import pore that is apparently involved in tRNA import in some species.

  10. Methods for determining atypical gate valve thrust requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, R. Jr.; Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.

    1995-04-01

    Evaluating the performance of rising stem, wedge type, gate valves used in nuclear power plant is not a problem when the valves can be design-basis tested and their operability margins determined diagnostically. The problem occurs when they cannot be tested because of plant system limitations or when they can be tested only at some less-than-design-basis condition. To evaluate the performance of these valves requires various analytical and/or extrapolation methods by which the design-basis stem thrust requirement can be determined. This has been typically accomplished with valve stem thrust models used to calculate the requirements or by extrapolating the results from a less-than-design-basis test. The stem thrust models used by the nuclear industry to determine the opening or closing stem thrust requirements for these gate valves have generally assumed that the highest load the valve experiences during closure (but before seating) is at flow isolation and during unwedging or before flow initiation in the opening direction. However, during full-scale valve testing conducted for the USNRC, several of the valves produced stem thrust histories that showed peak closing stem forces occurring before flow isolation in the closing direction and after flow initiation in the opening direction. All of the valves that exhibited this behavior in the closing direction also showed signs of internal damage. Initially, we dismissed the early peak in the closing stem thrust requirement as damage-induced and labeled it nonpredictable behavior. Opening responses were not a priority in our early research, so that phenomenon was set aside for later evaluation.

  11. Gate controlled electronic transport in monolayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Y. F.; Wang, B.; Yu, Y. J.; Wei, Y. D. E-mail: jianwang@hku.hk; Xian, H. M.; Wang, J. E-mail: jianwang@hku.hk

    2015-03-14

    The electronic spin and valley transport properties of a monolayer MoS{sub 2} are investigated using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory. Due to the presence of strong Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI), the electronic valence bands of monolayer MoS{sub 2} are split into spin up and spin down Zeeman-like texture near the two inequivalent vertices K and K′ of the first Brillouin zone. When the gate voltage is applied in the scattering region, an additional strong RSOI is induced which generates an effective magnetic field. As a result, electron spin precession occurs along the effective magnetic field, which is controlled by the gate voltage. This, in turn, causes the oscillation of conductance as a function of the magnitude of the gate voltage and the length of the gate region. This current modulation due to the spin precession shows the essential feature of the long sought Datta-Das field effect transistor (FET). From our results, the oscillation periods for the gate voltage and gate length are found to be approximately 2.2 V and 20.03a{sub B} (a{sub B} is Bohr radius), respectively. These observations can be understood by a simple spin precessing model and indicate that the electron behaviors in monolayer MoS{sub 2} FET are both spin and valley related and can easily be controlled by the gate.

  12. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-10-20

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  13. The Gated X-ray Detector for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J A; Barnes, C; Archuleta, T; Casper, L; Fatherley, V; Heinrichs, T; King, R; Landers, D; Lopez, F; Sanchez, P; Sandoval, G; Schrank, L; Walsh, P; Bell, P; Brown, M; Costa, R; Holder, J; Montalongo, S; Pederson, N

    2006-05-18

    Two new gated x-ray imaging cameras have recently been designed, constructed and delivered to the National Ignition Facility in Livermore, CA. These Gated X-ray Detectors are each designed to fit within an aluminum airbox with a large capacity cooling plane and are fitted with an array of environmental housekeeping sensors. These instruments are significant different from earlier generations of gated x-ray images due in parts to an innovative impendence matching scheme, advanced phosphor screens, pulsed phosphor circuits, precision assembly fixturing, unique system monitoring and complete remote computer control. Preliminary characterization has shown repeatable uniformity between imaging strips, improved spatial resolution and no detectable impendence reflections.

  14. Design of a spin-wave majority gate employing mode selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klingler, S. Pirro, P.; Brcher, T.; Leven, B.; Hillebrands, B.; Chumak, A. V.

    2014-10-13

    The design of a microstructured, fully functional spin-wave majority gate is presented and studied using micromagnetic simulations. This all-magnon logic gate consists of three-input waveguides, a spin-wave combiner, and an output waveguide. In order to ensure the functionality of the device, the output waveguide is designed to perform spin-wave mode selection. We demonstrate that the gate evaluates the majority of the input signals coded into the spin-wave phase. Moreover, the all-magnon data processing device is used to perform logic AND-, OR-, NAND-, and NOR- operations.

  15. Border trap reduction in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Kechao; McIntyre, Paul C.; Winter, Roy; Eizenberg, Moshe; Zhang, Liangliang; Droopad, Ravi

    2015-11-16

    The effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature on the border trap density (N{sub bt}) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stacks is investigated quantitatively, and we demonstrate that lowering the trimethylaluminum (TMA)/water vapor ALD temperature from 270 °C to 120 °C significantly reduces N{sub bt}. The reduction of N{sub bt} coincides with increased hydrogen incorporation in low temperature ALD-grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films during post-gate metal forming gas annealing. It is also found that large-dose (∼6000 L) exposure of the In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (100) surface to TMA immediately after thermal desorption of a protective As{sub 2} capping layer is an important step to guarantee the uniformity and reproducibility of high quality Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs samples made at low ALD temperatures.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DOE GATE Center of Excellence in Sustainable Vehicle Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Clemson University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about DOE GATE Center of...

  17. Three dimensional time-gated tracking of non-blinking quantum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    As a result, signal-to-noise is improved in the cellular milieu through the use of pulsed excitation and time-gated detection. Authors: DeVore, Matthew S. 1 ; Werner, James H. ...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: GATE Center of Excellence in Sustainable Vehicle Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Clemson University at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE center of excellence...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Gate Driver Optimization for WBG Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gate driver...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Ohio State University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE: energy efficient...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by The Ohio State University at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE: energy...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: GATE Center for Electric Drive Transportation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Regents University of Michigan at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE Center...

  3. Multi-images deconvolution improves signal-to-noise ratio on gated stimulated emission depletion microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Vicidomini, Giuseppe

    2014-12-08

    Time-gated detection, namely, only collecting the fluorescence photons after a time-delay from the excitation events, reduces complexity, cost, and illumination intensity of a stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope. In the gated continuous-wave- (CW-) STED implementation, the spatial resolution improves with increased time-delay, but the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduces. Thus, in sub-optimal conditions, such as a low photon-budget regime, the SNR reduction can cancel-out the expected gain in resolution. Here, we propose a method which does not discard photons, but instead collects all the photons in different time-gates and recombines them through a multi-image deconvolution. Our results, obtained on simulated and experimental data, show that the SNR of the restored image improves relative to the gated image, thereby improving the effective resolution.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Penn State DOE Graduate GATE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program for In-Vehicle, High-Power Energy Storage Systems | Department of Energy Penn State DOE Graduate GATE Program for In-Vehicle, High-Power Energy Storage Systems Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Penn State DOE Graduate GATE Program for In-Vehicle, High-Power Energy Storage Systems Presentation given by Pennsylvania State University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Penn State

  5. Range-gated imaging for near-field target identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, G.J.; Gallegos, R.A.; McDonald, T.E.

    1996-12-01

    The combination of two complementary technologies developed independently at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) has demonstrated feasibility of target detection and image capture in a highly light-scattering, medium. The technique uses a compact SNL developed Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch/Laser Diode Array (PCSS/LDA) for short-range (distances of 8 to 10 m) large Field-Of-View (FOV) target illumination. Generation of a time-correlated echo signal is accomplished using a photodiode. The return image signal is recorded with a high-speed shuttered Micro-Channel-Plate Image Intensifier (MCPII), declined by LANL and manufactured by Philips Photonics. The MCPII is rated using a high-frequency impedance-matching microstrip design to produce 150 to 200 ps duration optical exposures. The ultra first shuttering producer depth resolution of a few inches along the optic axis between the MCPII and the target, producing enhanced target images effectively deconvolved from noise components from the scattering medium in the FOV. The images from the MCPII are recorded with an RS-170 Charge-Coupled-Device camera and a Big Sky, Beam Code, PC-based digitizer frame grabber and analysis package. Laser pulse data were obtained by the but jitter problems and spectral mismatches between diode spectral emission wavelength and MCPII photocathode spectral sensitivity prevented the capture of fast gating imaging with this demonstration system. Continued development of the system is underway.

  6. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-07-31

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the UAB GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications. The first Phase of the UAB DOE GATE center spanned the period 2005-2011. The UAB GATE goals coordinated with the overall goals of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicles Technologies initiative and DOE GATE program. The FCVT goals are: (1) Development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost; (2) To provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills in advanced automotive technologies. The UAB GATE focused on both the FCVT and GATE goals in the following manner: (1) Train and produce graduates in lightweight automotive materials technologies; (2) Structure the engineering curricula to produce specialists in the automotive area; (3) Leverage automotive related industry in the State of Alabama; (4) Expose minority students to advanced technologies early in their career; (5) Develop innovative virtual classroom capabilities tied to real manufacturing operations; and (6) Integrate synergistic, multi-departmental activities to produce new product and manufacturing technologies for more damage tolerant, cost-effective, and lighter automotive structures.

  7. Theory of signal and noise in double-gated nanoscale electronic pH sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Go, Jonghyun; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2012-08-01

    The maximum sensitivity of classical nanowire (NW)-based pH sensors is defined by the Nernst limit of 59 mV/pH. For typical noise levels in ultra-small single-gated nanowire sensors, the signal-to-noise ratio is often not sufficient to resolve pH changes necessary for a broad range of applications. Recently, a new class of double-gated devices was demonstrated to offer apparent 'super-Nernstian' response (>59 mV/pH) by amplifying the original pH signal through innovative biasing schemes. However, the pH-sensitivity of these nanoscale devices as a function of biasing configurations, number of electrodes, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) remains poorly understood. Even the basic question such as 'Do double-gated sensors actually resolve smaller changes in pH compared to conventional single-gated sensors in the presence of various sources of noise?' remains unanswered. In this article, we provide a comprehensive numerical and analytical theory of signal and noise of double-gated pH sensors to conclude that, while the theoretical lower limit of pH-resolution does not improve for double-gated sensors, this new class of sensors does improve the (instrument-limited) pH resolution.

  8. Important Trinity / NERSC-8 Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RFP » Important Trinity / NERSC-8 Documents Important Trinity / NERSC-8 Documents Trinity / NERSC-8 Use Case Scenarios for Burst Buffer and Power Management [PDF] Facility Limits for Trinity (Updated June 4, 2013) [PDF] Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:13

  9. Charge noise analysis of metal oxide semiconductor dual-gate Si/SiGe quantum point contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamioka, J.; Oda, S.; Kodera, T.; Takeda, K.; Obata, T.; Tarucha, S.

    2014-05-28

    The frequency dependence of conductance noise through a gate-defined quantum point contact fabricated on a Si/SiGe modulation doped wafer is characterized. The 1/f{sup 2} noise, which is characteristic of random telegraph noise, is reduced by application of a negative bias on the global top gate to reduce the local gate voltage. Direct leakage from the large global gate voltage also causes random telegraph noise, and therefore, there is a suitable point to operate quantum dot measurement.

  10. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, Paul

    2012-05-31

    This is the final report of the UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence which spanned from 2005-2012. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program, to provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills to create advanced automotive technologies. The UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence established in 2005 is focused on research, education, industrial collaboration and outreach within automotive technology. UC Davis has had two independent GATE centers with separate well-defined objectives and research programs from 1998. The Fuel Cell Center, administered by ITS-Davis, has focused on fuel cell technology. The Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (HEV Center), administered by the Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, has focused on the development of plug-in hybrid technology using internal combustion engines. The merger of these two centers in 2005 has broadened the scope of research and lead to higher visibility of the activity. UC Davis's existing GATE centers have become the campus's research focal points on fuel cells and hybrid-electric vehicles, and the home for graduate students who are studying advanced automotive technologies. The centers have been highly successful in attracting, training, and placing top-notch students into fuel cell and hybrid programs in both industry and government.

  11. Bedrock refractive-flow cells: A passive treatment analog to funnel-and-gate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, V.; Edwards, D.

    1997-12-31

    Funnel-and-gate technology provides a mechanism to passively treat groundwater contaminant plumes, but depends on placement of a sufficient barrier ({open_quotes}funnel{close_quotes}) in the plume flow path to channel the plume to a pass-through treatment zone ({open_quotes}gate{close_quotes}). Conventional barrier technologies limit funnel-and-gate deployment to unconsolidated overburden applications. A method has been developed which allows similar passive treatment to be applied to bedrock plumes. Rather than use barriers as the funnel, the method uses engineered bedrock zones, installed via precision blasting or other means, to refract groundwater flow along a preferred path to treatment (gate). The method requires orienting the refractive cell based on the Tangent Law and extending refractive cell limbs down gradient of the gate to disperse head and control flow. A typical Refractive-Flow cell may be{open_quotes}Y{close_quotes}shaped, with each limb 3-10 ft [1-3 m] wide and several tens to a few hundred feet [10 - 100 m] in length. Treatment takes place at the center of the X. MODFLOW modeling has been used to successfully simulate desired flow. Engineered blasting has been used at full scale application to create bedrock rubble zones for active collection/flow control for several years. The method provides a previously unavailable method to passively treat contaminated groundwater in bedrock at low cost.

  12. Water gate array for current flow or tidal movement pneumatic harnessing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorlov, Alexander M.

    1991-01-01

    The invention, which provides a system for harnessing power from current flow or tidal movement in a body of water, comprises first and second hydro-pneumatic chambers each having ingress and egress below the water surface near the river or ocean floor and water gates operative to open or seal the ports to the passage of water. In an exemplary embodiment, the gates are sychronized by shafts so that the ingress ports of each chamber are connected to the egress ports of each other chamber. Thus, one set of gates is closed, while the other is open, thereby allowing water to flow into one chamber and build air pressure therein and allowing water to flow out of the other chamber and create a partial vacuum therein. A pipe connects the chambers, and an air turbine harnesses the air movement within the pipe. When water levels are equilibrated, the open set of gates is closed by a counterweight, and the other set is allowed to open by natural force of the water differential. The water gates may be comprised of a plurality of louvers which are ganged for simultaneous opening and closing. The system is designed to operate with air turbines or other pneumatic devices. Its design minimizes construction cost and environmental impact, yet provides a clean renewable energy source.

  13. Important notice about using /house

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Important notice about using /house Important notice about using /house July 6, 2012 Description There have been a lot of issues recently with NFS hangs on the gpint machines. The origin of the gpint hanging has been determined to be a defect in the Isilon filesystem software, and happens when a file being written is simultaneously opened for reading on the same host. This most frequently happens when people tail files being written by the same machine. E.g.: DO NOT DO THIS: gpint17 $

  14. Property:SanyalTempWellhead | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area + Moderate Temperature + Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + Moderate Temperature + Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area + Low Temperature + C Chena Geothermal Area + Extremely...

  15. Louisiana Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,986,468 3,243,795 3,158,903 3,066,789 1990's 3,780,551 3,355,867 3,404,963 3,454,646 3,562,360 3,709,015 3,976,305 5,398,216 5,410,523 5,265,670 2000's 3,587,815 ...

  16. Kansas Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    640,583 668,640 714,659 721,436 712,796 678,652 603,586 553,419 2000's 525,430 480,145 454,901 418,893 397,121 377,229 372,029 366,859 375,314 355,675 2010's 325,591 - No Data ...

  17. U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Florida Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Michigan Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Mexico New York North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Virginia West Virginia Wyoming Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data

  18. Wellhead to wire utilization of remote gas resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.A.; Hines, T.L.

    1998-12-31

    Utilization of remote gas resources in developing countries continues to offer challenges and opportunities to producers and contractors. The Aguaytia Gas and Power Project is an example where perseverance and creativity resulted in successful utilization of natural gas resources in the Ucayali Region of Central Peru, a country which previously had no natural gas infrastructure. The resource for the project was first discovered by Mobil in 1961, and remained undeveloped for over thirty years due to lack of infrastructure and markets. Maple Gas won a competitively bid contract to develop the Aguaytia gas reserves in March of 1993. The challenges facing Maple Gas were to develop downstream markets for the gas, execute contracts with Perupetro S.A. and other Peruvian government entities, raise financing for the project, and solicit and execute engineering procurement and construction (EPC) contracts for the execution of the project. The key to development of the downstream markets was the decision to generate electric power and transmit the power over the Andes to the main electrical grid along the coast of Peru. Supplemental revenue could be generated by gas sales to a small regional power plant and extraction of LPG and natural gasoline for consumption in the Peruvian market. Three separate lump sum contracts were awarded to Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) companies for the gas project, power project and transmission project. Each project presented its unique challenges, but the commonalities were the accelerated schedule, high rainfall in a prolonged wet season and severe logistics due to lack of infrastructure in the remote region. This presentation focuses on how the gas plant contractor, ABB Randall, working in harmony with the developer, Maple Gas, tackled the challenges to monetize a remote gas resource.

  19. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Value and Marketed Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural...

  20. An EGS Stimulation Experiment Under Low Wellhead Pressures |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperatures were among the highest ever recorded within the Coso field, but its permeability was poor. Steam condensate was then injected into the well, resulting in...

  1. Olkaria I - Modular/ Wellhead Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  2. ,"Alabama Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","5312016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1140sal3a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:tonto.eia.govdnavnghistna1140sal3a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ...

  3. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...292016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1140sky3a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:tonto.eia.govdnavnghistna1140sky3a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ...

  4. Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 View History U.S. 15,425,867 15,981,421 1980-2006 Alabama 285,237 274,176 259,062 246,747 225,666 212,769 1983-2010 Alaska 502,887 494,323 368,344 337,359 397,077 316,546 1983-2010 Arizona 211 588 634 503 695 165 1983-2010 Arkansas 190,533 193,491 269,886 446,551 680,613 936,600 1983-2010 California 274,817 278,933

  5. Progress report on HGP-A wellhead generator feasibility project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; Kuwada, J.T.; Farrington, R.J.

    1980-09-01

    The HGP-A Well underwent a substantial workover last fall. A new tie-back 7'' casing was installed from surface to 3000 ft. A two-week test was conducted in January, 1980, with full hydrogen sulfide and noise abatement. Preliminary test results showed a slight increase in total mass flow. Both noise and odor abatement were shown to be very effective. As a result of the two week test, some changes have been made to the final design, and the projected plant on-line date has been extended to March 31, 1980.

  6. Alabama Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    560,414 544,020 2000's 521,215 376,241 370,753 348,722 304,212 285,237 274,176 259,062 246,747 225,666 2010's 212,769 - No Data Reported; -- Not Applicable; NA Not ...

  7. SU-E-J-144: Low Activity Studies of Carbon 11 Activation Via GATE Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmekawy, A; Ewell, L; Butuceanu, C; Qu, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of a Monte Carlo simulation code with low levels of activity (∼1,000Bq). Such activity levels are expected from phantoms and patients activated via a proton therapy beam. Methods: Three different ranges for a therapeutic proton radiation beam were examined in a Monte Carlo simulation code: 13.5, 17.0 and 21.0cm. For each range, the decay of an equivalent length{sup 11}C source and additional sources of length plus or minus one cm was studied in a benchmark PET simulation for activities of 1000, 2000 and 3000Bq. The ranges were chosen to coincide with a previous activation study, and the activities were chosen to coincide with the approximate level of isotope creation expected in a phantom or patient irradiated by a therapeutic proton beam. The GATE 7.0 simulation was completed on a cluster node, running Scientific Linux Carbon 6 (Red Hat©). The resulting Monte Carlo data were investigated with the ROOT (CERN) analysis tool. The half-life of{sup 11}C was extracted via a histogram fit to the number of simulated PET events vs. time. Results: The average slope of the deviation of the extracted carbon half life from the expected/nominal value vs. activity showed a generally positive value. This was unexpected, as the deviation should, in principal, decrease with increased activity and lower statistical uncertainty. Conclusion: For activity levels on the order of 1,000Bq, the behavior of a benchmark PET test was somewhat unexpected. It is important to be aware of the limitations of low activity PET images, and low activity Monte Carlo simulations. This work was funded in part by the Philips corporation.

  8. Optical imaging through turbid media with a degenerate four-wave mixing correlation time gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappey, Andrew D.

    1998-04-14

    Optical imaging through turbid media is demonstrated using a degenerate four-wave mixing correlation time gate. An apparatus and method for detecting ballistic and/or snake light while rejecting unwanted diffusive light for imaging structures within highly scattering media are described. Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) of a doubled YAG laser in rhodamine 590 is used to provide an ultrafast correlation time gate to discriminate against light that has undergone multiple scattering and therefore has lost memory of the structures within the scattering medium. Images have been obtained of a test cross-hair pattern through highly turbid suspensions of whole milk in water that are opaque to the naked eye, which demonstrates the utility of DFWM for imaging through turbid media. Use of DFWM as an ultrafast time gate for the detection of ballistic and/or snake light in optical mammography is discussed.

  9. Suppression of low-frequency charge noise in gates-defined GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Jie; Li, Hai-Ou E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Ke; Cao, Gang; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn

    2015-12-07

    To reduce the charge noise of a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot, we have fabricated shallow-etched GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots using the wet-etching method to study the effects of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) underneath the metallic gates. The low-frequency 1/f noise in the Coulomb blockade region of the shallow-etched quantum dot is compared with a non-etched quantum dot on the same wafer. The average values of the gate noise are approximately 0.5 μeV in the shallow-etched quantum dot and 3 μeV in the regular quantum dot. Our results show the quantum dot low-frequency charge noise can be suppressed by the removal of the 2DEG underneath the metallic gates, which provides an architecture for noise reduction.

  10. A hydrogel capsule as gate dielectric in flexible organic field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumitru, L. M.; Manoli, K.; Magliulo, M.; Torsi, L.; Ligonzo, T.; Palazzo, G.

    2015-01-01

    A jellified alginate based capsule serves as biocompatible and biodegradable electrolyte system to gate an organic field-effect transistor fabricated on a flexible substrate. Such a system allows operating thiophene based polymer transistors below 0.5 V through an electrical double layer formed across an ion-permeable polymeric electrolyte. Moreover, biological macro-molecules such as glucose-oxidase and streptavidin can enter into the gating capsules that serve also as delivery system. An enzymatic bio-reaction is shown to take place in the capsule and preliminary results on the measurement of the electronic responses promise for low-cost, low-power, flexible electronic bio-sensing applications using capsule-gated organic field-effect transistors.

  11. Liquid-based gating mechanism with tunable multiphase selectivity and antifouling behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Xu; Hu, Yuhang; Grinthal, Alison; Khan, Mughees; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-03-04

    Living organisms make extensive use of micro- and nanometre-sized pores as gatekeepers for controlling the movement of fluids, vapours and solids between complex environments. In addition, the ability of such pores to coordinate multiphase transport, in a highly selective and subtly triggered fashion and without clogging, has inspired interest in synthetic gated pores for applications ranging from fluid processing to 3D printing and lab-on-chip systems1-10.But although specific gating and transport behaviours have been realized by precisely tailoring pore surface chemistries and pore geometries6,1117, a single system capable of controlling complex, selective multiphase transport has remained a distant prospect, and fouling is nearly inevitable.Here we introduce a gating mechanism that uses a capillary-stabilized liquid as a reversible, reconfigurable gate that fills and seals pores in the closed state, and creates a non-fouling, liquid-lined pore in the open state.Theoretical modelling and experiments demonstrate that for each transport substance, the gating thresholdthe pressure needed to open the porescan be rationally tuned over a wide pressure range. This enables us to realize in one system differential response profiles for a variety of liquids and gases, even letting liquids flow through the pore while preventing gas from escaping.These capabilities allow us to dynamically modulate gasliquid sorting in a microfluidic flow and to separate a three-phase air wateroil mixture, with the liquid lining ensuring sustained antifouling behaviour. Because the liquid gating strategy enables efficient long-term operation and can be applied to a variety of pore structures and membrane materials, and to micro- as well as macroscale fluid systems, we expect it to prove useful in a wide range of applications.

  12. Liquid-based gating mechanism with tunable multiphase selectivity and antifouling behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, X; Hu, YH; Grinthal, A; Khan, M; Aizenberg, J

    2015-03-04

    Living organisms make extensive use of micro- and nanometre-sized pores as gatekeepers for controlling the movement of fluids, vapours and solids between complex environments. The ability of such pores to coordinate multiphase transport, in a highly selective and subtly triggered fashion and without clogging, has inspired interest in synthetic gated pores for applications ranging from fluid processing to 3D printing and lab-on-chip systems(1-10). But although specific gating and transport behaviours have been realized by precisely tailoring pore surface chemistries and pore geometries(6,11-17), a single system capable of controlling complex, selective multiphase transport has remained a distant prospect, and fouling is nearly inevitable(11,12). Here we introduce a gating mechanism that uses a capillary-stabilized liquid as a reversible, reconfigurable gate that fills and seals pores in the closed state, and creates a non-fouling, liquid-lined pore in the open state. Theoretical modelling and experiments demonstrate that for each transport substance, the gating threshold-the pressure needed to open the pores-can be rationally tuned over a wide pressure range. This enables us to realize in one system differential response profiles for a variety of liquids and gases, even letting liquids flow through the pore while preventing gas from escaping. These capabilities allow us to dynamically modulate gas-liquid sorting in a microfluidic flow and to separate a three-phase air-water-oil mixture, with the liquid lining ensuring sustained antifouling behaviour. Because the liquid gating strategy enables efficient long-term operation and can be applied to a variety of pore structures and membrane materials, and to micro- as well as macroscale fluid systems, we expect it to prove useful in a wide range of applications.

  13. Liquid-based gating mechanism with tunable multiphase selectivity and antifouling behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Xu; Hu, Yuhang; Grinthal, Alison; Khan, Mughees; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-03-04

    Living organisms make extensive use of micro- and nanometre-sized pores as gatekeepers for controlling the movement of fluids, vapours and solids between complex environments. In addition, the ability of such pores to coordinate multiphase transport, in a highly selective and subtly triggered fashion and without clogging, has inspired interest in synthetic gated pores for applications ranging from fluid processing to 3D printing and lab-on-chip systems1-10.But although specific gating and transport behaviours have been realized by precisely tailoring pore surface chemistries and pore geometries6,11–17, a single system capable of controlling complex, selective multiphase transport has remained a distant prospect, and fouling is nearly inevitable.Here we introduce a gating mechanism that uses a capillary-stabilized liquid as a reversible, reconfigurable gate that fills and seals pores in the closed state, and creates a non-fouling, liquid-lined pore in the open state.Theoretical modelling and experiments demonstrate that for each transport substance, the gating threshold—the pressure needed to open the pores—can be rationally tuned over a wide pressure range. This enables us to realize in one system differential response profiles for a variety of liquids and gases, even letting liquids flow through the pore while preventing gas from escaping.These capabilities allow us to dynamically modulate gas–liquid sorting in a microfluidic flow and to separate a three-phase air water–oil mixture, with the liquid lining ensuring sustained antifouling behaviour. Because the liquid gating strategy enables efficient long-term operation and can be applied to a variety of pore structures and membrane materials, and to micro- as well as macroscale fluid systems, we expect it to prove useful in a wide range of applications.

  14. SU-E-J-159: Analysis of Total Imaging Uncertainty in Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, J; Okuda, T; Sakaino, S; Yokota, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In respiratory-gated radiotherapy, the gating phase during treatment delivery needs to coincide with the corresponding phase determined during the treatment plan. However, because radiotherapy is performed based on the image obtained for the treatment plan, the time delay, motion artifact, volume effect, and resolution in the images are uncertain. Thus, imaging uncertainty is the most basic factor that affects the localization accuracy. Therefore, these uncertainties should be analyzed. This study aims to analyze the total imaging uncertainty in respiratory-gated radiotherapy. Methods: Two factors of imaging uncertainties related to respiratory-gated radiotherapy were analyzed. First, CT image was used to determine the target volume and 4D treatment planning for the Varian Realtime Position Management (RPM) system. Second, an X-ray image was acquired for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for the BrainLAB ExacTrac system. These factors were measured using a respiratory gating phantom. The conditions applied during phantom operation were as follows: respiratory wave form, sine curve; respiratory cycle, 4 s; phantom target motion amplitude, 10, 20, and 29 mm (which is maximum phantom longitudinal motion). The target and cylindrical marker implanted in the phantom coverage of the CT images was measured and compared with the theoretically calculated coverage from the phantom motion. The theoretical position of the cylindrical marker implanted in the phantom was compared with that acquired from the X-ray image. The total imaging uncertainty was analyzed from these two factors. Results: In the CT image, the uncertainty between the target and cylindrical marker’s actual coverage and the coverage of CT images was 1.19 mm and 2.50mm, respectively. In the Xray image, the uncertainty was 0.39 mm. The total imaging uncertainty from the two factors was 1.62mm. Conclusion: The total imaging uncertainty in respiratory-gated radiotherapy was clinically acceptable. However

  15. Liquid-based gating mechanism with tunable multiphase selectivity and antifouling behaviour

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hou, Xu; Hu, Yuhang; Grinthal, Alison; Khan, Mughees; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-03-04

    Living organisms make extensive use of micro- and nanometre-sized pores as gatekeepers for controlling the movement of fluids, vapours and solids between complex environments. In addition, the ability of such pores to coordinate multiphase transport, in a highly selective and subtly triggered fashion and without clogging, has inspired interest in synthetic gated pores for applications ranging from fluid processing to 3D printing and lab-on-chip systems1-10.But although specific gating and transport behaviours have been realized by precisely tailoring pore surface chemistries and pore geometries6,11–17, a single system capable of controlling complex, selective multiphase transport has remained a distant prospect, and foulingmore » is nearly inevitable.Here we introduce a gating mechanism that uses a capillary-stabilized liquid as a reversible, reconfigurable gate that fills and seals pores in the closed state, and creates a non-fouling, liquid-lined pore in the open state.Theoretical modelling and experiments demonstrate that for each transport substance, the gating threshold—the pressure needed to open the pores—can be rationally tuned over a wide pressure range. This enables us to realize in one system differential response profiles for a variety of liquids and gases, even letting liquids flow through the pore while preventing gas from escaping.These capabilities allow us to dynamically modulate gas–liquid sorting in a microfluidic flow and to separate a three-phase air water–oil mixture, with the liquid lining ensuring sustained antifouling behaviour. Because the liquid gating strategy enables efficient long-term operation and can be applied to a variety of pore structures and membrane materials, and to micro- as well as macroscale fluid systems, we expect it to prove useful in a wide range of applications.« less

  16. ARPA-E Announces 2012 Energy Innovation Summit Featuring Bill Gates, Fred

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smith and Lee Scott | Department of Energy 2012 Energy Innovation Summit Featuring Bill Gates, Fred Smith and Lee Scott ARPA-E Announces 2012 Energy Innovation Summit Featuring Bill Gates, Fred Smith and Lee Scott September 9, 2011 - 9:25am Addthis New York, NY - The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) Director, Arun Majumdar, announced yesterday that the Agency will hold its third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit from February 27 - 29, 2012

  17. A spin-wave logic gate based on a width-modulated dynamic magnonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikitin, Andrey A.; Ustinov, Alexey B.; Semenov, Alexander A.; Kalinikos, Boris A.; Chumak, Andrii V.; Serga, Alexander A.; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Lhderanta, Erkki

    2015-03-09

    An electric current controlled spin-wave logic gate based on a width-modulated dynamic magnonic crystal is realized. The device utilizes a spin-wave waveguide fabricated from a single-crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet film and two conducting wires attached to the film surface. Application of electric currents to the wires provides a means for dynamic control of the effective geometry of waveguide and results in a suppression of the magnonic band gap. The performance of the magnonic crystal as an AND logic gate is demonstrated.

  18. Charging dynamics of a floating gate transistor with site-controlled quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maier, P. Hartmann, F.; Emmerling, M.; Schneider, C.; Hfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Worschech, L.

    2014-08-04

    A quantum dot memory based on a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wire with site-controlled InAs quantum dots was realized by means of molecular beam epitaxy and etching techniques. By sampling of different gate voltage sweeps for the determination of charging and discharging thresholds, it was found that discharging takes place at short time scales of ?s, whereas several seconds of waiting times within a distinct negative gate voltage range were needed to charge the quantum dots. Such quantum dot structures have thus the potential to implement logic functions comprising charge and time dependent ingredients such as counting of signals or learning rules.

  19. Website Policies / Important Links | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Website Policies Important Links Website Policies Important Links Javascript Not Enabled OSTI Security Website Policies and Important Links

  20. Website Policies / Important Links | DOE Patents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Website Policies / Important Links Website Policies / Important Links Javascript Not Enabled OSTI Security Website Policies and Important Links

  1. Website Policies / Important Links | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Website Policies Important Links Website Policies Important Links Javascript Not Enabled OSTI Security Website Policies and Important Links

  2. U.S. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    St. Clair, MI International Falls, MN Noyes, MN Warroad, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Del Bonita, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sweetgrass, MT Whitlash, MT Portal, ND Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Champlain, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Highgate Springs, VT North Troy, VT U.S. Pipeline Total from Mexico Ogilby, CA Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX El Paso, TX Galvan Ranch, TX Hidalgo, TX McAllen, TX Penitas, TX LNG Imports from Algeria Cove Point, MD Everett, MA Lake

  3. Measuring ultrashort pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trebino, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this program is the development of techniques for the measurement of ultrafast events important in gas-phase combustion chemistry. Specifically, goals of this program include the development of fundamental concepts and spectroscopic techniques that will augment the information currently available with ultrafast laser techniques. Of equal importance is the development of technology for ultrafast spectroscopy. For example, methods for the production and measurement of ultrashort pulses at wavelengths important for these studies is an important goal. Because the specific vibrational motion excited in a molecule depends sensitively on the intensity, I(t), and the phase, {psi}(t), of the ultrashort pulse used to excite the motion, it is critical to measure both of these quantities for an individual pulse. Unfortunately, this has remained an unsolved problem for many years. Fortunately, this year, the authors present a technique that achieves this goal.

  4. The role of the substrate on the dispersion in accumulation in III-V compound semiconductor based metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krylov, Igor; Ritter, Dan; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2015-09-07

    Dispersion in accumulation is a widely observed phenomenon in metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stacks based on III-V compound semiconductors. The physical origin of this phenomenon is attributed to border traps located in the dielectric material adjacent to the semiconductor. Here, we study the role of the semiconductor substrate on the electrical quality of the first layers at atomic layer deposited (ALD) dielectrics. For this purpose, either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or HfO{sub 2} dielectrics with variable thicknesses were deposited simultaneously on two technology important semiconductors—InGaAs and InP. Significantly larger dispersion was observed in InP based gate stacks compared to those based on InGaAs. The observed difference is attributed to a higher border trap density in dielectrics deposited on InP compared to those deposited on InGaAs. We therefore conclude that the substrate plays an important role in the determination of the electrical quality of the first dielectric monolayers deposited by ALD. An additional observation is that larger dispersion was obtained in HfO{sub 2} based capacitors compared to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based capacitors, deposited on the same semiconductor. This phenomenon is attributed to the lower conduction band offset rather than to a higher border trap density.

  5. SU-E-J-126: Respiratory Gating Quality Assurance: A Simple Method to Achieve Millisecond Temporal Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, B; Wiersma, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Low temporal latency between a gating on/off signal and a linac beam on/off during respiratory gating is critical for patient safety. Although, a measurement of temporal lag is recommended by AAPM Task Group 142 for commissioning and annual quality assurance, there currently exists no published method. Here we describe a simple, inexpensive, and reliable method to precisely measure gating lag at millisecond resolutions. Methods: A Varian Real-time Position Management™ (RPM) gating simulator with rotating disk was modified with a resistive flex sensor (Spectra Symbol) attached to the gating box platform. A photon diode was placed at machine isocenter. Output signals of the flex sensor and diode were monitored with a multichannel oscilloscope (Tektronix™ DPO3014). Qualitative inspection of the gating window/beam on synchronicity were made by setting the linac to beam on/off at end-expiration, and the oscilloscope's temporal window to 100 ms to visually examine if the on/off timing was within the recommended 100-ms tolerance. Quantitative measurements were made by saving the signal traces and analyzing in MatLab™. The on and off of the beam signal were located and compared to the expected gating window (e.g. 40% to 60%). Four gating cycles were measured and compared. Results: On a Varian TrueBeam™ STx linac with RPM gating software, the average difference in synchronicity at beam on and off for four cycles was 14 ms (3 to 30 ms) and 11 ms (2 to 32 ms), respectively. For a Varian Clinac™ 21EX the average difference at beam on and off was 127 ms (122 to 133 ms) and 46 ms (42 to 49 ms), respectively. The uncertainty in the synchrony difference was estimated at ±6 ms. Conclusion: This new gating QA method is easy to implement and allows for fast qualitative inspection and quantitative measurements for commissioning and TG-142 annual QA measurements.

  6. Performance of a 512 x 512 Gated CMOS Imager with a 250 ps Exposure Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teruya, A T; Moody, J D; Hsing, W W; Brown, C G; Griffin, M; Mead, A S

    2012-10-01

    We describe the performance of a 512x512 gated CMOS read out integrated circuit (ROIC) with a 250 ps exposure time. A low-skew, H-tree trigger distribution system is used to locally generate individual pixel gates in each 8x8 neighborhood of the ROIC. The temporal width of the gate is voltage controlled and user selectable via a precision potentiometer. The gating implementation was first validated in optical tests of a 64x64 pixel prototype ROIC developed as a proof-of-concept during the early phases of the development program. The layout of the H-Tree addresses each quadrant of the ROIC independently and admits operation of the ROIC in two modes. If common mode triggering is used, the camera provides a single 512x512 image. If independent triggers are used, the camera can provide up to four 256x256 images with a frame separation set by the trigger intervals. The ROIC design includes small (sub-pixel) optical photodiode structures to allow test and characterization of the ROIC using optical sources prior to bump bonding. Reported test results were obtained using short pulse, second harmonic Ti:Sapphire laser systems operating at ?~ 400 nm at sub-ps pulse widths.

  7. Method and system for measuring gate valve clearances and seating force

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, D.A.; Haynes, H.D.; Moyers, J.C.; Stewart, B.K.

    1996-01-30

    Valve clearances and seating force, as well as other valve operational parameters, are determined by measuring valve stem rotation during opening and closing operations of a translatable gate valve. The magnitude of the stem rotation, and the relative difference between the stem rotation on opening and closing provides valuable data on the valve internals in a non-intrusive manner. 8 figs.

  8. VIDEO: Bill Gates and Secretary Chu Chat on the Future of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Watch here: Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates hold a fireside chat at the 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit, where the two exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can get off the ground successfully.

  9. Structural and electrical characterization of CoTiN metal gates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wongpiya, Ranida; Ouyang, Jiaomin; Chung, Chia-Jung; Duong, Duc T.; Clemens, Bruce; Deal, Michael; Nishi, Yoshio

    2015-02-21

    As the gate size continues to decrease in nanoscale transistors, having metal gates with amorphous or near amorphous structures can potentially reduce grain-induced work function variation. Furthermore, amorphous materials are known to have superior diffusion barrier properties, which can help prevent work function change due to the diffusion of metals in contact with the gate. In this work we show that with the addition of cobalt, thin films of polycrystalline TiN become more amorphous with a smaller grain size. Co{sub x}(TiN){sub 1-x} films, where x?=?6080%, appear to consist of nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix, and are thermally stable with no significant crystallization up to an annealing temperature of at least 600?C. Reducing the nitrogen gas flow ratio during sputter deposition from 9% to 2.5% further decreases the films' crystallinity, which is apparent by more sparse and even smaller nanocrystals. In addition to being partially amorphous, these CoTiN films also exhibit good thermal stability, low resistivity, low roughness, and have the potential for atomic layer deposition compatibility. Even though these materials are not completely amorphous, their small crystal size and amorphous matrix can potentially reduce work function variation and improve their diffusion barrier property. These properties make CoTiN a good candidate as a gate material for future nanoelectronic devices and technology.

  10. Method and system for measuring gate valve clearances and seating force

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, Donald A.; Haynes, Howard D.; Moyers, John C.; Stewart, Brian K.

    1996-01-01

    Valve clearances and seating force, as well as other valve operational parameters, are determined by measuring valve stem rotation during opening and closing operations of a translatable gate valve. The magnitude of the stem rotation, and the relative difference between the stem rotation on opening and closing provides valuable data on the valve internals in a non-intrusive manner.

  11. Multiqubit gates protected by adiabaticity and dynamical decoupling applicable to donor qubits in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witzel, Wayne M.; Montaño, Inès; Muller, Richard P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2015-08-19

    In this study, we present a strategy for producing multiqubit gates that promise high fidelity with minimal tuning requirements. Our strategy combines gap protection from the adiabatic theorem with dynamical decoupling in a complementary manner. Energy-level transition errors are protected by adiabaticity and remaining phase errors are mitigated via dynamical decoupling. This is a powerful way to divide and conquer the various error channels. In order to accomplish this without violating a no-go theorem regarding black-box dynamically corrected gates [Phys. Rev. A 80, 032314 (2009)], we require a robust operating point (sweet spot) in control space where the qubits interact with little sensitivity to noise. There are also energy gap requirements for effective adiabaticity. We apply our strategy to an architecture in Si with P donors where we assume we can shuttle electrons between different donors. Electron spins act as mobile ancillary qubits and P nuclear spins act as long-lived data qubits. This system can have a very robust operating point where the electron spin is bound to a donor in the quadratic Stark shift regime. High fidelity single qubit gates may be performed using well-established global magnetic resonance pulse sequences. Single electron-spin preparation and measurement has also been demonstrated. Putting this all together, we present a robust universal gate set for quantum computation.

  12. Multiqubit gates protected by adiabaticity and dynamical decoupling applicable to donor qubits in silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Witzel, Wayne M.; Montaño, Inès; Muller, Richard P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2015-08-19

    In this study, we present a strategy for producing multiqubit gates that promise high fidelity with minimal tuning requirements. Our strategy combines gap protection from the adiabatic theorem with dynamical decoupling in a complementary manner. Energy-level transition errors are protected by adiabaticity and remaining phase errors are mitigated via dynamical decoupling. This is a powerful way to divide and conquer the various error channels. In order to accomplish this without violating a no-go theorem regarding black-box dynamically corrected gates [Phys. Rev. A 80, 032314 (2009)], we require a robust operating point (sweet spot) in control space where the qubits interactmore » with little sensitivity to noise. There are also energy gap requirements for effective adiabaticity. We apply our strategy to an architecture in Si with P donors where we assume we can shuttle electrons between different donors. Electron spins act as mobile ancillary qubits and P nuclear spins act as long-lived data qubits. This system can have a very robust operating point where the electron spin is bound to a donor in the quadratic Stark shift regime. High fidelity single qubit gates may be performed using well-established global magnetic resonance pulse sequences. Single electron-spin preparation and measurement has also been demonstrated. Putting this all together, we present a robust universal gate set for quantum computation.« less

  13. Multi-qubit gates protected by adiabaticity and dynamical decoupling applicable to donor qubits in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witzel, Wayne; Montano, Ines; Muller, Richard P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2015-08-19

    In this paper, we present a strategy for producing multiqubit gates that promise high fidelity with minimal tuning requirements. Our strategy combines gap protection from the adiabatic theorem with dynamical decoupling in a complementary manner. Energy-level transition errors are protected by adiabaticity and remaining phase errors are mitigated via dynamical decoupling. This is a powerful way to divide and conquer the various error channels. In order to accomplish this without violating a no-go theorem regarding black-box dynamically corrected gates [Phys. Rev. A 80, 032314 (2009)], we require a robust operating point (sweet spot) in control space where the qubits interact with little sensitivity to noise. There are also energy gap requirements for effective adiabaticity. We apply our strategy to an architecture in Si with P donors where we assume we can shuttle electrons between different donors. Electron spins act as mobile ancillary qubits and P nuclear spins act as long-lived data qubits. Furthermore, this system can have a very robust operating point where the electron spin is bound to a donor in the quadratic Stark shift regime. High fidelity single qubit gates may be performed using well-established global magnetic resonance pulse sequences. Single electron-spin preparation and measurement has also been demonstrated. Thus, putting this all together, we present a robust universal gate set for quantum computation.

  14. Multi-qubit gates protected by adiabaticity and dynamical decoupling applicable to donor qubits in silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Witzel, Wayne; Montano, Ines; Muller, Richard P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2015-08-19

    In this paper, we present a strategy for producing multiqubit gates that promise high fidelity with minimal tuning requirements. Our strategy combines gap protection from the adiabatic theorem with dynamical decoupling in a complementary manner. Energy-level transition errors are protected by adiabaticity and remaining phase errors are mitigated via dynamical decoupling. This is a powerful way to divide and conquer the various error channels. In order to accomplish this without violating a no-go theorem regarding black-box dynamically corrected gates [Phys. Rev. A 80, 032314 (2009)], we require a robust operating point (sweet spot) in control space where the qubits interactmore » with little sensitivity to noise. There are also energy gap requirements for effective adiabaticity. We apply our strategy to an architecture in Si with P donors where we assume we can shuttle electrons between different donors. Electron spins act as mobile ancillary qubits and P nuclear spins act as long-lived data qubits. Furthermore, this system can have a very robust operating point where the electron spin is bound to a donor in the quadratic Stark shift regime. High fidelity single qubit gates may be performed using well-established global magnetic resonance pulse sequences. Single electron-spin preparation and measurement has also been demonstrated. Thus, putting this all together, we present a robust universal gate set for quantum computation.« less

  15. Design and performance of a respiratory amplitude gating device for PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Guoping; Chang Tingting; Clark, John W. Jr.; Mawlawi, Osama R.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Recently, the authors proposed a free-breathing amplitude gating (FBAG) technique for PET/CT scanners. The implementation of this technique required specialized hardware and software components that were specifically designed to interface with commercial respiratory gating devices to generate the necessary triggers required for the FBAG technique. The objective of this technical note is to introduce an in-house device that integrates all the necessary hardware and software components as well as tracks the patient's respiratory motion to realize amplitude gating on PET/CT scanners. Methods: The in-house device is composed of a piezoelectric transducer coupled to a data-acquisition system in order to monitor the respiratory waveform. A LABVIEW program was designed to control the data-acquisition device and inject triggers into the PET list stream whenever the detected respiratory amplitude crossed a predetermined amplitude range. A timer was also programmed to stop the scan when the accumulated time within the selected amplitude range reached a user-set interval. This device was tested using a volunteer and a phantom study. Results: The results from the volunteer and phantom studies showed that the in-house device can detect similar respiratory signals as commercially available respiratory gating systems and is able to generate the necessary triggers to suppress respiratory motion artifacts. Conclusions: The proposed in-house device can be used to implement the FBAG technique in current PET/CT scanners.

  16. As you prepare for your upcoming beam time, please be aware that construction is planned to update SLAC Gate 17 with RFID proximity card access hardware and to change the stairs next to the Security hut to an ADA compliant ramp. Please forward this to your proposal collaborators (and ensure that all users have registered and completed training before they arrive). This construction is scheduled to begin Tuesday 5/28 and be completed by 6/28. During this construction, access to the LCLS and SSRL buildings and experimental facilities will be provided as follows: VEHICLES ONLY THROUGH GATE 17 5/28-6/28 0600-1530 (6 am-3:30 pm) Construction Zone. Only VEHICLE traffic will be allowed access through Gate 17 and flagman will provide traffic control. 1530-1800 (3:30-6:00 pm) Assumes construction will have stopped for the day; both traffic lanes will be open for vehicles. 1800-0600 (6 pm-6 am) As now, Gate 17 will be closed or barricaded overnight. PEDESTRIANS ONLY THROUGH GATE 16 5/28-6/28 The pedestrian turnstile at Gate 16A will not change. The turnstile is available for pedestrian use 24/7 as long as the individual has a valid SLAC ID badge (and there is a guard at Gate 30 to 'buzz' them through). 0700-1600 (6 am-4 pm) Pedestrians who would normally walk through Gate 17 will instead follow the detour to Gate 16 swing gate which will be unlocked and staffed by Security. A valid SLAC ID badge is needed to enter; new users without IDs will be allowed to proceed for check-in and badging after confirmation with the User Research Administration Office (see detour map attached). FYI - After the construction is completed and proximity card readers are fully functional, users and staff will enter Gates 17 and 30 using an activated RFID proximity card. More details to follow.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building 137 Bldg. 270 CONSTRUCTION IMPACTS PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICLE ACCESS THROUGH SLAC SECURITY GATE 17 ~ May 28-June 28, 2013 The stairs next to the Gate 17 Guard House will be replaced with an ADA compliant ramp; the turnstile and fence at SLAC Gate 17 will be updated with RFID proximity card access hardware. During this construction, access beyond the fence, including the SSRL and LCLS buildings and user facilities will be provided as follows: VEHICLES ONLY THROUGH GATE 17 Security will

  17. SU-E-J-185: Gated CBCT Imaging for Positioning Moving Lung Tumor in Lung SBRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Burton, S; Karlovits, B; Clump, D; Heron, D; Huq, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Lung stereo-tactic body radiotherapy(SBRT) treatment requires high accuracy of lung tumor positioning during treatment, which is usually accomplished by free breathing Cone-Beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scan. However, respiratory motion induced image artifacts in free breathing CBCT may degrade such positioning accuracy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of gated CBCT imaging for lung SBRT treatment. Methods: Six Lung SBRT patients were selected for this study. The respiratory motion of the tumors ranged from 1.2cm to 3.5cm, and the gating windows for all patients were set between 35% and 65% of the respiratory phases. Each Lung SBRT patient underwent free-breathing CBCT scan using half-fan scan technique. The acquired projection images were transferred out for off-line analyses. An In-house semi-automatic algorithm was developed to trace the diaphragm movement from those projection images to acquire a patient's specific respiratory motion curve, which was used to correlate respiratory phases with each projection image. Afterwards, a filtered back-projection algorithm was utilized to reconstruct the gated CBCT images based on the projection images only within the gating window. Results: Target volumes determined by free breathing CBCT images were 71.9%72% bigger than the volume shown in gated CBCT image. On the contrary, the target volume differences between gated CBCT and planning CT images at exhale stage were 5.8%2.4%. The center to center distance of the targets shown in free breathing CBCT and gated CBCT images were 9.28.1mm. For one particular case, the superior boundary of the target was shifted 15mm between free breathing CBCT and gated CBCT. Conclusion: Gated CBCT imaging provides better representation of the moving lung tumor with less motion artifacts, and has the potential to improve the positioning accuracy in lung SBRT treatment.

  18. SU-E-CAMPUS-J-01: TG142 Complied Comprehensive Commissioning and Quality Assurance Procedure for Respiratory Gating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, K; Rong, Y; Weldon, M; Gupta, N

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and establish a comprehensive gating commissioning and quality assurance procedure in compliance with TG142. Methods: Quality assurance tests on three Varian LINACs included beam output and energy constancy, calibration of surrogate, as well as phase and amplitude gating temporal accuracy. A diode array (MapCHECK 2) and film (Gafchromic EBT2) were used to measure the temporal accuracy of phase and amplitude gating windows. A motion simulation device (MotionSim) was used to simulate respiratory motion for both detectors. An end-to-end test was also performed on all three machines. The overall accuracy and uncertainty was analyzed and compared. Results: The end-to-end test using an anthropomorphic lung phantom (CIRS) results in an OSL dose difference reading within 5% (within measurement uncertainty) for both phase and amplitude gated treatment. Film results showed < 1% agreement between profiles for gated delivery and predicted dose. The diode array demonstrated an 80% passing rate for gamma criteria of 2%/0.2 mm, which results in a 111 msec temporal accuracy. However, the diode array is limited by its spatial resolution of measurements, due to its 7.07 mm diode spacing. Film provided higher measuring resolution, thus demonstrated a temporal accuracy of <100 msec. Conclusion: Results showed consistent respiratory gating stability and accuracy. MapCHECK 2 may not be sufficient for the temporal accuracy test in the respiratory gating treatment in order to meet the corresponding tolerance in TG142. One would need to decrease respiratory motion speed from the surrogate or tighten the gating window in order to be within tolerance of 100 msec temporal accuracy per TG-142. The end-to-end test offers insight to the overall accuracy and uncertainties with a gated protocol. Compared to static delivery, respiratory motion increases the overall uncertainty of treatment delivery from 3% to 5% dose difference.

  19. Magneto-transport study of top- and back-gated LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, W. Gariglio, S.; Fête, A.; Li, D.; Boselli, M.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Triscone, J.-M.

    2015-06-01

    We report a detailed analysis of magneto-transport properties of top- and back-gated LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterostructures. Efficient modulation in magneto-resistance, carrier density, and mobility of the two-dimensional electron liquid present at the interface is achieved by sweeping top and back gate voltages. Analyzing those changes with respect to the carrier density tuning, we observe that the back gate strongly modifies the electron mobility while the top gate mainly varies the carrier density. The evolution of the spin-orbit interaction is also followed as a function of top and back gating.

  20. Effect of top gate bias on photocurrent and negative bias illumination stress instability in dual gate amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eunji; Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Park, Min Sang; Jang, Jin

    2015-12-07

    We have studied the effect of top gate bias (V{sub TG}) on the generation of photocurrent and the decay of photocurrent for back channel etched inverted staggered dual gate structure amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Upon 5 min of exposure of 365 nm wavelength and 0.7 mW/cm{sup 2} intensity light with negative bottom gate bias, the maximum photocurrent increases from 3.29 to 322 pA with increasing the V{sub TG} from −15 to +15 V. By changing V{sub TG} from negative to positive, the Fermi level (E{sub F}) shifts toward conduction band edge (E{sub C}), which substantially controls the conversion of neutral vacancy to charged one (V{sub O} → V{sub O}{sup +}/V{sub O}{sup 2+} + e{sup −}/2e{sup −}), peroxide (O{sub 2}{sup 2−}) formation or conversion of ionized interstitial (O{sub i}{sup 2−}) to neutral interstitial (O{sub i}), thus electron concentration at conduction band. With increasing the exposure time, more carriers are generated, and thus, maximum photocurrent increases until being saturated. After negative bias illumination stress, the transfer curve shows −2.7 V shift at V{sub TG} = −15 V, which gradually decreases to −0.42 V shift at V{sub TG} = +15 V. It clearly reveals that the position of electron quasi-Fermi level controls the formation of donor defects (V{sub O}{sup +}/V{sub O}{sup 2+}/O{sub 2}{sup 2−}/O{sub i}) and/or hole trapping in the a-IGZO /interfaces.

  1. Magnetic roller gas gate employing transonic sweep gas flow to isolate regions of differing gaseous composition or pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doehler, Joachim

    1994-12-20

    Disclosed herein is an improved gas gate for interconnecting regions of differing gaseous composition and/or pressure. The gas gate includes a narrow, elongated passageway through which substrate material is adapted to move between said regions and inlet means for introducing a flow of non-contaminating sweep gas into a central portion of said passageway. The gas gate is characterized in that the height of the passageway and the flow rate of the sweep gas therethrough provides for transonic flow of the sweep gas between the inlet means and at least one of the two interconnected regions, thereby effectively isolating one region, characterized by one composition and pressure, from another region, having a differing composition and/or pressure, by decreasing the mean-free-path length between collisions of diffusing species within the transonic flow region. The gas gate preferably includes a manifold at the juncture point where the gas inlet means and the passageway interconnect.

  2. A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarrut, David; Universit Lyon 1; Centre Lon Brard ; Bardis, Manuel; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault; Boussion, Nicolas; Freud, Nicolas; Ltang, Jean-Michel; Jan, Sbastien; Maigne, Lydia; Perrot, Yann; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Robert, Charlotte; and others

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same frameworkis emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE Center for Electric Drive Transportation at the University of Michigan- Dearborn

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Regents University of Michigan at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE Center...

  4. Attosecond x-ray source generation from two-color polarized gating plasmonic field enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Liqiang; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 ; Yuan, Minghu; Chu, Tianshu; Institute for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071

    2013-12-15

    The plasmonic field enhancement from the vicinity of metallic nanostructures as well as the polarization gating technique has been utilized to the generation of the high order harmonic and the single attosecond x-ray source. Through numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, for moderate the inhomogeneity and the polarized angle of the two fields, we find that not only the harmonic plateau has been extended and enhanced but also the single short quantum path has been selected to contribute to the harmonic. As a result, a series of 50 as pulses around the extreme ultraviolet and the x-ray regions have been obtained. Furthermore, by investigating the other parameters effects on the harmonic emission, we find that this two-color polarized gating plasmonic field enhancement scheme can also be achieved by the multi-cycle pulses, which is much better for experimental realization.

  5. Air-gap gating of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tambo, T.; Falson, J. Kozuka, Y.; Maryenko, D.; Tsukazaki, A.; Kawasaki, M.

    2014-08-28

    The adaptation of air-gap dielectric based field-effect transistor technology to controlling the MgZnO/ZnO heterointerface confined two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is reported. We find it possible to tune the charge density of the 2DES via a gate electrode spatially separated from the heterostructure surface by a distance of 5??m. Under static gating, the observation of the quantum Hall effect suggests that the charge carrier density remains homogeneous, with the 2DES in the 3?mm square sample the sole conductor. The availability of this technology enables the exploration of the charge carrier density degree of freedom in the pristine sample limit.

  6. Gate-tunable gigantic lattice deformation in VO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okuyama, D. E-mail: nakano@imr.tohoku.ac.jp Hatano, T.; Nakano, M. E-mail: nakano@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Takeshita, S.; Ohsumi, H.; Tardif, S.; Shibuya, K.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Ohashi, H.; Takata, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.; Iwasa, Y. E-mail: nakano@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Arima, T.

    2014-01-13

    We examined the impact of electric field on crystal lattice of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) in a field-effect transistor geometry by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. Whereas the c-axis lattice parameter of VO{sub 2} decreases through the thermally induced insulator-to-metal phase transition, the gate-induced metallization was found to result in a significant increase of the c-axis length by almost 1% from that of the thermally stabilized insulating state. We also found that this gate-induced gigantic lattice deformation occurs even at the thermally stabilized metallic state, enabling dynamic control of c-axis lattice parameter by more than 1% at room temperature.

  7. Formation of low resistivity titanium silicide gates in semiconductor integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ishida, Emi

    1999-08-10

    A method of forming a titanium silicide (69) includes the steps of forming a transistor having a source region (58), a drain region (60) and a gate structure (56) and forming a titanium layer (66) over the transistor. A first anneal is performed with a laser anneal at an energy level that causes the titanium layer (66) to react with the gate structure (56) to form a high resistivity titanium silicide phase (68) having substantially small grain sizes. The unreacted portions of the titanium layer (66) are removed and a second anneal is performed, thereby causing the high resistivity titanium silicide phase (68) to convert to a low resistivity titanium silicide phase (69). The small grain sizes obtained by the first anneal allow low resistivity titanium silicide phase (69) to be achieved at device geometries less than about 0.25 micron.

  8. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Fireside Chat with Steven Chu and Bill Gates

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven (U.S. Department of Energy Secretary); Gates, Bill (Microsoft, Chairman); Podesta, John (Center for American Progress, Chair and Counselor)

    2012-03-21

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. This video captures a session called 'Fireside Chat' that featured Steven Chu, the Secretary of Energy, and Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation. The session is moderated by John Podesta, Chair of the Center for American Progress. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can overcome the challenges that face many startups.

  9. Memory effect in silicon time-gated single-photon avalanche diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalla Mora, A.; Contini, D. Di Sieno, L.; Tosi, A.; Boso, G.; Villa, F.; Pifferi, A.

    2015-03-21

    We present a comprehensive characterization of the memory effect arising in thin-junction silicon Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) when exposed to strong illumination. This partially unknown afterpulsing-like noise represents the main limiting factor when time-gated acquisitions are exploited to increase the measurement dynamic range of very fast (picosecond scale) and faint (single-photon) optical signals following a strong stray one. We report the dependences of this unwelcome signal-related noise on photon wavelength, detector temperature, and biasing conditions. Our results suggest that this so-called “memory effect” is generated in the deep regions of the detector, well below the depleted region, and its contribution on detector response is visible only when time-gated SPADs are exploited to reject a strong burst of photons.

  10. Fact #736: July 16, 2012 Total Petroleum Imports and Net Petroleum Imports: The Difference is Growing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When referring to U.S. imports of petroleum, it is important to make the distinction between total imports and net imports. Net imports are equal to the amount of total imported petroleum minus the...

  11. Feasibility of gate-turnoff thyristors in a high-voltage direct-current transmission system: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurray, W.

    1987-08-01

    This study to identify potentially attractive applications for gate-turnoff thyristor (GTO) converters in utility systems includes both high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) valves and static volt-ampere reactive (VAR) controllers. The work includes a broad review of basic principles and the power circuit arrangements that are judged to be most attractive. The major differences between ordinary thyristors and GTO converters are discussed, including alternative HVDC transmission systems and static VAR controllers that are possible with GTOs. Whereas a current-source type of converter is the obvious choice with ordinary thyristors, the use of GTOs allows either current-source or voltage-source converters to be considered. A computer-aided analysis of the basic 6-pulse GTO current-source converter system is presented, including general equations for steady-state operation and plotting calculated waveforms. An analysis of a GTO voltage-source converter is given in less detail. Due to incomplete performance data, unresolved critical problems such as protection, and the disadvantages of higher cost, complexity and losses, it is difficult to recommend a specific GTO converter system at this time. The major advantage that GTO converters can offer is rapid and smoothly continuous control of reactive power. Further development of GTO converters should be aimed towards an application where reactive power control is very important and not readily achievable by conventional methods. 12 refs., 47 figs.

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 37: Respiratory gating with an Elekta flattening filter free photon beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Péloquin, S; Furstoss, C; Munger, P; Wierzbicki, W; Carrier, J-F

    2014-08-15

    In cases where surgery is not possible for lung cancer treatment, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) may be an option. One problem when treating this type of cancer is the motion of the lungs caused by the patient's respiration. It is possible to reduce the impact of this movement with the use of respiratory gating. By combining respiratory gating with a flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam linac, the increased treatment time caused by a reduced beam-on time of respiratory gating methods can be compensated by the inherent increased dose rate of FFF beams. This project's aim is to create hardware and software interfaces allowing free respiration gating on an Elekta Synergy-S linac specially modified to deliver 6 MV FFF photon beams. First, a printed circuit board was created for reading the signal from a Bellows Belt from Philips (a respiration monitor belt) and transmitting an On/Off signal to the accelerator. A software was also developed to visualize patient respiration. Secondly, a FFF model was created with the Pinnacle treatment planning system from Philips. Gamma (Γ) analysis (2%, 2 mm) was used to evaluate model. For fields going from 5.6 × 5.6 to 12 × 12 cm{sup 2}, central axis depth dose model fitting shows an average gamma value of 0.2 and 100% of gamma values remain under the Γ = 1 limit. For smaller fields (0.8 × 0.8 and 1.6 × 1.6 cm{sup 2}), Pinnacle has more trouble trying to fit the measurements, overestimating dose in penumbra and buildup regions.

  13. Self-powered Gating and Other Improvements for Screening-engineered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Field-effect Photovoltaics - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Self-powered Gating and Other Improvements for Screening-engineered Field-effect Photovoltaics Field-effect P-N Junctions for Low Cost, High Efficiency Solar Cells and Electronic Devices Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication LBNL Commercial Analysis Report (1,863 KB) Technology Marketing

  14. Crystal structure of a two-subunit TrkA octameric gating ring assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deller, Marc C.; Johnson, Hope A.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Spraggon, Glen; Elsliger, Marc -André; Wilson, Ian A.; Lesley, Scott A.; Ye, Sheng

    2015-03-31

    The TM1088 locus of T. maritima codes for two proteins designated TM1088A and TM1088B, which combine to form the cytosolic portion of a putative Trk K⁺ transporter. We report the crystal structure of this assembly to a resolution of 3.45 Å. The high resolution crystal structures of the components of the assembly, TM1088A and TM1088B, were also determined independently to 1.50 Å and 1.55 Å, respectively. The TM1088 proteins are structurally homologous to each other and to other K⁺ transporter proteins, such as TrkA. These proteins form a cytosolic gating ring assembly that controls the flow of K⁺ ions across the membrane. TM1088 represents the first structure of a two-subunit Trk assembly. Despite the atypical genetics and chain organization of the TM1088 assembly, it shares significant structural homology and an overall quaternary organization with other single-subunit K⁺ gating ring assemblies. This structure provides the first structural insights into what may be an evolutionary ancestor of more modern single-subunit K⁺ gating ring assemblies.

  15. Crystal structure of a two-subunit TrkA octameric gating ring assembly

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deller, Marc C.; Johnson, Hope A.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Spraggon, Glen; Elsliger, Marc -André; Wilson, Ian A.; Lesley, Scott A.; Ye, Sheng

    2015-03-31

    The TM1088 locus of T. maritima codes for two proteins designated TM1088A and TM1088B, which combine to form the cytosolic portion of a putative Trk K⁺ transporter. We report the crystal structure of this assembly to a resolution of 3.45 Å. The high resolution crystal structures of the components of the assembly, TM1088A and TM1088B, were also determined independently to 1.50 Å and 1.55 Å, respectively. The TM1088 proteins are structurally homologous to each other and to other K⁺ transporter proteins, such as TrkA. These proteins form a cytosolic gating ring assembly that controls the flow of K⁺ ions acrossmore » the membrane. TM1088 represents the first structure of a two-subunit Trk assembly. Despite the atypical genetics and chain organization of the TM1088 assembly, it shares significant structural homology and an overall quaternary organization with other single-subunit K⁺ gating ring assemblies. This structure provides the first structural insights into what may be an evolutionary ancestor of more modern single-subunit K⁺ gating ring assemblies.« less

  16. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Crude Oil Imports" "Sourcekey","MCRIMUS1","MCRIMUSPG1... "Date","U.S. Imports of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from ...

  17. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Crude Oil Imports" "Sourcekey","MCRIMUS2","MCRIMUSPG2... "Date","U.S. Imports of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports ...

  18. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Imports from Oman of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Papua New Guinea of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Peru of Crude Oil ...

  19. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Imports from Oman of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Papua New Guinea of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Peru of Crude Oil (Thousand ...

  20. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports from Denmark of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Egypt of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Equatorial Guinea of Crude...

  1. Measurement and control of optical nonlinearities of importance to glass laser fusion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurnit, N.A.; Shimada, T.; Sorem, M.S.; Taylor, A.J.; Rodriguez, G.; Clement, T.S.; James, D.F.V.; Milonni, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    Results of a number of studies carried out at Los Alamos, both experimental and theoretical, of nonlinear optical phenomena important to the design of the National Ignition Facility are summarized. These include measurements of nonlinear index coefficients, Raman scattering in atmospheric oxygen, and theoretical studies of harmonic conversion. The measurements were made by two different techniques in order to increase confidence in the results. One method was an application of a recently-developed technique for measuring the amplitude and phase of an ultrashort pulse by Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG). The other utilized a modified version of the Z-scan technique that measures beam distortion introduced by scanning a sample through the focus of a beam. The measurements by both techniques for fused silica were consistent with the lower range of previously measured values, indicating that it should not be necessary to further expand the beam size in the NIF to stay below the self-focusing threshold.

  2. SU-E-J-59: Effective Adaptive DMLC Gated Radiotherapy with OAR Sparing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y; Wu, H; Zhou, Z; Sandison, MinGeorge

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Patient respiratory motion degrades the effectiveness of cancer radiation treatment. Advanced respiratory gating delivers radiation dose accurately yet with elongated treatment time. The goal of this research is to propose a novel adaptive dMLC dynamic gating with high delivery efficiency and precision. Methods: The dose delivery of dMLC is aided by simultaneous tracking of tumor and organ at risk (OAR). The leaf opening/closing will follow the motion trajectory of the tumor while sparing the OAR. The treatment beam turns on only when there is no overlapping between OAR and tumor in BEV. A variety of evaluation metrics were considered and calculated, including duty cycle, beam toggling rate, and direct irradiation avoidance to OAR, under various combinations of different tumor margins and the distance between the centers of the tumor and OAR in BEV (expressed as dx). Results: Retrospective simulation was performed to investigate the feasibility and superiority of this technique using four groups of synchronized tumor and OAR motion data. The simulation results indicate that the tumor and OAR motion patterns and their relative positions are the dominant influential factors. The duty cycle can be greater than 96.71% yet can be as low as 6.69% depending different motion groups. This proposed technique provides good OAR protection, especially for such cases with low duty cycle for which as high as 77.71% maximal direct irradiation to OAR can be spared. Increasing dx improves the duty cycle (treatment efficiency) and provides better OAR volume sparing, whereas, that of the tumor margins has the opposite influence. Conclusion: This real-time adaptive dMLC gated radiation treatment with synchronous tumor and OAR tracking has inherent accurate dose delivery to tumor with reduced treatment time. In addition, the OAR protection capability make it an outstanding potential treatment strategy for mobile tumors.

  3. Cloning and first functional characterization of a plant cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Q.; Mercier, R.W.; Yao, W.; Berkowitz, G.A.

    1999-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (cng) non-selective cation channels have been cloned from a number of animal systems. These channels are characterized by direct gating upon cAMO or cGMO binding to the intracellular portion of the channel protein, which leads to an increase in channel conductance. Animal cng channels are involved in signal transduction systems; they translate stimulus-induced changes in cytosolic cyclic nucleotide into altered cell membrane potential and/or cation flux as part of a signal cascade pathway. Putative plant homologs of animal cng channels have been identified. However, functional characterization (i.e., demonstration of cyclic-nucleotide-dependent ion currents) of a plant cng channel has not yet been accomplished. The authors report the cloning and first functional characterization of a plant member of this family of ion channels. The Arabidopsis cDNA AtCNGC2 encodes a polypeptide with deduced homology to the {alpha}-subunit of animal channels, and facilitates cyclic nucleotide-dependent cation currents upon expression in a number of heterologous systems. AtCNGC2 expression in a yeast mutant lacking a low-affinity K{sup +} uptake system complements growth inhibition only when lipophilic nucleotides are present in the culture medium. Voltage clamp analysis indicates that Xenopus lawvis oocytes injected with AtCNGC2 cRNA demonstrate cyclic-nucleotide-dependent, inward-rectifying K{sup +} currents. Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) transfected with AtCNGC2 cDNA demonstrate increased permeability to Ca{sup 2+} only in the presence of lipophilic cyclic nucleotides. The evidence presented here supports the functional classification of AtCNGC2 as a cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel, and presents the first direct evidence identifying a plant member of this ion channel family.

  4. Gate-tunable valley-spin filtering in silicene with magnetic barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, X. Q.; Meng, H.

    2015-05-28

    We theoretically study the valley- and spin-resolved scattering through magnetic barrier in a one layer thick silicene, using the mode-matching method for the Dirac equation. We show that the spin-valley filtering effect can be achieved and can also be tuned completely through both a top and bottom gate. Moreover, when reversing the sign of the staggered potential, we find the direction of the valley polarization is switched while the direction of spin polarization is unchanged. These results can provide some meaningful information to design valley valve residing on silicene.

  5. Three dimensional time-gated tracking of non-blinking quantum dots in live cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    DeVore, Matthew S.; Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Keller, Aaron M.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Cleyrat, Cedric; Lidke, Diane S.; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Stewart, Michael H.; et al

    2015-03-12

    Single particle tracking has provided a wealth of information about biophysical processes such as motor protein transport and diffusion in cell membranes. However, motion out of the plane of the microscope or blinking of the fluorescent probe used as a label generally limits observation times to several seconds. Here, we overcome these limitations by using novel non-blinking quantum dots as probes and employing a custom 3D tracking microscope to actively follow motion in three dimensions (3D) in live cells. As a result, signal-to-noise is improved in the cellular milieu through the use of pulsed excitation and time-gated detection.

  6. Field programmable gate array-assigned complex-valued computation and its limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard-Schwarz, Maria, E-mail: maria.bernardschwarz@ni.com [National Instruments, Ganghoferstrasse 70b, 80339 Munich (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Wien (Austria); Zwick, Wolfgang; Klier, Jochen [National Instruments, Ganghoferstrasse 70b, 80339 Munich (Germany); Wenzel, Lothar [National Instruments, 11500 N MOPac Expy, Austin, Texas 78759 (United States); Grschl, Martin [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Wien (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    We discuss how leveraging Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology as part of a high performance computing platform reduces latency to meet the demanding real time constraints of a quantum optics simulation. Implementations of complex-valued operations using fixed point numeric on a Virtex-5 FPGA compare favorably to more conventional solutions on a central processing unit. Our investigation explores the performance of multiple fixed point options along with a traditional 64 bits floating point version. With this information, the lowest execution times can be estimated. Relative error is examined to ensure simulation accuracy is maintained.

  7. SU-E-J-60: Evaluation of Temporal Lag in Radiotherapy Gating for Tumor Motion Trajectories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belcher, AH; McCabe, B; Wiersma, RD

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Evaluating timing differences between LINAC beam ON/OFF and the estimation of tumor positioning using gating systems is essential for establishing confidence when treating with gating during radiotherapy, and is an annual requirement of TG-142. Temporal discrepancies between the trajectories of external marker surrogates and beam delivery may vary depending upon the type of external marker motion, which is quantified in this work for several trajectories. Methods: A precise robotic 3D motion stage performed several trajectories typically used for gating phantoms, including sinusoidal and Lujan-type motion; a commercial respiratory motion simulator was also employed. The true motions were monitored using variable resistors. The beam ON/OFF was controlled separately by two RPM (Varian) systems, an integrated version delivered by a Varian Truebeam LINAC and version 1.6 delivered by a Varian Trilogy, and measured using a diode. The resistor and diode signals were read by a multichannel digital oscilloscope, and timing differences between beam ON/OFF as measured by the diode and the phantom motion were determined using a peak detection algorithm. Results: Timing differences between beam ON/OFF and 3D stage motion peaks (diode—true motion timing) were computed to be 79.4 & 57.7ms for sinusoidal motion and 109.1 & 63.6ms for Lujan-type motion on the Truebeam LINAC, for beam ON and OFF, respectively. Timing differences for the Trilogy LINAC were 34.4 & 55.2ms for the sinusoidal motion and 29.0 & 26.3ms for the Lujan-type motion, for beam ON and OFF, respectively. With the commercial motion simulator, the timing differences were found to be −9ms and −78ms for beam ON/OFF, respectively, with the Truebeam, and −97.6ms and −60.9ms for beam ON/OFF, respectively, with the Trilogy. Conclusion: Setup-dependent temporal lags were found using this methodology. These discrepancies have the potential to influence quality assurance on gating systems and ultimately

  8. Gate Access

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the laboratory. Visitors from outside the U.S. should be prepared to show a valid passport. See Access to the ALS for additional information about visitor procedures at the...

  9. GATING CIRCUITS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-10-14

    Control circuits for vacuum tubes are described, and a binary counter having an improved trigger circuit is reported. The salient feature of the binary counter is the application of the input signal to the cathode of each of two vacuum tubes through separate capacitors and the connection of each cathode to ground through separate diodes. The control of the binary counter is achieved in this manner without special pulse shaping of the input signal. A further advantage of the circuit is the simplicity and minimum nuruber of components required, making its use particularly desirable in computer machines.

  10. Pair importance measures in systems analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, R.; Xue, D.; Cho, N.

    1986-01-01

    Importance measures in systems unreliability (or unavailability) analysis provide useful information in identifying components which are critical with regard to the availability or reliability of a system. Various importance measures known in the reliability literature are defined for a single component. This paper extends previous work to define importance measures for a pair of components of the system (accident sequence, core damage frequency, or health risks as appropriate), and illustrates the usefulness of these pairwise importance measures in nuclear power plants. The pairwise importance measures are immediately applicable to risk-based evaluation of the technical specifications; in addition, pairwise importances could play an important role in systems interaction studies by highlighting pairs of events between which a coupling would be significant if it existed.

  11. Multi-scaled normal mode analysis method for dynamics simulation of protein-membrane complexes: A case study of potassium channel gating motion correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaokun; Han, Min; Ming, Dengming

    2015-10-07

    Membrane proteins play critically important roles in many cellular activities such as ions and small molecule transportation, signal recognition, and transduction. In order to fulfill their functions, these proteins must be placed in different membrane environments and a variety of protein-lipid interactions may affect the behavior of these proteins. One of the key effects of protein-lipid interactions is their ability to change the dynamics status of membrane proteins, thus adjusting their functions. Here, we present a multi-scaled normal mode analysis (mNMA) method to study the dynamics perturbation to the membrane proteins imposed by lipid bi-layer membrane fluctuations. In mNMA, channel proteins are simulated at all-atom level while the membrane is described with a coarse-grained model. mNMA calculations clearly show that channel gating motion can tightly couple with a variety of membrane deformations, including bending and twisting. We then examined bi-channel systems where two channels were separated with different distances. From mNMA calculations, we observed both positive and negative gating correlations between two neighboring channels, and the correlation has a maximum as the channel center-to-center distance is close to 2.5 times of their diameter. This distance is larger than recently found maximum attraction distance between two proteins embedded in membrane which is 1.5 times of the protein size, indicating that membrane fluctuation might impose collective motions among proteins within a larger area. The hybrid resolution feature in mNMA provides atomic dynamics information for key components in the system without costing much computer resource. We expect it to be a conventional simulation tool for ordinary laboratories to study the dynamics of very complicated biological assemblies. The source code is available upon request to the authors.

  12. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M; Sen, A; Parach, A; Kalantari, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  13. Extremely scaled high-k/In?.??Ga?.??As gate stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Mikheev, Evgeny; Zhang, Jack Y.; Mates, Thomas E.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2014-09-28

    Highly scaled gate dielectric stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities are required for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology with III-V semiconductor channels. Here, we show that a novel pre-deposition technique, consisting of alternating cycles of nitrogen plasma and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium, allows for HfO? and ZrO? gate stacks with extremely high accumulation capacitance densities of more than 5 ?F/cm? at 1 MHz, low leakage current, low frequency dispersion, and low midgap interface trap densities (10cm?eV?range). Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the interface contains TiO? and small quantities of In?O?, but no detectable Ga- or As-oxides, or As-As bonding. The results allow for insights into the microscopic mechanisms that control leakage and frequency dispersion in high-k/III-V gate stacks.

  14. Direct probing of electron and hole trapping into nano-floating-gate in organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Ze-Qun; Wang, Shun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Gao, Xu; Dong, Bin E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn Chi, Li-Feng E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn Wang, Sui-Dong E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn

    2015-03-23

    Electron and hole trapping into the nano-floating-gate of a pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory is directly probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The probing is straightforward and non-destructive. The measured surface potential change can quantitatively profile the charge trapping, and the surface characterization results are in good accord with the corresponding device behavior. Both electrons and holes can be trapped into the nano-floating-gate, with a preference of electron trapping than hole trapping. The trapped charge quantity has an approximately linear relation with the programming/erasing gate bias, indicating that the charge trapping in the device is a field-controlled process.

  15. Physics of gate leakage current in N-polar InAlN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Arunesh; Trew, Robert J.; Bilbro, Griff L.

    2014-10-28

    A physics based model of the gate leakage current in N-polar InAlN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistors is demonstrated. The model is based on the space charge limited current flow dominated by the effects of deep traps in the InAlN surface layer. The model predicts accurately the gate-leakage measurement data of the N-polar InAlN/GaN device with InAlN cap layer. In the pinch-off state, the gate leakage current conduction through the surface of the device in the drain access region dominates the current flow through the two dimensional electron gas channel. One deep trap level and two levels of shallow traps are extracted by fitting the model results with measurement data.

  16. Solution processed lanthanum aluminate gate dielectrics for use in metal oxide-based thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esro, M.; Adamopoulos, G.; Mazzocco, R.; Kolosov, O.; Krier, A.; Vourlias, G.; Milne, W. I.

    2015-05-18

    We report on ZnO-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) employing lanthanum aluminate gate dielectrics (La{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}O{sub y}) grown by spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere at 440 °C. The structural, electronic, optical, morphological, and electrical properties of the La{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}O{sub y} films and devices as a function of the lanthanum to aluminium atomic ratio were investigated using a wide range of characterization techniques such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and field-effect measurements. As-deposited LaAlO{sub y} dielectrics exhibit a wide band gap (∼6.18 eV), high dielectric constant (k ∼ 16), low roughness (∼1.9 nm), and very low leakage currents (<3 nA/cm{sup 2}). TFTs employing solution processed LaAlO{sub y} gate dielectrics and ZnO semiconducting channels exhibit excellent electron transport characteristics with hysteresis-free operation, low operation voltages (∼10 V), high on/off current modulation ratio of >10{sup 6}, subthreshold swing of ∼650 mV dec{sup −1}, and electron mobility of ∼12 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  17. Stem thrust prediction model for W-K-M double wedge parallel expanding gate valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldiwany, B.; Alvarez, P.D.; Wolfe, K.

    1996-12-01

    An analytical model for determining the required valve stem thrust during opening and closing strokes of W-K-M parallel expanding gate valves was developed as part of the EPRI Motor-Operated Valve Performance Prediction Methodology (EPRI MOV PPM) Program. The model was validated against measured stem thrust data obtained from in-situ testing of three W-K-M valves. Model predictions show favorable, bounding agreement with the measured data for valves with Stellite 6 hardfacing on the disks and seat rings for water flow in the preferred flow direction (gate downstream). The maximum required thrust to open and to close the valve (excluding wedging and unwedging forces) occurs at a slightly open position and not at the fully closed position. In the nonpreferred flow direction, the model shows that premature wedging can occur during {Delta}P closure strokes even when the coefficients of friction at different sliding surfaces are within the typical range. This paper summarizes the model description and comparison against test data.

  18. Top-gate organic depletion and inversion transistors with doped channel and injection contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xuhai; Kasemann, Daniel Leo, Karl

    2015-03-09

    Organic field-effect transistors constitute a vibrant research field and open application perspectives in flexible electronics. For a commercial breakthrough, however, significant performance improvements are still needed, e.g., stable and high charge carrier mobility and on-off ratio, tunable threshold voltage, as well as integrability criteria such as n- and p-channel operation and top-gate architecture. Here, we show pentacene-based top-gate organic transistors operated in depletion and inversion regimes, realized by doping source and drain contacts as well as a thin layer of the transistor channel. By varying the doping concentration and the thickness of the doped channel, we control the position of the threshold voltage without degrading on-off ratio or mobility. Capacitance-voltage measurements show that an inversion channel can indeed be formed, e.g., an n-doped channel can be inverted to a p-type inversion channel with highly p-doped contacts. The Cytop polymer dielectric minimizes hysteresis, and the transistors can be biased for prolonged cycles without a shift of threshold voltage, indicating excellent operation stability.

  19. Kinetic gating mechanism of DNA damage recognition by Rad4/XPC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Xuejing; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Zheng, Guanqun; Park, Beomseok; Shim, Yoonjung; Kim, Youngchang; Liu, Lili; Van Houten, Bennett; He, Chuan; Ansari, Anjum; et al

    2015-01-06

    The xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) complex initiates nucleotide excision repair by recognizing DNA lesions before recruiting downstream factors. How XPC detects structurally diverse lesions embedded within normal DNA is unknown. Here we present a crystal structure that captures the yeast XPC orthologue (Rad4) on a single register of undamaged DNA. The structure shows that a disulphide-tethered Rad4 flips out normal nucleotides and adopts a conformations similar to that seen with damaged DNA. Contrary to many DNA repair enzymes that can directly reject non-target sites as structural misfits, our results suggest that Rad4/XPC uses a kinetic gating mechanism whereby lesion selectivitymore » arises from the kinetic competition between DNA opening and the residence time of Rad4/XPC per site. This mechanism is further supported by measurements of Rad4-induced lesion-opening times using temperature-jump pertubation spectroscopy. Kinetic gating may be a general mechanism used by site-specific DNA-binding proteins to minimize time-consuming interrogations of non-target sites.« less

  20. "The gate-keepers in a changing world: integrating microbial diversity and dynamics with global change biology."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessica L.M. Gutknecht and Kathryn M. Docherty

    2011-11-01

    Microorganisms (Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi) are the gate-keepers of many ecosystem-scale biogeochemical cycles. Although there have been measurable changes in ecosystem function due to human activities such as greenhouse gas production, nutrient loading, land-use change, and water consumption, few studies have connected microbial community dynamics with these changes in ecosystem function. Specifically, very little is known about how global changes will induce important functional changes in microbial biodiversity. Even less is known about how microbial functional changes could alter rates of nutrient cycling or whether microbial communities have enough functional redundancy that changes will have little impact on overall process rates. The proposed symposium will provide an overview of this emerging research area, with emphasis on linking the microorganisms directly to important ecological functions under the influence of global change dynamics. The session will include both broad overviews as well as specific case-studies by researchers who examine microbial communities from a variety of taxonomic levels and from various environments. The session will begin broadly, with speakers discussing how microbial communities may inform ecosystem-scale global change studies, and help to make microbial ecological knowledge more tangible for a broad range of ecologists. The session will continue with case studies of microbial community information informing process in global change experiments. Finally, the session will close with speakers discussing how microbial community information might fit into global change models, and what types of information are useful for future studies. We have requested that speakers particularly incorporate their views on what types of microbial data is useful and informative in the context of larger ecosystem processes. We foresee that this session could serve as a focal point for global change microbial ecologists to meet and discuss their

  1. As you prepare for your upcoming beam time, please be aware that construction is planned to update SLAC Gate 17 with RFID proximity card access hardware and to change the stairs next to the Security hut to an ADA compliant ramp. Please forward this to your proposal collaborators (and ensure that all users have registered and completed training before they arrive). This construction is scheduled to begin Tuesday 5/28 and be completed by 6/28. During this construction, access to the LCLS and SSRL buildings and experimental facilities will be provided as follows: VEHICLES ONLY THROUGH GATE 17 5/28-6/28 0600-1530 (6 am-3:30 pm) Construction Zone. Only VEHICLE traffic will be allowed access through Gate 17 and flagman will provide traffic control. 1530-1800 (3:30-6:00 pm) Assumes construction will have stopped for the day; both traffic lanes will be open for vehicles. 1800-0600 (6 pm-6 am) As now, Gate 17 will be closed or barricaded overnight. PEDESTRIANS ONLY THROUGH GATE 16 5/28-6/28 The pedestrian turnstile at Gate 16A will not change. The turnstile is available for pedestrian use 24/7 as long as the individual has a valid SLAC ID badge (and there is a guard at Gate 30 to 'buzz' them through). 0700-1600 (6 am-4 pm) Pedestrians who would normally walk through Gate 17 will instead follow the detour to Gate 16 swing gate which will be unlocked and staffed by Security. A valid SLAC ID badge is needed to enter; new users without IDs will be allowed to proceed for check-in and badging after confirmation with the User Research Administration Office (see detour map attached). FYI - After the construction is completed and proximity card readers are fully functional, users and staff will enter Gates 17 and 30 using an activated RFID proximity card. More details to follow.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automated Proximity Access at Gate 17 and Sector 30 New SLAC ID badges with embedded RFID are used to activate these gates and for off-hours access at the main entrance off Sand Hill Road as well as Alpine Road (gates will be accessible 24/7) . New user badges include this proximity gate activation feature, but older photo IDs need to be updated. Users are advised to register, complete training and contact the User Research Administration (URA) office before arrival for beam time to help

  2. The Importance of Motor Shaft Alignment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Importance of Motor Shaft Alignment The objective of optimized shaft alignment is to ... While misalignment has no measurable effect on motor effciency, correct shaft alignment ...

  3. Update and Expansion of the Center of Automotive Technology Excellence Under the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irick, David

    2012-08-30

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has completed its seventh year of operation under this agreement, its thirteenth year in total. During this period the Center has involved eleven GATE Fellows and three GATE Research Assistants in preparing them to contribute to advanced automotive technologies in the centers focus area: Advanced Hybrid Propulsion and Control Systems. In addition to the impact that the Center has had on the students and faculty involved, the presence of the center has led to the acquisition of resources that probably would not have been obtained if the GATE Center had not existed. Significant industry interaction such as equipment donations, and support for GATE students has been realized. The value of the total resources brought to the university (including related research contracts) exceeds $2,000,000.

  4. Increasing Importance of Natural Gas Imports on the U.S. Marketplace

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    The growing importance of imported natural gas supplies in the U.S. marketplace, especially the northeast, is reflected in the two-fold increase in Canadian and overall net imports since 1990.

  5. Strategies of Asian oil-importing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.

    1997-04-01

    Various strategies are used by oil-importing countries to reduce their economic dependence on imported oil: national oil production, energy conservation, and the change of economic structures from high energy intensity sectors to low ones. In this article, the roles of these different strategies have been identified for 10 selected oil-importing countries in Asia: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Hong Kong, R.O Korea, and Taiwan. The results show that most of the selected countries (although Hong Kong and Taiwan are independent economic entities, for simplicity, the author refers to them as countries) have succeeded in reducing their national economy dependence on imported oil since 1973. Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and India are among the most successful countries, with more than 40% reduction in their economic dependence on imported oil.

  6. Fact #837: September 8, Gap between Net Imports and Total Imports of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum is Widening | Department of Energy 7: September 8, Gap between Net Imports and Total Imports of Petroleum is Widening Fact #837: September 8, Gap between Net Imports and Total Imports of Petroleum is Widening Net imports of petroleum (total imports minus exports) were 6.2 million barrels per day in 2013 - the lowest since the 1980's (dark blue line). The widening gap between total imports (light blue line) and net imports (dark blue line) is due to an increase in exports of

  7. Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8,515 8,460 8,445 8,597 8,548 8,488 1983-2016 Lower 48 8,033 8,033 8,020 8,120 8,065 8,015 2003-2016 Alaska 482 427 425 477 483 473 2003

    Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf January - December 2015 | Release Date: February 29, 2016 | Next Release Date: September 2016 2015 Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf Highlights It should be noted that several factors influence the source of a company's crude oil imports. For example, a company like Motiva, which is partly owned by Saudi Refining Inc.,

  8. Important Information | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Important Information Important Information From time to time, important information for subcontractors to Y-12 is posted on this web page. If you have a question that is not answered here, please contact Procurement at 865.576.8500. Taxes on sales to Y-12 are subject to the the provisions of the State of Tennessee Sales Tax Rule and Regulation Number 68. See the Y-12 Blanket Certificate of Resale (PDF), which includes the letter from the Tennessee Department of Revenue. Financial information,

  9. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigle N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

  10. Tuning the metal-insulator crossover and magnetism in SrRuO3 by ionic gating

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yi, Hee Taek; Gao, Bin; Xie, Wei; Cheong, Sang -Wook; Podzorov, Vitaly

    2014-10-13

    Reversible control of charge transport and magnetic properties without degradation is a key for device applications of transition metal oxides. Chemical doping during the growth of transition metal oxides can result in large changes in physical properties, but in most of the cases irreversibility is an inevitable constraint. We report a reversible control of charge transport, metal-insulator crossover and magnetism in field-effect devices based on ionically gated archetypal oxide system - SrRuO3. In these thin-film devices, the metal-insulator crossover temperature and the onset of magnetoresistance can be continuously and reversibly tuned in the range 90–250 K and 70–100 K, respectively,more » by application of a small gate voltage. We infer that a reversible diffusion of oxygen ions in the oxide lattice dominates the response of these materials to the gate electric field. These findings provide critical insights into both the understanding of ionically gated oxides and the development of novel applications.« less

  11. Dirac point and transconductance of top-gated graphene field-effect transistors operating at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopf, T.; Vassilevski, K. V., E-mail: k.vasilevskiy@ncl.ac.uk; Escobedo-Cousin, E.; King, P. J.; Wright, N. G.; O'Neill, A. G.; Horsfall, A. B.; Goss, J. P. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Wells, G. H.; Hunt, M. R. C. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-21

    Top-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) have been fabricated using bilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the Si-face of 4H-SiC substrates by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide in high vacuum. Graphene films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, and Hall measurements to estimate graphene thickness, morphology, and charge transport properties. A 27?nm thick Al?O? gate dielectric was grown by atomic layer deposition with an e-beam evaporated Al seed layer. Electrical characterization of the GFETs has been performed at operating temperatures up to 100?C limited by deterioration of the gate dielectric performance at higher temperatures. Devices displayed stable operation with the gate oxide dielectric strength exceeding 4.5 MV/cm at 100?C. Significant shifting of the charge neutrality point and an increase of the peak transconductance were observed in the GFETs as the operating temperature was elevated from room temperature to 100?C.

  12. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zhouxiang; Zhang Xian; Huang Kaikai; Lu Xuanhui

    2012-09-15

    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382/MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad{sup 2} and transition time of 100 {mu}s under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers.

  13. A New Gated X-Ray Detector for the Orion Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, David D.; Aragonez, Robert J.; Archuleta, Thomas N.; Fatherley, Valerie E.; Hsu, Albert H.; Jorgenson, H. J.; Mares, Danielle; Oertel, John A.; Oades, Kevin; Kemshall, Paul; Thomas, Philip; Young, Trevor; Pederson, Neal

    2012-08-08

    Gated X-Ray Detectors (GXD) are considered the work-horse target diagnostic of the laser based inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program. Recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has constructed three new GXDs for the Orion laser facility at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom. What sets these three new instruments apart from the what has previously been constructed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is: improvements in detector head microwave transmission lines, solid state embedded hard drive and updated control software, and lighter air box design and other incremental mechanical improvements. In this paper we will present the latest GXD design enhancements and sample calibration data taken on the Trident laser facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the newly constructed instruments.

  14. Magnetoelectric effects and valley-controlled spin quantum gates in transition metal dichalcogenide bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Zhirui; Liu, G. B.; Yu, Hongyi; Xiao, Di; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2013-01-01

    In monolayer group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides, charge carriers have spin and valley degrees of freedom, both associated with magnetic moments. On the other hand, the layer degree of freedom in multilayers is associated with electrical polarization. Here we show that transition metal dichalcogenide bilayers offer an unprecedented platform to realize a strong coupling between the spin, valley and layer pseudospin of holes. Such coupling gives rise to the spin Hall effect and spin-dependent selection rule for optical transitions in inversion symmetric bilayer and leads to a variety of magnetoelectric effects permitting quantum manipulation of these electronic degrees of freedom. Oscillating electric and magnetic fields can both drive the hole spin resonance where the two fields have valley-dependent interference, making an interplay between the spin and valley as information carriers possible for potential valley-spintronic applications. We show how to realize quantum gates on the spin qubit controlled by the valley bit.

  15. Ionizing radiation induced leakage current on ultra-thin gate oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Montera, F.; Ghibaudo, G.; Pananakakis, G.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1997-12-01

    MOS capacitors with a 4.4 nm thick gate oxide have been exposed to {gamma} radiation from a Co{sup 60} source. As a result, the authors have measured a stable leakage current at fields lower than those required for Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. This Radiation Induced Leakage Current (RILC) is similar to the usual Stress Induced Leakage Currents (SILC) observed after electrical stresses of MOS devices. They have verified that these two currents share the same dependence on the oxide field, and the RILC contribution can be normalized to an equivalent injected charge for Constant Current Stresses. They have also considered the dependence of the RILC from the cumulative radiation dose, and from the applied bias during irradiation, suggesting a correlation between RILC and the distribution of trapped holes and neutral levels in the oxide layer.

  16. Ripple gate drive circuit for fast operation of series connected IGBTs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, Joseph H.; Murray, Thomas W.; Bass, Kevin C.

    2005-09-20

    A ripple gate drive circuit includes a plurality of transistors having their power terminals connected in series across an electrical potential. A plurality of control circuits, each associated with one of the transistors, is provided. Each control circuit is responsive to a control signal and an optical signal received from at least one other control circuit for controlling the conduction of electrical current through the power terminals of the associated transistor. The control circuits are responsive to a first state of the control circuit for causing each transistor in series to turn on sequentially and responsive to a second state of the control signal for causing each transistor in series to turn off sequentially.

  17. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  18. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  19. Category:Imported Properties | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    D Property:Depiction F Property:FoafHomepage Property:FoafName Property:FoafPage K Property:Knows Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:Imported...

  20. On Field-Effect Photovoltaics: Gate Enhancement of the Power Conversion Efficiency in a Nanotube/Silicon-Nanowire Solar Cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Petterson, Maureen K.; Lemaitre, Maxime G.; Shen, Yu; Wadhwa, Pooja; Hou, Jie; Vasilyeva, Svetlana V.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Rinzler, Andrew G.

    2015-09-09

    Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in crystalline silicon Schottky junction solar cells distinguished by the use of low density of electronic states (DOS) nanocarbons (nanotubes, graphene) as the metal contacting the Si. Recently, unprecedented modulation of the power conversion efficiency in a single material system has been demonstrated in such cells by the use of electronic gating. The gate field induced Fermi level shift in the low-DOS carbon serves to enhance the junction built-in potential, while a gate field induced inversion layer at the Si surface, in regions remote from the junction, keeps the photocarriers well separatedmore » there, avoiding recombination at surface traps and defects (a key loss mechanism). Here, we extend these results into the third dimension of a vertical Si nanowire array solar cell. A single wall carbon nanotube layer engineered to contact virtually each n-Si nanowire tip extracts the minority carriers, while an ionic liquid electrolytic gate drives the nanowire body into inversion. The enhanced light absorption of the vertical forest cell, at 100 mW/cm2 AM1.5G illumination, results in a short-circuit current density of 35 mA/cm2 and associated power conversion efficiency of 15%. These results highlight the use of local fields as opposed to surface passivation as a means of avoiding front surface recombination. Finally, a deleterious electrochemical reaction of the silicon due to the electrolyte gating is shown to be caused by oxygen/water entrained in the ionic liquid electrolyte. While encapsulation can avoid the issue, a nonencapsulation-based approach is also implemented.« less

  1. Gate-modulated weak anti-localization and carrier trapping in individual Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Li-Xian; Yan, Yuan; Liao, Zhi-Min Yu, Da-Peng

    2015-02-09

    We report a gate-voltage modulation on the weak anti-localization of individual topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanoribbons. The phase coherence length decreases with decreasing the carrier density of the surface states on the bottom surface of the Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanoribbon as tuning the gate voltage from 0 to −100 V, indicating that the electron-electron interaction dominates the decoherence at low carrier density. Furthermore, we observe an abnormal conductance decline at positive gate voltage regime, which is ascribed to the capture of surface carriers by the trapping centers in the surface oxidation layer.

  2. Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Nakajima, Takashi; Zen, Heishun; Kii, Toshiteru; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2013-11-04

    The presence of a pulse train structure of an oscillator-type free-electron laser (FEL) results in the immediate damage of a solid target upon focusing. We demonstrate that the laser-induced damage threshold can be significantly improved by gating the mid-infrared FEL pulses with a plasma mirror. Although the switching pulses we employ have a nanosecond duration which does not guarantee the clean wavefront of the gated FEL pulses, the high focusability is experimentally confirmed through the observation of spectral broadening by a factor of 2.1 when we tightly focus the gated FEL pulses onto the Ge plate.

  3. Fact #837: September 8, Gap between Net Imports and Total Imports...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    day in 2013 - the lowest since the 1980's (dark blue line). The widening gap between total imports (light blue line) and net imports (dark blue line) is due to an increase in ...

  4. BTO Publishes Two Important BEM Documents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This week, BTO published two important and related documents regarding its BEM program. The first is the final revision of the BTO multi-year program plan (MYPP). In conjunction with the MYPP, BTO also published a set of program logic models that trace BTO activities to outputs and market outcomes.

  5. Evaluation of delivered monitor unit accuracy of gated step-and-shoot IMRT using a two-dimensional detector array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Lee, MeYeon; Kim, Su SSan; Park, SoAh; Hwang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Oh, Do Hoon; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To overcome the problem of organ motion in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), gated IMRT is often used for the treatment of lung cancer. In this study, the authors investigated the accuracy of the delivered monitor units (MUs) from each segment during gated IMRT using a two-dimensional detector array for user-specific verification purpose. Methods: The authors planned a 6 MV photon, seven-port step-and-shoot lung IMRT delivery. The respiration signals for gated IMRT delivery were obtained from the one-dimensional moving phantom using the real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The beams were delivered using a Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with the Millennium 120 MLC. The MatriXX (IBA Dosimetry GmbH, Germany) was validated through consistency and reproducibility tests as well as comparison with measurements from a Farmer-type ion chamber. The authors delivered beams with varying dose rates and duty cycles and analyzed the MatriXX data to evaluate MU delivery accuracy. Results: There was quite good agreement between the planned segment MUs and the MUs computed from the MatriXX within {+-}2% error. The beam-on times computed from the MatriXX data were almost identical for all cases, and they matched well with the RPM beam-on and beam-off signals. A slight difference was observed between them, but it was less than 40 ms. The gated IMRT delivery demonstrated an MU delivery accuracy that was equivalent to ungated IMRT, and the delivered MUs with a gating signal agreed with the planned MUs within {+-}0.5 MU regardless of dose rate and duty cycle. Conclusions: The authors can conclude that gated IMRT is able to deliver an accurate dose to a patient during a procedure. The authors believe that the methodology and results can be transferred to other vendors' devices, particularly those that do not provide MLC log data for a verification purpose.

  6. U.S. Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Import Area: U.S. Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile

  7. EIS-0153: Niagara Import Point Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of the proposed Niagara Import Point project that would construct an interstate natural gas pipeline to transport gas from Canada and domestic sources to the Northeastern United States market. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy was a cooperating agency during statement development and adopted this statement on 6/15/1990.

  8. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-15

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  9. Floating-Point Units and Algorithms for field-programmable gate arrays

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-01

    The software that we are attempting to copyright is a package of floating-point unit descriptions and example algorithm implementations using those units for use in FPGAs. The floating point units are best-in-class implementations of add, multiply, divide, and square root floating-point operations. The algorithm implementations are sample (not highly flexible) implementations of FFT, matrix multiply, matrix vector multiply, and dot product. Together, one could think of the collection as an implementation of parts of themore » BLAS library or something similar to the FFTW packages (without the flexibility) for FPGAs. Results from this work has been published multiple times and we are working on a publication to discuss the techniques we use to implement the floating-point units, For some more background, FPGAS are programmable hardware. "Programs" for this hardware are typically created using a hardware description language (examples include Verilog, VHDL, and JHDL). Our floating-point unit descriptions are written in JHDL, which allows them to include placement constraints that make them highly optimized relative to some other implementations of floating-point units. Many vendors (Nallatech from the UK, SRC Computers in the US) have similar implementations, but our implementations seem to be somewhat higher performance. Our algorithm implementations are written in VHDL and models of the floating-point units are provided in VHDL as well. FPGA "programs" make multiple "calls" (hardware instantiations) to libraries of intellectual property (IP), such as the floating-point unit library described here. These programs are then compiled using a tool called a synthesizer (such as a tool from Synplicity, Inc.). The compiled file is a netlist of gates and flip-flops. This netlist is then mapped to a particular type of FPGA by a mapper and then a place- and-route tool. These tools assign the gates in the netlist to specific locations on the specific type of FPGA chip used

  10. Possible Dynamically Gated Conductance along Heme Wires in Bacterial Multiheme Cytochromes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Dayle MA; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2014-07-24

    The staggered cross decaheme configuration of electron transfer co-factors in the outer-membrane cytochrome MtrF may serve as a prototype for conformationally-gated multi-heme electron transport. Derived from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis, the staggered cross configuration reveals intersecting c-type octaheme and tetraheme “wires” containing thermodynamic “hills” and “valleys”, suggesting that the protein structure may include a dynamical mechanism for conductance and pathway switching depending on enzymatic functional need. Recent molecular simulations have established the pair-wise electronic couplings, redox potentials, and reorganization energies to predict the maximum conductance along the various heme wire pathways by sequential hopping of a single electron (PNAS (2014) 11,611-616). Here, we expand this information with classical molecular and statistical mechanics calculations of large-amplitude protein dynamics in MtrF, to address its potential to modulate pathway conductance, including assessment of the effect of the total charge state. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of fully oxidized and fully reduced MtrF employing ten independent 50-ns simulations at 300 K and 1 atm showed that reduced MtrF is more expanded and explores more conformational space than oxidized MtrF, and that heme reduction leads to increased heme solvent exposure. The slowest mode of collective decaheme motion is 90% similar between the oxidized and reduced states, and consists primarily of inter-heme separation with minor rotational contributions. The frequency of this motion is 1.7×107 s 1 for fully-oxidized and fully-reduced MtrF, respectively, slower than the downhill electron transfer rates between stacked heme pairs at the octaheme termini and faster than the electron transfer rates between parallel hemes in the tetraheme chain. This implies that MtrF uses slow conformational fluctuations to modulate electron flow along the octaheme pathway

  11. Quantum Mechanical Calculations of Charge Effects on gating the KcsA channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kariev, Alisher M.; Znamenskiy, Vasiliy S.; Green, Michael E.

    2007-02-06

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A series of ab initio (density functional) calculations were carried out on side chains of a set of amino acids, plus water, from the (intracellular) gating region of the KcsA K+ channel. Their atomic coordinates, except hydrogen, are known from X-ray structures [D.A. Doyle, J.M. Cabral, R.A. Pfuetzner, A. Kuo, J.M. Gulbis, S.L. Cohen, B.T. Chait, R. MacKinnon, The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity, Science 280 (1998) 6977; R. MacKinnon, S.L. Cohen, A. Kuo, A. Lee, B.T. Chait, Structural conservation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic potassium channels, Science 280 (1998) 106109; Y. Jiang, A. Lee, J. Chen, M. Cadene, B.T. Chait, R. MacKinnon, The open pore conformation of potassium channels. Nature 417 (2001) 523526], as are the coordinates of some water oxygen atoms. The 1k4c structure is used for the starting coordinates. Quantum mechanical optimization, in spite of the starting configuration, places the atoms in positions much closer to the 1j95, more tightly closed, configuration. This state shows four water molecules forming a basket under the Q119 side chains, blocking the channel. When a hydrated K+ approaches this basket, the optimized system shows a strong set of hydrogen bonds with the K+ at defined positions, preventing further approach of the K+ to the basket. This optimized structure with hydrated K+ added shows an ice-like 12 molecule nanocrystal of water. If the water molecules exchange, unless they do it as a group, the channel will remain blocked. The basket itself appears to be very stable, although it is possible that the K+ with its hydrating water molecules may be more mobile, capable of withdrawing from

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing for Automotive, Truck and Mass Transit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Alabama at Birmingham at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing for Automotive, Truck and Mass Transit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Alabama Birmingham at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE Center...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing for Automotive, Truck and Mass Transit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Alabama at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE Center of...

  15. Palladium nanoparticle decorated silicon nanowire field-effect transistor with side-gates for hydrogen gas detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Yun, Jeonghoon; Park, Inkyu; KI for the NanoCentury, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701; Mobile Sensor and IT Convergence Center, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 ; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2014-01-06

    A silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) with local side-gates and Pd surface decoration is demonstrated for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) detection. The SiNW FETs are fabricated by top-down method and functionalized with palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) through electron beam evaporation for H{sub 2} detection. The drain current of the PdNP-decorated device reversibly responds to H{sub 2} at different concentrations. The local side-gates allow individual addressing of each sensor and enhance the sensitivity by adjusting the working region to the subthreshold regime. A control experiment using a non-functionalized device verifies that the hydrogen-sensitivity is originated from the PdNPs functionalized on the SiNW surface.

  16. All-metallic electrically gated 2H-TaSe{sub 2} thin-film switches and logic circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renteria, J.; Jiang, C.; Yan, Z.; Samnakay, R.; Goli, P.; Pope, T. R.; Salguero, T. T.; Wickramaratne, D.; Lake, R. K.; Khitun, A. G.; Balandin, A. A.

    2014-01-21

    We report the fabrication and performance of all-metallic three-terminal devices with tantalum diselenide thin-film conducting channels. For this proof-of-concept demonstration, the layers of 2H-TaSe{sub 2} were exfoliated mechanically from single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. Devices with nanometer-scale thicknesses exhibit strongly non-linear current-voltage characteristics, unusual optical response, and electrical gating at room temperature. We have found that the drain-source current in thin-film 2H-TaSe{sub 2}Ti/Au devices reproducibly shows an abrupt transition from a highly resistive to a conductive state, with the threshold tunable via the gate voltage. Such current-voltage characteristics can be used, in principle, for implementing radiation-hard all-metallic logic circuits. These results may open new application space for thin films of van der Waals materials.

  17. Studies of scattering mechanisms in gate tunable InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb two dimensional electron gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shojaei, B.; McFadden, A.; Schultz, B. D.; Shabani, J.; Palmstrøm, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    A study of scattering mechanisms in gate tunable two dimensional electron gases confined to InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb heterostructures with varying interface roughness and dislocation density is presented. By integrating an insulated gate structure the evolution of the low temperature electron mobility and single-particle lifetime was determined for a previously unexplored density regime, 10{sup 11}–10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}, in this system. Existing theoretical models were used to analyze the density dependence of the electron mobility and single particle lifetime in InAs quantum wells. Scattering was found to be dominated by charged dislocations and interface roughness. It was demonstrated that the growth of InAs quantum wells on nearly lattice matched GaSb substrate results in fewer dislocations, lower interface roughness, and improved low temperature transport properties compared to growth on lattice mismatched GaAs substrates.

  18. SciTech Connect: Website Policies / Important Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Website Policies / Important Links Website Policies / Important Links Javascript Not Enabled OSTI Security Website Policies and Important Links

  19. SciTech Connect: Website Policies / Important Links

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Website Policies / Important Links Website Policies / Important Links Javascript Not Enabled OSTI Security Website Policies and Important Links

  20. Microsoft Word - Class_1_PMN_New_Gate_East_Fence_Line_09_09_15_rev. 11

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kieling , Chief Hazardous Waste Bureau New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Building 1 Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505-6303 SEP 1 5 2015 Subject: Class 1 Permit Modification Notification to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number: NM4890139088-TSDF Dear Mr. Kieling: Enclosed is a Notification of Class 1 Permit Modifications covering the following items: * Revise Attachment A4, Figure A4-2 to Add the New East Gate * Revise Attachment A4, Section

  1. North Dakota Natural Gas Imports (No intransit Receipts) (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports (No intransit Receipts) (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Imports (No ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports (Summary) North Dakota U.S. Natural Gas Imports & ...

  2. HGP-A Wellhead Generator, Proof-Of-Feasibility Project 3 MW Wellhead Generator, Start-Up Training and Operating Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    The start-up manual is an information aid to initially familiarize plant operators with the plant operation and later be used as a reference manual while operating the plant. This start-up manual is supplemented by the Plant Data Manual which contains a detailed description of the philosophy of operation and equipment characteristics. The sequencing herein presents the necessary operating procedures which must be followed in order that a smooth start-up is obtained. The sequence includes, first conditioning the well and stabilizing the steam/water separations, and then bringing the operating machinery on line. The Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams and Electrical Drawings are included under Section 12.0 and are frequently referred to in the text. Information for ''trouble-shooting'' is provided in the maintenance and operations manuals on all the equipment.

  3. Catalyst selection important for residuum hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, R.L.; Chen, H.C.; Gibson, K.R.; Hung, C.

    1985-07-29

    The authors examine the effective hydro-processing of residuum from heavy crude oils, through proper catalyst selection. Utilizing proper catalyst selection and application can make residuum hydroprocessing an attractive process route to lighter products, allowing flexibility to handle a wide range of feedstock properties. Chevron has analyzed the important catalyst properties and how they affect catalyst selection for, and catalyst application to, different residuum processing routes to transportation fuels. They have also examined the role of hydroprocessing in those routes. Data were obtained from commercial operation in Chevron's Richmond, Calif., and Pascagoula, Miss., refineries.

  4. Protonic/electronic hybrid oxide transistor gated by chitosan and its full-swing low voltage inverter applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Jin Yu; Zhu, Li Qiang Xiao, Hui; Yuan, Zhi Guo

    2015-12-21

    Modulation of charge carrier density in condensed materials based on ionic/electronic interaction has attracted much attention. Here, protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by chitosan based electrolyte were obtained. The chitosan-based electrolyte illustrates a high proton conductivity and an extremely strong proton gating behavior. The transistor illustrates good electrical performances at a low operating voltage of ∼1.0 V such as on/off ratio of ∼3 × 10{sup 7}, subthreshold swing of ∼65 mV/dec, threshold voltage of ∼0.3 V, and mobility of ∼7 cm{sup 2}/V s. Good positive gate bias stress stabilities are obtained. Furthermore, a low voltage driven resistor-loaded inverter was built by using an IZO transistor in series with a load resistor, exhibiting a linear relationship between the voltage gain and the supplied voltage. The inverter is also used for decreasing noises of input signals. The protonic/electronic hybrid IZO transistors have potential applications in biochemical sensors and portable electronics.

  5. Cryogenic on-chip multiplexer for the study of quantum transport in 256 split-gate devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Taie, H. Kelly, M. J.; Smith, L. W.; Xu, B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; See, P.

    2013-06-17

    We present a multiplexing scheme for the measurement of large numbers of mesoscopic devices in cryogenic systems. The multiplexer is used to contact an array of 256 split gates on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, in which each split gate can be measured individually. The low-temperature conductance of split-gate devices is governed by quantum mechanics, leading to the appearance of conductance plateaux at intervals of 2e{sup 2}/h. A fabrication-limited yield of 94% is achieved for the array, and a “quantum yield” is also defined, to account for disorder affecting the quantum behaviour of the devices. The quantum yield rose from 55% to 86% after illuminating the sample, explained by the corresponding increase in carrier density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. The multiplexer is a scalable architecture, and can be extended to other forms of mesoscopic devices. It overcomes previous limits on the number of devices that can be fabricated on a single chip due to the number of electrical contacts available, without the need to alter existing experimental set ups.

  6. A High Temperature Silicon Carbide mosfet Power Module With Integrated Silicon-On-Insulator-Based Gate Drive

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Shi, Xiaojie; Tolbert, Leon M.; Wang, Fei Fred; Liang, Zhenxian; Costinett, Daniel; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2014-04-30

    Here we present a board-level integrated silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET power module for high temperature and high power density application. Specifically, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based gate driver capable of operating at 200°C ambient temperature is designed and fabricated. The sourcing and sinking current capability of the gate driver are tested under various ambient temperatures. Also, a 1200 V/100 A SiC MOSFET phase-leg power module is developed utilizing high temperature packaging technologies. The static characteristics, switching performance, and short-circuit behavior of the fabricated power module are fully evaluated at different temperatures. Moreover, a buck converter prototype composed of the SOI gate drivermore » and SiC power module is built for high temperature continuous operation. The converter is operated at different switching frequencies up to 100 kHz, with its junction temperature monitored by a thermosensitive electrical parameter and compared with thermal simulation results. The experimental results from the continuous operation demonstrate the high temperature capability of the power module at a junction temperature greater than 225°C.« less

  7. Raman spectra and electron-phonon coupling in disordered graphene with gate-tunable doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childres, Isaac; Jauregui, Luis A.; Chen, Yong P.

    2014-12-21

    We report a Raman spectroscopy study of graphene field-effect transistors with a controlled amount of defects introduced in graphene by exposure to electron-beam irradiation. Raman spectra are taken at T = 8 K over a range of back gate voltages (V{sub g}) for various irradiation dosages (R{sub e}). We study effects in the Raman spectra due to V{sub g}-induced doping and artificially created disorder at various R{sub e}. With moderate disorder (irradiation), the Raman G peak with respect to the graphene carrier density (n{sub FE}) exhibits a minimum in peak frequency and a maximum in peak width near the charge-neutral point (CNP). These trends are similar to those seen in previous works on pristine graphene and have been attributed to a reduction of electron-phonon coupling strength (D) and removal of the Kohn anomaly as the Fermi level moves away from the CNP. We also observe a maximum in I{sub 2D}/I{sub G} and weak maximum in I{sub D}/I{sub G} near the CNP. All the observed dependences of Raman parameters on n{sub FE} weaken at stronger disorder (higher R{sub e}), implying that disorder causes a reduction of D as well. Our findings are valuable for understanding Raman spectra and electron-phonon physics in doped and disordered graphene.

  8. A novel solution to the gated x-ray detector gain droop problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J. A. Archuleta, T. N.

    2014-11-15

    Microchannel plate (MCP), microstrip transmission line based, gated x-ray detectors used at the premier ICF laser facilities have a drop in gain as a function of mircostrip length that can be greater than 50% over 40 mm. These losses are due to ohmic losses in a microstrip coating that is less than the optimum electrical skin depth. The electrical skin depth for a copper transmission line at 3 GHz is 1.2 μm while the standard microstrip coating thickness is roughly half a single skin depth. Simply increasing the copper coating thickness would begin filling the MCP pores and limit the number of secondary electrons created in the MCP. The current coating thickness represents a compromise between gain and ohmic loss. We suggest a novel solution to the loss problem by overcoating the copper transmission line with five electrical skin depths (∼6 μm) of Beryllium. Beryllium is reasonably transparent to x-rays above 800 eV and would improve the carrier current on the transmission line. The net result should be an optically flat photocathode response with almost no measurable loss in voltage along the transmission line.

  9. Evaluation of soft-core processors on a Xilinx Virtex-5 field programmable gate array.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Learn, Mark Walter

    2011-04-01

    Node-based architecture (NBA) designs for future satellite projects hold the promise of decreasing system development time and costs, size, weight, and power and positioning the laboratory to address other emerging mission opportunities quickly. Reconfigurable field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based modules will comprise the core of several of the NBA nodes. Microprocessing capabilities will be necessary with varying degrees of mission-specific performance requirements on these nodes. To enable the flexibility of these reconfigurable nodes, it is advantageous to incorporate the microprocessor into the FPGA itself, either as a hard-core processor built into the FPGA or as a soft-core processor built out of FPGA elements. This document describes the evaluation of three reconfigurable FPGA-based soft-core processors for use in future NBA systems: the MicroBlaze (uB), the open-source Leon3, and the licensed Leon3. Two standard performance benchmark applications were developed for each processor. The first, Dhrystone, is a fixed-point operation metric. The second, Whetstone, is a floating-point operation metric. Several trials were run at varying code locations, loop counts, processor speeds, and cache configurations. FPGA resource utilization was recorded for each configuration.

  10. Radial-directed fluid-pressure-loaded all-metal-sealed gate valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    A large diameter gate valve uses a radially directed fluid pressure loaded all metal seal formed by engaging and disengaging a fixed and a moveable seal element. The fixed element is formed of a circular flange which contains a pressure chamber with a deformable wall, and is mounted to the valve body. The moving seal element contains an annular recess which mates with the circular flange, and is carried on a moveable sub-frame which moves on a frame fixed in the valve body. The valve opening defines an axis in a first direction, and the sub-frame moves through the valve body in a second direction which is substantially perpendicular to the first direction. The sub-frame and moveable seal element move in the second direction until the moveable element reaches a stop mounted in the valve body at which position the moveable element is aligned with but spaced apart from the fixed element. As the sub-frame continues to move in the second direction, the moveable element is forced to move toward and engage the fixed element. The pressure chamber in the flange is then pressurized to complete the seal.

  11. Proposal for a graphene-based all-spin logic gate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Li; Zhao, Weisheng; Zhang, Yue; Querlioz, Damien; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Dollfus, Philippe; Bournel, Arnaud; Zhang, Youguang

    2015-02-16

    In this work, we present a graphene-based all-spin logic gate (G-ASLG) that integrates the functionalities of perpendicular anisotropy magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with spin transport in graphene-channel. It provides an ideal integration of logic and memory. The input and output states are defined as the relative magnetization between free layer and fixed layer of p-MTJs. They can be probed by the tunnel magnetoresistance and controlled by spin transfer torque effect. Using lateral non-local spin valve, the spin information is transmitted by the spin-current interaction through graphene channels. By using a physics-based spin current compact model, the operation of G-ASLG is demonstrated and its performance is analyzed. It allows us to evaluate the influence of parameters, such as spin injection efficiency, spin diffusion length, contact area, the device length, and their interdependence, and to optimize the energy and dynamic performance. Compared to other beyond-CMOS solutions, longer spin information transport length (∼μm), higher data throughput, faster computing speed (∼ns), and lower power consumption (∼μA) can be expected from the G-ASLG.

  12. Flexible stainless steel hose liner used to rehab drain pipe for seal gates and outlet tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, S.J.; Monsanto, R. )

    1993-08-01

    Not unlike other dams, the Bureau of Reclamation's 6,500-MW Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State has a large amount of embedded piping, conduits, and drains. Typically, these features were constructed of ductile iron, cast iron, or carbon steel materials. Over the years, excessive internal corrosion of the drains for 102-inch ring seal gates and outlet tubes created leaks that required attention. Reclamation performed a number of temporary repairs before it became evident that the drain system must be rehabilitated. After considering several alternatives for rehabilitation, Reclamation selected stainless steel flexible hose liners for the job. Reclamation is satisfied with the performance of the stainless steel flexible hose liner. The total cost for installing the liners for nine drain lines (for three outlet tubes) was $15,000. Of that, materials cost $7,500, and labor and overhead cost $7,500. The inserts themselves cost from $640 for an 18-foot by 6-inch section. While this was not the least expensive option, it was the best choice for this job. The procedure will be repeated for other outlet tubes at Grand Coulee. Information used in this rehabilitation is being made available to other Reclamation projects.

  13. Highgate Springs, VT LNG Imports from Canada

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Hidalgo, TX Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Mexico (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.26 2.31 2.03 2.09 2000's 5.85 4.61 2.26 -- -- 8.10 5.53 6.23 5.55 4.40 2010's 4.21 -- -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016

  14. Table 18. U.S. Coal Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. U.S. Coal Imports (short tons) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 240,168 341,205 171,698 240,168 171,698 39.9 Canada 239,440 341,189 171,631 239,440 171,631 39.5 Mexico 728 16 67 728 67 NM South America Total 2,196,295 2,163,485 2,347,074 2,196,295 2,347,074 -6.4 Colombia 2,190,869 2,133,033 2,299,716 2,190,869 2,299,716 -4.7 Peru 5,426 30,452 11,661 5,426 11,661 -53.5

  15. Table 20. Coal Imports by Customs District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Coal Imports by Customs District (short tons) Year to Date Customs District January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change Eastern Total 312,200 225,584 520,059 312,200 520,059 -40.0 Baltimore, MD - 10,410 - - - - Boston, MA 278,171 102,581 396,373 278,171 396,373 -29.8 Buffalo, NY 71 - 9 71 9 NM New York City, NY 773 44 443 773 443 74.5 Portland, ME - 85,166 93,061 - 93,061 - Providence, RI 33,185 27,383 30,173 33,185 30,173 10.0 Southern Total

  16. Table 21. U.S. Coke Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. U.S. Coke Imports (short tons) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 2,763 52,115 2,035 2,763 2,035 35.8 Canada 2,763 52,115 2,035 2,763 2,035 35.8 Europe Total 1,056 1,156 14 1,056 14 NM Austria - 3 - - - - France - 23 - - - - Germany, Federal Republic of - - 11 - 11 - Italy 1,043 976 - 1,043 - - Spain - 141 - - - - United Kingdom 13 13 3 13 3 333.3 Asia Total 457 326 954 457

  17. U.S. Imports & Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period: Weekly 4-Week Avg. Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 07/29/16 08/05/16 08/12/16 08/19/16 08/26/16 09/02/16 View History Imports Total 10,918 10,607 10,364 11,169 11,036 9,103 1991-2016 Crude Oil 8,738 8,404 8,193 8,642 8,917 7,069 1990-2016 Commercial 8,738 8,404 8,193

  18. E-print Network Website Policies and Important Links -- Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Website Policies Important Links Javascript Not Enabled OSTI Security Website Policies and Important Links

  19. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  20. An improved gate valve for critical applications in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, M.S.; Alvarez, P.D.; Wang, J.K.; Somagyi, D.

    1996-12-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Generic Letters 89-10 for motor-operated valves (MOVs) and 95-07 for all power-operated valves document in detail the problems related to the performance of the safety-related valves in nuclear power plants. The problems relate to lack of reliable operation under design basis conditions including higher than anticipated stem thrust, unpredictable valve behavior, damage to the valve internals under blowdown/high flow conditions, significant degradation of performance when cycled under AP and flow, thermal binding, and pressure locking. This paper describes an improved motor-operated flexible wedge gate valve design, the GE Sentinel Valve, which is the outcome of a comprehensive and systematic development effort undertaken to resolve the issues identified in the NRC Generic Letters 89-10 and 95-07. The new design provides a reliable, long-term, low maintenance cost solution to the nuclear power industry. One of the key features incorporated in the disc permits the disc flexibility to be varied independently of the disc thickness (pressure boundary) dictated by the ASME Section III Pressure Vessel & Piping Code stress criteria. This feature allows the desired flexibility to be incorporated in the disc, thus eliminating thermal binding problems. A matrix of analyses was performed using finite element and computational fluid dynamics approaches to optimize design for stresses, flexibility, leak-tightness, fluid flow, and thermal effects. The design of the entire product line was based upon a consistent set of analyses and design rules which permit scaling to different valve sizes and pressure classes within the product line. The valve meets all of the ASME Section III Code design criteria and the N-Stamp requirements. The performance of the valve was validated by performing extensive separate effects and plant in-situ tests. This paper summarizes the key design features, analyses, and test results.

  1. High horizontal movements in longwall gate roads controlled by cable support systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolinar, D.R.; Tadolini, S.C.; Blackwell, D.V.

    1996-12-01

    Controlling coal mine roofs subjected to high-horizontal stress conditions has always been difficult and uncertain. Traditional supports such as wooden cribs and posts, concrete donut cribs, and standing supports collapse and fail when the roof and floor move horizontally as mining progresses. The former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) (currently the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)), in cooperation with Western Fuels-Utah, Incorporated, conducted research to provide an alternative for traditional secondary support systems in a 3-entry gate road system subjected to high horizontal movements. The support system used in several other coal mine operations, consisted of internal high-strength galvanized resin-grouted cable supports. The system virtually eliminates the necessity for external crib, timber, or concrete supports. The support system consisted of 2.4 m (8 ft) full-column resin grouted bolts and 4.8 m (16 ft) long cable supports installed in conjunction with wire mesh and {open_quotes}Monster-Mats.{close_quotes} Cable loading and roof deformations were monitored to evaluate the behavior of the immediate and main roofs during first and second panel extractions. Additionally, cable trusses were installed on the longwall headgate to protect the coal conveyance system from roof and pillar falls created by the formation of cutters and gutters. The test results indicated that the designed support system successfully maintained the roof during the extraction of two longwall panels and dramatically reduced the cost of secondary support. This paper describes the theory of high-horizontal roof movements, the advantages of vertical cable supports and cable trusses, and presents the roof and cable measurements made to assess the support performance during longwall retreat mining.

  2. Vermont Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Vermont Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per ... 06302016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports Price Vermont U.S. Natural Gas Imports & ...

  3. Washington Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per ... 06302016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports Price Washington U.S. Natural Gas Imports ...

  4. North Dakota Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports Price North Dakota U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports ...

  5. Natural Gas Imports and Exports - Third Quarter Report 2012 ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  19. Geometric validation of self-gating k-space-sorted 4D-MRI vs 4D-CT using a respiratory motion phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Yong Yang, Wensha; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Tuli, Richard; Wallace, Robert; Fraass, Benedick; Fan, Zhaoyang; Pang, Jianing; Deng, Zixin; Li, Debiao

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: MRI is increasingly being used for radiotherapy planning, simulation, and in-treatment-room motion monitoring. To provide more detailed temporal and spatial MR data for these tasks, we have recently developed a novel self-gated (SG) MRI technique with advantage of k-space phase sorting, high isotropic spatial resolution, and high temporal resolution. The current work describes the validation of this 4D-MRI technique using a MRI- and CT-compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: The 4D-MRI sequence is based on a spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection reconstruction sequence with self-gating for 4D-MRI at 3 T. Respiratory phase is resolved by using SG k-space lines as the motion surrogate. 4D-MRI images are reconstructed into ten temporal bins with spatial resolution 1.56 × 1.56 × 1.56 mm{sup 3}. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed to validate the performance of the 4D-MRI sequence and 4D-CT imaging. A spherical target (diameter 23 mm, volume 6.37 ml) filled with high-concentration gadolinium (Gd) gel is embedded into a plastic box (35 × 40 × 63 mm{sup 3}) and stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The phantom, driven by an air pump, is able to produce human-type breathing patterns between 4 and 30 respiratory cycles/min. 4D-CT of the phantom has been acquired in cine mode, and reconstructed into ten phases with slice thickness 1.25 mm. The 4D images sets were imported into a treatment planning software for target contouring. The geometrical accuracy of the 4D MRI and CT images has been quantified using target volume, flattening, and eccentricity. The target motion was measured by tracking the centroids of the spheres in each individual phase. Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Results: The dynamic phantom has been operated in four respiratory rate (RR) settings, 6, 10, 15, and 20/min, and was scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT. 4D-CT images have target

  20. Method and infrastructure for cycle-reproducible simulation on large scale digital circuits on a coordinated set of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asaad, Sameh W; Bellofatto, Ralph E; Brezzo, Bernard; Haymes, Charles L; Kapur, Mohit; Parker, Benjamin D; Roewer, Thomas; Tierno, Jose A

    2014-01-28

    A plurality of target field programmable gate arrays are interconnected in accordance with a connection topology and map portions of a target system. A control module is coupled to the plurality of target field programmable gate arrays. A balanced clock distribution network is configured to distribute a reference clock signal, and a balanced reset distribution network is coupled to the control module and configured to distribute a reset signal to the plurality of target field programmable gate arrays. The control module and the balanced reset distribution network are cooperatively configured to initiate and control a simulation of the target system with the plurality of target field programmable gate arrays. A plurality of local clock control state machines reside in the target field programmable gate arrays. The local clock state machines are configured to generate a set of synchronized free-running and stoppable clocks to maintain cycle-accurate and cycle-reproducible execution of the simulation of the target system. A method is also provided.

  1. Stem thrust prediction model for Westinghouse wedge gate valves with linkage type stem-to-disk connection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.K.; Sharma, V.; Kalsi, M.S.

    1996-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a comprehensive research program with the objective of providing nuclear utilities with analytical methods to predict motor operated valve (MOV) performance under design basis conditions. This paper describes the stem thrust calculation model developed for evaluating the performance of one such valve, the Westinghouse flexible wedge gate valve. These procedures account for the unique functional characteristics of this valve design. In addition, model results are compared to available flow loop and in situ test data as a basis for evaluating the performance of the valve model.

  2. Bell's Inequality and Universal Quantum Gates in a Cold-Atom Chiral Fermionic p-Wave Superfluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Chuanwei; Tewari, Sumanta; Das Sarma, S.

    2007-11-30

    We propose and analyze a probabilistic scheme to entangle two spatially separated topological qubits in a p{sub x}+ip{sub y} superfluid using controlled collisions between atoms in movable dipole traps and unpaired atoms inside vortex cores in the superfluid. We discuss how to test the violation of Bell's inequality with the generated entanglement. A set of universal quantum gates is shown to be implementable deterministically using the entanglement despite the fact that the entangled states can be created only probabilistically.

  3. Natural Gas Imports and Exports - Quarterly Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Imports and Exports - Quarterly Reports Natural Gas Imports and Exports - Quarterly Reports May 11, 2016 Natural Gas Imports and Exports Fourth Quarter Report 2015 February 3, 2016 Natural Gas Imports and Exports Third Quarter Report 2015 October 30, 2015 Natural Gas Imports and Exports Second Quarter Report 2015 Natural Gas Imports and Exports Second Quarter Report 2015 August 13, 2015 Natural Gas Imports and Exports First Quarter Report 2015 Natural Gas Imports and Exports First

  4. Technical Feasibility Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting on the Golden Gate Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2012-09-01

    Subsequent to preliminary investigations by the Golden Gate Bridge Highway & Transportation District (GGB), in coordination with Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the GATEWAY Demonstration program was asked to evaluate the technical feasibility of replacing existing roadway lighting on the bridge with products utilizing LED technology. GGB and PG&E also indicated interest in induction (i.e., electrodeless fluorescent) technology, since both light source types feature rated lifetimes significantly exceeding those of the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) and low-pressure sodium (LPS) products. The goal of the study was to identify any solutions which would reduce energy use and maintenance without compromising the quantity or quality of existing illumination. Products used for roadway lighting on the historic bridge must be installed within the existing amber-lensed shoebox-style luminaire housings. It was determined that induction technology does not appear to represent a viable alternative for the roadway luminaires in this application; any energy savings would be attributable to a reduction in light levels. Although no suitable LED retrofit kits were identified for installation within existing luminaire housings, several complete LED luminaires were found to offer energy savings of 6-18%, suggesting custom LED retrofit kits could be developed to match or exceed the performance of the existing shoeboxes. Luminaires utilizing ceramic metal halide (CMH) were also evaluated, and some were found to offer 28% energy savings, but these products might actually increase maintenance due to the shorter rated lamp life. Plasma technology was evaluated, as well, but no suitable products were identified. Analysis provided in this report was completed in May 2012. Although LED technologies are expected to become increasingly viable over time, and product mock-ups may reveal near-term solutions, some options not currently considered by GGB may ultimately merit evaluation. For

  5. Understanding the Structure of High-K Gate Oxides - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miranda, Andre

    2015-08-25

    Hafnium Oxide (HfO2) amorphous thin films are being used as gate oxides in transistors because of their high dielectric constant (κ) over Silicon Dioxide. The present study looks to find the atomic structure of HfO2 thin films which hasn’t been done with the technique of this study. In this study, two HfO2 samples were studied. One sample was made with thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of a Chromium and Gold layer on a silicon wafer. The second sample was made with plasma ALD on top of a Chromium and Gold layer on a Silicon wafer. Both films were deposited at a thickness of 50nm. To obtain atomic structure information, Grazing Incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) was carried out on the HfO2 samples. Because of this, absorption, footprint, polarization, and dead time corrections were applied to the scattering intensity data collected. The scattering curves displayed a difference in structure between the ALD processes. The plasma ALD sample showed the broad peak characteristic of an amorphous structure whereas the thermal ALD sample showed an amorphous structure with characteristics of crystalline materials. This appears to suggest that the thermal process results in a mostly amorphous material with crystallites within. Further, the scattering intensity data was used to calculate a pair distribution function (PDF) to show more atomic structure. The PDF showed atom distances in the plasma ALD sample had structure up to 10 Å, while the thermal ALD sample showed the same structure below 10 Å. This structure that shows up below 10 Å matches the bond distances of HfO2 published in literature. The PDF for the thermal ALD sample also showed peaks up to 20 Å, suggesting repeating atomic spacing outside the HfO2 molecule in the sample. This appears to suggest that there is some crystalline structure within the thermal ALD sample.

  6. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, Andrew J. Page, Michael R.; Young, Justin R.; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris; Jacob, Jan; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar

    2014-12-15

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  7. Fact #837: September 8, 2014 Gap between Net Imports and Total Imports of Petroleum is Widening – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #837: Gap between Net Imports and Total Imports of Petroleum is Widening

  8. Structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin, two snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins that target cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels: implications for movement of the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Yasuo; Brown, R. Lane; Fujimoto, Zui; Morita, Takashi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    The structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin suggest that both proteins bind to cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in a manner in which the concave surface occludes the pore entrance. Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels play pivotal roles in sensory transduction by retinal photoreceptors and olfactory neurons. The elapid snake toxins pseudechetoxin (PsTx) and pseudecin (Pdc) are the only known protein blockers of CNG channels. These toxins belong to a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family containing an N-terminal pathogenesis-related proteins of group 1 (PR-1) domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD). PsTx and Pdc are highly homologous proteins, but their blocking affinities on CNG channels are different: PsTx blocks both the olfactory and retinal channels with ∼15–30-fold higher affinity than Pdc. To gain further insights into their structure and function, the crystal structures of PsTx, Pdc and Zn{sup 2+}-bound Pdc were determined. The structures revealed that most of the amino-acid-residue differences between PsTx and Pdc are located around the concave surface formed between the PR-1 domain and the CRD, suggesting that the concave surface is functionally important for CNG-channel binding and inhibition. A structural comparison in the presence and absence of Zn{sup 2+} ion demonstrated that the concave surface can open and close owing to movement of the CRD upon Zn{sup 2+} binding. The data suggest that PsTx and Pdc occlude the pore entrance and that the dynamic motion of the concave surface facilitates interaction with the CNG channels.

  9. Current collapse imaging of Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsuno, Takashi Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2014-06-23

    Two-dimensional current collapse imaging of a Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device was achieved by optical electric field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG measurements can detect the electric field produced by carriers trapped in the on-state of the device, which leads to current collapse. Immediately after (e.g., 1, 100, or 800 μs) the completion of drain-stress voltage (200 V) in the off-state, the second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 2 μm from the gate edge on the drain electrode. The SH signal intensity became weak with time, which suggests that the trapped carriers are emitted from the trap sites. The SH signal location supports the well-known virtual gate model for current collapse.

  10. Gate-tunable high mobility remote-doped InSb/In{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}Sb quantum well heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Wei E-mail: MSokolich@hrl.com; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Thorp, Jacob; Noah, Ramsey; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Bui, Steven; Rajavel, Rajesh D.; Hussain, Tahir; Gyure, Mark F.; Sokolich, Marko E-mail: MSokolich@hrl.com; Kratz, Philip; Qian, Qi; Manfra, Michael J.; Pribiag, Vlad S.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Marcus, Charles M.

    2015-04-06

    Gate-tunable high-mobility InSb/In{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}Sb quantum wells (QWs) grown on GaAs substrates are reported. The QW two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel mobility in excess of 200 000 cm{sup 2}/V s is measured at T = 1.8 K. In asymmetrically remote-doped samples with an HfO{sub 2} gate dielectric formed by atomic layer deposition, parallel conduction is eliminated and complete 2DEG channel depletion is reached with minimal hysteresis in gate bias response of the 2DEG electron density. The integer quantum Hall effect with Landau level filling factor down to 1 is observed. A high-transparency non-alloyed Ohmic contact to the 2DEG with contact resistance below 1 Ω·mm is achieved at 1.8 K.

  11. Quantum transport of two-species Dirac fermions in dual-gated three-dimensional topological insulators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Yang; Miotkowski, Ireneusz; Chen, Yong P.

    2016-05-04

    Topological insulators are a novel class of quantum matter with a gapped insulating bulk, yet gapless spin-helical Dirac fermion conducting surface states. Here, we report local and non-local electrical and magneto transport measurements in dual-gated BiSbTeSe2 thin film topological insulator devices, with conduction dominated by the spatially separated top and bottom surfaces, each hosting a single species of Dirac fermions with independent gate control over the carrier type and density. We observe many intriguing quantum transport phenomena in such a fully tunable two-species topological Dirac gas, including a zero-magnetic-field minimum conductivity close to twice the conductance quantum at the doublemore » Dirac point, a series of ambipolar two-component half-integer Dirac quantum Hall states and an electron-hole total filling factor zero state (with a zero-Hall plateau), exhibiting dissipationless (chiral) and dissipative (non-chiral) edge conduction, respectively. As a result, such a system paves the way to explore rich physics, ranging from topological magnetoelectric effects to exciton condensation.« less

  12. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal of contaminated materials at the Elza Gate site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared in support of the proposed removal action for cleanup of radioactive and chemically contaminated soil at the Elza Gate site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This property became contaminated as a result of storage of ore residues, equipment, and other materials for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup of portions of the site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. In December 1990 an area known as Pad 1 was abrasively scoured to remove surface contamination, and in March 1991 removal of Pad 1 contamination was begun under a separate EE/CA. This EE/CA is intended to cover the remaining portions of the site for which the Department of Energy has responsibility. It has been determined that an EE/CA report is appropriate documentation for the proposed removal action. This EE/CA covers removal of contaminated soils and contaminated concrete rubble from the Elza Gate site. The primary objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify and describe the preferred removal action, and to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of contaminants from the property into the environment and that will minimize the associated threats to human health or welfare and the environment. The preferred alternative is disposition on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 30 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Nonvolatile “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT” Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S.

    2013-12-21

    Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices.

  14. U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1920's 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.08 1930's 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 1940's 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.06 1950's 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.13 1960's 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.17 1970's 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.22 0.30 0.44 0.58 0.79 0.91 1.18 1980's 1.59 1.98 2.46 2.59 2.66 2.51 1.94 1.67 1.69 1.69 1990's 1.71 1.64 1.74 2.04 1.85

  15. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9190us3m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9190us3m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"8/30/2016 8:19:45 PM" "Back to

  16. U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.56 2.60 2.62 2.62 1983 2.66 2.66 2.58 2.53 2.53 2.59 2.52 2.58 2.67 2.58 2.60 2.61 1984 2.67 2.71 2.67 2.64 2.67 2.70 2.68 2.69 2.62 2.63 2.61 2.57 1985 2.64 2.71 2.62 2.64 ...

  17. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Date:","12312015" ,"Next Release Date:","01292016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9190us3a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:tonto.eia.govdnavnghistn9190us3a.htm"...

  18. Final report on HGP-a wellhead generator proof-of-feasibility project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.

    1982-10-01

    The construction of the 3 MW geothermal power plant at HGP-A well was completed in June, 1981. The HGP-A started production on June 12, 1981. Numerous problems developed during the plant startup and shakedown periods. However, the plant was formally turned over to Hawaii Electric Light Company (HELCO), the local utility company on March 1, 1982. Currently, all systems are functioning well and all major objectives have been met. The plan is to operate the power plant through 1990 where long term equipment and material information and reservoir characteristics can be obtained.

  19. Geothermal Resources Development - HGP-A Wellhead Generator Proof of Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    Project: A 3 MW plant with single flash steam system. Totally enclosed plant building integrated with a visitors' center, within a fully developed site. Location: Puna District, Island of Hawaii. Construction Cost: US $8,000,000. Completed: Schedule completion August 1980. (This plant was officially dedicated, July 17, 1981 and is currently delivering energy to HELCO Power System in Hawaii. HELCO is operating this plant for the University of Hawaii). Services: Concept studies, preliminary design, final design, procurement and construction management.

  20. Why is shale gas important? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Why is shale gas important? Why is shale gas important? Why is shale gas important? (1.27 MB) More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Glossary How is shale gas produced?

  1. Natural Gas Imports and Exports First Quarter Report 2015 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Imports and Exports First Quarter Report 2015 Natural Gas Imports and Exports First Quarter Report 2015 1Q2015.pdf More Documents & Publications Natural Gas Imports and...

  2. New York Natural Gas Imports (No intransit Receipts) (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    New York Natural Gas Imports (No intransit Receipts) (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports (Summary) New York U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports ...

  3. New York Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports Price New York U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports ...

  4. Detailed Monthly and Annual LNG Import Statistics (2004-2012...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Monthly and Annual LNG Import Statistics (2004-2012) Detailed Monthly and Annual LNG Import Statistics (2004-2012) (1.07 MB) More Documents & Publications U.S. LNG Imports and ...

  5. Natural Gas Imports and Exports Second Quarter Report 2015 |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Natural Gas Imports and Exports Second Quarter Report 2015 Natural Gas Imports and Exports Second Quarter Report 2015 (3.03 MB) More Documents & Publications Natural Gas Imports ...

  6. Natural Gas Imports and Exports Fourth Quarter Report 2014 |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Natural Gas Imports and Exports Fourth Quarter Report 2014 Natural Gas Imports and Exports Fourth Quarter Report 2014 (13.84 MB) More Documents & Publications Natural Gas Imports ...

  7. ,"New York Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...20NY3","N3035NY3","NA1570SNY3","N3045NY3" "Date","New York Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","New York Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand ...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (LNG) arena, where imports increased to over 1.3 Bcf per day due to a plant performance test being conducted last week. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (LNG) arena, where imports increased to over 1.3 Bcf per day due to a plant performance test being conducted last week. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage...

  10. The Importance of Motor Shaft Alignment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Importance of Motor Shaft Alignment The Importance of Motor Shaft Alignment The objective of optimized shaft alignment is to increase the operating life span of rotating ...

  11. US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports Source: Energy Information Administration Short Term Energy Outlook. Chart by Daniel...

  12. US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports Source: Energy Information Administration Short Term Energy Outlook. Chart by Daniel ...

  13. Energy Secretary Bodman in Turkey to Highlight Importance of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Highlight Importance of Expanding Oil and Gas Supply and Infrastructure Energy Secretary Bodman in Turkey to Highlight Importance of Expanding Oil and Gas Supply and Infrastructure ...

  14. Guide to Federal Regulation of Sales of Imported Electricity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GUIDE TO FEDERAL REGULATION OF SALES OF IMPORTED ELECTRICITY IN CANADA, MEXICO, AND THE ... Introduction This Guide to Federal Regulation of Sales of Imported Electricity in Canada, ...

  15. Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery...

  16. DOE Researchers Achieve Important Genetic Breakthroughs to Help...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Researchers Achieve Important Genetic Breakthroughs to Help Develop Cheaper Biofuels DOE Researchers Achieve Important Genetic Breakthroughs to Help Develop Cheaper Biofuels ...

  17. California Energy Standards Recognize the Importance of Filter...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    California Energy Standards Recognize the Importance of Filter Selection - Building America Top Innovation California Energy Standards Recognize the Importance of Filter Selection ...

  18. Report of International Electric Import/Export Data: Form OE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Electric ImportExport Data: Form OE-781R Instructions Report of International Electric ImportExport Data: Form OE-781R Instructions Instructions for completing Form ...

  19. Price of Compressed Houlton ME Natural Gas Imports from Canada...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Houlton ME Natural Gas Imports from Canada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Compressed Houlton ME Natural Gas Imports from Canada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year ...

  20. Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking October ...