National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gasoline-grade tertiary butyl

  1. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  2. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  3. Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoggins, Lacey E

    1959-01-01

    - alkyl and polyalkyl derivatives. The percentage yield, of monoalkyl derivatives is dependent upon the alcohol, dehydrating agent and. the activation of the aromatic nuclei Anhydrous ferric and alusdnum chloride, hydrogen fluoride with phosphorous...-butyl alcohol with 'benzene in the presence of i'erric chloride and. a 5g yield using aluminum chloride under the same conditions. Simons and. Archer5 reacted t-butyl alcohol with 'benzene using hydrogen fluoride as an alkylation catalyst, obtaining 4Q...

  4. Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    -butyl ether (ETBE) for gasoline blending as a replacement for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because and be blended with ETBE in the gasoline pool. Even for neat operation, if the conversion is low, the unconverted

  5. Cooperative Tertiary Interaction Network Guides RNA Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, R.M.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-04-08

    Noncoding RNAs form unique 3D structures, which perform many regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme by single-base substitutions. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and native PAGE. Double- and triple-mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on the stability of the native state. Instead, the formation of core and peripheral structural motifs is cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native helix orientation. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses nonnative structures and guides the search for the native state. We suggest that cooperativity in noncoding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures conducive to forming a unique, stable fold.

  6. SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE DENVER BASIN, COLORADO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SD SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE DENVER BASIN, COLORADO By D. J. Nichols in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-A 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones here or on this symbol in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal

  7. A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SN A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY), NORTH PARK BASIN, COLORADO By S assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  8. Scholarship for Tertiary Education for Refugees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    Scholarship for Tertiary Education for Refugees The Albert Einstein German Academic Refugee or employment after completion of studies? UNHCR has limited options to guide refugee students in finding: dafi.southafrica@gmail.com Jesuit Refugee Service 485 Vermeulen Street, Arcadia. Pretoria. Tel: 012 323

  9. Butyl Fuel LLC formerly Environmental Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick, Maine:IAEA CooperationSolarButyl Fuel LLC

  10. A kinetic investigation of the reaction of dibutyl sodiophosphonate with n-butyl bromide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaffer, James Howard

    1955-01-01

    LIBRARY A A N COLLEGE OF TEXAS A KINETIC INVESTIGATION OI" TIIE RFACTION OF DIBUTYL SODIOITIOSPHONATE II'ITH N BUTYL BROIIllDE A Thesis By James Howard Shaffer Submitted to the Oraduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College... of Texn~ in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the de ree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1955 Major Subject: Chemistry A KINETIC INVESTIGATION OF THE REACTION OF DIBUTYL SODIOPHOSPHONATE WITH N-BUTYL BROMIDE A Thesis By James Howard Shaffer...

  11. Tertiary proton diagnostics in future inertial confinement fusion experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tertiary proton diagnostics in future inertial confinement fusion experiments S. Cremera) and C. P energetic up to 31 MeV tertiary protons produced during the final stage of inertial confinement fusion the elastic scattering of 14.1 MeV neutrons, is a source of very energetic protons capable of escaping from

  12. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  13. Freezing-induced perturbation of tertiary structure of monoclonal antibody

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Lu; Kueltzo, L. A.; Jones, L. S.; Carpenter, J. F.

    2006-10-25

    Freezing-induced Perturbation of Tertiary Structure of Monoclonal Antibody Lu Liu, LaToya S. Jones, John F. Carpenter Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University....e.,cryopreservation). ? However, freeze-thawing cycle usually results protein partially un- folding, and consequently forming aggregates, which may induce immunogenic response. ? Fluorescence spectroscopy is commonly used to study perturba- tions of protein tertiary structure...

  14. Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and n-Butane Martin Li´sal,*,, William R + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n

  15. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

  16. Batch polymerization of styrene and isoprene by n-butyl lithium initiator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Sayeed

    1970-01-01

    BATCN ?OLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE AND ISO?RENE BY n-BUTYL LITHIUM INITIATOR A Thesis SAYEED IIASAV Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the d pre of IJASTER OF SCIFNCE... ler) CP3 MV gse P . January 1970 9&ZS&8 ABSTRACT Batch Polymerization of Styrene and Isoprene By n-Butyl Lithium Initiator. (January 1970) Sayeed 1Iasan, B. Sc. , East Pakistan University of Engineering and Technology, Dacca Directed by: Dr...

  17. Batch polymerization of styrene initiated by n-butyl lithium in a cyclohexane solvent 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landon, Thomas Rodman

    1971-01-01

    Committee ea Depa tment Mem er Mem er em er August 1971 ABSTRACT Batch Polymerization of Styrene Initiated by N-Butyl Lithium in Cyclohexane Solvent. (August 19 71) Thomas Rodman Landon, B, S. , Te x as A (&M Un i ve rs i ty Directed by: Dr.... Rayford G. Anthony Styrene is polymerized by n-butyl lithium with cyclo- hexane as the solvent. The polymerization is carried out in an isothermal batch reactors at three temperature 30, 40, and 50'C. The proposed reaction proceeds by a homo- geneous...

  18. A study of the condensation of primary, secondary, and tertiary butyl alcohols with benzene in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodson, Ralph Jordan

    1939-01-01

    with aresatio hg4rosoxboas aeso those shish ooataiao4 the QK greay aituate4 aloes be a 4oohlo boa4 (4) yatosse oa4 yileti, Xloyfer, 8K ~ 5I 5btV (1899) (V) 8ohlaa ao4 Kleyfor, Sar, , ~58 5150 (1899) ~ (8} Khstisoht ao4 PoLaositeh, ~, ~ 5104 (1909} (9...) Huetoa oa4 yx4o4ssouai ~ 5995 (1954) ~ Bootes, sosis, oa4 0roh~at, ibb4, ~ 1555 (195t) g Raelea oa4 Lssis, ~. ~ ~55 SSty (1951) g Rsstca os4 Boat, ~, ~ 1505 (1955}} ~ oa4 stsisuoe, ~b. , ~ 481' (1955} g Bustoa 0eamteat ea4 sasOaL11+ ibbL, ~58 4484...

  19. Palladium/Tris(tert-butyl)phosphine-Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-Couplings in the Presence of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lou, Sha

    Dipalladiumtris(dibenzylideneacetone)/tris(tert-butyl)phosphonium tetrafluoroborate/potassium fluoride dihydrate [Pd2(dba)3/[HP(t-Bu)3]BF4/KF?2?H2O] serves as a mild, robust, and user-friendly method for the efficient ...

  20. A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SB A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN, WYOMING assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U...........................................................................................................................SB-1 Coal Production History

  1. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Sato, and N. Kato. 2003. Propane monooxygenase and NAD + -alcohol dehydrogenase in propane metabolism by Gordonia sp.tert-butyl ether by propane-grown Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5.

  2. A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SR A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  3. Why Are We Here? Competing Conceptions of Tertiary Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Why Are We Here? Competing Conceptions of Tertiary Education Peter Roberts is a Professor in the School of Educational Studies and Leadership at the University of Canterbury. His primary areas of scholarship are philosophy of education and educational policy studies. Professor Roberts is Director

  4. Aging of Weapon Seals – An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Mark H.

    2011-07-13

    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

  5. Remote I/O Optimization and Evaluation for Tertiary Storage Systems through Storage Resource Broker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Wei-keng

    Remote I/O Optimization and Evaluation for Tertiary Storage Systems through Storage Resource Broker storage systems emerge as a popular place to hold them. SRB, a uniform interface to various storage systems including tertiary storage systems such as HPSS, UniTree etc., becomes an important and convenient

  6. Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsudin, Intan Juliana [Chemistry Department, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan as the polymer matrix and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Bmim][OAc] as charge carriers were prepared by solution casting technique. Complexes with various amount of ionic liquid loading were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing weight percent of ionic liquid. The highest ionic conductivity of the charged chitosan-[Bmim][OAc] was 2.44 × 10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1} at 90 wt.% of [Bmim][OAc] content at ambient temperature. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has proven the interaction between chitosan and [Bmim][OAc]. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) has shown that the amorphosity of the complexes increase as the amount of [Bmim][OAc] increase.

  7. Method for photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate by tri-N-butyl phosphate and application of this method to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Poorter, Gerald L. (Los Alamos, NM); Rofer-De Poorter, Cheryl K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1978-01-01

    Uranyl ion in solution in tri-n-butyl phosphate is readily photochemically reduced to U(IV). The product U(IV) may effectively be used in the Purex process for treating spent nuclear fuels to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(III) is readily separated from uranium in solution in the tri-n-butyl phosphate by an aqueous strip.

  8. Features of the spectral dependences of transmittance of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted lutetium phthalocyanine molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Dronov, M. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2011-11-15

    Vibronic properties of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted phthalocyanine lutetium diphthalocyanine molecules are studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that substitution of several carbon atoms in initial phthalocyanine (Pc) ligands with {sup 13}C isotope atoms causes a spectral shift in the main absorption lines attributed to benzene, isoindol, and peripheral C-H groups. A comparison of spectral characteristics showed that the shift can vary from 3 to 1 cm{sup -1}.

  9. Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaskin, David J

    1997-01-01

    Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may...

  10. Stochastic Programming Approach to Hydraulic Fracture Design for the Lower Tertiary Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podhoretz, Seth

    2013-07-27

    In this work, we present methodologies for optimization of hydraulic fracturing design under uncertainty specifically with reference to the thick and anisotropic reservoirs in the Lower Tertiary Gulf of Mexico. In this analysis we apply a stochastic...

  11. LETTER TO THE EDITOR Binding of manganese(II) to a tertiary stabilized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westhof, Eric

    as studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy NATALIA KISSELEVA,1 ANASTASIA KHVOROVA,2 ERICII ions to a tertiary stabilized hammer- head ribozyme (tsHHRz) and to compare it with the binding

  12. Calcareous nannofossils from the uppermost Cretaceous and the lowermost Tertiary of central Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ming-Jung

    1980-01-01

    the Lower Cretaceous calcar- eous nannofossils from parts of Texas and Oklahoma. In this study, two well known sections from central Texas that extend from the uppermost Cretaceous into the lowermost Tertiary have been examined for their nannofossil... the results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, many cores containing a nearly complete Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary interval have been re- covered from many parts of the world ocean. Some of these cores have been subjected to both sedimentary...

  13. Multiprobe Spectroscopic Evidence for "Hyperpolarity" within 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate Mixtures with Tetraethylene Glycol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Abhra [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi; Trivedi, Shruti [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Pandey, Siddharth [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid, potentially green solvent system composed of tetraethylene glycol (TEG) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) was investigated across all mole fractions with regard to the solvent properties of the mixture. For this purpose, a suite of absorbance- and fluorescence-based solvatochromic probes were utilized to explore solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions existing within the [bmim][PF6] + TEG system. These studies revealed an interesting and unusual synergistic solvent effect. In particular, a remarkable hyperpolarity was observed in which the ET value, comprising dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen bond donor (HBD) acidity contributions, at intermediate mole fractions of the binary mixture well exceeded that of the most polar pure component (i.e., [bmim][PF6]). Independently determined dipolarity/polarizability ( *) and HBD acidity (R) Kamlet-Taft values for the [bmim][PF6] + TEG mixtures were also observed to be anomalously high at intermediate mole fractions, whereas hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) basicities ( values) were much more in line with the ideal arithmetic values predicted on a mole fraction basis.

  14. N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Glue Embolization of Arterial Networks to Facilitate Hepatic Arterial Skeletonization before Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuelson, Shaun D.; Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Avoidance of nontarget microsphere deposition via hepatoenteric anastomoses is essential to the safety of yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE). The hepatic hilar arterial network may remain partially patent after coil embolization of major arteries, resulting in persistent risk. We retrospectively reviewed cases where n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) glue embolization was used to facilitate endovascular hepatic arterial skeletonization before RE. Methods. A total of 543 RE procedures performed between June 2004 and March 2012 were reviewed, and 10 were identified where n-BCA was used to embolize hepatoenteric anastomoses. Arterial anatomy, prior coil embolization, and technical details were recorded. Outcomes were reviewed to identify subsequent complications of n-BCA embolization or nontarget RE. Results. The rate of complete technical success was 80 % and partial success 20 %, with one nontarget embolization complication resulting in a minor change in treatment plan. No evidence of gastrointestinal or biliary ischemia or infarction was identified, and no microsphere-related gastroduodenal ulcerations or other evidence of nontarget RE were seen. Median volume of n-BCA used was <0.1 ml. Conclusion. n-BCA glue embolization is useful to eliminate hepatoenteric networks that may result in nontarget RE, especially in those that persist after coil embolization of major vessels such as the gastroduodenal and right gastric arteries.

  15. West Hackberry tertiary project. Annual report, September 3, 1994--September 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-05-01

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form and additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  16. Ureteric Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Fistulae: Use of Two Amplatzer Vascular Plugs and N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Employing the 'Sandwich' Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: ws6r@virginia.edu; Kalagher, S.; Turba, U. C.; Sabri, S. S.; Park, A.-W.; Stone, J.; Angle, J. F.; Matsumoto, A. H. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Division of Vascular Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study describes and evaluated the effectiveness of occluding distal ureters in the clinical setting of urinary vaginal (vesicovaginal or enterovesicovaginal) fistulae utilizing a new technique which combines Amplatzer vascular plugs and N-butyl cyanoacrylate.MaterialsThis is a retrospective study (January 2007-December 2010) of patients with urinary-vaginal fistulae undergoing distal ureter embolization utilizing an Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique. An 8-12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plug was delivered using the sheath and deployed in the ureter distal to the pelvic brim. Instillation of 0.8-1.5 cc of N-butyl cyanoacrylate into ureter proximal to the Amplatzer plug was performed. This was followed by another set of 8-12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plugs in a technique referred to as the 'sandwich technique.'ResultsFive ureters in three patients were occluded utilizing the above-described technique during the 4-year study period. Mean maximum size Amplatzer used per ureter was 10.8 mm (range, 8-12). One ureter required three Amplatzer plugs and the rest required two. Two patients (3 ureters) were clinically successful with complete resolution of symptoms in 36-48 h. The third patient (2 ureters) was partly successful and required a second Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate sandwich technique embolization. The mean clinical follow-up was 11.3 months (range, 1.7-29.2).ConclusionsThe Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique for occluding the distal ureter is safe and effective with a quick (probably due to the N-butyl cyanoacrylate) and durable (probably due to the Amplatzer plugs) clinical response.

  17. Molecular Simulation of Water Extraction into a Tri-n-Butyl-Phosphate/n-Dodecane Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL] [ORNL; Ye, Xianggui [ORNL] [ORNL; Cui, Shengting [ORNL] [ORNL; Khomami, Bamin [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate water extraction into a solution of 30 vol% tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) in n-dodecane. This solvent extraction mixture is commonly used in hydrometallurgical and nuclear fuel recycling operations for recovering metals from aqueous streams. It is known that water is coextracted in the organic phase and that it competes with metal ions for the available extractant agent (TBP). Therefore investigating pure water extraction provides a realistic prototype to test molecular simulation methods for the first time in this area. Our computational results indicate that the TBP electric dipole moment has a significant effect on the predicted water solubility. A larger TBP dipole moment decreases the aqueous-organic interfacial tension, leading to increased roughness of the aqueous-organic interface. Interfacial roughness has a significant effect on disrupting the interfacial water hydrogen bonding structure, resulting in a greater number of dangling water molecules at the interface. This enhances the probability of water molecules to break away from the aqueous phase and to migrate into the bulk of the organic phase. Therefore, the magnitude of the TBP dipole moment is a crucial factor in controlling water hydrogen bond breaking at the aqueous-organic interface. By slightly lowering the atomic partial charges of the TBP atoms, to produce a dipole moment that better agrees with experimental data, we were able to predict water solubility in close agreement with experimental measurements. Hence we demonstrate that a molecular modeling and simulation approach may provide quantitative support to experimental programs in this area. In addition, our simulation results shed light into the molecular mechanism of water extraction, the critical role of TBP, and the structural forms of water molecules both at the interface and in the bulk of the organic phase. Specifically, it is found that water molecules are extracted either as single molecules or as clusters. Furthermore, within the organic phase, the extracted water forms clusters with up to 20 water molecules, however, more than 70% of these water clusters contain less than 5 water molecules when the water extraction process reaches saturation.

  18. MTBE Production Economics (Released in the STEO April 2001)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the causes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) price increases in 2000.

  19. Monitoring Electricity Consumption in the Tertiary Sector- A Project within the Intelligent Energy Europe Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plesser, S.; Fisch, M. N.; Gruber, E.; Schlomann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The electricity consumption in the tertiary sector in the EU is still increasing and a further increase is expected of more than 2 % per year during the next 15 years. This sector includes companies and institutions of public and private services...

  20. The Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary: sedimentology and micropalaeontology at El Mulato section, NE Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Ellen

    The Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary: sedimentology and micropalaeontology at El Mulato section, NE and sedimentological analysis of this transition at the El Mulato section (NE Mexico), in order to infer the little Palaeogene Velasco Formation, there is a 2-m-thick Clastic Unit. Strati- graphical and sedimentological ana

  1. Interplay between Secondary and Tertiary Structure Formation in Protein Folding Cooperativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachmann, Michael

    Interplay between Secondary and Tertiary Structure Formation in Protein Folding Cooperativity¨lich, 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany Received June 14, 2010; E-mail: deserno@andrew.cmu.edu Abstract: Protein folding be difficult to measure. Therefore, protein folding cooperativity is often probed using the calorimetric

  2. The Hepatitis C Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site Adopts an Ion-dependent Tertiary Fold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doudna, Jennifer A.

    The Hepatitis C Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site Adopts an Ion-dependent Tertiary Fold Jeffrey S-0539, USA Hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) located in the 5H entry site (IRES); hepatitis C virus (HCV); chemical and enzymatic probing*Corresponding author

  3. Plants with double genomes might have had a better chance to survive the CretaceousTertiary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gent, Universiteit

    in plants by using phylogenetic approaches. Table 1 provides a list of monocot and eudicot plant speciesPlants with double genomes might have had a better chance to survive the Cretaceous­Tertiary extinction event Jeffrey A. Fawcetta,b,1 , Steven Maerea,b,1 , and Yves Van de Peera,b,2 aDepartment of Plant

  4. Energy Minimization of Protein Tertiary Structure by Parallel Simulated Annealing using Genetic Crossover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongarra, Jack

    Energy Minimization of Protein Tertiary Structure by Parallel Simulated Annealing using Genetic Simulated Annealing using Genetic Crossover (PSA/GAc) has a high searching capability on an energy of the energy function has been studied. Simulated Annealing (SA) has often been employed as the optimiza- tion

  5. An Efficient Genetic Algorithm for Predicting Protein Tertiary Structures in the 2D HP Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istrail, Sorin

    , predicting its tertiary structure is known as the protein folding problem. This problem has been widely genetic algo- rithm for the protein folding problem under the HP model in the two-dimensional square Genetic Algorithm, Protein Folding Problem, 2D HP Model 1. INTRODUCTION Amino acids are the building

  6. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  7. The role of the Early Tertiary Uluk?sla Basin, southern Turkey, in suturing of the Mesozoic Tethys ocean 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Matthew; Robertson, Alastair H F

    2002-01-01

    The Maastrichtian–Late Eocene Uluk?sla Basin is representative of the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of prominent Early Tertiary basins in central Anatolia, including the Tuzgolu and S ark?sla basins. The Uluk?sla ...

  8. Identification of organic-rich lower tertiary shakles as petroleum source rock, southern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDade, E.C. (Texaco Inc., New orleans, LA (United States)); Sassen, R. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)); Wenger, L. (Exxon Production Research, Houston, TX (United States)); Cole, G.A. (Saudi Aramco Laboratories Department, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1993-09-01

    Comprehensive organic geochemical evidence of organic-rich, marine shales in the lower part of the middle eocene Claiborne Group and the lower Eocene-Paleocene Wilcox Group of southern Louisiana is now available. The evidence influences models for Gulf Coast petroleum origin. The shales are the only post-Cretaceous sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico that meet recognized criteria for oil source rocks. Many of organic-rich Paleogene shales contain terrestrially derived, amorphous kerogen altered by microbial activity, and display pyrolysis results consistent with type II/III kerogen. Shelf-edge depositional environments favored preservation of hydrogen-rich kerogen. Seismic and sedimentologic interpretations suggest that marine character and thickness increase on the Paleogene continental slope to the south. The shales at burial depths in the 3050-4600 m depth range, at present, are thermally immature to late mature with respect to oil generation. Detailed geochemical analyses of extractable organic matter and kerogen isolates suggest an oil-source correlation with Tertiary-reservoired oils in southern Louisiana and offshore in the adjacent Gulf of Mexico. Biomarkers of selected samples display high concentrations of C[sub 28]-bisnorhopane and 18[alpha]-oleanane biomarker is absent or not reported in Gulf crude oils from Cretaceous and Jurassic source rocks. Burial and thermal history models suggest the timing of oil migration from Paleogene source rocks is consistent with emplacement of oils in Tertiary reservoirs. The lower Tertiary source rocks described here could offer new insight to understanding the origin of oil in other Tertiary deltas.

  9. Laramide thrusting and Tertiary deformation Tierra Caliente, Michoacan and Guerrero States, southwestern Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.A.; Harrison, C.G.A. ); Lang, H. ); Barros, J.A.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    1990-05-01

    Field investigations and detailed interpretations of Landsat Thematic Mapper images are in progress to improve understanding of regional structure and tectonics of the southernmost extension of the North American cordillera. Two areas have been selected within the Ciudad Altamirano 1:250,000 topographical sheet for geologic mapping and structural interpretation at 1:50,000 scale. The authors results to date require modification of previous ideas concerning the style and timing of deformations, the role and timing of terrane accretion in the overall tectonic history of the region, and the importance of southern Mexico to investigations of the tectonic evolution of the plates in the region. The relative sequence of deformation in the area correlates well with variations in relative motion between North America and plates in the Pacific. Post-Campanian thrusts and generally eastward-verging folds deformed the Mesozoic sequence during the (Laramide equivalent) Hidalgoan orogeny, associated with high-velocity east-west convergence with the Farallon plate that began about 70 Ma. The resulting unconformity was covered by the Tertiary Balsas Formation, a thick sequence of mostly continental clastics. The Tertiary stratigraphy is regionally and sometimes locally variable, but it can be divided into two members. The lower member is relatively volcanic poor and more deformed, and it lies below a regionally significant mid-Tertiary unconformity, which may mark a change to northeast-directed convergence with the Farallon plate sometime prior to 40 Ma. Continued mid-Tertiary deformation in southern Mexico may be related to eastward movement of the Chortis block and the resulting truncation of the Pacific margin of Mexico. The authors also suggest a tentative correlation between the volcaniclastic member of the Lower Cretaceous San Lucas Formation and the protolith of the Roca Verde metamorphics to the east.

  10. Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael

    2013-02-01

    Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 %C2%B0C. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (%236 and %2310), one commercially available formulation (%2321), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl %2310 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl %2310 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

  11. New genera and species of early Tertiary palynomorphs from Gulf Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, L. E.; Elsik, W. C.; Fairchild, W. W.

    1966-05-23

    pattern and wall thickness identical to C. pertusus, but C. guruba is normally bisulculate. Pollen similar to C. pertusus are found in the extant families Pal- mae and Magnoliaceae, and possibly in other families as well. It is evident that Ca1amuspol...- Stover, Elsik, and Fairchild—New Early Tertiary Pal ynomorphs from Gulf Coast 3 lar, annulate ulcus located at or near center of grain. Exine thin; sexine and nexine closely ap- pressed, of approximately equal thickness. Sexine of type species foveolate...

  12. Characterization of the influence of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on the structure and thermal stability of green fluorescent protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, William T [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Zhang, Qiu [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are finding a vast array of applications as novel solvents for a wide variety of processes that include enzymatic chemistry, particularly as more biocompatible ILs are designed and discovered. While it is assumed that a native or near-native structure is required for enzymatic activity, there is some evidence that ILs alter protein structure and oligomerization states in a manner than can negatively impact function. The IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, is a well-studied, water-miscible member of the popular 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium IL family. To improve our understanding of the impact of water-miscible ILs on proteins, we have characterized the structure and oligomerization state of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in aqueous solutions containing 25 and 50 vol % [bmim]Cl using a combination of optical spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Measurements were also performed as a function of temperature to provide insight into the effect of the IL on the thermal stability of GFP. While GFP exists as a dimer in water, the presence of 25 vol % [bmim]Cl causes GFP to transition to a monomeric state. The SANS data indicate that GFP is a great deal less compact in 50 vol % [bmim]Cl than in neat water, indicative of unfolding from the native structure. The oligomerization state of the protein in IL-containing aqueous solution changes from a dimer to a monomer in response to the IL, but does not change as a function of temperature in the IL-containing solution. The SANS and spectroscopic results also demonstrate that the addition of [bmim]Cl to the solution decreases the thermal stability of GFP, allowing the protein to unfold at lower temperatures than in aqueous solution.

  13. Portal Vein Embolization before Right Hepatectomy: Improved Results Using n-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Compared to Microparticles Plus Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiu, Boris Bize, Pierre; Gunthern, Daniel; Demartines, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin; Denys, Alban

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is currently no consensus in the literature on which embolic agent induces the greatest degree of liver hypertrophy after portal vein embolization (PVE). Only experimental results in a pig model have demonstrated an advantage of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) over 3 other embolic materials (hydrophilic gel, small and large polyvinyl alcohol particles) for PVE. Therefore, the aim of this human study was to retrospectively compare the results of PVE using NBCA with those using spherical microparticles plus coils. Methods: A total of 34 patients underwent PVE using either NBCA (n = 20), or spherical microparticles plus coils (n = 14). PVE was decided according to preoperative volumetry on the basis of contrast-enhanced CT. Groups were compared for age, sex, volume of the left lobe before PVE and future remnant liver ratio (FRL) (volume of the left lobe/total liver volume - tumor volume). The primary end point was the increase in left lobe volume 1 month after PVE. Secondary end points were procedure complications and biological tolerance. Results: Both groups were similar in terms of age, sex ratio, left lobe volume, and FRL before PVE. NBCA induced a greater increase in volume after PVE than did microparticles plus coils (respectively, +74 {+-} 69 % and +23 {+-} 14 %, p < 0.05). The amount of contrast medium used for the procedure was significantly larger when microparticles and coils rather than NBCA were used (respectively, 264 {+-} 43 ml and 162 {+-} 34 ml, p < 0.01). The rate of PVE complications as well as the biological tolerance was similar in both groups. Conclusion: NBCA seems more effective than spherical microparticles plus coils to induce left-lobe hypertrophy.

  14. Evidence for temperate conditions along the Antarctic peninsula during the Early Tertiary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinsmeister, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several investigators based on deep sea glacial marine sediments from the southern oceans and volcanic sequences in West Antarctica have suggested extreme glacial conditions existed around Antarctica during the early Tertiary. Their data suggest ice sheets with ice shelves greater than those today were present on Antarctica by the late Eocene. If these data are correct, conditions during the Eocene along the Peninsula were similar to those that exist today. Late Eocene faunas and floras from Seymour Island indicate that conditions along the Peninsula were temperature. No paleontologic or geologic evidence have been obtained from Seymour Island (64/degree/18'S) to support the existence of glacial conditions along the northern part of the Peninsula during the early Tertiary. The presence of large quantities of fossil wood and plant debris in the upper Eocene sediments on Seymour Island indicates the presence of dense forests on the Peninsula during the Eocene. The discovery of marsupial and land birds remains on Seymour Island also indicate the presence of abundant terrestrial life on the Peninsula. The occurrence of an abundant marine life on Seymour Island supports the existence of temperate conditions along the Peninsula. Similarities of the Eocene faunas and floras with present day biotas from Tasmania, New Zealand and southern South America indicate that conditions along the Antarctic Peninsula during the late Eocene were comparable to present day mid latitudes of the southern hemisphere.

  15. Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonventre, Josephine A., E-mail: josephine.bonventre@oregonstate.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 1011 Agricultural and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kung, Tiffany S., E-mail: tiffany.kung@rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); White, Lori A., E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Cooper, Keith R., E-mail: cooper@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • Inhibiting PHD or knocking down VHL rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • HIF1-Vegf driven angiogenesis is a target for MTBE vascular toxicity.

  16. Determination of optical conductivity and different optical energy losses for non-crystalline Vanadyl tetra tert-butyl 2,3 Naphthalocyanine thinfilms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhanya, I.; Menon, C. S. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills, Kottayam, Kerala, 686 560 (India)

    2011-10-20

    Amorphous Vanadyl Tetra Tert Butyl 2, 3 naphthalocyanine thin films (VTTBNc) have been deposited using Physical Vapor Deposition technique. By analyzing the X-ray diffraction, the structure of as deposited films is found to be non-crystalline. Different optical properties of these thin films have been investigated by means of optical absorption and reflection spectra. Various optical constants like band gap energy, E{sub g} the width of band tails of localized states into the gap, E{sub U} and steepness parameter, {beta} gets calculated and the variation of different optical parameters like refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constants, optical conductivity and surface and volume energy losses with photon energy are estimated.

  17. Large-magnitude miocene extension in the central Mojave Desert: Implications for Paleozoic to Tertiary paleogeography and tectonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, J. Douglas; Bartley, John M.; Glazner, Allen F.

    1990-01-10

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 95, NO. B l, PAGES 557-569, JANUARY 10, 1990 Large-Magnitude Miocene Extension in the Central Mojave Desert' Implications for Paleozoic to Tertiary Paleogeography and Tectonics J. DOUGLAS WALKER Department... of Geology, University of Kansas, La}rwence JOHN M. BARTLEY Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City ALLEN F. GLAZNER Department of Geology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill The main Cenozoic extensional structure...

  18. Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 517 Requested by Sens. Daschle & Murkowski

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Additional analysis of the impact of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban provisions of S. 517.

  19. TABLE33.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    products are reported by the PAD District of entry. b Includes crude oil imported for storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. c Includes ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE),...

  20. TABLE34.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    products are reported by the PAD District of entry. b Includes crude oil imported for storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. c Includes ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE),...

  1. Interplay between Secondary and Tertiary Structure Formation in Protein Folding Cooperativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan Bereau; Michael Bachmann; Markus Deserno

    2011-07-01

    Protein folding cooperativity is defined by the nature of the finite-size thermodynamic transition exhibited upon folding: two-state transitions show a free energy barrier between the folded and unfolded ensembles, while downhill folding is barrierless. A microcanonical analysis, where the energy is the natural variable, has shown better suited to unambiguously characterize the nature of the transition compared to its canonical counterpart. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a high resolution coarse-grained model allow for the accurate evaluation of the density of states, in order to extract precise thermodynamic information, and measure its impact on structural features. The method is applied to three helical peptides: a short helix shows sharp features of a two-state folder, while a longer helix and a three-helix bundle exhibit downhill and two-state transitions, respectively. Extending the results of lattice simulations and theoretical models, we find that it is the interplay between secondary structure and the loss of non-native tertiary contacts which determines the nature of the transition.

  2. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

  3. Multiple Co-Evolutionary Networks Are Supported by the Common Tertiary Scaffold of the LacI/GalR Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parente, Daniel J.; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

    2013-12-31

    ]. Here, we used the 6 largest subfamilies – CcpA, GalRS, GntR, PurR, RbsR-A, and TreR – (Table 1 and Figure 2a) to compare and contrast the amino acid positions on the common tertiary structure that are under evolutionary constraint. (E. coli PLOS ONE... of the LacI/GalR family. For PurR and CcpA, endogenous effector binding enhances DNA binding (Table 1). Further, CcpA is primarily allosterically regulated by a protein-protein interaction with HPr-Ser46-P, with only a secondary, ‘fine-tuning’ role for small...

  4. Solvent extraction of technetium from alkaline waste media using bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1995-07-01

    The crown ether bis-4,4`(5`)[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 can be utilized in a solvent-extraction process for the removal of technetium as pertechnetate ion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from solutions simulating highly radioactive alkaline defense wastes (``tank wastes``) stored at several sites in the United States. The process employs non-halogenated and non-volatile diluents and modifiers and includes an efficient stripping procedure using only water. More than 95% of the pertechnetate present at 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M in Melton Valley (Oak Ridge, TN) and Hanford (Washington) tank-waste simulants was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts using 0.02 M bis-4,4`(5`)[(tertbutyl)cyclohexano]- 18-crown-6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar{reg_sign} M diluent at 25 C. Similarly, for both simulants, more than 98% of the pertechnetate contained in the solvent was back-extracted following two cross-current stripping contacts using deionized water.

  5. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R., E-mail: abelson@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 Materials Science and Engineering Building, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S., E-mail: girolami@scs.illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300?°C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M?=?Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200?°C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18?nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

  6. Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 160, 2003, pp. 783795. Printed in Great Britain. Spherule deposits in CretaceousTertiary boundary sediments in Belize and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . 783 Spherule deposits in Cretaceous­Tertiary boundary sediments in Belize and Guatemala G. KELLER1 , W Guatemala Limited, 6a Av. 0­28 Zona 10, Guatemala 01010, Guatemala Abstract: Large spheroid deposits and eastern Guatemala have the same glass origin based on the presence of almost pure Cheto smectite derived

  7. Errors, 3rd printing Page 3, Fig 1.2 has an error in the stratigraphic key: "Tertiary" should be "Triassic".

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossen, Haakon

    Errors, 3rd printing ·Page 3, Fig 1.2 has an error in the stratigraphic key: "Tertiary" should "-amplitude" to "-wavelength". ·Page 231, 6th and 3rd last lines of the page: Add "Figure" in front of 19.5a ..." and 3rd line: "three principal axes" (not two). #12;

  8. GeochimicaetCosmwhimicaAcia.1975.Vol.39.pp.1629to1645.PergamonPress.Printedin Great Bntain Diagenesis in Tertiary sandstones from Kettleman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schieber, Juergen

    Diagenesis in Tertiary sandstones from Kettleman North Dome. California-II. Interstitial solutions and the McAdams sandstones at Kettleman are essen- tially Na-Ca-Cl solutions with subsidiary SOL in the sandstones, the calculations suggest that the minerals are in stable equilibrium with the brines. By contrast

  9. Review and reconnaissance of the hydrogeology of Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the vicinity of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prothro, L.B.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    Work is currently underway within the Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Program to develop corrective action plans in support of the overall corrective action strategy for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as established in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). A closure plan is currently being developed for Frenchman Flat, which has been identified in the FFACO as a Corrective Action Unit (CAU). Part of this effort requires that hydrogeologic data be compiled for inclusion in a CAU-specific hydrologic flow and transport model that will be used to predict contaminant boundaries. Hydrogeologic maps and cross sections are currently being prepared for use in the model to define the nature and extent of aquifers and confining units that might influence the flow of contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear tests conducted in Frenchman Flat. During this effort, it has been found that older Tertiary-age sediments might be hydrogeologically important in the Frenchman Flat model area. Although the character and extent of these units are poorly known, there is reason to believe that in some parts of Frenchman Flat they may lie between the regional Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the younger Tertiary saturated alluvium and volcanic units in which several underground nuclear tests were conducted. It was not possible to quickly determine their extent, or ascertain whether or not these units might act as confining units or aquifers. The work described in this report was done to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeology of these rocks.

  10. Acute toxicity of smoke screen materials to aquatic organisms, white phosphorus-felt, red phosphorus-butyl rubber and SGF No. 2 fog oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, T.M.; McFadden, K.M.; Bean, R.M.; Clark, M.L.; Thomas, B.L.; Killand, B.W.; Prohammer, L.A.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    The acute toxicity of three obscurants was determined for nine freshwater organisms. The materials tested were white phosphorus-felt smoke, red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP-BR) smoke, and smoke generator fuel (SGF) No. 2 fog oil (bulk and vaporized). The chemistry of WP-F and RP-BR smoke in water and the resulting effects on aquatic organisms are similar. Combustion of these two obscurants and their deposition in water leads to the formation of many complex oxy-phosphoric acids. Rates of hydrolysis of these complex products to ortho-phosphate were inconsistent and unpredictable over time. These products acidify water and produce toxic effects after exhausting the buffering capacity of the water. Acute 96 hr tests using Daphnia magna with neutralized and nonneutralized exposure solutions indicated that the presence of unidentified toxic component(s) acted independently of pH. At pH levels of 6.0 to 7.0, phosphorus combustion products precipitated out of solution leading to a bimodal toxic response in extended 96-hr tests with Daphnia magna. Most components of fog oil had low solubility in water. Saturation was apparent at approximately 0.1 to 0.3 mg/L total oil. Vaporization had no demonstrable effect on the chemistry or toxicity of the fog oil. Neither the bulk fog oil nor the vaporized fog oil was acutely toxic to freshwater animals at concentrations less than 10 mg/L total oil. In oil-water mixes in excess of 1.0 mg/L total oil, fog oil quickly separated and floated to the surface. The primary hazard associated with vaporized and bulk fog oil was the physical effect of oil fouling the organisms. Photolysis increased the concentration of water-soluble components of the fog oil. Acute toxicity was demonstrated in oil-water mixes (approx.10 mg/L total oil) of photolyzed bulk and vaporized fog oil. No difference in toxicity was observed between photolyzed and non-photolyzed dilutions of OWM at comparable levels of total oil.

  11. Understanding chemical reactions of CO{sub 2} and its isoelectronic molecules with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate by changing the nature of the cation: The case of CS{sub 2} in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate studied by NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabaço, M. Isabel, E-mail: isabelcabaco@ist.utl.pt [Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Física Atómica da UL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Besnard, Marcel; Danten, Yann [GSM Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, CNRS (UMR 5255), Université de Bordeaux, 351, Cours de la Libération 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Chávez, Fabián Vaca [Centro de Física da Matéria Condensada da UL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1694-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Pinaud, Noël [CESAMO Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, CNRS (UMR 5255), Université de Bordeaux, 351, Cours de la Libération 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Sebastiăo, Pedro J. [Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Física da Matéria Condensada da UL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1694-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Coutinho, Joăo A. P. [CICECO, Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-06-28

    NMR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N) shows that carbon disulfide reacts spontaneously with 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate ([BmPyrro][Ac]) in the liquid phase. It is found that the acetate anions play an important role in conditioning chemical reactions with CS{sub 2} leading, via coupled complex reactions, to the degradation of this molecule to form thioacetate anion (CH{sub 3}COS{sup ?}), CO{sub 2}, OCS, and trithiocarbonate (CS{sub 3}{sup 2?}). In marked contrast, the cation does not lead to the formation of any adducts allowing to conclude that, at most, its role consists in assisting indirectly these reactions. The choice of the [BmPyrro]{sup +} cation in the present study allows disentangling the role of the anion and the cation in the reactions. As a consequence, the ensemble of results already reported on CS{sub 2}-[Bmim][Ac] (1), OCS-[Bmim][Ac] (2), and CO{sub 2}-[Bmim][Ac] (3) systems can be consistently rationalized. It is argued that in system (1) both anion and cation play a role. The CS{sub 2} reacts with the acetate anion leading to the formation of CH{sub 3}COS{sup ?}, CO{sub 2}, and OCS. After these reactions have proceeded the nascent CO{sub 2} and OCS interact with the cation to form imidazolium-carboxylate ([Bmim] CO{sub 2}) and imidazolium-thiocarboxylate ([Bmim] COS). The same scenario also applies to system (2). In contrast, in the CO{sub 2}-[Bmim] [Ac] system a concerted cooperative process between the cation, the anion, and the CO{sub 2} molecule takes place. A carbene issued from the cation reacts to form the [Bmim] CO{sub 2}, whereas the proton released by the ring interacts with the anion to produce acetic acid. In all these systems, the formation of adduct resulting from the reaction between the solute molecule and the carbene species originating from the cation is expected. However, this species was only observed in systems (2) and (3). The absence of such an adduct in system (1) has been theoretically investigated using DFT calculations. The values of the energetic barrier of the reactions show that the formation of [Bmim] CS{sub 2} is unfavoured and that the anion offers a competitive reactive channel via an oxygen-sulphur exchange mechanism with the solute in systems (1) and (2)

  12. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-10-02

    This map displays interpreted structural and stratigraphic relations among the Paleozoic and older rocks of the Nevada Test Site region beneath the Miocene volcanic rocks and younger alluvium in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat basins. These interpretations are based on a comprehensive examination and review of data for more than 77 drillholes that penetrated part of the pre-Tertiary basement beneath these post-middle Miocene structural basins. Biostratigraphic data from conodont fossils were newly obtained for 31 of these holes, and a thorough review of all prior microfossil paleontologic data is incorporated in the analysis. Subsurface relationships are interpreted in light of a revised regional geologic framework synthesized from detailed geologic mapping in the ranges surrounding Yucca Flat, from comprehensive stratigraphic studies in the region, and from additional detailed field studies on and around the Nevada Test Site. All available data indicate the subsurface geology of Yucca Flat is considerably more complicated than previous interpretations have suggested. The western part of the basin, in particular, is underlain by relics of the eastward-vergent Belted Range thrust system that are folded back toward the west and thrust by local, west-vergent contractional structures of the CP thrust system. Field evidence from the ranges surrounding the north end of Yucca Flat indicate that two significant strike-slip faults track southward beneath the post-middle Miocene basin fill, but their subsurface traces cannot be closely defined from the available evidence. In contrast, the eastern part of the Yucca Flat basin is interpreted to be underlain by a fairly simple north-trending, broad syncline in the pre-Tertiary units. Far fewer data are available for the northern Frenchman Flat basin, but regional analysis indicates the pre-Tertiary structure there should also be relatively simple and not affected by thrusting. This new interpretation has implications for ground water flow through pre-Tertiary rocks beneath the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, and has consequences for ground water modeling and model validation. Our data indicate that the Mississippian Chainman Shale is not laterally extensive confining unit in the western part of the basin because it is folded back onto itself by the convergent structures of the Belted Range and CP thrust systems. Early and Middle Paleozoic limestone and dolomite are present beneath most of both basins and, regardless of structural complications, are interpreted to form a laterally continuous and extensive carbonate aquifer. Structural culmination that marks the French Peak accommodation zone along the topographic divide between the two basins provides a lateral pathway through highly fractured rock between the volcanic aquifers of Yucca Flat and the regional carbonate aquifer. This pathway may accelerate the migration of ground-water contaminants introduced by underground nuclear testing toward discharge areas beyond the Nevada Test Site boundaries. Predictive three-dimensional models of hydrostratigraphic units and ground-water flow in the pre-Tertiary rocks of subsurface Yucca Flat are likely to be unrealistic due to the extreme structural complexities. The interpretation of hydrologic and geochemical data obtained from monitoring wells will be difficult to extrapolate through the flow system until more is known about the continuity of hydrostratigraphic units. 1 plate

  13. Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    In response to a Congressional request, the Energy Information Administration examined the progress being made to meet the bans on the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) being implemented in New York and Connecticut at the end of 2003.

  14. Overview: Mesozoic through Early Tertiary Stratigraphic Evolution and Deep-water Deposition of the Magallanes Basin, Chile Copyright 2007 by The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. DOI: 10.1306/1240919St563291

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overview: Mesozoic through Early Tertiary Stratigraphic Evolution and Deep-water Deposition the earliest phase of deep-water deposition in the Magallanes foreland basin (Figure 2) (Natland et al., 1974, represents the apex of deep-water sedimentation in the Magallanes basin and was deposited at depths

  15. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production. Annual report, May 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1980-07-01

    Differing extents of diagenetic modification is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the Upper and Lower Texas Gulf Coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area are less stable, chemically and mechanically, than Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury dome area. Vicksburg sandstones are mineralogically immature and contain greater proportions of feldspars and rock fragments than do Frio sandstones. Thr reactive detrital assemblage of Vicksubrg sandstones is highly susceptible to diagenetic modification. Susceptibility is enhanced by higher than normal geothermal gradients in the McAllen Ranch Field area. Thus, consolidation of Vicksburg sandstones began at shallower depth of burial and precipitation of authigenic phases (especially calcite) was more pervasive than in Frio sandstones. Moreover, the late-stage episode of ferroan calcite precipitation that occluded most secondary porosity in Vicksburg sandstones did not occur significantly in Frio sandstones. Therefore, regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production.

  16. LANXESS Global Butyl Rubber Research Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denham, Graham

    or improve existing petrochemical products. They're then used for plastics, fragrance and cosmetics," Hartmann said.BioAmber's process is cheaper than conventional petroleum-based routes, he said. It

  17. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Tertiary Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Nikola Tesla STEM High School in Redmond, WA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME...

  18. Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 1766

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This service report addresses the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS)/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) provisions of S. 1766. The 'S. 1766' Case reflects provisions of S. 1766 including a renewable fuels standard (RFS) reaching five billion gallons by 2012, a complete phase-out of MTBE within four years, and the option for states to waive the oxygen requirement for reformulated gasoline (RFG).

  19. Status and Impacts of State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes legislation passed in 16 states banning or restricting the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline. Analysis of the status and impact of these state MTBE bans is provided concerning the supply and potential price changes of gasoline.

  20. Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a low affinity for gasoline (low Kfw, Table 1). Therefore, minute amounts of TBA in the MTBE blended tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) added to gasoline. Frequent observations of high TBA, and especially rising TBA/MTBE concentration ratios, in groundwater at gasoline spill sites are generally attributed to microbial conversion

  1. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  2. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  3. Reactivity of the Quinone Methide of Butylated hydroxytoluene in Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willcockson, Maren Gulsrud

    2011-08-31

    8 pH Measurements 9 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Analysis 9 Ultra Violet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) Analysis 9 Kinetic Studies 10 Generation of Standard Curves 10 Calculation of Mole... at 285 nm and Dionex Chromeleon analysis software (Sunnyvale, CA) was used to integrate peak area. Ultra Violet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) Analysis Shimadzu UV-1700 (Japan) Ultra Violet-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV-Vis) equipped...

  4. Butyl acetate replaces toluene to remove phenol from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodel, A.E.

    1993-03-01

    Plastics Engineering Co. manufactures phenol formaldehyde resins and molding compounds at a plant in Sheboygan, WI. Process water from the plant, containing 7% phenol and 1% methanol, requires treatment prior to discharge to the sewer. Toluene was used as a solvent in a countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction column. A vacuum distillation of the extract separated the phenol and toluene. The raffinate (1% methanol, 98% water and 1% toluene) was stripped to recover the toluene and remove methanol from the bottoms prior to discharge. Methanol was not recovered. Disposal costs for the waste methanol (with about 10% toluene as an azeotrope) were high.

  5. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Butyl Acrylate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartment of Energy3-1Department of

  6. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01

    was originally applied to water desalination in which water was extracted from aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Here, we explore its potential to recover acetate produced via fermentation. At 40C 55C, which corresponds to typical fen-fermentation temperatures...

  7. Methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether: A comparison of properties, synthesis techniques, and operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sneesby, M.G.; Tade, M.O.; Datta, R.

    1996-12-31

    MTBE is currently the most industrially significant oxygenate but some of the properties of ETBE and the EPA ethanol mandate suggest that ETBE could become a viable competitor. Similar synthesis techniques are used for both ethers but the phase behaviour of the ETBE system requires slightly different operating conditions and creates some alternatives for product recovery. The process control strategy for both systems must address some unusual challenges. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of oxygenate concentration on species mole fractions in premixed n-heptane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    -heptane/oxygenate mixtures were 2.7 and 3.4. Three different fuel oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, methanol, and ethanol) were tested in these emissions is the improvement in motor vehicle fuel properties. Fuel oxygenates were first used as an octane.e. oxygenates) such as alcohols (e.g. methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol) and ethers (e.g. methyl

  9. Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    In October 2003, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those states for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two states over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

  10. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

  11. Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    of Cooperation to cooperate for the benefit of both parties and to work towards enhancing regulation and quality and collaboration TEQSA and QAA will work together: a) To develop a programme of cooperation including joint, business models and risk and risk-based approaches to regulation and quality assurance, and other topics

  12. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, Clayton J. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  13. Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Acyclic Tertiary Diamines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodagholian, Sevana

    2010-01-01

    9. S. Yaghmaei, In Search of a Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond inP.A. Frey, and J.A. Gerlt, “The Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond inConsiderations Show That Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds do not

  14. Steroid estrogens in primary and tertiary wastewater treatment plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braga, Olga; Smythe, George A.; Schäfer, Andrea; Feitz, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of two natural estrogens (Estrone (E1) and Estradiol (E2)) and one synthetic progestin (Ethinylestradiol (EE2)) were measured for different unit operations in an advanced sewage treatment plant and in ...

  15. Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Acyclic Tertiary Diamines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodagholian, Sevana

    2010-01-01

    and -0.311 e.Ĺ-3 Table 3.6: Atomic coordinates ( x 104) andS(2) O(4) O(5) Table 3.9: Hydrogen coordinates ( x 104) andand -0.362 e.Ĺ-3 Table 3.13: Atomic coordinates ( x 104) and

  16. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  17. Eutrophication potential of secondary and tertiary wastewater effluents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivy, James Thomas

    1972-01-01

    with a lime recalcining and 48 sludge incinerating process. At Dallas, recarbonation facilities were not available. As a result, neutralization was attempted with a mineral acid. Unfortunately, the densator effluent had little buffering capacity in a... not support substantial algal growth 1n the lagoon system, while the neutral1zed effluents from this system supported algal growth that was comparable to that of the secondary (act1vated sludge) wastewater treatment system. Laboratory exper1ments...

  18. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    -massspectrometryandgaschromatography-thermal conductivity techniques. A rate law is developed for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP of water in which alkyl groups have replaced both hydrogen atoms. In fact, the C-O-C bond angle is only, causing nationwide concern. Advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) are techniques that involve an input

  19. Saponification rates of isomeric butyl esters in aqueous 1,4-dioxane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruhnke, Edward Vincent

    1954-01-01

    stranded RNA ligands with overhangs or a 5’ triphosphate group. The Cys951 residue was shown to disrupt stability of the MDA5 RD-RNA complex. Binding analyses were performed using a combination of SDS-PAGE, gel filtration analysis, and nondenaturing gel...

  20. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    byproducts in either the gas or the liquid phase. They also exhibited a very high specific degradation and leaking pipe- lines. In the past few years, several studies have been conducted to determine if natural, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) plumes, with in most cases no clear signs of natural attenuation (2

  1. Use of ethyl-t-butyl ether (ETBE) as a gasoline blending component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiblom, C.M.; Schoonveld, G.A.; Riley, R.K.; Pahl, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Treasury Department recently ruled that the ethanol blenders tax credit applies to ethanol used to make ETBE for blending with gasoline. As a result, ETBE may soon become a popular gasoline blending component. Like MTBE ETBE adds oxygen to the fuel while contributing to other performance properties of the gasoline. Phillips Petroleum Company has completed limited driveability and material compatibility studies on gasolines containing ETBE and has determined the effect on various performance parameters such as octane, volatility, and distillation of ETBE in gasoline. Levels of ETBE ranging from 0.0 to 23.5 volume percent (3.7 weight percent oxygen) in gasoline were included in the investigation. Use in gasoline is currently limited to only 12.7 volume percent (2.0 weight percent oxygen) by the gasoline substantially similar rule. No detrimental effects of the ETBE on metal or elastomeric parts common to gasoline delivery and fueling system were found. Also, several favorable blending properties of eTBE in gasoline are apparent as compared to either MTBE or ethanol. This paper presents details of these results.

  2. Organometallics 1994, 13, 4367-4376 4367 tert-Butyl-SubstitutedPoly(ferroceny1enepersulfides)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    . The trisulfides were converted to the polymers [(RC5H3)2FeS2Inupon desulfurization with Bu~P,which was shown by 31PNMR spectroscopy to be converted to Bu3PS. The rate of this desulfurization increases ferrocenylene persulfide polymers undergo reversible electrochemical oxidation in two steps, separated by 290 m

  3. Exchange Reactions Between a Molten Salt and a Solution of Tri-Butyl

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal(Patent)pressure inrepeats (Journal(Journal

  4. Deetherification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1985-11-05

    Ethers such as isobutyl tertiary butyl ether are dissociated into their component alcohols and isoolefins by heat stabilized catalyst compositions prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  5. California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2009, (AEO) E10–a gasoline blend containing 10% ethanol–is assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California erformulated gasoline (RFG), as opposed to the 5.7% blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7% blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0% oxygen content under the Clean Air Act provisions in effect at that time.

  6. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

  7. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  8. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-10-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasoline (RFG) are estimated. The scope of the study includes both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components. The effects on energy and crude oil use of employing various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen-content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis shows that production of RFG requires more total energy, but uses less crude oil, than that of conventional gasoline. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than does RFG with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethyl tertiary butyl ether. A specific proposal by the US Environmental Protection Agency, designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG, would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over the corresponding values for the base RFG with MTBE.

  9. Study of optimal sequences and energy requirements of integrated processing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Enezi, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The increased demand for high quality unleaded gasoline produced from a refinery has caused an increased in developing processing alternatives for producing high-octane gasoline components. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is currently considered one of the most practical alternatives. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is based mainly on the availability of light hydrocarbons as a feed, such as isobutane from a refinery. The availability of isobutane is increased by isomerization of normal butanes. Even though distillation processes are widely used to separate mixtures of light hydrocarbons, they are highly energy intensive. A steady-state design of several configurations of distillation columns were studied for separating light hydrocarbon mixtures. A number of energy conservation alternatives were evaluated for the distillation process integrated with an isomerization unit. A modified form of the Complex Method of Box was used for optimizing the design and operating conditions of these energy conservation alternatives. The use of vapor recompression with distillation columns was evaluated as one of the alternatives. Despite the more complex processing scheme required, this alternative used only about 30% of the external energy required in a conventional distillation process for the same separation. The operating conditions of the multi-effect distillation columns were optimized as another alternative. Reduction in energy consumption for this case was about 40% compared to conventional distillation columns.

  10. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    20 Diesel Fuel Use Nationally Regulated Single Price, Prices (US dollars/t) [1] Product Gasoline Grade 90# unleaded 93# unleaded 95# unleaded Diesel Jet fuelPrices for Fuels in 35 Major Cities (yuan/t) Anthracite Bituminous Coal Bituminous Coal Coke Gasoline Diesel

  11. Polymer Brushes on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of n-Butyl Methacrylate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resasco, Daniel

    Polymer Brushes on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of n-mail: wtford@okstate.edu Abstract: Polymer brushes with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) as backbones were-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are leading to the development of new nanotechnologies because of their out

  12. A search for mode-selective chemistry: The unimolecular dissociation of I-butyl hydroperoxide induced by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rate over the thermal energy distribution of the photoactivated molecules is included. At pressures of thermal unimolecular processes. 1 The ergodic theories were very successful in rationaliZing the bulk rate. The excess chemical energy released through the addition process is initially localized

  13. Fetal germ cell development in the rat testis and the impact of di (n-Butyl) phthalate exposure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jobling, Matthew S.

    2010-01-01

    During gonad development and fetal life, the germ cells (GC) undergo a range of different developmental processes necessary for correct postnatal gametogenesis and the production of the next generation. If these fetal ...

  14. On the structural and impedance characteristics of Li- doped PEO, using n-butyl lithium in hexane as dopant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, P. B., E-mail: anandputhirath@gmail.com, E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in; Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: anandputhirath@gmail.com, E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Division for Research in Advanced Materials Department of Physics Cochin University of Science and Technology Cochin 22, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Nowadays polymer based solid state electrolytes for applications in rechargeable battery systems are highly sought after materials, pursued extensively by various research groups worldwide. Numerous methods are discussed in literature to improve the fundamental properties like electrical conductivity, mechanical stability and interfacial stability of polymer based electrolytes. The application of these electrolytes in Li-ion cells is still in the amateur state, due to low ionic conductivity, low lithium transport number and the processing difficulties. The present work is an attempt to study the effects of Li doping on the structural and transport properties of the polymer electrolyte, poly-ethelene oxide (PEO) (Molecular weight: 200,000). Li doped PEO was obtained by treating PEO with n-Butyllithium in hexane for different doping concentrations. Structural characterization of the samples was done by XRD and FTIR techniques. Impedance measurements were carried out to estimate the ionic conductivity of Li doped PEO samples. It is seen that, the crystallinity of the doped PEO decreases on increasing the doping concentration. XRD and FTIR studies support this observation. It is inferred that, ionic conductivity of the sample is increasing on increasing the doping concentration since less crystallinity permits more ionic transport. Impedance measurements confirm the results quantitatively.

  15. Kinetic study of acid-catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Zehui Zhang a,d,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weixue

    . Zhao a,c, a Division of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, China b The State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, China c Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian 116023

  16. An experimental system for the n-butyl-lithium initiated polymerization of styrene in a multi-sampled batch reactor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, James Harvey

    1974-01-01

    AN EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM FOR THE n-BUTYLLITHIUM INITIATED POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE IN A MULTI-SAMPLED BATCH REACTOR A Thesis by JAMES HARVEY COX, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1974 Ma]or Subject: Chemical Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM FOR THE n-BUTYLLITHIUM INITIATED POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE IN A MULTI-SAMPLED BATCH REACTOR A Thesis by JAMES HARVEY COX, JR. Approved...

  17. Supporting Information A scalable synthesis of the (S)-4-(tert-butyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-4,5-dihydrooxazole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    for flash chromatography. Analytical chiral SFC was performed utilizing an OB-H column (4.6 mm × 25 cm with a three-pitched curved blade, an internal thermometer, and a reflux condenser equipped with a two a steam of N2. The flask was charged with (S)-tert-leucine (15.08 g, 115.0 mmol, 1.00 equv, 99% ee

  18. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    degradation pathways. PM1 contains an operon (mpeA0814-0821) likely encoding for conversion of benzene to phenol (

  19. Viscoelastic Properties and Phase Behavior of 12-tert-Butyl Ester Dendrimer/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    with bis- phenol A polycarbonate (PC), resulting in an in- crease in free volume with increasing dendrimer hyperbranched polyester/bisphenol A PC blends with respect to pure PC. Studies were conducted by Carr et al.24

  20. Mesozoic-Tertiary tectonic evolution of the easternmost Mediterranean area: integration of marine and land evidence. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Alastair H F

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of Holocene to Late Paleozoic marine and land evidence from the easternmost Mediterranean area, in the light of recent ODP Leg 160 drilling results from the Eratosthenes Seamount. The ...

  1. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Tertiary Alkyl Fluorides: Negishi Cross-Couplings of Racemic ?,?-Dihaloketones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Yufan

    The development of new approaches to the construction of fluorine-containing target molecules is important for a variety of scientific disciplines, including medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe a method for ...

  2. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

    1982-01-01

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  3. Supplementary Material Construction of Tertiary Chiral Centers by Pd-catalyzed Asymmetric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    * The Warren and Katharine Schlinger Laboratory for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 101 and tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) were distilled from calcium hydride prior to use. (S)-2-(2-(bis(4- (trifluoromethyl

  4. Application of a moving bed biofilm reactor for tertiary ammonia treatment in high temperature industrial wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    industrial wastewater Jennifer L. Shore a,b , William S. M'Coy b , Claudia K. Gunsch a , Marc A. Deshusses a 2012 Available online 17 February 2012 Keywords: Moving bed biofilm reactor Industrial wastewater and industrial wastewater. No biotreatment was observed at 45 °C, although effective nitrification was rapidly

  5. Ultrasonic absorption associated with tertiary butanol complex formation in cyclohexane solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musa, Raiq S.

    1957-01-01

    T loiA hT eyofn ihyntnuina mT ryn ft'^up entdhp df c^iy fcollnt ryou ryn iyotoirntdfrdi rdcn hT ryn tnoirdhuw ryn rncentor^tn iyouSnf roAn eloin fh Tofr ryor ryn chlnR i^lnf iouuhr Thllhqw oup kntE ldrrln ovfhterdhu roAnf eloina /u ryn hrynt youpw d...T ryn fh^up entdhp df c^iy lhuSnt ryou ryn iyotoirntdfrdi rdcnwryn chlni^lnf Thllhq ryn rncentor^tn iyouSnf oup ryn ovfhterdhu df or drf ydSynfra mu vhry rynfn iofnf dr df fnnu ryor kotdordhu hT ryn fh^up Ttn,^nuR iE hknt o fcoll touSn qdll ethp...

  6. Diagenesis of Middle Tertiary carbonates in the Toa Baja Well, Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ruiz, H. M.

    1991-03-01

    indicate that these carbonates were rapidly cemented in the marine environment (limiting compaction), that replacement of metastable carbonates by calcite and precipitation of sparry calcite took place mostly in meteoric diagenetic environments...

  7. Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons from Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Piceance basin, western Colorado 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, David Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    ), and are chemically distinct and therefore Renetically different from gases between 2450 and 2791 M (513C ci =-37.9 +-O.2%og 813C C2 =-26.4 0?.5%09 CI/Cl-3 = 0.88 0?.01). Gases of the latter group were probably derived from coalbeds that comprise the Cameo Group...

  8. An atmospheric pCO2 reconstruction across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    attribute marked ``green- house'' warming to either volcanic degassing of mantle volatiles (especially CO2 impact. A resultant climatic forcing of 12 W m 2 would have been sufficient to warm the Earth's surface evidence for major climatic warming after the KTB impact and implies that severe and abrupt global warming

  9. 1208 Organometallics1988,7,1208-1213 Copper(I) Alkyls. Synthesis and Characterization of Tertiary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    -Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Received December 28. 1986 Alkylation of copper(I1)acetate reflections and 62 variables. Introduction Lithium dialkylcuprates, LiCuR2,are used extensively in organic

  10. The effect of solids retention time on tertiary ozonation and carbon adsorption of petrochemical wastewaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buys, Ronald Earl

    1980-01-01

    time of 30 days. 34 10 Correlation between measured and calculated nonadsorbable COD values for bio-oxidized samples. 37 Correlation between measured and calculated nonadsorbable COD values for bio-oxidized plus ozonated samples. 12 Effect... of solids retention time on nonadsorbable COD, with and without ozonation. 39 LIST OF TABLES Table Page Biochemical and chemical oxygen demand data. COD removal and ozone consumption data 21 26 iVon-adsorbable COD data for bio-oxidized effluent. . 3O...

  11. The geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Tertiary igneous rocks of the Eagle Mountains, Van Horn, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Ronald Alan

    1972-01-01

    , 0 1, 9 4h 18 IR 1. 8 1. 5 '1. 4 5p 0 p Sd 8101214 Ca 'ro Fig12re 13. Hb/Sr vs. Cap plot for the rocks of the Eagle Mountains. 39 2. 1 2. 0 ~ VI' 1. 9 1. 7 ep sd O ~ Na/ K Figure l4. Rb/Sr vs. Ma/K plot for the rooks... Page 3 ~ 5. 6. 7 ~ 8. Map of a portion of West Texas showing the location of' the Eagle Mountains. . . 4 The Cretaceous section of the Eagle Mountains after Underwood. (1962) . . . . 8 Distribution of igneous rock and sample locations...

  12. Tertiary recycling of PVC-containing plastic waste by copyrolysis with cattle manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duangchan, Apinya [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Paholyotin Road, Ladyao Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: fengapd@ku.ac.th; Samart, Chanatip [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Paholyotin Road, Ladyao Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2008-11-15

    The corrosion from pyrolysis of PVC in plastic waste was reduced by copyrolysis of PVC with cattle manure. The optimization of pyrolysis conditions between PVC and cattle manure was studied via a statistical method, the Box-Behnken model. The pyrolysis reaction was operated in a tubular reactor. Heating rate, reaction temperature and the PVC:cattle manure ratio were optimized in the range of 1-5 deg. C/min, 250-450 deg. C and the ratio of 1:1-1:5, respectively. The suitable conditions which provided the highest HCl reduction efficiency were the lowest heating rate of 1 deg. C/min, the highest reaction temperature of 450 deg. C, and the PVC:cattle manure ratio of 1:5, with reliability of more than 90%. The copyrolysis of the mixture of PVC-containing plastic and cattle manure was operated at optimized conditions and the synergistic effect was studied on product yields. The presence of manure decreased the oil yield by about 17%. The distillation fractions of oil at various boiling points from both the presence and absence of manure were comparable. The BTX concentration decreased rapidly when manure was present and the chlorinated hydrocarbon was reduced by 45%. However, the octane number of the gasoline fraction was not affected by manure and was in the range of 99-100.

  13. The identification of recurrent tertiary motifs by interactions of protein secondary structure units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Hamilton Courtney

    2013-02-22

    2sns 2spc 2Cgt 2tps 2vhb 3bam 3cBo 3chb 3CIB 3cyr' 3elp 3elm 3grs 3hts 31St 3nul 3pnp 3pn) 3 pvl 3pyp 3seb 3SII 3 std 3vub 4eug 4gcr 4u'Ig 4ubp 4xis 6rl x 7B3h 7ocic 8abp Partitioning of Secondary Structure For each...

  14. An example of regioselective esterification by intramolecular acyl transfer from a tertiary amine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddell, T.G.; Rambalakos, T.; Christie, K.R. )

    1990-07-20

    Despite the fact that the famous antimarlarial quinine (1) has been known for 170 years, there is still considerable interest in its chemical and biological properties. Much of the most recent attention is due to the utility of quinine as a chiral resolving agent and catalyst. Important and new chemistry of quinine may yet be discovered. To this point, the authors became interested in constructing quinine derivatives which have built into their structures electrophilic centers which might make covalent bonds with cellular protein or nucleic acid nucleophilic sites. In order to preserve the noncovalent binding properties of quinine, functionalization and derivatization of the remote vinyl group were desired. In an esterification step of the derivatization, a structurally hindered ester was formed, to our surprise. The mechanism for this regioselective reaction are discussed.

  15. Tertiary contacts distant from the active site prime a ribozyme for catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martick, Monika; Scott, William G

    2006-01-01

    pH-activity relationships of G8 and G12 variants at thecharged alkoxide anion. (C) The G8-C3 base pair is important

  16. New surfactant classes for enhanced oil recovery and their tertiary oil recovery potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    esters sorbitan ester ultra-low interfacial tension enhanced oil recovery surfactant flood chemical flood sandstones. In addition to the corefloods, one sandpack surfactant flood was performed. The porous media were by polymer drive slug injection, and incremental oil recovery was measured against time. The tested

  17. Mineralogy and diagenesis of Gulf Coast Tertiary shales Ann-Mag Field, Brooks County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bott, Winston Frederick

    1985-01-01

    , which is charactrerized by thinning or absence of salt, shale ridges, massifs, and diapirs, and associated long, linear belts of growth faults; and the Rio Grande embayment, which has large but discontinuous belts of growth faults and deep shale... the H202 and becomes soluble. The reaction is given below: 2 + HP02 + 2 HOAc ~ , in(OAc)Z + 2 H20 + 02. The pH 5 N NaOAc is necessary in this step because it increases the effeciency of the H202 by reducing the pH. It also acts as a di lutant...

  18. Evidence for Large-Scale Laramide Tectonic Inversion and a Mid-Tertiary

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH JumpEllenville,PowerEvaporative Coolers Jump

  19. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  20. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  1. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  2. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE By Michael J. Moran, Mike J. Halde, Rick M. Clawges and John S. Zogorski U in the United States as an octane enhancer and oxygenate in gasoline. Octane enhancement began in the late 1970's with the phase-out of tetraethyl lead from gasoline. The use of oxygenates was expanded

  3. Effects of bile salts and other carboxylates on the reactions of N-tert-butyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzamide in dimethyl sulfoxide-water solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koranek, David James

    1977-01-01

    incandescent bulb at a distance of 20 cm), [5] = 4x10 M: Curve 1 ( . ), initial spectrum; Curve Z ( ? ), after 2 hours; Curve 3 (---), after 10 days; Curve 4 (+-+), after 24 days. . . 92 2Z Absorption spectra of the complex in DMSO at 25. 0'C... of the absorbance at 535 nm vs. nitrite ion concentration using 1. 0 cm cells at 25. 0'C. 4 Absorption spectra of the complex generated in situ from Page 15 24 27 5 at 25. 0'C: 10 M NaOH; 10 M NaOH; -2 Curve 1 (---), in 99K/1% DMSO/H20 (v/v), Curve 2...

  4. An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Lloyd B.

    1982-01-01

    . Six (6) monitors were removed from 3M's resealable envelopes and labeled. The monitors were attached to the aluminum disc so the air movement would be perpendicular to and against the back of the monitor. dl '0 l 0 dt dl dt 0 td 0 IJ 0 0 0 0... the contaminant into the system. The F-values in Table 7 are all greater than 3. 0718 so the null hypothesis is rejected, or Equation 4 is rejected in support of Equation 5. This means there are three different slopes describing the relationship between...

  5. Enantioselective Nucleophile-Catalyzed Synthesis of Tertiary Alkyl Fluorides via the ?-Fluorination of Ketenes: Synthetic and Mechanistic Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sarah Yunmi

    The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of alkyl fluorides, particularly ?-fluorocarbonyl compounds, has been the focus of substantial effort in recent years. While significant progress has been described in the formation of ...

  6. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-02-06

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  7. GEOLOGY, TAPHONOMY, AND PALEOECOLOGY OF A UNIQUE UPPER CRETACEOUS BONEBED NEAR THE CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY BOUNDARY IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DePalma, Robert A.

    2010-04-27

    a chronology of significant local forest fires. The optimum temperature requirements for plants at Bone Butte, for example the gymnosperm Taxodium, give a rough estimation of annual temperature variation. Thousands of collected vertebrate specimens...

  8. High-resolution reservoir characterization by an acoustic impedance inversion of a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    process and thereby com- plement the relatively dense horizontal coverage of seismic data with high ones encountered in the subsurface, and potential reservoir units are often close to or below seismic resolution. For seismic inversion, it is therefore important to integrate the seismic data with higher

  9. Solvent-extraction and purification of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) by tertiary amines from acid leach solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Gamma, Ana M.G.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2008-07-01

    Considering international interest in the yellow-cake price, Argentina is seeking to exploit new uranium ore bodies and processing plants. A study of similar plants would suggest that solvent- extraction with Alamine 336 is considered the best method for the purification and concentration of uranium present in leaching solutions. In order to study the purification of these leach liquors, solvent-extraction tests under different conditions were performed with simulated solutions which containing molybdenum and molybdenum-uranium mixtures. Preliminary extraction tests carried out on mill acid-leaching liquors are also presented. (authors)

  10. A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words: Needs Assessment for Multimedia Radiology Reports in a Large Tertiary Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words: Needs Assessment for Multimedia Radiology Reports in a Large, Jafi A. Lipson, MD Rationale and Objectives: Radiology reports are the major, and often only, means referring physicians' preferences about radiology reports and to quantify their perceived value

  11. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which exhibits a characteristic set of reservoir properties obtained from outcrop analogs, cores, and geophysical logs. The Anasazi and Runway fields were selected for geostatistical modeling and reservoir compositional simulations. Models and simulations incorporated variations in carbonate lithotypes, porosity, and permeability to accurately predict reservoir responses. History matches tied previous production and reservoir pressure histories so that future reservoir performances could be confidently predicted. The simulation studies showed that despite most of the production being from the mound-core intervals, there were no corresponding decreases in the oil in place in these intervals. This behavior indicates gravity drainage of oil from the supra-mound intervals into the lower mound-core intervals from which the producing wells' major share of production arises. The key to increasing ultimate recovery from these fields (and similar fields in the basin) is to design either waterflood or CO{sub 2}-miscible flood projects capable of forcing oil from high-storage-capacity but low-recovery supra-mound units into the high-recovery mound-core units. Simulation of Anasazi field shows that a CO{sub 2} flood is technically superior to a waterflood and economically feasible. For Anasazi field, an optimized CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total 4.21 million barrels (0.67 million m3) of oil representing in excess of 89 percent of the original oil in place. For Runway field, the best CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total of 2.4 million barrels (0.38 million m3) of oil representing 71 percent of the original oil in place. If the CO{sub 2} flood performed as predicted, it is a financially robust process for increasing the reserves in the many small fields in the Paradox Basin. The results can be applied to other fields in the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent.

  12. Development of a partition function for polymer systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver-Labra, Pedro Aurelio

    1967-01-01

    of the Reduced Pressure, Reduced Temperature, and Calculated Reduced Vol- ume i'or Mixtures of Heptane and Butyl Rubber 19 III. Values for Mixtures of Octane and Butyl Rubber 19 IV. Values for Mixtures of Nonane and Butyl Rubber 20 V. Values for Mixtures... of Decane and Butyl Rubber 20 VI. Values Obtained Using the Formulation Derived in this Thesis for Heptane and Butyl Rubber 23 VII. Values for Mixtures of Octane and Butyl Rubber 23 VIII. Values for Mixtures of Nonane and Butyl Rubber 24 IX. Values...

  13. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dombek, B.D.

    1996-03-01

    The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

  14. Detailed comparisons of airborne formaldehyde measurements with box models during the 2006 INTEX-B and MILAGRO campaigns: potential evidence for significant impacts of unmeasured and multi-generation volatile organic carbon compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    of 2-butyl nitrate to butane, as dis- cussed by Bertman ethereafter be referred to as butane time or photochemicalof 2-butyl nitrate to butane (see Perring et al. , 2010)

  15. N-(N-[2-(3,5-Difluorophenyl)acetyl]-(S)-alanyl)-(S)-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT): an inhibitor of ?-secretase, revealing fine electronic and hydrogen-bonding features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czerwinski, Andrzej; Valenzuela, Francisco; Afonine, Pavel; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2010-12-01

    The title compound, C{sub 23}H{sub 26}F{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}, is a dipeptidic inhibitor of ?-secretase, one of the enzymes involved in Alzheimer’s dis@@ease. The mol@@ecule adopts a compact conformation, without intra@@molecular hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, one of the amide N atoms forms the only inter@@molecular N—H?O hydrogen bond; the second amide N atom does not form hydrogen bonds. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction data permitted the unequivocal location and refinement without restraints of all H atoms, and the identification of the characteristic shift of the amide H atom engaged in the hydrogen bond from its ideal position, resulting in a more linear hydrogen bond. Significant residual densities for bonding electrons were revealed after the usual SHELXL refinement, and modeling of these features as additional inter@@atomic scatterers (IAS) using the program PHENIX led to a significant decrease in the R factor from 0.0411 to 0.0325 and diminished the r.m.s. deviation level of noise in the final difference Fourier map from 0.063 to 0.037 e Ĺ{sup ?3}.

  16. Study of the kinetics of the gas-phase, iodine catalyzed elimination of HBr from isobutylbromide: the tertiary C-H bond dissociation energy in isobutylbromide. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jirustithipong, Pongsiri

    1975-01-01

    EXPERIMENTAL A. Apparatus A schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus is shown in Fig. 2. The reactions were carried out in a constant volume, pyrex vessel (A), which was heated in an aluminium block furnace (B). The vessel was connected via a... Aluminium Block Furnace Differential Pressure Transducer Transducer Indicator Front-Side Vacuum System Back-Side Vacuum System Sample Outlets Iodine Reservior Hot Box Dibutylphathalate (oil) Manometer Mercury Manometer Mercury Manometer Liquid...

  17. Mesozoic to Early Tertiary tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the Northern Neotethys Ocean: evidence from the Beysehir-Hoyran-Hadim Nappes, S.W. Turkey. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Theo

    The Bey?ehir-Hoyran-Hadim Nappes crop out over 700km, from east to west in the Pisidian and Central Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. During this study, field obsevations of lithological, structural and sedimentological features are combined...

  18. Nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings of unactivated secondary and tertiary alkyl halides and photoinduced copper-mediated asymmetric C-N cross-couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zultanski, Susan L. (Susan Lyn)

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 1 describes the development of two nickel-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling methodologies that employ alkyl halides as electrophiles. In Section 1.1, asymmetric [gamma]-alkylation relative to a carbonyl group is ...

  19. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, Thomas C.

    2000-07-28

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  20. High-resolution reservoir characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion: an example from a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    that is then iteratively matched with the seismic data using a Bayesian inversion process. The inversion is then extendedHigh-resolution reservoir characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion-resolution reservoir model from seismic and well data, an approach was developed based on an a priori layered model

  1. Uranium mineralization along a fault plane in tertiary sedimentary rocks in the McLean 5 Mine, Live Oak Conty, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bomber, Brenda Jean

    1980-01-01

    relief, uranium rich phase occurs. 22A Photomicrograph in plane polar ized light showing fine particles of a high relief, brown mineral in opaline cement and adjacent to a feldspar grain (F) 83 85 228 Fission track pattern corresponding to 22A. 85... 22C Photomicrograph of a pyrite-cemented sandstone of sample XZ (45 ppm uranium). 85 LIST OF FIGURES (continued) FIGURE PAGE 22D Fission track pattern corresponding to 22C showing uranium associated with the fine-grained particles in the opaline...

  2. Sino-KoreanYangtze suture, Huwan detachment, and PaleozoicTertiary exhumation of (ultra)high-pressure rocks in TongbaiXinxianDabie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    , Germany Bradley R. Hacker Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA al., 1996; Hacker et al., 1996, Wallis et al., 1999). In the Qin Mountains ("Qinling"), a clearer

  3. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, mule, Blue Hogan, heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The reservoir engineering component of the work completed to date included analysis of production data and well tests, comprehensive laboratory programs, and preliminary mechanistic reservoir simulation studies. A comprehensive fluid property characterization program was completed. Mechanistic reservoir production performance simulation studies were also completed.

  4. Investigating Returns to Investments in Education: An Empirical Study Estimating Returns to Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education for Countries at Different Levels of Economic Development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano, Ricardo Viviano

    2012-07-16

    Studies on returns to education disagree as to where these returns are highest. It is suggested that these disagreements are the result of inconsistencies in the data and methodologies used for their estimation. These ...

  5. Comparison of maternal and neonatal outcome before and after the availability of a rapid assay for fetal fibronectin at a tertiary level maternity hospital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeltler, Debra Ann Milbert

    2010-01-01

    before and after test availability as compared to those whoBenjamin A. (2005). Does availability of fetal fibronectinBefore and After the Availability of a Rapid Assay for Fetal

  6. The process of developing a strategy of sustainable development in the Pamir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    activities such as mineral exploitation and hydroelectricity genera- tion. Tertiary sector activities

  7. The Development and Application of Gold(I)-Catalyzed Cyclization Cascades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sethofer, Steven Gregory

    2011-01-01

    lithium trimethylsilylacetylide to give tertiary alcohol 4.43. Deprotection and esterification then provided acetate

  8. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  9. Phase behavior and mesoscale solubilization in aqueous solutions of hydrotropes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepa Subramanian; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2013-09-27

    Hydrotropes are amphiphilic molecules that are too small to spontaneously form equilibrium structures in aqueous solutions, but form dynamic, noncovalent assemblies, referred to as clusters. In the presence of a hydrophobic compound, these clusters seem to get stabilized leading to the formation of long-lived, highly stable mesoscopic droplets, a phenomenon that we call mesoscale solubilization. In this work, we focus on the unusual mesoscopic properties of aqueous solutions of a nonionic hydrotrope, namely tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), on addition of various hydrophobic compounds. Aqueous TBA solutions, in about 3 to 8 mol percent TBA concentration range and about 0 to 25 deg. C temperature range, show the presence of short-ranged (0.5 nm), short-lived (tens of picoseconds) molecular clusters which result in anomalies of the thermodynamic properties. These clusters are transient but do not relax by diffusion, thus distinctly different from conventional concentration fluctuations. In this concentration and temperature range, upon the addition of a third (more hydrophobic) component to TBA-water solutions, long-lived mesoscopic droplets of about 100 nm size are observed. In this work, we clarify the ambiguity behind the definition of solubility and elucidate the phenomenon of mesoscale solubilization. A systematic study of the macro and meso phase behavior of three ternary systems TBA-water-propylene oxide, TBA-water-isobutyl alcohol, and TBA-water-cyclohexane has been carried out. We differentiate between molecular solubility, mesoscale solubilization, and macroscopic phase separation. We have confirmed that practically stable aqueous colloids can be created from small molecules, without addition of surfactants or polymers. Such kind of novel materials may find applications in the design of various processes and products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics and agrochemicals.

  10. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  11. Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, G.O.; Copeland, R.; Dubovik, M.; Gershanovich, Y.

    2002-09-20

    Gasification technologies convert coal and other heavy feedstocks into synthesis gas feed streams that can be used in the production of a wide variety of chemicals, ranging from hydrogen through methanol, ammonia, acetic anhydride, dimethyl ether (DME), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), high molecular weight liquid hydrocarbons and waxes. Syngas can also be burned directly as a fuel in advanced power cycles to generate electricity with very high efficiency. However, the coal-derived synthesis gas contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the catalysts that are used in the downstream manufacturing processes and may also be regulated in power plant emissions. Particularly, the catalysts used in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol and other liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids) have been found to be very sensitive to the low levels of poisons, especially arsenic, that are present in the synthesis gas from coal. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing an expendable high capacity, low-cost chemical absorbent to remove arsenic from coal-derived syngas. Unlike most of the commercially available sorbents that physically adsorb arsenic, TDA's sorbent operates at elevated temperatures and removes the arsenic through chemical reaction. The arsenic content in the coal gas stream is reduced to ppb levels with the sorbent by capturing and stabilizing the arsenic gas (As4) and arsenic hydrides (referred to as arsine, AsH3) in the solid state. To demonstrate the concept of high temperature arsenic removal from coal-derived syngas, we carried out bench-scale experiments to test the absorption capacity of a variety of sorbent formulations under representative conditions. Using on-line analysis techniques, we monitored the pre- and post-breakthrough arsine concentrations over different sorbent samples. Some of these samples exhibited pre-breakthrough arsine absorption capacity over 40% wt. (capacity is defined as lb of arsenic absorbed/lb of sorbent), while maintaining an arsine outlet concentration at less than 10 ppb.

  12. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricks Editor, R.

    2009-01-01

    andor pyrophoric gases. 1,3 butadiene arsenic pentafluorideof highly toxic and/or 1,3-butadiene arsenic pentafluoridebracken fern 1,3-butadiene butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)

  13. journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/nanoenergy Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PIP13-FSI) and N-butyl-N- methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR

  14. Spectroscopic Investigations of Solvent Effect on Chiral Interactions Chieu D. Tran* and Shaofang Yu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    the mechanism of chiral interactions between a known chiral selector, tert-butyl carbamoylated quinine (t in liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Carbamoylated derivatives of quinine are effective

  15. Nanostructure Control of Biologically Inspired Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosales, Adrianne

    2013-01-01

    Block-Random Copolymers of Styrene, 4-Acetoxystyrene, and 4-Random Copolymers of Styrene and Hydrogenated Isoprene.Phase Behavior of Styrene/n-Butyl Acrylate Block and

  16. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: Archer Daniels Midland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Archer Daniels Midland will develop a pilot plant to demonstrate the continuous production of cellulosic ethanol and butyl acrylate from densified corn stover.

  17. Reconnaissance geophysical studies of the geothermal system in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the west side of the valley the Tertiary rocks appear to be separated from the underlying Precambrian basement by a low angle fault along which the Tertiary rocks have slid off a...

  18. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 27732796, 2008 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/8/2773/2008/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    are considered: molecular carbon, alkyl hydroxyl, aromatic hydroxyl, alkyl ether, alkyl ring ether, aromatic ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, nitrate, nitro, alkyl amine (primary, secondary, and tertiary), aromatic amine, amide (primary, secondary, and tertiary), peroxide, hydroperoxide, peroxy acid

  19. High-Resolution Computational and Experimental Study of Rotary-Wing Tip Vortex Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    flowfield. Secondary and tertiary vortices that result from crossflow separations near the blade tip crossflow separations near the tip surface [1,2]. As a consequence, secondary and tertiary vortical

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE Volume 20, Number 5, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Kung-Hui "Bella"

    -butyl ether (MTBE) is the most widely used oxygenate in gasoline, followed by ethanol. Widespread use in certain urban regions to reduce air pollution from motor vehi- cles. To meet the requirements of the CAAA), and diisopropyl ether (DIPE). Alcohol oxy- genates include ethanol (EtOH), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), and methanol

  1. Continuous wasteless ecologically safe technology of propylenecarbonate production in presence of phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Afanasiev, Vladimir Vasilievich (Moscow, RU); Zefirov, Nikolai Serafimovich (Moscow, RU); Zalepugin, Dmitry Yurievich (Moscow, RU); Polyakov, Victor Stanislavovich (Moscow, RU); Tilkunova,Nataliya Alexandrovna (Moscow, RU); Tomilova, Larisa Godvigovna (Moscow, RU)

    2009-09-08

    A continuous method of producing propylenecarbonate includes carboxylation of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide in presence of phthalocyanine catalyst on an inert carrier, using as the phthalocyanine catalyst at least one catalyst selected from the group consisting of not-substituted, methyl, ethyl, butyl, and tret butyl-substituted phthalocyanines of metals, including those containing counterions, and using as the carrier a hydrophobic carrier.

  2. Polymer International Polym Int 55:292298 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/pi.1951

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    2006-01-01

    Polymer International Polym Int 55:292­298 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/pi.1951 Crystallization behaviour of cellulose acetate butylate/poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene carbonate) blends Seung-Hwan Lee and Siqun(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene carbonate) (PBS-co-BC) and its blends with cellulose acetate butylate (CAB) (10

  3. Henry's law constants for paint solvents and their implications on volatile organic compound emissions from automotive painting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, B.R.; Kalis, E.M.; DeWulf, T.; Andrews, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes experimental results of equilibrium partitioning of several significant paint solvents and formaldehyde between air and water to quantify the potential for capturing and retaining the constituents in spraybooth scrubber water during automotive painting. The compounds studied are toluene, n-butanol, methyl ethyl ketone methyl propyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl amyl ketone, butyl cellosolve, butyl cellosolve acetate, butyl carbitol, and n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. A set of field data collected at a Ford Motor Company assembly plant was also analyzed to determine whether data were consistent with the equilibrium phenomenon. The primary findings include: (a) There were more than six orders of magnitude difference in the Henry's law constants among the solvents studied. A solvent with a smaller constant is less easily stripped from water. The Henry's law constants decrease in the following order: toluene and xylenes > methyl ethyl ketone > n-butanol > butyl cellosolve acetate > butyl cellosolve > formaldehyde > butyl carbitol > n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. (b) Field data showed accumulation of n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and stable concentrations of butyl carbitol, butyl cellosolve, and n-butanol in the paint-sludge pit water during a 2-month period. Stable concentrations indicate a continuous, balanced capture and stripping of the solvents. Data were consistent with measured Henry's law constants. (c) The low Henry's law constant for formaldehyde is the result of the fact that it is hydrated when dissolved in water.

  4. Antioxidant, color and sensory properties of sorghum bran in pre-cooked ground beef patties varying in fat and iron content 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Dae Keun

    2009-05-15

    each fat level, ground beef portions were weighed and randomly assigned to control, butylated hydroxanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (0.001%), rosemary (0.25%) or sorghum bran (0.25, 0.5 or 1.0%). After mixing in the appropriate...

  5. GEOLOGY, January 2010 7 INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hren, Michael

    and in-filled river mean- ders along the major Tertiary drainages. Plant fossils are classified as Chalk

  6. Cationic Hyperbranched Poly(amino ester): A Novel Class of DNA Condensing Molecule with Cationic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Sang

    one hydroxyl group, two methyl ester groups, and one tertiary amine group in the center Surface, Biodegradable Three-Dimensional Structure, and Tertiary Amine Groups in the Interior Yong. Tertiary amines in the interior of PEI or PAMAM are protonated at acidic endosomal pH, which disrupts

  7. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-09-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test stand is an asset which provides an ongoing research capability dedicated to the testing of alternative fuels for aircraft engines. The test stand is now entirely functional with the exception of the electronic ignition unit which still needs adjustments.

  8. Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

    2003-09-11

    About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

  9. Biocrude suitability for petroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmalzer, D.K.; Gaines, L.L.; Herzenberg, C.L.; Snider, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    Technologies are now being developed that could produce crude oil from biomass, making available an alternative fuel source as petroleum supplies dwindle and prices rise. If the existing infrastructure for transporting and refining petroleum could be used for biocrude, the transition from petroleum would be smoother and less costly. This report examines the suitability of the existing systems for transporting biocrude and processing it into gasoline. Available biomass production areas were identified and potential production was estimated. Production areas with the potential to supply conversion plants were then matched with transportation paths and refinery locations to minimize transportation costs. Technical requirements for treating biocrude were examined, based on its expected chemical composition and physical properties, and compared to existing refinery equipment and capacity. Environmental constraints were taken into account at each step. Although biomass-derived oils could be transported to refineries the existing refinery equipment is not optimal for upgrading these oils to a gasoline-grade product. Furthermore, existing hydrogen production capacity is grossly inadequate for upgrading substantial volumes of biocrude. Partial or total upgrading at conversion facilities or regional upgrading facilities is discussed briefly, but in-depth evaluation of such options is beyond the scope of this study. 82 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs.

  10. Supporting Information Copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    of tetra(n- butyl)ammonium bromide (TBAB), zinc(II) chloride, zinc(II) bromide, zinc(II) iodide, zinc(II) triflate, tin(II) triflate, lithium bromide, tetrakis(acetonitrile)copper(I) hexafluorophosphate

  11. An elusive species with many different traits.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giesen, Thomas

    the astronomer, where he lectured with much applause in the lecture-room, How soon, unaccountable, I became tired-Pase detection of HSOH: Synthesis by Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of ditert-butyl-sulfoxide and rotational- torsional

  12. Exchange Reactions Between a Molten Salt and a Solution of Tri...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Exchange Reactions Between a Molten Salt and a Solution of Tri-Butyl Phosphate in a Liquid Silicone; REACTIONS D'ECHANGE ENTRE UN SEL FONDU ET UNE SOLUTION DE...

  13. The production and persistence of Sigma RONO2 in the Mexico City plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    3 CHONO 2 CH 2 CH 3 ) to butane, an indicator of time sincethe ratio of 2-butyl nitrate to butane, panel (c) shows thefrom the 2-butylnitrate/butane ratio and panel (d) shows the

  14. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    butyl ether). Blends up to 15.0 percent by volume MTBE which must meet the ASTM D4814 specifications. Blenders must take precautions that the blends are not used as base...

  15. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    butyl ether). Blends up to 15.0 percent by volume MTBE which must meet the ASTM D4814 specifications. Blenders must take precautions that the blends are not used as base...

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Iminosugars as Potential Male Contraceptive Agents; and the Chemistry of 2,3-Dihydropyridin-4-(1H)-ones and Related Enaminones in Multicomponent Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Xingxian

    2010-04-26

    The iminosugar N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (nB-DNJ) has reversible, nonhormonal contraceptive effects on C57B/L6 mice at micromolar concentrations. In order to increase the potency and bioavailability of this lead compound, ...

  17. Gold(I)-Mediated Nucleophilic Additions to Allenes: from Enantioselective Catalysis to Supramolecular Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhan

    2012-01-01

    the N-X bond in hydroxyl-amine and hydrazine nucleophilesHydroamination with hydroxyl amine substrates: Tert-butyl 4-hydroxyl nitriles, hydroxyphosphates, azido alcohols and amines

  18. www.afm-journal.de 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim3554

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Limin

    , lithium-ion batteries, gas sensors, surface coatings, etc.[5,6] Theoretical calculations indicate (TTIP) using acetic acid (HAc) as the solvent and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium

  19. Synthesis, Polymerization, and Analysis of Triazole Macroplasticizers as Phthalate Mimics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Elliot Michael

    2015-01-01

    21 2.3. Copolymerizations with Styrene and n-Butyl2.1. 1 H- NMR of styrene derivative 2.3…………………………………. ………..29 Figure 2.3. 1 H-NMR of styrene – styrenic triazole 2.3

  20. Modulators of Toll-like Receptors-4 and -2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Wenyan

    2009-08-31

    ?OEt2 – boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BnBr – benzyl bromide br - broad Boc – di-tert-butyl carbonate BPI – bactericidal permeability increasing protein CH3CN – acetonitrile C15H31COCl – palmitoyl chloride CTL – cytotoxic T lymphocyte DAB...

  1. Synthesis and investigation of hexacarboxamide cryptands as anionic binucleating ligands by Glen E. Alliger.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alliger, Glen E. (Glen Edward)

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the use of hexacarboxamide cryptands as sextuply anionic binucleating ligands. Two homobimetallic complexes of a t-butyl-substituted cryptand, featuring manganese(II) ion and cobalt(II) ions, have been ...

  2. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric budget of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    global atmospheric budget of ethanol V. Naik 1,2,* , A. M.nitrate formation from ethanol-fueled ve- hicular emissions,A. : Ambient concentrations of ethanol and methyl tert-butyl

  3. Phase Selectively Soluble Polystyrene-Supported Organocatalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khamatnurova, Tatyana

    2014-08-10

    Alkane phase selectively soluble poly(4-alkylstyrene) supports have been developed. 4-Methyl-, 4-tert-butyl, 4-dodecyl-, and 4-octadecylstyrene were copolymerized with 5-10 mol % of 4-chloromethylstyrene to afford co- and ...

  4. Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Crouse, David J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mailen, James C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear fuel processing solution consisting of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane, with a complex of uranium, plutonium, or zirconium and with a solvent degradation product such as di-n-butyl phosphate therein, is contacted with an aqueous solution of a salt formed from hydrazine and either a dicarboxylic acid or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, thereby removing the aforesaid complex from the processing solution.

  5. Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, O.K.; Crouse, D.J.; Mailen, J.C.

    1980-12-17

    Nuclear fuel processing solution consisting of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane, with a complex of uranium, plutonium, or zirconium and with a solvent degradation product such as di-n-butyl phosphate therein, is contacted with an aqueous solution of a salt formed from hydrazine and either a dicarboxylic acid or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, thereby removing the aforesaid complex from the processing solution.

  6. Heats of vaporization of room temperature ionic liquids by tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; To, Albert; Koh, Christine; Strasser, Daniel; Kostko, Oleg; Leone, Stephen R.

    2009-11-25

    The heats of vaporization of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide, N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide are determined using a heated effusive vapor source in conjunction with single photon ionization by a tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron source. The relative gas phase ionic liquid vapor densities in the effusive beam are monitored by clearly distinguished dissociative photoionization processes via a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at a tunable vacuum ultraviolet beamline 9.0.2.3 (Chemical Dynamics Beamline) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility. Resulting in relatively few assumptions, through the analysis of both parent cations and fragment cations, the heat of vaporization of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide is determined to be Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 195+-19 kJ mol-1. The observed heats of vaporization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 174+-12 kJ mol-1) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 171+-12 kJ mol-1) are consistent with reported experimental values using electron impact ionization. The tunable vacuum ultraviolet source has enabled accurate measurement of photoion appearance energies. These appearance energies are in good agreement with MP2 calculations for dissociative photoionization of the ion pair. These experimental heats of vaporization, photoion appearance energies, and ab initio calculations corroborate vaporization of these RTILs as intact cation-anion ion pairs.

  7. 10 C.F.R. PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION, Subpart...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to a standard (e.g., primary, secondary, or tertiary) or conventionally true value. Contamination area means any area where contamination levels are greater than the values...

  8. Late-Onset Group B Streptococcal Infection in Identical Twins: Insight to Disease Pathogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizet, Victor

    by helicopter to our tertiary care center. Vital signs were: weight 3.7 kg, heart rate 212 beats/min, blood

  9. 'One day, it could be my child who needs it': Exploring Reasons for Breast Milk Donation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tait, Aiden E

    2013-01-01

    a public tertiary hospital in Brazil. Clinics (Sao Paulo).the City of Săo Paulo, Brazil. 127. Rea MF. Reflexőes sobrebased cohorts in Souther Brazil: trends and differentials.

  10. Operator Splitting for Compressible Miscible Displacement in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Jr., Jim

    , relevant for tertiary recovery in petroleum reservoirs, have been related to incompressible ow problems. The numerical approximation of incom- pressible miscible displacement has been carefully investigated

  11. Evidence for Large-Scale Laramide Tectonic Inversion and a Mid...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laramide Tectonic Inversion and a Mid-Tertiary Caldera Ring Fracture Zone at the Lightning Dock Geothermal System, New Mexico Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  12. Trop, J.M., Ridgway, K.D., and Spell, T.L., 2003, Sedimentary record of transpressional tectonics and ridge subduction in the Tertiary Matanuska ValleyTalkeetna Mountains forearc basin, southern Alaska, in Sisson, V.B., Roeske, S.M., and Pavlis, T.L., eds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Society of America Special Paper 371, p. 89­118. ©2003 Geological Society of America Geological Society of America Special Paper 371 2003 Sedimentary record of transpressional tectonics and ridge subduction into basin-axis deposits characterized by thick sections of carbonaceous mudstone and coal, and minor chan

  13. Accommodation of a highly symmetric core within a symmetric protein superfold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaber, Michael

    threefold symmetry present in the tertiary structure of the protein fold (the -trefoil superfold factor; de novo design; superfold; protein evolution; -trefoil The protein-folding problem is one tertiary structures can be categorized into 1 of 10 fundamental protein folds (Orengo et al. 1994; Thornton

  14. Structure of acetylcholinesterase complexed with (3)-galanthamine at 2.3 A resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Joel L.

    ). The tertiary amine group of GAL does not interact closely with Trp-84; rather, the double bond of its cyclohexene ring stacks against the indole ring. The tertiary amine appears to make a non-conventional hydrogen bond, via its N-methyl group, to Asp-72, near the top of the gorge. The hydroxyl group

  15. Polyplexes Assembled with Internally Quaternized PAMAM-OH Dendrimer and Plasmid DNA Have a Neutral Surface and Gene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Sang

    Received September 11, 2003 Interior tertiary amine groups of PAMAM-OH dendrimers (hydroxyl to PAMAM except that surface amine functions have been replaced by hydroxyl groups. Absence of surface-dependent, producing internally quaternized PAMAM-OH (QPAMAM-OH), thereby making tertiary amine/quaternary amine ratio

  16. Synthesis and characterization of poly (amino ester) for slow biodegradable gene delivery vector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Sang

    tertiary amine-linkage and abundant surface hydroxyl groups that enable good 0968-0896/$ - see front matter to include inner tertiary amines and outer primary amines. Self-assembly with DNA resulted in the production of serum. The polymers showed a relatively slow degradability for an amine-containing ester polymer

  17. Chapter 5 -Sediment, Nutrient, and Vegetation Trends Along the Tidal, Forested Pocomoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 5 - Sediment, Nutrient, and Vegetation Trends Along the Tidal, Forested Pocomoke River-tidal upstream sites. Floodplain sediments in the past W.H. Conner, T.W. Doyle, and K.W. Krauss (eds.), Ecology]). These sediments overlie hundreds of meters of Tertiary (2-65 mybp) greensands and clay- silt. The Tertiary

  18. Scientific Prospectus Site: WP-1B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    drift 4. Determine Tertiary climate record 5. Determine the history of Tertiary aeolian transport 6 Department of Earth Sciences Dalhousie University Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 Canada Internet: matts University of Tokyo Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 113-0032 Japan Internet: mshino@eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp Work: (81

  19. FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PS FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  20. COAL RESOURCES, POWDER RIVER BASIN By M.S. Ellis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PN COAL RESOURCES, POWDER RIVER BASIN By M.S. Ellis,1 G.L. Gunther,2 A.M. Ochs,2 S, Delaware 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

  1. ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PA ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  2. DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PD DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  3. COAL RESOURCES OF THE HANNA AND CARBON By M.S. Ellis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter HN COAL RESOURCES OF THE HANNA AND CARBON BASINS By M.S. Ellis,1 G.L. Gunther,2 A.M. Ochs,2, Delaware 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

  4. FORT UNION COAL IN THE GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, EAST FLANK OF THE ROCK SPRINGS UPLIFT,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter GS FORT UNION COAL IN THE GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, EAST FLANK OF THE ROCK SPRINGS UPLIFT 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

  5. SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  6. Hydrocracking phenanthrene and 1-methyl naphthalene: Development of linear free energy relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landau, R.N.; Korre, S.C.; Neurock, M.; Klein, M.T. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Quann, R.J. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The catalytic hydrocracking reaction pathways, kinetics and mechanisms of 1-methyl naphthalene and phenanthrene were investigated in experiments at 350 C and 68.1 atm H{sub 2} partial pressure (190.6 atm total pressure), using a presulfided Ni/W on USY zeolite catalyst. 1-methyl naphthalene hydrocracking led to 2-methyl naphthalene, methyl tetralins, methyl decalins, pentyl benzene and tetralin. Phenanthrene hydrocracking led to dihydro, tetrahydro and octahydro phenanthrene, butyl naphthalene, tetralin to butyl tetralin and dibutyl benzene. The rate constants for the dealkylation of butyl tetralins produced in the phenanthrene hydrocracking network conform to a linear free energy relationship (LFER), with the heat of formation of the leaving alkyl carbenium ion as the reactivity index.

  7. Soluble, High Molecular Weight Polysilsesquioxanes with Carboxylate Functionalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAHIMIAN,KAMYAR; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; WHEELER,DAVID R.

    2000-07-14

    Trialkoxysilyl-containing monomers of the type (RO){sub 3}Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}C(O)OtBu (R = Me, Et) were prepared by hydrosilation of the corresponding vinylic tert-butyl esters CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 2}C(O)OtBu. Acid- or base-catalyzed polymerization of the monomers leads to very high molecular weight polymers with relatively narrow polydispersities. The polymerization results in complete condensation of the alkoxy groups while the tert-butyl ester functionality remains fully intact. Partial or full deprotection of the tert-butyl group can easily be achieved to yield the corresponding carboxylic acid polymers. The ester and carboxylic acid functionalities of these new materials allow for their potential use in a variety of applications such as scavenging of heavy metals.

  8. Synthesis of Gradient Copolymers with a Controlled Composition Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    ·] = Radical Concentration t = time #12;Styrene/n-Butyl Acrylate System · Copolymerization at: ­ 8 Hour : 50 (Polymer Handbook, 4th edition.) Styrene n-Butyl Acrylate #12;SnBA- Random Copolymers · FitBA Kinetics 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 nBA Styrene Ai mole fraction Styrene 2 2221 2

  9. The relative reactivity of formic esters with aromatic amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markley, Max C.

    1922-01-01

    at 100° are as follows- Ester used Percent yield Methyl formate ' 3% Ethyl M 81 Propyl " 92 Butyl " 80 Sec,octyl n 10 ( 15 ) PROPYL P OREATE W ITH SEVERAL A MINES The next move was to secure data on the relative reactivity of the amines... at 100° are as follows- Ester used Percent yield Methyl formate ' 3% Ethyl M 81 Propyl " 92 Butyl " 80 Sec,octyl n 10 ( 15 ) PROPYL P OREATE W ITH SEVERAL A MINES The next move was to secure data on the relative reactivity of the amines...

  10. EVALUATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR EFFECTIVE PERMEATION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29

    A research and development task was undertaken to determine the permeabilities of hydrogen and dry air through different polymeric glove materials that are used to maintain the integrity of glovebox secondary containment. Fifteen different glove samples were obtained from four different manufacturers and samples cut from these gloves were tested. The gloves included baseline butyl rubber, Viton{reg_sign}, Dupont{reg_sign} Hypalon{reg_sign}, polyurethane, as well as composite gloves. The testing indicated that all of the vendor's butyl rubber gloves and the Jung Viton{reg_sign} gloves performed comparably in both gases.

  11. This article was originally published in a journal published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jianbo

    . Nucleophilic addition of carbon anion to a carbonyl group is normally exothermic. This is attributed- bene and allyl sulfides, a series of tertiary sulfides 1a­j was prepared.2 Oxidation of the sulfides 1a

  12. Case study of the conglomerate bankruptcy scandal in Taiwan (The Rebar Group)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiu, Tai-Hui

    2015-01-01

    In Taiwan, big companies are basically family-owned enterprises. They begin with a primary industry or a secondary manufacturing industry, and then reach out to a tertiary sector, providing services in various industries. ...

  13. SALIENCE OVER SUSTAINABILITY: PRESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL RHETORIC FROM FDR TO BARACK OBAMA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bricker, Brett Jacob

    2010-12-03

    national security and economic frames as a way to note the primary benefits of his policies. His rhetorical strategies placed environmentalism as a tertiary concern to economics and national security, and avoided frank discussions about global warming...

  14. What Can I Trust? Identifying Trustworthy Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    a primary, secondary and tertiary source. · Differentiate between scholarly and popular resources engines for health-related inquiries. #12;Resources Primary Sources Multimedia Group Websites Government- related information on the Internet. · Web evaluation criteria: ­ Authority: The source of the information

  15. Ben LePage, Ph.D. PECO Energy Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles, Donald

    -specific biochemical preservation revealed by comparative pyrolysis analysis of Tertiary Metasequoia fossil.A. LePage & S.P. Werts. 2004. Methanogenesis in Eocene Arctic soils inferred from 13 C of tree fossil

  16. Interactive visualization for geoscience education: Java-based instructional tools for introductory geology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nevorotina, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Two web-based interactive visualization tools were developed to support problem-based learning in tertiary introductory geoscience classes. The presented tools were designed using the Java[TM] programming language, following guidelines for good...

  17. Threefold Word of God in the theology of Karl Barth: the presence of Christ, its ecclesiological dimension, its revision, and ongoing significance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Currie, Thomas Christian

    2013-11-26

    This thesis explores and examines the concept of the threefold Word of God in the theology of Karl Barth, particularly the third form of the Word of God, the gospel proclamation, and argues that this tertiary form of the ...

  18. OxfordCentreforTectonicandMetallogenicStudies For details concerning OCTAMS initiatives, or undergraduate/postgraduate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    STRATIGRAPHY (Stephen Hesselbo) · GRAVITY MODELLING, BACK STRIPPING AND BASIN EVOLUTION (Tony Watts) · ORE DEPOSITS AND THEIR TECTONIC SETTING (Laurence Robb, Andrew Mitchell) · SEISMIC WAVE PROPAGATION to the Oman Mountains emphasizing type sections of exposed Mesozoic­ Tertiary rocks, stratigraphy, structural

  19. Geochemistry And Geothermometry Of Spring Water From The Blackfoot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    high-angle normal faults of Tertiary to Holocene age appear to be the dominant structural control of spring activity. Surface spring-water temperatures average 14C except for a...

  20. Some suggestions for adapting group and pair work techniques in teaching English as a second language in Tanzania 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igwilla, Juma C.

    1989-01-01

    English is regarded as a second language in Tanzania for it is the major language of law, government, education, business and industry. It is important that it is a compulsory subject in the curriculum - from primary to tertiary education level...

  1. Inversion of field-scale partitioning tracer response for characterizing oil saturation distribution: a streamline approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliassov, Pavel Alexandrovich

    2000-01-01

    Identifying distribution of remaining oil in the reservoir is vital for evaluation of existing waterflood, design of tertiary recovery projects, and location of infill drilling candidates. In recent years, partitioning interwell tracer tests (PITT...

  2. OECD FACTBOOK 2008 ISBN 978-92-64-04054-0 OECD 2008198 EDUCATION EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mascardi, Viviana

    for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics: Concepts, Standards, Definitions and Classifications, OECDOECD FACTBOOK 2008 ­ ISBN 978-92-64-04054-0 ­ © OECD 2008198 EDUCATION · EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION EDUCATIONExpenditure on education EXPENDITURE ON TERTIARY EDUCATION Policy makers must balance the importance

  3. Pediatric Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease is Revered with Six Months of Intravenous Fish Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calkins, Kara

    2013-01-01

    3. Secondary and tertiary outcomes for the fish oil (FO)and soybean oil (SO) group. Results are either as medianserror of the mean for the fish oil (FO) and soybean oil (SO)

  4. Water Tower - 14 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Previous studies using tertiary amines to extract water from reagent-grade carboxylate salts (calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate) have shown selectivity for water and not for the carboxylate salts. These results ...

  5. Evolving nature of the AP2 a-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, Harvey

    complement of fusion molecules, calcium sensors and pumps, and it must do this after each exocytic event the core. However, for entropic and statistical reasons, unfolded domains with no tertiary structure tend

  6. Modeling Tidal Freshwater Marsh Sustainability in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta Under a Broad Suite of Potential Future Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, Kathleen M.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2015-01-01

    energy zones because of their higher inorganic sediment supply.supply (25 suites of 18 model scenarios each), we could not clearly define a single tertiary The high- and low-energy

  7. Differing Pattern of the Development of Mother–Infant Interactions in Cynomolgus Monkeys Due to Exposure of an Environmental Chemical, Bisphenol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    mediating effects of Bisphenol A at levels of human111(4), 395-401. Aou, S. (2004). Bisphenol A and behaviouralU.S. population to Bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-Octylphenol:

  8. Scientific contestations over "toxic trespass"ť: health and regulatory implications of chemical biomonitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamasunder, Bhavna; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    U.S. popula- tion to bisphenol a and 4-tertiary-octylphenol:Vińas R, Watson CS (2013) Bisphenol S disrupts estradiol-the making and unmaking of bisphenol a ‘safety’. Am J Publ

  9. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zota, Ami R; Aschengrau, Ann; Rudel, Ruthann A; Brody, Julia

    2010-01-01

    U.S. population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol:Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol in aEndocrine- disrupting potential of bisphenol A, bisphenol A

  10. A Model of Accessibility Services Provision for Students with Disabilities in Higher Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    23 A Model of Accessibility Services Provision for Students with Disabilities in Higher Education, Accessibility Service, Universal Learning Design, Tertiary Education, Assistive Technologies, Accessibility, Educational Facilities Abstract The number of universities offering services for students with disabilities

  11. Hands as characters: designing for a large scale pipeline using limited characteristics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Franklin S., IV

    2007-09-17

    This thesis concentrates on hands and their production as concerns a larger-scale pipeline with multiple secondary or tertiary characters. It establishes a platform from which many unique hands can be produced from a single, rigged hand. Emphasis...

  12. Deformation, erosion and sedimentation in collisional orogens : case studies from eastern Tibet and southwestern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Studnicki-Gizbert, Christopher Terrance

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation addresses aspects of the tectonics of regions adjacent to the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The first chapter describes the Tertiary Gonjo basin, includes structural and sedimentologic observations, and ...

  13. Curriculum Vitae Tonya Ann Penkrot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Kenneth D.

    Interests Functional morphology, paleoecology, and systematics of early Tertiary mammals Particular interest in functional morphology and paleoecology of the "Condylarthra" Research Experience and Fieldwork 1998 paleoecology, "Reevaluating the paleoecologies of the Eocene Microchiroptera". 2001- Continuing project with K

  14. A Meta-analysis of Mercury Levels in Lavaca Bay Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillado, Maria C.

    2014-05-07

    meta-analysis to determine if the mercury levels in secondary and tertiary trophic levels have changed between years 1992 and 2012, and if the levels in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica) have decreased over time...

  15. Investigations into Aryne chemistry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cant, Alastair Alexander

    2012-06-22

    The first project in this thesis describes our research reacting arynes with tertiary allyl amines to generate functionalised anilines via a benzyne induced aza-Claisen reaction. This process works in good to excellent ...

  16. HYDROCARBON CONSTITUENTS OF ICELAND LEAF FOSSIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; Calvin, Melvin.

    2008-01-01

    Survey for supplies of Iceland Leaf Fossils. part by Theof the Tertiary History of Iceland, North Atl anti c Bi otaFigure 1 A small slab of Iceland leaf fossil. 20cm long and

  17. Model Based Building Chilled Water Loop Delta-T Fault Diagnosis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, L.; Watt, J.; Zhao, J.

    2012-01-01

    -thirds of design at low loads (Taylor, 2002) due to various causes, such as air entering and leaving temperatures, chilled water supply temperature, type and effectiveness of flow control valves, tertiary connection configuration types and operation, coil cooling...

  18. Timing and Tectonic implications of basin inversion in the Nam Con Son Basin and adjacent areas, southern South China Sea 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Christopher Charles

    2001-01-01

    The Nam Con Son (NCS) Basin, located offshore of SE Vietnam, is one of several Tertiary rift basins that formed during initial Eocene(?)-Oligocene rifting. Following cessation of rifting at the end of Oligocene time, these basins were subjected...

  19. BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY GEOLOGY STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seamons, Kent E.

    #12;BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY GEOLOGY STUDIES Volume 33, Part 1 CONTENTS Tertiary Geologic History Geology of the Deadman Canyon 7112-Minute Quadrangle, Carbon County, Utah, Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .James Douglas Smith 135 Geology

  20. Structural Geology of a Central Segment of the Qilian Shan-Nan Shan Thrust Belt: Implications for the Magnitude of Cenozoic Shortening in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reith, Robin

    2013-01-01

    2011. Detrital zircon geochronology of pre-Tertiary strata2003a. Detrital-zircon geochronology of the northeasternC.Y. , 2007. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of the zircons from

  1. Study of CO2 Mobility Control Using Cross-linked Gel Conformance Control and CO2 Viscosifiers in Heterogeneous Media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Shuzong

    2011-10-21

    CO2 has been widely used as a displacement fluid in both immiscible and miscible displacement processes to obtain tertiary recovery from the field. There are several problems associated with the application of CO2 flooding, especially when...

  2. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brizard, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    model lies with the simple wave energy conservation law itthe recirculation of wave energy introduces interference e?particles, the tertiary-wave energy may be negative and thus

  3. The Local Data Support Landscape in the UK 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Stuart; Martinez-Uribe, Luis

    2005-01-01

    This paper will report on existing data support infrastructures within the UK tertiary education community. The paper will then discuss early methods and traditions of data collection within UK territories. In addition it ...

  4. Simultaneous optimization and heat integration for the co-production of diesel substitutes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    consumption of the resulting process. The production of glycerol ethers increases the yield of diesel1 Simultaneous optimization and heat integration for the co-production of diesel substitutes the integration of the etherification of glycerol for the production of tert butyl glycerol with the production

  5. Auto Template Assembly of CaCO3-Chitosan Hybrid Nanoboxes and Nanoframes in Ionic Liquid Medium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hsingming Anna

    2012-07-16

    . The purpose of this thesis is to describe a method for forming hollow inorganic-organic hybrid nanoboxes and nanoframes. This approach relies upon ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride) mediated auto-templating assembly of CaCO3 and chitosan...

  6. New mechanism-based anticancer drugs that act as orphan nuclear receptor agonists 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar Reddy

    2007-09-17

    1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes containing ptrifluoromethyl (DIM-C-pPhCF3), p-t-butyl (DIM-C-pPhtBu), and phenyl (DIM-CpPhC6H5) substituents have been identified as a new class of peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor Ă...

  7. he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert- butyl, the September 15, 1999, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (1) states that between 5 with large releases (e.g., LUFTs). Unprecedented growth in use Use of MTBE as a gasoline additive began

  8. SUPPORTING INFORMATION Comparison of non-precious metal cathode materials for methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ® membranes were pre- treated by boiling them successively for 1 h each in a 4% H2O2 in de-ionized water, 1 M, MO, USA) in the highest available purity. Additional Details of Reactor Materials Preparation. Nafion H2SO4, and again in de-ionized water. Butyl rubber stoppers were used to prevent loss of gas from

  9. Toward the Complete Characterization of Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter: Derivatization and Two-Dimensional Comprehensive Gas Chromatography/Time of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    for this project was provided by the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the National Science Foundation, air quality, and health. However, the polar oxygenated fraction (PO-OPM), which includes a significant systems were used in this study: BF3/butanol for the butylation of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and acidic

  10. Rev. Date: June 6, 2013 1 Particularly Hazardous Substances Class SOP Chemical Class Standard Operating Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    -Butadiene diepoxide 2. Synthesis of di-hydroxyl di-nitrate from 1,3-butadiene diepoxide. Chemical(s) Use(s) Isoprene 1. Making 5 ppm isoprene gas mixture in N2 1,3. Used as an NMR solvent pyrromethene 597 (2,6-di-tert- butyl-8-nonyl-1,3

  11. Appendix: Bibliography of Technical Reports of the National Cancer Institute/ National Toxicology Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gold, Lois Swirsky

    95 108 1978 1,3-Butadiene 288 1984 1,3-Butadiene 434 1993 2-Butoxyethanol 484 2000 tert-Butyl alcohol(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol 452 1996 Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) ether 191 1979 #12;--2-- Bis(2-chloro-1

  12. Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX-ethanol mixtures in aquifer columns amended with sulfate, chelated ferric iron or nitrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    -mail: alvarez@rice.edu) Key words: anaerobic biostimulation, bioremediation, BTEX, ethanol, natural attenuation and ground water contamination by methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have made policy makers more cognizant approaches. BTEX bioremediation efforts often rely on the addition of oxygen and nutrients to stimulate

  13. A new process using a strain of Clostridium bacteria can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    A new process using a strain of Clostridium bacteria can successfully convert biomass into butyl pipelines, facilitating transport and storage. Clostridium bacteria On the production side biobutanol has several disadvantages. It can be produced by fermentation using Clostridium bacteria, but this process

  14. Iodine Doped P3AT Structure 5.1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winokur, Michael

    samples. The study of various intercalated structures by x­ray diffraction of polymer systems has a number doped P3AT films, the Osaka group has investigated a number of different dopants (NF \\Gamma 4 , BF \\Gamma 4 , AsF \\Gamma 6 , p­TS and Iodine) in P3ATs with side chain lengths ranging from butyl

  15. Performance Optimization of Metallic Iron and Iron Oxide Nanomaterials for Treatment of Impaired Water Supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yang

    2011-01-01

    a 0.2 µm syringe filter (PTFE) and added to 40 µL 5 M HCl tosyringe, passed through a 0.2 µm PTFE filter and analyzed asthen crimp-sealed with a PTFE-lined butyl rubber septa. By

  16. Published: December 10, 2010 r 2010 American Chemical Society 933 dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja108205q |J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 933940

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Limin

    : Additive-Free Synthesis, Remarkable Crystalline-Phase Stability, and Improved Lithium Insertion Behavior in the tetrabutyl titanate-acetic acid system without any additives under solvothermal conditions. A complex, and entrapment of in situ produced butyl acetate as a porogen was put forward for the formation of the anatase

  17. Office of Environmental Health and Safety Page 1 of 3 Chemical Storage Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Hue Sun

    Glacial acetic acid On shelf in secondary containment, separate from other groups. Odourous volatile and Safety Page 3 of 3 Chemical Storage Guidelines Version 1.4, January 2014 Air Reactives F T-butyl lithium Lithium aluminum hydride Store in inert atmosphere away from all other groups. Follow supplier

  18. BF3-Mediated Addition of Lithium Phenylacetylide to an Imine: Correlations of Structures and Reactivities. BF3,R3N Derivatives as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    BF3-Mediated Addition of Lithium Phenylacetylide to an Imine: Correlations of Structures of lithium phenylacetylide (PhCCLi) to the N-(n-butyl)imine of cyclohexane carboxaldehyde were investigated of acetals,16 epoxides,17-22 and unstrained cyclic ethers.23,24 BF3 has been used in conjunction

  19. J.Org. Chem. 1991,56,4435-4439 4435 themally equilibrated reaction solutioncontained in the cwette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    constant with potasaium chloride (I = 1.0M), had their pHs adjusted with HC1and sodium acetate (1X l0-l, W. E.J. Chem. Educ. 1966,42,96. On the Structure and Reactivity of Lithium Diisopropylamide (LDA-1301 Received January 9, 1991 Enolizations of ketones, tert-butyl esters, and carboxamidesby solventfree lithium

  20. Bibliography of Soft X-ray Microscopy (UPDATE of supplemental material for Polymer invited review) A.P. Hitchcock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    (-caprolacatam) PAR polyacrylate PBMA poly-n-butyl-methacrylate PPrS poly-bromo-styrene PC polycarbonate PET poly + ethylenediamine + MDI) RBC poly[(styrene-r-isoprene)-b-(styrene-r-isoprene)], (S/I)-b-(S/I), copolymer; = 75/25; = 50/50 (wt %) S/I block compositions SEBS poly(styrene-b-ethylene butylene-b-styrene) TDI toluene di

  1. -1 -Supporting information belonging to the paper entitled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofstad, Remco van der

    ) and simulated (bottom) MALDI-ToF-MS spectrum of: Figure S3. Copolymer of styrene/methyl acrylate. 12 Figure S4. Copolymer of styrene/ethyl acrylate. 12 Figure S5. Copolymer of styrene/butyl acrylate. 13 Figure S6. Copolymer of styrene/methyl methacrylate. 13 Figure S7. Copolymer of styrene/ethyl methacrylate. 14 Figure S

  2. Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co of groundwater with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is often accompanied by many aromatic, a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter for groundwater treatment inoculated with a microbial consortium

  3. Mechanisms of growth inhibition induced by methylene-substituted and ring-substituted dims in breast cancer cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderlaag, Kathryn Elisabeth

    2009-05-15

    -MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cell growth was inhibited after treatment with a novel series of methylenesubstituted DIMs (C-DIMs), namely 1,1-bis(3’-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl) methanes containing trifluoromethyl (DIM-C-pPhCF3), t-butyl (DIM...

  4. Synthesis of molybdenum olefin metatheses catalysts through protonation reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, Amritanshu

    2006-01-01

    The attempted syntheses of molybdenum imido alkylidene complexes of the type Mo(NArc,)(CH-t-Bu)[Biphen] and Mo(N-2-CF3C6H4)(CHCMe2Ph)[Biphen] (Biphen2 = 3,3'-di-t-butyl-5,5',6,6'-tetramethyl- 1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diolate) ...

  5. Why Is the Partial Molar Volume of CO2 So Small When Dissolved in a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid? Structure and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berne, Bruce J.

    , Iowa 52242 Received August 4, 2005; E-mail: berne@chem.columbia.edu Abstract: When supercritical CO2 volumetric behavior experimentally observed when supercritical CO2 is dissolved in 1-butyl-3 phase.8 Supercritical CO2 is particularly ap- pealing as an extraction solvent because it is clean

  6. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

  7. An Examination of the Thermodynamics of Fusion, Vaporization, and Sublimation of Several Parabens by Correlation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    on their thermochemical properties. A number of studies have reported measurements of their phase change enthalpies.com). DOI 10.1002/jps.22423 ABSTRACT: The vaporization, fusion, and sublimation enthalpies of methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl paraben are reported and compared with literature values. The vaporization enthalpies

  8. Heterogeneous Catalysis DOI: 10.1002/anie.200503898

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    , as in the reactions of isobutane on sulfated zirconia[14] and tert-butyl alcohol[5,7,8] on acidic ZSM5, MOR, BEA of Chemical Engineering University of California at Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA) Fax: (+1)510-642-4778 E

  9. Interfacial properties of elastomer blends as studied by neutron reectivity Yimin Zhanga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the compatibility and interfacial characteristics. We also studied the effect of styrene butadiene random copolymers on the miscibility of the PB/ BIMS blends. The results showed that styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) was not fully structure of the polymer or mixtures of polymers in each layer, e.g. butyl rubber, styrene-butadiene rubber

  10. Cycads from the Triassic of Antarctica: Permineralized Cycad Leaves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermsen, Elizabeth; Taylor, Thomas N.; Taylor, Edith L.; Stevenson, Dennis W.

    2007-09-01

    pinnate leaves with cuticle from the Cretaceous (Santonian) of Sakhalin Island, Russia, have been assigned to Cycas sp. (Krassilov 1978) and cuticle from New Zealand has been assigned to Macrozamia sp. (Pole and Douglas 1999). The record of Tertiary leaves... pinnate leaves with cuticle from the Cretaceous (Santonian) of Sakhalin Island, Russia, have been assigned to Cycas sp. (Krassilov 1978) and cuticle from New Zealand has been assigned to Macrozamia sp. (Pole and Douglas 1999). The record of Tertiary leaves...

  11. Surfactant-Polymer Interaction for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2002-01-07

    The goal of this research was to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, oil solubility in the displacing fluid and mobility control. Surfactant-polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation and viscous/heterogeneity fingering.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2013-01-24

    A task was undertaken to characterize glovebox gloves that are currently used in the facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as some experimental and advanced compound gloves that have been proposed for use. Gloves from four manufacturers were tested for permeation in hydrogen and air, thermal stability, tensile properties, puncture resistance and dynamic mechanical response. The gloves were compared to each other within the type and also to the butyl rubber glove that is widely used at the SRS. The permeation testing demonstrated that the butyl compounds from three of the vendors behaved similarly and exhibited hydrogen permeabilities of .52‐.84 x10{sup ‐7} cc H{sub 2}*cm / (cm{sup 2}*atm). The Viton? glove performed at the lower edge of this bound, while the more advanced composite gloves exhibited permeabilities greater than a factor of two compared to butyl. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the amount of material lost under slightly aggressive conditions. Glove losses are important since they can affect the life of glovebox stripper systems. During testing at 90, 120, and 150?C, the samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The ranking from worst to best was Jung butyl‐Hypalon? with 12.9 %, Piercan Hypalon? with 11.4 %, and Jung butyl‐Viton? with 5.2% mass loss all at approximately 140?C. The smallest mass losses were experienced by the Jung Viton? and the Piercan polyurethane. Tensile properties were measured using a standard dog bone style test. The butyl rubber exhibited tensile strengths of 11‐15 MPa and elongations or 660‐843%. Gloves made from other compounds exhibited lower tensile strengths (5 MPa Viton) to much higher tensile strengths (49 MPa Urethane) with a comparable range of elongation. The puncture resistance of the gloves was measured in agreement with an ASTM standard. The Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance from 183 ? 296 lbs/in for samples of 0.020 ? 0.038? thick. Finally, the glass transition temperature and the elastic and viscoelastic properties as a function of temperature up to maximum use temperature were determined for each glove material using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. The glass transition temperatures of the gloves were ‐60?C for butyl, ‐30?C for polyurethane, ‐ 16?C Hypalon?, ‐16?C for Viton?, and ‐24?C for polyurethane‐Hypalon?. The glass transition was too complex for the butyl‐Hypalon? and butyl‐Viton? composite gloves to be characterized by a single glass transition temperature. All of the glass transition temperatures exceed the vendor projected use temperatures.

  13. An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, K E

    2008-02-07

    This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

  14. Composition and method for encapsulating photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pern, Fu-Jann (Golden, CO)

    2000-01-01

    A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, tetrakis methylene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) methane, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, and 2,2'-ethylidene bis(4,6-di-t-butylphenyl) fluorophosponite. The composition is applied to a solar cell then cured. The cured product contains a minimal concentration of curing-generated chromophores and resists UV-induced degradation.

  15. Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G.; Borkowski, Marian; Laszak, Ivan; Dietz, Mark L.

    2012-07-01

    The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

  16. Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reutter, D.J.; Hardy, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope /sup 235/U//sup 238/U abundance is demonstrated.

  17. MEE 452: Example 3-2 ShellShell--andand--Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis:Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    MEE 452: Example 3-2 ShellShell--andand--Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis:Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis-butyl alcohol @150oF. Two-tube-pass for illustration only COUNTER FLOW T PARALLEL FLOW T Heat Exchanger/c,out or 16/Re otherwise Tube-side Pressure drop ... MathCAD S&T HX analysis 7 of 7 Tube-side Pressure drop

  18. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuqueruqe, NM); Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-10-24

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  19. Direct exfoliation of natural graphite into micrometer size few layers graphene sheets using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.; Fulvio, P. F.; Baker, G. A.; Veith, G. M.; Unocic, R. R.; Mahurin, S., M.; Chi, M.; Dai, S.

    2010-01-01

    Stable high-concentration suspensions (up to 0.95 mg mL{sup ?1}) of non-oxidized few layer graphene (FLG), five or less sheets, with micrometre-long edges were obtained via direct exfoliation of natural graphite flakes in ionic liquids, such as 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoro-methane-sulfonyl)imide ([Bmim]-[Tf{sub 2}N]), by tip ultrasonication.

  20. Method for the concentration and separation of actinides from biological and environmental samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1989-05-30

    A method and apparatus for the quantitative recover of actinide values from biological and environmental sample by passing appropriately prepared samples in a mineral acid solution through a separation column of a dialkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate on an inert substrate which selectively extracts the actinide values. The actinide values can be eluted either as a group or individually and their presence quantitatively detected by alpha counting. 3 figs.

  1. Synthetic Metals 162 (2012) 352355 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2012-01-01

    ,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol (HPhP)/3,6-Di(9-carbazolyl)-9-(2- ethylhexyl) carbazole (TCz1)/Ca degradation of electroluminescent structure [14,15]. It was also reported [15] that the use of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H- pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol (HPhP) (Fig. 1 (left)) as a hole-t

  2. Index of Subjects Abbreviations ix,203-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Christopher

    (acrylic acid) and Poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (nitrile rubber NBR) 2 Acrylonitrile-styrene-butadiene ABS 2-5, 41-2,76, 78,136,154,156, 203, 209-10, 224 Addition reaction 23-5, 33 modulus 57,70,92 Bulk polymerisation 31 Butadiene 5,167,169,217 Butane 11 Butene 219 Butyl acetate 181

  3. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 3829-3835 3829 between I3CCP/MAS spectra of amorphous starches and V-type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    -ethyl-, 2-n-propyl-, 2-isopropyl-, 2-tert-butyl-, 2-(methoxymethyl), 3,5-dimethyl-,3,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-,4-chloro-3,5-dimethyI-, 3,5-diethyl-, and 3,5-dimethoxyphenolates in solution in weakly polar-') are found for 2 dimer *tetramer: lithium 4-bromophenolate (THF), 4.4 f 0.5,24 & 2; 3,5-dimethylphenolate

  4. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29

    As part of the characterization of various glovebox glove material from four vendors, the permeability of gas through each type as a function of temperature was determined and a discontinuity in the permeability with temperature was revealed. A series of tests to determine the viscoelastic properties of the glove materials as a function of temperature using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was initiated. The glass transition temperature and the elastic and viscoelastic properties as a function of temperature up to maximum use temperature were determined for each glove material. The glass transition temperatures of the gloves were -60 C for butyl, -30 C for polyurethane, -16 C Hypalon{reg_sign}, - 16 C for Viton{reg_sign}, and -24 C for polyurethane-Hypalon{reg_sign}. The glass transition was too complex for the butyl-Hypalon{reg_sign} and butyl-Viton{reg_sign} composite gloves to be characterized by a single glass transition temperature. All of the glass transition temperatures exceed the vendor projected use temperatures.

  5. Ozone-forming potential of a series of oxygenated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Rudy, S.J.; Chang, Tai Y. )

    1991-03-01

    An incremental reactivity approach has been used to assess the relative ozone-forming potentials of various important oxygenated fuels/fuel additives, i.e., tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), in a variety of environments. Calculations were performed using a single-cell trajectory model, combined with the Lurmann-Carter-Coyner chemical mechanism, with (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratios ranging from 4 to 20. This work provides the first quantitative assessment of the air quality impact of release of these important oxygenated compounds. ETBE and DEE are the two most reactive compounds on a per carbon equivalent basis, while TBA is the least reactive species. At a (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratio of 8, which is generally typical of polluted urban areas in the United States, TBA, DME, MTBE, and ETBE all have incremental reactivities less than or equal to that of the urban NMHC mix. Thus, use of these additives in fuels may have a beneficial impact on urban ozone levels.

  6. Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poa, D.S.

    1984-02-16

    A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

  7. Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poa, David S. (Naperville, IL); Yao, Neng-Ping (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1985-01-01

    A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

  8. Bifunctional anion-exchange resins with improved selectivity and exchange kinetics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a class of anion exchange resins containing two different exchange sites with improved selectivity and sorptive capability for chemical species in solution, such as heptavalent technetium (as pertechnetate anion, TcO.sub.4.sup.-). The resins are prepared by first reacting haloalkylated crosslinked copolymer beads with a large tertiary amine in a solvent in which the resin beads can swell, followed by reaction with a second, smaller, tertiary amine to more fully complete the functionalization of the resin. The resins have enhanced selectivity, capacity, and exchange kinetics.

  9. Compact intermediates in RNA folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodson, S.A. (JHU)

    2011-12-14

    Large noncoding RNAs fold into their biologically functional structures via compact yet disordered intermediates, which couple the stable secondary structure of the RNA with the emerging tertiary fold. The specificity of the collapse transition, which coincides with the assembly of helical domains, depends on RNA sequence and counterions. It determines the specificity of the folding pathways and the magnitude of the free energy barriers to the ensuing search for the native conformation. By coupling helix assembly with nascent tertiary interactions, compact folding intermediates in RNA also play a crucial role in ligand binding and RNA-protein recognition.

  10. Reach Zones Try this experiment: Place one of your arms out in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , doc- ument stand, folders, staplers, books and other resources that you access regularly. The Tertiary, binders and office resources. Workplace Health and Wellness Monthly Issue Includes Cholesterol Reach Zones oil Olive oil contains antioxidants that can lower your "bad" (LDL) cholesterol but leave your "good

  11. Putting Teeth into Sustainability Mother Nature Bats Last

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sereno, Martin

    production) Cantarell currently supplies 2% of world oil Guzman, A.E. and B. Marquez-Dominguez (2001 Creaming Curve #12;Stages of production · Primary production (just produce) ­ initially, oil sprays out, Mexico) ­ pump natural gas (or CO2) down above oil (US) · Tertiary production (extreme measures

  12. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion, and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, a downhole steam generator is designed which provides for efficient counterflow cooling of the combustion chamber walls and preheating of the fuel and water. Pressure-responsive doors are provided for closing and opening the outlet in response to flameout, thereby preventing flooding of the combustion chamber. (DLC)

  13. Phosphine nickel complex as catalyst in reactions of organic bromides RBr with {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated ketones, nitriles, and esters. Conjugate addition of R group and H atom across the C=C bond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, S.A.; Lopatina, V.S.; Petrov, E.S.

    1995-09-10

    Reactions of organic bromides, particularly of secondary and tertiary alkyl bromides, with {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and acrylonitrile in the presence of the catalytic system nickel complex-zinc. The products correspond to the conjugate addition of the organic moiety of the bromide and a hydrogen atom across the C=C double bond of the unsaturated substrate. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  14. letters to nature 66 NATURE |VOL 411 |3 MAY 2001 |www.nature.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capone, Douglas G.

    Clay sequences from the Chinese Loess Plateau. Sci. China D. 40, 337±343 (1997). 7. Sun, D. H., An, Z Tertiary aeolian sequences in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Geophys. J. Int. 134, 207± 212 (1998). 8. Prell, W. S. Loess stratigraphy in central China. Paleogeogr. Paleoclimatol. Paleoecol. 72, 203± 225 (1989

  15. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Ancillary Services in the United

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reserve Secondary control reserve Tertiary control reserve Frequency responsive reserve Regulating in Ancillary Services Markets · Wind and solar · Demand response · Storage · Distributed generation #12;ThankNREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency

  16. J Cell Sci. Author manuscript The junctional SR protein JP-45 affects the functional expression of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the interaction between JP-45 and the I II loop. The functional­ effect of JP-45 on Cav1.1 activity was assessed ; metabolism ; Mice ; Muscle, Skeletal ; metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; RNA, Messenger; ; ; ). The pore-forming­ Leung et al., 1987 Birnbaumer et al., 1998 Catterall, 1995 Snutch and

  17. ENERGY GENERATION RESEARCH PIER Energy Generation Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dedicated energy supply resources. The pilot project will employ geothermal heat pump technology, using tertiary treated wastewater as a "heat sink" powered by existing solar photovoltaic cells (PV); develop vehicle charging stations powered by PV and wind. System Dynamics Model: In order to understand

  18. Birth Date: 23rd May, 1979 Citizenship: Australian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, Ali

    ) and bio­ chemistry. Scholarships Awarded University of Sydney Alumni, Council of Education, Farrand and St Paul's College Foundation Scholarships. 1991 ­ 1996 Sydney Grammar School, Australia Tertiary Entrance and contributed to report on Foreign Direct Investment for New Zealand that shaped its Government's strategy. 1997

  19. Birth Date: 23rd May, 1979 Citizenship: Australian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, Ali

    ) and bio- chemistry. Scholarships Awarded University of Sydney Alumni, Council of Education, Farrand and St Paul's College Foundation Scholarships. 1991 - 1996 Sydney Grammar School, Australia Tertiary Entrance and contributed to report on Foreign Direct Investment for New Zealand that shaped its Government's strategy. 1997

  20. Polymide gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  1. The University of Tulsa centennial petroleum engineering symposium: Proceedings. Future petroleum technology -- Vision 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This conference proceedings contains 40 papers which have individually been abstracted and indexed. These papers deal with aspects of oil and gas well drilling, secondary and tertiary recovery methods, well design, drilling equipment, and reservoir engineering and simulation. There are some papers on well servicing, scale control, and artificial lifts.

  2. 03/09/2006 11:19 PMHeart Cut -February 20, 2006 Page 1 of 5http://www.chemistry.org/portal/a/c/s/1/acsdisplay.html?DOC=heartcut%5carchive%5c022006_heartcut.html#3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    ratiometrically Buffers help separate primary, secondary, tertiary amines An immobilized palladium nanoparticle catalyst Assembly of "tunable" thermosensitive polymers Multifrequency ESR for characterizing powder the reductive desilylation of 1 with lithium powder and Me3SiCl to give dihydropyridine derivative 2 in 95

  3. Selenium Bioaccumulation in Stocked Fish as an Indicator of Fishery Potential in Pit Lakes on Reclaimed Coal Mines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hontela, Alice

    on Reclaimed Coal Mines in Alberta, Canada L. L. Miller · J. B. Rasmussen · V. P. Palace · G. Sterling · A to selenium (Se) and other metals and metalloids in pit lakes formed by open pit coal mining in Tertiary (thermal coal) and in Cretaceous (metallurgical coal) bedrock. Juvenile hatchery rainbow trout

  4. Scaling behavior of three-dimensional dendrites Q. Li and C. Beckermann*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    formation of such a complicated pattern have been the subject of many theoretical, numerical are the most frequently observed growth mode when an alloy is solidified in a supercooled melt for the formation of the main or primary stem, and ii the time-dependent evo- lution of the secondary and tertiary

  5. March 29, 2008 OS: Mass Storage Structure 1 Mass-Storage Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam, Salah

    March 29, 2008 OS: Mass Storage Structure 1 Mass-Storage Structure Chapter 12 #12;March 29, 2008 OS: Mass Storage Structure 2 Objectives Describe the physical structure of secondary and tertiary storage of mass-storage devices Discuss operating-system services provided for mass storage, including RAID

  6. Seismic stratigraphy of the Adare Trough area, Antarctica Joanne M. Whittaker , R. Dietmar Mller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Dietmar

    Seismic stratigraphy of the Adare Trough area, Antarctica Joanne M. Whittaker , R. Dietmar Müller examine the sequence stratigraphy from multi- channel seismic data to explore the influence of changing, is the extinct third arm of a Tertiary spreading ridge that separated East from West Antarctica. We use seismic

  7. Marine and Petroleum Geology 23 (2006) 745765 Origin of anomalous subsidence along the Northern South China Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Dietmar

    2006-01-01

    Marine and Petroleum Geology 23 (2006) 745­765 Origin of anomalous subsidence along the Northern China Sea margin to assess all mechanisms contributing to Late Tertiary tectonic subsidence in this area-rift anomalous subsidence is computed as the discrepancy between observed and predicted post-rift subsidence

  8. Cell, Vol. 5& 1017-1019, September22. 1999, Copyright 8 1999 by Cell Press Cytosolic Protein Translocation Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Peter

    , California 941430448 tzentralinstitut fiir Molekularbiologie Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR 1115 Berlin of secondary structure does not necessar- ily precede ail tertiary interactions. Each step or local energy minimum is separated from the next on the folding pathway by an activation energy barrier that must

  9. Sr-isotopic composition of marbles from the Puerto Galera area (Mindoro, Philippines): additional evidence for a Paleozoic age of a metamorphic complex in the Philippine island arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knittel, U.; Daniels, U.

    1987-02-01

    The Sr-isotopic composition of marbles from the Puerto Galera area (Mindoro, Philippines) is compatible with either a Tertiary or a Paleozoic age. The former is considered as unlikely because nonmetamorphic sediments of that age overlie the metamorphic complex. This implies that the metamorphic complex does not represent the basement of the Philippine arc but is an accreted terrane.

  10. Application of organolithium compounds for the preparation of some aliphatic and alicyclic phosphines, phosphine oxides and phosphine sulfides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Screttas, Constantinos G

    1961-01-01

    Rhe ?iehaeli~baae rearrasgeseat gieee tertiary rhea@hiss said&i ~ Rhia roaeties, ?hieh ia the hseaoriaatios af 4i~ 55e 56 albglyheaphisitea, eaa be ah)as bg the fellewiag eve etaa tieses ~PR') ~ R~~ X ~ R R~'Kl + R~X Qsates%4cf JlhoejlholII, Q...

  11. Genetic Algorithm for Predicting Protein Folding in the 2D HP Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Michael

    Genetic Algorithm for Predicting Protein Folding in the 2D HP Model A Parameter Tuning Case Study of a protein, predicting its tertiary structure is known as the protein folding problem. This problem has been. The protein folding problem in the HP model is to find a conformation (a folded sequence) with the lowest

  12. The provision of English enhancement at City University of Hong Kong Robin Bradbeer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradbeer, Robin Sarah

    , the Confucian concept of education. As Deckert (1992: 101) comments: `Throughout the ..course, students need that took place. Initially, the paper will consider bilingual education from a tertiary education perspective. It takes some of the theories of bilingual education as usually applied at primary and secondary

  13. MOLECULAR MODELING OF PROTEINS AND MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    MOLECULAR MODELING OF PROTEINS AND MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE ARNOLD NEUMAIER­called protein folding problem. The static aspect is concerned with how to predict the folded (native, tertiary) structure of a protein, given its sequence of amino acids. The dynamic aspect asks about the possible

  14. MOLECULAR MODELING OF PROTEINS AND MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    MOLECULAR MODELING OF PROTEINS AND MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE ARNOLD NEUMAIER-called protein folding problem. The static aspect is concerned with how to predict the folded (native, tertiary) structure of a protein, given its sequence of amino acids. The dynamic aspect asks about the possible

  15. Artificial Damping in Multigrid Methods Seongjai Kim \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentucky, University of

    ) becomes the fluid pressure. It is well known that approximation of the pressure equation is the most or tertiary oil recovery, f often represents hundreds of sources (water­gas injection) and sinks (oil]. There are two steps in MG methods: coarse grid correction and smoothing. In the coarse grid correction the low

  16. Preliminary gravity inversion model of basins east of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geoffrey A. Phelps; Carter W. Roberts, and Barry C. Moring

    2006-03-17

    The Yucca Flat eastern extension study area, a 14 kilometer by 45 kilometer region contiguous to Yucca Flat on the west and Frenchman Flat on the south, is being studied to expand the boundary of the Yucca Flat hydrogeologic model. The isostatic residual gravity anomaly was inverted to create a model of the depth of the geologic basins within the study area. Such basins typically are floored by dense pre-Tertiary basement rocks and filled with less-dense Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Quaternary alluvium, a necessary condition for the use of gravity modeling to predict the depth to the pre-Tertiary basement rocks within the basins. Three models were created: a preferred model to represent the best estimate of depth to pre-Tertiary basement rocks in the study area, and two end-member models to demonstrate the possible range of solutions. The preferred model predicts shallow basins, generally less than 1,000m depth, throughout the study area, with only Emigrant Valley reaching a depth of 1,100m. Plutonium valley and West Fork Scarp Canyon have maximum depths of 800m and 1,000m, respectively. The end-member models indicate that the uncertainty in the preferred model is less than 200m for most of the study area.

  17. Petroleum systems of Jianghan Basin, Hubel Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, A.E.; Schaps, S.; McGregor, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Jianghan Basin is a Cretaceous-Tertiary nonmarine rift basin superimposed on a late Precambrian to Jurassic passive margin and foreland basin succession deformed by mid-Mesozoic folding and thrusting. Hence the basin has potential for superimposed petroleum systems. Oil production is established in a Tertiary petroleum system developed in two major depocenters, the Jiangling (west) and Qianjiang (east) Depressions. Lacustrine source beds in the early Eocene Xingouzhui and late Eocene Qianjiang Formations generated hydrocarbons during local maximum basin fill in the Oligocene to present. Very early, low temperature generation of petroleum occurs where Type 1S Qianjiang Formation kerogen is present. Tertiary fluvial and deltaic sandstones form reservoirs that trap oil in highs or rollover structures formed by normal faulting and salt movement. The pre-rift section contains large folds and good source-beds, but has high exploration risk. Factors limiting effectiveness of older petroleum systems are: (1) Uplift and erosion of thrust structures; (2) Overmaturation of pre-Permian source rocks prior to folding and thrusting; (3) Limited extent of secondary maturation of Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic source beds; and (4) Disruption of older traps and seals by widespread normal faulting. Production of hydrocarbons from Permian and Triassic rocks to the west of Hubei suggests that further seismic work and drilling are merited to evaluate pre-Tertiary potential in the Jianghan Basin.

  18. Petroleum systems of Jianghan Basin, Hubel Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, A.E. ); Schaps, S.; McGregor, D. )

    1996-01-01

    The Jianghan Basin is a Cretaceous-Tertiary nonmarine rift basin superimposed on a late Precambrian to Jurassic passive margin and foreland basin succession deformed by mid-Mesozoic folding and thrusting. Hence the basin has potential for superimposed petroleum systems. Oil production is established in a Tertiary petroleum system developed in two major depocenters, the Jiangling (west) and Qianjiang (east) Depressions. Lacustrine source beds in the early Eocene Xingouzhui and late Eocene Qianjiang Formations generated hydrocarbons during local maximum basin fill in the Oligocene to present. Very early, low temperature generation of petroleum occurs where Type 1S Qianjiang Formation kerogen is present. Tertiary fluvial and deltaic sandstones form reservoirs that trap oil in highs or rollover structures formed by normal faulting and salt movement. The pre-rift section contains large folds and good source-beds, but has high exploration risk. Factors limiting effectiveness of older petroleum systems are: (1) Uplift and erosion of thrust structures; (2) Overmaturation of pre-Permian source rocks prior to folding and thrusting; (3) Limited extent of secondary maturation of Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic source beds; and (4) Disruption of older traps and seals by widespread normal faulting. Production of hydrocarbons from Permian and Triassic rocks to the west of Hubei suggests that further seismic work and drilling are merited to evaluate pre-Tertiary potential in the Jianghan Basin.

  19. 2013 Catalogue About ANU E Press

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    research and academic exploration. Lowered production costs reduce the pressure to recoup expenses through and impact of research data by using meaningful photos, images and graphs without increasing the cost by the Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education (DIISRTE) as a commercial

  20. CENOZOIC PLATE TECTONICS OF SE ASIA 11 Cenozoic plate tectonic reconstructions of SE Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    for the Tertiary is proposed, based on the integration of new palaeomagnetic data from east Indonesia recording the development of sedi- mentary basins, and the distribution of petro-leum resources. Reconstructions palaeomagnetic data from east Indonesia (Ali & Hall 1995; Hall et al. 1995a, b) permit reconstructions

  1. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Brian Luu, Kimia Nikazm, Kimia Yeganeh, Victor Song

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by a hydrogen fuel cell as the primary source of energy, solar panels, and electric battery, as the secondary and tertiary sources of energy, respectively. The AMS sustainable food truck will be established by purchasing.1 The Green Table Network Designation.......................................................9 5.0 Power

  2. Music and Copyright Introduction and Summary Tables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    Music and Copyright Introduction and Summary Tables Musical notation is considered a `literary work' under copyright a song may have multiple copyrights eg: music, lyrics, arrangement and Part VB statutory licences The University pays for a Tertiary Music Licence and a Screenrights Licence

  3. Hydroxyl Deformation Frequencies as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonding in Lasalocid A (X-537A)and Its Sodium Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    3892 Hydroxyl Deformation Frequencies as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonding in Lasalocid A (X-537A)and Its October IO,1975 Abstract: The hydroxyl deformation frequencies (900-1 500cm-l) of lasalocid A, its sodium and tertiary hydroxyl groups of lasalocid A give rise to spec- tral lines near 1425, 1303, 1172,and 738 cm

  4. Chemistry & Biology Brief Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herschlag, Dan

    . In each of these cases the native hydroxyl group interacts with a purine exocy- clic amine. Our resultsChemistry & Biology Brief Communication 20 -Fluoro Substituents Can Mimic Native 20 -Hydroxyls signature for tertiary interac- tions between 20 -hydroxyl groups and exocyclic amino groups within RNA

  5. Risk Management Procedures Category: Strategic Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Risk Management Procedures Category: Strategic Management 1. LEGISLATION/ENTERPRISE AGREEMENT/POLICY SUPPORTED Risk Management Policy Tertiary Education Quality Standards Agency Act 2011 (TEQSA Act 2011) 2 (a) Advise the Vice-Chancellor on the effective management of the University's risk profile

  6. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Ustiloxin D Hiroko Tanaka, Andrew M. Sawayama, and Thomas J. Wandless*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wandless, Tom

    , the substituents on the aromatic ring, and the structure of the side chain attached to the macrocycle. Several in their synthesis include the use of a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction to construct the chiral tertiaryCO3 in THF and methanol coincidently epimerized the methyl ester and hydrolyzed the aryl acetate

  7. EXPLORING PROTEIN FOLDING TRAJECTORIES USING GEOMETRIC SPANNERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guibas, Leonidas J.

    EXPLORING PROTEIN FOLDING TRAJECTORIES USING GEOMETRIC SPANNERS D. RUSSEL and L. GUIBAS Computer of secondary and tertiary structures as the protein folds. 1 Introduction There has been extensive work understanding of protein folding by studying their ensemble behaviors. Most currently used methods

  8. Why Advertise The Age (Mon) is read by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard

    OVERVIEW EDUCATION #12;Why Advertise The Age (Mon) is read by: ·358,000 tertiary qualified: 659,000 Education Advertising Contact Information Liza Kwaks ­ Account Manager Ph: 03 8667 4243 Email opportunities for advertisers to reach parents, students, teacher and education professionals. Profile* 44% 56

  9. Copyright 2007, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) 0883-1351/07/0022-0577/$3.00 PALAIOS, 2007, v. 22, p. 577582

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higgins, Pennilyn

    deep structural basins containing both abundant vertebrate fossils and uranium-ore deposits in the form IMPLICATIONS OF URANIUM ROLL FRONTS PENNILYN HIGGINS* University of Wyoming Department of Geology is essentially identical to that observed in areas affected by ura- nium roll-front deposits in other Tertiary

  10. Tracking the structural dynamics of proteins in solution using time-resolved wide-angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    to be varied. We report results of TR-WAXS experiments performed mainly on human hemoglobin (Hb), a tetrameric. We investigated the tertiary and quaternary conformational changes of human hemoglobin under nearly for highly ordered and radiation-resistant single crystals. More notably, crystal packing constraints might

  11. US-China Education Review A 7 (2011) 936-945 Earlier title: US-China Education Review, ISSN 1548-6613

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aloul, Fadi

    2011-01-01

    to the traditional sound knowledge of engineering theory and practice. The CEN (College of Engineering) at the AUS It is no longer sufficient to graduate engineering students from tertiary institutions with a sound knowledge-6613 Engineering Communication Interface: An Engineering Multi-disciplinary Project David Prescott, Tharwat El

  12. Mentoring programme The New York Academy of Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    in Washington DC are collaborating on a mentoring programme in science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM a growth of 5.7% for 2014­15. Community colleges, which offer basic tertiary education, reported a 7. As a science-trained PhD- holder, if you seek employment outside aca- demia -- and greater economic reward

  13. Aeroacoustics of Three-Stream High-Speed Jets from Coaxial and Asymmetric Nozzles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    Aeroacoustics of Three-Stream High-Speed Jets from Coaxial and Asymmetric Nozzles Dimitri streams. The paper reviews an experimental study of subscale three-stream jets operating at high specific benefit compared to the single-stream primary jet. Configurations with offset secondary or tertiary

  14. Direct dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Direct dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam Lisa D-lateral shearing. Data from the southern RRSZ within Vietnam are complicated by Tertiary overprinting of rocks dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam, J. Geophys. Res

  15. Vinylogous Esters and Amides: Useful Synthons for Diversity-Oriented and Natural Product Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Matthew

    2009-05-04

    step at the end of the sequence and results in moderate to good yields of the isolated chromones. This method was applied toward the synthesis of 5-hydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone, a neuroprotective chromone. The reduction of tertiary amides using Cp2...

  16. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in South Africa provides a limited number of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in South Africa provides a limited number of scholarships for refugees at the tertiary level in Government universities, technikons and colleges in South Africa. The scholarship originated from the Albert Einstein German Academic Refugee Initiative Fund (DAFI

  17. F. Groeschel On behalf of the IFMIF-EVEDA Project Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    concept (2003) Quench Tank Deuteron Beams EM Pump HX(Li / Organic Oil) Dump Tank HX(Organic Oil / Water/10" Operating temperature 250-350C Heat to be removed 10 MW Secondary cooling oil Tertiary cooling water,(JSME) ·Classification according to Japan Electric Association (JEAC/ JEAG) ·Fire Service Law and Service Act Licensed

  18. of Canadian in the 20th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schramm, Laurier L.

    Milestones of Canadian Chemistry in the 20th Century Calgary, Alberta ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY WITH SURFACTANT-STABILIZED FOAMS As western Canada's oil fields age,the importance of secondary and tertiary be destroyed on contact with oil, and their use to solve near- well gas or water channelling problems

  19. Structure and Mechanism of the Saposin-like Domain of a Plant Aspartic Protease*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutcher, John

    . Yada1 From the Departments of Food Science and Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1. Aspartic proteases (APs)2 are characterized by a common bilobal tertiary structure containing two catalytic- tional characteristics of APs in plants are least understood. Of practical interest among plant APs

  20. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barthold, W. [Barthold & Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This document is the conceptual design document for the follow-on to the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor, known as the ABC type reactor. It addresses blanket design options, containment options, off-gas systems, drainage systems, and components/layouts of the primary, secondary, and tertiary systems, and it contains a number of diagrams for the configuration of the major systems.

  1. ISRAEL JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY VOL. XII 1978 A FOSSIL FLEA BEETLE COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    years there has been an increasing amount of research in Pleistocene and some tertiary paleoecology and climates. The ma jority of this type of paleoecology has been done by G. Russell Coope 1967, 1971, his. Paleoecological interpretations are largely deduced from comparison with present-day geographical ranges

  2. proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Improving taxonomy-based protein fold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xin

    proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Improving taxonomy-based protein fold recognition INTRODUCTION Protein fold recognition from amino acid sequences is one of the funda- mental problems in structural bioinformatics, as fold information could facilitate the identification of a protein's tertiary

  3. Effect of Macromolecular Crowding on Protein Folding Dynamics at the Secondary Structure Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shorter, James

    Effect of Macromolecular Crowding on Protein Folding Dynamics at the Secondary Structure Level coupled to the process of protein folding in vivo. While previous studies have provided invaluable insight into the effect of crowding on the stability and folding rate of protein tertiary structures, very little is known

  4. Qian Susan Chi Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    of a degradation product NH3, which was indicative of the overall rate of degradation, was measured continuously on the rate of NH3 production were quantified. Several additives were studied; these include possible, and tertiary amines like N,N-diethylethanolamine as well as possible catalysts such as KMnO4, formaldehyde

  5. We offer a full range of surgical expertise. Bariatric Surgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    We offer a full range of surgical expertise. Bariatric Surgery Appointments: 304-598-4890 Pediatric are a major tertiary referral center for the region and state, offering the highest level of clinical program offering cardiac surgery for children in the state. Pediatric cardiothoracic surgery Robert A

  6. Design of multistable RNA molecules CHRISTOPH FLAMM,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Peter F.

    state and they can be separated from the native state by very high energy barriers+ Sta- ble alternative heuristics. Hence it is feasible to design RNA switches with prescribed structural alternatives. We discuss of the tertiary fold+ The energies involved in secondary structure forma- tion are large compared to those

  7. Design of MultiStable RNA Molecules Christoph Flamm a , Ivo L. Hofacker a,# , Sebastian MaurerStroh a ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Peter F.

    to design RNA switches with prescribed structural alternatives. We discuss the theoretical background, and determine the subsequent assembly of the tertiary fold. The energies involved in secondary structure of the conformational energy landscape of an RNA molecule can be understood at the level of secondary structures (Flamm

  8. The PETfold and PETcofold web servers for intra-and intermolecular structures of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Will, Sebastian

    of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 106, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany Received February 19, 2011; Revised March 28 a graphical layer to interactive usage of the predictors. Additionally, the web servers provide direct access dominates the free energy of the tertiary conformation, the secondary structure is critical for a large

  9. GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 67, NO. 5 (SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2002); P. 13821395, 16 FIGS. 10.1190/1.1512784

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsvankin, Ilya

    History Joint inversion of PP and PS reflection data for VTI media: A North Sea case study Vladimir- ticomponent stacking-velocity tomography to a 2-D line acquired over the lower Tertiary Siri reservoirGEOPHYSICS, VOL. 67, NO. 5 (SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2002); P. 1382­1395, 16 FIGS. 10.1190/1.1512784 Case

  10. Infusing Critical Thinking Skill Compare and Contrast into Content of Data Structures Course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faisal, Kanaan Abed

    Infusing Critical Thinking Skill Compare and Contrast into Content of Data Structures Course M of our efforts in infusing the critical thinking skill of comparing and contrasting into a course on data in the course content of computer curricula at tertiary level. It is expected that infusion of critical thinking

  11. Author's personal copy Profiling of late Tertiaryearly Quaternary surface in the lower reaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rangarajan, Govindan

    Author's personal copy Profiling of late Tertiary­early Quaternary surface in the lower reaches of lower reaches of Narmada valley in a systematic way using the shallow seismic method, that records both horizontal and vertical components of the microtremor (ambient noise) caused by natural processes

  12. HPLC separation of amines with a zirconia-based column coupled to a gas- phase chemiluminescence nitrogen specific detector (CLND) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salinas, Silvia Adriana

    2004-09-30

    deprotonated. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary amines were separated using a pH=13.7 mobile phase that contained only TMSOH, methanol and water. Good peak shapes were observed for all, except n-alkylamines and samples that contained both amino groups...

  13. FLUID DYNAMICAL AND MODELING ISSUES OF CHEMICAL FLOODING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daripa, Prabir

    of the objective functions in tertiary oil recovery by polymer flooding is the "op- timal" viscous profileFLUID DYNAMICAL AND MODELING ISSUES OF CHEMICAL FLOODING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY Prabir Daripa are succinctly summarized including characteri- zation of the optimal flooding scheme that leads to maximum oil

  14. SIAM J. APPL. MATH. Vol. 48, No. 2, April 1988

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daripa, Prabir

    007 POLYMER FLOODS: A CASE STUDY OF NONLINEAR WAVE ANALYSIS AND OF INSTABILITY CONTROL IN TERTIARY OIL RECOVERY* PRABIR DARIPAf, JAMES GLIMM', BRENT LINDQUISTf, AND OLIVER McBRYANf Abstract. Polymer flooding of oil recovery for the polymer flood. The details of these two phenomena depend on the separation

  15. Distributed Energy Management for Electric Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distributed Energy Management for Electric Power Systems Gabriela Hug, ghug@ece.cmu.edu Soummya Kar Theory Power flow control Consensus + Innovation Approach Theory Energy Management Conclusions 2 #12 line flows Tertiary Control => Energy Energy source scheduling including generator and storage

  16. Independent Mammalian Genome Contractions Following the KT Boundary Mina Rho,* Mo Zhou,* Xiang Gao, Sun Kim,* Haixu Tang,* and Michael Lynch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Michael

    Independent Mammalian Genome Contractions Following the KT Boundary Mina Rho,* Mo Zhou,* Xiang Gao may also have long-lasting effects on genomic architecture. Here we show that widespread reductions in genome size have occurred in multiple lineages of mammals subsequent to the Cretaceous­ Tertiary (KT

  17. Bioautomation, 2007, 7, 57 -63 ISSN 1312 451X Near-native Protein Structure Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fidanova, Stefka

    : September 12, 2007 Published: October 24, 2007 Abstract: The protein folding problem is a fundamental between the primary and tertiary structures of the proteins. Keywords: Protein folding, Hydrophobic, 3D HP ation Bioautomation, 2007, 7, 57 - 63 ISSN 1312 ­ 451X 58 The protein folding problem is a fundamental

  18. Informit databases Databases that can be accessed from the Informit interface include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wapstra, Erik

    to the next row and · In the Search Query box enter your second search term or phrase. e.g. tertiary · Select row and · In the Search Query box enter your third search term or phrase. e.g. policy · Select the field type (as above) #12;If you would like to enter more search terms you can add further search boxes

  19. [The Journal of Geology, 2005, volume 113, p. 265285] 2005 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. 0022-1376/2005/11303-0002$15.00 Age of Initiation of the India-Asia Collision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the western end of the Zhepure Shan are conformably overlain by lower Tertiary clastic rocks. Sandstones earth element concentrations in both sandstones and shales complement the petrographic data and indicate of Cr-rich spinels in the Youxia and Shenkeza sandstones resemble those from fore-arc peridotites

  20. COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter HQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  1. COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, WILLISTON BASIN, NORTH DAKOTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter WQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, WILLISTON BASIN, NORTH DAKOTA By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  2. COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter GQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  3. Interaction Interfaces of Protein Domains Are Not Topologically Equivalent Across Families Within

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, N.

    Interaction Interfaces of Protein Domains Are Not Topologically Equivalent Across Families Within interfaces on the tertiary folds between members of distantly related protein domain superfamilies. The data chain and those between two polypeptide chains. We observe that, in general, the interfaces between

  4. Synthesis and SAR of potent LXR agonists containing an indole pharmacophore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Campobasso, Nino; Smallwood, Angela; Parks, Derek J.; Webb, Christine L.; Frank, Kelly A.; Nord, Melanie; Duraiswami, Chaya; Evans, Christopher; Jaye, Michael; Thompson, Scott K.

    2009-03-27

    A novel series of 1H-indol-1-yl tertiary amine LXR agonists has been designed. Compounds from this series were potent agonists with good rat pharmacokinetic parameters. In addition, the crystal structure of an LXR agonist bound to LXR{alpha} will be disclosed.

  5. Carbohydrate-derived aminoalcohol ligands for asymmetric Reformatsky reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ben G.

    Carbohydrate-derived aminoalcohol ligands for asymmetric Reformatsky reactions Daniel P. G of functionally and stereochemically diverse DD-glucosamine-derived tertiary aminoalcohol ligands have been used bromoacetate-3 and difluorobromoacetate4 -derived Reformatsky reagents 2a­c (Scheme 1). A general, enan

  6. Development of Effective Solvent Modifiers for the Solvent Extraction of Cesium from Alkaline High-Level Tank Waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Lumetta, Gregg J. )

    2003-01-01

    A series of novel alkylphenoxy fluorinated alcohols were prepared and investigated for their effectiveness as modifiers in solvents containing calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 for extracting cesium from alkaline nitrate media. A modifier that contained a terminal 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy group was found to decompose following long-term exposure to warm alkaline solutions. However, replacement of the tetrafluoroethoxy group with a 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy group led to a series of modifiers that possessed the alkaline stability required for a solvent extraction process. Within this series of modifiers, the structure of the alkyl substituent (tert-octyl, tert-butyl, tert-amyl, and sec-butyl) of the alkylphenoxy moiety was found to have a profound impact on the phase behavior of the solvent in liquid-liquid contacting experiments, and hence on the overall suitability of the modifier for a solvent extraction process. The sec-butyl derivative[1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol] (Cs-7SB) was found to possess the best overall balance of properties with respect to third phase and coalescence behavior, cleanup following degradation, resistance to solids formation, and cesium distribution behavior. Accordingly, this modifier was selected for use as a component of the solvent employed in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for removing cesium from high level nuclear waste (HLW) at the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE) Savannah River Site. In batch equilibrium experiments, this solvent has also been successfully shown to extract cesium from both simulated and actual solutions generated from caustic leaching of HLW tank sludge stored in tank B-110 at the DOE?s Hanford Site.

  7. Metabolomics relative quantitation with mass spectrometry using chemical derivatization and isotope labeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    O'Maille, Grace; Go, Eden P.; Hoang, Linh; Want, Elizabeth J.; Smith, Colin; O'Maille, Paul; NordstrÖm, Anders; Morita, Hirotoshi; Qin, Chuan; Uritboonthai, Wilasinee; et al

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive detection and quantitation of metabolites from a biological source constitute the major challenges of current metabolomics research. Two chemical derivatization methodologies, butylation and amination, were applied to human serum for ionization enhancement of a broad spectrum of metabolite classes, including steroids and amino acids. LC-ESI-MS analysis of the derivatized serum samples provided a significant signal elevation across the total ion chromatogram to over a 100-fold increase in ionization efficiency. It was also demonstrated that derivatization combined with isotopically labeled reagents facilitated the relative quantitation of derivatized metabolites from individual as well as pooled samples.

  8. A study of the kinetics and mechanism of the adsorption and anaerobic partial oxidation of n-butane over a vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakakini, B.H.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Waugh, K.C.

    2000-01-25

    The interaction of n-butane with a ((VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) catalyst has been investigated by temperature-programmed desorption and anaerobic temperature-programmed reaction. n-Butane has been shown to adsorb on the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} to as a butyl-hydroxyl pair. When adsorption is carried out at 223 K, upon temperature programming some of the butyl-hydroxyl species recombine resulting in butane desorption at 260 K. However, when adsorption is carried out at 423 K, the hydroxyl species of the butyl-hydroxyl pair migrate away from the butyl species during the adsorption, forming water which is detected in the gas phase. Butane therefore is not observed to desorb at 260 K after the authors lowered the temperature to 223 K under the butane/helium from the adsorption temperature of 423 K prior to temperature programming from that temperature to 1100 K under a helium stream. Anaerobic temperature-programmed oxidation of n-butane produces butene and butadiene at a peak maximum temperature of 1000 K; this is exactly the temperature at which, upon temperature programming, oxygen evolves from the lattice and desorbs as O{sub 2}. This, and the fact that the amount of oxygen desorbing from the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} at {approximately}1000 K is the same as that required for the oxidation of the n-butane to butene and butadiene, strongly suggests (1) that lattice oxygen as it emerges at the surface is the selective oxidant and (2) that its appearance at the surface is the rate-determining step in the selective oxidation of n-butane. The surface of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst on which this selective oxidation takes place has had approximately two monolayers of oxygen removed from it by unselective oxidation of the n-butane to CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O between 550 and 950 K and has had approximately one monolayer of carbon deposited on it at {approximately}1000 K. It is apparent, therefore, that the original crystallography of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst will not exist during this selective oxidation and that theories that relate selectivity in partial oxidation to the (100) face of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst cannot apply in this case.

  9. Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dodson, Karen E. (Knoxville, TN); Mailen, James C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel processing solution containing (1) hydrocarbon diluent, (2) tri-n-butyl phosphate or tri-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, and (3) monobutyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, or a complex formed by plutonium, uranium, or a fission product thereof with monobutyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, or di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate is contacted with silica gel having alkali ions absorbed thereon to remove any one of the degradation products named in section (3) above from said solution.

  10. Multinuclear Solid-State NMR Studies of Polymers and Immobilized Sonogashira Catalysts for Cross-Coupling Reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, Jacqueline Christine

    2014-08-28

    azabisisobutyronitrile BET Brunauer Emmett Teller br broad Bu butyl COSY COrrelation SpectroscopY (2D NMR) CP cross-polarization CP/MAS cross-polarization/magic angle spinning CSA chemical shift anisotropy Cy cyclohexyl d doublet (NMR), days viii... ................................................................................................................. 284 xii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 2.1. 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of PBI (a), PEEK (b), melt-blended PEEK- PBI (c), and a physical mixture of powdered PEEK and PBI (50:50 wt%) (d). The spinning speed is 10 kHz for all spectra...

  11. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  12. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  13. War against water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitz-Hugh, S.

    1982-01-01

    It is stressed that waterproofing should be the most important concern in an earth-sheltered home, starting with the design and continuing throughout the construction. Damage which may be caused by water leakage is discussed. Proper site selection is most important and the need for outside professionals and consultants is emphasized. The ideal waterproofing system is discussed and illustrated. Waterproofing agents are discussed in detail. They are: (1) sodium bentonite; (2) elastomers, such as isobutylene isoprene (butyl rubber), EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer), and liquid elastomers (polyurethanes); and (3) rubberized asphalt. Availability, sheet sizes and application of these waterproofing agents are discussed. (MJJ)

  14. Total Syntheses of Linear Poly-Thiazole/Oxazole Plantazolicin A and its biosynthetic precursor Plantazolicin B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Zoe E.; Fenner, Sabine; Ley, Steven V.

    2014-11-25

    stream_source_info Wilson et al 2015 Angewandte Chemie International Edition.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 18368 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Wilson et al 2015 Angewandte Chemie International Edition... Et, CH 2 Cl 2 , RT, 48 h, 35% 4a, 13% 28. Boc 2 O=di-tert-butyl dicarbonate. Angewandte Chemie 1285Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 1284 –1288 Ó 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim www.angewandte.org cysteine ethyl...

  15. Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2013-05-28

    A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

  16. PUNCTURE TEST CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    An experiment was conducted to determine the puncture resistance of 15 gloves that are used or proposed for use in the Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). These data will serve as a baseline for characterization and may be incorporated into the glove procurement specification. The testing was conducted in agreement with ASTM D120 and all of the gloves met or exceeded the minimum requirements. Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance nearly 2.5 times the minimum requirements at SRS while Polyurethane was nearly 7.5x the minimum.

  17. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. A. E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W. E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S.; Cotlet, M.; Petrone, N.; Hone, J.; Gu, T.; Gesuele, F.

    2014-04-28

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  18. Cyclic intermediates isolated from the synthesis of alkylene-bridged polysilsesquioxanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, J.P.; Loy, D.A.; Shea, K.J.; Greaves, J.; Dorhout, P.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The hydrolysis and condensation of {sigma},{omega}-bis(triethoxysilyl)alkanes with acid catalysts normally leads to polymeric gels within a few hours. However, when the alkylene-bridge is short (ethyl, propyl, or butyl) gelation times of days or even months have been observed. Investigations into the initial condensation reactions revealed that highly condensed bicycle and tricyclic dimers are major products when the alkylene bridge is short. Some of these dimeric compounds have been isolated as crystalline solids. These intermediates have been characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR and x-ray crystallography.

  19. Testing of a model to estimate vapor concentration of various organic chemicals. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakalyar, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A model developed by Dr. Parker C. Reist to predict the build-up and decay rates of vapor concentrations following a chemical spill and clean-up was tested. The chemicals tested were: acetone, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, hexane, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene. The evaporation rates of these chemicals were determined both by prediction, using a model developed by I. Kawamura and D. Mackay, and empirically and these rates were used in the Reist model. Chamber experiments were done to measure actual building-up and decay of vapor concentrations for simulated spills and simulated clean-up.

  20. Buzitka Solar AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick, Maine:IAEA CooperationSolarButyl Fuel

  1. Buzzard Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick, Maine:IAEA CooperationSolarButyl

  2. Byone Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick, Maine:IAEA CooperationSolarButylByone

  3. SU-E-T-297: Small Field Dosimetry for Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, J; Casto, B; Wang, S; Talyor, T; Wichman, A; Ku, L; Taylor, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Kilo-voltage (kV) photons and low megavoltage (MeV) electrons are the most common options for treating small superficial lesions, but they present complex dosimetry. Using a tertiary lead shield may protect the surrounding critical structures. Our goal was to quantitatively evaluate the dosimetric impact resulting from applying tertiary shields on superficial lesions. Method: We directly compared the beam characteristics of 80 kV (0.8 mm Al) photon setup abutting the water phantom surface and 6 MeV electron setup at 100 cm SSD. Profiles and depth doses were acquired using a 3D scanning water tank and an ion chamber (active volume 0.01 cm{sup 3}). Beam profiles were scanned at Dmax. Three lead sheets (2 mm thickness) with 2.7, 2.2, and 1.6, cm diameter circular cutouts were fabricated and placed at the water surface for both photon and electron fields. Results: The penumbra (80% – 20%) of the open 4×4 cm{sup 2} electron insert was 10.7 mm, compared to an average of 7.2 mm with the tertiary cutouts. The penumbra of the open kV photon beam was 2.8 mm compared to an average of 1.8 mm with the tertiary cutouts. For field widths 2.7, 2.2, and 1.6 cm, the flatness of the electron beams was 16%, 17.3%, and 21%, respectively, and for the kV photon beams was 1.4%, 2.3%, 3.3%, respectively. The electron depth dose (PDD) shifted shallower and the photon PDD shifted deeper as the field size became smaller. Conclusion: The penumbra of small electron fields can be improved by adding tertiary lead shields. Both modalities are clinically feasible; however, kV photons still offer sharper penumbra and better flatness than that of 6 MeV electrons with tertiary shielding. Thus, kV photons may still be a superior option for small superficial lesions.

  4. Petroleum geology and resources of southeastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Petroleum deposits in southeastern Mexico and Guatemala occur in two main basinal provinces: the Gulf Coast Tertiary basin area, which includes the Reforma and offshore Campeche Mesozoic fields, and the Peten basin of eastern Chiapas State (Mexico) and Guatemala. Major oil production, in order of importance, is from Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Jurassic carbonate reservoirs in the reforma and offshore Campeche area. Several small oil fields have been discovered in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in west-central Guatemala. Almost all important production is in salt structure traps or on domes and anticlines that may be related to deep-seated salt movement. Some minor oil production has occurred in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in a buried overthrust belt along the west flank of the Veracruz basin. Gas production is mainly from Tertiary sandstone reservoirs.

  5. Forsterite film formation and grain growth in 3% Si steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, M.A.; Cesar, M.G.M.M. )

    1994-11-01

    The forsterite film in 3% Si steel is formed by a solid state reaction of the annealing separator, MgO, with SiO[sub 2] that results from the reduction of the fayalite layer in the hydrogen atmosphere in the high temperature anneal. In this work, secondary recrystallization was about complete at 1,000 C. After that temperature tertiary recrystallization can occur if the boundary drag of the second phase particles can be overcome. Addition of phosphates to the annealing separator affects the morphology of the forsterite film and can have an important effect on tertiary recrystallization by affecting the rate of decrease of the boundary-drag and/or the surface energy relationship.

  6. Ionic Liquid–Solute Interactions Studied by 2D NOE NMR Spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khatun, Sufia; Castner, Edward W.

    2014-11-26

    Intermolecular interactions between a Ru˛?(bpy)? solute and the anions and cations of four different ionic liquids (ILs) are investigated by 2D NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) techniques, including {ąH-ą?F} HOESY and {ąH-ąH} ROESY. Four ILs are studied, each having the same bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion in common. Two of the ILs have aliphatic 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations, while the other two ILs have aromatic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. ILs with both shorter (butyl) and longer (octyl or decyl) cationic alkyl substituents are studied. NOE NMR results suggest that the local environment of IL anions and cations near the Ru˛?(bpy)? solute is rather different from the bulkmore »IL structure. The solute-anion and solute-cation interactions are significantly different both for ILs with short vs long alkyl tails and for ILs with aliphatic vs aromatic cation polar head groups. In particular, the solute-anion interactions are observed to be about 3 times stronger for the cations with shorter alkyl tails relative to the ILs with longer alkyl tails. The Ru˛?(bpy)? solute interacts with both the polar head and the nonpolar tail groups of the 1- butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation but only with the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-decyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation.« less

  7. Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobicpiperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kumar, R. Anand; Lee,Jong-Min; Kerr, John; Newman, John; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25

    Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]{sup +} and 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPip]{sup +} cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell-line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally-benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

  8. Development of candidate chemical simulant list: the evaluation of candidate chemical simulants which may be used in chemically hazardous operations. Final report 15 Jun-15 Dec 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The objectives of this task were threefold: (1) to provide additional data for the proposed candidate simulates dipentene, methyl benzoate and benzyl alcohol by means of in-depth literature searches encompassing both computerized data bases and a manual search of the older literature; (2) to fully evaluate twelve possible candidate simulants under more flexible simulant criteria; and (3) to develop a list of candidate simulants in the low and non-volatile categories. Computerized literature searches were conducted for the twelve possible candidate simulants under more flexible intake simulant criteria as well as for dimethyl methylphosphonate, a compound selected for evaluation by the USAF. The twelve possible candidates included: cyclohexanone, n-dodecanethiol, methyl salicylate, dihexyl ether, dypnone, n-aminopropyl morpholine, n-(2-hydroxyethyl) morpholine, butyl salicylate, di(2-ethyl hexyl) ether, 2-undecanol, 2-hydroxyethyl-n-octyl sulfide and n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide. Full assessments of the potential health hazards associated with exposure to n-dodecanethiol, methyl salicylate, butyl salicylate and n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide were completed. All of these compounds meet the majority of USAF criteria for candidate simulants. Cyclohexanone was disqualified for reasons of toxicity, while the available toxicological data for the seven remaining candidates were considered inadequate for full assessment of hazard.

  9. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  10. The depositional history of the Midway-Wilcox section, new Ulm field, Austin County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinero, Edwin

    1982-01-01

    Formation. An ex- tensive transgression began in the early Tertiary and deposited the Midway Shale. The section represents the marine interval between the Navarro and the Wilcox. The Eocene Wilcox is one of the fluvio-deltaic wedges which contains oil.... Robert R. Berg New Ulm field is typical of structures along the updip part of the Wilcox fault "trend. " Gas is produced from the Midway Formation and oil and gas from the Wilcox Group. Midway traps are probably stratigraphic in channel sandstones...

  11. Comparison of Optimised MDI versus Pumps with or without Sensors in Severe Hypoglycaemia (the Hypo COMPaSS trial)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, Stuart; Chadwick, Thomas; Choudhary, Pratik; Brennand, Cath; Stickland, Julia; Barendse, Shalleen; Olateju, Tolulope; Leelarathna, Lalantha; Walkinshaw, Emma; Tan, Horng K; Marshall, Sally M; Thomas, Reena M; Heller, Simon; Evans, Mark; Kerr, David; Flanagan, Daniel; Speight, Jane; Shaw, James AM

    2012-12-13

    clinics of the five participating UK tertiary referral and academic hypoglycaemia/CSII centres (Royal Bournemouth Hos- pital, Bournemouth; Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge; Newcastle Diabetes Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Derriford Hospital, Plymouth... venous blood. The hand will be kept in a purpose-built heated box (Temp 50–60°Celsius) before inserting the retrograde cannula and throughout the clamp study. A slow intravenous infusion of saline will be used as needed to keep the sampling line patent...

  12. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  13. Economic analysis of waterflood infill drilling in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reviere, Randall Hooge

    1985-01-01

    IN MID 1980 DOLLARS 3 COST ESCALATION FACTORS FOR INFILL WELL COSTS 4 ANNUAL OPERATING COSTS AND INDEXES FOR WEST TEXAS SECONDARY RECOVERY PROJECTS WITH 10 PRODUCERS AND 11 INJECTION WELLS 5 HISTORICAL AVERAGE OIL AND GAS PRICES 6 INFILL DRILLING... of petroleum engineers and has been the focus of considerable effort in the past two decades. The oil recovery can be classified into many stages: primary recovery, secondary recovery, tertiary recovery, etc. Primary recovery is the first stage of oil...

  14. A History of Irrigation in the Arkansas River Valley in Western Kansas, 1880-1910

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorensen, Conner

    1968-01-01

    , "The High Plains and their Utilization," United States Geological Survey, Twenty- First Annual Report (1899-1900), facing p. 609. Note that the Arkansas River in western Kansas is depicted as an intermittent stream. CHAPTER I THE NATURAL SETTING...-21. St. John, "Notes on the Geology of Southwest Kansas," Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Fifth Biennial Report (1885-1886), p. 13$. k Plains of Eastern Colorado and Western Kansas.** As a result of the absorptive powers of the tertiary mantle...

  15. TORIS Data Preparation Guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guinn, H.; Remson, D.

    1999-03-11

    The objective of this manual is to present guidelines and procedures for the preparation of new data for the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS) data base. TORIS is an analytical system currently maintained by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Bartlesville Project Office. It uses an extensive field- and reservoir-level data base to evaluate the technical and economic recovery potential of specific crude oil reservoirs.

  16. Process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulphide and carbonyl sulfide from light hydrocarbon gases containing carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, W.V.

    1988-06-07

    A process for the selective removal of H/sub 2/S and COS from a gas containing light hydrocarbons, H/sub 2/S, COS and CO/sub 2/, is described which comprises in a one step absorption, at treatment conditions, contacting the gas stream with a solvent stream consisting essentially of: (i) water, (ii) a bridgehead amine comprising a bicyclo tertiary amine or a bicyclo amidine to selectively hydrolyze the COS to H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, (iii) a tertiary amine to selectively absorb the H/sub 2/S and to selectively exclude from absorption the CO/sub 2/ in the gas stream and the CO/sub 2/ produced by the hydrolysis of the COS, and (iv) a physical solvent acceptable for COS absorption wherein two streams are formed comprising: (1) a light hydrocarbon and CO/sub 2/-containing stream having 1 ppm to about 200 ppm H/sub 2/S and having 1 ppm COS to about 10 ppm COS and (2) a solvent stream rich in H/sub 2/S, water, tertiary amine and the bridgehead amine.

  17. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

    1987-01-01

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  18. Magnetotelluric Data, Northern Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T. H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Frenchman Flat Profile 3, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  19. Laser-induced temperature jump/time-resolved infrared study of the fast events in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, W.H.; Dyer, R.B.; Williams, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Callender, H.; Gilmanshin, R. [CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Laser-induced temperature jump followed by time-resolved infrared probe of reaction dynamics are used to study the temporal evolution of polypeptide structure during protein folding and unfolding. Reactions are initiated in times of 50 ps or longer by T-jumps of 10`s of degrees, obtained by laser excitation of water overtone absorbances. Observation of the Amide I transient absorbances reveal melting lifetimes of helices unconstrained by tertiary structure to be ca. 160 ns in a model 21-peptide and ca. 30 ns in {open_quotes}molten globule{close_quotes} apomyoglobin. No other processes are observed in these systems over the timescale 50 ps to 2 ms. Equilibrium data suggest the corresponding helix formation lifetimes to be ca. 16 and 1 ns, respectively. In {open_quotes}native{close_quotes} apomyoglobin two helix melting lifetimes are observed and we infer that a third occurs on a timescale inaccessible to our experiment (> 1 ms). The shorter observed lifetime, as in the molten globule, is ca. 30 ns. The longer lifetime is ca. 70 {mu}s. We suggest that the slower process is helix melting that is rate-limited by the unfolding of tertiary structure. Equilibrium data suggest a lifetime of ca. 1 {mu}s for the development of these tertiary folds.

  20. MINER{nu}A Test Beam Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higuera, A.; Castorena, J.; Urrutia, Z.; Felix, J.; Zavala, G.

    2009-12-17

    MINER{nu}A Main INjector ExpeRiment {nu}-A is a high-statistic neutrino scattering experiment that will ran in the NuMI Beam Hall at Fermilab. To calibrate the energy response of the MINER{nu}A detector, a beamline is being designed for the MINER{nu}A Test Beam Detector (TBD). The TBD is a replica of the full MINER{nu}A detector at small scale for calibration studies of the main detector. The beamline design consists of the following parts: a copper target, used to generate tertiaries from an incoming secondary beam; a steel collimator for tertiaries, which also serves as a dump for the incoming beam; a time of fight system (scintillator planes); four wire chambers, for angle measurements and tracking; and two dipole magnets, used as an spectrometer. During last October, the first commissioning run of the MINER{nu}A Test Beam took place in the Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab. We commissioned the target and collimator of the new tertiary beamline.

  1. Coanda injection system for axially staged low emission combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evulet, Andrei Tristan (Clifton Park, NY); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Cincinnati, OH); Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); ElKady, Ahmed Mostafa (Niskayuna, NY); Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC)

    2012-05-15

    The low emission combustor includes a combustor housing defining a combustion chamber having a plurality of combustion zones. A liner sleeve is disposed in the combustion housing with a gap formed between the liner sleeve and the combustor housing. A secondary nozzle is disposed along a centerline of the combustion chamber and configured to inject a first fluid comprising air, at least one diluent, fuel, or combinations thereof to a downstream side of a first combustion zone among the plurality of combustion zones. A plurality of primary fuel nozzles is disposed proximate to an upstream side of the combustion chamber and located around the secondary nozzle and configured to inject a second fluid comprising air and fuel to an upstream side of the first combustion zone. The combustor also includes a plurality of tertiary coanda nozzles. Each tertiary coanda nozzle is coupled to a respective dilution hole. The tertiary coanda nozzles are configured to inject a third fluid comprising air, at least one other diluent, fuel, or combinations thereof to one or more remaining combustion zones among the plurality of combustion zones.

  2. Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-5-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2005-02-01

    Well Cluster ER-5-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The cluster consists of two wells, positioned about 30 meters apart on the same drill pad, constructed as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments for the well cluster are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 156 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 192 meters in both boreholes, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 122 samples. Well ER-5-4 penetrated approximately 1,120 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium before reaching total depth in Tertiary volcanic rocks at 1,137.5 meters. The deeper Well ER-5-4 No.2 penetrated 1,120.4 meters of alluvial sediments, and was terminated within Tertiary volcanic rocks at a depth of 2,133.6 meters, indicating that Paleozoic rocks are deeper than expected at this site.

  3. APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

    2006-03-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

  4. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n-butane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, T.K.; D`Itri, J.L.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental concerns are leading to the replacement of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline with high-octane-number branched paraffins and oxygenated compounds such as methyl t-butyl ether, which is produced from methanol and isobutylene. The latter can be formed from n-butane by isomerization followed by dehydrogenation. To meet the need for improved catalysts for isomerization of n-butane and other paraffins, researchers identified solid acids that are noncorrosive and active at low temperatures. Sulfated zirconia catalyzes the isomerization of n-butane even at 25{degrees}C, and the addition of Fe and Mn promoters increases its activity by three orders of magnitude. Little is known about this new catalyst. Here the authors provide evidence of its performance for n-butane conversion, demonstrating that isomerization is accompanied by disproportionation and other, less well understood, acid-catalyzed reactions and undergoes rapid deactivation associated with deposition of carbonaceous material. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  6. Portal Vein Embolization: What Do We Know?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denys, Alban; Prior, John; Bize, Pierre; Duran, Rafael; Baere, Thierry De; Halkic, Nermin; Demartines, Nicolas

    2012-10-15

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) has been developed to increase the size of the future remnant liver (FRL) left in place after major hepatectomy, thus reducing the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency. PVE consist in embolizing preoperatively portal branches of the segments that will be resected. Indication is based on preoperative measurements of the FRL by computed tomography and its ratio with either the theoretical liver volume or by direct measurement of the functional liver volume. After PVE, the volume and function of the FRL increases in 3 to 6 weeks, permitting extensive resections in patients otherwise contraindicated for liver resection. The PVE technique is variable from one center to another; however n-butyl-cyano-acrylate provides an interesting compromise between hypertrophy rate and procedure risk.

  7. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeldin, Arkady (Rego Park, NY); Carciello, Neal (Patchogue, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence (Port Jefferson, NY); Fontana, Jack (Shoreham, NY)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to high temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10-30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures theroef; and about 70-90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and preferably a member selected from the group consisting of portland cement, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, carbon black and mixtures thereof; and optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  8. High pressure chemistry of substituted acetylenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chellappa, Raja; Dattelbaum, Dana; Sheffield, Stephen; Robbins, David

    2011-01-25

    High pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments were performed on substituted polyacetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C{triple_bond}CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-Si{triple_bond}CH] to investigate pressure-induced chemical reactions. The starting samples were the low temperature crystalline phases which persisted metastably at room temperature and polymerized beyond 11 GPa and 26 GPa for TBA and ETMS respectively. These reaction onset pressures are considerably higher than what we observed in the shockwave studies (6.1 GPa for TBA and 6.6 GPa for ETMS). Interestingly, in the case of ETMS, it was observed with fluid ETMS as starting sample, reacts to form a semi-crystalline polymer (crystalline domains corresponding to the low-T phase) at pressures less than {approx}2 GPa. Further characterization using vibrational spectroscopy is in progress.

  9. Co-treatment of VOCs in low-pH sulfide biofilters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devinny, J.S.; Chitwood, D.E.; Choi, D.S.

    1999-07-01

    Biofiltration of off-gases from wastewater treatment plants requires removal of sulfides and volatile organic compounds. Sulfides are readily removed in low-pH biofilters filled with inorganic media. If the same biofilter could simultaneously remove the volatile organic compounds, an efficient single-step system would be possible. Laboratory work on co-treatment of toluene and sulfides, and fieldwork on several volatile compounds indicate that this is possible. Removals of over 90% of toluene, xylene, acetone, methanol, and ethylbenzene should be possible with an empty bed contact time of 60 s. Methyl tert-butyl ether, isopentane, chloroform and methylene chloride were removed with lower but still substantial efficiencies. Biofilters operated at steady state but non-neutral pHs represent a promising avenue of research.

  10. Modified cellulose synthase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana confers herbicide resistance to plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris R. (Portola Valley, CA); Scheible, Wolf (Golm, DE)

    2007-07-10

    Cellulose synthase ("CS"), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl)phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  11. Combined Extraction of Cesium and Strontium from Akaline Nitrate Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Haverlock, Tamara; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    The combined extraction of cesium and strontium from caustic wastes can be achieved by adding a crown ether and a carboxylic acid to the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent. The ligand 4,4'(5')-di(tert-butyl)cyclohexano-18-crown-6 and one of four different carboxylic acids were combined with the components of the CSSX solvent optimized for the extraction of cesium, allowing for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from alkaline nitrate media simulating alkaline high level wastes present at the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site. Extraction and stripping experiments were conducted independently and exhibited adequate results for mimicking waste simulant processing through batch contacts. The promising results of these batch tests showed that the system could reasonably be tested on actual waste.

  12. Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BFMB) Anion Based Ionic Liquid As an Additive for Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL] [ORNL; Liao, Chen [ORNL] [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL] [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL] [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL] [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Propylene carbonate (PC) is a good solvent for lithium ion battery applications due to its low melting point and high dielectric constant. However, PC is easily intercalated into graphite causing it to exfoliate, killing its electrochemical performance. Here we report on the synthesis of a new ionic liquid electrolyte based on partially fluorinated borate anion, 1-butyl-1,2-dimethylimidazolium bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BDMIm.BFMB), which can be used as an additive in 1 M LiPF6/PC electrolyte to suppress graphite exfoliation and improve cycling performance. In addition, both PC and BDMIm.BFMB can be used synergistically as additive to 1.0M LiPF6/methyl isopropyl sulfone (MIPS) to dramatically improve its cycling performance. It is also found that the chemistry nature of the ionic liquids has dramatic effect on their role as additive in PC based electrolyte.

  13. Modified cellulose synthase gene from 'Arabidopsis thaliana' confers herbicide resistance to plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerville, Chris R.; Scieble, Wolf

    2000-10-11

    Cellulose synthase ('CS'), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl) phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  14. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  15. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

    1984-10-01

    Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    A task was undertaken to compare various properties of different glovebox gloves, having various compositions, for use in gloveboxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One aspect of this project was to determine the tensile strength (TS) of the gloves. Longitudinal tensile samples were cut from 15 different gloves and tensile tested. The stress, load, and elongation at failure were determined. All of the gloves that are approved for glovebox use and listed in the glovebox procurement specification met the tensile and elongation requirements. The Viton{reg_sign} compound gloves are not listed in the specification, but exhibited lower tensile strengths than permissible based on the Butyl rubber requirements. Piercan Polyurethane gloves were the thinnest samples and exhibited the highest tensile strength of the materials tested.

  17. Exploring the Potential of Fulvalene Dimetals as Platforms for Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage: Computations, Syntheses, Structures, Kinetics, and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borjesson, K; Coso, D; Gray, V; Grossman, JC; Guan, JQ; Harris, CB; Hertkorn, N; Hou, ZR; Kanai, Y; Lee, D; Lomont, JP; Majumdar, A; Meier, SK; Moth-Poulsen, K; Myrabo, RL; Nguyen, SC; Segalman, RA; Srinivasan, V; Tolman, WB; Vinokurov, N; Vollhardt, KPC; Weidman, TW

    2014-10-03

    A study of the scope and limitations of varying the ligand framework around the dinuclear core of FvRu(2) in its function as a molecular solar thermal energy storage framework is presented. It includes DFT calculations probing the effect of substituents, other metals, and CO exchange for other ligands on Delta H-storage. Experimentally, the system is shown to be robust in as much as it tolerates a number of variations, except for the identity of the metal and certain substitution patterns. Failures include 1,1',3,3'-tetra-tert-butyl (4), 1,2,2',3'-tetraphenyl (9), diiron (28), diosmium (24), mixed iron-ruthenium (27), dimolybdenum (29), and di-tungsten (30) derivatives. An extensive screen of potential catalysts for the thermal reversal identified AgNO3-SiO2 as a good candidate, although catalyst decomposition remains a challenge.

  18. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Elmhurst, IL); Mason, George W. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  19. Ordered, microphase-separated, noncharged-charged diblock copolymers via the sequential ATRP of styrene and styrenic imidazolium monomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, ZX; Newell, BS; Bailey, TS; Gin, DL

    2014-12-15

    A series of imidazolium-based noncharged-charged diblock copolymers (1) was synthesized by the direct, sequential ATRP of styrene and styrenic imidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl)sulfonamide monomers with methyl, n-butyl, and n-decyl side-chains. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies on initial examples of 1 with a total of 50 repeat units and styrene:imidazolium-styrene repeat unit ratios of 25:25, 20:30, and 15:35 showed that their ability to form ordered nanostructures (i.e., sphere and cylinder phases) in their neat states depends on both the block ratio and the length of the alkyl side-chain on the imidazolium monomer. To our knowledge, the synthesis of imidazolium-based BCPs that form ordered, phase-separated nanostructures via direct ATRP of immiscible co-monomers is unprecedented. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The importance of ion size and electrode curvature on electrical double layers in ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, G.; Qiao, R.; Huang, J; Dai, S.; Sumpter, B. G.; Meunier, V.

    2011-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. We investigate the effects of ion size and electrode curvature on the electrical double layers (EDLs) in two ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF{sub 6}], using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The sizes of the counter-ion and co-ion affect the ion distribution and orientational structure of EDLs. The EDL capacitances near both planar and cylindrical electrodes were found to follow the order: [BMIM][Cl] (near the positive electrode) > [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] (near the positive electrode) ? [BMIM][Cl] (near the negative electrode) ? [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] (near the negative electrode). The EDL capacitance was also found to increase as the electrode curvature increases. These capacitance data can be fit to the Helmholtz model and the recently proposed exohedral electrical double-cylinder capacitor (xEDCC) model when the EDL thickness is properly parameterized, even though key features of the EDLs in ILs are not accounted for in these models. To remedy the shortcomings of existing models, we propose a “Multiple Ion Layers with Overscreening” (MILO) model for the EDLs in ILs that takes into account two critical features of such EDLs, i.e., alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions and charge overscreening. The capacitance computed from the MILO model agrees well with the MD prediction. Although some input parameters of the MILO model must be obtained from MD simulations, the MILO model may provide a new framework for understanding many important aspects of EDLs in ILs (e.g., the variation of EDL capacitance with the electrode potential) that are difficult to interpret using classical EDL models and experiments.

  1. The Importance of Ion Size and Electrode Curvature on Electrical Double Layers in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Guang; Qiao, Rui; Huang, Jingsong; Dai, Sheng; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. We investigate the effects of ion size and electrode curvature on the electrical double layers (EDLs) in two ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF(6)], using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The sizes of the counter-ion and co-ion affect the ion distribution and orientational structure of EDLs. The EDL capacitances near both planar and cylindrical electrodes were found to follow the order: [BMIM][Cl] (near the positive electrode) > [BMIM][PF(6)] (near the positive electrode) {approx} [BMIM][Cl] (near the negative electrode) {approx} [BMIM][PF(6)] (near the negative electrode). The EDL capacitance was also found to increase as the electrode curvature increases. These capacitance data can be fit to the Helmholtz model and the recently proposed exohedral electrical double-cylinder capacitor (xEDCC) model when the EDL thickness is properly parameterized, even though key features of the EDLs in ILs are not accounted for in these models. To remedy the shortcomings of existing models, we propose a 'Multiple Ion Layers with Overscreening' (MILO) model for the EDLs in ILs that takes into account two critical features of such EDLs, i.e., alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions and charge overscreening. The capacitance computed from the MILO model agrees well with the MD prediction. Although some input parameters of the MILO model must be obtained from MD simulations, the MILO model may provide a new framework for understanding many important aspects of EDLs in ILs (e.g., the variation of EDL capacitance with the electrode potential) that are difficult to interpret using classical EDL models and experiments.

  2. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural geology of the CP Hills, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; and regional implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caskey, S.J.

    1991-08-01

    Detailed mapping and structural analysis of upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks in the CP Hills of the Nevada Test Site, together with analysis of published maps and cross sections and a reconnaissance of regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust of Barnes and Poole (1968) actually comprises two separate, oppositely verging Mesozoic thrust systems: (1) the west-vergent CP thrust which is well exposed in the CP Hills and at Mine Mountain, and (2) the east-vergent Belted Range thrust located northwest of Yucca Flat. West-vergence of the CP thrust is indicated by large scale west-vergent recumbent folds in both its hangingwall and footwall and by the fact that the CP thrust ramps up section through hangingwall strata toward the northwest. Regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust forms part of a narrow sigmoidal belt of west-vergent folding and thrusting traceable for over 180 km along strike. The Belted Range thrust represents earlier Mesozoic deformation that was probably related to the Last Chance thrust system in southeastern California, as suggested by earlier workers. A pre-Tertiary reconstruction of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt in the region between the NTS and the Las Vegas Range bears a close resemblance to other regions of the Cordillera and has important implications for the development of hinterland-vergent deformation as well as for the probable magnitude of Tertiary extension north of Las Vegas Valley. Subsequent to Mesozoic deformation, the CP Hills were disrupted by at least two episodes of Tertiary extensional deformation: (1) an earlier episode represented by pre-middle Miocene low-angle normal faults, and (2) a later, post-11 Ma episode of high-angle normal faulting. Both episodes of extension were related to regional deformation, the latter of which has resulted in the present basin and range topography of the NTS region.

  3. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  4. Completion Report for Well ER-12-3 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada Corporation

    2006-05-01

    Well ER-12-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in March and April 2005 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology of central Rainier Mesa, especially in the older Tertiary volcanic rocks and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The main 47.0-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 799.2 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 743.1 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters, and the well was drilled to a total depth of 1,496.0 meters. The completion string consisted of 13.97-centimeter stainless steel casing, with two slotted intervals open to the lower carbonate aquifer, suspended from 19.37-centimeter carbon steel casing. A piezometer string was installed outside the 33.97-centimeter casing to a depth of 467.1 meters to monitor a zone of perched water within the Tertiary volcanic section. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters (extra cuttings samples were collected from the Paleozoic rocks for paleontological analyses), sidewall core samples from 35 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated 674.2 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks and 821.7 meters of Paleozoic dolomite and limestone. Forty-nine days after the well was completed, but prior to well development and testing, the water level inside the main hole was tagged at the depth of 949.1 meters, and the water level inside the piezometer string was tagged at 379.9 meters.

  5. Improved wastewater treatment at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporations`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goshe, A.J.; Nodianos, M.J. [Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp., Follansbee, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation recently improved its wastewater treatment at it`s by-products coke plant. This has led to greatly improved effluent quality. Excess ammonia liquor, along with wastewater from the light oil recovery plant, desulfurization facility, and coal pile runoff, must be treated prior to being discharged into the Ohio River. This is accomplished using a biological wastewater treatment plant to remove 99.99% of the organic contaminants and ammonia. Biologically treated, clarified wastewater is now polished in the newly constructed tertiary treatment plant.

  6. Selective removal of carbonyl sulfide from a hydrogen sulfide containing gas mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souby, M.C.

    1990-12-25

    This patent describes a process for the selective removal of carbonyl sulfide from a gas mixture also comprising hydrogen sulfide. It comprises contacting the gas mixture with an absorbent comprising from about 35% w to about 55% w of a tertiary amine; from about 5% w to about 15% w of water, and the balance being a physical co-solvent; regenerating the loaded absorbent to remove substantially all of the carbonyl sulfide and most of the hydrogen sulfide to provide a lean absorbent containing hydrogen sulfide in an amount of 0.2% w to 2% w; and recycling the lean absorbent to the contacting step.

  7. Synthesis and Interactions of 7-Deoxy-, 10-Deacetoxy, and 10-Deacetoxy-7-Deoxypaclitaxel with NCI/ADR-RES Cancer Cells and Bovine Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Haibo; Vasandani, Veena; Huff, Jacquelyn K.; Audus, Kenneth L.; Himes, Richard H.; Seelig, Anna; Georg, Gunda I.

    2006-01-01

    , containing oxygens are denoted as “A” and less potent donors such as tertiary amines, halides, sulfides or ?-electron donating groups as “a”. In addition, two so-called type II units, groups 5 and 6, were identified. Type II units are formed either....5 + 0.3 A, with the outer two acceptor groups at a distance of 4.6 + 0.6 Ĺ (group 6: AAA (1.4.6) relationship between the C9 carbonyl and the C10 acetate). The type I units are found in all Pgp substrates and type II units are present in all Pgp...

  8. Completion Report for Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-02-28

    Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The holes were drilled in July and August 2009, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of these wells was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. They may also be used as long-term monitoring wells.

  9. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1989-10-17

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  10. Completion Report for Well ER-20-4 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-04-30

    Well ER-20-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in August and September 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to investigate the possibility of radionuclide transport from up-gradient underground nuclear tests conducted in central Pahute Mesa. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model.

  11. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  12. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  13. Wide field of view telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  14. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  15. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Mississippi and Florida airborne survey, Tupelo quadrangle, Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The Tupelo quadrangle covers a region immediately east of the Mississippi River flood plain in the northernmost Gulf Coastal Physiographic Province. Sediments of Teritary and Paleozoic basins shoal eastward. Tertiary exposures dominate the western half of the quadrangle. Cretaceous strata are exposed over most of the eastern half. A search of available literature revealed no known uranium deposits. A total of eighty-six uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly. Few were considered significant, and most appear to relate to some cultural feature. Magnetic data appears, for the most part, to be in agreement with existing structural interpretations of the region.

  16. Calcium-tolerant N-substituted acrylamides as thickeners for aqueous systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, Charles L. (Hattiesburg, MS); Blackmon, Kenneth P. (Hattiesburg, MS)

    1986-01-01

    A water-soluble ionically-charged random copolymer of acrylamide and an alkaline or alkali metal 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate having an average molecular weight of greater than about 50,000 has been found to maintain unusually stable and effective viscosities in the presence of salts such as NaCl and CaCl.sub.2 when added to water in minor amounts, thus making it a highly effective mobility control agent for secondary and tertiary oil recovery methods. Also within the scope of the invention are terpolymers which additionally contain olefinically unsaturated monomers such as acrylic acid or sodium acrylate.

  17. Polyfunctional catalyst for processiing benzene fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Byakov; B.D. Zubitskii; B.G. Tryasunov; I.Ya. Petrov

    2009-05-15

    A by-product of the coke industry is a raw benzene fraction benzene- 1 which may serve as for catalytic processes. The paper reports a study on the influence of the composition and temperatures on the activity and selectivity of NiO-V{sub 2}O{sub 6}-MoO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and the corresponding binary and tertiary subsystems are studied by a pulse method in model reactions; the hydrodealkylating of toluene and the hydrodesulfurizing of thioprhene. The optimal catalyst composition is established. The new catalyst is compared with industrial catalysts.

  18. Geology of the Chriesman-Milano Area, Burleson and Milam Counties, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, Robert Andrew

    1956-01-01

    ft & M COLLEGE OF TEXAS GEOLOGY OF THE CHRIESMAN-MILANO AREA BURLESON AND MILAM COUNTIES, TEXAS A Thesis By ROBERT ANDREW NOBLE Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas i n p a r t i a l... 1956 T h e s Is N15I A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S Respectful appreciation i s extended Mr, Clay L. Seward for intro ducing the student to some of the pleasures and problems of surface geology i n the Tertiary of the Texas Gulf Coast. The writer...

  19. The synthesis and characterization of ammonium dizirconium triphosphate and its derivatives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Brian Dale

    1989-01-01

    of n-butylamine/ZrP (12:336) in 6. 0 milliliters of water at 300'C for 30 hours. It also gave the new phase. The similarity of the PXRD of the new material to that of a high temperature form of sodium zirconium phosphate, NaZr2(PO4)3, was noted by a... in the presence of the sodium zirconium phosphate gel. Since the ZrP of lowest crystallinity along with the simplest amine gave the same result as the fully crystallized ZrP intercalated with a large tertiary amine, it was felt that perhaps a freshly formed...

  20. A Hydrostratigraphic Model and Alternatives for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat-Climax Mine, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geotechnical Sciences Group Bechtel Nevada

    2006-01-01

    A new three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit was completed in 2005. The model area includes Yucca Flat and Climax Mine, former nuclear testing areas at the Nevada Test Site, and proximal areas. The model area is approximately 1,250 square kilometers in size and is geologically complex. Yucca Flat is a topographically closed basin typical of many valleys in the Basin and Range province. Faulted and tilted blocks of Tertiary-age volcanic rocks and underlying Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks form low ranges around the structural basin. During the Cretaceous Period a granitic intrusive was emplaced at the north end of Yucca Flat. A diverse set of geological and geophysical data collected over the past 50 years was used to develop a structural model and hydrostratigraphic system for the basin. These were integrated using EarthVision? software to develop the 3-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model. Fifty-six stratigraphic units in the model area were grouped into 25 hydrostratigraphic units based on each unit's propensity toward aquifer or aquitard characteristics. The authors organized the alluvial section into 3 hydrostratigraphic units including 2 aquifers and 1 confining unit. The volcanic units in the model area are organized into 13 hydrostratigraphic units that include 8 aquifers and 5 confining units. The underlying pre-Tertiary rocks are divided into 7 hydrostratigraphic units, including 3 aquifers and 4 confining units. Other units include 1 Tertiary-age sedimentary confining unit and 1 Mesozoic-age granitic confining unit. The model depicts the thickness, extent, and geometric relationships of these hydrostratigraphic units (''layers'' in the model) along with the major structural features (i.e., faults). The model incorporates 178 high-angle normal faults of Tertiary age and 2 low-angle thrust faults of Mesozoic age. The complexity of the model area and the non-uniqueness of some of the interpretations incorporated into the base model made it necessary to formulate alternative interpretations for some of the major features in the model. Five of these alternatives were developed so they could be modeled in the same fashion as the base model. This work was done for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Underground Test Area subproject of the Environmental Restoration Project.

  1. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  2. Depositional patterns and reservoir morphology of Guadalupian Cherry Canyon sandstones, Indian Draw Field, Eddy County, New Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Sandra

    1981-01-01

    at depths ranging from. 3200 to 3350 ft (975 to 1020 m). These reservoir sand- stones occur interbedded with limestones, siltstones and thin shales, and were deposited approximately 10 mi (16 km) downdip from the Guadalupian reef front in the Delaware... and distribution of these sand- stones should aid in future exploration efforts as well as secondary and tertiary recovery of oil during development of similar Delaware Mountain Group fields. DEDICATIOiV IN MEMORY OF MY MOTHER NONA MORl'IAN PHILLIPS ACKI...

  3. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymer gels and the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallapragada, Surya K. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Brian C. (Lake Bluff, IA)

    2007-05-15

    The present invention provides novel gel forming methacrylic blocking copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether polymer. The polymers may be used for drug and gene delivery, protein separation, as structural supplements, and more.

  4. Injectible bodily prosthetics employing methacrylic copolymer gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-02-27

    The present invention provides novel block copolymers as structural supplements for injectible bodily prosthetics employed in medical or cosmetic procedures. The invention also includes the use of such block copolymers as nucleus pulposus replacement materials for the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and spinal injuries. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether polymer.

  5. CSAW: a dynamical model of protein folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerson Huang

    2006-01-12

    CSAW (conditioned self-avoiding walk) is a model of protein folding that combines SAW (self-avoiding walk) with Monte-Carlo. It simulates the Brownian motion of a chain molecule in the presence of interactions, both among chain residues, and with the environment. In a first model that includes the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding, a chain of 30 residues folds into a native state with stable secondary and tertiary structures. The process starts with a rapid collapse into an intermediate "molten globule", which slowly decays into the native state afer a relatively long quiescent period. The behavior of the radius of gyration mimics experimental data.

  6. THE PHASES DIFFERENTIAL ASTROMETRY DATA ARCHIVE. V. CANDIDATE SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Lane, Benjamin F.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Konacki, Maciej; Burke, Bernard F.; Colavita, M. M.; Shao, M.; Hartkopf, William I.; Boss, Alan P.; Williamson, M. E-mail: blane@draper.co

    2010-12-15

    The Palomar High-precision Astrometric Search for Exoplanet Systems monitored 51 subarcsecond binary systems to evaluate whether tertiary companions as small as Jovian planets orbited either the primary or secondary stars, perturbing their otherwise smooth Keplerian motions. Six binaries are presented that show evidence of substellar companions orbiting either the primary or secondary star. Of these six systems, the likelihoods of two of the detected perturbations to represent real objects are considered to be 'high confidence', while the remaining four systems are less certain and will require continued observations for confirmation.

  7. Degradation problems with the solvent extraction organic at Roessing uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munyungano, Brodrick; Feather, Angus; Virnig, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Roessing Uranium Ltd recovers uranium from a low-grade ore in Namibia. Uranium is recovered and purified from an ion-exchange eluate in a solvent-extraction plant. The solvent-extraction plant uses Alamine 336 as the extractant for uranium, with isodecanol used as a phase modifier in Sasol SSX 210, an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent. Since the plant started in the mid 1970's, there have been a few episodes where the tertiary amine has been quickly and severely degraded when the plant was operated outside certain operating parameters. The Rossing experience is discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  8. Wastewater Recycle- A Sustainable Approach Towards Desalination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, A.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption, Kwh/1000gal. 12 - 14 4 - 5 13 - 15 Thermal Energy Consumption, MM BTU/1000gal. 0.75 ? 1.1 0.6 ? 1.0 - Salient Comparative of Desalination Technologies Basis: Seawater TDS: 30,000 ? 40,000 ppm Seawater Temperature: 25 ? 30 C ESL-IE-13....g. MBBR, BAF) ? Tertiary Treatment ?For discharge ?Media/sand Filter ?GAC Adsorption ?Disinfection ?For Reuse ?Media Filter, MF/UF ?HERO/RO ? ZLD Raw WW Disposal Reuse ESL-IE-13-05-07 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy...

  9. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  10. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  11. Calcium-tolerant N-substituted acrylamides as thickeners for aqueous systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, C.L.; Blackmon, K.P.

    1986-04-22

    A water-soluble ionically-charged random copolymer of acrylamide and an alkaline or alkali metal 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate having an average molecular weight of greater than about 50,000 has been found to maintain unusually stable and effective viscosities in the presence of salts such as NaCl and CaCl[sub 2] when added to water in minor amounts, thus making it a highly effective mobility control agent for secondary and tertiary oil recovery methods. Also within the scope of the invention are terpolymers which additionally contain olefinically unsaturated monomers such as acrylic acid or sodium acrylate.

  12. Regenerable solid imine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Fauth, Daniel; Beckman, Eric

    2013-09-10

    Two new classes of amine-based sorbents are disclosed. The first class comprises new polymer-immobilized tertiary amine sorbents; the second class new polymer-bound amine sorbents. Both classes are tailored to facilitate removal of acid anhydrides, especially carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2), from effluent gases. The amines adsorb acid anhydrides in a 1:1 molar ratio. Both classes of amine sorbents adsorb in the temperature range from about 20.degree. C. upwards to 90.degree. C. and can be regenerated by heating upwards to 100.degree. C.

  13. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Kaufman, A. N. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tracy, E. R. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  14. An earwig in Late Cretaceous Vendean amber (Dermaptera)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engel, Michael S.; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-12-01

    or Dominican Republic (Wappler, Engel, & Haas, 2005; Engel, unpubl. data), both from the Tertiary, while in the Cretaceous the most diverse fauna is that of the Albian-Cenomanian amber from Myanmar (e.g., Engel & Grimaldi, 2004; Engel, 2011, Engel...-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Dermaptera, Neodermaptera). ZooKeys 130:137–152, DOI: 10.3897/ zookeys.130.1293. Engel, M. S., & D. A. Grimaldi. 2004. A primitive earwig in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Dermaptera: Pygidicranidae). Journal of Paleon- tology 78...

  15. Mechanisms Governing the Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasudevan, Vijay; Carroll, Laura; Sham, Sam

    2015-04-06

    This research project, which includes collaborators from INL and ORNL, focuses on the study of alloy 617 and alloy 800H that are candidates for applications as intermediate heat exchangers in GEN IV nuclear reactors, with an emphasis on the effects of grain size, grain boundaries and second phases on the creep properties; the mechanisms of dislocation creep, diffusional creep and cavitation; the onset of tertiary creep; and theoretical modeling for long-term predictions of materials behavior and for high temperature alloy design.

  16. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  17. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1981-09-24

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium, ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  18. Approaches for regeneration of amine-carboxylic acid extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extraction processes based on reversible chemical complexation can be useful for separation of polar organics from dilute solution. Tertiary amines are effective extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from aqueous solution. The regeneration of aminecarboxylic acid extracts is an important step which strongly influences the economic viability of the separation process. Several regeneration methods are critically reviewed, and the factors that affect swing regeneration processes, including temperature-swing, diluent composition-swing and pH-swing with a volatile base are discussed. Interest in this area comes from interest in treatment of waste streams, particularly in petrochemical and fermentation manufacture.

  19. Machine-inudced backgrounds: their origin and loads on ATLAS/CMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab; Weiler, T.; /CERN

    2008-05-01

    A detailed analysis of machine-induced backgrounds (MIB) in the LHC collider detectors is performed with focus on origin and rates for three sources: tertiary beam halo, beam-gas interactions and kicker prefire. Particle fluxes originating from these operational and accidental beam losses are carefully calculated with the MARS15 code and presented at the entrance to the ATLAS and CMS experimental halls. It is shown that background rates in detector subsystems strongly depend on the origin of MIB, particle energy and type. Using this source term, instantaneous and integrated loads on the detectors and impact on the detector performance can be derived.

  20. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  1. Microsoft Word - Document6

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OF PAGESpersonal MarchBoard hiresWolfgang L9 ARM/Tertiary

  2. Affinity of An(VI) for N4-Tetradentate Donor Ligands: Complexation of the Actinyl(VI) Ions with N4-Tetradentate Ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, Mark; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2012-05-01

    In this report the affinity of four N4-tetradentate ligands that incorporate the 2- methylpyridyl functionality with hexavalent actinides (AnO2+2 ) has been investigated in methanol solution. The ligands studied include N,N*-bis(2-methylpyridyl)diaminoethane (BPMDAE), N,N-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane (BPMDAP), N,N*-bis(2-pyridylmethyl) piperazine (BPMPIP), and trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC). Conditional stability constants describing the strength of the interaction were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The log10K101 values for both U(VI) and Pu(VI) are comparable and show the same trend of stability with ligand structure. Dinuclear complexes are also indicated as being important. The log10K201 values for Pu(VI) complexation with the N4-ligands are identical for the four ligands (within experimental error), indicating that the structure of the ligand backbone has little effect on the stability of the (PuO2)2L2+ complex. The exception to this trend is the behavior of N,N*- bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine (BPMPIP) with Pu(VI). This ligand displays a tendency to reduce Pu(VI) within the experimental time frame of 45 minutes. BPMPIP is the only ligand tested that contains tertiary amines in the ligand backbone. The decomposition of BPMPIP by Pu(VI) suggests a susceptibility of tertiary amines to oxidative degradation.

  3. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  4. Reactions of C{sub 2}(a {sup 3} product {sub u}) with selected saturated alkanes: A temperature dependence study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Renzhi; Zhang Qun; Chen Yang

    2010-04-28

    We present a temperature dependence study on the gas phase reactions of the C{sub 2}(a {sup 3} product {sub u}) radical with a selected series of saturated alkanes (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}, i-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}, and n-C{sub 6}H{sub 14}) by means of pulsed laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence technique. The bimolecular rate constants for these reactions were obtained between 298 and 673 K. A pronounced negative temperature effect was observed for n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}, i-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}, and n-C{sub 6}H{sub 14} and interpreted in terms of steric hindrance of the more reactive secondary or tertiary C-H bonds by less reactive CH{sub 3} groups. Detailed analysis of our experimental results reveals quantitatively the temperature dependence of reactivities for the primary, secondary, and tertiary C-H bonds in these saturated alkanes and further lends support to a mechanism of hydrogen abstraction.

  5. Creep property and microstructure evolution of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy in [011] orientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, G.M., E-mail: gmhan@imr.ac.cn; Yu, J.J.; Hu, Z.Q.; Sun, X.F.

    2013-12-15

    The creep property and microstructure evolution of a single crystal superalloy with [011] orientation were investigated at the temperatures of 700 °C, 900 °C and 1040 °C. It is shown that there exist stages of primary, steady-state, and tertiary creep under the lower temperature 700 °C. As the temperature increases to high temperatures of 900 °C and 1040 °C, steady-state creep stage is reduced or disappears and the shape of creep curves is dominated by an extensive tertiary stage. The minimum creep strain rate exhibits power law dependence on the applied stress; the stress exponents at 700 °C, 900 °C and 1040 °C are 28, 13 and 6.5, respectively. Microstructure observation shows that the morphologies of ?? phase almost keep original shape at the lower temperature 700 °C and high applied stress. With the increasing creep temperature, ?? precipitates tend to link together and form lamellar structure at an angle of 45° inclined to the applied stress. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations reveal that multiple < 110 > (111) slip systems gliding in the matrix channels and shearing ?? precipitates by stacking faults or bending dislocation pairs are the main deformation mechanism at the lower temperature of 700 °C. At the high temperatures of 900 °C and 1040 °C, dislocation networks are formed at ?/?? interfaces and the ?? rafts are sheared by dislocation pairs. - Highlights: • Creep properties of < 011 >-oriented single crystal superalloys were investigated. • ?? phases become rafting at an angle of 45° inclined to the applied stress. • Creep deformation mechanisms depend on temperature and stress.

  6. Molecular crowding overcomes the destabilizing effects of mutations in a bacterial ribozyme

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Hui-Ting; Kilburn, D.; Behrouzi, R.; Briber, R. M.; Woodson, S. A.

    2014-12-05

    The native structure of the Azoarcus group I ribozyme is stabilized by the cooperative formation of tertiary interactions between double helical domains. Thus, even single mutations that break this network of tertiary interactions reduce ribozyme activity in physiological Mg2+ concentrations. Here, we report that molecular crowding comparable to that in the cell compensates for destabilizing mutations in the Azoarcus ribozyme. Small angle X-ray scattering, native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and activity assays were used to compare folding free energies in dilute and crowded solutions containing 18% PEG1000. Crowder molecules allowed the wild-type and mutant ribozymes to fold at similarly low Mg2+more »concentrations and stabilized the active structure of the mutant ribozymes under physiological conditions. This compensation helps explains why ribozyme mutations are often less deleterious in the cell than in the test tube. Nevertheless, crowding did not rescue the high fraction of folded but less active structures formed by double and triple mutants. We conclude that crowding broadens the fitness landscape by stabilizing compact RNA structures without improving the specificity of self-assembly.« less

  7. Probing the mechanism of rubredoxin thermal unfolding in the absence of salt bridges by temperature jump experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriques, Barbara J. [Instituto Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal); Saraiva, Ligia M. [Instituto Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal); Gomes, Claudio M. [Instituto Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal)]. E-mail: gomes@itqb.unl.pt

    2005-08-05

    Rubredoxins are the simplest type of iron-sulphur proteins and in recent years they have been used as model systems in protein folding and stability studies, especially the proteins from thermophilic sources. Here, we report our studies on the rubredoxin from the hyperthermophile Methanococcus jannaschii (T {sub opt} = 85 deg C), which was investigated in respect to its thermal unfolding kinetics by temperature jump experiments. Different spectroscopic probes were used to monitor distinct structural protein features during the thermal transition: the integrity of the iron-sulphur centre was monitored by visible absorption spectroscopy, whereas tertiary structure was followed by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and exposure of protein hydrophobic patches was sensed by 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate fluorescence. The studies were performed at acidic pH conditions in which any stabilising contributions from salt bridges are annulled due to protonation of protein side chain groups. In these conditions, M. jannaschii rubredoxin assumes a native-like, albeit more flexible and open conformation, as indicated by a red shift in the tryptophan emission maximum and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate binding. Temperature jumps were monitored by the three distinct techniques and showed that the protein undergoes thermal denaturation via a simple two step mechanism, as loss of tertiary structure, hydrophobic collapse, and disintegration of the iron-sulphur centre are concomitant processes. The proposed mechanism is framed with the multiphasic one proposed for Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin, showing that a common thermal unfolding mechanism is not observed between these two closely related thermophilic rubredoxins.

  8. Post-Cretaceous faulting at head of Mississippi embayment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, W.J. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Harrison, R.W. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Recent mapping in southernmost Illinois and southeastern Missouri has revealed numerous faults that displace Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Units as young as the Pliocene-Pleistocene( ) Mounds Gravel are deformed; some faults possibly displace Quaternary sediments. The faults strike northeast, dip nearly vertically, and exhibit characteristics of dextral strike-slip. Pull-apart grabens occur along right-stepping fault strands, they contain chaotically jumbled blocks of Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks downdropped as much as 800 m relative to wall rocks. Faults at the head of the Mississippi embayment probably originated during Cambrian rifting (Reelfoot rift) and have a long, complex history of reactivation under different stress fields. Some faults are on strike with faults in the New Madrid seismic zone. Kinematics of post-Cretaceous displacements fit the contemporary stress regime of ENE-WSW compression. Similar fault orientations and kinematics, as well as close proximity, suggest a close link between faulting at the head of the embayment and ongoing tectonism in the New Madrid seismic zone.

  9. Optoelectronic devices incorporating fluoropolymer compositions for protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Xuming; Chum, Pak-Wing S.; Howard, Kevin E.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Sumner, William C.; Wu, Shaofu

    2015-12-22

    The fluoropolymer compositions of the present invention generally incorporate ingredients comprising one or more fluoropolymers, an ultraviolet light protection component (hereinafter UV protection component), and optionally one or more additional ingredients if desired. The UV protection component includes a combination of at least one hindered tertiary amine (HTA) compound having a certain structure and a weight average molecular weight of at least 1000. This tertiary amine is used in combination with at least one organic, UV light absorbing compound (UVLA compound) having a weight average molecular weight greater than 500. When the HTA compound and the UVLA compound are selected according to principles of the present invention, the UV protection component provides fluoropolymer compositions with significantly improved weatherability characteristics for protecting underlying materials, features, structures, components, and/or the like. In particular, fluoropolymer compositions incorporating the UV protection component of the present invention have unexpectedly improved ability to resist blackening, coloration, or other de gradation that may be caused by UV exposure. As a consequence, devices protected by these compositions would be expected to have dramatically improved service life. The compositions have a wide range of uses but are particularly useful for forming protective layers in optoelectronic devices.

  10. Protein structure prediction enhanced with evolutionary diversity : SPEED.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBartolo, J.; Hocky, G.; Wilde, M.; Xu, J.; Freed, K. F.; Sosnick, T. R.; Univ. of Chicago; Toyota Technological Inst. at Chicago

    2010-03-01

    For naturally occurring proteins, similar sequence implies similar structure. Consequently, multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) often are used in template-based modeling of protein structure and have been incorporated into fragment-based assembly methods. Our previous homology-free structure prediction study introduced an algorithm that mimics the folding pathway by coupling the formation of secondary and tertiary structure. Moves in the Monte Carlo procedure involve only a change in a single pair of {phi},{psi} backbone dihedral angles that are obtained from a Protein Data Bank-based distribution appropriate for each amino acid, conditional on the type and conformation of the flanking residues. We improve this method by using MSAs to enrich the sampling distribution, but in a manner that does not require structural knowledge of any protein sequence (i.e., not homologous fragment insertion). In combination with other tools, including clustering and refinement, the accuracies of the predicted secondary and tertiary structures are substantially improved and a global and position-resolved measure of confidence is introduced for the accuracy of the predictions. Performance of the method in the Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP8) is discussed.

  11. Medical waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria: Obstacles and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coker, Akinwale [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); School of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1SB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: cokerwale@yahoo.com; Sangodoyin, Abimbola [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Sridhar, Mynepalli [Division of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Booth, Colin; Olomolaiye, Paul; Hammond, Felix [School of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1SB (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Quantification and characterization of medical waste generated in healthcare facilities (HCFs) in a developing African nation has been conducted to provide insights into existing waste collection and disposal approaches, so as to provide sustainable avenues for institutional policy improvement. The study, in Ibadan city, Nigeria, entailed a representative classification of nearly 400 healthcare facilities, from 11 local government areas (LGA) of Ibadan, into tertiary, secondary, primary, and diagnostic HCFs, of which, 52 HCFs were strategically selected. Primary data sources included field measurements, waste sampling and analysis and a questionnaire, while secondary information sources included public and private records from hospitals and government ministries. Results indicate secondary HCFs generate the greatest amounts of medical waste (mean of 10,238 kg/day per facility) followed by tertiary, primary and diagnostic HCFs, respectively. Characterised waste revealed that only {approx}3% was deemed infectious and highlights opportunities for composting, reuse and recycling. Furthermore, the management practices in most facilities expose patients, staff, waste handlers and the populace to unnecessary health risks. This study proffers recommendations to include (i) a need for sustained cooperation among all key actors (government, hospitals and waste managers) in implementing a safe and reliable medical waste management strategy, not only in legislation and policy formation but also particularly in its monitoring and enforcement and (ii) an obligation for each HCF to ensure a safe and hygienic system of medical waste handling, segregation, collection, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal, with minimal risk to handlers, public health and the environment.

  12. Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jager, J. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Doyle, M. (Petroleum Development Oman, Muscat (Oman)); Grantham, P. (KSEPL/Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Mabillard, J. (Shell Nigeria, Port Harcourt (Nigeria))

    1993-09-01

    The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

  13. Iberia versus Europe - Effects of continental break-up and round-up on hydrocarbon habitat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourrouilh, R.; Zolnai, G.

    1988-08-01

    Based on the continuity of foldbelts and the positions of intermountain continental nuclei and transcontinental megashears, a close Pangea fit is proposed for the central and north Atlantic borderlands. The Variscan arch segment missing between Brittany and Galicia in the Gulf of Gascony (Biscaye) can tentatively be identified with the Flemish Cap block off Newfoundland. At the same time the northwest African-Gondwana border (central Morocco) was located some 800 km farther to the west-northwest, as compared to its present position in southwestern Europe (Iberia). During the opening of the central and northern segments of the Atlantic Ocean (Jurassic and Cretaceous) and during the closure of the western Mediterranean basin, i.e., the thrust of Africa toward southern Europe (Tertiary), the European continental mass underwent deformation in the transtensive and transpressive modes, which reactivated parts of its inherited structural network. The trailing south European continental margin was partially dismembered into loosely bound continental blocks, to be assembled again during the subsequent Alpine orogenic cycle. These events can be compared with processes known in the northernmost and western segments of the North American continent. Mechanisms are proposed for the formation and deformation of inter- and intraplate basins by way of moderate shifts (wrenching) and slight rotations, the direction of which changed during the Mesozoic-Tertiary according to the global stress field. The above evolution and mechanisms had multiple and decisive effects on hydrocarbon generation, habitat, and accumulation.

  14. Magnetotelluric Data, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackie M. Williams; Jay A. Sampson; Brian D. Rodriguez; and Theodore H. Asch.

    2006-11-03

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site northwest of Las Vegas. Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the ground-water table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near or within the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the Nevada Test Site, including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology, and its effects on ground-water flow. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit (Bechtel Nevada, 2006). During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from twenty-six magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) sites at the Nevada Test Site. The 2005 data stations were located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in those areas. These new stations extend the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. This work will help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU – late Devonian to Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) from the Yucca Flat area and west towards Shoshone Mountain, to Buckboard Mesa in the south, and onto Rainier Mesa in the north. Subsequent interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and a two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for the twenty-six stations shown in figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  15. Magnetotelluric Data, Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackie M. Williams; Erin L. Wallin; Brian D. Rodriguez; Charles R. Lindsay; and Jay A. Sampson

    2007-08-15

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit (CAU) (Bechtel Nevada, 2006). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT), stations for that research (Williams and others, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d, 2005e, 2005f). In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations (Williams and others, 2006), located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. This work was done to help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal was to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU). The UCCU is comprised of late Devonian to Mississippian siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale. The UCCU underlies the Yucca Flat area and extends westward towards Shoshone Mountain, southward to Buckboard Mesa, and northward to Rainier Mesa. Late in 2005 we collected another 14 MT stations in Mid Valley and in northern Yucca Flat basin. That work was done to better determine the extent and thickness of the UCCU near the southeastern RM-SM CAU boundary with the southwestern YF CAU, and also in the northern YF CAU. The purpose of this report is to release the MT data at those 14 stations shown in figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  16. Deep Resistivity Structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore H. Asch, Brian D. Rodriguez; Jay A. Sampson; Erin L. Wallin; and Jackie M. Williams.

    2006-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian – Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large fault structures such as the CP Thrust fault, the Carpetbag fault, and the Yucca fault that cross Yucca Flat are also discernable as are other smaller faults. The subsurface electrical resistivity distribution and inferred geologic structures determined by this investigation should help constrain the hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development.

  17. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  18. Phase behavior and oil recovery investigations using mixed and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; French, T.R.; Noll, L.A.; Munden, S.A.

    1992-03-01

    The results of an evaluation of different mixed surfactant and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several mixed surfactant systems have been studies to evaluate their oil recovery potential as well as improved adaptability to different ranges of salinity, divalent ion concentrations, and temperature. Several combinations of screening methods were used to help identify potential chemical formulations and determine conditions where particular chemical systems can be applied. The effects of different parameters on the behavior of the overall surfactant system were also studied. Several commercially available surfactants were tested as primary components in the mixtures used in the study. These surfactants were formulated with different secondary as well as tertiary components, including ethoxylated and non-ethoxylated sulfonates and sulfates. Improved salinity and hardness tolerance was achieved for some of these chemical systems. The salinity tolerance of these systems were found to be dependent on the molecular weight, surfactant type, and concentration of the surfactant components.

  19. Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report here a constitutive model for predicting long-term creep strain evolution in ?’ strengthened Ni-base superalloys. Dislocation climb-bypassing ?’, typical in intermediate ?’ volume fraction (~20%) alloys, is considered as the primary deformation mechanism. Dislocation shearing ?’ to anti-phase boundary (APB) faults and diffusional creep are also considered for high-stress and high-temperature low-stress conditions, respectively. Additional damage mechanism is taken into account for rapid increase in tertiary creep strain. The model has been applied to Alloy 282, and calibrated in a temperature range of 1375-1450?F, and stress range of 15-45ksi. The model parameters and a MATLAB code are provided. This report is prepared by Monica Soare and Chen Shen at GE Global Research. Technical discussions with Dr. Vito Cedro are greatly appreciated. This work was supported by DOE program DE-FE0005859

  20. First photometric study of the very short period K-type contact binary 1SWASP J064501.21+342154.9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, N.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Liao, W.-P.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhao, E.-G.; Soonthornthum, B.

    2014-02-01

    The first high precision CCD photometric light curves of 1SWASP J064501.21+342154.9 were obtained in 2013 February along with several new times of minimum light. The multi-color light curves were analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney code. Photometric solutions reveal that the system is a W-type shallow contact binary with a mass ratio of q = 2.110 ± 0.007 and a degree of contact of f = 15.3% ± 2.1%. A third light contributing about 2% of the total luminosity in the I band was found. It may come from a cool tertiary component. A small spot found on the surface of the binary indicates that the solar-like activities are at a low level at present.