National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gasoline-grade tertiary butyl

  1. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  2. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1983-01-01

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C.sub.4 hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether.

  3. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1983-03-01

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

  4. Butyl Fuel LLC formerly Environmental Energy Inc | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Butyl Fuel LLC formerly Environmental Energy Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Butyl Fuel LLC (formerly Environmental Energy Inc) Place: Ohio Zip: 43004 Product:...

  5. Vapor pressures of methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether, isopropyl tert-butyl ether, tert-amyl methyl ether, and tert-amyl ethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraehenbuehl, M.A.; Gmehling, J. . Technische Chemie)

    1994-10-01

    The vapor pressures of methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether, isopropyl tert-butyl ether, tert-amyl methyl ether, and tert-amyl ethyl ether were measured by ebulliometry or the static method in the pressure ranges 14--102 and 3--835 kPa (methyl tert-butyl ether), respectively. The data were correlated using the Antoine and Wagner equations. The experimental data of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether were compared with data available in the literature.

  6. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binder, Thomas; Erpelding, Michael; Schmid, Josef; Chin, Andrew; Sammons, Rhea; Rockafellow, Erin

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  7. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Butyl Acrylate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate March 25, 2015 Principal Investigator Thomas P. Binder ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND COMPANY 2 Where does ADM fit with the IBR? * Ensuring a supply of technology for future growth is a priority for ADM Research * Corn stover utilization may enable continued growth in starch supply while starting a new industry around a currently underutilized material James R Randall Research Center Decatur, IL ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND COMPANY 3 Quad

  8. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolites on HL-60 cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.H.; Shen, Y.; Shen, H.M.

    1996-12-31

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used oxygenate in unleaded gasoline; however, few studies have been conducted on the toxicity of this compound. This study evaluates the cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of MTBE and its metabolites in a human haemopoietic cell line, HL-60. The metabolites of MTBE studied include tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA), and formaldehyde. Comet assay is used to assess DNA damage, and the cytotoxicity is investigated by lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) release. The results show no significant cytotoxic effects of MTBE, TBA, and HIBA over a concentration ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Formaldehyde, in contrast, causes a substantial LDH release at a concentration of 5 {mu}M. Hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative agent, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, produces a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, whereas a much higher concentration of MTBE (1 to 30 mM) is required to produce a similar observation. The genotoxic effects of TBA and HIBA appear to be identical to that of MTBE. Conversely, DNA damage is observed for formaldehyde at a relatively low concentration range (5 to 100 {mu}M). These findings suggest that MTBE and its metabolites, except formaldehyde, have relatively low cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  9. N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Glue Embolization of Arterial Networks to Facilitate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hepatic Arterial Skeletonization before Radioembolization (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Glue Embolization of Arterial Networks to Facilitate Hepatic Arterial Skeletonization before Radioembolization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Glue Embolization of Arterial Networks to Facilitate Hepatic Arterial Skeletonization before Radioembolization Purpose. Avoidance of nontarget microsphere deposition via hepatoenteric anastomoses is

  10. Cooperative Tertiary Interaction Network Guides RNA Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, R.M.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-04-08

    Noncoding RNAs form unique 3D structures, which perform many regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme by single-base substitutions. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and native PAGE. Double- and triple-mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on the stability of the native state. Instead, the formation of core and peripheral structural motifs is cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native helix orientation. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses nonnative structures and guides the search for the native state. We suggest that cooperativity in noncoding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures conducive to forming a unique, stable fold.

  11. Hydrogen Atom Reactivity toward Aqueous tert-Butyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lymar S. V.; Schwarz, H.A.

    2012-02-09

    Through a combination of pulse radiolysis, purification, and analysis techniques, the rate constant for the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH {yields} H{sub 2} + {sm_bullet}CH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}OH reaction in aqueous solution is definitively determined to be (1.0 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, which is about half of the tabulated number and 10 times lower than the more recently suggested revision. Our value fits on the Polanyi-type, rate-enthalpy linear correlation ln(k/n) = (0.80 {+-} 0.05){Delta}H + (3.2 {+-} 0.8) that is found for the analogous reactions of other aqueous aliphatic alcohols with n equivalent abstractable H atoms. The existence of such a correlation and its large slope are interpreted as an indication of the mechanistic similarity of the H atom abstraction from {alpha}- and {beta}-carbon atoms in alcohols occurring through the late, product-like transition state. tert-Butyl alcohol is commonly contaminated by much more reactive secondary and primary alcohols (2-propanol, 2-butanol, ethanol, and methanol), whose content can be sufficient for nearly quantitative scavenging of the H atoms, skewing the H atom reactivity pattern, and explaining the disparity of the literature data on the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH rate constant. The ubiquitous use of tert-butyl alcohol in pulse radiolysis for investigating H atom reactivity and the results of this work suggest that many other previously reported rate constants for the H atom, particularly the smaller ones, may be in jeopardy.

  12. TABLE33.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ethers intended for motor gasoline blending...

  13. TABLE34.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ethers intended for motor gasoline blending...

  14. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peru, Deborah A.

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  15. Thermodynamic properties and ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for butyl vinyl ether, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, methyl glycolate, bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, 5-vinylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, trans-azobenzene, butyl acrylate, di-tert-butyl ether, and hexane-1,6-diol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.

    1996-11-01

    Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of butyl vinyl ether, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, methyl glycolate, bicyclo-[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, 5-vinylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, trans-azobenzene, butyl acrylate, di-tert-butyl ether, and hexane-1,6-diol are reported. Enthalpies of fusion were determined for bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene and trans-azobenzene. Two-phase (solid + vapor) or (liquid + vapor) heat capacities were determined from 300 K to the critical region or earlier decomposition temperature for each compound studied. Liquid-phase densities along the saturation line were measured for bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene. For butyl vinyl ether and 1,2-dimethoxyethane, critical temperatures and critical densities were determined from the dsc results and corresponding critical pressures derived from the fitting procedures. Fitting procedures were used to derive critical temperatures, critical pressures, and critical densities for bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, 5-vinylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, trans-azobenzene, butyl acrylate, and di-tert-butyl ether. Group-additivity parameters or ring-correction terms useful in the application of the Benson group-contribution correlations were derived.

  16. Supply Impacts of an MTBE Ban

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the supply impacts of removing methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline.

  17. Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsudin, Intan Juliana; Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda

    2014-09-03

    Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan as the polymer matrix and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Bmim][OAc] as charge carriers were prepared by solution casting technique. Complexes with various amount of ionic liquid loading were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing weight percent of ionic liquid. The highest ionic conductivity of the charged chitosan-[Bmim][OAc] was 2.44 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 90 wt.% of [Bmim][OAc] content at ambient temperature. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has proven the interaction between chitosan and [Bmim][OAc]. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) has shown that the amorphosity of the complexes increase as the amount of [Bmim][OAc] increase.

  18. Method and apparatus for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivas, N.; Beichel, R.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons from oil fields comprising: a. a bipropellant generator capable of producing exhaust gases at supercritical pressures and temperatures; b. transport means for carrying the exhaust gases into a well bore, at least a portion of the well bore extending into a hydrocarbon bearing formation from which hydrocarbons are to be recovered; c. means for introducing water into the transport means; and d. a water cooling jacket extending into at least the upper portion of the well bore, the center of the cooling jacket receiving the exhaust gases from the transport means, means being provided for the introduction of chemical additives through a portion of the cooling jacket. A process is described for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons from geological formations comprising: a. providing a well bore extending at least into the strata of the geologic formation containing the hydrocarbons to be recovered; b. providing at least the upper portion of the well bore with a cooling jacket, the cooling jacket being provided with a central, open portion; c. generating gases at supercritical temperatures and pressures; d. introducing water into the supercritical gases to form steam; e. forcing the mixture of supercritical combustion gases and steam through the central open portion of the cooling jacket and the well bore into the hydrocarbon strata; and f. adding chemical additives to the mixture of combustion gases and steam below the cooling jacket.

  19. Features of the spectral dependences of transmittance of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted lutetium phthalocyanine molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Dronov, M. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2011-11-15

    Vibronic properties of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted phthalocyanine lutetium diphthalocyanine molecules are studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that substitution of several carbon atoms in initial phthalocyanine (Pc) ligands with {sup 13}C isotope atoms causes a spectral shift in the main absorption lines attributed to benzene, isoindol, and peripheral C-H groups. A comparison of spectral characteristics showed that the shift can vary from 3 to 1 cm{sup -1}.

  20. Method for photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate by tri-N-butyl phosphate and application of this method to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Poorter, Gerald L.; Rofer-De Poorter, Cheryl K.

    1978-01-01

    Uranyl ion in solution in tri-n-butyl phosphate is readily photochemically reduced to U(IV). The product U(IV) may effectively be used in the Purex process for treating spent nuclear fuels to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(III) is readily separated from uranium in solution in the tri-n-butyl phosphate by an aqueous strip.

  1. N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Glue Embolization of Arterial Networks to Facilitate Hepatic Arterial Skeletonization before Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuelson, Shaun D.; Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Avoidance of nontarget microsphere deposition via hepatoenteric anastomoses is essential to the safety of yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE). The hepatic hilar arterial network may remain partially patent after coil embolization of major arteries, resulting in persistent risk. We retrospectively reviewed cases where n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) glue embolization was used to facilitate endovascular hepatic arterial skeletonization before RE. Methods. A total of 543 RE procedures performed between June 2004 and March 2012 were reviewed, and 10 were identified where n-BCA was used to embolize hepatoenteric anastomoses. Arterial anatomy, prior coil embolization, and technical details were recorded. Outcomes were reviewed to identify subsequent complications of n-BCA embolization or nontarget RE. Results. The rate of complete technical success was 80 % and partial success 20 %, with one nontarget embolization complication resulting in a minor change in treatment plan. No evidence of gastrointestinal or biliary ischemia or infarction was identified, and no microsphere-related gastroduodenal ulcerations or other evidence of nontarget RE were seen. Median volume of n-BCA used was <0.1 ml. Conclusion. n-BCA glue embolization is useful to eliminate hepatoenteric networks that may result in nontarget RE, especially in those that persist after coil embolization of major vessels such as the gastroduodenal and right gastric arteries.

  2. Distribution of 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Bistrifluoromethylsulfonimide in Mesoporous Silica as a Function of Pore Filling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Kee Sung; Wang, Xiqing; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Rotational dynamics of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methlyimidazolium bistrifluoromethylsulfonimide, [C4mim][Tf2N], 1, as a neat liquid and confined in mesoporous silica were investigated by 1H spin-spin (T2) and spin-lattice (T1) relaxation measurements and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Translational dynamics (self-diffusion) were monitored via the diffusion coefficient, D, obtained with 1H pulsed field gradient NMR measurements. These data were used to determine the distribution of 1 in the pores of KIT-6, a mesoporous silica with a bicontinuous gyroid pore structure, as a function of filling fraction. Relaxation studies performed as a function of filling factor and temperature, reveal a dynamic heterogeneity in both translational and rotational motions for 1 at filling factors, f, = 0.2-1.0 (f = 1 corresponds to fully filled pores). Spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times reveal the motion of 1 in silica mesopores conform to that expected for a two-dimensional relaxation model. The relaxation dynamics are interpreted using a two-state, fast exchange model for all motions; a slow rotation (and translation) of molecules in contact with the surface and a faster motion approximated by the values for bulk relaxation and diffusion. 1 retains liquid like behavior at all filling factors and temperatures that extend to ca. 50 degrees below the bulk melting point. Translational motion in these systems, interpreted with MD-simulated diffusivity limits, confirms the high propensity of 1 to form a monolayer film on the silica surface at low filling factors.. The attractive interaction of 1 with the surface is greater than that for self-association of 1. The trends in diffusion data at short and long diffusion time suggest that the population of surface-bound 1 is in intimate contact with 1 in the pores. This condition is most easily met at higher filling fractions with successive additions of 1 increasing the layer thickness built up on the surface layer.

  3. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillham, T.H.

    1997-09-10

    The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  4. West Hackberry tertiary project. Annual report, September 3, 1994--September 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-05-01

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form and additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  5. Dosimetric measurements of an n-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization material for arteriovenous malformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labby, Zacariah E.; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J.; Pandey, Aditya S.; Roberts, Donald A.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic regimen for cranial arteriovenous malformations often involves both stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular embolization. Embolization agents may contain tantalum or other contrast agents to assist the neurointerventionalists, leading to concerns regarding the dosimetric effects of these agents. This study investigated dosimetric properties of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) plus lipiodol with and without tantalum powder. Methods: The embolization agents were provided cured from the manufacturer with and without added tantalum. Attenuation measurements were made for the samples and compared to the attenuation of a solid water substitute using a 6 MV photon beam. Effective linear attenuation coefficients (ELAC) were derived from attenuation measurements made using a portal imager and derived sample thickness maps projected in an identical geometry. Probable dosimetric errors for calculations in which the embolized regions are overridden with the properties of water were calculated using the ELAC values. Interface effects were investigated using a parallel plate ion chamber placed at set distances below fixed samples. Finally, Hounsfield units (HU) were measured using a stereotactic radiosurgery CT protocol, and more appropriate HU values were derived from the ELAC results and the CT scanners HU calibration curve. Results: The ELAC was 0.0516 0.0063 cm{sup ?1} and 0.0580 0.0091 cm{sup ?1} for n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively, compared to 0.0487 0.0009 cm{sup ?1} for the water substitute. Dose calculations with the embolized region set to be water equivalent in the treatment planning system would result in errors of ?0.29% and ?0.93% per cm thickness of n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively. Interface effects compared to water were small in magnitude and limited in distance for both embolization materials. CT values at 120 kVp were 2082 and 2358 HU for n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively; dosimetrically

  6. Tension-compression-tension tertiary twins in coarse-grained polycrystalline pure magnesium at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Qin; Jiang, Yanyao; Wang, Jian

    2015-04-07

    Using electron backscatter diffraction, the microstructural features of tension–compression–tension (T–C–T) tertiary twins are studied in coarse-grained pure polycrystalline magnesium subjected to monotonic compression along the extrusion direction in ambient air. T–C–T tertiary twins are developed due to the formation of a compression–tension double twin inside a primary tension twin. All the observed T–C–T twin variants are of TiCjTj type. TiCi+1Ti+1 (or TiCi–1Ti–1) variants are observed more frequently than TiCi+2Ti+2 (or TiCi–2Ti–2) variants. Moreover, the number of tertiary twin lamellae increases with the applied compressive strain.

  7. MTBE Production Economics (Released in the STEO April 2001)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the causes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) price increases in 2000.

  8. Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael

    2013-02-01

    Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 %C2%B0C. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (%236 and %2310), one commercially available formulation (%2321), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl %2310 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl %2310 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

  9. Computational Study of Molecular Structure and Self-Association of Tri-n-butyl Phosphates in n-Dodecane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vo, Quynh N.; Hawkins, Cory; Dang, Liem X.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nguyen, Hung D.

    2015-01-29

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate is an important extractant used in solvent extraction process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. To understand the fundamental molecular level behavior of extracting agents in solution, an atomistic parameterization study was carried out using the AMBER force field to model TBP molecule and n-dodecane molecule, a commonly used organic solvent, for molecular dynamics simulations. For validation of the optimized force field, various thermophysical properties of pure TBP and pure n-dodecane in the bulk liquid phase such as mass density, dipole moment, self-diffusion coefficient and heat of vaporization were calculated and compared favorably with experimental values. The molecular structure of TBPs in n-dodecane at various TBP concentrations was examined based on radial distribution functions and 2D potential mean force, which was used as criteria for identifying TBP aggregates. The dimerization constant of TBP in n-dodecane was also obtained and matches the experimental value. The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences funded the work performed by LXD.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Tri-n-butyl-phosphate/n-Dodecane Mixture: Thermophysical Properties and Molecular Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Almeida, Valmor F; Cui, Shengting; Khomami, Bamin

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane mixture in the liquid phase have been carried out using two recently developed TBP force field models (J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 305) in combination with the all-atom optimized potentials for liquid simulations (OPLS-AA) force field model for n-dodecane. Specifically, the electric dipole moment of TBP, mass density of the mixture, and the excess volume of mixing were computed with TBP mole fraction ranging from 0 to 1. It is found that the aforementioned force field models accurately predict the mass density of the mixture in the entire mole fraction range. Commensurate with experimental measurements, the electric dipole moment of the TBP was found to slightly increase with the mole fraction of TBP in the mixture. Also, in accord with experimental data, the excess volume of mixing is positive in the entire mole fraction range, peaking at TBP mole fraction range 0.3 0.5. Finally, a close examination of the spatial pair correlation functions between TBP molecules, and between TBP and n-dodecane molecules, revealed formation of TBP dimers through self-association at close distance, a phenomenon with ample experimental evidence.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of n-hexane at 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisal, Martin; Izak, Pavel

    2013-07-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of n-hexane adsorbed onto the interface of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([bmim][Tf{sub 2}N]) are performed at three n-hexane surface densities, ranged from 0.7 to 2.3 {mu}mol/m{sup 2} at 300 K. For [bmim][Tf{sub 2}N] room-temperature ionic liquid, we use a non-polarizable all-atom force field with the partial atomic charges based on ab initio calculations for the isolated ion pair. The net charges of the ions are {+-}0.89e, which mimics the anion to cation charge transfer and polarization effects. The OPLS-AA force field is employed for modeling of n-hexane. The surface tension is computed using the mechanical route and its value decreases with increase of the n-hexane surface density. The [bmim][Tf{sub 2}N]/n-hexane interface is analyzed using the intrinsic method, and the structural and dynamic properties of the interfacial, sub-interfacial, and central layers are computed. We determine the surface roughness, global and intrinsic density profiles, and orientation ordering of the molecules to describe the structure of the interface. We further compute the survival probability, normal and lateral self-diffusion coefficients, and re-orientation correlation functions to elucidate the effects of n-hexane on dynamics of the cations and anions in the layers.

  12. Field pilot tests for tertiary recovery using butane and propane injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco, E.F.; Garcia, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    This work describes a pilot project for tertiary recovery of liquid hydrocarbons through LPG injection in water-out sections of the Bolivar reservoir in La Pena Field, Santa Cruz, Boliva. The promising results obtained in the initial field miscibility tests, as well as the results from a mathematical model built to stimulate and evaluate the tertiary recovery project, directed subsequent work into a cyclic scheme for enhanced recovery. This scheme is explained and injection production data is presented. Field facilities built to handle both the injected LPG and the produced oil-LPG mixture are described. The oil/LPG ratio and the LPG recovered/injected fraction are the main factors measured in this to make further considerations for a full scale project.

  13. Laramide thrusting and Tertiary deformation Tierra Caliente, Michoacan and Guerrero States, southwestern Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.A.; Harrison, C.G.A. ); Lang, H. ); Barros, J.A.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    1990-05-01

    Field investigations and detailed interpretations of Landsat Thematic Mapper images are in progress to improve understanding of regional structure and tectonics of the southernmost extension of the North American cordillera. Two areas have been selected within the Ciudad Altamirano 1:250,000 topographical sheet for geologic mapping and structural interpretation at 1:50,000 scale. The authors results to date require modification of previous ideas concerning the style and timing of deformations, the role and timing of terrane accretion in the overall tectonic history of the region, and the importance of southern Mexico to investigations of the tectonic evolution of the plates in the region. The relative sequence of deformation in the area correlates well with variations in relative motion between North America and plates in the Pacific. Post-Campanian thrusts and generally eastward-verging folds deformed the Mesozoic sequence during the (Laramide equivalent) Hidalgoan orogeny, associated with high-velocity east-west convergence with the Farallon plate that began about 70 Ma. The resulting unconformity was covered by the Tertiary Balsas Formation, a thick sequence of mostly continental clastics. The Tertiary stratigraphy is regionally and sometimes locally variable, but it can be divided into two members. The lower member is relatively volcanic poor and more deformed, and it lies below a regionally significant mid-Tertiary unconformity, which may mark a change to northeast-directed convergence with the Farallon plate sometime prior to 40 Ma. Continued mid-Tertiary deformation in southern Mexico may be related to eastward movement of the Chortis block and the resulting truncation of the Pacific margin of Mexico. The authors also suggest a tentative correlation between the volcaniclastic member of the Lower Cretaceous San Lucas Formation and the protolith of the Roca Verde metamorphics to the east.

  14. Tension-compression-tension tertiary twins in coarse-grained polycrystalline pure magnesium at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Qin; Jiang, Yanyao; Wang, Jian

    2015-04-07

    Using electron backscatter diffraction, the microstructural features of tension–compression–tension (T–C–T) tertiary twins are studied in coarse-grained pure polycrystalline magnesium subjected to monotonic compression along the extrusion direction in ambient air. T–C–T tertiary twins are developed due to the formation of a compression–tension double twin inside a primary tension twin. All the observed T–C–T twin variants are of TiCjTj type. TiCi+1Ti+1 (or TiCi–1Ti–1) variants are observed more frequently than TiCi+2Ti+2 (or TiCi–2Ti–2) variants. Moreover, the number of tertiary twin lamellae increases with the applied compressive strain.

  15. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-04-10

    The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic. The first quarter of 1996 was outstanding both in terms of volume of air injected and low cost operations. More air was injected during this quarter than in any preceding quarter. The compressors experienced much improved run time with minimal repairs. Low operating costs resulted from no repairs required for injection or production wells. A discussion of the following topics are contained herein: (1) performance summary for the injection and production wells, (2) air compressor operations, (3) updated bottom hole pressure data, (4) technology transfer activities and (5) plans for the upcoming quarter.

  16. Spherules from the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay at Gubbio, Italy: the problem of outcrop contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanari, A.

    1986-12-01

    Surficial outcrop contamination has occurred in some well-known stratigraphic sections of carbonate rocks in the northern Apennines. A critical case involves several contaminated clay partings, including the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay in the classic Bottaccione section near Gubbio, Italy. These clay layers contain shiny spherules which, in several recent studies, have been said to consist of volcanic glass and have been used to support the hypothesis that the terminal Cretaceous mass extinction was caused by widespread volcanism. Laboratory tests, however, indicate that these shiny spherules are made of HF-insoluble and combustible material and are therefore of recent biological origin. These objects were introduced into the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay and other clay layers from the surrounding soil along with abundant detrital contaminants derived from erosion of the middle Miocene flysch exposed at the head of the Bottaccione Gorge. They are completely different from the altered and flattened microtektitelike spheroids that are found only in the iridium-rich Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay and that provide strong evidence for a large impact.

  17. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether, benzene, and total hydrocarbons at the Singapore-Malaysia causeway immigration checkpoint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, C.; Ong, H.Y.; Kok, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the extent and levels of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile emissions in a group of immigration officers at a busy cross-border checkpoint. A majority (80%) of the workers monitored were exposed to benzene at levels between 0.01 and 0.5 ppm, with only 1.2% exceeding the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration occupational exposure limit of 1 ppm. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 8-hr time-weighted average exposure were 0.03 ppm, 0.9 ppm, and 2.46 ppm for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, and total hydrocarbons (THC), respectively. The highest time-weighted average concentrations measured were 1.05 ppm for MTBE, 2.01 ppm for benzene, and 34 ppm for THC. It was found that motorbikes emitted a more significant amount of pollutants compared with motor cars. On average, officers at the motorcycle booths were exposed to four to five times higher levels of VOCs (GMs of 0.07 ppm, 0.23 ppm, and 4.7 ppm for MTBE, benzene, and THC) than their counterparts at the motor car booths (GMs of 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 1.5 ppm). The airborne concentrations of all three pollutants correlated with the flow of vehicle traffic. Close correlations were also noted for the concentrations in ambient air for the three pollutants measured. Benzene and MTBE had a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The overall findings showed that the concentrations of various VOCs were closely related to the traffic density, suggesting that they were from a common source, such as exhaust emissions from the vehicles. The results also indicated that although benzene, MTBE, and THC are known to be volatile, a significant amount could still be detected in the ambient environment, thus contributing to our exposure to these compounds. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Portal Vein Embolization before Right Hepatectomy: Improved Results Using n-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Compared to Microparticles Plus Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiu, Boris Bize, Pierre; Gunthern, Daniel; Demartines, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin; Denys, Alban

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is currently no consensus in the literature on which embolic agent induces the greatest degree of liver hypertrophy after portal vein embolization (PVE). Only experimental results in a pig model have demonstrated an advantage of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) over 3 other embolic materials (hydrophilic gel, small and large polyvinyl alcohol particles) for PVE. Therefore, the aim of this human study was to retrospectively compare the results of PVE using NBCA with those using spherical microparticles plus coils. Methods: A total of 34 patients underwent PVE using either NBCA (n = 20), or spherical microparticles plus coils (n = 14). PVE was decided according to preoperative volumetry on the basis of contrast-enhanced CT. Groups were compared for age, sex, volume of the left lobe before PVE and future remnant liver ratio (FRL) (volume of the left lobe/total liver volume - tumor volume). The primary end point was the increase in left lobe volume 1 month after PVE. Secondary end points were procedure complications and biological tolerance. Results: Both groups were similar in terms of age, sex ratio, left lobe volume, and FRL before PVE. NBCA induced a greater increase in volume after PVE than did microparticles plus coils (respectively, +74 {+-} 69 % and +23 {+-} 14 %, p < 0.05). The amount of contrast medium used for the procedure was significantly larger when microparticles and coils rather than NBCA were used (respectively, 264 {+-} 43 ml and 162 {+-} 34 ml, p < 0.01). The rate of PVE complications as well as the biological tolerance was similar in both groups. Conclusion: NBCA seems more effective than spherical microparticles plus coils to induce left-lobe hypertrophy.

  19. Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonventre, Josephine A.; Kung, Tiffany S.; White, Lori A.; Cooper, Keith R.

    2013-12-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE

  20. Anastomosing grabens, low-angle faults, and Tertiary thrust( ) faults, western Markagunt Plateau, southwestern Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, F.; Sable, E.G. )

    1993-04-01

    A structurally complex terrane composed of grabens and horsts, low-angle faults, Tertiary thrust( ) faults, gravity-slide blocks, and debris deposits has been mapped along the western Markagunt Plateau, east of Parowan and Summit, southwestern Utah. This terrane, structurally situated within the transition between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau provinces, contains Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The structures are mostly Miocene to Oligocene but some are Pleistocene. The oldest structure is the Red Hills low-angle shear zone, interpreted as a shallow structure that decoupled an upper plate composed of a Miocene-Oligocene volcanic ash-flow tuff and volcaniclastic succession from a lower plate of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The period of deformation on the shear zone is bracketed from field relationships between 22.5 and 20 Ma. The graben-horst system trends northeast and formed after about 20 Ma (and probably much later) based on displacement of dated dikes and a laccolith. The central part of the system contains many grabens that merge toward its southerly end to become a single graben. Within these grabens, (1) older structures are preserved, (2) debris eroded from horst walls forms lobe-shaped deposits, (3) Pleistocene basaltic cinder cones have localized along graben-bounding faults, and (4) rock units are locally folded suggesting some component of lateral translation along graben-bounding faults. Megabreccia deposits and landslide debris are common. Megabreccia deposits are interpreted as gravity-slide blocks of Miocene-Oligocene( ) age resulting from formation of the Red Hills shear zone, although some may be related to volcanism, and still others to later deformation. The debris deposits are landslides of Pleistocene-Pliocene( ) age possibly caused by continued uplift of the Markagunt Plateau.

  1. Evidence for temperate conditions along the Antarctic peninsula during the Early Tertiary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinsmeister, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several investigators based on deep sea glacial marine sediments from the southern oceans and volcanic sequences in West Antarctica have suggested extreme glacial conditions existed around Antarctica during the early Tertiary. Their data suggest ice sheets with ice shelves greater than those today were present on Antarctica by the late Eocene. If these data are correct, conditions during the Eocene along the Peninsula were similar to those that exist today. Late Eocene faunas and floras from Seymour Island indicate that conditions along the Peninsula were temperature. No paleontologic or geologic evidence have been obtained from Seymour Island (64/degree/18'S) to support the existence of glacial conditions along the northern part of the Peninsula during the early Tertiary. The presence of large quantities of fossil wood and plant debris in the upper Eocene sediments on Seymour Island indicates the presence of dense forests on the Peninsula during the Eocene. The discovery of marsupial and land birds remains on Seymour Island also indicate the presence of abundant terrestrial life on the Peninsula. The occurrence of an abundant marine life on Seymour Island supports the existence of temperate conditions along the Peninsula. Similarities of the Eocene faunas and floras with present day biotas from Tasmania, New Zealand and southern South America indicate that conditions along the Antarctic Peninsula during the late Eocene were comparable to present day mid latitudes of the southern hemisphere.

  2. Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 517 Requested by Sens. Daschle & Murkowski

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Additional analysis of the impact of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban provisions of S. 517.

  3. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    this transition from Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) reformulated gasoline (RFG) to ethanol RFG, since ethanol is not blended into the gasoline mixture until just before the...

  4. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of "other" hydrocarbons and oxygenates include hydrogen and oxygenates especially fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). The adjustment is equal to the...

  5. Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids OxygenatesRenewables Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol...

  6. Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other ...

  7. Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    began to decline, and with the transition from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol completed and the end of the summer driving season drawing near, gasoline prices...

  8. Iridium profile for 10 million years across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Gubbio (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, W.; Montanari, A. ); Asaro, F. )

    1990-12-21

    The iridium anomaly at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) boundary was discovered in the pelagic limestone sequence at Gubbio on the basis of 12 samples analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and was interpreted as indicating impact of a large extraterrestrial object at exactly the time of the KT mass extinction. Continuing controversy over the shape of the Ir profile at the Gubbio KT boundary and its interpretation called for a more detailed follow-up study. Analysis of a 57-meter-thick, 10-million-year-old part of the Gubbio sequence using improved NAA techniques revealed that there is only one Ir anomaly at the KT boundary, but this anomaly shows an intricate fine structure, the origin of which cannot yet be entirely explained. The KT Ir anomaly peaks in a 1-centimeter-thick clay layer, where the average Ir concentration is 3,000 parts per trillion (ppt); this peak is flanked by tails with Ir concentrations of 20 to 80 ppt that rise above a background of 12 to 13 ppt. The fine structure of the tails is probably due in part to lateral reworking, diffusion, burrowing, and perhaps Milankovitch cyclicity.

  9. Synsedimentary tectonics in Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary pelagic basin of northern Apennines, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanari, A.; Chan, L.S.; Alvarez, W.

    1987-05-01

    The sequence of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary pelagic limestones in the Umbria-Marches Apennines of Italy have recorded, with remarkable continuity, the geologic history of an epeiric sea on the eastern continental margin of the Ligurian Ocean during a time of widespread tectonism in the western Tethys domain. Sedimentary facies and paleocurrent analyses indicate that intrabasinal depocenters and structural highs have formed in response to extensional tectonic movements which started to affect the central part of the paleobasin in the early Turonian. The topography of the paleobasin was probably controlled by a complex pattern of buried fault blocks formed during the passive margin phase of the western Tethys and then reactivated in the Turonian after a prolonged time (Aptian to Cenomanian) of tectonic quiescence. Calcareous turbidites essentially made of remobilized pelagic mud were generated on the newly formed intrabasinal slopes and deposited in the adjacent depocenters. Conspicuous sedimentary events such as maxima in turbiditic deposition and soft-sediment slumps in these intrabasinal depocenters are attributed to major syndepositional earthquakes of regional extent. A detailed event-stratigraphy based on these sedimentary features indicates that the level of syndepositional tectonic activity reached a peak in the late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene and rapidly diminished in the Eocene.

  10. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R., E-mail: abelson@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 Materials Science and Engineering Building, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S., E-mail: girolami@scs.illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300?C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M?=?Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200?C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18?nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

  11. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  12. Review and reconnaissance of the hydrogeology of Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the vicinity of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prothro, L.B.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    Work is currently underway within the Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Program to develop corrective action plans in support of the overall corrective action strategy for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as established in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). A closure plan is currently being developed for Frenchman Flat, which has been identified in the FFACO as a Corrective Action Unit (CAU). Part of this effort requires that hydrogeologic data be compiled for inclusion in a CAU-specific hydrologic flow and transport model that will be used to predict contaminant boundaries. Hydrogeologic maps and cross sections are currently being prepared for use in the model to define the nature and extent of aquifers and confining units that might influence the flow of contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear tests conducted in Frenchman Flat. During this effort, it has been found that older Tertiary-age sediments might be hydrogeologically important in the Frenchman Flat model area. Although the character and extent of these units are poorly known, there is reason to believe that in some parts of Frenchman Flat they may lie between the regional Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the younger Tertiary saturated alluvium and volcanic units in which several underground nuclear tests were conducted. It was not possible to quickly determine their extent, or ascertain whether or not these units might act as confining units or aquifers. The work described in this report was done to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeology of these rocks.

  13. Renewed petroleum generation related to Tertiary intrusions and increased heat flow, western Permian basin, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, C.E.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1989-03-01

    Higher paleogeothermal gradients, commencing in the Tertiary after maximum burial, have caused renewed petroleum generation in the western Permian basin. Evidence for this reheating is two distinct trends in the mean random vitrinite reflectance (R/sub m/) and depth data compiled from over 40 wells. One group, with a 0.7% R/sub m//km gradient, is from the western edge of the basin; the other, with a 0.5% R/sub m//km gradient, is from the central and eastern portions. Post-Mississippian tilting produced greater subsidence and a thicker, mostly uneroded sedimentary section in the eastern portion of the Permian basin. Continued tilting prior to the Cretaceous caused uplift and erosion that exposed the Upper Permian section in the western part. Potassium-argon ages of igneous intrusions along the western edge of the basin show they were emplaced about 35 Ma, followed by Miocene to Holocene basin-and-range-type block faulting and associated high heat flow. Isopach-reflectance contours confirm this renewed heating is post-tectonic - that is, it occurred after eastward tilting and erosion had reduced burial depth. Maximum temperatures computed from R/sub m/-depth relationships infer that paleogeothermal gradients exceeded 40/degrees/C/km (2.2/degrees/F/100 ft) in the Tertiary. This reheating thermally matured rocks as young as Guadalupian in the western Permian basin and apparently caused a second episode of petroleum generation. By this time, however, the potential reservoir rocks and evaporite seals had been deeply eroded, resulting in poor conditions for trapping the renewed pulse of petroleum.

  14. Understanding chemical reactions of CO{sub 2} and its isoelectronic molecules with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate by changing the nature of the cation: The case of CS{sub 2} in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate studied by NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabao, M. Isabel, E-mail: isabelcabaco@ist.utl.pt [Departamento de Fsica, Instituto Superior Tcnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Fsica Atmica da UL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Besnard, Marcel; Danten, Yann [GSM Institut des Sciences Molculaires, CNRS (UMR 5255), Universit de Bordeaux, 351, Cours de la Libration 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Chvez, Fabin Vaca [Centro de Fsica da Matria Condensada da UL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1694-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Pinaud, Nol [CESAMO Institut des Sciences Molculaires, CNRS (UMR 5255), Universit de Bordeaux, 351, Cours de la Libration 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Sebastio, Pedro J. [Departamento de Fsica, Instituto Superior Tcnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Fsica da Matria Condensada da UL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1694-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Coutinho, Joo A. P. [CICECO, Departamento de Qumica, Universidade de Aveiro 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-06-28

    NMR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N) shows that carbon disulfide reacts spontaneously with 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate ([BmPyrro][Ac]) in the liquid phase. It is found that the acetate anions play an important role in conditioning chemical reactions with CS{sub 2} leading, via coupled complex reactions, to the degradation of this molecule to form thioacetate anion (CH{sub 3}COS{sup ?}), CO{sub 2}, OCS, and trithiocarbonate (CS{sub 3}{sup 2?}). In marked contrast, the cation does not lead to the formation of any adducts allowing to conclude that, at most, its role consists in assisting indirectly these reactions. The choice of the [BmPyrro]{sup +} cation in the present study allows disentangling the role of the anion and the cation in the reactions. As a consequence, the ensemble of results already reported on CS{sub 2}-[Bmim][Ac] (1), OCS-[Bmim][Ac] (2), and CO{sub 2}-[Bmim][Ac] (3) systems can be consistently rationalized. It is argued that in system (1) both anion and cation play a role. The CS{sub 2} reacts with the acetate anion leading to the formation of CH{sub 3}COS{sup ?}, CO{sub 2}, and OCS. After these reactions have proceeded the nascent CO{sub 2} and OCS interact with the cation to form imidazolium-carboxylate ([Bmim] CO{sub 2}) and imidazolium-thiocarboxylate ([Bmim] COS). The same scenario also applies to system (2). In contrast, in the CO{sub 2}-[Bmim] [Ac] system a concerted cooperative process between the cation, the anion, and the CO{sub 2} molecule takes place. A carbene issued from the cation reacts to form the [Bmim] CO{sub 2}, whereas the proton released by the ring interacts with the anion to produce acetic acid. In all these systems, the formation of adduct resulting from the reaction between the solute molecule and the carbene species originating from the cation is expected. However, this species was only observed in systems (2) and (3). The absence of such an adduct in system (1) has been theoretically investigated

  15. The use of nonmarine palynomorphs as correlation tools in rapidly deposited upper tertiary sediments of the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravn, R.L. ); D'Ablaing, J.A. )

    1993-09-01

    Rapidly deposited upper Tertiary sediments can pose significant correlation problems for the biostratigrapher using foraminifera or calcareous nannoplankton because the abundance of marine organisms commonly is greatly diluted. In contrast, such sediments often contain abundant pollen and spores. This palynological population was collected by the proto-Mississippi and perhaps other rivers from a huge hinterland source area probably comparable to that of the Mississippi drainage today. The sediment therefore reflects a general floral population over a large region and may be expected to record important fluctuations in constituent elements of the flora due to climatic changes over time. A secondary overprint of physical sorting also may influence the relative distributions of certain forms. Although not strongly useful as an age-dating tool (the vast majority of forms occurring in Miocene or younger strata represent parent plant types that still exist today), these palynomorph populations do show strong potential as tools for correlation based on quantitative analyses. Palynological [open quotes]logs[close quotes] can be produced using inexpensive standard spreadsheet software and various mathematical evaluation techniques. An example from the Pliocene of offshore Louisiana demonstrates that numerous potential correlation horizons can be defined in a relatively brief time interval in a section in which standard marine microfossils are of little use owing to their scarcity.

  16. Gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with Tertiary volcanism and a Proterozoic crustal boundary, Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Navajo Nation (Arizona)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan-Ealy, P.F. . Geology Dept.); Hendricks, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    The Hopi Buttes volcanic field is located in the Navajo Nation of northeastern Arizona, near the southern margin of the Colorado Plateau. Explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions from late Miocene to mid-Pliocene time produced more than 300 maar-diatremes and deposited limburgite tuffs and tuff breccia and monchiquite dikes, necks and flows within a roughly circular 2,500 km[sup 2] area. The volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks make up the middle member of the Bidahochi Formation, whose lower and upper members are lacustrine and fluvial, respectively. The Bidahochi Formation overlies gently dipping Mesozoic sedimentary rocks exposed in the southwestern portion of the volcanic field. Two significant gravity and magnetic anomalies appear within the Hopi Buttes volcanic field that are unlike the signatures of other Tertiary volcanic fields on the Colorado Plateau. A circular 20 mGal negative gravity anomaly is centered over exposed sedimentary rocks in the southwestern portion of the field. The anomaly may be due to the large volume of low density pyroclastic rocks in the volcanic field and/or extensive brecciation of the underlying strata from the violent maar eruptions. The second significant anomaly is the northeast-trending Holbrook lineament, a 5 km-wide gravity and magnetic lineament that crosses the southeastern part of the volcanic field. The lineament reflects substantial gravity and magnetic decreases of 1.67 mGals/km and 100 gammas/km respectively, to the southeast. Preliminary two-dimensional gravity and magnetic modeling suggests the lineament represents a major Proterozoic crustal boundary and may correlate with one of several Proterozoic faults exposed in the transition zone of central Arizona. Gravity modeling shows a 3--5 km step'' in the Moho near the crustal boundary. The decrease in depth of the Moho to the northwest indicates either movement along the fault or magmatic upwelling beneath the volcanic field.

  17. {gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin; Zhang Yun; Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang; Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu; Luo Wenjing Chen Jingyuan

    2009-04-15

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  18. Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: A restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, W.; Asaro, F. ); Smit, J. ); Lowrie, W. ); Asaro, F. ); Margolis, S.V.; Claeys, P. ); Kastner, M. ); Hildebrand, A.R. )

    1992-08-01

    Restudy of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 536 and 540 in the southeast Gulf of Mexico gives evidence for a giant wave at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary time. Five units are recognized: (1) Cenomanian limestone underlies a hiatus in which the five highest Cretaceous stages are missing, possibly because of catastrophic K-T erosion. (2) Pebbly mudstone, 45 m thick, represents a submarine landslide possibly of K-T age. (3) Current-bedded sandstone, more than 2.5 m thick, contains anomalous iridium, tektite glass, and shocked quartz; it is interpreted as ejecta from a nearby impact crater, reworked on the deep-sea floor by the resulting tsunami. (4) A 50-cm interval of calcareous mudstone containing small Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the Ir peak is interpreted as the silt-size fraction of the Cretaceous material suspended by the impact-generated wave. (5) Calcareous mudstone with basal Tertiary forams and the uppermost tail of the Ir anomaly overlies the disturbed interval, dating the impact and wave event as K-T boundary age. Like Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico, Sites 536 and 540 are consistent with a large K-T age impact at the nearby Chicxulub crater.

  19. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-10-02

    This map displays interpreted structural and stratigraphic relations among the Paleozoic and older rocks of the Nevada Test Site region beneath the Miocene volcanic rocks and younger alluvium in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat basins. These interpretations are based on a comprehensive examination and review of data for more than 77 drillholes that penetrated part of the pre-Tertiary basement beneath these post-middle Miocene structural basins. Biostratigraphic data from conodont fossils were newly obtained for 31 of these holes, and a thorough review of all prior microfossil paleontologic data is incorporated in the analysis. Subsurface relationships are interpreted in light of a revised regional geologic framework synthesized from detailed geologic mapping in the ranges surrounding Yucca Flat, from comprehensive stratigraphic studies in the region, and from additional detailed field studies on and around the Nevada Test Site. All available data indicate the subsurface geology of Yucca Flat is considerably more complicated than previous interpretations have suggested. The western part of the basin, in particular, is underlain by relics of the eastward-vergent Belted Range thrust system that are folded back toward the west and thrust by local, west-vergent contractional structures of the CP thrust system. Field evidence from the ranges surrounding the north end of Yucca Flat indicate that two significant strike-slip faults track southward beneath the post-middle Miocene basin fill, but their subsurface traces cannot be closely defined from the available evidence. In contrast, the eastern part of the Yucca Flat basin is interpreted to be underlain by a fairly simple north-trending, broad syncline in the pre-Tertiary units. Far fewer data are available for the northern Frenchman Flat basin, but regional analysis indicates the pre-Tertiary structure there should also be relatively simple and not affected by thrusting. This new interpretation has implications

  20. Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    In response to a Congressional request, the Energy Information Administration examined the progress being made to meet the bans on the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) being implemented in New York and Connecticut at the end of 2003.

  1. APPENDXD.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Report The Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report" provides production data for fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). End-of-month stock data held at ethanol...

  2. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up

  3. Assessment of thermal evolution stages and oil-gas migration of carbonate source rocks of early tertiary in eastern Sichuan, China, by organic inclusion analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Jixi; Li Benchao; Fu Jiamo

    1989-03-01

    The Jialinjiang Formation of early Tertiary in Sichuan, China, is a series of limestone and dolomite sediments deposited in a platform shoal environment. The diagenetic sequence and organic inclusions trapped in minerals of 95 samples from 20 drillings have been studied. At the late diagenetic stage, pale yellow organic inclusions consisted of liquid hydrocarbons disseminated in pore-infiltrating dolomite, and the homogeneous temperature of contemporaneous saline liquid inclusions possessing a low gas-liquid ratio was 86/degree/C. This indicates the evolution of the organic matter had gone over the oil generating threshold and oil formation had initiated. In the limestone formed at the late diagenetic stage, more brown-yellow organic inclusions were scattered and/or developed along with fissures, comprising 60-70% liquid hydrocarbons and 30-40% gaseous hydrocarbons. Contemporaneous saline liquid inclusions with gas-liquid ratios of 5-10% had homogeneous temperatures of 90/degree/-130/degree/C. These findings show that the organic material had entered a high evolution stage and oil migration had taken place on a large scale.

  4. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production. Annual report, May 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1980-07-01

    Differing extents of diagenetic modification is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the Upper and Lower Texas Gulf Coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area are less stable, chemically and mechanically, than Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury dome area. Vicksburg sandstones are mineralogically immature and contain greater proportions of feldspars and rock fragments than do Frio sandstones. Thr reactive detrital assemblage of Vicksubrg sandstones is highly susceptible to diagenetic modification. Susceptibility is enhanced by higher than normal geothermal gradients in the McAllen Ranch Field area. Thus, consolidation of Vicksburg sandstones began at shallower depth of burial and precipitation of authigenic phases (especially calcite) was more pervasive than in Frio sandstones. Moreover, the late-stage episode of ferroan calcite precipitation that occluded most secondary porosity in Vicksburg sandstones did not occur significantly in Frio sandstones. Therefore, regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production.

  5. Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Authors: Oh, Keun-Chan ; Stringfellow, William T. Publication Date: 2003-10-02 OSTI Identifier: 820662 Report Number(s): LBNL--53866 R&D Project: G41101; TRN: US200405%%70 DOE ...

  6. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Tertiary Treatment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This infographic was created by students from Nikola Tesla STEM High School in Redmond, WA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME...

  7. FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

    1989-05-29

    Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

  8. Novel Fluorescent Cationic Phospholipid, O-4-Napthylimido-1-Butyl...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: ENGLISH Subject: 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANHYDRIDES; CARDIOLIPIN; DNA; ENCAPSULATION; HYDRATION; LECITHINS; LIPIDS; MIXTURES; MORPHOLOGY...

  9. Tris(Cyclopentadienyl)Uranium-t-Butyl: Synthesis, reactions, and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weydert, M.

    1993-04-01

    Compounds (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(t-Bu) were prepared for R = H, Me, Et. Their decomposition products in aromatic solvents are consistent with a radical decomposition pathway induced by solvent-assisted U-C bond homolysis. NMR was used to study the reactions of (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}UCl with t-BuLi (R = t-Bu, Me{sub 3}Si). Reactions of (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(t-Bu) with Lewis bases and fluorocarbons were studied. Analogous reaction chemistry between (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}ThX systems and t-BuLi was also studied, and reactivity differences between U and Th are discussed. Synthesis of sterically crowded (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 4}U compounds is next considered. Reaction of the trivalent (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U with (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 2}Hg results in formation of (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 4}U. Steric congestion, cyclopentadienyl ligand exchange, and electron transfer are discussed. (DLC)

  10. Tris(Cyclopentadienyl)Uranium-t-Butyl: Synthesis, reactions, and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weydert, M.

    1993-04-01

    Compounds (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U(t-Bu) were prepared for R = H, Me, Et. Their decomposition products in aromatic solvents are consistent with a radical decomposition pathway induced by solvent-assisted U-C bond homolysis. NMR was used to study the reactions of (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]UCl with t-BuLi (R = t-Bu, Me[sub 3]Si). Reactions of (MeC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U(t-Bu) with Lewis bases and fluorocarbons were studied. Analogous reaction chemistry between (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]ThX systems and t-BuLi was also studied, and reactivity differences between U and Th are discussed. Synthesis of sterically crowded (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 4]U compounds is next considered. Reaction of the trivalent (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U with (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 2]Hg results in formation of (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 4]U. Steric congestion, cyclopentadienyl ligand exchange, and electron transfer are discussed. (DLC)

  11. Methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether: A comparison of properties, synthesis techniques, and operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sneesby, M.G.; Tade, M.O.; Datta, R.

    1996-12-31

    MTBE is currently the most industrially significant oxygenate but some of the properties of ETBE and the EPA ethanol mandate suggest that ETBE could become a viable competitor. Similar synthesis techniques are used for both ethers but the phase behaviour of the ETBE system requires slightly different operating conditions and creates some alternatives for product recovery. The process control strategy for both systems must address some unusual challenges. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  13. Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 1766

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This service report addresses the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS)/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) provisions of S. 1766. The 'S. 1766' Case reflects provisions of S. 1766 including a renewable fuels standard (RFS) reaching five billion gallons by 2012, a complete phase-out of MTBE within four years, and the option for states to waive the oxygen requirement for reformulated gasoline (RFG).

  14. U.S. Oxygenate Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    By: Product Area May-15 Jun-15 Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 View History Fuel Ethanol 29,666 29,684 30,256 29,621 28,543 30,139 1981-2015 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 1,634...

  15. Status and Impacts of State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes legislation passed in 16 states banning or restricting the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline. Analysis of the status and impact of these state MTBE bans is provided concerning the supply and potential price changes of gasoline.

  16. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  17. Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, R.

    1995-12-31

    There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

  18. EIA-878 Motor Gasoline Price Survey - Reference Guide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Price Survey (EIA-878), prices are collected for the following gasoline grades as defined by octane rating and ethanol content (ranging from no ethanol through up to 10% ethanol). ...

  19. Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    In October 2003, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those states for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two states over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

  20. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and

  1. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable

  2. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group: CH 3 -(CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., metha- nol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures contain- ing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other

  3. MTEM Map

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MTBE Production Economics Tancred C. M. Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Production Costs 3. Relationship between price of MTBE and Reformulated Gasoline 4. Influence of Natural Gas Prices on the Gasoline Market 5. Regression Results 6. Data Sources 7. End Notes 1. Summary Last year the price of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) increased dramatically on two occasions (Figure 1) (see Data Sources at end of article.): 1. Between April and June 2000, the price (U.S. Gulf Coast waterborne

  4. Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils,

  5. MTBE Production Economics

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    MTBE Production Economics Tancred C. M. Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Production Costs 3. Relationship between price of MTBE and Reformulated Gasoline 4. Influence of Natural Gas Prices on the Gasoline Market 5. Regression Results 6. Data Sources 7. End Notes 1. Summary Last year the price of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) increased dramatically on two occasions (Figure 1) (see Data Sources at end of article.): 1. Between April and June 2000, the price (U.S. Gulf Coast waterborne

  6. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased

  7. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Imports & Exports Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether),

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Inputs & Utilization Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether),

  9. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and

  10. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Supply Estimates Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether),

  11. Photodetachment and electron reactivity in 1-methyl-1-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molins i Domenech, Francesc; FitzPatrick, Benjamin; Healy, Andrew T.; Blank, David A.

    2012-07-21

    The transient absorption spectrum in the range 500 nm-1000 nm was measured with ultrafast time resolution on a flowing neat, aliphatic, room-temperature ionic liquid following anion photodetachment. In this region the spectrum was shown to be a combination of absorption from the electron and the hole. Spectrally-resolved electron quenching determined a bimodal shape for the hole spectrum in agreement with recent computational predictions on a smaller aliphatic ionic liquid [Margulis et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 20186 (2011)]. For time delays beyond 15 ps, spectral evolution qualitatively agrees with recent radiolysis experiments [Wishart et al., Faraday Discuss. 154, 353 (2012)]. However, the shape of the spectrum is different, reflecting the contrast in ionization energy between the two methods. Previously unobserved reactivity of the electron was found with a time constant of 300 fs. The results demonstrate solvent control of the rate coefficient for reaction between the electron and proton, with a rapid decline in the rate within the first picosecond.

  12. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, Clayton J.

    1985-01-01

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  13. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  14. Mesoporous tertiary oxides via a novel amphiphilic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Natasha; Hall, Simon R. E-mail: Annela.Seddon@bristol.ac.uk; Seddon, Annela M. E-mail: Annela.Seddon@bristol.ac.uk; Hallett, James E.; Kockelmann, Winfried; Ting, Valeska P.; Sadasivan, Sajanikumari; Tooze, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile biomimetic sol-gel synthesis using the sponge phase formed by the lipid monoolein as a structure-directing template, resulting in high phase purity, mesoporous dysprosium- and gadolinium titanates. The stability of monoolein in a 1,4-butanediol and water mixture complements the use of a simple sol-gel metal oxide synthesis route. By judicious control of the lipid/solvent concentration, the sponge phase of monoolein can be directly realised in the pyrochlore material, leading to a porous metal oxide network with an average pore diameter of 10 nm.

  15. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

  16. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  17. Weekly Petroleum Status Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refning process for chemically

  18. Deetherification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1985-01-01

    Ethers such as isobutyl tertiary butyl ether are dissociated into their component alcohols and isolefins by heat stabilized catalyst compositions prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  19. California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2009, (AEO) E10a gasoline blend containing 10% ethanolis assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California erformulated gasoline (RFG), as opposed to the 5.7% blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7% blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0% oxygen content under the Clean Air Act provisions in effect at that time.

  20. Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    petroleum Alcohol: The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH(3)-(CH(2))n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate: The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high-octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation: A refining process for

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refning process for chemically

  2. Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 30,319 28,678 30,812 28,059 30,228 30,258 1981-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 641 698 804 725 734

  3. Deetherification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1985-11-05

    Ethers such as isobutyl tertiary butyl ether are dissociated into their component alcohols and isoolefins by heat stabilized catalyst compositions prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  4. Extraction of rare earth oxides using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with Tri-n-butyl phosphate–nitric acid adducts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baek, Donna L.; Fox, Robert V.; Case, Mary E.; Sinclair, Laura K.; Schmidt, Alex B.; McIlwain, Patrick R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Wai, Chien M.

    2016-06-14

    A new tri-n-butylphosphate–nitric acid (TBP–HNO3) adduct was prepared by combining TBP and fuming (90%) HNO3. The adduct was characterized, and its phase-equilibrium behavior in supercritical carbon dioxide is reported. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was modified with this new adduct [TBP(HNO3)5.2(H2O)1.7], and the extraction efficacies of selected rare earth oxides (Y, Ce, Eu, Tb, and Dy) at 338 K and 34.5 MPa were compared with those obtained using an adduct formed from concentrated (70%) HNO3 and TBP [TBP(HNO3)1.7(H2O)0.6]. All rare earth oxides tested with both adduct species could be extracted with the exception of cerium oxide. Furthermore, the water and acidmore » concentrations in the different adducts were found to play a significant role in rare earth oxide extraction efficiency.« less

  5. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-10-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasoline (RFG) are estimated. The scope of the study includes both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components. The effects on energy and crude oil use of employing various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen-content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis shows that production of RFG requires more total energy, but uses less crude oil, than that of conventional gasoline. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than does RFG with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethyl tertiary butyl ether. A specific proposal by the US Environmental Protection Agency, designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG, would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over the corresponding values for the base RFG with MTBE.

  6. Property:CapRockAge | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Amedee Geothermal Area + Tertiary + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + Tertiary + Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area + Tertiary + D Desert Peak Geothermal Area + Tertiary + G...

  7. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plancher, Henry; Petersen, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  8. An example of regioselective esterification by intramolecular acyl transfer from a tertiary amine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddell, T.G.; Rambalakos, T.; Christie, K.R. )

    1990-07-20

    Despite the fact that the famous antimarlarial quinine (1) has been known for 170 years, there is still considerable interest in its chemical and biological properties. Much of the most recent attention is due to the utility of quinine as a chiral resolving agent and catalyst. Important and new chemistry of quinine may yet be discovered. To this point, the authors became interested in constructing quinine derivatives which have built into their structures electrophilic centers which might make covalent bonds with cellular protein or nucleic acid nucleophilic sites. In order to preserve the noncovalent binding properties of quinine, functionalization and derivatization of the remote vinyl group were desired. In an esterification step of the derivatization, a structurally hindered ester was formed, to our surprise. The mechanism for this regioselective reaction are discussed.

  9. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  10. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  11. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  12. EPA`s proposed renewable oxygenate requirement (ROR): Pros and cons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czeskleba, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    In December 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its final rule that sets for the details for requirements to sell reformulated gasoline (RFG) in certain ozone non-attainment areas. At the same time, EPA also issued a proposed rule to require that 30% of the oxygen required in RFG be based on a renewable oxygenate. Renewables include ethanol and its ether derivatives such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). The RFG rule is a final rule, while the Renewable Oxygenate Requirement (ROR) rule is a proposed rule yet to be finalized and subject to revision. Included in this paper are brief reviews of Ashland petroleum Company`s ethanol usage, oxygenated fuel and reformulated gasoline blending economics, and some comments on the EPA proposed renewable oxygenate requirement.

  13. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  14. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Jones, E.M. Jr.; Hearn, D.

    1984-05-08

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150 to 250 F at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C[sub 3] to C[sub 6] and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom. 2 figs.

  15. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Jones, Jr., Edward M.; Hearn, Dennis

    1984-01-01

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150.degree. to 250.degree. F. at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C.sub.3 to C.sub.6 and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom.

  16. Comparison of SPME headspace analysis to U.S. EPA method5030/8260B for MTBE monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Oh, Kuen-Chan

    2005-02-01

    A novel method for analysis of methyl tert-butyl ether andtert-butyl alcohol using solid phase microextraction is described andcompared to a standard method.

  17. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which exhibits a characteristic set of reservoir properties obtained from outcrop analogs, cores, and geophysical logs. The Anasazi and Runway fields were selected for geostatistical modeling and reservoir compositional simulations. Models and simulations incorporated variations in carbonate lithotypes, porosity, and permeability to accurately predict reservoir responses. History matches tied previous production and reservoir pressure histories so that future reservoir performances could be confidently predicted. The simulation studies showed that despite most of the production being from the mound-core intervals, there were no corresponding decreases in the oil in place in these intervals. This behavior indicates gravity drainage of oil from the supra-mound intervals into the lower mound-core intervals from which the producing wells' major share of production arises. The key to increasing ultimate recovery from these fields (and similar fields in the basin) is to design either waterflood or CO{sub 2}-miscible flood projects capable of forcing oil from high-storage-capacity but low-recovery supra-mound units into the high-recovery mound-core units. Simulation of Anasazi field shows that a CO{sub 2} flood is technically superior to a waterflood and economically feasible. For Anasazi field, an optimized CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total 4.21 million barrels (0.67 million m3) of oil representing in excess of 89 percent of the original oil in place. For Runway field, the best CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total of 2.4 million barrels (0.38 million m3) of oil representing 71 percent of the original oil in place. If the CO{sub 2} flood performed as predicted, it is a financially robust process for increasing the reserves in the many small fields in the Paradox Basin. The results can be applied to other fields in the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent.

  18. Geochemical reconnaissance for uranium in middle tertiary ash-flow tuffs of the Morey Peak Quadrangle, northern Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, K.C.

    1981-01-01

    Rock and water samples were collected from the Morey Peak 15' quadrangle in the northern Hot Creek Range, Nye County, Nevada. The water was analyzed for trace element content. The rock samples were analyzed for oxide composition, selected trace element composition, and K-U-Th content. Water sampled from springs, hot springs, and creeks had temperatures ranging between 8 and 60/sup 0/C, conductance between 100 and 1800 mhos, pH between 5.4 and 8.7, and Eh between -106 and -301 mv. Factor analysis of the sample set reveals a U-Li-Se association and also identifies oxidized galena in solution. This analysis suggests that water need only be analyzed for copper, lithium, selenium, uranium, and vanadium in an uranium exploration program. Oxide analyses of these samples show gross similarities to other volcanic suites in central Nevada. Correlation coefficients indicate that in this area uranium is independent of any of the tested variables. Factor analyses suggest that there is an association between beryllium and uranium, arsenic and uranium, and selenium and uranium. The K-U-Th analyses yielded a wide variance of measurements. Potassium content ranges between 0 and 7.66%, thorium between 0 and 39.09 ppM, and uranium between 0.04 and 1744 ppM. Disequilibrium plots suggest that the mineralization present in the Corral Canyon area is late.

  19. Fission track thermochronologic constraints on the timing and nature of major Middle Tertiary extension, Ruby Mountains - East Humboldt Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dokka, R.K.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Snoke, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Fission Track (FT) apatite, zircon, and sphene ages were determined from both mylonitic and non-mylonitic rocks of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range metamorphic core complex. The analyzed sample suite included various mylonitic orthogneisses as well as amphibolitic orthogneisses from the non-mylonitic infrastructural core. Porphyritic biotite granodiorite of the Oligocene Harrison Pass pluton was also dated. FT ages are concordant and range in age from 27 - 24 Ma. These dates reflect rapid cooling of the lower plate from temperatures above 250/sup 0/C to below 100/sup 0/C during the early Miocene. The general concordance of the FT dates with /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar biotite and hornblende plateau ages from the same sample suite suggest an even more pronounced cooling history. This rapid cooling history is considered to reflect large-scale tectonic denudation (intracrustal thinning), a manifestation of intense crustal extension. Mylonitic rocks that originally formed along ductile shear zones in the middle crust (10-15 km) were quickly brought near the surface and juxtaposed against brittly distended rocks deformed under upper crustal conditions. FT data firmly establish the upper age limit on the timing of mylonitization during the shear zone deformation. This rapid cooling interval also coincides with the inferred age of extensive landscape disruption and the development of an alluvial fan-lacustrine system which included the periodic emplacement of landslide deposits (megabreccias).

  20. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-11-02

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  1. Solvent-extraction and purification of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) by tertiary amines from acid leach solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Gamma, Ana M.G.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2008-07-01

    Considering international interest in the yellow-cake price, Argentina is seeking to exploit new uranium ore bodies and processing plants. A study of similar plants would suggest that solvent- extraction with Alamine 336 is considered the best method for the purification and concentration of uranium present in leaching solutions. In order to study the purification of these leach liquors, solvent-extraction tests under different conditions were performed with simulated solutions which containing molybdenum and molybdenum-uranium mixtures. Preliminary extraction tests carried out on mill acid-leaching liquors are also presented. (authors)

  2. Volume and accessibility of entrained (solution) methane in deep geopressured reservoirs - tertiary formations of the Texas Gulf Coast. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, A.R.; Dodge, M.M.; Posey, J.S.; Morton, R.A.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this project was to appraise the total volume of in-place methane dissolved in formation waters of deep sandstone reservoirs of the onshore Texas Gulf Coast within the stratigraphic section extending from the base of significant hydrocarbon production (8000 ft)* to the deepest significant sandstone occurrence. The area of investigation is about 50,000 mi/sup 2/. Factors that determine the total methane resource are reservoir bulk volume, porosity, and methane solubility; the latter is controlled by the temperature, pressure, and salinity of formation waters. Regional assessment of the volume and the distribution of potential sandstone reservoirs was made from a data base of 880 electrical well logs, from which a grid of 24 dip cross sections and 4 strike cross sections was constructed. Solution methane content in each of nine formations or divisions of formations was determined for each subdivision. The distribution of solution methane in the Gulf Coast was described on the basis of five reservoir models. Each model was characterized by depositional environment, reservoir continuity, porosity, permeability, and methane solubility.

  3. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M. Lee; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas

    1999-11-03

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million bbl of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO-) flood 2 project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  4. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-02-06

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  5. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1997-10-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide- (CO{sub 2}-) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  6. Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

    1997-08-01

    The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group VIII metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite-supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted ruthenium catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.

  7. Carbocation Stability in H-ZSM5 at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, Glen A.; Cheng, Lei; Bu, Lintao; Kim, Seonah; Robichaud, David J.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2015-10-26

    Zeolites are common catalysts for multiple industrial applications, including alcohol dehydration to produce olefins, and given their commercial importance, reaction mechanisms in zeolites have long been proposed and studied. Some proposed reaction mechanisms for alcohol dehydration exhibit noncyclic carbocation intermediates or transition states that resemble carbocations, and several previous studies suggest that the tert-butyl cation is the only noncyclic cation more stable than the corresponding chemisorbed species with the hydrocarbon bound to the framework oxygen (i.e., an alkoxide). To determine if carbocations can exist at high temperatures in zeolites, where these catalysts are finding new applications for biomass vapor-phase upgrading (~500 C), the stability of carbocations and the corresponding alkoxides were calculated with two ONIOM embedding methods (M06-2X/6-311G(d,p):M06-2X/3-21G) and (PBE-D3/6-311G(d,p):PBE-D3/3-21G) and plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) using the PBE functional corrected with entropic and TkatchenkoScheffler van der Waals corrections. Additionally, the embedding methods tested are unreliable at finding minima for primary carbocations, and only secondary or higher carbocations can be described with embedding methods consistent with the periodic DFT results. The relative energy between the carbocations and alkoxides differs significantly between the embedding and the periodic DFT methods. The difference is between ~0.23 and 14.30 kcal/mol depending on the molecule, the model, and the functional chosen for the embedding method. At high temperatures, the pw-DFT calculations predict that the allyl, isopropyl, and sec-butyl cations exhibit negligible populations while acetyl and tert-butyl cations exhibit significant populations (>10%). Furthermore, the periodic DFT results indicate that mechanisms including secondary and tertiary carbocations intermediates or carbocations stabilized by adjacent oxygen or double bonds are

  8. N-(N-[2-(3,5-Difluorophenyl)acetyl]-(S)-alanyl)-(S)-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT): an inhibitor of γ-secretase, revealing fine electronic and hydrogen-bonding features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czerwinski, Andrzej; Valenzuela, Francisco; Afonine, Pavel; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2010-12-01

    The title compound, C{sub 23}H{sub 26}F{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}, is a dipeptidic inhibitor of γ-secretase, one of the enzymes involved in Alzheimer’s dis@@ease. The mol@@ecule adopts a compact conformation, without intra@@molecular hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, one of the amide N atoms forms the only inter@@molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond; the second amide N atom does not form hydrogen bonds. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction data permitted the unequivocal location and refinement without restraints of all H atoms, and the identification of the characteristic shift of the amide H atom engaged in the hydrogen bond from its ideal position, resulting in a more linear hydrogen bond. Significant residual densities for bonding electrons were revealed after the usual SHELXL refinement, and modeling of these features as additional inter@@atomic scatterers (IAS) using the program PHENIX led to a significant decrease in the R factor from 0.0411 to 0.0325 and diminished the r.m.s. deviation level of noise in the final difference Fourier map from 0.063 to 0.037 e Å{sup −3}.

  9. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dombek, B.D.

    1996-03-01

    The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

  10. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fractured, unsaturated dolomite at a field site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLinn, E.L.; Rehm, B.W.

    1997-12-31

    Gasoline constituents were detected in unsaturated soil and rock during abandonment of a leaky underground storage tank (UST). The unsaturated sequence beneath the former UST consists of 90 feet of silty till, fractured dolomite, and friable sandstone. Pore gas probes were installed in each of the unsaturated units, both in the source area and in a background on-site location. Pore gas samples were collected to evaluate the nature, extent, and fate of residual hydrocarbons in the vadose zone. Pore gas from the till and dolomite in the source area was enriched in petroleum hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, and was depleted in oxygen, relative to pore gas from the background area. During two years of ground water monitoring at the site, methyl tertiary butyl ether was periodically detected in the ground water beneath the source area as pulses of recharge passed through the unsaturated zone, but not other gasoline constituents were detected. Apparently, the most degradable fraction of the gasoline (aromatic hydrocarbons) is being attenuated in the vadose zone before the water table is reached.

  11. 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene, Trichloroflouromethane, Acetone, Ethyl ether, Methanol, Methyl isobutyl ketone, n-Butyl alcohol, Xylene, Cresols, Cresylic acid,...

  12. Structural Determinants of Nitroxide Motion in Spin-labeled Proteins: Tertiary Contact and Solvent-inaccessible Sties in Helix G of T4 Lysozyme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo,Z.; Cascio, D.; Hideg, K.; Kalai, T.; Hubbell, W.

    2007-01-01

    A nitroxide side chain (R1) has been substituted at single sites along a helix-turn-helix motif in T4 lysozyme (residues 114-135). Together with previously published data, the new sites reported complete a continuous scan through the motif. Mutants with R1 at sites 115 and 118 were selected for crystallographic analysis to identify the structural origins of the corresponding two-component EPR spectra. At 115, R1 is shown to occupy two rotamers in the room temperature crystal structure, one of which has not been previously reported. The two components in the EPR spectrum apparently arise from differential interactions of the two rotamers with the surrounding structure, the most important of which is a hydrophobic interaction of the nitroxide ring. Interestingly, the crystal structure at 100 K reveals a single rotamer, emphasizing the possibility of rotamer selection in low-temperature crystal structures. Residue 118 is at a solvent-inaccessible site in the protein core, and the structure of 118R1, the first reported for the R1 side chain at a buried site, reveals how the side chain is accommodated in an overpacked core.

  13. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1996--February 8, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The Anasazi field was selected for the initial geostatistical modeling and reservoir simulation. A compositional simulation approach is being used to model primary depletion, waterflood, and CO{sub 2}-flood processes. During this second year of the project, team members performed the following reservoir-engineering analysis of Anasazi field: (1) relative permeability measurements of the supra-mound and mound-core intervals, (2) completion of geologic model development of the Anasazi reservoir units for use in reservoir simulation studies including completion of a series of one-dimensional, carbon dioxide-displacement simulations to analyze the carbon dioxide-displacement mechanism that could operate in the Paradox basin system of reservoirs, and (3) completion of the first phase of the full-field, three-dimensional Anasazi reservoir simulation model, and the start of the history matching and reservoir performance prediction phase of the simulation study.

  14. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-07-14

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  15. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, mule, Blue Hogan, heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The reservoir engineering component of the work completed to date included analysis of production data and well tests, comprehensive laboratory programs, and preliminary mechanistic reservoir simulation studies. A comprehensive fluid property characterization program was completed. Mechanistic reservoir production performance simulation studies were also completed.

  16. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Final technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-01-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Five activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of carbonate mound buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) regional facies evaluation, (2) evaluation of outcrop analogues, (3) field-scale geologic analysis, (4) reservoir analysis, and (5) technology transfer.

  17. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}-) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Four activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of carbonate mound buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) field studies, (2) development well completion operations, (3) reservoir analysis and modeling, and (4) technology transfer. This paper reviews the status.

  18. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}-)flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  19. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-05-30

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  20. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1997-02-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Three activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of productive carbonate buidups in the Paradox basin: (1) interpretation of new seismic data in the Mule field area, (2) reservoir engineering analysis of the Anasazi field, and (3) technology transfer.

  1. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, Thomas C.

    2000-07-28

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  2. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1997--February 8, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil are at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. This study utilized representative core and modern geophysical logs to characterize and grade each of the five fields for suitability of enhanced recovery projects. The typical vertical sequence or cycle of lithofacies from each field, as determined from conventional core, was tied to its corresponding log response. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found in the various hydrocarbon-bearing rocks of each field can be an indicator of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for water- and/or CO{sub 2}-flooding. Diagenetic histories of the various Desert Creek reservoirs were determined from 50 representative samples selected from the conventional cores of each field. Thin sections were also made of each sample for petrographic description.

  3. Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bill Kramer | Tertiary Storage January 28, 1997 | Author(s): Keith Fitzgerald, Harvard Holmes | Download File: Tertiary-Storage.pdf | pdf | 173 KB Report on Graphics Packages...

  4. Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bill Kramer | Tertiary Storage January 28, 1997 | Author(s): Keith Fitzgerald, Harvard Holmes | Download File: Tertiary-Storage.pdf | pdf | 173 KB Report on Graphics...

  5. Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

    1997-02-01

    oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl-ether. Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.

  6. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  7. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  8. Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, G.O.; Copeland, R.; Dubovik, M.; Gershanovich, Y.

    2002-09-20

    Gasification technologies convert coal and other heavy feedstocks into synthesis gas feed streams that can be used in the production of a wide variety of chemicals, ranging from hydrogen through methanol, ammonia, acetic anhydride, dimethyl ether (DME), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), high molecular weight liquid hydrocarbons and waxes. Syngas can also be burned directly as a fuel in advanced power cycles to generate electricity with very high efficiency. However, the coal-derived synthesis gas contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the catalysts that are used in the downstream manufacturing processes and may also be regulated in power plant emissions. Particularly, the catalysts used in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol and other liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids) have been found to be very sensitive to the low levels of poisons, especially arsenic, that are present in the synthesis gas from coal. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing an expendable high capacity, low-cost chemical absorbent to remove arsenic from coal-derived syngas. Unlike most of the commercially available sorbents that physically adsorb arsenic, TDA's sorbent operates at elevated temperatures and removes the arsenic through chemical reaction. The arsenic content in the coal gas stream is reduced to ppb levels with the sorbent by capturing and stabilizing the arsenic gas (As4) and arsenic hydrides (referred to as arsine, AsH3) in the solid state. To demonstrate the concept of high temperature arsenic removal from coal-derived syngas, we carried out bench-scale experiments to test the absorption capacity of a variety of sorbent formulations under representative conditions. Using on-line analysis techniques, we monitored the pre- and post-breakthrough arsine concentrations over different sorbent samples. Some of these samples exhibited pre-breakthrough arsine absorption capacity over 40% wt. (capacity is defined as lb of arsenic absorbed/lb of sorbent), while

  9. Location of MTBE and toluene in the channel system of the zeolite mordenite: Adsorption and host-guest interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arletti, Rossella; Martucci, Annalisa; Alberti, Alberto; Pasti, Luisa; Nassi, Marianna; Bagatin, Roberto

    2012-10-15

    This paper reports a study of the location of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) and toluene molecules adsorbed in the pores of the organophylic zeolite mordenite from an aqueous solution. The presence of these organic molecules in the zeolite channels was revealed by structure refinement performed by the Rietveld method. About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the cavities of mordenite, representing 75% and 80% of the total absorption capacity of this zeolite. In both cases a water molecule was localized inside the side pocket of mordenite. The saturation capacity determined by the adsorption isotherms, obtained by batch experiments, and the weight loss given by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses were in very good agreement with these values. The interatomic distances obtained after the structural refinements suggest MTBE could be connected to the framework through a water molecule, while toluene could be bonded to framework oxygen atoms. The rapid and high adsorption of these hydrocarbons into the organophylic mordenite zeolite makes this cheap and environmental friendly material a suitable candidate for the removal of these pollutants from water. - graphical abstract: Location of MTBE (a) and toluene (b) in mordenite channels (projection along the [001] direction). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the MTBE and toluene adsorption process into an organophilic zeolite mordenite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of MTBE and toluene in mordenite was determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the zeolite cavities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MTBE is connected to the framework through a water molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toluene is directly bonded to framework oxygen atoms.

  10. Nonphosphate Degradation Products of Tributyl Phosphate and Their Reactivities in Purex Media Under Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tashiro, Yoshikazu; Kodama, Ryuji; Sugai, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Matsuoka, Shingo

    2000-01-15

    The chemical degradation of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in liquid systems, where TBP was in contact with aqueous solutions containing nitric acid and/or uranyl nitrate, was studied experimentally to clarify the mechanisms of the formation and successive reactions of nonphosphate products under atmospheric pressure. Butyl nitrate, propionic acid, acetic acid, butric acid, and butyl alcohol were formed as the nonphosphate butyl products derived from the butyl-groups of TBP in an open system. The total amount of these products almost equals the amount of the major intermediate phosphate products reduced, i.e., di- and monobutyl phosphates and phosphoric acid. Butyl alcohol was found to be the precursor of the other nonphosphate products.Even when the extremely degraded solvent was further contacted with 10 M nitric acid at 90 deg. C, no significant heat evolution was observed at atmospheric pressure. Only butyl alcohol changed into carboxylic acids by exothermic oxidative reactions.

  11. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: Archer Daniels Midland

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Archer Daniels Midland will develop a pilot plant to demonstrate the continuous production of cellulosic ethanol and butyl acrylate from densified corn stover.

  12. 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Xylene, Ethyl acetate, Ethyl benzene, Ethyl ether, n-Butyl alcohol, Cyclohexanone, Methanol, Cresols, Cresylic acid, Nitroobenzene, Carbon disulfide, Isobutanol, Pyridine, 2-...

  13. Platts 2nd Annual Renewable Chemicals Conference

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Topsoe, INEOS Bio, Iogen, POET * Cane, Energy crops, Waste * Quality and standards * ... butyl rubber, PET Gevo, Butamax, Cathay, Green, Cobalt Adipic Acid nylon, polyurethane ...

  14. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}-)flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  15. Continuous wasteless ecologically safe technology of propylenecarbonate production in presence of phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Afanasiev, Vladimir Vasilievich; Zefirov, Nikolai Serafimovich; Zalepugin, Dmitry Yurievich; Polyakov, Victor Stanislavovich; Tilkunova,Nataliya Alexandrovna; Tomilova, Larisa Godvigovna

    2009-09-08

    A continuous method of producing propylenecarbonate includes carboxylation of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide in presence of phthalocyanine catalyst on an inert carrier, using as the phthalocyanine catalyst at least one catalyst selected from the group consisting of not-substituted, methyl, ethyl, butyl, and tret butyl-substituted phthalocyanines of metals, including those containing counterions, and using as the carrier a hydrophobic carrier.

  16. Henry's law constants for paint solvents and their implications on volatile organic compound emissions from automotive painting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, B.R.; Kalis, E.M.; DeWulf, T.; Andrews, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes experimental results of equilibrium partitioning of several significant paint solvents and formaldehyde between air and water to quantify the potential for capturing and retaining the constituents in spraybooth scrubber water during automotive painting. The compounds studied are toluene, n-butanol, methyl ethyl ketone methyl propyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl amyl ketone, butyl cellosolve, butyl cellosolve acetate, butyl carbitol, and n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. A set of field data collected at a Ford Motor Company assembly plant was also analyzed to determine whether data were consistent with the equilibrium phenomenon. The primary findings include: (a) There were more than six orders of magnitude difference in the Henry's law constants among the solvents studied. A solvent with a smaller constant is less easily stripped from water. The Henry's law constants decrease in the following order: toluene and xylenes > methyl ethyl ketone > n-butanol > butyl cellosolve acetate > butyl cellosolve > formaldehyde > butyl carbitol > n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. (b) Field data showed accumulation of n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and stable concentrations of butyl carbitol, butyl cellosolve, and n-butanol in the paint-sludge pit water during a 2-month period. Stable concentrations indicate a continuous, balanced capture and stripping of the solvents. Data were consistent with measured Henry's law constants. (c) The low Henry's law constant for formaldehyde is the result of the fact that it is hydrated when dissolved in water.

  17. P 1607 Cover 1.eps

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Structural Relationships of Pre-Tertiary Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Region, Southern ... of Pre-Tertiary Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Region, Southern Nevada By James C. ...

  18. Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1997 | Author(s): Bill Kramer | Tertiary Storage January 28, 1997 | Author(s): Keith Fitzgerald, Harvard Holmes | Download File: Tertiary-Storage.pdf | pdf | 173 KB Report on...

  19. Geologic Setting of the Chena Hot Springs Geothermal System,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diorite, tonalite,granodiorite, and granite of both mid-Cretaceous andEarly Tertiary ages. 40Ar39Ar step heat analyses ofbiotite from the CHS pluton shows flat Tertiary...

  20. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-09-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test stand is

  1. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Geosciences | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Poux, B. (2010) 34 Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States. ... Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase MicroextractionHead Space ...

  2. GETO2FAC

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    An implementation of a model that accounts for diffusion limited oxidation effects [Ref.1] in the chemical aging response of butyl o-ring seals. Given the oxygen concentration, this model calculates a chemical aging parameter that regulates how the butyl material relaxes with time [Ref.2] inside a chemical aging constitutive model. This implementation is in the form of a subroutine that is called by a Sandia developed multi-strategy iterative code for solid mechanics analysis code called JAS3D.

  3. Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, O.K.; Crouse, D.J.; Mailen, J.C.

    1980-12-17

    Nuclear fuel processing solution consisting of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane, with a complex of uranium, plutonium, or zirconium and with a solvent degradation product such as di-n-butyl phosphate therein, is contacted with an aqueous solution of a salt formed from hydrazine and either a dicarboxylic acid or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, thereby removing the aforesaid complex from the processing solution.

  4. Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Crouse, David J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mailen, James C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear fuel processing solution consisting of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane, with a complex of uranium, plutonium, or zirconium and with a solvent degradation product such as di-n-butyl phosphate therein, is contacted with an aqueous solution of a salt formed from hydrazine and either a dicarboxylic acid or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, thereby removing the aforesaid complex from the processing solution.

  5. Non-phosphate degradation products of tributyl phosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tashiro, Y.; Kodama, R.; Sugai, H.

    1995-12-01

    Tributyl phosphate(TBP) was compulsively degraded with nitric acid and/or uranium nitrate at elevated temperature around 105{degrees}C. Experimental results indicates major non-phosphate degradation products are butyl nitrate (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NO{sub 3}), propionic acid (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}COOH), acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH), butyric acid (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}COOH) and butyl alcohol (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH) in ascending order of quantity. Degrading rate in uranium free system is less than that in uranium coexisting system. Carboxylic acids were not produced in uranium free system, and only acetic acid was identified in case of without supplying nitric acid from aqueous phase. Moreover, from the experimental study on the reactivity of each non-phosphate product with nitric acid, carboxylic acids were identified as byproducts of butyl alcohol and butyl nitrate, and each carboxylic acid was stable in these degrading conditions. Finally, butyl alcohol is considered as one of intermediate products to butyl nitrate and carboxylic acids. From this study, the non-phosphate degradation products of TBP is identified and the degrading reaction pass is proposed. Extraction behavior of each non-phosphate product and reactivity of degraded TBP are also elucidated.

  6. Activation of water soluble amines by halogens for trapping methyl radioactive iodine from air streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deitz, Victor R.; Blachly, Charles H.

    1977-01-01

    Gas adsorbent charcoals impregnated with an aqueous solution of the reaction product of a tertiary amine and elemental iodine or bromine are better than 99 per cent efficient in trapping methyl iodine.sup.131. The chemical addition of iodine or bromine to the tertiary amine molecule increases the efficiency of the impregnated charcoal as a trapping agent, and in conjunction with the high flash point of the tertiary amine raises the ignition temperature of the impregnated charcoal.

  7. untitled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GAME CHANGING TECHNOLOGY OF POLYMERIC-SURFACTANTS FOR TERTIARY OIL RECOVERY IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN 10123-03.Final September 30, 2014 PI: Dr. Yongchun Tang Power Environmental...

  8. Subsurface Stratigraphy, Structure, and Alteration in the Senator...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    protolith, contains a downward-increasing component (up to at least 15 vol.%) of brick-red, Tertiary tuffaceous volcanic rock and its comminuted equivalent. The alluvium is...

  9. Operating Reserves and Wind Power Integration; An International...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... As shown in Fig. 5 wind power forecasting errors can increase the cost associated to the operation of deviation management and the tertiary reserve. D. The Netherlands The ...

  10. M-transfer activity of MCM-41 materials in 1-hexene isomerization reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominguez, J.M.; Hernandez, F.; Terres, E.; Toledo, A.; Navarrete, J.

    1996-10-01

    The gasoline reformulation scheme includes the use of oxygenated additives MTBE (methyl-ter-butyl-ether), TAME (ter-amyl-methyl-ether), ETBE (ethyl-ter-butyl-ether) and DIPE (di-isopropyl-ether), which have the iso-olefins (i-C{sub 3}{sup =}, i-C{sub 4}{sup =}, i-C{sub 5}{sup =}) as precursors. In this respect, olefin production from FCC units must be enhanced to cover the demand. A series of new catalytic materials with lower hydrogen transfer activity could enhance the olefin yield from the FCC reactors.

  11. EVALUATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR EFFECTIVE PERMEATION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29

    A research and development task was undertaken to determine the permeabilities of hydrogen and dry air through different polymeric glove materials that are used to maintain the integrity of glovebox secondary containment. Fifteen different glove samples were obtained from four different manufacturers and samples cut from these gloves were tested. The gloves included baseline butyl rubber, Viton{reg_sign}, Dupont{reg_sign} Hypalon{reg_sign}, polyurethane, as well as composite gloves. The testing indicated that all of the vendor's butyl rubber gloves and the Jung Viton{reg_sign} gloves performed comparably in both gases.

  12. Sterically shielded diboron-containing metallocene olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Ja, Li; Yang, Xinmin

    1995-09-05

    A non-coordinating anion, preferably containing a sterically shielded diboron hydride, if combined with a cyclopenta-dienyl-substituted metallocene cation component, such as a zirconocene metallocene, is a useful olefin polymerization catalyst component. The anion preferably has the formula ##STR1## where R is branched lower alkyl, such as t-butyl.

  13. The photodissociation dynamics of alkyl radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giegerich, Jens; Fischer, Ingo

    2015-01-28

    The photodisscociation dynamics of the alkyl radicals i-propyl (CH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}) and t-butyl (C(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) are investigated by H-atom photofragment imaging. While i-propyl is excited at 250 nm, the photodynamics of t-butyl are explored over a large energy range using excitation wavelengths between 347 nm and 233 nm. The results are compared to those obtained previously for ethyl, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}, and to those reported for t-butyl using 248 nm excitation. The translational energy (E{sub T}) distribution of the H-atom photofragments is bimodal and appears rather similar for all three radicals. The low E{sub T} part of the distribution shows an isotropic photofragment angular distribution, while the high E{sub T} part is associated with a considerable anisotropy. Thus, for t-butyl, two H-atom loss channels of roughly equal importance have been identified in addition to the CH{sub 3}-loss channel reported previously. A mechanism for the photodissociation of alkyl radicals is suggested that is based on interactions between Rydberg- and valence states.

  14. CX-007928: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Game Changing Technology of Polymeric-Surfactants for Tertiary Oil CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 02/22/2012 Location(s): Indiana Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  15. CX-007922: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Game Changing Technology of Polymeric-Surfactants for Tertiary Oil CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 02/23/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  16. Enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    The principal enhanced recovery technique is waterflooding, because water generally is inexpensive to obtain and inject into the reservoir and it works. With the shortage of conventional oil in Canada there is greater emphasis being placed on other recovery schemes in addition to or in place of waterflooding. Tertiary recovery is applicable to many of the existing projects and engineers must recognize those fields that are candidates for tertiary recovery applications. The application of tertiary recovery techniques to a specific reservoir requires consideration of all methods developed to select the one most suitable. A thorough understanding of waterflooding and the factors that affect recovery is necessary before a tertiary process is considered. Factors that affect oil recovery under waterflooding are areal and vertical sweep efficiency, contact factor and displacement efficiency.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2013-01-24

    A task was undertaken to characterize glovebox gloves that are currently used in the facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as some experimental and advanced compound gloves that have been proposed for use. Gloves from four manufacturers were tested for permeation in hydrogen and air, thermal stability, tensile properties, puncture resistance and dynamic mechanical response. The gloves were compared to each other within the type and also to the butyl rubber glove that is widely used at the SRS. The permeation testing demonstrated that the butyl compounds from three of the vendors behaved similarly and exhibited hydrogen permeabilities of .52‐.84 x10{sup ‐7} cc H{sub 2}*cm / (cm{sup 2}*atm). The Viton? glove performed at the lower edge of this bound, while the more advanced composite gloves exhibited permeabilities greater than a factor of two compared to butyl. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the amount of material lost under slightly aggressive conditions. Glove losses are important since they can affect the life of glovebox stripper systems. During testing at 90, 120, and 150?C, the samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The ranking from worst to best was Jung butyl‐Hypalon? with 12.9 %, Piercan Hypalon? with 11.4 %, and Jung butyl‐Viton? with 5.2% mass loss all at approximately 140?C. The smallest mass losses were experienced by the Jung Viton? and the Piercan polyurethane. Tensile properties were measured using a standard dog bone style test. The butyl rubber exhibited tensile strengths of 11‐15 MPa and elongations or 660‐843%. Gloves made from other compounds exhibited lower tensile strengths (5 MPa Viton) to much higher tensile strengths (49 MPa Urethane) with a comparable range of elongation. The puncture resistance of the gloves was

  18. Method of producing cyclohexasilane compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy; Anderson, Kenneth; Boudjouk, Philip R; Schulz, Douglas L

    2015-03-10

    A method of preparing a cyclohexasilane compound from trichlorosilane is provided. The method includes contacting trichlorosilane with a reagent composition to produce a compound containing a tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion, such as a tetradecachlorocyclohexasilane dianion. The reagent composition typically includes (a) tertiary polyamine ligand; and (b) a deprotonating reagent, such as a tertiary amine having a pKa of at least about 10.5. Methods of converting the tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion-containing compound to cyclohexasilane or a dodecaorganocyclohexasilane are also provided.

  19. Composition and method for encapsulating photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pern, Fu-Jann

    2000-01-01

    A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, tetrakis methylene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) methane, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, and 2,2'-ethylidene bis(4,6-di-t-butylphenyl) fluorophosponite. The composition is applied to a solar cell then cured. The cured product contains a minimal concentration of curing-generated chromophores and resists UV-induced degradation.

  20. Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G.; Borkowski, Marian; Laszak, Ivan; Dietz, Mark L.

    2012-07-01

    The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

  1. Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reutter, D.J.; Hardy, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope /sup 235/U//sup 238/U abundance is demonstrated.

  2. Electron Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity in Ionic Liquids Observed by Picosecond RadiolysisTechniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishart J. F.; Funston, A.M.; Szreder, T.; Cook, A.R.; Gohdo, M.

    2012-01-01

    On time scales of a nanosecond or less, radiolytically-generated excess electrons in ionic liquids undergo solvation processes and reactions that determine all subsequent chemistry and the accumulation of radiolytic damage. Using picosecond pulse radiolysis detection methods, we observed and quantified the solvation response of the electron in 1-methyl-1-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and used it to understand electron scavenging by a typical solute, duroquinone.

  3. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D.; Betty, Rita G.

    2006-10-24

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  4. Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Functional electrolyte solvents include compounds having at least one aromatic ring with 2, 3, 4 or 5 substituents, at least one of which is a substituted or unsubstituted methoxy group, at least one of which is a tert-butyl group and at least one of which is a substituted or unsubstituted polyether or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) group bonded through oxygen to the aromatic ring, are provided.

  5. Research Highlights - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Highlights August 25, 2016, Research Highlights The Lightest Organic Radical Cation for Charge Storage in Redox Flow Batteries By systematically shedding molecular fragments of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)benzene that are considered important for radical cation steric stabilization, we discovered a minimalistic structure that retains long-term stability in its oxidized form and exhibits the intrinsic capacity of 161 mAh/g. Read More August 20, 2016, Research Highlights

  6. Method for the concentration and separation of actinides from biological and environmental samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1989-05-30

    A method and apparatus for the quantitative recover of actinide values from biological and environmental sample by passing appropriately prepared samples in a mineral acid solution through a separation column of a dialkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate on an inert substrate which selectively extracts the actinide values. The actinide values can be eluted either as a group or individually and their presence quantitatively detected by alpha counting. 3 figs.

  7. Method for the concentration and separation of actinides from biological and environmental samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the quantitative recover of actinide values from biological and environmental sample by passing appropriately prepared samples in a mineral acid solution through a separation column of a dialkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate on an inert substrate which selectively extracts the actinide values. The actinide values can be eluted either as a group or individually and their presence quantitatively detected by alpha counting.

  8. chemicals | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemicals Overview Key end products from coal gasification include hydrogen (and synthetic natural gas as a closely related product), electric power, fuels (mainly diesel fuel and gasoline), and fertilizer (which hinges on the large quantities of ammonia produced from gasification). In the context of liquid fuels, methanol can be added as an end product; in some locations (China in particular) methanol is a heavily-used fuel blending stock and feedstock for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

  9. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs) confined in silica nanopores exhibit obviously increased H 2 adsorption capacity and thermal stability Significance and Impact The confinement avoids the aggregation of MOP molecules in solid state and demonstrates potential for future applications of MOPs Research Details - MOPs with identical geometries but different ligand functionality (i.e. tert-butyl, hydroxyl, and sulfonic groups) were incorporated into mesoporous silica - In comparison with bulk MOPs which

  10. Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 25, 2016, Research Highlights The Lightest Organic Radical Cation for Charge Storage in Redox Flow Batteries By systematically shedding molecular fragments of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)benzene that are considered important for radical cation steric stabilization, we discovered a minimalistic structure that retains long-term stability in its oxidized form and exhibits the intrinsic capacity of 161 mAh/g. Read More August 24, 2016, Videos Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes

  11. Dehydrogenation links LPG to more octanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gussow, S.; Spence, D.C.; White, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Air Products and Chemicals Inc.'s Houdry Catofin process, a new application of well-known Houdry catalytic dehydrogenation technology, is an adiabatic, fixed-bed, multireactor catalytic process which produces propylene, isobutylene, and mixed n-butylenes by dehydrogenation of the corresponding saturates. The process is very flexible in that propylene, isobutylene, and mixed n-butylenes can be produced either separately or simultaneously from the corresponding saturates. The process will be used to prepare purity propylene at a Morelos, Mex., plant, which is now in the engineering stage. Five variations of the procedure for producing propylene; methyl tert.-butyl ether; propylene and alkylate; methyl tert.-butyl ether and alkylate; and methyl tert.-butyl ether, alkylate, and 1-butylene are compared with respect to typical product yields, costs and values for process economics, the dehydrogenation route to the three products, manufacturing costs, the sensitivity of return on investment to feedstock costs, and the return on investment, which varies from a low of 11.5% for the third case to a high of 14.4% for the fourth case. The Catofin process is discussed.

  12. Ozone-forming potential of a series of oxygenated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Rudy, S.J.; Chang, Tai Y. )

    1991-03-01

    An incremental reactivity approach has been used to assess the relative ozone-forming potentials of various important oxygenated fuels/fuel additives, i.e., tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), in a variety of environments. Calculations were performed using a single-cell trajectory model, combined with the Lurmann-Carter-Coyner chemical mechanism, with (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratios ranging from 4 to 20. This work provides the first quantitative assessment of the air quality impact of release of these important oxygenated compounds. ETBE and DEE are the two most reactive compounds on a per carbon equivalent basis, while TBA is the least reactive species. At a (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratio of 8, which is generally typical of polluted urban areas in the United States, TBA, DME, MTBE, and ETBE all have incremental reactivities less than or equal to that of the urban NMHC mix. Thus, use of these additives in fuels may have a beneficial impact on urban ozone levels.

  13. Ionic liquid-assisted sonochemical preparation of CeO2 nanoparticles for CO oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alammar, Tarek; Noei, Heshmat; Wang, Yuemin; Grünert, Wolfgang; Mudring, Anja -Verena

    2014-10-10

    CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a one-step ultrasound synthesis in different kinds of ionic liquids based on bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylamide, [Tf2N]–, in combination with various cations including 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4mim]+), 1-ethyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ([Edimim]+), butyl-pyridinium([Py4]+), 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium ([Pyrr14]+), and 2-hydroxyethyl-trimethylammonium ([N1112OH]+). Depending on synthetic parameters, such as ionic liquid, Ce(IV) precursor, heating method, and precipitator, formed ceria exhibits different morphologies, varying from nanospheres, nanorods, nanoribbons, and nanoflowers. The morphology, crystallinity, and chemical composition of the obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption. The structural and electronic propertiesmore » of the as-prepared CeO2 samples were probed by CO adsorption using IR spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The catalytic activities of CeO2 nanoparticles were investigated in the oxidation of CO. CeO2 nanospheres obtained sonochemically in [C4mim][Tf2N] exhibit the best performance for low-temperature CO oxidation. As a result, the superior catalytic performance of this material can be related to its mesoporous structure, small particle size, large surface area, and high number of surface oxygen vacancy sites.« less

  14. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Wells Quadrangle, Nevada, Idaho, and Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proffitt, J.L.; Mayerson, D.L.; Parker, D.P.; Wolverson, N.; Antrim, D.; Berg, J.; Witzel, F.

    1982-08-01

    The Wells 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Nevada, Idaho, and Utah, was evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria to delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits. Our investigation has resulted in the delineation of areas that contain Tertiary sedimentary rocks favorable for hydroallogenic deposits in the Mountain City area (Favorable Area A) and in the Oxley Peak area north of Wells (Favorable Area B). Environments considered to be unfavorable for uranium deposits include Tertiary felsic volcanic, felsic plutonic, intermediate to mafic volcanic, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Precambrian rocks, and most Tertiary sedimentary rocks located outside the favorable areas. Present-day basins are unevaluated environments because of a paucity of adequate outcrop and subsurface data. However, the scarce data indicate that some characteristics favorable for uranium deposits are present in the Susie Creek-Tule Valley-Wild Horse basin, the Contact-Granite Range-Tijuana John stocks area, the Charleston Reservoir area, and the Wells-Marys River basin.

  15. National uranium resource evaluation. Winnemucca Quadrangle, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berridge, W.C.; Wolverson, N.J.

    1982-05-01

    The Winnemucca 2/sup 0/ quadrangle, Nevada, was evaluated for geologic environments favorable for uranium deposits, using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Reconnaissance radiometric and geochemical surveys were conducted for all geologic environments open to evaluation. Detailed surface and subsurface investigations were conducted in potential host and source environments. Subsurface data collected by private industry were obtained for favorable environments. The results of this investigation indicate environments favorable for hydroallogenic uranium deposits in the Fish Creek Basin sedimentary rocks of Miocene age, and for hydroallogenic and sandstone uranium deposits in the Home Station Wash sedimentary rocks of Miocene age. Environments in the quadrangle considered unfavorable for uranium deposits are exposed sedimentary rocks of Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary ages (other than those in the Fish Creek Basin and Home Station Wash areas); Mesozoic and Tertiary plutonic rocks; and Mesozoic and Tertiary volcanic rocks. Substantial portions of the quadrangle remain unevaluated because of restricted access or insufficient subsurface data.

  16. Photoionization mass spectrometric measurements of initial reaction pathways in low-temperature oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rotavera, Brandon; Zádor, Judit; Welz, Oliver; Sheps, Leonid; Scheer, Adam M.; Savee, John D.; Akbar Ali, Mohamad; Lee, Taek Soon; Simmons, Blake A.; Osborn, David L.; et al

    2014-09-19

    The product formation from R + O2 reactions relevant to low-temperature autoignition chemistry was studied for 2,5-dimethylhexane, a symmetrically branched octane isomer, at 550 and 650 K using Cl-atom initiated oxidation and multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS). The interpretation of time- and photon-energy-resolved mass spectra led to three specific results important to characterizing the initial oxidation steps: (1) quantified isomer-resolved branching ratios for HO2 + alkene channels; (2) 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran is formed in substantial yield from addition of O2 to tertiary 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl followed by isomerization of the resulting ROO adduct to tertiary hydroperoxyalkyl (QOOH) and exhibits a positive dependence on temperaturemore » over the range covered leading to a higher flux relative to aggregate cyclic ether yield. The higher relative flux is explained by a 1,5-hydrogen atom shift reaction that converts the initial primary alkyl radical (2,5-dimethylhex-1-yl) to the tertiary alkyl radical 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl, providing an additional source of tertiary alkyl radicals. Furthermore, quantum-chemical and master-equation calculations of the unimolecular decomposition of the primary alkyl radical reveal that isomerization to the tertiary alkyl radical is the most favorable pathway, and is favored over O2-addition at 650 K under the conditions herein. The isomerization pathway to tertiary alkyl radicals therefore contributes an additional mechanism to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran formation; (3) carbonyl species (acetone, propanal, and methylpropanal) consistent with β-scission of QOOH radicals were formed in significant yield, indicating unimolecular QOOH decomposition into carbonyl + alkene + OH.« less

  17. Photoionization mass spectrometric measurements of initial reaction pathways in low-temperature oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotavera, Brandon; Zádor, Judit; Welz, Oliver; Sheps, Leonid; Scheer, Adam M.; Savee, John D.; Akbar Ali, Mohamad; Lee, Taek Soon; Simmons, Blake A.; Osborn, David L.; Violi, Angela; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-09-19

    The product formation from R + O2 reactions relevant to low-temperature autoignition chemistry was studied for 2,5-dimethylhexane, a symmetrically branched octane isomer, at 550 and 650 K using Cl-atom initiated oxidation and multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS). The interpretation of time- and photon-energy-resolved mass spectra led to three specific results important to characterizing the initial oxidation steps: (1) quantified isomer-resolved branching ratios for HO2 + alkene channels; (2) 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran is formed in substantial yield from addition of O2 to tertiary 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl followed by isomerization of the resulting ROO adduct to tertiary hydroperoxyalkyl (QOOH) and exhibits a positive dependence on temperature over the range covered leading to a higher flux relative to aggregate cyclic ether yield. The higher relative flux is explained by a 1,5-hydrogen atom shift reaction that converts the initial primary alkyl radical (2,5-dimethylhex-1-yl) to the tertiary alkyl radical 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl, providing an additional source of tertiary alkyl radicals. Furthermore, quantum-chemical and master-equation calculations of the unimolecular decomposition of the primary alkyl radical reveal that isomerization to the tertiary alkyl radical is the most favorable pathway, and is favored over O2-addition at 650 K under the conditions herein. The isomerization pathway to tertiary alkyl radicals therefore contributes an additional mechanism to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran formation; (3) carbonyl species (acetone, propanal, and methylpropanal) consistent with β-scission of QOOH radicals were formed in significant yield, indicating unimolecular QOOH decomposition into carbonyl + alkene + OH.

  18. Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poa, D.S.

    1984-02-16

    A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

  19. Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poa, David S.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1985-01-01

    A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

  20. Bifunctional anion-exchange resins with improved selectivity and exchange kinetics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a class of anion exchange resins containing two different exchange sites with improved selectivity and sorptive capability for chemical species in solution, such as heptavalent technetium (as pertechnetate anion, TcO.sub.4.sup.-). The resins are prepared by first reacting haloalkylated crosslinked copolymer beads with a large tertiary amine in a solvent in which the resin beads can swell, followed by reaction with a second, smaller, tertiary amine to more fully complete the functionalization of the resin. The resins have enhanced selectivity, capacity, and exchange kinetics.

  1. Final Report for NA-22/DTRA Cosmic Ray Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurtz, Ron E.; Chapline, George F.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Nakae, Les F.; Pawelczak, Iwona A.; Sheets, Steven A.

    2015-07-21

    The primary objective of this project was to better understand the time-correlations between the muons and neutrons produced as a result of high energy primary cosmic ray particles hitting the atmosphere, and investigate whether these time correlations might be useful in connection with the detection of special nuclear materials. During the course of this project we did observe weak correlations between secondary cosmic ray muons and cosmic ray induced fast neutrons. We also observed strong correlations between tertiary neutrons produced in a Pb pile by secondary cosmic rays and minimum ionizing particles produced in association with the tertiary neutrons.

  2. Compact intermediates in RNA folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodson, S.A. (JHU)

    2011-12-14

    Large noncoding RNAs fold into their biologically functional structures via compact yet disordered intermediates, which couple the stable secondary structure of the RNA with the emerging tertiary fold. The specificity of the collapse transition, which coincides with the assembly of helical domains, depends on RNA sequence and counterions. It determines the specificity of the folding pathways and the magnitude of the free energy barriers to the ensuing search for the native conformation. By coupling helix assembly with nascent tertiary interactions, compact folding intermediates in RNA also play a crucial role in ligand binding and RNA-protein recognition.

  3. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion, and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, a downhole steam generator is designed which provides for efficient counterflow cooling of the combustion chamber walls and preheating of the fuel and water. Pressure-responsive doors are provided for closing and opening the outlet in response to flameout, thereby preventing flooding of the combustion chamber. (DLC)

  4. Sulfonated polysulfone battery membrane for use in corrosive environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Assink, Roger

    1987-01-01

    For batteries containing strong oxidizing electrolyte and a membrane separating two electrolyte solutions, e.g., a zinc ferricyanide battery, an improved membrane is provided comprising an oxidative resistant, conductive, ion-selective membrane fabricated from a catenated aromatic polymer having an absence of tertiary hydrogens, e.g., a sulfonated polysulfone.

  5. Phosphine nickel complex as catalyst in reactions of organic bromides RBr with {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated ketones, nitriles, and esters. Conjugate addition of R group and H atom across the C=C bond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, S.A.; Lopatina, V.S.; Petrov, E.S.

    1995-09-10

    Reactions of organic bromides, particularly of secondary and tertiary alkyl bromides, with {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and acrylonitrile in the presence of the catalytic system nickel complex-zinc. The products correspond to the conjugate addition of the organic moiety of the bromide and a hydrogen atom across the C=C double bond of the unsaturated substrate. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Preliminary gravity inversion model of basins east of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geoffrey A. Phelps; Carter W. Roberts, and Barry C. Moring

    2006-03-17

    The Yucca Flat eastern extension study area, a 14 kilometer by 45 kilometer region contiguous to Yucca Flat on the west and Frenchman Flat on the south, is being studied to expand the boundary of the Yucca Flat hydrogeologic model. The isostatic residual gravity anomaly was inverted to create a model of the depth of the geologic basins within the study area. Such basins typically are floored by dense pre-Tertiary basement rocks and filled with less-dense Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Quaternary alluvium, a necessary condition for the use of gravity modeling to predict the depth to the pre-Tertiary basement rocks within the basins. Three models were created: a preferred model to represent the best estimate of depth to pre-Tertiary basement rocks in the study area, and two end-member models to demonstrate the possible range of solutions. The preferred model predicts shallow basins, generally less than 1,000m depth, throughout the study area, with only Emigrant Valley reaching a depth of 1,100m. Plutonium valley and West Fork Scarp Canyon have maximum depths of 800m and 1,000m, respectively. The end-member models indicate that the uncertainty in the preferred model is less than 200m for most of the study area.

  7. Concentration Dependent Speciation and Mass Transport Properties of Switchable Polarity Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron D. Wilson; Christopher J. Orme

    2014-12-01

    Tertiary amine switchable polarity solvents (SPS) consisting of predominantly water, tertiary amine, and tertiary ammonium and bicarbonate ions were produced at various concentrations for three different amines: N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine, N,N-dimethyloctylamine, and 1 cyclohexylpiperidine. For all concentrations, physical properties were measured including viscosity, molecular diffusion coefficients, freezing point depression, and density. Based on these measurements a variation on the Mark Houwink equation was developed to predict the viscosity of any tertiary amine SPS as a function of concentration using the amines molecular mass. The observed physical properties allowed the identification of solution state speciation of non-osmotic SPS, where the amine to carbonic acid ratio is significantly greater than one. These results indicate that at most concentrations the stoichiometric excess amine is involved in solvating a proton with two amines. The physical properties of osmotic SPS have consistent concentration dependence behavior over a wide range of concentrations; this consistence suggests osmotic pressures based on low concentrations freezing point studies can be reliably extrapolated to higher concentrations.

  8. Polymide gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  9. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymers and the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.; Bloom, Paul D.; Sheares Ashby, Valerie V.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention provides novel multi-functional methacrylic copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility under acidic conditions. The copolymers are constructed from tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates. The copolymers are useful as gene vectors, pharmaceutical carriers, and in protein separation applications.

  10. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymers and the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.; Bloom, Paul D.; Sheares Ashby, Valerie V.

    2007-01-09

    The present invention provides novel multi-functional methacrylic copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility under acidic conditions. The copolymers are constructed from tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates. The copolymers are useful as gene vectors, pharmaceutical carriers, and in protein separation applications.

  11. Synthesis and SAR of potent LXR agonists containing an indole pharmacophore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Campobasso, Nino; Smallwood, Angela; Parks, Derek J.; Webb, Christine L.; Frank, Kelly A.; Nord, Melanie; Duraiswami, Chaya; Evans, Christopher; Jaye, Michael; Thompson, Scott K.

    2009-03-27

    A novel series of 1H-indol-1-yl tertiary amine LXR agonists has been designed. Compounds from this series were potent agonists with good rat pharmacokinetic parameters. In addition, the crystal structure of an LXR agonist bound to LXR{alpha} will be disclosed.

  12. Petroleum systems of Jianghan Basin, Hubel Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, A.E.; Schaps, S.; McGregor, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Jianghan Basin is a Cretaceous-Tertiary nonmarine rift basin superimposed on a late Precambrian to Jurassic passive margin and foreland basin succession deformed by mid-Mesozoic folding and thrusting. Hence the basin has potential for superimposed petroleum systems. Oil production is established in a Tertiary petroleum system developed in two major depocenters, the Jiangling (west) and Qianjiang (east) Depressions. Lacustrine source beds in the early Eocene Xingouzhui and late Eocene Qianjiang Formations generated hydrocarbons during local maximum basin fill in the Oligocene to present. Very early, low temperature generation of petroleum occurs where Type 1S Qianjiang Formation kerogen is present. Tertiary fluvial and deltaic sandstones form reservoirs that trap oil in highs or rollover structures formed by normal faulting and salt movement. The pre-rift section contains large folds and good source-beds, but has high exploration risk. Factors limiting effectiveness of older petroleum systems are: (1) Uplift and erosion of thrust structures; (2) Overmaturation of pre-Permian source rocks prior to folding and thrusting; (3) Limited extent of secondary maturation of Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic source beds; and (4) Disruption of older traps and seals by widespread normal faulting. Production of hydrocarbons from Permian and Triassic rocks to the west of Hubei suggests that further seismic work and drilling are merited to evaluate pre-Tertiary potential in the Jianghan Basin.

  13. Petroleum systems of Jianghan Basin, Hubel Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, A.E. ); Schaps, S.; McGregor, D. )

    1996-01-01

    The Jianghan Basin is a Cretaceous-Tertiary nonmarine rift basin superimposed on a late Precambrian to Jurassic passive margin and foreland basin succession deformed by mid-Mesozoic folding and thrusting. Hence the basin has potential for superimposed petroleum systems. Oil production is established in a Tertiary petroleum system developed in two major depocenters, the Jiangling (west) and Qianjiang (east) Depressions. Lacustrine source beds in the early Eocene Xingouzhui and late Eocene Qianjiang Formations generated hydrocarbons during local maximum basin fill in the Oligocene to present. Very early, low temperature generation of petroleum occurs where Type 1S Qianjiang Formation kerogen is present. Tertiary fluvial and deltaic sandstones form reservoirs that trap oil in highs or rollover structures formed by normal faulting and salt movement. The pre-rift section contains large folds and good source-beds, but has high exploration risk. Factors limiting effectiveness of older petroleum systems are: (1) Uplift and erosion of thrust structures; (2) Overmaturation of pre-Permian source rocks prior to folding and thrusting; (3) Limited extent of secondary maturation of Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic source beds; and (4) Disruption of older traps and seals by widespread normal faulting. Production of hydrocarbons from Permian and Triassic rocks to the west of Hubei suggests that further seismic work and drilling are merited to evaluate pre-Tertiary potential in the Jianghan Basin.

  14. Sr-isotopic composition of marbles from the Puerto Galera area (Mindoro, Philippines): additional evidence for a Paleozoic age of a metamorphic complex in the Philippine island arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knittel, U.; Daniels, U.

    1987-02-01

    The Sr-isotopic composition of marbles from the Puerto Galera area (Mindoro, Philippines) is compatible with either a Tertiary or a Paleozoic age. The former is considered as unlikely because nonmetamorphic sediments of that age overlie the metamorphic complex. This implies that the metamorphic complex does not represent the basement of the Philippine arc but is an accreted terrane.

  15. PRODUCTION OF SLIP CAST CALCIA HOLLOWWARE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.; Cowan, R.E.

    1963-12-31

    A method for producing slip cast calcia hollow ware in which a dense calcia grain is suspended in isobutyl acetate or a mixture of tertiary amyl alcohol and o-xylene is presented. A minor amount of triethanolamine and oleic acid is added to the suspension vehicle as viscosity adjusting agents and the suspension is cast in a plaster mold, dried, and fired. (AEC)

  16. Development of Effective Solvent Modifiers for the Solvent Extraction of Cesium from Alkaline High-Level Tank Waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Lumetta, Gregg J. )

    2003-01-01

    A series of novel alkylphenoxy fluorinated alcohols were prepared and investigated for their effectiveness as modifiers in solvents containing calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 for extracting cesium from alkaline nitrate media. A modifier that contained a terminal 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy group was found to decompose following long-term exposure to warm alkaline solutions. However, replacement of the tetrafluoroethoxy group with a 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy group led to a series of modifiers that possessed the alkaline stability required for a solvent extraction process. Within this series of modifiers, the structure of the alkyl substituent (tert-octyl, tert-butyl, tert-amyl, and sec-butyl) of the alkylphenoxy moiety was found to have a profound impact on the phase behavior of the solvent in liquid-liquid contacting experiments, and hence on the overall suitability of the modifier for a solvent extraction process. The sec-butyl derivative[1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol] (Cs-7SB) was found to possess the best overall balance of properties with respect to third phase and coalescence behavior, cleanup following degradation, resistance to solids formation, and cesium distribution behavior. Accordingly, this modifier was selected for use as a component of the solvent employed in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for removing cesium from high level nuclear waste (HLW) at the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE) Savannah River Site. In batch equilibrium experiments, this solvent has also been successfully shown to extract cesium from both simulated and actual solutions generated from caustic leaching of HLW tank sludge stored in tank B-110 at the DOE?s Hanford Site.

  17. The liquid surface of chiral ionic liquids as seen from molecular dynamics simulations combined with intrinsic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lísal, Martin

    2013-12-07

    We present molecular-level insight into the liquid/gas interface of two chiral room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) derived from 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim][Br]); namely, (R)-1-butyl-3-(3-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)imidazolium bromide (hydroxypropyl) and 1-butyl-3-[(1R)-nopyl]imidazolium bromide (nopyl). We use our currently developed force field which was validated against the experimental bulk density, heat of vaporization, and surface tension of [bmim][Br]. The force field for the RTILs adopts the Chemistry at Harvard Molecular Mechanics (CHARMM) parameters for the intramolecular and repulsion-dispersion interactions along with the reduced partial atomic charges based on ab initio calculations. The net charges of the ions are around ±0.8e, which mimic the anion to cation charge transfer and many-body effects. Molecular dynamics simulations in the slab geometry combined with the intrinsic interface analysis are employed to provide a detailed description of the RTIL/gas interface in terms of the structural and dynamic properties of the interfacial, sub-interfacial, and central layers at a temperature of 300 K. The focus is on the comparison of the liquid/gas interface for the chiral RTILs with the interface for parent [bmim][Br]. The structure of the interface is elucidated by evaluating the surface roughness, intrinsic atomic density profiles, and orientation ordering of the cations. The dynamics of the ions at the interfacial region is characterized by computing the survival probability, and normal and lateral self-diffusion coefficients in the layers.

  18. Solvent Modification in Ion-Pair Extraction: Effect on Sodium Nitrate Transport in Nitrobenzene Using a Crown Ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-10-31

    A comparative quantitative analysis of the effect of solvent modifiers on an ion-pair extraction of an inorganic salt by a crown ether was conducted. Two classes of the solvent modifiers that possess electron-pair donor (EPD) or hydrogen-bond donor (HBD) groups were investigated. The equilibrium constants corresponding to the extraction of sodium nitrate into nitrobenzene (NB) employing model neutral host cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (1) with and without solvent modifier were determined using the SXLSQI computer model. For a series of EPD modifiers—including tri-n-butyl- and tri-phenylphosphate, tri-n-butyl- and tri-phenylphosphine oxide, N,N-di-n-butyl- and N,N-di-phenyl acetamide—the enhancement of the NaNO3 extraction by 1 was found to be dependent on the hydrogen-bond acceptance ability of the modifier quantified by the b solvatochromic parameter. Application of the solvent EPD modifier improved solvation of the sodium ion, lowering the large energy barrier of Na+ partitioning into the extraction phase. A HBD modifier 3,5-di-t-butylphenol 8 that forms strong hydrogen bonds with nitrate anion in NB, exhibited even greater enhancement of the NaNO3 extraction by 1. The determined extraction constants were correlated with the b or a solvatochromic parameters of the solvent modifiers and linear trends were observed. Hydrogen bond interaction between 3,5-di-t-butylphenol 8 and nitrate anion in the presence of the sodium-loaded crown ether in the extraction phases was studied by vibrational spectroscopy. Formation of the simple 1:1 adduct was demonstrated.

  19. Ionic liquid-assisted sonochemical preparation of CeO2 nanoparticles for CO oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alammar, Tarek; Noei, Heshmat; Wang, Yuemin; Grünert, Wolfgang; Mudring, Anja -Verena

    2014-10-10

    CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a one-step ultrasound synthesis in different kinds of ionic liquids based on bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylamide, [Tf2N], in combination with various cations including 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4mim]+), 1-ethyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ([Edimim]+), butyl-pyridinium([Py4]+), 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium ([Pyrr14]+), and 2-hydroxyethyl-trimethylammonium ([N1112OH]+). Depending on synthetic parameters, such as ionic liquid, Ce(IV) precursor, heating method, and precipitator, formed ceria exhibits different morphologies, varying from nanospheres, nanorods, nanoribbons, and nanoflowers. The morphology, crystallinity, and chemical composition of the obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption. The structural and electronic properties of the as-prepared CeO2 samples were probed by CO adsorption using IR spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The catalytic activities of CeO2 nanoparticles were investigated in the oxidation of CO. CeO2 nanospheres obtained sonochemically in [C4mim][Tf2N] exhibit the best performance for low-temperature CO oxidation. As a result, the superior catalytic performance of this material can be related to its mesoporous structure, small particle size, large surface area, and high number of surface oxygen vacancy sites.

  20. Best Practices Case Study: Green Coast Enterprises - Project Home Again, New Orleans, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-04-01

    Case study about Green Coast Enterprises, who received design assistance and analysis from Building America team Building Science Corporation to build 100 homes for New Orleans families displaced by Hurricane Katrina. The homes incorporate a host of weather-resistant techniques: pier foundations, all borate pressure-treated lumber; hurricane strapping; moisture-resistant closed-cell spray foam insulation under the subfloor, in walls, and under the roof line to seal out moisture-laden air and glue the structure together to resist high winds; roof sheathing seams sealed with butyl-adhesive flashing tape; and a fully adhered roofing membrane over eaves and gable ends.

  1. CASTING SLIPS FOR FABRICATION OF REFRACTORY METAL WARE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.; Cowan, R.E.

    1962-09-01

    A composition is given for slip casting tungsten metal. The composition consists essentially of tungsten metal with an average particle size of 0.9 micron, an organic vehicle such as methyl chloroform, o-xylene, n-butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, and 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrachlorethane, and a suspending agent such as ethyl cellulose, with the approximate ratio of said vehicle to the tungsten metal being 12 cc of a solution containing from 5 to about 20 grams of said ethyl cellulose in 400 cc of said organic vehicle per 100 grams of metal. (AEC)

  2. Testing of a model to estimate vapor concentration of various organic chemicals. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakalyar, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A model developed by Dr. Parker C. Reist to predict the build-up and decay rates of vapor concentrations following a chemical spill and clean-up was tested. The chemicals tested were: acetone, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, hexane, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene. The evaporation rates of these chemicals were determined both by prediction, using a model developed by I. Kawamura and D. Mackay, and empirically and these rates were used in the Reist model. Chamber experiments were done to measure actual building-up and decay of vapor concentrations for simulated spills and simulated clean-up.

  3. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  4. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A.; Baker, Sheila N.; McCleskey, T. Mark

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  5. War against water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitz-Hugh, S.

    1982-01-01

    It is stressed that waterproofing should be the most important concern in an earth-sheltered home, starting with the design and continuing throughout the construction. Damage which may be caused by water leakage is discussed. Proper site selection is most important and the need for outside professionals and consultants is emphasized. The ideal waterproofing system is discussed and illustrated. Waterproofing agents are discussed in detail. They are: (1) sodium bentonite; (2) elastomers, such as isobutylene isoprene (butyl rubber), EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer), and liquid elastomers (polyurethanes); and (3) rubberized asphalt. Availability, sheet sizes and application of these waterproofing agents are discussed. (MJJ)

  6. PUNCTURE TEST CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    An experiment was conducted to determine the puncture resistance of 15 gloves that are used or proposed for use in the Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). These data will serve as a baseline for characterization and may be incorporated into the glove procurement specification. The testing was conducted in agreement with ASTM D120 and all of the gloves met or exceeded the minimum requirements. Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance nearly 2.5 times the minimum requirements at SRS while Polyurethane was nearly 7.5x the minimum.

  7. A study of the kinetics and mechanism of the adsorption and anaerobic partial oxidation of n-butane over a vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakakini, B.H.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Waugh, K.C.

    2000-01-25

    The interaction of n-butane with a ((VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) catalyst has been investigated by temperature-programmed desorption and anaerobic temperature-programmed reaction. n-Butane has been shown to adsorb on the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} to as a butyl-hydroxyl pair. When adsorption is carried out at 223 K, upon temperature programming some of the butyl-hydroxyl species recombine resulting in butane desorption at 260 K. However, when adsorption is carried out at 423 K, the hydroxyl species of the butyl-hydroxyl pair migrate away from the butyl species during the adsorption, forming water which is detected in the gas phase. Butane therefore is not observed to desorb at 260 K after the authors lowered the temperature to 223 K under the butane/helium from the adsorption temperature of 423 K prior to temperature programming from that temperature to 1100 K under a helium stream. Anaerobic temperature-programmed oxidation of n-butane produces butene and butadiene at a peak maximum temperature of 1000 K; this is exactly the temperature at which, upon temperature programming, oxygen evolves from the lattice and desorbs as O{sub 2}. This, and the fact that the amount of oxygen desorbing from the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} at {approximately}1000 K is the same as that required for the oxidation of the n-butane to butene and butadiene, strongly suggests (1) that lattice oxygen as it emerges at the surface is the selective oxidant and (2) that its appearance at the surface is the rate-determining step in the selective oxidation of n-butane. The surface of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst on which this selective oxidation takes place has had approximately two monolayers of oxygen removed from it by unselective oxidation of the n-butane to CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O between 550 and 950 K and has had approximately one monolayer of carbon deposited on it at {approximately}1000 K. It is apparent, therefore, that the original crystallography of the (VO){sub 2}P

  8. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. A. E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W. E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S.; Cotlet, M.; Petrone, N.; Hone, J.; Gu, T.; Gesuele, F.

    2014-04-28

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4 reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  9. Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2013-05-28

    A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

  10. Metabolomics relative quantitation with mass spectrometry using chemical derivatization and isotope labeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    O'Maille, Grace; Go, Eden P.; Hoang, Linh; Want, Elizabeth J.; Smith, Colin; O'Maille, Paul; NordstrÖm, Anders; Morita, Hirotoshi; Qin, Chuan; Uritboonthai, Wilasinee; et al

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive detection and quantitation of metabolites from a biological source constitute the major challenges of current metabolomics research. Two chemical derivatization methodologies, butylation and amination, were applied to human serum for ionization enhancement of a broad spectrum of metabolite classes, including steroids and amino acids. LC-ESI-MS analysis of the derivatized serum samples provided a significant signal elevation across the total ion chromatogram to over a 100-fold increase in ionization efficiency. It was also demonstrated that derivatization combined with isotopically labeled reagents facilitated the relative quantitation of derivatized metabolites from individual as well as pooled samples.

  11. Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dodson, Karen E. (Knoxville, TN); Mailen, James C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel processing solution containing (1) hydrocarbon diluent, (2) tri-n-butyl phosphate or tri-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, and (3) monobutyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, or a complex formed by plutonium, uranium, or a fission product thereof with monobutyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, or di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate is contacted with silica gel having alkali ions absorbed thereon to remove any one of the degradation products named in section (3) above from said solution.

  12. SU-E-T-297: Small Field Dosimetry for Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, J; Casto, B; Wang, S; Talyor, T; Wichman, A; Ku, L; Taylor, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Kilo-voltage (kV) photons and low megavoltage (MeV) electrons are the most common options for treating small superficial lesions, but they present complex dosimetry. Using a tertiary lead shield may protect the surrounding critical structures. Our goal was to quantitatively evaluate the dosimetric impact resulting from applying tertiary shields on superficial lesions. Method: We directly compared the beam characteristics of 80 kV (0.8 mm Al) photon setup abutting the water phantom surface and 6 MeV electron setup at 100 cm SSD. Profiles and depth doses were acquired using a 3D scanning water tank and an ion chamber (active volume 0.01 cm{sup 3}). Beam profiles were scanned at Dmax. Three lead sheets (2 mm thickness) with 2.7, 2.2, and 1.6, cm diameter circular cutouts were fabricated and placed at the water surface for both photon and electron fields. Results: The penumbra (80% 20%) of the open 44 cm{sup 2} electron insert was 10.7 mm, compared to an average of 7.2 mm with the tertiary cutouts. The penumbra of the open kV photon beam was 2.8 mm compared to an average of 1.8 mm with the tertiary cutouts. For field widths 2.7, 2.2, and 1.6 cm, the flatness of the electron beams was 16%, 17.3%, and 21%, respectively, and for the kV photon beams was 1.4%, 2.3%, 3.3%, respectively. The electron depth dose (PDD) shifted shallower and the photon PDD shifted deeper as the field size became smaller. Conclusion: The penumbra of small electron fields can be improved by adding tertiary lead shields. Both modalities are clinically feasible; however, kV photons still offer sharper penumbra and better flatness than that of 6 MeV electrons with tertiary shielding. Thus, kV photons may still be a superior option for small superficial lesions.

  13. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Julie Knibloe

    2015-06-01

    Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant

  14. Ionic Liquid–Solute Interactions Studied by 2D NOE NMR Spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khatun, Sufia; Castner, Edward W.

    2014-11-26

    Intermolecular interactions between a Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute and the anions and cations of four different ionic liquids (ILs) are investigated by 2D NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) techniques, including {¹H-¹⁹F} HOESY and {¹H-¹H} ROESY. Four ILs are studied, each having the same bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion in common. Two of the ILs have aliphatic 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations, while the other two ILs have aromatic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. ILs with both shorter (butyl) and longer (octyl or decyl) cationic alkyl substituents are studied. NOE NMR results suggest that the local environment of IL anions and cations near the Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute is rather different from the bulkmore » IL structure. The solute-anion and solute-cation interactions are significantly different both for ILs with short vs long alkyl tails and for ILs with aliphatic vs aromatic cation polar head groups. In particular, the solute-anion interactions are observed to be about 3 times stronger for the cations with shorter alkyl tails relative to the ILs with longer alkyl tails. The Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute interacts with both the polar head and the nonpolar tail groups of the 1- butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation but only with the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-decyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation.« less

  15. Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobicpiperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kumar, R. Anand; Lee,Jong-Min; Kerr, John; Newman, John; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25

    Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]{sup +} and 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPip]{sup +} cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell-line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally-benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

  16. Ionic Liquid–Solute Interactions Studied by 2D NOE NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khatun, Sufia; Castner, Edward W.

    2014-11-26

    Intermolecular interactions between a Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute and the anions and cations of four different ionic liquids (ILs) are investigated by 2D NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) techniques, including {¹H-¹⁹F} HOESY and {¹H-¹H} ROESY. Four ILs are studied, each having the same bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion in common. Two of the ILs have aliphatic 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations, while the other two ILs have aromatic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. ILs with both shorter (butyl) and longer (octyl or decyl) cationic alkyl substituents are studied. NOE NMR results suggest that the local environment of IL anions and cations near the Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute is rather different from the bulk IL structure. The solute-anion and solute-cation interactions are significantly different both for ILs with short vs long alkyl tails and for ILs with aliphatic vs aromatic cation polar head groups. In particular, the solute-anion interactions are observed to be about 3 times stronger for the cations with shorter alkyl tails relative to the ILs with longer alkyl tails. The Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute interacts with both the polar head and the nonpolar tail groups of the 1- butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation but only with the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-decyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation.

  17. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-11-15

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

  18. Development of candidate chemical simulant list: the evaluation of candidate chemical simulants which may be used in chemically hazardous operations. Final report 15 Jun-15 Dec 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The objectives of this task were threefold: (1) to provide additional data for the proposed candidate simulates dipentene, methyl benzoate and benzyl alcohol by means of in-depth literature searches encompassing both computerized data bases and a manual search of the older literature; (2) to fully evaluate twelve possible candidate simulants under more flexible simulant criteria; and (3) to develop a list of candidate simulants in the low and non-volatile categories. Computerized literature searches were conducted for the twelve possible candidate simulants under more flexible intake simulant criteria as well as for dimethyl methylphosphonate, a compound selected for evaluation by the USAF. The twelve possible candidates included: cyclohexanone, n-dodecanethiol, methyl salicylate, dihexyl ether, dypnone, n-aminopropyl morpholine, n-(2-hydroxyethyl) morpholine, butyl salicylate, di(2-ethyl hexyl) ether, 2-undecanol, 2-hydroxyethyl-n-octyl sulfide and n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide. Full assessments of the potential health hazards associated with exposure to n-dodecanethiol, methyl salicylate, butyl salicylate and n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide were completed. All of these compounds meet the majority of USAF criteria for candidate simulants. Cyclohexanone was disqualified for reasons of toxicity, while the available toxicological data for the seven remaining candidates were considered inadequate for full assessment of hazard.

  19. Method For Reactivating Solid Catalysts Used For Alklation Reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Coates, Kyle; Zalewski, David J.; Fox, Robert V.

    2005-05-03

    A method for reactivating a solid alkylation catalyst is provided which can be performed within a reactor that contains the alkylation catalyst or outside the reactor. Effective catalyst reactivation is achieved whether the catalyst is completely deactivated or partially deactivated. A fluid reactivating agent is employed to dissolve catalyst fouling agents and also to react with such agents and carry away the reaction products. The deactivated catalyst is contacted with the fluid reactivating agent under pressure and temperature conditions such that the fluid reactivating agent is dense enough to effectively dissolve the fouling agents and any reaction products of the fouling agents and the reactivating agent. Useful pressures and temperatures for reactivation include near-critical, critical, and supercritical pressures and temperatures for the reactivating agent. The fluid reactivating agent can include, for example, a branched paraffin containing at least one tertiary carbon atom, or a compound that can be isomerized to a molecule containing at least one tertiary carbon atom.

  20. Alvord (3,000-ft strawn) LPG flood - design and performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, G.D.; Todd, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Mitchell Energy Corporation has implemented a LPG-dry gas miscible process in the Alvord (3000' Strawn) Unit in Wise County, Texas utilizing the DOE tertiary incentive program. The field had been waterflooded for 14 years and was producing near its economic limit at the time this project was started. This paper presents the results of the reservoir simulation study that was conducted to evaluate pattern configuration and operating alternatives so as to maximize LPG containment and oil recovery performance. Several recommendations resulting from this study were implemented for the project. Based on the model predictions, tertiary oil recovery is expected to be between 100,000 and 130,000 bbls, or about 7 percent of the oil originally in place in the Unit. 12 refs.

  1. Thoughts Regarding the Dimensions of Faults at Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas, Nye County, Nevada, Based on Surface and Underground Mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drellack, S.L.; Prothro, L.B.; Townsend, M.J.; Townsend, D.R.

    2011-02-01

    The geologic setting and history, along with observations through 50 years of detailed geologic field work, show that large-displacement (i.e., greater than 30 meters of displacement) syn- to post-volcanic faults are rare in the Rainier Mesa area. Faults observed in tunnels and drill holes are mostly tight, with small displacements (most less than 1.5 meters) and small associated damage zones. Faults are much more abundant in the zeolitized tuffs than in the overlying vitric tuffs, and there is little evidence that faults extend downward from the tuff section through the argillic paleocolluvium into pre-Tertiary rocks. The differences in geomechanical characteristics of the various tuff lithologies at Rainier Mesa suggest that most faults on Rainer Mesa are limited to the zeolitic units sandwiched between the overlying vitric bedded tuffs and the underlying pre-Tertiary units (lower carbonate aquifer3, lower clastic confining unit1, and Mesozoic granite confining unit).

  2. Forsterite film formation and grain growth in 3% Si steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, M.A.; Cesar, M.G.M.M. )

    1994-11-01

    The forsterite film in 3% Si steel is formed by a solid state reaction of the annealing separator, MgO, with SiO[sub 2] that results from the reduction of the fayalite layer in the hydrogen atmosphere in the high temperature anneal. In this work, secondary recrystallization was about complete at 1,000 C. After that temperature tertiary recrystallization can occur if the boundary drag of the second phase particles can be overcome. Addition of phosphates to the annealing separator affects the morphology of the forsterite film and can have an important effect on tertiary recrystallization by affecting the rate of decrease of the boundary-drag and/or the surface energy relationship.

  3. Method for reactivating solid catalysts used in alkylation reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Coates, Kyle; Zalewski, David J.; Fox, Robert V.

    2003-06-17

    A method for reactivating a solid alkylation catalyst is provided which can be performed within a reactor that contains the alkylation catalyst or outside the reactor. Effective catalyst reactivation is achieved whether the catalyst is completely deactivated or partially deactivated. A fluid reactivating agent is employed to dissolve catalyst fouling agents and also to react with such agents and carry away the reaction products. The deactivated catalyst is contacted with the fluid reactivating agent under pressure and temperature conditions such that the fluid reactivating agent is dense enough to effectively dissolve the fouling agents and any reaction products of the fouling agents and the reactivating agent. Useful pressures and temperatures for reactivation include near-critical, critical, and supercritical pressures and temperatures for the reactivating agent. The fluid reactivating agent can include, for example, a branched paraffin containing at least one tertiary carbon atom, or a compound that can be isomerized to a molecule containing at least one tertiary carbon atom.

  4. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  5. Uranium distribution and geology in the Fish Lake surficial uranium deposit, Esmeralda County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macke, D.L.; Schumann, R.R.; Otton, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on approximately 675 acres of uranium-enriched lacustrine and marsh sediments in Fish Lake Valley, in southern Nevada and California. Uranium concentrations from 253 samples averaged 64.3 ppm uranium, with a range from 6 to 800 ppm. Uranium was supplied to the marsh sediments by ground water derived from Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Silver Peak Range. Reconnaissance sampling in the surrounding areas shows minor enrichment of uranium in other wetland areas.

  6. TORIS Data Preparation Guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guinn, H.; Remson, D.

    1999-03-11

    The objective of this manual is to present guidelines and procedures for the preparation of new data for the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS) data base. TORIS is an analytical system currently maintained by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Bartlesville Project Office. It uses an extensive field- and reservoir-level data base to evaluate the technical and economic recovery potential of specific crude oil reservoirs.

  7. Fractured reservoir discrete feature network technologies. Final report, March 7, 1996 to September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dershowitz, William S.; Einstein, Herbert H.; LaPoint, Paul R.; Eiben, Thorsten; Wadleigh, Eugene; Ivanova, Violeta

    1998-12-01

    This report summarizes research conducted for the Fractured Reservoir Discrete Feature Network Technologies Project. The five areas studied are development of hierarchical fracture models; fractured reservoir compartmentalization, block size, and tributary volume analysis; development and demonstration of fractured reservoir discrete feature data analysis tools; development of tools for data integration and reservoir simulation through application of discrete feature network technologies for tertiary oil production; quantitative evaluation of the economic value of this analysis approach.

  8. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, Robert H. (Bethany, CT); Brown, Stephen H. (East Haven, CT)

    1988-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  9. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Palestine Quadrangle, Texas and Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGowen, M.; Basciano, J.; Fose, F.G. Jr.; Fisher, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    The uranium resource potential of the Palestine Quadrangle, Texas and Louisiana, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m (5000 ft) using criteria established for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Data derived from geochemical analyses of surface samples (substrate, soil, and stream sediment) in conjunction with hydrochemical data from water wells were used to evaluate geologic environments as being favorable or unfavorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. Two favorable environments have been identified in the Palestine Quadrangle: potential deposits of modified Texas roll-type in fluvial channels and associated facies within the Yegua Formation, and potential occurrences along mineralization fronts associated with the Elkhart Graben and Mount Enterprise fault system. Unfavorable environments include: Cretaceous shales and limestones, Tertiary fine-grained marine sequences, Tertiary sandstone units that exhibit favorable host-rock characteristics but fail to show significant syngenetic or epigenetic mineralization, and Quaternary sands and gravels. Unevaluated units include the Woodbine Group (Upper Cretaceous), Jackson Group (Tertiary), and Catahoula Formation (Tertiary). The subsurface interval of the Jackson Group and Catahoula Formation contains depositional facies that may represent favorable environments; however, the evaluation of these units is inconclusive because of the general lack of shallow subsurface control and core material. The Woodbine Group, restricted to the subsurface except for a small exposure over Palestine Dome, occurs above 1500 m (5000 ft) in the northwest quarter of the quadrangle. The unit exhibits favorable host-rock characteristics, but the paucity of gamma logs and cores, as well as the lack of hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data, makes evaluation of the unit difficult.