Sample records for gasoline-grade tertiary butyl

  1. Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    COORDINATOR'S REPORT FOR LIFETIME CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED AT THE CANCER

  2. Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    FOR LIFETIME CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF ETHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (ETBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED STUDY OF ETHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (ETBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED AT THE CANCER RESEARCH

  3. Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California Gunnar W. Schade,* Gabrielle B. Dreyfus, and Allen H. Goldstein ABSTRACT (CARB) measured MTBE in urban regions in 1995­ 1996, reporting a range of 0.4 to 13.2 ppbv in the LosMethyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE

  4. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  5. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

  6. Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoggins, Lacey E

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY a a w c"I. I. SI - O~ TI:YAf ANHYDROUS ALUMINUM CHLORIDE AS AN ALKYLATION CATALYST: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DIALKYIZENZENES FROM THE CONDENSATION QF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENKENE IACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS 4 A Thesis Submitted...: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DI~NZZNES FROM THE CONDENSATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENZENE A Thesis By LACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS Approved as to style and content hy: Chairman of Committee Head of Chemistry Department 1959 ACKNOWLEDGME1VTS The author...

  7. Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

  8. Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutcheon, D.E.; Hove, W. ten; Boyle, J. III [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States)] [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States); Arnold, J.D. [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)] [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1996-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). Perirenal fat/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5 {mu}g/L MTBE and 1.6 to 72.2 {mu}g/L TBA with a mean TBA:MTBE blood concentration ratio of 4.2. In patients who received MTBE by percutaneous, transhepatic puncture for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, concentrations of MTBE in fat tissue reached 60 and 300 {mu}g/g at a treatment time when mean blood MTBE was less than 20 {mu}g/ml. The results of laboratory and clinical studies indicate that metabolites of MTBE may contribute to the nephropathy, neoplasms, and other pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to MTBE in experimental animals. It is concluded that such studies can provide a well-defined database for quantitatitive safety comparisons and health risk-benefit analyses of MTBE and other oxygenates in RFG. 39 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Acute toxicity of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BenKinney, M.T.; Barbieri, J.F.; Gross, J.S.; Naro, P.A. [Stonybrook Labs. Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the recent amendment of the Clean Air Act, oxygenates are now being added to gasolines to boost octane and reduce air pollution from combustion in heavily populated areas. Oxygenates such as alcohols (i.e. methanol) and ethers (methyl-tertiary-butyl ether, MTBE) are commonly being used. A series of bioassay studies have been conducted with MTBE, one of the most commonly used octane-enhancing additives. Freshwater and marine studies were conducted with fish, invertebrates and algae to determine the impact of this material on the environment following accidental spills. Static-renewal studies were run to ensure maintenance of MTBE, a highly volatile material in the test containers. Chemical confirmation of exposure concentrations demonstrated the adequacy of the exposure system. Mysid shrimp were highly sensitive to MTBE, with significantly less effect observed with the other species evaluated. These data have implications for spill response, particularly since MTBE is slow to biodegrade and will rapidly move through groundwater. Comparative data for other oxygenates will also be discussed.

  10. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  11. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, A.B.; Pleil, J.D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers` exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented `valveless` cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects` breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 155 {mu}g for the refueling subject while it was only 30 {mu}g for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: Evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakehashi, Anna, E-mail: anna@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio [DIMS Institute of Medical Science, Inc., 64 Goura, Nishiazai, Azai-cho, Ichinomiya, Aichi 491-0113 (Japan); Nagano, Kasuke [Nagano Toxicologic-Pathology Consulting, Ochiai, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0025 (Japan); Nishimaki, Fukumi [Biofuel Assessment Group, New Fuels Dept., Japan Petroleum Energy Center (JPEC), 4-3-9 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Banton, Marcy [Toxicology and Risk Assessment, LyondellBasell Industries, LyondellBasell Corporate HSE/Product Safety, One Houston Center, Suite 700, 1221 McKinney Street, Houston, TX 770 10 (United States); Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0011 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans. - Highlights: • We focus on MOA and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ETBE. • ETBE was administered to F344 rats for 1 and 2 weeks. • Oxidative stress formation, proliferation and apoptosis in the liver are analyzed. • ETBE-induced changes of gene and protein expression in the liver are examined. • The effects are compared with those induced by non-genotoxic carcinogen PB.

  13. Nickel-Catalyzed Carbon–Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions of Unactivated Tertiary Alkyl Halides: Suzuki Arylations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Gregory C.

    The first Suzuki cross-couplings of unactivated tertiary alkyl electrophiles are described. The method employs a readily accessible catalyst (NiBr[subscript 2]·diglyme/4,4?-di-tert-butyl-2,2?-bipyridine, both commercially ...

  14. Radical-anions of aromatic compounds. VII. Reaction of the products from the reduction of nitrobenzene by sodium with isopropyl and tert-butyl iodides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilova, N.K.; Shteingarts, V.D.

    1986-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of the products from the reduction of nitrobenzene by one and two equivalents of sodium with isopropyl iodide leads to the formation of N,O-diisopropylphenylhydroxylamine, while the reaction with tert-butyl iodide leads to p-(tert-butyl)nitrobenzene. Such a change in the nature of the reaction product in the transition from the primary and secondary alkyl halides to the tertiary alkyl halides clearly results from a change in the S/sub N/2 mechanism to the S/sub RN/1 mechanism, involving transfer of an electron from the radical-anion or dianion of nitrobenzene to the alkyl halide. The formation of considerable amounts of azoxybenzene in the reaction with tert-butyl iodide shows that the dianion and, to a lesser degree, the radical-anion of nitrobenzene exhibit basic characteristics.

  15. antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  16. ammoniated glycyrrhizin butylated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  17. Biodegradation of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) using a granular activated carbon trickling filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Converse, B.M.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot scale trickling filter was constructed using granular activated carbon (GAC) as the packing medium and inoculated with a microbial culture known to degrade MTBE. The packing dimensions were 0.076 m in diameter and 0.22 m deep. The unit operated with recycling flow for two months before a biofilm was observed on the GAC. After two additional months the biofilm had visibly spread throughout the packing. A few pieces of GAC were placed in a sealed bottle with MTBE-contaminated water and nutrients. Headspace analysis performed over 14 days confirmed that MTBE degradation was occurring. The trickling filter was converted to continuous flow and operated for one month at a nominal flow rate of 0.1 L/min and a hydraulic loading rate of 32 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-d. Samples were collected for analysis at the spray nozzle and at the bottom of the trickling filter. Fractional removal varied with influent MTBE concentration, temperature and liquid flow rate. Percent MTBE removal was as high as 85%. A mechanical failure resulted in the trickling filter bed drying and percent removal dropping to less than 1 percent. However, the system recovered within five days.

  18. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater P.I. names,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a contaminant of concernsubsurface environments. MTBE appears to be degraded readily

  19. alkyl tert-butyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  20. active methyl tert-butyl: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  1. Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MtBE) contamination of the City of Santa Monica drinking water supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A.; Farrow, J.R.C. [Komex H2O Science, Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Rodriguez, R.A. [City of Santa Monica, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer of 1996, the City of Santa Monica ceased pumping groundwater from two Well Fields (Charnock and Arcadia) used for public drinking water supply due to persistent and increasing concentrations of MtBE in all seven municipal water supply wells. This lost production accounted for 50% of the City`s total drinking water supply. In late 1996, the City, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, initiated an investigation of MtBE contamination at the two well fields. The objectives of the investigation were as follows: (1) Review available data on the production, use, chemical characteristics, fate and transport, toxicology, and remediation of MtBE; (2) Identify locations of potential sources of MtBE groundwater contamination at the well fields; (3) Develop an understanding of the hydrologic pathways from the potential sources to the drinking water wells; and (4) Evaluate alternative treatment technologies for the removal of MtBE from drinking water. In addition to a review of available information about MtBE, the investigation included an extensive review of literature and available data relevant to the well fields, including well field production histories, site and regional hydrogeology, all well logs and production in the groundwater basins, general groundwater quality, and the record of MtBE detection. Based upon the review of background information, conceptual hydrogeologic models were developed. A detailed review of agency files for over 45 potential source sites was conducted. The information from this review was summarized, and source site screening and ranking criteria were developed. A field program was conducted at the major well field (Charnock), including soil gas surveys, CPTs, soil borings and well installations, geophysics, and aquifer testing. The field program provided site data which allowed the conceptual hydrogeologic model to be refitted to actual site conditions.

  2. Review of potential technologies for the treatment of Methyl tertiary butyl Ether (MtBE) in drinking water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A.; Browne, T.E. [Komex H2O Science, Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Devinny, J.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At present, the state of knowledge on effective treatment technologies for MtBE in drinking water, and groundwater in general, is limited. Research by others is focusing on the remediation of MtBE close to the point of release. The City of Santa Monica, MWD, Komex and USC are currently conducting research into different technologies that could be used to remove MtBE from drinking water supplies. The objectives of the research are to evaluate different treatment technologies to identify cost-effective and technically feasible alternatives for the removal of MtBE from drinking water. The evaluation is considering moderate to high water flow rates (100 to 2,000+ gpm) and low to moderate MtBE concentrations (<2,000 {mu}g/l). The research program includes four phases: (1) Literature Review; (2) Bench Scale Study; (3) Field Scale Pre-pilot Study; and (4) Summary Evaluation. This paper presents some preliminary information and findings from the first phase of this research - the literature review. The review discusses the chemical properties of MtBE and how they affect remediation and thus, an evaluation of alternative treatment technologies. The review of available literature, and the applicability and limitations of the following technologies are presented in detail.

  3. A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SN A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY), NORTH PARK BASIN, COLORADO By S assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  4. SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE DENVER BASIN, COLORADO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SD SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE DENVER BASIN, COLORADO By D. J. Nichols in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-A 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones here or on this symbol in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal

  5. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolites on HL-60 cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.H. [Xian Medical Univ. (China); Shen, Y.; Shen, H.M. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used oxygenate in unleaded gasoline; however, few studies have been conducted on the toxicity of this compound. This study evaluates the cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of MTBE and its metabolites in a human haemopoietic cell line, HL-60. The metabolites of MTBE studied include tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA), and formaldehyde. Comet assay is used to assess DNA damage, and the cytotoxicity is investigated by lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) release. The results show no significant cytotoxic effects of MTBE, TBA, and HIBA over a concentration ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Formaldehyde, in contrast, causes a substantial LDH release at a concentration of 5 {mu}M. Hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative agent, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, produces a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, whereas a much higher concentration of MTBE (1 to 30 mM) is required to produce a similar observation. The genotoxic effects of TBA and HIBA appear to be identical to that of MTBE. Conversely, DNA damage is observed for formaldehyde at a relatively low concentration range (5 to 100 {mu}M). These findings suggest that MTBE and its metabolites, except formaldehyde, have relatively low cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Butyl Fuel LLC formerly Environmental Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButyl Fuel LLC formerly

  7. Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj Department structures for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) reactive distillation columns are studied. Two process The use of reactive distillation has grown in recent years because it results in less expensive and more

  8. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern MTBE treatment are discussed. Introduction The rapidly rising number of reports of groundwater con- taminated with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has raised concerns about its

  9. Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407±416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Summary The widespread use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE is often proposed as the most promising alter- native after treatment. However, MTBE biodegradation appears

  10. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES IN THE NORTHERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Professional Paper 1625-A 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern or on this symbol in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones......................................................................ES-8 Figures ES-1. Coal basins under study in the current resource assessment, by region. ES-2

  11. Tertiary proton diagnostics in future inertial confinement fusion experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tertiary proton diagnostics in future inertial confinement fusion experiments S. Cremera) and C. P energetic up to 31 MeV tertiary protons produced during the final stage of inertial confinement fusion the elastic scattering of 14.1 MeV neutrons, is a source of very energetic protons capable of escaping from

  12. Oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) by ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitner, N.K.V.; Papailhou, A.L.; Croue, J.P.; Dore, M. (Univ. de Poitiers (France)); Peyrot, J. (British Petroleum, Harfleur (France))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work was to study the reaction of ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide on oxygenated additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in dilute aqueous solution using controlled experimental conditions. Experiments conducted in a semi-continuous reactor with MTBE and ETBE in combination (initial concentration: 2 mmol/L of each) showed that ETBE was better eliminated than MTBE with both ozone and combined O[sub 3]/H[sub 2]O[sub 2]. batch experiments led to the determination of the ratio of the kinetic constants for the reaction of OH[degree]-radical with MTBE and ETBE (k[sub OH[degree]/ETBE]/k[sub OH[degree]//MTBE] = 1.7). Tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl acetate were identified as the ozonation byproducts of MTBE an ETBE, respectively, while tert-butyl alcohol was found to be produced during the ozonation of both compounds. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  14. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F{trademark}), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste.

  15. Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and n-Butane Martin Li´sal,*,, William R + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n

  16. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline. In 1998, 11.9 billion liters of MTBE were produced in the U.S. MTBE has been detected frequently

  17. Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) plumes in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Happel, A.M.; Rice, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Beckenbach, E. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Savalin, L.; Temko, H.; Rempel, R. [California State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, CA (United States); Dooher, B. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate the addition of oxygenates to gasoline products to abate air pollution. Currently, many areas of the country utilize oxygenated or reformulated fuel containing 15- percent and I I-percent MTBE by volume, respectively. This increased use of MTBE in gasoline products has resulted in accidental point source releases of MTBE containing gasoline products to ground water. Recent studies have shown MTBE to be frequently detected in samples of shallow ground water from urban areas throughout the United States (Squillace et al., 1995). Knowledge of the subsurface fate and transport of MTBE in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites and the spatial extent of MTBE plumes is needed to address these releases. The goal of this research is to utilize data from a large number of LUFT sites to gain insights into the fate, transport, and spatial extent of MTBE plumes. Specific goals include defining the spatial configuration of dissolved MTBE plumes, evaluating plume stability or degradation over time, evaluating the impact of point source releases of MTBE to ground water, and attempting to identify the controlling factors influencing the magnitude and extent of the MTBE plumes. We are examining the relationships between dissolved TPH, BTEX, and MTBE plumes at LUFT sites using parallel approaches of best professional judgment and a computer-aided plume model fitting procedure to determine plume parameters. Here we present our initial results comparing dissolved benzene and MTBE plumes lengths, the statistical significance of these results, and configuration of benzene and MTBE plumes at individual LUFT sites.

  18. A study of the condensation of primary, secondary, and tertiary butyl alcohols with benzene in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodson, Ralph Jordan

    1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PKDT Qt THE COND%SATION QE PRECUT, SSQGNDART~ AND T~ NOTCL ALCOHOLS NITH SEEZEEE IN THE ~E GF ANBIINKU8 mRIQ CHLORIDE Asm 1959 4 et Chea1stxy and 0 A STOSX Gf THE OQtGRWSATIOR Of PRXRARX, SWOORBARX ARRI TCBTXARX WTXL ALQOBOLB WITH 8%%ESSE IR... THS F58XWOR Of AWHXQREUS FERRIC CBLORISR A STUART OF TBR CNRRGATTGR OF PIIRSGKo SROOP~e ARD TRRTZART RDTTL ALCOHOLS RITE ~R ZN TKR FRRSRBCR OP ARBTDROUS PRIBKC OHLORTDR A Theete Parttal Palfileaat cf the ReRNLreewate Ter the aeggso cf Rse4e et...

  19. The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diethyl ether (DEE) in ethanol fuel blends for a range ofbio-derived fuel components (ethanol) in emission productsHCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

  20. The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines: Key Research andJ. Girard, and R. Dibble, "HCCI in a CFR Engine: ExperimentsRyan III, and J.S. Souder, "HCCI Operation of a Dual-Fuel

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene dichloride 1 MTBE 2 Vinylchloride 3 Ethylbenzene 1Methyl- Tertiary-Butyl-Ether (MTBE) or Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl-Styrene Vinylchloride MTBE Benzene, Toluene, Xylene Acetone

  2. Eutrophication potential of secondary and tertiary wastewater effluents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivy, James Thomas

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydroxi de or some other base. 8ecause of its low cost 1n some areas, waste pickle 11quor will probably be useful in some treatment systems. Alum has been used for phosphate removal in both the secondary (act1vated sludge) and tertiary processes.... In the secondary process, alum has reduced the effluent phosphorus concentration to 0 . 5 - 1. 0 mg/1. Tertiary alum treatment has been used at the FWOA ? Lebanon Pilot Plant, Lebanon, Oh1o (8). The pilot plant at Dallas, Texas, is investigating the use of 11...

  3. Freezing-induced perturbation of tertiary structure of monoclonal antibody

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Lu; Kueltzo, L. A.; Jones, L. S.; Carpenter, J. F.

    2006-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    -induced alterations of their tertiary structure.[2-3] ? In this study, both intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectros- copy were employed to document real-time freezing-induced per- turbations of tertiary structure of a monoclonal antibody (IgG). Materials... and methods Model protein: Monoclonal antibody (IgG) 0.5mg/ml Buffers: 10 mM Potassium Phosphate, pH 3,8 10 mM Sodium Acetate, pH 4 Salt: 0, 150mM Potassium Chloride 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS): 75?M Instruments: Quanta...

  4. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An aerobic microbial consortium able to biodegrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was enriched in two waste, the two laboratory- scale biotrickling filters were able to degrade up to 50 g of MTBE per cubic meter be sustained for at least 4-6 weeks. After the acclimation phase, the MTBE degrading biotrickling filters were

  5. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    -butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas chromatog- raphy-massspectrometryandgaschromatography-thermal conductivity techniques. A rate law is developed for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE-contaminated water in the DMP reactor were found

  6. A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SB A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN, WYOMING assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U...........................................................................................................................SB-1 Coal Production History

  7. The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Long version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) or tertiary amyl methylOther oxygenates, such as ETBE and TAME exist. However,

  8. The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), or tertiary amyl methylOther oxygenates such as ETBE and TAME exist. However, these

  9. A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SR A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  10. TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS SERVICE CENTRE (Incorporated in Western Australia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS SERVICE CENTRE (Incorporated in Western Australia) 100 Royal Street East Perth, Western Australia 6004 Telephone (08) 9318 8000 Facsimile (08) 9225 7050 http://www.tisc.edu.au/ Curtin University · Edith Cowan University · Murdoch University · The University of Western Australia

  11. TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS SERVICE CENTRE (Incorporated in Western Australia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS SERVICE CENTRE (Incorporated in Western Australia) Level 1, 100 Royal Street East Perth, Western Australia 6004 Telephone (08) 9318 8000 Facsimile (08) 9225 7050 http://www.tisc.edu.au/ Curtin University · Edith Cowan University · Murdoch University · The University of Western Australia

  12. Extraction of Plutonium into 30 Percent Tri-Butyl Phosphate from Nitric Acid Solution Containing Fluoride, Aluminum, and Boron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.A.

    2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This work consists of experimental batch extraction data for plutonium into 30 volume-percent tri-butyl phosphate at ambient temperature from such a solution matrix and a model of this data using complexation constants from the literature.

  13. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethyl-tert butyl ether (ETBE), occurs via a cytochrome P450protein complexes involved in ETBE degradation from R. rubernot been shown to degrade ETBE. Many pollutant degradation

  14. Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol by stream-bed sediment microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H. [Geological Survey, Columbia, SC (United States)] [Geological Survey, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline-contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-{sup 14}C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-{sup 14}C]-TBA were degraded to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.

  15. Recanalization of Splenic Artery Aneurysm After Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Using N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, Keiji; Ushijima, Yasuhiro, E-mail: ushijima@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Nishie, Akihiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ishigami, Kousei [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Yamaji, Yukiko [Kyushu University, Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 65-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as having microscopic polyangiitis developed sudden abdominal pain and entered a state of shock. Abdominal CT showed massive hemoperitoneum, and emergent angiography revealed a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm. After direct catheterization attempts failed due to tortuous vessels and angiospasm, transcatheter arterial embolization using an n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol mixture was successfully performed. Fifty days later, the patient developed sudden abdominal pain again. Repeated angiography demonstrated recanalization of the splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysm. This time, the recanalized aneurysm was embolized using metallic coils with the isolation method. Physicians should keep in mind that recanalization can occur after transcatheter arterial embolization using N-butyl cyanoacrylate, which has been used as a permanent embolic agent.

  16. Aging of Weapon Seals – An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Mark H.

    2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

  17. Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

  18. Batch polymerization of styrene and isoprene by n-butyl lithium initiator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Sayeed

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on these mechanisms Edgar (12) developed a mathema- tical model for polymerization of the above systems. In the present work polymerization reactions of styrene and isoprene via n-butyl lithium were studied at 80'C in n-hexane and cyclohexane solvents. Both... on the mechanisms proposed by Hsieh (18, 19, 20) Edgar (12) obtained an anlytical solution for calculating molecular weight di. stributions, monomer concentrations, initi. ator concentrations, and polymer species concentrations at any time, t, in a batch reactor...

  19. Comprehensive testing to measure the response of butyl rubber to Hanford tank waste simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Butyl rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that butyl rubber has relatively good resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that butyl rubber is a relatively good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

  20. Tertiary siRNAs mediate paramutation in C. elegans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapetschnig, Alexandra; Sarkies, Peter; Lehrbach, Nicolas J.; Miska, Eric A.

    2015-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    , London, United Kingdom ¤b Current address: Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America ¤c Current Address: Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United... -RNAs are made against many endoge- nous piRNA targets, and may play an important role in their regulation. The nuclear RNAi pathway promotes generation of tertiary siRNAs The data above was strongly in support of a multi-stage model for the generation of 22G...

  1. Secondary instability and tertiary states in rotating plane Couette flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daly, C. A.; Schneider, Tobias M.; Schlatter, Philipp; Peake, N.

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and lower walls and channel width 2h˜. We define unit vectors i, j and k pointing in the stream- wise, wall-normal and spanwise directions (x, y, z) respectively, and non-dimensionalize lengths by h˜, time by h˜/U˜ and pressure by U˜2. With ?˜ denoting... .5, and disappears for ?s > 3 as TVF1 becomes stable to streamwise perturbations. and in addition the mirror-symmetric ribbon (RIB) equilibrium state which bifurcates from TVF2, as discussed by Nagata (2013). This inventory of tertiary states is almost certainly...

  2. A kinetic investigation of the reaction of dibutyl sodiophosphonate with n-butyl bromide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaffer, James Howard

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Texn~ in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the de ree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1955 Major Subject: Chemistry A KINETIC INVESTIGATION OF THE REACTION OF DIBUTYL SODIOPHOSPHONATE WITH N-BUTYL BROMIDE A Thesis By James Howard Shaffer... Concentrations o " Reactants and Calculated Second Order Specific Reaction pa, ". ;e Rate Constants Table 1, 40 C Table 2, 50 0 Table 3, BO C 3c II. Initial Concentrations of React iit : ?d Apparent Rate Constants of Erofosed Die er 1!echani sm Table 4...

  3. Measurement of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) in raw drinking water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M L; Koester, C J; Moran, J E

    1999-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to assess the pathways for human exposure to methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) and to understand the extent of MTBE contamination in watersheds, a purge and trap gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method to measure part-per-trillion (ppt) concentrations of MTBE in environmental waters was developed. A variety of California's raw drinking waters were analyzed. No detectable MTBE was found in deep groundwater (>1000 feet). However shallow groundwater ({approx}250 feet) contained MTBE concentrations of non-detect to 1300 ppt. MTBE concentrations measured in rivers and lakes ranged from non-detect to 3500 ppt. East (San Francisco) Bay area rain water contained approximately 80 ppt MTBE.

  4. Early Tertiary subsidence and sedimentary facies - northern Sirte Basin, Libya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gumati, Y.D.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subsidence curves and subsidence rate curves for the Sirte basin, constructed from the stratigraphic record, show that subsidence was continuous throughout Late Cretaceous and Tertiary times, reaching a maximum during the Paleocene and Eocene, when a major reactivation of faults occurred. Shales and carbonates were deposited during all of the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary. Abrupt lateral facies changes occur from the platform areas toward the deeper troughs along with steep downdip thickening. These conditions were probably assisted by contemporaneous faulting along structurally weak hinge lines where the dominant structural elements are normal step faults. The absence of upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic sediments suggests that the area was domed, faulted, and eroded during the late Mesozoic. As a result of crustal extension during the Paleocene, a marked lithologic and structural change occurred. The Heira Shale succeeded the Kalash Limestone in the Marada trough. Reactivation of the earlier faults, accompanied by an increase in the sediment supply from the south, caused these lower Paleocene shales to cover the entire area, with the exception of the old highs where carbonate deposition continued. An intercalation of shales and carbonates provides a sensitive indicator of change of depth and sediment type.

  5. Early Tertiary subsidence and sedimentary facies - Northern Sirte Basin, Libya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gumati, Y.D.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subsidence curves and subsidence rate curves for the Sirte basin, constructed from the stratigraphic record, show that subsidence was continuous throughout Late Cretaceous and Tertiary times, reaching a maximum during the Paleocene and Eocene, when a major reactivation of faults occurred. Shales and carbonates were deposited during all of the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary. Abrupt lateral facies changes occur from the platform areas toward the deeper troughs along with steep downdip thickening. The absence of upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic sediments suggests that the area was domed, faulted, and eroded during the late Mesozoic. As a result of crustal extension during the Paleocene, a marked lithologic and structural change occurred. The Heira Shale succeeded the Kalash Limestone in the Marada trough. Reactivation of the earlier faults, accompanied by an increase in the sediment supply from the south, caused these lower Paleocene shales to cover the entire area, with the exception of the old highs where carbonate deposition continued. An intercalation of shales and carbonates provides a sensitive indicator of change of depth and sediment type. 14 figures.

  6. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly used today, the one used most commonly is MTBE. To meet the oxygen requirements of the CAA Amendments, gasoline

  7. Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis of their pyrolyses by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis 1999; accepted 20 July 1999 Abstract The pyrolysis products of neutral methyl-d3 t-butyl ether (MTBE-d3 from thermal cracking patterns. MTBE and TOME both exhibit base peaks at m/z 73 (which shifts to m/z 76

  8. A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and C. W. Keighin in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-A 1999 Resource assessment Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great member of the Fort Union Formation. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones

  9. New Tertiary paleomagnetic poles from Mongolia and Siberia at 40, 30, 20, and 13 Ma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cogne, Jean-Pascal

    New Tertiary paleomagnetic poles from Mongolia and Siberia at 40, 30, 20, and 13 Ma: Clues of a paleomagnetic study of 490 cores from 59 sites, corresponding to 52 distinct basaltic flows from Mongolia Tertiary paleomagnetic poles from Mongolia and Siberia at 40, 30, 20, and 13 Ma: Clues on the inclination

  10. Review of the environmental behavior and fate of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Squillace, P.J.; Zogorski, J.S. [Geological Survey, Rapid City, SD (United States); Pankow, J.F. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Korte, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of pertinent equations and current research indicates that when gasoline oxygenated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) comes into contact with water, large amounts of MTBe can dissolve. At 25 C, the water solubility of MTBE is about 5,000 mg/L for a gasoline that is 10% MTBE by weight, whereas for a nonoxygenated gasoline, the total hydrocarbon solubility in water is typically about 120 mg/L. Methyl tert-butyl ether sorbs only weakly to subsurface solids; therefore, sorption does not substantially retard the transport of MTBE by ground water. In addition, MTBE generally resists biodegradation in ground water. The half-life of MTBE in the atmosphere can be as short as 3 d in a regional airshed. In the air, MTBE tends to partition into atmospheric water, including precipitation. However, the washing out of gas-phase MTBE by precipitation will not, by itself, greatly alter the gas-phase concentration of the compound in the air. The partitioning of MTBE to precipitation can nevertheless result in concentrations as high as 3 {micro}g/L or more in urban precipitation and can contribute to the presence of MTBE in surface and ground water.

  11. Water quality for secondary and tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michnick, M.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key element in many secondary and tertiary oil recovery processes is the injection of water into an oil-bearing formation. Water is the fluid which displaces the oil in the pore space of the rock. A successful waterflood requires more than the availability of water and the pumps and piping to inject the water into the formation. It requires an understanding of how water enters the oil bearing formation and what happens once the injected water comes into contact with the rock or sand, the oil, and the water already in the reservoir. Problems in injectivity will arise unless care and constant monitoring are exercised in the water system for a flood operation. This study examines water availability and quality in relation to waterflooding.

  12. Treatment of methyl t-butyl ether contaminated water using a dense medium plasma reactor, a mechanistic and kinetic investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    and oxidation mechanisms of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP reactor. Rate constants are also derived for three reactor configurations and two pin array spin rates. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE

  13. Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsudin, Intan Juliana [Chemistry Department, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan as the polymer matrix and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Bmim][OAc] as charge carriers were prepared by solution casting technique. Complexes with various amount of ionic liquid loading were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing weight percent of ionic liquid. The highest ionic conductivity of the charged chitosan-[Bmim][OAc] was 2.44 × 10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1} at 90 wt.% of [Bmim][OAc] content at ambient temperature. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has proven the interaction between chitosan and [Bmim][OAc]. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) has shown that the amorphosity of the complexes increase as the amount of [Bmim][OAc] increase.

  14. Why methyl tert-butyl ether production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauan, S.; Hertzberg, T.; Lien, K.M. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an explanation of why methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions. Widely different composition profiles and conversions may, as already reported by Krishna and others, results with identical column specifications, depending on the initial estimates provided. A hypothesis yielding a qualitative understanding of this phenomenon has been developed. The inert n-butene plays a key role in the proposed explanation: As the reaction mixture is diluted with n-butene, the activity coefficient of methanol increases substantially and the temperature decreases. This dilution has a profound effect on the equilibrium conversion, enabling MTBE to escape from the reactive zone without decomposition. When methanol is fed below or in the lower part of the reactive zone of the column, the ``lifting capacity`` of the minimum boiling point MTBE-methanol azeotrope will also be important.

  15. Photoelectric conversion and electrochromic properties of lutetium tetrakis(tert-butyl)bisphthalocyaninate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Andrew Teh; Hu Tenyi; Liu Lungchang

    2003-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Both photoelectric and electrochromic effects on lutetium tetrakis(tert-butyl)bisphthalocyaninate (Lu(TBPc){sub 2}) have been carried out in this study. Lu(TBPc){sub 2} is known for its electrochromic performance, but its photoelectric effect has not mentioned in the literature. The electrochromic properties of Lu(TBPc){sub 2} have been measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-Vis spectrometer at the same time. It takes less than 1.5 s for the color to change from red to green under 0.9 V. Its cycle life is at least over 500 times. Furthermore, we also investigate its photoelectric conversion properties. Its photoelectric cell exhibits a positive photo-electricity conversion effect with a short-circuit photocurrent (46.4 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) under illumination of white light (1.201 mW/cm{sup 2})

  16. Butyl rubber O-ring seals: Revision of test procedures for stockpile materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domeier, L.A.; Wagter, K.R.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive testing showed little correlation between test slab and O-ring performance. New procedures, comparable to those used with the traditional test slabs, were defined for hardness, compression set, and tensile property testing on sacrificial O-ring specimens. Changes in target performance values were made as needed and were, in one case, tightened to reflect the O-ring performance data. An additional study was carried out on O-ring and slab performance vs cure cycle and showed little sensitivity of material performance to large changes in curing time. Aging and spectra of certain materials indicated that two sets of test slabs from current vendor were accidently made from EPDM rather than butyl rubber. Random testing found no O-rings made from EPDM. As a result, and additional spectroscope test will be added to the product acceptance procedures to verify the type of rubber compound used.

  17. Stochastic Programming Approach to Hydraulic Fracture Design for the Lower Tertiary Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podhoretz, Seth

    2013-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we present methodologies for optimization of hydraulic fracturing design under uncertainty specifically with reference to the thick and anisotropic reservoirs in the Lower Tertiary Gulf of Mexico. In this analysis we apply a stochastic...

  18. Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaskin, David J

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may...

  19. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillham, T.H.

    1997-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  20. Petrological comparison of some tertiary and quaternary sands from Brazos and adjourning counties, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsik, William Clinton

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    //ipyramids of quartz in the Catahoula sands differ- / / entiates them from P ~ternary sands. The Claiborne sands contain much , , ' / muscovite. Volcarj g glass is common in the Jackson sends. / Angular-s+' gular roundness ratios vary for both Tertiary... and / / / Quaternary sar g. Occasional angular-subangular ratio va1ues in excess / / of 2. 00 are saracteristic of the Quaternary sands. / / Glaua' gite is more common in Tertiary than in Quaternary sands. / / / Add' Lional petrological studies of the clay...

  1. A contribution to the Tertiary geology and paleontology of northeastern Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galbreath, E. C.

    1953-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS VERTEBRATA ARTICLE 4 Pages 1-120, Plates 1-2, Figures 1-26 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE TERTIARY GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF NORTHEASTERN COLORADO By EDWIN C. GALBREATH UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS... 1-2, FIGURES 1-26 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE TERTIARY GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF NORTHEASTERN COLORADO By EDWIN C. GALBREATH CONTENTS PACK FAG: ABSTRACT 7 Order Sauna MACARTNEY 38 INTRODUCTION 8 Family Iguanidae GRAY 38Exostinus serratus COPE...

  2. West Hackberry tertiary project. Annual report, September 3, 1994--September 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form and additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  3. Features of the spectral dependences of transmittance of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted lutetium phthalocyanine molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belogorokhov, I. A., E-mail: jugqwerty@mail.ru [State Research and Project Institute of Rare-Metal Industry GIREDMET (Russian Federation); Tikhonov, E. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Dronov, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Belogorokhova, L. I. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Ryabchikov, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Vibronic properties of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted phthalocyanine lutetium diphthalocyanine molecules are studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that substitution of several carbon atoms in initial phthalocyanine (Pc) ligands with {sup 13}C isotope atoms causes a spectral shift in the main absorption lines attributed to benzene, isoindol, and peripheral C-H groups. A comparison of spectral characteristics showed that the shift can vary from 3 to 1 cm{sup -1}.

  4. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartle, R. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its extensive use and a related concern involving the potential influence of MTBE blending on exposures to other constituents of gasoline (particularly benzene), an evaluation of exposures among service station attendants and operators was undertaken at the request, and in cooperation with, the American Petroleum Institute during the latter part of 1990. For application of the survey results to a broad audience, three categories or types of service stations were identified with regard to MTBE use and exposure potential: (a) service stations that do not use MTBE or use it only as an octane enhancer, (b) service stations with seasonal requirements to use 12-15% MTBE (the Denver, Colorado, and Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan areas), and (c) service stations equipped with stage II (active) vapor recovery systems (several coastal areas, most notably Southern California). 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Reaction calorimetry study of the liquid-phase synthesis of tert-butyl methyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sola, L.; Pericas, M.A.; Cunill, F.; Iborra, M. (Univ. de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d'Enginyeria Quimica)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The liquid-phase addition of methanol to isobutene to give tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) on the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2631 has been studied in a calorimetric reactor. Heat capacity of MTBE and enthalpy of the MTBE synthesis reaction in the temperature range 312--333 K have been determined. MTBE heat capacity in the liquid phase has been found to obey the equation c[sub P] (J/mol[center dot]K) = 472.34 [minus] 2.468(T/K) + 0.005071(T/K)[sup 2]. At 298 K the standard molar reaction enthalpy is [Delta]H[degree] = [minus]33.8 kJ/mol. A method to estimate apparent activation energies from heat flow rate in a given reaction has been developed and proved to be valid for the MTBE synthesis. Using this method, an apparent activation energy of 91.1--95.2 kJ/mol is calculated. A [minus]3.8 kJ/mol value has been found for the adsorption enthalpy of methanol on the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2631 by a combination of reaction calorimetry and thermogravimetry. This allows the calculation of an activation energy on the gel phase of the resin of 91 kJ/mol.

  6. Observation on the biodegradation and bioremediation potential of methyl t-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salanitro, J.; Wisniewski, H.; McAllister, P. [Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been few reports documenting evidence for the biodegradation of the fuel oxygenate alkyl ether, methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater, soils, and biosludges. Partial (or complete) microbial breakdown of MTBE has been observed in an anaerobic subsoil, a river sediment under methanogenic conditions, a cyclohexane-degrading bacterial consortium and a pure culture of the methylotroph, Methylisnus trichosporium OB3b. An aerobic bacterial enrichment (BC-1) isolated from an industrial transient (non-accumulating) metabolic intermediate. The studies suggest that MTBE is cleaved by BC-1 to TBA which is then metabolized via isopropanol and acetone. There is little information on the occurrence of indigenous MTBE-degraders in groundwater, soils and activated sludges. Preliminary evidence has been obtained, however, from a marketing terminal groundwater site that naturally-occurring MTBE-degraders are present in some monitoring wells. Microcosm experiments with groundwater from this aquifer show that MTBE is aerobically degraded (no TBA formed) with a first-order decay rate (0.31/day) similar to BTEX. Also, MTBE did not inhibit the intrinsic biodegradation potential of BTEX in groundwater microcosms. In summary, the data presented indicate that MTBE biodegradation has been observed in some environmental media. Further work is needed to assess the feasibility of using indigenous or derived aerobic and anaerobic MTBE-degrading cultures for treating fuel ethers in groundwaters or wastewater with in-situ or ex-situ bioremediation technologies.

  7. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Intramuscular Active Hemorrhage with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail: jhj@radiol.snu.ac.kr; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, and Institute of Radiation Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for intramuscular active hemorrhage of varied etiologies and anatomic sites. Methods: Eighteen patients who demonstrated hematoma with pseudoaneurysm and/or active extravasation of contrast media underwent TAE with NBCA. Etiologies of hematoma included trauma, postoperative complication, and coagulopathy (due to underlying disease or anticoagulation therapy). Sites of embolization included chest wall, abdomen wall, retroperitoneum, and extremity. TAE was performed by using 1:3 to 1:5 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil, either solely (n = 15) or in combination with microcoil (n = 3). The technical and clinical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results: The technical and clinical success rates were 100% and 83% (15/18), respectively. Two patients expired while admitted due to other comorbidities. One patient expired due to recurrent bleeding at another site. There were no serious complications relating to the embolization procedure. Conclusions: TAE with NBCA is effective and safe treatment modality for intramuscular active hemorrhage.

  8. Multiprobe Spectroscopic Evidence for "Hyperpolarity" within 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate Mixtures with Tetraethylene Glycol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Abhra [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi; Trivedi, Shruti [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Pandey, Siddharth [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid, potentially green solvent system composed of tetraethylene glycol (TEG) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) was investigated across all mole fractions with regard to the solvent properties of the mixture. For this purpose, a suite of absorbance- and fluorescence-based solvatochromic probes were utilized to explore solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions existing within the [bmim][PF6] + TEG system. These studies revealed an interesting and unusual synergistic solvent effect. In particular, a remarkable hyperpolarity was observed in which the ET value, comprising dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen bond donor (HBD) acidity contributions, at intermediate mole fractions of the binary mixture well exceeded that of the most polar pure component (i.e., [bmim][PF6]). Independently determined dipolarity/polarizability ( *) and HBD acidity (R) Kamlet-Taft values for the [bmim][PF6] + TEG mixtures were also observed to be anomalously high at intermediate mole fractions, whereas hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) basicities ( values) were much more in line with the ideal arithmetic values predicted on a mole fraction basis.

  9. LIDEM unit for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from butanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudin, M.G.; Zadvornov, M.A.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the basic problems in the production of motor fuels is how to obtain high-octane unleaded gasolines that will meet today`s ecological requirements. The term {open_quotes}reformulated gasolines{close_quotes} has come into general use throughout the world to denote fuels with a certain chemical composition. These gasolines consist of preselected components; as shown by worldwide experience, they must include oxygen-containing compounds that are distinguished by high octane numbers and low reactivities. Standards in effect in the United States, Japan, and certain Western European countries require that automotive gasolines must contain at least 2-4% by weight of oxygen-containing compounds (calculated as oxygen). In the last 15 years, in order to meet these requirements, production has been set up in various countries for the manufacture of high-octane oxygen-containing components known as oxygenates. The most common of these is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), obtained by etherification of isobutene by methanol. Process technology developed by this last organization was used as the basis for constructing a unit in the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Production Association and at the Mazheikyai Petroleum Refinery in Lithuania. MTBE production has been held back mainly by a shortage of isobutene, which is obtained mainly from butane-butene cuts produced in cat crackers. In order to alleviate this shortage, it has been proposed that MTBE should be obtained from saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons that are recovered in processing oilfield associated gas, and also in the refinery from primary distillation units, catalytic reformers, and hydrocrackers. A working design was developed in 1991-1992 by Lengiproneftekhim for a basically new combination unit designed for the processing of saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, which has been termed the LIDEM unit (Leningrad - isomerization - dehydrogenation - MTBE).

  10. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by a bacterial pure culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, J.R.; Ackerman, C.E.; Scow, K.M.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bacterial strain, PM1, which is able to utilize methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as its sole carbon and energy source, was isolated from a mixed microbial consortium in a compost biofilter capable of degrading MTBE. Initial linear rates of MTBE degradation by 2 x 10{sup 6} cells ml{sup {minus}1} were 0.07, 1.17, and 3.56 {mu}g ml{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} for initial concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 {mu}g MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}, respectively. When incubated with 20 {mu}g of uniformly labeled [{sup 14}C]MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}, strain PM1 converted 46% to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and 19% to {sup 14}C-labeled cells within 120 h. This yield is consistent with the measurement of protein accumulation at different MTBE concentrations from which was estimated a biomass yield of 0.18 of cells mg MTBE{sup {minus}1}. Strain PM1 was inoculated into sediment core material collected from a contaminated groundwater plume at Port Hueneme, California, in which there was no evidence of MTBE degradation. Strain PM1 readily degraded 20 {micro}g of MTBE ml{sup {minus}1} added to the core material. The rate of MTBE removal increased with additional inputs of 20 {micro}g of MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}. These results suggest that PM1 has potential for use in the remediation of MTBE-contaminated environments.

  11. Ultrasonic absorption associated with tertiary butanol complex formation in normal-hexane solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bucaram, Salim Michel

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Concentration Dependence of the Residue Formation in Mixtures of Tertiary Butanol in Normal-Hexane and Cyclohexane . 44 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Relaxation Data 34 2. Results of 11. 2 C. 37 3. Results of 0 C Analysis . . 0 4. Properties of Normal... Timmermans 5 Musa fromy= 1+MTQ c /Cp 2 2 Guggenheim13 12 Ttmmermans 40 TABLE 5 5 Results of Analysisof Tertiary Butanol in Cyclohexane. Data by Musa N 0 mole fraction * 3 N x 10 mole fraction * 3 N x10 mole fraction N x10 3 mole fra ct...

  12. Health risks associated with exposure to gasoline additives-methyl tertiary butyl ether [MTBE]. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, Special Hearing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This hearing focuses on an Alaskan study by the Centers for Disease Control which examines possible health risks associated with exposure to gasoline additive know as MTBE. Testimony is given by Dr. William Roper, Director, CDC.

  13. The Scientific Basis for the Regulation of Nanoparticles: Challenging Paracelsus and Pare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Bernard D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NANOTECHNOILOGY 402 (2007). 20. MTBE unquestionably causesTertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-a Gasoline Additive-CausesMethyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (MTBE) in CD-I Mice and F-344

  14. Vol. 83, No. 2, 2006 121 Analysis of Heat Transfer Fouling by Dry-Grind Maize Thin Stillage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a petroleum derivative, and ethanol. In recent years, MTBE has been phased out due

  15. MTBE Production Economics (Released in the STEO April 2001)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the causes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) price increases in 2000.

  16. Molecular Simulation of Water Extraction into a Tri-n-Butyl-Phosphate/n-Dodecane Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL] [ORNL; Ye, Xianggui [ORNL] [ORNL; Cui, Shengting [ORNL] [ORNL; Khomami, Bamin [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate water extraction into a solution of 30 vol% tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) in n-dodecane. This solvent extraction mixture is commonly used in hydrometallurgical and nuclear fuel recycling operations for recovering metals from aqueous streams. It is known that water is coextracted in the organic phase and that it competes with metal ions for the available extractant agent (TBP). Therefore investigating pure water extraction provides a realistic prototype to test molecular simulation methods for the first time in this area. Our computational results indicate that the TBP electric dipole moment has a significant effect on the predicted water solubility. A larger TBP dipole moment decreases the aqueous-organic interfacial tension, leading to increased roughness of the aqueous-organic interface. Interfacial roughness has a significant effect on disrupting the interfacial water hydrogen bonding structure, resulting in a greater number of dangling water molecules at the interface. This enhances the probability of water molecules to break away from the aqueous phase and to migrate into the bulk of the organic phase. Therefore, the magnitude of the TBP dipole moment is a crucial factor in controlling water hydrogen bond breaking at the aqueous-organic interface. By slightly lowering the atomic partial charges of the TBP atoms, to produce a dipole moment that better agrees with experimental data, we were able to predict water solubility in close agreement with experimental measurements. Hence we demonstrate that a molecular modeling and simulation approach may provide quantitative support to experimental programs in this area. In addition, our simulation results shed light into the molecular mechanism of water extraction, the critical role of TBP, and the structural forms of water molecules both at the interface and in the bulk of the organic phase. Specifically, it is found that water molecules are extracted either as single molecules or as clusters. Furthermore, within the organic phase, the extracted water forms clusters with up to 20 water molecules, however, more than 70% of these water clusters contain less than 5 water molecules when the water extraction process reaches saturation.

  17. Monitoring Electricity Consumption in the Tertiary Sector- A Project within the Intelligent Energy Europe Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plesser, S.; Fisch, M. N.; Gruber, E.; Schlomann, B.

    The electricity consumption in the tertiary sector in the EU is still increasing and a further increase is expected of more than 2 % per year during the next 15 years. This sector includes companies and institutions of public and private services...

  18. An Efficient Genetic Algorithm for Predicting Protein Tertiary Structures in the 2D HP Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istrail, Sorin

    , predicting its tertiary structure is known as the protein folding problem. This problem has been widely genetic algo- rithm for the protein folding problem under the HP model in the two-dimensional square Genetic Algorithm, Protein Folding Problem, 2D HP Model 1. INTRODUCTION Amino acids are the building

  19. Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons from Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Piceance basin, western Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, David Jonathan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the Douglas Creek arch. The Piceance basin contains commercial quantities of both liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in Tertiary-age oil shales and in tight Cretaceous-age sandstone reservoirs (Rice, 1993). Iles and Williams Fork strata deeper in the basin...

  20. Energy Minimization of Protein Tertiary Structure by Parallel Simulated Annealing using Genetic Crossover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongarra, Jack

    Energy Minimization of Protein Tertiary Structure by Parallel Simulated Annealing using Genetic Simulated Annealing using Genetic Crossover (PSA/GAc) has a high searching capability on an energy of the energy function has been studied. Simulated Annealing (SA) has often been employed as the optimiza- tion

  1. Interplay between Secondary and Tertiary Structure Formation in Protein Folding Cooperativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachmann, Michael

    Interplay between Secondary and Tertiary Structure Formation in Protein Folding Cooperativity¨lich, 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany Received June 14, 2010; E-mail: deserno@andrew.cmu.edu Abstract: Protein folding be difficult to measure. Therefore, protein folding cooperativity is often probed using the calorimetric

  2. Phonon-like excitation in secondary and tertiary structure of hydrated protein Mingda Li,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sow-Hsin

    Phonon-like excitation in secondary and tertiary structure of hydrated protein powders Mingda Li dispersion relations and their damping in two hydrated proteins, a-chymotrypsinogen A and casein, differing transition temperature TD: hydrated proteins are conformationally flexible and enzymatically active above TD

  3. Tertiary strike-slip faulting in southeastern Mongolia and implications for Asian tectonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Cari

    Tertiary strike-slip faulting in southeastern Mongolia and implications for Asian tectonics L Geologic maps have long portrayed the Late Cretaceous­Recent geologic history of southeastern Mongolia of the East Gobi basin in southeastern Mongolia (Figs. 1 and 2). This corridor, the East Gobi Fault Zone (EGFZ

  4. The Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary: sedimentology and micropalaeontology at El Mulato section, NE Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    The Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary: sedimentology and micropalaeontology at El Mulato section, NE and sedimentological analysis of this transition at the El Mulato section (NE Mexico), in order to infer the little Palaeogene Velasco Formation, there is a 2-m-thick Clastic Unit. Strati- graphical and sedimentological ana

  5. An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Lloyd B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN EVALUATION OF THE 3M ORGANIC VAPOR MONITOR 43500 AS A SHOR'I TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT SAMPLING DEVICE FOR ACETONE, METHYL ETHYL KETONE, AND METHYL ISO BUTYL KETONE A Thesis by LLOYD B. ANDREW III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM..., METHYL ETHYL KETONE, AND METHYL ISO BUTYL KETONE A Thesis by Lloyd B. Andrew III Approved as to style and content by: (Chai iy' of Co ' i tee) (He of Departme t) e4mY ~. (Member) C~& n (Member) December 1982 ABSTRACT An Evaluation of the 3M...

  6. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  7. Successful Pregnancy with a Full-Term Vaginal Delivery One Year After n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Embolization of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Colleen C. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics (United States); Kim, Hyun S. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States)], E-mail: sikhkim@jhmi.edu

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) causes significant morbidity with vaginal bleeding. Traditional therapy is a hysterectomy with no potential for future pregnancy. We present a case of successful superselective embolization of uterine AVM using n-butyl cyanoacrylate with subsequent normal term pregnancy and uncomplicated vaginal delivery in 1 year.

  8. Nickel-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions of Alkyl Electrophiles, Including Unactivated Tertiary Halides, To Generate Carbon–Boron Bonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudnik, Alexander S.

    Through the use of a catalyst formed in situ from NiBr[subscript 2]·diglyme and a pybox ligand (both of which are commercially available), we have achieved our first examples of coupling reactions of unactivated tertiary ...

  9. Kinetics and modeling of mixture effects during complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dangi, S.; Abraham, M.A. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of a catalytic incinerator depends on the nature of the compounds being oxidized and cannot be predicted simply by knowing the performance of the incinerator with pure-component model compounds. Considering the importance of mixture effects, an attempt was made to develop a combined model to predict the conversion when benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are simultaneously oxidized. Complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and MTBE, singly and in mixtures, was investigated over a platinum catalyst. No inhibition effects were seen with benzene, but MTBE conversion was distinctly inhibited by benzene. A Mars-van Krevelen rate model was used to explain the results. Model parameters were obtained from pure-component experiments and then incorporated into a multicomponent model without any adjustment or additional rate parameters. The multicomponent model was able to predict the conversion of benzene and MTBE oxidation in the binary mixture using the pure-component data without adjustable parameters.

  10. Identification of organic-rich lower tertiary shakles as petroleum source rock, southern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDade, E.C. (Texaco Inc., New orleans, LA (United States)); Sassen, R. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)); Wenger, L. (Exxon Production Research, Houston, TX (United States)); Cole, G.A. (Saudi Aramco Laboratories Department, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive organic geochemical evidence of organic-rich, marine shales in the lower part of the middle eocene Claiborne Group and the lower Eocene-Paleocene Wilcox Group of southern Louisiana is now available. The evidence influences models for Gulf Coast petroleum origin. The shales are the only post-Cretaceous sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico that meet recognized criteria for oil source rocks. Many of organic-rich Paleogene shales contain terrestrially derived, amorphous kerogen altered by microbial activity, and display pyrolysis results consistent with type II/III kerogen. Shelf-edge depositional environments favored preservation of hydrogen-rich kerogen. Seismic and sedimentologic interpretations suggest that marine character and thickness increase on the Paleogene continental slope to the south. The shales at burial depths in the 3050-4600 m depth range, at present, are thermally immature to late mature with respect to oil generation. Detailed geochemical analyses of extractable organic matter and kerogen isolates suggest an oil-source correlation with Tertiary-reservoired oils in southern Louisiana and offshore in the adjacent Gulf of Mexico. Biomarkers of selected samples display high concentrations of C[sub 28]-bisnorhopane and 18[alpha]-oleanane biomarker is absent or not reported in Gulf crude oils from Cretaceous and Jurassic source rocks. Burial and thermal history models suggest the timing of oil migration from Paleogene source rocks is consistent with emplacement of oils in Tertiary reservoirs. The lower Tertiary source rocks described here could offer new insight to understanding the origin of oil in other Tertiary deltas.

  11. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic. The first quarter of 1996 was outstanding both in terms of volume of air injected and low cost operations. More air was injected during this quarter than in any preceding quarter. The compressors experienced much improved run time with minimal repairs. Low operating costs resulted from no repairs required for injection or production wells. A discussion of the following topics are contained herein: (1) performance summary for the injection and production wells, (2) air compressor operations, (3) updated bottom hole pressure data, (4) technology transfer activities and (5) plans for the upcoming quarter.

  12. Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

    2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

  13. Use of ferric sulfate: acid media for the desulfurization of model compounds of coal. [Dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, di-n-butyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clary, L.R.; Vermeulen, T.; Lynn, S.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the ability of ferric sulfate-acid leach systems to oxidize the sulfur in model compounds of coal. Ferric iron-acid leach systems have been shown to be quite effective at removal of inorganic sulfur in coal. In this study, the oxidative effect of ferric iron in acid-leach systems was studied using dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, and di-n-butyl sulfide as models of organic sulfur groups in coal. Nitrogen and oxygen, as well as various transition metal catalysts and oxidants, were utilized in this investigation. Dibenzothiophene was found to be quite refractory to oxidation, except in the case where metavanadate was added, where it appears that 40% oxidation to sulfone could have occurred per hour at 150/sup 0/C and mild oxygen pressure. Diphenyl sulfide was selectively oxidized to sulfoxide and sulfone in an iron and oxygen system. Approximately 15% conversion to sulfone occurred per hour under these conditions. Some of the di-n-butyl sulfide was cracked to 1-butene and 1-butanethiol under similar conditions. Zinc chloride and ferric iron were used at 200/sup 0/C in an attempt to desulfonate dibenzothiophene sulfone, diphenyl sulfone, and di-n-butyl sulfone. Di-n-butyl sulfone was completely desulfurized on one hour and fragmented to oxidized parafins, while dibenzothiophene sulfone and diphenyl sulfone were unaffected. These results suggest that an iron-acid leach process could only selectively oxidize aryl sulfides under mild conditions, representing only 20% of the organic sulfur in coal (8% of the total sulfur). Removal through desulfonation once selective sulfur oxidation had occurred was only demonstrated for alkyl sulfones, with severe oxidation of the fragmented paraffins also occurring in one hour.

  14. Calcareous nannofossils from the uppermost Cretaceous and the lowermost Tertiary of central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ming-Jung

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    961; Deflandre, 1970; Pi rini Radrizini, 1971; Gartner and Gentile, 1971; Di Nocera and Scandone, 1977). However, as pointed out by Gartner and Gentile (197l), and Gartner (1977), the assignment of these objects to the calcareous nannofossils... 0~1 UT I U RRY SE TIOR 0 miles BR420 VER SECTION 1 ~ ~ g g f. e FIG. I--The Cretaceous/Tertiary contact in Texas and the 1ocation maps for the Littig Ouarry section and the Brazos River section. I. DALLAS 2. NACO 3. AUSTIN 4. SAN ANTONIO 5...

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of the sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, J.W. [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Environment and Health] [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Environment and Health; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

    1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics and mechanism of the sonolytic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have been investigated at an ultrasonic frequency of 205 kHz and power of 200 W L{sup {minus}1}. The observed first-order degradation rate constant for the loss of MTBE increased from 4.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} to 8.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} as the concentration of MTBE decreased from 1.0 to 0.01 mM. In the presence of O{sub 3}, the sonolytic rate of destruction of MTBE was accelerated substantially. The rate of MTBE sonolysis with ozone was enhanced by a factor of 1.5--3.9 depending on the initial concentration of MTBE. tert-Butyl formate, tert-butyl alcohol, methyl acetate, and acetone were found to be the primary intermediates and byproducts of the degradation reaction with yields of 8, 5, 3, and 12%, respectively. A reaction mechanism involving three parallel pathways that include the direct pyrolytic decomposition of MTBE, the direct reaction of MTBE with ozone, and the reaction of MTBE with hydroxyl radical is proposed.

  16. Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 %C2%B0C. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (%236 and %2310), one commercially available formulation (%2321), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl %2310 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl %2310 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

  17. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcelin, G.

    1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Tri-n-butyl-phosphate/n-Dodecane Mixture: Thermophysical Properties and Molecular Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Cui, Shengting [ORNL; Khomami, Bamin [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations of tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane mixture in the liquid phase have been carried out using two recently developed TBP force field models (J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 305) in combination with the all-atom optimized potentials for liquid simulations (OPLS-AA) force field model for n-dodecane. Specifically, the electric dipole moment of TBP, mass density of the mixture, and the excess volume of mixing were computed with TBP mole fraction ranging from 0 to 1. It is found that the aforementioned force field models accurately predict the mass density of the mixture in the entire mole fraction range. Commensurate with experimental measurements, the electric dipole moment of the TBP was found to slightly increase with the mole fraction of TBP in the mixture. Also, in accord with experimental data, the excess volume of mixing is positive in the entire mole fraction range, peaking at TBP mole fraction range 0.3 0.5. Finally, a close examination of the spatial pair correlation functions between TBP molecules, and between TBP and n-dodecane molecules, revealed formation of TBP dimers through self-association at close distance, a phenomenon with ample experimental evidence.

  19. Sterically controlled recyclable system. Reversible photoredox reactions between anthraquinone and hindered tertiary amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, H.; Whitten, D.G. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1993-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Photochemical reactions of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) with sterically hindered tertiary amines have been studied. The reactivity and products are strongly dependent on the structure of the tertiary amine. Irradiation of AQ in the presence of the sterically hindered amine 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidinol (3) (or 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidine (5)) in degassed dry benzene leads chiefly to the formation of 9-hydroxy-9-[N-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol)-methyl]anthr one (8), which is found to be metastable at room temperature under vacuum. The reaction may be thermally reversed to regenerate the starting materials. The photolysis products and thermal reversion are solvent dependent. While in dry benzene adduct 8 is the major product, in dry acetonitrile the ionic redox products AQH-and iminium cation are detected and no thermal reversal occurs. The results are explained in terms of equilibrium between a product ion pair (AQH[sup [minus

  20. Performance of immobilized tertiary amine solid sorbents for the capture of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.L.; Champagne, K.J.; Fauth, D.J.; Baltrus, J.P.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from a simulated flue gas stream was achieved by utilizing immobilized tertiary amine solid sorbents. The tertiary amine immobilized in these solid substrates was 1, 8 Diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene (DBU) and it has the stoichiometric capability of capturing carbon dioxide at a 1:1 R-NH2:CO2 molar ratio. This is a unique feature compared to other primary and secondary amines which capture CO2 at a 2:1 molar ratio, thus making the immobilized DBU solid sorbents competitive with existing commercially available sorbents and liquid amine-based capture systems. The immobilized DBU solid sorbents prepared in this study exhibit acceptable CO2 capture capacities of 3.0 mol CO2/kg sorbent at 298 K; however, at the critical operational temperature of 338 K, the capacity was reduced to 2.3 mol/kg sorbent. The DBU sorbents did exhibit acceptable stability over the adsorption/desorption temperature range of 298–360 K based on XPS and TGA analyses.

  1. Advances in mass storage technology are producing devices capable of holding terabytes of data. These new devices, often called tertiary storage devices, have dramatically different performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    1 ABSTRACT Advances in mass storage technology are producing devices capable of holding terabytes of data. These new devices, often called tertiary storage devices, have dramatically different performance disk, and so are unsuited to manage tertiary storage devices. A layer of abstrac- tion has been

  2. Whole-genorne analysis of the methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading beta-proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, Staci R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chakicherla, Anu Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Schmidt, Radomir [University of California, Davis; Shin, M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Legler, Tina C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Scow, Kate M. [University of California, Davis; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hristova, Krassimira R. [University of California, Davis

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a methylotroph distinguished by its ability to completely metabolize the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 also degrades aromatic (benzene, toluene, and xylene) and straight-chain (C, to C,,) hydrocarbons present in petroleum products. Whole-genome analysis of PM1 revealed an similar to 4-Mb circular chromosome and an similar to 600-kb megaplasmid, containing 3,831 and 646 genes, respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbon and alkane degradation, metal resistance, and methylotrophy are encoded on the chromosome. The megaplasmid contains an unusual t-RNA island, numerous insertion sequences, and large repeated elements, including a 40-kb region also present on the chromosome and a 29-kb tandem repeat encoding phosphonate transport and cobalamin biosynthesis. The megaplasmid also codes for alkane degradation and was shown to play an essential role in MTBE degradation through plasmid-curing experiments. Discrepancies between the insertion sequence element distribution patterns, the distributions of best BLASTP hits among major phylogenetic groups, and the G+C contents of the chromosome (69.2%) and plasmid (66%), together with comparative genome hybridization experiments, suggest that the plasmid was recently acquired and apparently carries the genetic information responsible for PM1's ability to degrade MTBE. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis with two PM1-like MTBE-degrading environmental isolates (similar to 99% identical 16S rRNA gene sequences) showed that the plasmid was highly conserved (ca. 99% identical), whereas the chromosomes were too diverse to conduct resequencing analysis. PM1's genome sequence provides a foundation for investigating MTBE biodegradation and exploring the genetic regulation of multiple biodegradation pathways in M. petroleiphilum and other MTBE-degrading beta-proteobacteria.

  3. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether, benzene, and total hydrocarbons at the Singapore-Malaysia causeway immigration checkpoint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, C.; Ong, H.Y.; Kok, P.W. [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the extent and levels of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile emissions in a group of immigration officers at a busy cross-border checkpoint. A majority (80%) of the workers monitored were exposed to benzene at levels between 0.01 and 0.5 ppm, with only 1.2% exceeding the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration occupational exposure limit of 1 ppm. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 8-hr time-weighted average exposure were 0.03 ppm, 0.9 ppm, and 2.46 ppm for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, and total hydrocarbons (THC), respectively. The highest time-weighted average concentrations measured were 1.05 ppm for MTBE, 2.01 ppm for benzene, and 34 ppm for THC. It was found that motorbikes emitted a more significant amount of pollutants compared with motor cars. On average, officers at the motorcycle booths were exposed to four to five times higher levels of VOCs (GMs of 0.07 ppm, 0.23 ppm, and 4.7 ppm for MTBE, benzene, and THC) than their counterparts at the motor car booths (GMs of 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 1.5 ppm). The airborne concentrations of all three pollutants correlated with the flow of vehicle traffic. Close correlations were also noted for the concentrations in ambient air for the three pollutants measured. Benzene and MTBE had a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The overall findings showed that the concentrations of various VOCs were closely related to the traffic density, suggesting that they were from a common source, such as exhaust emissions from the vehicles. The results also indicated that although benzene, MTBE, and THC are known to be volatile, a significant amount could still be detected in the ambient environment, thus contributing to our exposure to these compounds. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Evaluation of effects of phenol recovery on biooxidation and tertiary treatment of SRC-I wastewater. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J.W.; Watt, J.C.; Cowan, W.F.; Schuyler, S.E.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Addition of phenol recovery to the wastewater treatment scheme in the Baseline Design for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant was evaluated as a major post-Baseline effort. Phenol recovery affects many downstream processes, but this study was designed to assess primarily its effects on biooxidation and subsequent tertiary treatment. Two parallel treatment schemes were set up, one to treat dephenolated wastewaters and the other for processed nondephenolated wastewaters, a simulation of the Baseline Design. The study focused on comparisons of five areas: effluent quality; system stability; the need for continuous, high-dose powdered activated carbon (PAC) augmentation to the bioreactor; minimum bioreactor hydraulic residence time (HRT); and tertiary treatment requirements. The results show that phenol recovery improves the quality of the bioreactor effluent in terms of residual organics and color. With phenol recovery, PAC augmentation is not required; without phenol recovery, PAC is needed to produce a comparable effluent. Dephenolization also enhances the stability of biooxidation, and reduces the minimum HRT required. With tertiary treatment, both schemes can meet the effluent concentrations published in the SRC-I Final Envivornmental Impact Statement, as well as the anticipated effluent limits. However, phenol recovery does provide a wider safety margin and could eliminate the need for some of the tertiary treatment steps. Based solely on the technical merits observed in this study, phenol recovery is recommended. The final selection should, however, also consider economic tradeoffs and results of other studies such as toxicology testing of the effluents. 34 references, 30 figures and 26 tables.

  5. LOW-MASS TERTIARY COMPANIONS TO SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES. I. COMMON PROPER MOTION SURVEY FOR WIDE COMPANIONS USING 2MASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Peter R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 3003, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10034 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy, E-mail: peter.allen@fandm.edu [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first results of a multi-epoch search for wide (separations greater than a few tens of AU), low-mass tertiary companions of a volume-limited sample of 118 known spectroscopic binaries within 30 pc of the Sun, using the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog and follow-up observations with the KPNO and CTIO 4 m telescopes. Note that this sample is not volume complete but volume limited, and, thus, there is incompleteness in our reported companion rates. We are sensitive to common proper motion companions with separations from roughly 200 AU to 10,000 AU ({approx}10'' {yields} {approx} 10'). From 77 sources followed-up to date, we recover 11 previously known tertiaries, 3 previously known candidate tertiaries, of which 2 are spectroscopically confirmed and 1 rejected, and 3 new candidates, of which 2 are confirmed and 1 rejected. This yields an estimated wide tertiary fraction of 19.5{sup +5.2}{sub -3.7}%. This observed fraction is consistent with predictions set out in star formation simulations where the fraction of wide, low-mass companions to spectroscopic binaries is >10%.

  6. High-resolution reservoir characterization by an acoustic impedance inversion of a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    High-resolution reservoir characterization by an acoustic impedance inversion of a Tertiary deltaic a low level of parameterization embedded in a geologic framework and is computationally fast. The second in the geologic settings of the res- ervoir; however, there is no explicit geologic significance and the method

  7. ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY, DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE TERTIARY OIL SHALE DEPOSITS IN NW ANATOLIA, TURKEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Kara Gülbay; S. Korkmaz

    In this study, organic geochemical characteristics and depositional environ-ment of the Tertiary-aged oil shale deposits in Northwest Anatolia have been examined. Oil shales in all the studied areas are typically characterized by high hydrogen index and low oxygen index values. Beypazar?

  8. Oxygen isotope constraints on the origin of impact glasses from the cretaceous-tertiary boundary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, J.D.; Chamberlain, C.P. (Dartmouth Coll, Hanover, NH (United States))

    1992-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-extraction oxygen isotope and major element analyses of individual glass spherules from Haitian Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments demonstrate that the glasses fall on a mixing line between an isotopically heavy ({delta}{sup 18}O = 14 per mil) high-calcium composition and an isotopically light ({delta}{sup 18}O = 6 per mil) high-silicon composition. This trend can be explained by melting of heterogeneous source rocks during the impact of an asteroid (or comet) {approximately}65 million years ago. The data indicate that the glasses are a mixture of carbonate and silicate rocks and exclude derivation of the glasses either by volcanic processes or as mixtures of sulfate-high evaporate and silicate rocks.

  9. Effects of oxygenate concentration on species mole fractions in premixed n-heptane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    -heptane/oxygenate mixtures were 2.7 and 3.4. Three different fuel oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, methanol, and ethanol) were tested tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME)) were considered as possible fuel oxygenates. MTBE and ethanol are the most common oxygenates currently used

  10. Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonventre, Josephine A., E-mail: josephine.bonventre@oregonstate.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 1011 Agricultural and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kung, Tiffany S., E-mail: tiffany.kung@rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); White, Lori A., E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Cooper, Keith R., E-mail: cooper@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • Inhibiting PHD or knocking down VHL rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • HIF1-Vegf driven angiogenesis is a target for MTBE vascular toxicity.

  11. Derivation of a human equivalent concentration for n-butanol using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Deisinger, P. J.; Poet, Torka S.; English, J C.; Faber, W D.; Barton, H. A.; Corley, Rick A.; Clewell, III, H. J.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The metabolic series (family) approach for risk assessment uses a dosimetry-based analysis to develop toxicity information for a group of metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic (PK) data for each compound and toxicity data for the parent compound. An initial physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to support the implementation of the metabolic series approach for n-butyl acetate and its subsequent metabolites, n-butanol, and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) (Barton et al. 2000). In conjunction with pilot pharmacokinetic studies, the model was used to design the definitive intravenous (i.v.) PK studies. Rats were implanted with dual indwelling cannulae and administered test compounds by i.v. bolus dose, i.v. infusion, or by inhalation in a recirculating closed chamber. Hepatic, vascular and extravascular metabolic constants for metabolism were estimated by fitting the model to the blood time course data from these experiments. The respiratory bioavailability of n-butyl acetate and n-butanol was estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting butyl series PBPK model successfully reproduces the blood time course of these compounds following i.v. administration, and inhalation exposure to n-butyl acetate and n-butanol. A fully scaled human version of the model successfully reproduces arterial blood n-butanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to n-butanol. These validated i.v (rat) and inhalation route models (rat, butyl acetate, n-butanol; human, butanol only) can be used to support species and dose-route extrapolations required for risk assessment of butyl series family of compounds. Further, this work demonstrates the usefulness of i.v. kinetic data for parameterization of systemic metabolism and the value of collaboration between experimentalists and kineticists in the development of PBPK models. The product of this effort, validated rat and human PBPK models for the butyl series compounds, illustrates the effectiveness of broad multi-institutional public/private collaborations in the pursuit of developing state of the art tools for risk assessment.

  12. Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Mikhail V

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert?Butyl Ether (MTBE); http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/Methyl Tertiary Butyl  Ether  (MTBE),  which  was  easily accounting was not performed on MTBE and the result  of 

  13. THE TRENDS HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING SURVEY. II. DIRECT DETECTION OF THE HD 8375 TERTIARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Johnson, John Asher; Yantek, Scott M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Marcy, Geoff W.; Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Wright, Jason T.; Feng Ying, E-mail: jcrepp@nd.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the direct imaging detection of a faint tertiary companion to the single-lined spectroscopic binary HD 8375 AB. Initially noticed as an 53 m s{sup -1} yr{sup -1} Doppler acceleration by Bowler et al., we have obtained high-contrast adaptive optics observations at Keck using NIRC2 that spatially resolve HD 8375 C from its host(s). Astrometric measurements demonstrate that the companion shares a common proper-motion. We detect orbital motion in a clockwise direction. Multiband relative photometry measurements are consistent with an early M-dwarf spectral type ({approx}M1V). Our combined Doppler and imaging observations place a lower-limit of m {>=} 0.297 M{sub Sun} on its dynamical mass. We also provide a refined orbit for the inner pair using recent radial velocity measurements obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer. HD 8375 is one of many triple-star systems that are apparently missing in the solar neighborhood.

  14. Interplay between Secondary and Tertiary Structure Formation in Protein Folding Cooperativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan Bereau; Michael Bachmann; Markus Deserno

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein folding cooperativity is defined by the nature of the finite-size thermodynamic transition exhibited upon folding: two-state transitions show a free energy barrier between the folded and unfolded ensembles, while downhill folding is barrierless. A microcanonical analysis, where the energy is the natural variable, has shown better suited to unambiguously characterize the nature of the transition compared to its canonical counterpart. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a high resolution coarse-grained model allow for the accurate evaluation of the density of states, in order to extract precise thermodynamic information, and measure its impact on structural features. The method is applied to three helical peptides: a short helix shows sharp features of a two-state folder, while a longer helix and a three-helix bundle exhibit downhill and two-state transitions, respectively. Extending the results of lattice simulations and theoretical models, we find that it is the interplay between secondary structure and the loss of non-native tertiary contacts which determines the nature of the transition.

  15. Structural Properties of Tetra-tert-butyl Zinc(II) Phthalocyanine Isomers on a Au(111) Z. T. Deng, H. M. Guo, W. Guo, L. Gao, Z. H. Cheng, D. X. Shi, and H.-J. Gao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    . Deng, H. M. Guo, W. Guo, L. Gao, Z. H. Cheng, D. X. Shi, and H.-J. Gao* Beijing National LaboratoryStructural Properties of Tetra-tert-butyl Zinc(II) Phthalocyanine Isomers on a Au(111) Surface Z. T

  16. Multiple Objective Stormwater Management For the Coliseum Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Jesse; Kraai, Rachel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) remain in the soil around5.2 ppb xylenes, and 160 ppb MTBE remain in the groundwater

  17. The Drinking Water Security and Safety Amendments of 2002: Is America's Drinking Water Infrastructure Safer Four Years Later?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shermer, Steven D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    355 tertiary butyl ether ("MTBE"). 43 8 Amazingly, even "[c]Water: Study Estimates Cost of MTBE Remedia- tion At Up to $

  18. Agricultural and Resource Economics Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Aaron; Zilberman, David; Saitone, Tina; Sexton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a natural-gas derivative, werebattle between advocates for ethanol and those for MTBE.MTBE became the dominant additive because it was less

  19. Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether vapors in a biotrickling filters. 2. Analysis of the rate-limiting step and behavior under transient conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortin, N.Y.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed experiments were performed with gas phase biotrickling filters treating vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern. A particular emphasis was placed on the analysis of the rate-limiting step, and it was found that the process was mostly limited by the biological reaction rather than by mass transfer. Further experiments involved the study of the dynamic behavior of the biotrickling filters under simulated field conditions. In all cases, the biotrickling filters adapted rapidly to the new conditions, and new steady states were obtained within hours. The relevance of the results and the implications as far as implementation of biotrickling filters for field MTBE treatment are discussed.

  20. Thermally Switchable Thin Films of an ABC Triblock Copolymer of Poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shanju [Georgia Institute of Technology; Liu, Zhan [Georgia Institute of Technology; Bucknall, David G. [Georgia Institute of Technology; He, Lihong [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Allen, Mark [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

  1. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

  2. Uranium mineralization along a fault plane in tertiary sedimentary rocks in the McLean 5 Mine, Live Oak Conty, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bomber, Brenda Jean

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    URAN1IUM MINERALIZATION ALONG A FAULT PLANE IN TERTIARY SEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN THE MCLEAN 5 MINE, LIVE OAK COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by BRENDA JEAN BOMBER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... as to sty1e and content by: Chairman of Committee Member Memb r H o De artment December 1980 ABSTRACT Uranium Mineralization along a Fault Plane in Tertiary Sedimentary Rocks in the McLean 5 Mine, Live Oak County, Texas. (December 1980) Brenda Jean...

  3. Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether vapors in biotrickling filters. 1. Reactor startup, steady-state performance, and culture characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortin, N.Y.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerobic microbial consortium able to biodegrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was enriched in two waste air biotrickling filters after continuous operation for 6 months. After this acclimation phase, the two laboratory-scale biotrickling filters were able to degrade up to 50 g of MTBE per cubic meter of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could be sustained for at least 4--6 weeks. After the acclimation phase, the MTBE degrading biotrickling filters were characterized by their almost full conversion of MTBE to carbon dioxide and the absence of any degradation byproducts in either the gas or the liquid phase. They also exhibited a very high specific degradation activity per amount of biomass, and a low rate of biomass accumulation. An observed biomass yield of 0.1 g g{sup {minus}1} and a specific growth rate of 0.025 day{sup {minus}1} were determined for the biotrickling filter process culture. Further data on MTBE mass transfer and on the dynamic behavior of the biotrickling filter are presented in part 2 of this paper. Overall, the results demonstrate that MTBE can be effectively biodegraded under carefully controlled environmental conditions.

  4. Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in water–tert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman, E-mail: bbagchi@sscu.iisc.ernet.in [SSCU, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)] [SSCU, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Water–tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with x{sub TBA} ? 0.03–0.07. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at x{sub TBA} ? 0.05. We note that “islands” of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak nonlinearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, x{sub TBA} ? 0.45, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level.

  5. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R., E-mail: abelson@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 Materials Science and Engineering Building, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S., E-mail: girolami@scs.illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300?°C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M?=?Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200?°C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18?nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

  6. Water Research 37 (2003) 37563766 Seasonal and daily variations in concentrations of methyl-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toran, Laura

    - tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) at Cranberry Lake, New Jersey Laura Torana, *, Charles Lipkaa , Arthur Baehrb; accepted 24 March 2003 Abstract Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an additive used to oxygenate gasoline of gasoline-powered watercraft. This paper documents and explains both seasonal and daily variations in MTBE

  7. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    , B. Dooher, and D. Rice, Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE, An evaluation of MTBE impacts to California groundwater resources, pp. 68 p., Lawrence Livermore National, Temporal Analysis of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Plumes at California Leaking Underground Fuel tank

  8. Is Embolization of the Pancreas Safe? Pancreatic Histological Changes after Selective Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okada, Takuya, E-mail: okabone@gmail.com; Yamaguchi, Masato [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Takahashi, Takuya [Kobe Red Cross Hospital, Department of Pathology (Japan); Izaki, Kenta; Uotani, Kensuke; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of selective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in a swine model in terms of histological changes in the pancreas. Methods: Three groups of two female swine (58-64 kg) per group underwent TAE of the dorsal pancreatic artery, under anesthesia, with 1:1, 1:4, and 1:9 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. Blood parameters were evaluated at days 1, 4, and 10 after TAE, after which the animals were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results: All of the animals were asymptomatic and survived for 10 days. Cone beam computed tomographic angiography revealed occlusion of the dorsal pancreatic artery and no enhancement in the embolized area. The white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level were elevated slightly on day 1 after TAE (mean {+-} SD: 252.7 {+-} 27.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2}/{mu}l and 0.15 {+-} 0.07 mg/l, respectively), but they normalized or remained near the upper normal limit thereafter. The serum amylase and lipase levels also were elevated on day 1 (8831.7 {+-} 2169.2 U/l and 130 {+-} 53.4 U/l, respectively) but normalized thereafter. Histologically, necrosis and fibrosis were noted only in the embolized segment, and necrosis and acute inflammatory reactions were absent in the nonembolized segment. The border between both segments was well defined. Lymphocytic infiltration and foreign body reaction were noted around the embolized vessels. Conclusions: Selective TAE with NBCA in the pancreas caused localized ischemic necrosis without clinically significant pancreatitis; therefore, this procedure is tolerable in swine.

  9. Effect of Ethanol and Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether on Monoaromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation: Response Variability for Different Aquifer Materials Under Various Electron-Accepting Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Aguilar, G L; Fernandez-Sanchez, J M; Kane, S R; Kim, D; Alvarez, P J

    2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Aquifer microcosms were used to determine how ethanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) affect monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation under different electron-accepting conditions commonly found in contaminated sites experiencing natural attenuation. Response variability was investigated by using aquifer material from four sites with different exposure history. The lag phase prior to BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and ethanol degradation was typically shorter in microcosms with previously contaminated aquifer material, although previous exposure did not always result in high degradation activity. Toluene was degraded in all aquifer materials and generally under a broader range of electron-accepting conditions compared to benzene, which was degraded only under aerobic conditions. MtBE was not degraded within 100 days under any condition, and it did not affect BTEX or ethanol degradation patterns. Ethanol was often degraded before BTEX compounds, and had a variable effect on BTEX degradation as a function of electron-accepting conditions and aquifer material source. An occasional enhancement of toluene degradation by ethanol occurred in denitrifying microcosms with unlimited nitrate; this may be attributable to the fortuitous growth of toluene-degrading bacteria during ethanol degradation. Nevertheless, experiments with flow-through aquifer columns showed that this beneficial effect could be eclipsed by an ethanol-driven depletion of electron acceptors, which significantly inhibited BTEX degradation and is probably the most important mechanism by which ethanol could hinder BTEX natural attenuation. A decrease in natural attenuation could increase the likelihood that BTEX compounds reach a receptor as well as the potential duration of exposure.

  10. Acute toxicity of smoke screen materials to aquatic organisms, white phosphorus-felt, red phosphorus-butyl rubber and SGF No. 2 fog oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, T.M.; McFadden, K.M.; Bean, R.M.; Clark, M.L.; Thomas, B.L.; Killand, B.W.; Prohammer, L.A.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The acute toxicity of three obscurants was determined for nine freshwater organisms. The materials tested were white phosphorus-felt smoke, red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP-BR) smoke, and smoke generator fuel (SGF) No. 2 fog oil (bulk and vaporized). The chemistry of WP-F and RP-BR smoke in water and the resulting effects on aquatic organisms are similar. Combustion of these two obscurants and their deposition in water leads to the formation of many complex oxy-phosphoric acids. Rates of hydrolysis of these complex products to ortho-phosphate were inconsistent and unpredictable over time. These products acidify water and produce toxic effects after exhausting the buffering capacity of the water. Acute 96 hr tests using Daphnia magna with neutralized and nonneutralized exposure solutions indicated that the presence of unidentified toxic component(s) acted independently of pH. At pH levels of 6.0 to 7.0, phosphorus combustion products precipitated out of solution leading to a bimodal toxic response in extended 96-hr tests with Daphnia magna. Most components of fog oil had low solubility in water. Saturation was apparent at approximately 0.1 to 0.3 mg/L total oil. Vaporization had no demonstrable effect on the chemistry or toxicity of the fog oil. Neither the bulk fog oil nor the vaporized fog oil was acutely toxic to freshwater animals at concentrations less than 10 mg/L total oil. In oil-water mixes in excess of 1.0 mg/L total oil, fog oil quickly separated and floated to the surface. The primary hazard associated with vaporized and bulk fog oil was the physical effect of oil fouling the organisms. Photolysis increased the concentration of water-soluble components of the fog oil. Acute toxicity was demonstrated in oil-water mixes (approx.10 mg/L total oil) of photolyzed bulk and vaporized fog oil. No difference in toxicity was observed between photolyzed and non-photolyzed dilutions of OWM at comparable levels of total oil.

  11. Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring In Psychiatric OPD Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring In Psychiatric Outpatient Department Of A Tertiary Care Hospital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiren K. Prajapati; Nisarg D. Joshi; Hiren R. Trivedi; Manubhai C. Parmar; Shilpa P. Jadav; Dinesh M. Parmar; Jalpan G. Kareliya

    Abstracts Background:Pharmacovigilance in psychiatry units can play vital role in detecting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and alerting physician to such events, thereby protecting the user population from avoidable harm. Objective: To assess the suspected ADRs profile of psychotropic drugs in psychiatry OPD of a tertiary care hospital and its comparison with available literature data as well as to create awareness among the consultant psychiatrists to these ADRs profile. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the psychiatry OPD. Thirty five consecutive patients per day were screened irrespective of their psychiatric diagnosis for suspected ADRs on 3 fixed days in a week from January 2011 to December 2011. CDSCO form was used to record the ADRs. Causality was assessed by WHO causality assessment scale while severity was assessed using Hartwig and Siegel scale. Results: Out of 4410 patients were screened, 383 patients were suspected of having at least one ADR. Thus, 8.68 % of our study population reported ADRs. Of 407 events recorded, 369(90.60%) were “probable ” and rest “possible ” according to WHO-UMC causality assessment

  12. Sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation: The role of O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, frequency, and power density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, J.W.; Hung, H.M.; Lin, A.; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

    1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone as functions of applied frequencies and applied power are investigated. Experiments are performed over the frequency range of 205--1,078 kHz. The higher overall reaction rates are observed at 358 and 618 kHz and then at 205 and 1,078 kHz. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constant, k{sub 0}, for MTBE degradation increases with increasing power density up to 250 W L{sup {minus}1}. A linear dependence of the first-order rate constant, k{sub O{sub 3}}, for the simultaneous degradation of O{sub 3} on power density is also observed. Naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) is shown to have a negligible effect on observed reaction rates.

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of the thermal dissociation of O,O'-bis(1,3,5-TRI-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclo-hexadienyl)-p-benzoquinone dioxime in solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khizhnyi, V.A.; Danilova, T.A.; Goloverda, G.Z.; Dobronravova, Z.A.

    1987-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal dissociation of O,O'-bis(1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadienyl)-p-benzoquinone dioxime (quinol ether) in solutions in nonpolar solvents were investigated. The dissociation of the quinol ether is reversible two-stage process and involves the formation of an intermediate radical. In relation to the reaction conditions (initial concentration, temperature) the dissociation rate of the quinol ether obeys the kinetic equations omega = k/sub eff/ x c/sup 1/2/ or omega = k/sub 1/c. The change in the reaction order is due to the ratio of the rates of dissociation of the intermediate radical and of its reaction with the phenoxyl radical. The ESR spectra were recorded on a Varian E-9 radiospectrometer with high-frequency modulation of 100 kHz.

  14. Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: A restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, W.; Asaro, F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Smit, J. (Free Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Lowrie, W. (Inst. fuer Geophysik, Zuerich (Switzerland)); Asaro, F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Margolis, S.V.; Claeys, P. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Kastner, M. (Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)); Hildebrand, A.R. (Geological Survey, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Restudy of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 536 and 540 in the southeast Gulf of Mexico gives evidence for a giant wave at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary time. Five units are recognized: (1) Cenomanian limestone underlies a hiatus in which the five highest Cretaceous stages are missing, possibly because of catastrophic K-T erosion. (2) Pebbly mudstone, 45 m thick, represents a submarine landslide possibly of K-T age. (3) Current-bedded sandstone, more than 2.5 m thick, contains anomalous iridium, tektite glass, and shocked quartz; it is interpreted as ejecta from a nearby impact crater, reworked on the deep-sea floor by the resulting tsunami. (4) A 50-cm interval of calcareous mudstone containing small Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the Ir peak is interpreted as the silt-size fraction of the Cretaceous material suspended by the impact-generated wave. (5) Calcareous mudstone with basal Tertiary forams and the uppermost tail of the Ir anomaly overlies the disturbed interval, dating the impact and wave event as K-T boundary age. Like Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico, Sites 536 and 540 are consistent with a large K-T age impact at the nearby Chicxulub crater.

  15. Reference: De Vleeschouwer, M. & Gueudet, G. (2011, fvrier). Secondary-tertiary transition and evolution of didactic contract : the example of duality in linear algebra. In Pytlak, M., Rowland, T., Swoboda, E. Proceedings of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and evolution of didactic contract : the example of duality in linear algebra. In Pytlak, M., Rowland, T-TERTIARY TRANSITION AND EVOLUTIONS OF DIDACTIC CONTRACT: THE EXAMPLE OF DUALITY IN LINEAR ALGEBRA Martine De, and a didactic contract perspective we argue that some of the novice students' difficulties can result from

  16. TORP (Tertiary Oil Recovery Project) stream tube model for waterflood performance calculations in a reservoir with arbitrary well patterns and irregular boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vossoughi, S.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project stream tube model was developed as a tool to help oil operators in Kansas evaluate and understand their waterflood projects in a more systematic approach. The model utilizes the stream tube concept and Buckley-Leverett theory and can be applied to any homogeneous reservoir with arbitrary well patterns and regular or irregular boundaries. It also can be applied to tracer projects to estimate tracer breakthrough time if the tracer is injected during the stage of high water-oil ratio. The computer package has been prepared in a fashion such that minimum effort and interaction are required for the user to obtain the final results from specified input data. The model was applied to an example problem consisting of a 5-spot pattern. 19 references.

  17. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), from gasoline by 2004.MTBE was used to meet a requirement for gasoline to containbeginning in 2002, replacing MTBE with ethanol. According to

  18. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl-tertiary-butyl- ether (MTBE) and the biomass burningfrom all source categories. MTBE is a gasoline additive andwith the fuel tracer MTBE (e.g. 0.82 for MTBE/benzene).

  19. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol Ethanol Acetone MEK MTBE CO Methane UCI UCI TOGA/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and toluene all ratioedthe observed decay. For MTBE, also a species that is not

  20. Soil type, crop and irrigation technique affect nitrogen leaching to groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letey, John; Vaughan, Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water contamination with MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether,that areas vulnerable to MTBE are also vulner- able tothat affect the movement of MTBE. If only a small amount of

  1. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tertiary- butyl ether (MTBE) and its effect on plasmaand three VOCs (propyne, furan, MTBE) remained below their 3Ethanol Acetone MEK MAC MVK MTBE Furan CH 3 OH C 2 H 5 OH C

  2. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), from gasoline by 2004.MTBE was used to meet a requirement for gasoline to containbeginning in 2002, replacing MTBE with ethanol. According to

  3. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation in batchCometabolic degradation of MTBE by a cyclohexane-oxidizingof 49 Biological Treatment of MTBE Fortin, N. Y. , and M. A.

  4. Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol Ethanol Acetone MEK MTBE CO Methane UCI UCI TOGA/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and toluene all ratioedthe observed decay. For MTBE, also a species that is not

  5. Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scown, Corinne Donahue

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drinking Water: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE).http://www.epa.gov/mtbe/water.htm (11/30/10), Chiu, Y. W. ;LCFS LCI LP LPG MED MRO MSF MTBE MWD MWDOC NAICS NERC NETL

  6. APPENDXD.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Report The Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report" provides production data for fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). End-of-month stock data held at ethanol...

  7. Nonassociated gas resources in low-permeability sandstone reservoirs, lower tertiary Wasatch Formation, and upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouch, T.D.; Schmoker, J.W.; Boone, L.E.; Wandrey, C.J.; Crovelli, R.A.; Butler, W.C.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Geological Survey recognizes six major plays for nonassociated gas in Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous low-permeability strata of the Uinta Basin, Utah. For purposes of this study, plays without gas/water contacts are separated from those with such contacts. Continuous-saturation accumulations are essentially single fields, so large in areal extent and so heterogeneous that their development cannot be properly modeled as field growth. Fields developed in gas-saturated plays are not restricted to structural or stratigraphic traps and they are developed in any structural position where permeability conduits occur such as that provided by natural open fractures. Other fields in the basin have gas/water contacts and the rocks are water-bearing away from structural culmination`s. The plays can be assigned to two groups. Group 1 plays are those in which gas/water contacts are rare to absent and the strata are gas saturated. Group 2 plays contain reservoirs in which both gas-saturated strata and rocks with gas/water contacts seem to coexist. Most units in the basin that have received a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) designation as tight are in the main producing areas and are within Group 1 plays. Some rocks in Group 2 plays may not meet FERC requirements as tight reservoirs. However, we suggest that in the Uinta Basin that the extent of low-permeability rocks, and therefore resources, extends well beyond the limits of current FERC designated boundaries for tight reservoirs. Potential additions to gas reserves from gas-saturated tight reservoirs in the Tertiary Wasatch Formation and Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in the Uinta Basin, Utah is 10 TCF. If the potential additions to reserves in strata in which both gas-saturated and free water-bearing rocks exist are added to those of Group 1 plays, the volume is 13 TCF.

  8. {gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Zhang Yun [465 Hospital, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132001 (China); Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987 (United States); Luo Wenjing [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn; Chen Jingyuan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  9. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production. Annual report, May 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Differing extents of diagenetic modification is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the Upper and Lower Texas Gulf Coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area are less stable, chemically and mechanically, than Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury dome area. Vicksburg sandstones are mineralogically immature and contain greater proportions of feldspars and rock fragments than do Frio sandstones. Thr reactive detrital assemblage of Vicksubrg sandstones is highly susceptible to diagenetic modification. Susceptibility is enhanced by higher than normal geothermal gradients in the McAllen Ranch Field area. Thus, consolidation of Vicksburg sandstones began at shallower depth of burial and precipitation of authigenic phases (especially calcite) was more pervasive than in Frio sandstones. Moreover, the late-stage episode of ferroan calcite precipitation that occluded most secondary porosity in Vicksburg sandstones did not occur significantly in Frio sandstones. Therefore, regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production.

  10. LANXESS Global Butyl Rubber Research Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denham, Graham

    at the University of Western Ontario Research Park in Sarnia. Through its subsidiary Bluewater Chemicals, Bio

  11. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Tertiary Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Nikola Tesla STEM High School in Redmond, WA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME...

  12. sup 13 C, sup 17 O, and sup 14 N NMR spectroscopic studies of a series of mixed isocyanide/carbonyl complexes of tungsten: W(CO) sub 6-n (CNR) sub n (R = tert-butyl, p tolyl; n = 1-3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, M.P.; Coffer, J.L.; Rommel, J.S.; Bennett, D.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1988-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    {sup 13}C, {sup 17}O, and {sup 14}N NMR spectra for the tungsten isocyanide complexes W(CO){sub 6-n}(CNR){sub n} (R = tert-butyl, p-tolyl; n = 1-3) have been obtained and the magnitudes of the corresponding chemical shifts utilized as a probe of differences in electronic structure. Comparisons of {delta}({sup 17}O) with {delta}({sup 13}CO) and of {delta}(C{sup 14}N) with {nu}(CN), or {delta}({sup 13}CO) are shown to confirm the better net donor ability of the aliphatic isocyanide over the aromatic isocyanide and illustrate an increased amount of charge density available at the metal center when CO is successively replaced with CNR. Marked differences in {sup 14}N quadrupolar relaxation times are observed between aromatic and aliphatic isocyanides, suggesting that the aromatic ring is involved in the M-L {pi} system. 19 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  13. This manuscript downloaded from www.microgrids.et.aau.dk is the preprint of the final paper: L. Meng, F. Tang, M. Savaghebi, J. C. Vasquez, and J. M. Guerrero, "Tertiary control of voltage unbalance compensation for optimal power quality in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    distributed generators (DGs) equally share the compensation efforts. Tertiary control, which inherently in a multi-bus islanded system by optimally utilizing DGs as distributed compensators and saves. DG Distributed generation. E0 Rated voltage amplitude. E* Reference of voltage amplitude. fc Cut

  14. Hydrogen sulfide decomposition into hydrogen and sulfur by quinone cycles. First annual report, June 1989-May 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, M.A.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research is evaluating the fundamental mechanisms for recovery of sulfur and H{sub 2} from H{sub 2}S, using mild condition cycles based on oxidation of H{sub 2}S by quinones. During this first year, the research focused on the reaction of H{sub 2}S with tertiary butyl anthraquinone to form tertiary butyl anthrahydroquinone. The progress achieved included extending the quinone conversion from 60-80% to complete conversion, significantly increasing the rate of conversion by varying the solvent, and developing a proposed mechanism for this part of the process.

  15. A study of the multiplication and rooting in vitro of shoot tips from mature guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callin, Jeffrey Michael

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10 mL Glacial acetic acid overnight Dehydration Series, Tertiary Butyl Alcohol 1. 50% Dehydration Solution 50 mL distilled water 40 mL 95% Ethyl alcohol 10 mL Tertiary butyl alcohol (t-BuOH) . 2. 70% dehydration solution 30 mL distilled water... alcohol 75 mL -BuOH 2 hours overnight 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 37 6. Pure t-BuOH 7. Pure t-BuOH 8. Pure t-BuOH 9. Equal volumes t-BuOH and parrifin oil 1 hour overnight 1 hour 24 hours 10. Fill small vials half full with melted parrifin...

  16. An investigation of the preparation of some alkylphosphonyl dichlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzger, Sidney Henry

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (ies using the phosphorus trichloride-aluminum chloride method. They noted that n-propyl, n-butyl, and isobutyl chloride yielded ~iso ropyl, isobutyl, and t-butyl- phosphonyl dichloride, respectively, with no trace of un- isomerized products Although..., that with respect to iso- butyl alcohol and. other primary alcohols with an adjacent tertiary position, two mechanisms are competing ? either a combination of' an SN1 with and SN2 or SNi mechanism. It must further be postulated that with respect to 5-methyi- 2...

  17. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. II. A SHORT-PERIOD COMPANION ORBITING AN F STAR WITH EVIDENCE OF A STELLAR TERTIARY AND SIGNIFICANT MUTUAL INCLINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Jiang Peng; Lee, Brian; Nelson, Ben [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 2611-2055 (United States); Barnes, Rory [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Shappee, Benjamin J. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ferreira, Leticia; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gary, Bruce; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan, E-mail: scfleming@psu.edu [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia, LIneA, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-20921-400 (Brazil); and others

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the discovery via radial velocity (RV) measurements of a short-period (P = 2.430420 {+-} 0.000006 days) companion to the F-type main-sequence star TYC 2930-00872-1. A long-term trend in the RV data also suggests the presence of a tertiary stellar companion with P > 2000 days. High-resolution spectroscopy of the host star yields T{sub eff} = 6427 {+-} 33 K, log g = 4.52 {+-} 0.14, and [Fe/H] = -0.04 {+-} 0.05. These parameters, combined with the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and a parallax, allow us to infer a mass and radius of the host star of M{sub 1} = 1.21 {+-} 0.08 M{sub Sun} and R{sub 1} = 1.09{sup +0.15}{sub -0.13} R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of the inner companion is below the hydrogen-burning limit; however, the true mass is likely to be substantially higher. We are able to exclude transits of the inner companion with high confidence. Further, the host star spectrum exhibits a clear signature of Ca H and K core emission, indicating stellar activity, but a lack of photometric variability and small vsin I suggest that the primary's spin axis is oriented in a pole-on configuration. The rotational period of the primary estimated through an activity-rotation relation matches the orbital period of the inner companion to within 1.5 {sigma}, suggesting that the primary and inner companion are tidally locked. If the inner companion's orbital angular momentum vector is aligned with the stellar spin axis as expected through tidal evolution, then it has a stellar mass of {approx}0.3-0.4 M{sub Sun }. Direct imaging limits the existence of stellar companions to projected separations <30 AU. No set of spectral lines and no significant flux contribution to the SED from either companion are detected, which places individual upper mass limits of M{sub {l_brace}2,3{r_brace}} {approx}< 1.0 M{sub Sun }, provided they are not stellar remnants. If the tertiary is not a stellar remnant, then it likely has a mass of {approx}0.5-0.6 M{sub Sun }, and its orbit is likely significantly inclined from that of the secondary, suggesting that the Kozai-Lidov mechanism may have driven the dynamical evolution of this system.

  18. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  19. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3,054 Fuel Ethanol (FE) 1,019 97 1,116 2,133 528 393 3,054 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 561 0 561 0 0 0 0 All Other Oxygenates a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp....

  20. Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at MTBE-Contaminated Sites J U A N tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) added to gasoline. Frequent observations of high TBA, and especially rising TBA/MTBE of MTBE to TBA. Typically overlooked is the role of volatilization in the attenuation of these chemicals

  1. By Martman Cohen News Office staff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    tertiary butyl ether, or MTBE (another hazardous gasoline component that is hazardous to health the benzene-removal technol- ogy to sites contaminated with MTBE. That gasoline additive tends to mi- grate of MTBE- contaminated sites from around the U.S. By simulating an anaerobic pro- cess similar to what

  2. UMass builds bugs to eat MTBE ByAuriaCimino

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    UMass builds bugs to eat MTBE ByAuriaCimino STAfFWRITER An area university's process to destroy with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), which is found in gasoline. Once the first field trial is complete in particular has suffered from MTBE contamination because of the abundance of groundwater in the state, said

  3. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Ethanol (FE) 1,229 108 1,337 2,369 724 497 3,590 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 292 0 292 0 0 0 0 All Other Oxygenates a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp....

  4. Drinking Water Problems: MTBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a gasoline additive commonly known as MTBE, can contaminate ground water and cause health problems for those exposed to it for a long time. However, filtering devices can remove this and other additives from well water...

  5. Physico-chemical and biological characterization of an aquifer polluted with Yves Benoit (1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the use of biofuels through tax incentives, including the addition of bioethanol to gasoline. Some tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) using bioethanol. ETBE is presently the main way of the bioethanol utilization bioethanol raw material. In Europe, the maximal authorized ETBE concentration in gasoline has now reached 22

  6. Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, R.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

  7. Ion exchange as a tertiary treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westervelt, Ronald David

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , produced the first synthetic ion exchange resins by reacting phenol with formaldehyde (2). These resins were insoluble and infusible. They found that the cation exchange properties could be greatly in- creased by substituting phenolsulfonic acid... by hydrogen ions. They could also b&. operated on the sodium cycle to exchange sodium iona for cations in solution. Adams and Holmes also produced the first anion exchange resins by reacting amines such as m-phenylene- diamine with formaldehyde...

  8. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrations. ) 73 FIGURE Page 47 Correlation between Kd and water concentration in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA:DEME mL:1 mL, initial calcium acetate= 1%(w/w)) 48 Correlation between Kd and water concentration... in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA;DEMAW mL:1 mL, initial calcium acetate= 2%(w/w)) 49 Correlation between Kd and water concentration in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA:DEMAW mL:1 m...

  9. Tertiary paleomagnetic results from east Kalimantan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumadyo, Leonard E. D

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? Early Miocene basalt, shale, and andesite yield a mean reversed direction of D = 182. 0', I = -2. 2'(oss = 11. 0', k = 22. 8) and a paleomagnetic pole 1 = 87. 8'N, P = 173. 5'E (Ass ? 7. 0', K = 54. 8). Rock magnetic studies suggest that the carrier... for his guidance in the laboratory and writing style and for keeping me honest. I am indebted to Dr. Laura Stokking of Ocean Drilling Program for her guidance in rock magnetism. I thank my good friends Dean Merrill, who dedicated most of his time...

  10. Later Tertiary Leporidae of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, M. R.

    1958-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the half-bound or leaping gallop of leporids. The postcranial skeleton in primitive leporids was probably more flexible laterally than in later le- ponds, which are specialized for anteroposterior movement. A few leporids departed from the main line... 20, 1873. Type specimen.—Part of left lower jaw having broken incisor, P3 -M3 , A.M.N.H. No. 5635, Oreodon beds, Cedar Creek, Colorado. Geologic age and distribution. Orellan (middle Oligocene) and probably Whitneyan (late Oligocene) of Great Plains...

  11. Determination of methyl tert. butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, J.; Orchin, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A GLC-acid extraction method is described for the determination of MTBE in gasolines. The method consists of a programmed GLC analysis starting at about room temperature conducted before and after extraction with cold 85% phosphoric acid. This treatment results in the preferential solubility of ethers and other oxygenated compounds while minimizing the reaction of olefins and aromatics which may be present in the gasolines. Plotting various known concentrations of MTBE in gasolines against the concentrations determined in the same samples by the authors methodology results in a straight line relationship. The concentration of MTBE in any sample of gasoline may thus be determined using their GLC-extraction procedure and the calibration line. The analysis can accommodate a wide choice of standard GLC columns and programs. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Butyl Acrylate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013 Sanyo:MarchPractices in Indian

  13. New etherification process commercialized in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase-out of leaded fuels in Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa and Latin America is increasing demand for octane and octane-bearing fuel components such as ethers. Early solutions to the problem of increasing octane while reducing tailpipe emissions involved use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). According to Neste, using both tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) and MTBE can give refiners increased blending flexibility for volatility control. But the economics associated with TAME production often make TAME units difficult to justify. The paper discusses the NExTAME process, the unit at the Porvoo refinery and process improvements.

  14. Texas plant will use new process to coproduce propylene oxide, MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1993-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Texaco Chemical Co. is building a $400 + million facility to produce 1.2 billion lb/year (14,000 b/d) methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and 400 million lb/year (about 500 metric tons/day) propylene oxide (PO). The facility-under construction at Port Neches, Tex.-will utilize a newly developed Texaco process that coproduces the two chemicals. The process produces propylene oxide and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) from the reaction of isobutane with oxygen in one step, then in a second step with propylene. The TBA is then reacted with methanol in a one-step process that synthesizes MTBE. The paper describes the Port Neches facilities, construction schedule, feedstocks, product uses, and auxiliary equipment.

  15. Equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of liquid-phase ethyl tert-butylether (ETBE) synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, K.L.; Datta, R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is now the second largest volume organic chemical, only behind ethylene, produced in the U.S. This is remarkable since its commercial production began barely two decades ago. Although MTBE is currently the industry standard, it has been proposed that ethanol and other renewable additives make up to 30% of the oxygenate market. As a result, ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, or 2-ethyoxy 2-methyl propane), derived from renewable ethanol and isobutylene, has emerged as a promising new oxygenate. ETBE also has a somewhat lower blending Reid vapor pressure as well as a higher octane number than MTBE. This paper describes the thermodynamic equilibrium constant for the production of ETBE.

  16. Two US markets, or one? How the MTBE-gasoline relationship is evolving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This issue of Energy Detente features the price sensitivity of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. Data is presented for US wholesale gasoline prices vs. MTBE for the 20-month period beginning in June 1994 and ending in January 1996, and the data is discussed. Also contained in this issue is the refining netback data and the fuel price/tax data for the period ending January 5, 1996.

  17. Statoil outlines MTBE development program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Norway's state oil company Den Norkse state Oljeselskap AS has outlined plans to become one of the major European producers of methyl tertiary butyl ether in the 1990s. Statoil predicts European demand for MTBE will jump to 4.5 million metric tons/year by 2000 from 2.5 million tons in 1990. Europe currently is a net importer of MTBE, with a productive capacity of 2.2 million tons/year.

  18. Energy Efficient Refinery Process Developed with U.S. D.O.E. Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mings, W. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENERGY EFFICIENT REFINERY PROCESS DEVELOPED WITH U.S. D.O.E. SUPPORT Walter J. Mings, P.E. EG&G Idaho, Inc. Idaho Falls, Idaho Abstract The United States Department of Energy histori cally has encouraged private efforts to develop en ergy... with potential for extensive industrial energy savings. INTRODUCTION An innovative energy saving refinery process (also called the catalytic distillation process) for pro ducing MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether) was devel oped by two Houston companies...

  19. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

  20. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    field site is located at the Vandenberg Air Force Base at a site where a leaking underground storage

  1. academic tertiary care: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution and Plants Websites Summary: , address, phone number, and signature of care provider name(s) of dependent(s) in the provider's care the expected period...

  2. african tertiary teaching: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archive Summary: Welcome Research InterestsActivity Links to Publications; Courses ... EDCI 425: Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ... Most material for...

  3. australian tertiary referral: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Websites Summary: AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITIES QUALITY AGENCY Report of an Audit of Swinburne; AUQA Audit Report Number 61 ISBN 978 1 877090 90 5 Australian...

  4. Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Acyclic Tertiary Diamines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodagholian, Sevana

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Search of a Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in Proton Bridgedand J.A. Gerlt, “The Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in EnzymaticShow That Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds do not Offer a

  5. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  6. aliphatic tertiary amines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the system. If so, all close binaries should be members of triple (or higher-order) systems. As a test of this prediction, we present a search for the signature of third...

  7. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, Clayton J. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  8. alcohols aromatic tertiary: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of alcohol and drugs. 6. Describe the personality traits of the alcoholic and drug addict. 7. Describe the treatment and rehabilitation of the alcoholic and drug addict. 8....

  9. african tertiary institution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batchelor Institute and Charles Darwin 9 "Criminally Unjust: Young People and the Crisis of Mass Incarceration" Conference presented by The Africana Criminal Justice Project...

  10. Saponification rates of isomeric butyl esters in aqueous 1,4-dioxane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruhnke, Edward Vincent

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Jensen, G. M. Watson and J. B. Beckham, Anal. Chem., 23, 1711-8(1951). (21). F. Daniels, J. H. Mathews and J, W. Williams, "Experimental Physical Chemistry," 3rd. ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., 19*4-1, p. 167. (22). S. Glasstone...

  11. Safe conditions for contacting nitric acid or nitrates with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a request from DOE-SR, the current state of knowledge of the reactions between TBP and aqueous nitrate solutions is critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for the safe operation of SRS separations equipment in which this combination of chemicals may be present. The existing limits for evaporation are validated. Guidelines are presented for cases in which general limits do not apply. The rate of reaction between nitric acid and TBP appears to be controlled by the rate of TBP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction produces dibutyl phosphate and n-butanol. The hydrolysis rate is a strong function of temperature, and becomes very fast at temperatures in the range 130{degrees} to 150{degrees}C. The resulting n-butanol is volatile at high temperatures, boiling at 117.5{degrees}C, but is also subject to exothermic oxidation by nitric acid or nitrates. If oxidation occurs before the n-butanol evaporates, the heat of oxidation may exceed local cooling by convection. The resulting heating will further accelerate the reaction, leading to an energetic runaway and possibly (in confined systems) an explosion. Extensive experiments and practice have shown that in a well-mixed and well-vented aqueous system such as an evaporator, at moderate acidities and temperatures below 130{degrees}C, the heat of reaction is adequately removed by vaporization of steam. In general, the heating will be so slow that natural processes provide adequate cooling at temperatures below 80{degrees}C. Above this temperature, care should be taken to ensure that adequate cooling is available for the amount of TBP that may be present. Experiments suggest that in well-ventilated systems n-butanol evaporation and convective cooling are sufficient to control the reaction at temperatures up to 120{degrees}C.

  12. The K-band microwave spectra of t-butyl halides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crook, George Hardy

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    result of centrifugal distortion of the mole? cule, and (c) a group of lines from either the hindered internal rotation of the CH^ groups or torsional vibration along the C-CH-j bonds, or both. In an attempt to determine the sources of the indi... absorption lines in the microwave re? gion were reported by Cleeton and Williams (2) in 1934* No more papers on this subject appeared in the literature until 1946. Since this latter date, however, some 400 papers relating to miorowave absorption spectra...

  13. acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Dissertations Summary: ??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Alcoholic fermentation, and especially wine fermentation, is one of the most ancient microbiological processes utilized by man....

  14. aluminum triso-ethylphosphonate butylate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  15. acid t-butyl ester: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stable thermodynamically and hydration free energies obtained Yu, Fangqun 189 ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain...

  16. Batch polymerization of styrene initiated by n-butyl lithium in a cyclohexane solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landon, Thomas Rodman

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the effect of autocatalytic initiation. The propagation rate constant is assumed to be independent of chain length. In order to solve equation (49), one can use equation (46) and obtain nM(P . ? P . ) dt j i I (SO) where kp / p T If one assumes 2K..., they were then dried overnight in a vacuum oven at 200 to 220'C and 30 inches Hg. vacuum. Before removing the bottjes from the oven, the oven was pressured to at- mospheric pressure with prepurified nitrogen. As quickly as possible, after the bottles...

  17. AVGAS/AUTOGAS (aviation gasoline/automobile gasoline) comparison. Winter-grade fuels. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrara, A.M.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes dynamometer tests that simulated conditions found in a general-aviation aircraft. In these tests, automobile gasoline was tested and compared with aviation gasoline. The tendency for vapor lock and detonation was measured as a function of gasoline grade, Reid vapor pressure, and the age of the fuel.

  18. Evaluation and Optimization of MTBE Biodegradation in Aquifers, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legler, T; Balser, L; Koester, C; Wilson, W

    2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was focused on meeting the following objectives concerning the process of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation, with the goal of optimizing this process in situ: 1. Assess whether intrinsic bioattenuation of MTBE is feasible under aerobic conditions across several contaminated sites. 2. Determine the effect of co-contaminants, specifically water-soluble gasoline components (most notably benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes [BTEX]) on MTBE biodegradation. 3. Determine whether microbial and/or chemical factors contribute to different MTBE degradative activities. 4. Isolate and characterize MTBE-degrading microorganisms from sediments in which MTBE biodegradation was observed.

  19. Austrian refiner benefits from advanced control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, L.A.; Spencer, M. [Setpoint Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Schuster, R.; Tuppinger, D.M.; Wilmsen, W.F. [OeMV-AG Energy, Schwechat (Austria)

    1995-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    OeMV-AG Energy implemented advanced process controls on 27 units at its refinery in Schwechat, Austria. A variety of controls were implemented on the butadiene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) units in January 1993. After more than 1 year of operation, the butadiene/MTBE project has shown a number of benefits, including reduced energy consumption and increased capacity in both units. The paper discusses the process, advanced control, the simple model predictive controller, control objectives, the butadiene unit, the MTBE unit, and benefits of the advanced controllers.

  20. Petrochem industry expands North American MTBE capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that petrochemical manufacturers continue to increase methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) capacity in North America. The action reflects refiners' reformulation of gasoline to help reduce auto emissions. Demand for gasoline blending oxygenates such as MTBE is expected to increase as U.S. refiners reconfigure processing trains to produce fuels meeting requirements of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. Recent progress includes plans to build an MTBE plant in Mexico and start-ups of plants on the U.S. Gulf Coast and in Canada.

  1. Economics of new MTBE design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Jarallah, A.M.; Lee, A.K.K.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) is produced industrially by catalytic reaction between methanol and isobutene. The catalyst that is widely used is an acidic ion exchange resin. This article explores design and economics when sulfuric acid is the catalyst. The profitability of MTBE production depends mainly on the cost of butenes and methhanol. Thus, the example shows MTBE made with a catalyst of sulfuric acid was profitable at a Saudi Arabian location, even though it was not profitable at a U.S. Gulf Coast location.

  2. MTBE: Wild card in groundwater cleanup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenigsberg, S. [Regenesis Bioremediation Products, San Juan Capistrano, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface releases of the gasoline oxygenate, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) seriously compromise the remediation and closure of properties that have ground water contaminated with BTEX and other conventional fuel hydrocarbon components. Although a manageable protocal for BTEX remediation is being set up, the MTBE problem continues to be difficult. This article discusses a new magnesium peroxide compound which could be part of the solution. Covered topics include oxygen release compound (ORC) enhance bioremediation and the role of oxygen and ORC in MTBE remediation. 1 fig.

  3. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  4. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

  5. Alternate fuels for general-aviation aircraft with spark-ignition engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrara, A.M.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a study into the behavior of several alternate fuels that are under consideration for use in general aviation aircraft engines. The study consisted of a literature search and engine tests using a dynamometer. The literature search identified material compatibility problems and possible solutions to these problems. For the engine tests, a number of gasoline/alcohol blends were prepared using both ethanol and methanol in varying concentrations and the vapor-lock behavior was identified. Neat alcohols and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether were also used in the engine, and special operational conditions and problems were identified.

  6. California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2009, (AEO) E10–a gasoline blend containing 10% ethanol–is assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California erformulated gasoline (RFG), as opposed to the 5.7% blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7% blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0% oxygen content under the Clean Air Act provisions in effect at that time.

  7. Economics for iso-olefin production using the fluid catalytic cracking unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClung, R.G.; Witoshkin, A.; Bogert, D.C.; Winkler, W.S. [Englehard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires use of oxygenates in some gasolines to improve both CO and hydrocarbon auto tailpipe emissions. Various oxygenates are currently being used by the refining industry. For the fully integrated refinery having a fluid catalytic cracking unit, the most commonly used oxygenates are methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl ether (TAME). The FCC unit produces the isobutylene and iso-amylases need for manufacture of both MTBE and TAME. The economics for an assumed refinery processing scheme for several FCC cases are examined giving estimates of income and investments for each case. Up to one-third of the total gasoline pool can be made in reformulated gasoline using TAME and MTBE with the FCC unit as the sole source of feedstock. This processing route is much more economical than the alternative scheme using butane isomerization/iosbutane dehydrogenation.

  8. Coal-transformation chemistry. Fourth quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stock, Leon M.; Blain, D. A.; Handy, C. I.; Heimann, P.; Huang, C. B.; King, H. -H.; Landschulz, W.; Willis, R. S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrene, perylene, anthracene, 9,10-diphenylanthracene, naphthalene and biphenyl have been employed as electron transfer agents in the reduction of Illinois No. 6 coal with potassium in tetrahydrofuran. These electron transfer agents are about equally effective for the reduction of this coal at short reaction times (3 hours). We conclude that the anions of biphenyl and naphthalene achieve a greater degree of electron transfer to the coal molecules and that the use of these anions enhances the fragmentation reactions of the coal. Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Colorado subbituminous coal were reacted with potassium dissolved in a mixture of monoglyme and triglyme at -50/sup 0/C. The reduction reaction proceeded via solvated electrons rather than by an electron transfer reaction. The coals were then alkylated with methyl iodide and their solubilities in tetrahydrofuran were determined. The Illinois coal reductively alkylated via solvated electrons was considerably less soluble in tetrahydrofuran than the same coal reductively alkylated with potassium and naphthalene in tetrahydrofuran. A sample of Illinois No. 6 coal which had been reductively butylated with n-butyl-1-/sup 13/C iodide was hydrolyzed. Carbon nmr spectroscopy of the hydrolyzed coal revealed that the resonances previously assigned either to the presence of n-butyl carboxylates or to n-butyl tertiary ethers were removed. This observation provides definite evidence that only carboxylates were present in the original alkylated product. Selective alkylation of the acidic hydroxyl groups in Illinois No. 6 coal was carried out using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as a phase transfer catalyst and iodomethane or 1-iodobutane as alkylating agent as described by Liotta. The tetrahydrofuran solubility of the product was significantly improved in a reaction where reductively butylated coal was subsequently coal was subsequently methylated using Liotta's procedure.

  9. Viscoelastic Properties and Phase Behavior of 12-tert-Butyl Ester Dendrimer/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    with bis- phenol A polycarbonate (PC), resulting in an in- crease in free volume with increasing dendrimer hyperbranched polyester/bisphenol A PC blends with respect to pure PC. Studies were conducted by Carr et al.24

  10. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. J. Slomczynski. 2003. BTEX/MTBE bioremediation: BionetsScow, and L. Alvarez-Cohen. MTBE and benzene biodegradationinteractions in BTEX and MTBE mixtures by an MTBE-degrading

  11. An experimental system for the n-butyl-lithium initiated polymerization of styrene in a multi-sampled batch reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, James Harvey

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature gradients and thereby causing concentration gradients due to increased reaction rates. No method has yet been reported for monitoring the internal temperature of such a soft-drink bottle reactor, or of providing any kind of dy- namic... and Bywater [I] showed that the initial rate of heat generation by the polymerization reac- tion would be so high that the thermal resistance of the reactor bowl would prevent isothermal operations. By using the manufacturer's stainless steel internal...

  12. An experimental system for the n-butyl-lithium initiated polymerization of styrene in a multi-sampled batch reactor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, James Harvey

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -hydrogen interconversions in- stead of the desired cleavage reaction. The sulfur-sulfur bond is a chromophore that absorbs ultraviolet light in the 255 nm region with a relatively low molar absorption (z = 400). This is suffi- max ciently large for the detection...- cally there are two broad divisions of experimental methods; the ultra-high purity, evacuated glass systems and the lower purity, more rugged, bench-scale systems. One analytical method, the spectrophotometric method, as used by Worsfold and Bywater...

  13. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2003. BTEX/MTBE bioremediation: Bionets containing Isolite,In Situ and On-site Bioremediation Symposium. Battellebacteria for use in bioremediation. FEMS Lett. 22. Dennis,

  14. Tertiary contacts distant from the active site prime a ribozyme for catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martick, Monika; Scott, William G

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pH-activity relationships of G8 and G12 variants at thecharged alkoxide anion. (C) The G8-C3 base pair is important

  15. Late Tertiary paleomagnetic data from Leyte, Philippines: implications for Philippine fault zone motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jay Timothy

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    samples were collected from 19 lava, flows (one site per flow) in Leyte and nearby islands to the north. The data collected from these sites were combined with previously reported results I'rom northeastern Mindanao. The paleomagnetic data from Neogene... rocks within or very near the Philippine fault zone on Leyte, Mindanao, Biliran, Maripipi, and Genuruan Islands fall into two populations. Seventeen late Neogene sites (14 normal polarity and 3 reversed polarity) yield a mean direction D = 358. 9', I...

  16. Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons from Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Piceance basin, western Colorado 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, David Jonathan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , as abundant coals are found between 2450 and 2630 m. Only three thin coalbeds occur within the Coal Ridge Group between 1950 and 2450 m, so gases from this interval were probably derived from interbedded shales. Core and cuttings samples were also collected...

  17. The effect of solids retention time on tertiary ozonation and carbon adsorption of petrochemical wastewaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buys, Ronald Earl

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as solids retention time increased. COD concentration decreased after ozonation and its percent removal increased with a lengthening of the solids retention time, Ozone consumption decreased and the ratio of COD reduction to ozone consumed increased..., with and without ozonation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Effect of solids retention time on COD removal. Effect of solids retention time on ozone concentration consumed. 27 Effect of solids retention time on the ratio of COD reduction to ozone consumed. 28...

  18. Mineralogy and diagenesis of Gulf Coast Tertiary shales Ann-Mag Field, Brooks County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bott, Winston Frederick

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    composition with increasing depth of burial provides evidence of systematic diagenetic conversions (Boles and Franks, 1979; Hower et al. , 1976; Perry and Hower, 1972; Weaver and Beck, 1971; Dunoyer De Segonzac, 1970; Burst, 1969; Powers, 1967). When... not be neglected, many workers have shown that significant mineral ogic changes do occur due to diagenesi s of clay minerals from the same source (Boles and Franks, 1979; Hower, et al. , 1976; Perry and Hower, 1972; Dunoyer De Segonzac, 1970; Burst, 1969). Also...

  19. Diagenesis of Middle Tertiary carbonates in the Toa Baja Well, Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ruiz, H. M.

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    indicate that these carbonates were rapidly cemented in the marine environment (limiting compaction), that replacement of metastable carbonates by calcite and precipitation of sparry calcite took place mostly in meteoric diagenetic environments...

  20. Regulation of Neurexin 1[beta] Tertiary Structure and Ligand Binding through Alternative Splicing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Kaiser C.; Kuczynska, Dorota A.; Wu, Irene J.; Murray, Beverly H.; Sheckler, Lauren R.; Rudenko, Gabby (Michigan)

    2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Neurexins and neuroligins play an essential role in synapse function, and their alterations are linked to autistic spectrum disorder. Interactions between neurexins and neuroligins regulate inhibitory and excitatory synaptogenesis in vitro through a splice-insert signaling code. In particular, neurexin 1{beta} carrying an alternative splice insert at site SS{number_sign}4 interacts with neuroligin 2 (found predominantly at inhibitory synapses) but much less so with other neuroligins (those carrying an insert at site B and prevalent at excitatory synapses). The structure of neurexin 1{beta}+SS{number_sign}4 reveals dramatic rearrangements to the 'hypervariable surface', the binding site for neuroligins. The splice insert protrudes as a long helix into space, triggers conversion of loop {beta}10-{beta}11 into a helix rearranging the binding site for neuroligins, and rearranges the Ca{sup 2+}-binding site required for ligand binding, increasing its affinity. Our structures reveal the mechanism by which neurexin 1{beta} isoforms acquire neuroligin splice isoform selectivity.

  1. The characterization and reactivity of dinuclear gold complexes containing phosphonium or tertiary phosphine bridging ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Julia Shain

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (dppc(cH ))], were believed to have 3 2 3 2' been formed and were characterized by P NMR. Based on H NMR 31 1 evidence it was postulated that 3 may have also undergone an oxidative addition reaction with methyl iodide to form the gold(II) adduct 3-(cH )(I... characterized crystallographically. In this complex one iodine atom bridges the two metal centers, The product initially formed in this reaction was shown by H NMR to be [Au(dppCH(CH ))] . Methyl analogues of 2, 3 2 [Au(dppc(cH ) )] , and 3, [Au...

  2. Paleoecology of the Cretaceous^Tertiary mass extinction in planktonic foraminifera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Gerta

    to be the result of both long-term environmental changes (e.g., climate, sea level, volcanism) and short environmental condi- tions for any living organism due to the culmina- tion of long-term climatic changes, spanning environments from open marine upper bathyal, to shelf and shallow marginal settings, indicate

  3. On the nature of the tertiary companion to FW Tau: ALMA CO observations and SED modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caceres, Claudio; Schreiber, Matthias R; Canovas, Hector; Cieza, Lucas A; Williams, Jonathan P; Hales, Antonio; Pinte, Christophe; Menard, Francois; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is thought that planetary mass companions may form through gravitational disk instabilities or core accretion. Identifying such objects in the process of formation would provide the most direct test for the competing formation theories. One of the most promising candidates for a planetary mass object still in formation is the third object in the FWTau system. We here present ALMA cycle 1 observations confirming the recently published 1.3 mm detection of a dust disk around this third object and present for the first time a clear detection of a single peak 12CO(2-1) line, providing direct evidence for the simultaneous existence of a gas disk. We perform radiative transfer modeling of the third object in FW Tau and find that current observations are consistent with a planetary mass object embedded in a disk which is externally irradiated by the binary companion and seen at an inclination of i<15 deg. However, we also find that a near edge-on disk around a more massive substellar object can explain the obse...

  4. Serpentinites in a Tertiary subduction complex in the northern Dominican Repub-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the global mass balance. Serpentinites are abundant in the northern Dominican Republic on Hispaniola (Fig. 1 their origins and the im- plications for syn- and post-subduction processes. GEOLOGICAL SETTING Hispaniola

  5. The geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Tertiary igneous rocks of the Eagle Mountains, Van Horn, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Ronald Alan

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline Ign ~ ~ cons ~ ~ ~ Rocks 21 42 D I S CUSS I QN e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Petrogenesis 50 50 Source magma. Fractionation . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 50 52 Origin of West Texas Nagmas... of Permian and Cretaceous age. The only Permian rocks in the area are represented by the Hueco Limestone Formation. The Cretaceous System, however, is represented by the entire Comanche and Gulf Series (Fig. 2). The Hueco Formation is of marine origin...

  6. Micropaleontology and mineralogy of a tertiary sediment core from the Sigsbee knolls, Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyle, Thomas Edward

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Adams (1960) and there is even evidence of other modes of nutrition (Bernard, 1948b; Gaarder and Hasle, 1962), These "algae" also exhibit two flagella which are used for locomotion. Thus several observations indicate that the coccolithophores are best...

  7. New genera and species of early Tertiary palynomorphs from Gulf Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, L. E.; Elsik, W. C.; Fairchild, W. W.

    1966-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    several p. wide at one end owing to oblique compression of the grain. Wall about 1 p. thick, sexine as thick as or slightly thicker than nexine. Punctae about 0.5 /A in diameter. Intervening ridges between rows of punctate 1 to 2 p. wide. Comparison...); all X1,000. 4. Paratype, USNM 41646, slide S400(3), coordinates 20.3, 20.3, + 17.5; 4a-c, phase contrast at median (4a), slightly lower (4b), and slightly higher (4c) focus levels; all X1,000.-5. Paratype, USNM 41647, slide S400(3), coordinates 13.0...

  8. The identification of recurrent tertiary motifs by interactions of protein secondary structure units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Hamilton Courtney

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    &Iod Id I q Id2s Id2v Id4o Jd4x ld5n ld5t I d7p Id8w 1&Ibf ldbo ldcl 1dci Ides ldf4 Idfm Idg6 Idgf ldgv I din I dj0 ldkO 1d12 I dlf I dlw I dmg I dnl I dos Idow Idoz Idp7 I dpj I dps ldqe Idqz Idsl Idsz I dtd ldvj... ldwk Idxg Idy5 Idyp Idzk Idzo le29 le2k le30 Ie4c I e4m le58 I e5k I e5m lc6u le71 le85 leb6 I edm leex leg9 legw I ej8 I el g I elk I elu I elw len2 leon lep0 lepx I eqj leqo I erz lcs9 lett leul I cuJ leuv I evl...

  9. Ultrasonic absorption associated with tertiary butanol complex formation in cyclohexane solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musa, Raiq S.

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fY^gl MFe sXFYlFY a^2 vToMVHbMF Xr TXbbVYYll5 LTRA 7 ^ SONIRCBIP vOlMe Xr DlcMHYblFY5 CndnfY hwyp A '.9-n.^ Table of Contents Page Introduction 1 The Two Crystal Method The Apparatus It The Ultrasonic Interferometer ? Methods...^in ldrrln iyouSn du ryn ovfhterdhuw ry^f /2 xIj o1T oeenotf dupnenupnur hT Ttn,^nuiEa 9ht nbocelnw 5oll fyhqnp ryor du qorntw qyntn o1TM yof vnnu hvfntknp rh vn dupnenupnur hT ryn Ttn,^nuiEw dr df ehffdvln rh oiih^ur Tht ryn nbinff ovfhterdhu hknt ryn Brh...

  10. New surfactant classes for enhanced oil recovery and their tertiary oil recovery potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    for more than 35 years, in particular in the USA in depleted oil reservoirs after waterflooding (Garrett conditioned to residual waterflood oil saturation prior to surfactant slug injection. This was followed., 2000; Jayanti et al., 2001; Berger and Lee, 2002; Endo et al., 2002). During a waterflood (which can

  11. Application of a moving bed biofilm reactor for tertiary ammonia treatment in high temperature industrial wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    remove greater than 90% of the influent ammonia (up to 19 mgLÀ1 NH3­N) in both the synthetic the reduction in space as compared to traditional activated sludge system, ease in upgrade of existing

  12. The effect of solids retention time on tertiary ozonation and carbon adsorption of petrochemical wastewaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buys, Ronald Earl

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Biological treatment of wastewater has been used since the turn of the century, and while its application has grown in complexity since that time, the fundamental biological reaction mechanisms have remained unchanged. Most important... organic carbon from the wastewater by conversion into microbial cells, or some other desirable form. Biological waste treatment is usually intended for the removal of organic matter, but certain other contaminants are also removed, For example...

  13. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  14. Evidence for Large-Scale Laramide Tectonic Inversion and a Mid-Tertiary

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazelPennsylvania: Energy Resources(RECP)Coolers JumpOpen EnergyCaldera Ring

  15. Comparative Environmental Performance of Two-Diesel-Fuel Oxygenates: Dibutyl Maleate (DBM) and Triproplyene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (TGME)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layton, D.W.; Marchetti, A.A.

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many studies have shown that the addition of oxygen bearing compounds to diesel fuel can significantly reduce particulate emissions. To assist in the evaluation of the environmental performance of diesel-fuel oxygenates, we have implemented a suite of diagnostic models for simulating the transport of compounds released to air, water, and soils/groundwater as well as regional landscapes. As a means of studying the comparative performance of DBM and TGME, we conducted a series of simulations for selected environmental media. Benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were also addressed because they represent benchmark fuel-related compounds that have been the subject of extensive environmental measurements and modeling. The simulations showed that DBM and TGME are less mobile in soil because of reduced vapor-phase transport and increased retention on soil particles. The key distinction between these two oxygenates is that DBM is predicted to have a greater potential than TGME for aerobic biodegradation, based on chemical structure.

  16. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  17. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  18. US refiners choose variety of routes to MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1992-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that refiners and merchant manufacturers in the U.S. are gearing up to produce the large volumes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) needed to comply with oxygenated gasoline requirements. The 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments specify that, as of the first of this coming November, gasoline containing a minimum of 2.7 wt % oxygen must be sold in 39 CO-nonattainment cities. Refiners and others are scurrying to bring MTBE capacity on line in time to meet this requirement. Many U.S. refiners already have some operating MTBE capacity, but this will not be nearly enough to meet the looming increase in demand. As a result, additional capacity is being constructed worldwide.

  19. MTBE will be a boon to U. S. gas processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.W. (Purvin and Gertz, Inc. Dallas, TX (United States))

    1993-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that the advent of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the primary oxygenate blending component for oxygenated and reformulated motor fuels promises significant benefits for the U.S. gas-processing industry. Increased demand for isobutane as MTBE-plant feedstock will buoy both normal butane and isobutane pricing in U.S. gulf Coast during the 1990s. Elimination of the need to crack normal butane in U.S. olefin plants will also strengthen competitive feedstocks somewhat, including ethane and propane. And increased use of normal butane as isomerization feedstock will result in wider recognition of the premium quality of gas plant normal butane production compared to most refinery C[sub 4] production.

  20. Effect of lower feedstock prices on economics of MTBE complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, F.; Hamid, S.H.; Ali, M.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic evaluation of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) complex was carried out starting from n-butane and by captive production of methanol from natural gas. The processing steps consist of isomerization of n-butane to isobutane, dehydrogenation of isobutane to make isobutene, and finally, the reaction of isobutene with methanol to produce MTBE. Two different plant sizes were considered, and the effect of 30% lower feedback prices on profitability was studied. It was found that the raw materials cost is a dominant component, composing about 55% of the total production cost. An internal rate of return of 19% could be realized for 500,000 tons per annum MTBE complex based on economic data in mid-1993. The payback period estimated at this capacity was 3.8 years, and the break-even capacity was 36.6%.

  1. Lyondell develops one step isobutylene process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Houston, has developed a one step process to convert normal butylenes to isobutylene, a key component of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is expected to become the additive of choice among U.S. refiners to blend oxygenated gasolines required by 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Lyondell Pres. and Chief Executive Officer Bob Gower the the new process could help assure adequate supplies of MTBE to meet U.S. demand for cleaner burning fuels. Lyondell estimates the capital cost of building a grassroots plant to produce isobutylene with the new process would be less than half the cost of a grassroot plant to produce isobutylene with existing technology starting with normal butane.

  2. MTBE: The headache of cleaner air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneiss, J.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been sold in the United States since 1979, when it was added to fuels as an octane enhancer after lead was phased out of motor fuels. Recently it has been introduced as a means of reducing carbon monoxide emissions during the winter months in targeted US cities. However, there is concern over health complaints including headaches, dizziness and nausea from residents of some areas. These reports have launched an era of assidious research by scientists and public health officials across the country to learn more about MTBE`s short-term and long-term, and possibly carcinogenic, health effects. New research should help weigh the risk of MTBE as a possible carcinogen and the effectiveness of MTBE-blended fuels in reducing carbon monoxide levels. The question is whether, in minimizing one risk, is another risk - however small - being introduced?

  3. Toxicological and performance aspects of oxygenated motor vehicle fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency, the committee reviewed a draft of a federal report that assesses the effects of oxygenated fuels on public health, air quality, fuel economy, engine performance, and water quality. The committee determined that much of the federal report adequately represents what is known about the effects of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) -- the most commonly used additive in the federal oxygenated-fuels program -- on health, the environment, and motor vehicles. MTBE, a chemical added to gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide pollution, appears not to pose a substantial human health risk, but more-definitive data are needed to assess short-term health effects and to determine whether this additive is effective in reducing carbon monoxide pollution in cold environments.

  4. MTBE movements between Texas Gulf Coast plants to be enhanced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co. (Teppco), Houston, has begun construction of its shuttle pipeline, a 10-mile, 6 and 8-in. line to move methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) between producers and refiners along the Houston Ship Channel. Funding for the project has been approved, rights-of-way are secured, and procurement of materials is under way, according to Teppco. The line will flow from the western edge of Shell's refinery eastward to storage facilities of Teppco's Baytown terminal. The shuttle pipeline anticipates the US requirement for oxygenated gasolines that takes effect Nov. 1. Approximately 70% of the available US merchant capacity for MTBE is located along the shuttle's path, Teppco says.

  5. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  6. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  7. Method for controlled oligomerization/etherification of propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, O.A.

    1986-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for the reaction of propylene in a hydrocarbon feed stream. The process consists of contacting the feed stream containing propylene and at least 5 weight % isobutene based on the feed stream in liquid phase with an acidic cation exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 80/sup 0/-130/sup 0/C at LHSV in the range of 2 to 5 in the presence of methanol. This produces a product stream essentially comprising C/sub 6/ to C/sub 8/ mono olefins, methyl isopropyl ether, methyl tertiary butyl ether and unreacted material. The amount of methanol determined by a residual of the methanol in the product stream is in the range of 0.03 to 0.9 wt. % based on the product stream.

  8. EPA`s proposed renewable oxygenate requirement (ROR): Pros and cons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czeskleba, H.M. [Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In December 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its final rule that sets for the details for requirements to sell reformulated gasoline (RFG) in certain ozone non-attainment areas. At the same time, EPA also issued a proposed rule to require that 30% of the oxygen required in RFG be based on a renewable oxygenate. Renewables include ethanol and its ether derivatives such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). The RFG rule is a final rule, while the Renewable Oxygenate Requirement (ROR) rule is a proposed rule yet to be finalized and subject to revision. Included in this paper are brief reviews of Ashland petroleum Company`s ethanol usage, oxygenated fuel and reformulated gasoline blending economics, and some comments on the EPA proposed renewable oxygenate requirement.

  9. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Jones, E.M. Jr.; Hearn, D.

    1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150 to 250 F at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C[sub 3] to C[sub 6] and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom. 2 figs.

  10. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150.degree. to 250.degree. F. at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C.sub.3 to C.sub.6 and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom.

  11. anhydride-vinyl methyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TREAT METHYL- TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED CiteSeer Summary: Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a commonly used gasoline additive. Leaking underground storage tank systems,...

  12. alkyl-tert alkyl ethers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TREAT METHYL- TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED CiteSeer Summary: Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a commonly used gasoline additive. Leaking underground storage tank systems,...

  13. Comparison of SPME headspace analysis to U.S. EPA method5030/8260B for MTBE monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Oh, Kuen-Chan

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method for analysis of methyl tert-butyl ether andtert-butyl alcohol using solid phase microextraction is described andcompared to a standard method.

  14. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  15. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide- (CO{sub 2}-) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  16. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  17. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M. Lee; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas

    1999-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million bbl of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO-) flood 2 project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  18. Proportions of coarse and fine clay across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Milam, Falls, and Travis Counties, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, John Charles

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the investigation Explanation of Proposed Method Location of Clay Units Investigated Previous Investigations Methods of Investigation Eield Investigations Laboratory Investigations Hesults of the lnvcstigation 15 26 Locality I Locality II Locality III... and fine clay expressed as percentages of the total clay i'rection from Locality I . 30 Lattice spacings, mineral composition, indices, and intensities of typical samples from Locality I 33 Proportions for duplicate fractionations of coarse and fine...

  19. 1,4,7-Trimethyloxatriquinane: SN2 Reaction at Tertiary Carbon Mark Mascal,* Nema Hafezi, and Michael D. Toney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toney, Michael

    at reflux in water or ethanol. Although much less robust than 2, oxatriquinacene 3, a triply bis-allylic, or acetate, led to the anticipated elimination product 12 (Scheme 2). However, it turned out that 1, like 2

  20. Large-magnitude miocene extension in the central Mojave Desert: Implications for Paleozoic to Tertiary paleogeography and tectonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, J. Douglas; Bartley, John M.; Glazner, Allen F.

    1990-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ., and D. J. DePaolo, Proterozoic crustal history of the western United States as determined by neodymium isotopic mapping, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 99, 674-685, 1987. Bowen, O. E., Geology and mineral deposits of the Barstow Quadrangle, San Bernardino... County, California, Bull. 165, 208 pp., Div. of Mines, Calif. Dep. of Nat. Resour., Sacramento, 1954. Burchfiel, B.C., and G. A. Davis, Mojave Desert and environs, in The Geotectonic Development of California, edited by W. G. Ernst, pp. 217...

  1. Volume and accessibility of entrained (solution) methane in deep geopressured reservoirs - tertiary formations of the Texas Gulf Coast. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, A.R.; Dodge, M.M.; Posey, J.S.; Morton, R.A.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to appraise the total volume of in-place methane dissolved in formation waters of deep sandstone reservoirs of the onshore Texas Gulf Coast within the stratigraphic section extending from the base of significant hydrocarbon production (8000 ft)* to the deepest significant sandstone occurrence. The area of investigation is about 50,000 mi/sup 2/. Factors that determine the total methane resource are reservoir bulk volume, porosity, and methane solubility; the latter is controlled by the temperature, pressure, and salinity of formation waters. Regional assessment of the volume and the distribution of potential sandstone reservoirs was made from a data base of 880 electrical well logs, from which a grid of 24 dip cross sections and 4 strike cross sections was constructed. Solution methane content in each of nine formations or divisions of formations was determined for each subdivision. The distribution of solution methane in the Gulf Coast was described on the basis of five reservoir models. Each model was characterized by depositional environment, reservoir continuity, porosity, permeability, and methane solubility.

  2. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Destruction of the Tertiary Ozone Maximum During a Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    Maximum During a Solar Proton Event A. Sepp¨al¨a, P. T. Verronen, V. F. Sofieva, J. Tamminen, E. Kyr¨ol¨a Finnish Meteorological Institute, Earth Observation, Helsinki, Finland C. J. Rodger Physics Department to study the effects of the January 2005 solar storms on the polar winter middle atmosphere. The model

  3. The Influence of Metal Ions on the Tertiary Structure of the Prion Protein and Inherited Prion Disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spevacek, Ann

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis of 300 subjects. Ann Neurol 46, 224-33 (1999).Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Ann Neurol 43, 826-8 (1998).permission from Elsevier) Ann R. Spevacek, Eric G. B. Evans,

  4. Mid-Cretaceousto Tertiary ThermotectonicHistory of Former Mid-CrustalRocks, Southern Omineca Belt, Canadian Cordillera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Dan

    , Ontario, Canada October, 1993 copyright 01993, Robert John Scarnmell #12;ABSTRACT Geological research of a system of large-scalenormal faults. It comprisesa polydeforrned sillimanite to have followed a composite cooling path which has four stages. (1)Initial rapid cooling (-20 "C

  5. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which exhibits a characteristic set of reservoir properties obtained from outcrop analogs, cores, and geophysical logs. The Anasazi and Runway fields were selected for geostatistical modeling and reservoir compositional simulations. Models and simulations incorporated variations in carbonate lithotypes, porosity, and permeability to accurately predict reservoir responses. History matches tied previous production and reservoir pressure histories so that future reservoir performances could be confidently predicted. The simulation studies showed that despite most of the production being from the mound-core intervals, there were no corresponding decreases in the oil in place in these intervals. This behavior indicates gravity drainage of oil from the supra-mound intervals into the lower mound-core intervals from which the producing wells' major share of production arises. The key to increasing ultimate recovery from these fields (and similar fields in the basin) is to design either waterflood or CO{sub 2}-miscible flood projects capable of forcing oil from high-storage-capacity but low-recovery supra-mound units into the high-recovery mound-core units. Simulation of Anasazi field shows that a CO{sub 2} flood is technically superior to a waterflood and economically feasible. For Anasazi field, an optimized CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total 4.21 million barrels (0.67 million m3) of oil representing in excess of 89 percent of the original oil in place. For Runway field, the best CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total of 2.4 million barrels (0.38 million m3) of oil representing 71 percent of the original oil in place. If the CO{sub 2} flood performed as predicted, it is a financially robust process for increasing the reserves in the many small fields in the Paradox Basin. The results can be applied to other fields in the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent.

  6. Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group VIII metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite-supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted ruthenium catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.

  7. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dombek, B.D.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

  8. Evaluating nonmetallic materials` compatibility with MTBE and MTBE + gasoline service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hotaling, A.C.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) has become the leading oxygenate in use in the petroleum industry. Since its introduction several years ago there has been premature deterioration of nonmetallic materials in both neat MTBE and MTBE + gasoline. This degradation is costly in several ways: maintenance, replacement, environmental, and product-loss. Identifying nonmetallic materials compatible with MTBE and MTBE + gasoline is important to the petroleum industry -- all the way from the refinery to the retail sale. Exposure tests have been conducted with different types of nonmetallics in neat MTBE, neat MTBE vapor, and 5% MTBE + 95% gasoline. As in previously reported tests, Teflon{reg_sign} laminates were the top performers, experiencing very little change in any of the properties tested. An ester and ether-based urethane laminate also exhibited only small property changes. Most materials displayed significant deterioration of one or more of the measured properties, even in MTBE condensing vapor and the 5% MTBE + 95% gasoline. The specific effects on each material need to be individually evaluated to determine the effect on service life.

  9. Technical and operational overview of the C[sub 4] Oleflex process at Valero refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohnholt, J.F.; Payne, D. (Valero Refining Co., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)); Gregor, J.; Smith, E. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in gasoline composition stemming from the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments prompted Valero Energy Corporation to evaluate options for producing reformulated gasoline. The evaluation culminated in a project to upgrade butanes into methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Technology selection focused on the dehydrogenation of isobutane, and the UOP Oleflex process was selected. The MTBE project was implemented in 34 months and was $3 million under budget. The guaranteed MTBE production of 12,500 BPSD was achieved within one month of mechanical completion and has since reached 15,000 BPSD. Even at the low MTBE prices prevailing in late 1993, the butane upgrading project contributed significantly to Valero Refinery's overall profitability. Worldwide demand is expected to increase MTBE prices in 1996, thereby further increasing profits. The paper describes the project evaluation activities which led to the selection of the Oleflex process, engineering and construction, the MTBE complex start-up and operation, the Valero MTBE complex performance, and future plans. The paper also discusses feedstock utilization efficiency and MTBE market analysis.

  10. The MTBE solution: Octanes, technology, and refinery profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lander, E.P.; Hubbard, J.N.; Smith, L.A.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been developed to provide refiners with business decision insight regarding the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from refinery - (FCC) produced isobutylene. The driving forces making MTBE an attractive investment are examined with regard to the increasing demand for higher octane unleaded gasolines. The decision to proceed with MTBE production depends on the profitability of such an investment and the refiner's ability to meet market demands using available processing equipment, refinery produced streams and external feedstocks. The factors affecting this decision are analyzed in this paper and include: industry ability to meet rising octane demand; profit potential realized by diverting isobutylene to MTBE; availability of technology for producing MTBE; and investment and operating costs required to produce MTBE. Chemical Research and Licensing and NEOCHEM have developed a simple, low cost process to produce MTBE, reducing the excessive equipment and high operating costs that were associated with conventional MTBE designs. The economics and process benefits of installing a CRandL/NEOCHEM MTBE process are examined within the framework of a generalized medium-sized refinery configuration.

  11. Assessing and Managing the Risks of Fuel Compounds: Ethanol Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layton, D.W.; Rice, D.W.

    2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have implemented a suite of chemical transport and fate models that provide diagnostic information about the behavior of ethanol (denoted EtOH) and other fuel-related chemicals released to the environment. Our principal focus is on the impacts to water resources, as this has been one of the key issues facing the introduction of new fuels and additives. We present analyses comparing the transport and fate of EtOH, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and 2,2,4 trimethyl pentane (TMP) for the following cases (1) discharges to stratified lakes, subsurface release in a surficial soil, (3) cross-media transfer from air to ground water, and (4) fate in a regional landscape. These compounds have significantly different properties that directly influence their behavior in the environment. EtOH, for example, has a low Henry's law constant, which means that it preferentially partitions to the water phase instead of air. An advantageous characteristic of EtOH is its rapid biodegradation rate in water; unlike MTBE or TMP, which degrade slowly. As a consequence, EtOH does not pose a significant risk to water resources. Preliminary health-protective limits for EtOH in drinking water suggest that routine releases to the environment will not result in levels that threaten human health.

  12. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.A.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-l-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. MIBE is an isomer of MTBE and a process is proposed whereby MTBE from the two alcohols is maximized and MIBE is minimized. This will be achieved by the proper choice of reaction conditions, i.e. intermediate pressures, and of inorganic acid catalysts that are stable at temperatures higher than 200{degree}C, at which the carbonium ion reaction coupling of the two alcohols to MTBE is more effective than the oxonium ion or ester reaction coupling to MIBE. Both organic and inorganic catalysts will be investigated, and the better catalysts of these classes will be subjected to long term performance studies. The long term performance studies of the combined process will extend to 1000 hr and detailed analytical data for all products will be provided.

  13. MTBE catalyst shows increased conversion in commercial unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Rising demand for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has spawned interest in finding a cost-effective means of increasing production from existing units. A commercial trial of an improved MTBE catalyst was conducted recently at Lyondell Petrochemical Co.'s Channelview, Tex., plant. The new catalyst called Amberlyst 35 Wet, enhanced oxygenate production in the Lyondell trial. The new catalyst changes the activity coefficients of at least one of the components of the MTBE reaction, resulting in higher equilibrium conversion relative to its first-generation counterpart. Key catalyst properties are: particle size, 0.4--1.25 mm; Apparent density, 0.82 g/ml; Surface area, 44 sq m/g; Moisture content, 56%; Concentration of acid sites, 1.9 meq/ml (5.4 meq/g); Porosity, 0.35 cc/g; and Average pore diameter, 300 [angstrom]. Suggested operating conditions are: maximum temperature, 284 F (140 C); minimum bed depth, 24 in. (0.61 m); and liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), 1--5 hr[sup [minus]1].

  14. Remediation of MTBE in groundwater: A case where pump-and-treat works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, D.H.; Riley, B. [Groundwater Technology, Inc., Norwood, MA (United States); Farrell, T. [Groundwater Technology, Inc., Trenton, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two case studies are discussed in which groundwater pumping reduced levels of dissolved methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater by more than two orders of magnitude, in some cases to below detection limits. MTBE contamination in groundwater is becoming an important issue due to the increasing prevalence and regulation of this gasoline additive. In addition, MTBE is more mobile in groundwater than most hydrocarbons, so it is usually the first gasoline constituent to reach sensitive receptors. Since its Henry`s constant is low, in situ removal of MTBE from groundwater by air sparging is slow, and MTBE does not rapidly degrade, either biologically or abiotically. Therefore, groundwater pumping is usually employed to contain and collect MTBE-contaminated groundwater. Pumping groundwater can reduce MME levels to below detection limits within a few years, because MTBE in the subsurface is found mostly dissolved in groundwater. In contrast, the more hydrophobic gasoline hydrocarbons exist mostly in pockets of separate phase material and adsorbed to soil particles and dissolve slowly in groundwater. Hydrocarbon concentrations are rarely reduced to closure levels within a reasonable time frame by pumping. Sites in eastern Massachusetts and southern New Jersey, where groundwater was contaminated with MTBE due to releases of unleaded gasoline from underground storage tanks, are discussed. At these sites, average MTBE levels were reduced by two to three orders of magnitude, from several ppm or more to less than 10 ppb within three years by pumping groundwater at 10 to 30 gpm.

  15. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.A.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H[sub 2]/CO/CO[sub 2] coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-l-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. MIBE is an isomer of MTBE and a process is proposed whereby MTBE from the two alcohols is maximized and MIBE is minimized. This will be achieved by the proper choice of reaction conditions, i.e. intermediate pressures, and of inorganic acid catalysts that are stable at temperatures higher than 200[degree]C, at which the carbonium ion reaction coupling of the two alcohols to MTBE is more effective than the oxonium ion or ester reaction coupling to MIBE. Both organic and inorganic catalysts will be investigated, and the better catalysts of these classes will be subjected to long term performance studies. The long term performance studies of the combined process will extend to 1000 hr and detailed analytical data for all products will be provided.

  16. Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst; the kinetics for this catalyst; reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed reactors; and to simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. A hydrogen-lean synthesis gas with a ratio of H{sub 2}/CO of 0.5 to 1.0 is produced from the gasification of coal, lignite, or biomass. Isobutylene is a key reactant in the synthesis of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and of isooctanes. MTBE and isooctanes are high octane fuels used to blend with low octane gasolines to raise the octane number required for modern automobiles. The production of these two key octane boosters is limited by the supply of isobutylene. MTBE, when used as an octane enhancer, also decreases the amount of pollutants emitted from the exhaust of an automobile engine.

  17. QUANTIFYING NON-POINT SOURCES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STORMWATER FROM A PARKING LOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -butyl ether (MTBE) on urban particles indicates a site- specific interaction between MTBE and a particulate is a possible source only for the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Lopes and Bender (1998

  18. Measurement and Treatment of Nuisance Odors at Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Samantha Margaret

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the presence of MTBE, ETBE and TAME. Chemosphere 85, 616-Xanthomonas sp. MTBE/ETBE/TAME a Acinetobacter calcoaceticusMTBE= Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, ETBE= Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether,

  19. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 21612176, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/2161/2006/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE), the second is based on a reformulation of its the ethyl- tertio-butyl-ether or ETBE) allows the

  20. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1996--February 8, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The Anasazi field was selected for the initial geostatistical modeling and reservoir simulation. A compositional simulation approach is being used to model primary depletion, waterflood, and CO{sub 2}-flood processes. During this second year of the project, team members performed the following reservoir-engineering analysis of Anasazi field: (1) relative permeability measurements of the supra-mound and mound-core intervals, (2) completion of geologic model development of the Anasazi reservoir units for use in reservoir simulation studies including completion of a series of one-dimensional, carbon dioxide-displacement simulations to analyze the carbon dioxide-displacement mechanism that could operate in the Paradox basin system of reservoirs, and (3) completion of the first phase of the full-field, three-dimensional Anasazi reservoir simulation model, and the start of the history matching and reservoir performance prediction phase of the simulation study.

  1. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  2. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, Thomas C.

    2000-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  3. Mesozoic to Early Tertiary tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the Northern Neotethys Ocean: evidence from the Beysehir-Hoyran-Hadim Nappes, S.W. Turkey. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Theo

    The Bey?ehir-Hoyran-Hadim Nappes crop out over 700km, from east to west in the Pisidian and Central Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. During this study, field obsevations of lithological, structural and sedimentological features are combined...

  4. High-resolution reservoir characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion: an example from a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    High-resolution reservoir characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion the match with the seismic data. This low- parameterization inversion approach thus uses geological shapes of block F3 in the North Sea. Field description Geological setting F3 is a block in the Dutch sector

  5. Nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings of unactivated secondary and tertiary alkyl halides and photoinduced copper-mediated asymmetric C-N cross-couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zultanski, Susan L. (Susan Lyn)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1 describes the development of two nickel-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling methodologies that employ alkyl halides as electrophiles. In Section 1.1, asymmetric [gamma]-alkylation relative to a carbonyl group is ...

  6. Comparison of maternal and neonatal outcome before and after the availability of a rapid assay for fetal fibronectin at a tertiary level maternity hospital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeltler, Debra Ann Milbert

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    before and after test availability as compared to those whoBenjamin A. (2005). Does availability of fetal fibronectinBefore and After the Availability of a Rapid Assay for Fetal

  7. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, mule, Blue Hogan, heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The reservoir engineering component of the work completed to date included analysis of production data and well tests, comprehensive laboratory programs, and preliminary mechanistic reservoir simulation studies. A comprehensive fluid property characterization program was completed. Mechanistic reservoir production performance simulation studies were also completed.

  8. Uranium mineralization along a fault plane in tertiary sedimentary rocks in the McLean 5 Mine, Live Oak Conty, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bomber, Brenda Jean

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the fact that uranium occurs in leucoxene but not the sulfides suggest that sulfidization occurred before uranium mineralization. Initial uranium precipitation took place in secondary titanium minerals as well as in mud clasts and in altered volcanic... rock fragments. This was followed by uranium precipitation along grain boundaries in the Oakville sandstone, especially near the fault, where the calcite cement had been removed due to increased permea- bility and constant low pH conditions...

  9. Center for Water Resources Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from MTBE in Groundwater Kate M. Scow, Douglas

  10. Fighting Against the Invisible: The new weapons against chemical warfare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Leana

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internation Institute of synthetic rubber producers (IISRP).butyl rubber is a synthetic rubber that is imper- meable to

  11. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. : Atmospheric chemistry of gasoline-related emissions:chemistry. Methyl tert-butyl ether is a solvent and gasoline

  12. DETAILED CHEMICAL KINETIC MODELS FOR THE LOW TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION OF HYDROCARBONS WITH APPLICATION TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ;NOMENCLATURE CV: closed vessel DIPE: di-isopropyl-ether ETBE: ethyl-tert-butyl-ether FR: flow reactor HCCI

  13. N-(N-[2-(3,5-Difluorophenyl)acetyl]-(S)-alanyl)-(S)-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT): an inhibitor of ?-secretase, revealing fine electronic and hydrogen-bonding features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czerwinski, Andrzej; Valenzuela, Francisco [Peptides International Inc., 11621 Electron Drive, Louisville, KY 40299 (United States); Afonine, Pavel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dauter, Miroslawa, E-mail: dauter@anl.gov [Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick Inc., Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, MCL, NCI, Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division, Building 202, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Dauter, Zbigniew [Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, MCL, NCI, Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division, Building 202, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Peptides International Inc., 11621 Electron Drive, Louisville, KY 40299 (United States)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The title compound, C{sub 23}H{sub 26}F{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}, is a dipeptidic inhibitor of ?-secretase, one of the enzymes involved in Alzheimer’s dis@@ease. The mol@@ecule adopts a compact conformation, without intra@@molecular hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, one of the amide N atoms forms the only inter@@molecular N—H?O hydrogen bond; the second amide N atom does not form hydrogen bonds. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction data permitted the unequivocal location and refinement without restraints of all H atoms, and the identification of the characteristic shift of the amide H atom engaged in the hydrogen bond from its ideal position, resulting in a more linear hydrogen bond. Significant residual densities for bonding electrons were revealed after the usual SHELXL refinement, and modeling of these features as additional inter@@atomic scatterers (IAS) using the program PHENIX led to a significant decrease in the R factor from 0.0411 to 0.0325 and diminished the r.m.s. deviation level of noise in the final difference Fourier map from 0.063 to 0.037 e Å{sup ?3}.

  14. GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 68, NO. 3 (MAY-JUNE 2003); P. 791802, 16 FIGS. 10.1190/1.1581032

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Gregory A.

    consisting of brown coal, clay, and tertiary sands, is inconclusive. Nevertheless, by incorporating within

  15. Jaime G. Carbonell --Curriculum Vita Business Address

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbonell, Jaime

    Random Fields (L-SCRF, with Liu) for predicting tertiary and quaternary protein folds, Maximal Marginal

  16. Void-induced dissolution in molecular dynamics simulations of NaCl Ranjit Bahadur and Lynn M. Russella

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as corrosion, tertiary oil recovery, and crystallization. The industrial process of floatation, which is used

  17. Void-induced dissolution in molecular dynamics simulations of NaCl Ranjit Bahadur and Lynn M. Russella

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    in the characterization of processes such as corrosion, tertiary oil recovery, and crystallization. The industrial process

  18. What Do We Know About Ethanol and Alkylates as Pollutants?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, D W; Marchetti, A A; Buscheck, T; Layton, D W

    2001-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Gov. Davis issued Executive Order D-5-99 in March 1999 calling for removal of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline no later than December 31, 2002. The Executive Order required the California Air Board, State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) to prepare an analysis of potential impacts and health risks that may be associated with the use of ethanol as a fuel oxygenate. The SWRCB contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to lead a team of researchers, including scientists from Clarkson University, University of Iowa, and University of California, Davis, in evaluating the potential ground and surface water impacts that may occur if ethanol is used to replace MTBE. These findings are reported in the document entitled Health and Environmental Assessment of the Use of Ethanol as a Fuel Oxygenate. This document has been peer reviewed and presented to the California Environmental Policy Council and may be viewed at: http://www-erd.llnl.gov/ethanol/. Ethanol used for fuels is made primarily from grains, but any feed stock containing sugar, starch, or cellulose can be fermented to ethanol. Ethanol contains 34.7% oxygen by weight. It is less dense than water, but infinitely soluble in water. Ethanol vapors are denser than air. One and a half gallons of ethanol have the same energy as one gallon of gasoline. Pure fuel ethanol, and gasoline with ethanol, conducts electricity, while gasoline without ethanol is an insulator. Corrosion and compatibility of materials is an issue with the storage of pure ethanol and gasoline with high percentages of ethanol, but these issues are less important if gasoline with less than 10% ethanol is used.

  19. A review of treatment technologies for MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, D. [Groundwater Technology, Inc., Norwood, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Available treatment technologies for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) contamination in soil, groundwater, and recovered groundwater are reviewed and assessed. MTBE contamination is becoming an important issue due to the increasing prevalence and regulation of this gasoline additive. In addition, MTBE is more soluble and more mobile in groundwater than most hydrocarbons, so it is usually the first gasoline constituent to reach sensitive receptors. Treatment of MTBE is complicated by its Henry`s constant, which is lower than most other gasoline constituents. Furthermore, evidence of biodegradability of MTBE is mixed, and MTBE does not degrade rapidly abiotically. Groundwater pumping is usually employed to contain and collect MTBE-contaminated groundwater, often successfully because of its high aqueous solubility. Air sparging/soil vapor extraction is also successfully employed to treat MTBE, but its effectiveness is reduced by the low Henry`s constant of MTBE. Sparging and other aerobic bioremediation approaches are hampered by the poor biodegradability of MTBE. Oxidation technologies, such as ozone injection, hold promise for rapid in situ remediation of MTBE. Treatment of recovered groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also problematic. MTBE adsorbs poorly to granular activated carbon; advanced oxidation processes are effective on MTBE, but entail high capital and operating costs; bioreactors are of questionable effectiveness on MTBE. Air stripping is usually the most cost-effective treatment technology for MTBE so long as the off gas from the air stripper can be discharged without treatment. However, off gas treatment is expensive, so groundwater is sometimes heated to reduce the requirement for stripping air.

  20. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  1. Location of MTBE and toluene in the channel system of the zeolite mordenite: Adsorption and host-guest interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arletti, Rossella, E-mail: rossella.arletti@unito.it [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Torino Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125, Torino (Italy)] [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Torino Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125, Torino (Italy); Martucci, Annalisa; Alberti, Alberto [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44100, Ferrara (Italy)] [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44100, Ferrara (Italy); Pasti, Luisa; Nassi, Marianna [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 26, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 26, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Bagatin, Roberto [Research Centre for Non-Conventional Energy-Istituto ENI Donegani, Environmental Technologies, Via Fauser 4, I-28100 Novara (Italy)] [Research Centre for Non-Conventional Energy-Istituto ENI Donegani, Environmental Technologies, Via Fauser 4, I-28100 Novara (Italy)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports a study of the location of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) and toluene molecules adsorbed in the pores of the organophylic zeolite mordenite from an aqueous solution. The presence of these organic molecules in the zeolite channels was revealed by structure refinement performed by the Rietveld method. About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the cavities of mordenite, representing 75% and 80% of the total absorption capacity of this zeolite. In both cases a water molecule was localized inside the side pocket of mordenite. The saturation capacity determined by the adsorption isotherms, obtained by batch experiments, and the weight loss given by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses were in very good agreement with these values. The interatomic distances obtained after the structural refinements suggest MTBE could be connected to the framework through a water molecule, while toluene could be bonded to framework oxygen atoms. The rapid and high adsorption of these hydrocarbons into the organophylic mordenite zeolite makes this cheap and environmental friendly material a suitable candidate for the removal of these pollutants from water. - graphical abstract: Location of MTBE (a) and toluene (b) in mordenite channels (projection along the [001] direction). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the MTBE and toluene adsorption process into an organophilic zeolite mordenite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of MTBE and toluene in mordenite was determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the zeolite cavities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MTBE is connected to the framework through a water molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toluene is directly bonded to framework oxygen atoms.

  2. In-situ air injection, soil vacuum extraction and enhanced biodegradation: A case study in a JP-4 jet fuel contaminated site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Jong Soo; DiGiulio, D.C.; Wilson, J.T. [National Risk Management Lab., Ada, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the US Coast Guard (USCG) conducted a joint demonstration of in situ remediation of a JP-4 jet fuel spill at the USCG Support Center in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The jet fuel was trapped beneath a clay layer that extended from the surface to a depth of 1.5 in. The water table was 2.0 in below land surface, and jet fuel extended from a depth of 1.0 to 3.5 in. Air was injected under pressure to depress the water table and bring the entire spill into the unsaturated zone, where hydrocarbons could be removed by volatilization and biodegradation. The injected air was recovered through soil vacuum extraction (SVE) at the treatment area. To document actual removal of hydrocarbons, core samples were acquired in August 1992 before air injection, and September 1994 at the end of the demonstration. The spill originally contained 3600 kg of JP-4. Between the core sampling events, only 55 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons were removed, but more than 98% of benzene was removed. The initial goal was to reduce the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to concentrations less than 100 mg/kg soil. This was not accomplished within 18 months of operation. During the period of operation, ground water was monitored for the concentration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylene isomers (BTEX), and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). The concentration of BTEX and MTBE in the subsurface was reduced to a very low level, but concentrations of benzene and MTBE in ground water did not meet the EPA drinking water standards in the most heavily impacted wells. The effluent gas from SVE was monitored for the concentration of total hydrocarbon vapors. 12 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. MTBE -- A global perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludlow, W.I.; Miller, K.D. Jr.; Liew, R.E. van [DeWitt and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a major and familiar component of Reformulated and Oxygenated gasoline in the US. As such, it is essential to the success of the Clean Air Act programs now reaching a crescendo in major urban areas. In less than ten years, US MTBE capacity has grown from about 4,000 B/D to more than 200,000 B/D. Outside of the USA, its role is less widely understood. Although MTBE markets elsewhere are much less driven by legislation, they have seen the same spectacular growth prospects. Overall, about as much MTBE is used today overseas as in the US. To date, this has to be one of the petrochemical industry`s major success stories. Yet today, the MTBE industry stands at a crossroads, with the direction of future development uncertain at best. DeWitt`s gasoline and oxygenates team has closely observed the ups and downs of this market during most of its turbulent history. In this paper, the authors shall try to set down the major developments and prospects, with the personal familiarity of having been there when things changed. The story begins with a brief historical sketch, leading up to the identification of four critical periods in which major changes took place. The causes of today`s uncertainty lie in all of these stages, and are in a very real sense an example of the ``Law of Unintended consequences.`` Having set the stage, a cautious set of predictions will be put forth. These are neither as promising as proponents would like, nor as unpromising as some would tend to believe.

  4. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  5. Phase behavior and mesoscale solubilization in aqueous solutions of hydrotropes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepa Subramanian; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrotropes are amphiphilic molecules that are too small to spontaneously form equilibrium structures in aqueous solutions, but form dynamic, noncovalent assemblies, referred to as clusters. In the presence of a hydrophobic compound, these clusters seem to get stabilized leading to the formation of long-lived, highly stable mesoscopic droplets, a phenomenon that we call mesoscale solubilization. In this work, we focus on the unusual mesoscopic properties of aqueous solutions of a nonionic hydrotrope, namely tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), on addition of various hydrophobic compounds. Aqueous TBA solutions, in about 3 to 8 mol percent TBA concentration range and about 0 to 25 deg. C temperature range, show the presence of short-ranged (0.5 nm), short-lived (tens of picoseconds) molecular clusters which result in anomalies of the thermodynamic properties. These clusters are transient but do not relax by diffusion, thus distinctly different from conventional concentration fluctuations. In this concentration and temperature range, upon the addition of a third (more hydrophobic) component to TBA-water solutions, long-lived mesoscopic droplets of about 100 nm size are observed. In this work, we clarify the ambiguity behind the definition of solubility and elucidate the phenomenon of mesoscale solubilization. A systematic study of the macro and meso phase behavior of three ternary systems TBA-water-propylene oxide, TBA-water-isobutyl alcohol, and TBA-water-cyclohexane has been carried out. We differentiate between molecular solubility, mesoscale solubilization, and macroscopic phase separation. We have confirmed that practically stable aqueous colloids can be created from small molecules, without addition of surfactants or polymers. Such kind of novel materials may find applications in the design of various processes and products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics and agrochemicals.

  6. aromatic compound mixtures: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and mineralization potentials of gasoline monoaromatics and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), compounds that commonly co-exist in groundwater contaminant plumes. A mixed culture...

  7. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), lubricating oil and itsthe environment. Use of the MTBE additive in gasoline wasof gasoline laced with MTBE into groundwater resulted in

  8. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the urban tracers (e.g. C 2 H 2 , MTBE, toluene) are highlymethyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because their shorter atmo-

  9. Effects of water chemistry on NF/RO membrane structure and performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mo, Yibing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, ethylbenzene,TCE** Industrial C 2 HCl 3 MTBE** [48] Industrial C 5 H 12 O

  10. Cometabolic bioremediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intrinsic bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater atcontaminants, e.g. PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane, atrazine,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has also been remediated

  11. First Annual U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Joint Genome Institute User Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Various

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Genome Analysis of MTBE-Degrading Beta- Proteobacteriummethyl tert- butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 can alsooften co-contaminants with MTBE in groundwater, including

  12. Chemical migration in drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: a source of controversy.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    container, cap sealing resins, background contamination, water processing steps, NIAS, etc). Overall: Butylated hydroxytoluene BPA: Bisphenol A Ce: Cesium Cd: Cadmium Co: Cobalt Cr: Chromium Cu: Copper DBP

  13. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: Archer Daniels Midland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Archer Daniels Midland will develop a pilot plant to demonstrate the continuous production of cellulosic ethanol and butyl acrylate from densified corn stover.

  14. Identification of a haloalkaliphilic and thermostable cellulase with improved ionic liquid tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acetate ([Emim]Ac), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Emim]Cl), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) and 1-allyl-

  15. Organolanthanide and organoyttrium hydride chemistry. 6. Direct synthesis and /sup 1/H NMR spectral analysis of the trimetallic yttrium and yttrium-zirconium tetrahydride complexes, (((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/YH)/sub 3/H)(Li(THF)/sub 4/) and ((CCH/sub 3/C/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 2/YH)/sub 2/((CH/sub 3/C/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 2/ZrH)H)/sup 1/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, W.J.; Meadows, J.H.; Hanusa, T.P.

    1984-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved syntheses of several trimetallic tetrahydride complexes (tri(diphenyl lanthanon hydride)-lithium tetrahydrofuran) were studied using lithium hydride, methyl hydride, and tetra-butyl lithium reacted with diphenyl yttrium hydride tetrahydrofuran dimer. The reaction with tetra-butyl lithium yields the trimer as above while the reaction with diphenyl yttrium deuteride tetrahydrofuran with tert-butyl lithium forms a perdeuterio trimer indicating that the tert-butyl group does not provide a negative hydrogen ion for the trimer. Proton NMR spectra of some of the compounds are presented with H-H, Y-H, and Y-Y couplng constants derived from computer simulation of the spectra.

  16. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

  17. agents ionising radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl (more) Bennet, Francesca 2009-01-01 85 Transcriptomic and Secretomic Profiling of Isolated...

  18. aux rayonnements ionisants: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl (more) Bennet, Francesca 2009-01-01 138 Factories: The Ionising Radiations (Sealed Sources)...

  19. This journal is c the Owner Societies 2012 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 675680 675 Cite this: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 675680

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    -octane and in the oxidation of fuel additives such as MTBE and ETBE (methyl and ethyl t-butyl ether).1 The chemistry

  20. Prescott: Engineering communication interface. October 2010 Engineering Communication Interface: An Engineering Multidisciplinary Project.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aloul, Fadi

    students from tertiary institutions with a sound knowledge of engineering theory and practice alone. Well is no longer sufficient to graduate engineering students from tertiary institutions with a sound knowledge1 Prescott: Engineering communication interface. October 2010 Engineering Communication

  1. Biogeography and Evolution of the Araneae: A Synthetic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saupe, Erin E.

    2010-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    , respectively), Baltic amber (mid-Eocene to early Oligocene) (e.g. Petrunkevitch, 1942), the Messel Oil Shales of Germany (lower Eocene) (Wunderlich, 1986), Florissant Insect Beds (Tertiary) (e.g. Scudder, 1890), Quesnel Tertiary Beds in Canada (Scudder 1878...

  2. High-Resolution Computational and Experimental Study of Rotary-Wing Tip Vortex Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    flowfield. Secondary and tertiary vortices that result from crossflow separations near the blade tip crossflow separations near the tip surface [1,2]. As a consequence, secondary and tertiary vortical

  3. Characterizing two-phase flow relative permeabilities in chemical flooding using a pore-scale network model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Qingjie; Shen, Pingping; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    network model, enhanced oil recovery. Corresponding author.many tertiary or enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques have

  4. Reducing lipid oxidation in irradiated ground beef patties by natural antioxidants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movileanu, Iulia

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fresh ground beef patties with (1) no antioxidant, (2) 0.02% butylated hydroxyanisole/ butylated hydroxy toluene (BHA/BHT), (3) 3% dried plum puree, or (4) 0.25% rosemary extract were partially aerobic packed, irradiated at 0, 1.5, or 2.0 k...

  5. Monitoring synaptic protein dynamics with higher temporal, spatial, and molecular resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butko, Margaret

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrometry mSOG MiniSOG MTBE Methyl tert-butyl ether mTORMethyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 1.4 mL) was then added for1,000 g, 5 min). The MTBE layer was collected into a 1.5-mL

  6. Continuous wasteless ecologically safe technology of propylenecarbonate production in presence of phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Afanasiev, Vladimir Vasilievich (Moscow, RU); Zefirov, Nikolai Serafimovich (Moscow, RU); Zalepugin, Dmitry Yurievich (Moscow, RU); Polyakov, Victor Stanislavovich (Moscow, RU); Tilkunova,Nataliya Alexandrovna (Moscow, RU); Tomilova, Larisa Godvigovna (Moscow, RU)

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous method of producing propylenecarbonate includes carboxylation of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide in presence of phthalocyanine catalyst on an inert carrier, using as the phthalocyanine catalyst at least one catalyst selected from the group consisting of not-substituted, methyl, ethyl, butyl, and tret butyl-substituted phthalocyanines of metals, including those containing counterions, and using as the carrier a hydrophobic carrier.

  7. SUPPORTING INFORMATION Comparison of non-precious metal cathode materials for methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S1 SUPPORTING INFORMATION Comparison of non-precious metal cathode materials for methane production H2SO4, and again in de-ionized water. Butyl rubber stoppers were used to prevent loss of gas from thick and 43 mm diameter) were cut from large butyl rubber sheets (McMaster-Carr, Cleveland, OH, USA

  8. BULL MOUNTAIN BASIN, MONTANA By G.D. Stricker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paper 1625-A 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in vertical scale from that in figure SM-3. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones

  9. DATABASE CREATION AND RESOURCE EVALUATION METHODOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Survey Professional Paper 1625-A 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones here or on this symbol in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great

  10. 2 CHANCELLOR'S INTRODUCTION SECTION 01. OVERVIEW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, James R.

    with the Government's tertiary reforms, in the hope that these reforms would assist the University in meeting its of the Education (Tertiary Reform) Amendment Bill. Those provisions, if enacted, would have given the government. Other aspects of this engagement were less encouraging. It seems clear that the current tertiary reforms

  11. Journal of Applied Phycology 12: 105112, 2000. 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    , tertiary treatment, wastewater Abstract As part of a program to develop biological wastewater treatment indicate that tertiary biological wastewater treatment at low temperatures (5 C) cannot be anticipated in tertiary wastewater treatment P. Chevalier1, D. Proulx1,2, P. Lessard1,3 , W.F. Vincent4 & J. de la Noüe1

  12. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test stand is an asset which provides an ongoing research capability dedicated to the testing of alternative fuels for aircraft engines. The test stand is now entirely functional with the exception of the electronic ignition unit which still needs adjustments.

  13. Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

    2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

  14. Synthesis and investigation of hexacarboxamide cryptands as anionic binucleating ligands by Glen E. Alliger.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alliger, Glen E. (Glen Edward)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the use of hexacarboxamide cryptands as sextuply anionic binucleating ligands. Two homobimetallic complexes of a t-butyl-substituted cryptand, featuring manganese(II) ion and cobalt(II) ions, have been ...

  15. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at 57 amu has been previouslyby a fragment of MTBE (62%) with minor contributions fromFortner and Knighton, 2008). MTBE also in- terfered (16%)

  16. Synthesis of higher alcohols on copper catalysts supported on alkali-promoted basic oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    -butyl-ether (MTBE) after isobutanol dehydration to form isobutene. An equimolar ratio of methanol to isobutanol would be preferred for MTBE synthesis. Methanol and higher alcohols can also be used for direct blending

  17. Pyrolysis of Organic Molecules Relevant to Combustion as Monitored by Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Kevin Howard

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is observed, which is similar to MTBE in this system whichisobutene formed from MTBE, is found to occur. REFERENCES [methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (

  18. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Aug. 2004, p. 47204726 Vol. 70, No. 8 0099-2240/04/$08.00 0 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.70.8.47204726.2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    contamination of surface and groundwater resources by the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is leading to its phaseout. Ethanol, a likely candidate to substitute MTBE, is increasingly being used

  19. Assessing the Effectiveness of California's Underground Storage Tank Annual Inspection Rate Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutter, W. Bowman

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive. Thefor the lion’s share of MTBE contamination, as well asIn response to the MTBE crisis, California increased the

  20. Trichloroethene Removal From Waste Gases in Anaerobic Biotrickling Filters Through Reductive Dechlorination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popat, Sudeep Chandrakant

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) vapors into water was used.MTBE is highly soluble in water (dimensionless Henry’sgas stream was laden with MTBE vapors (200-300 mg m -3 )

  1. Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    , ethanol and methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Due to some gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks into drinking water supplies, MTBE has been, or is in the process of being phased out in many areas. The octane

  2. Soluble hyperbranched grafts on polyethylene surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Britton, Danielle M

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we report two methods to synthesize hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid) grafts on polyethylene films and powders. The previously reported route using ?,[]-diaminopoly(tert-butyl acrylate) was repeated and all previous results were confirmed...

  3. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY 81,2 13-2 19 ( 1985) Role of Extracellular Ca*+ in Toxic Liver Injury: Comparative Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    perfused liver and isolated hepatocytes. The toxins t-butyl- hydroperoxide and carbon tetrachloride on extracellular Ca2+ for cytotoxic injury to cultured hepato- cytes caused by carbon tetrachloride (CC&) and 2

  4. acidmethyl ester concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties and Phase Behavior of 12-tert-Butyl Ester Dendrimer Harmon, Julie P. 62 Modelling Study of the Low-Temperature Oxidation of Large Methyl Esters J. Biet, V. Warth, O....

  5. Incorporation of silica into baroplastic core-shell nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewlett, Sheldon A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Core-shell baroplastics are nanophase materials that exhibit pressure-induced flow at low temperatures and high pressures. Core-shell baroplastics used in this work are comprised of a low Tg poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) core ...

  6. Original article Novel attractants of Galleria mellonella L

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , 1957). Methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, allyl esters of octanoic and decanoic acids were synthesized via the reaction of the corre- sponding acid chlorides and alcohols. Decyl and octyl acetates, methyl, ethyl

  7. () Trichloromethane ()1,1,2,2-1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haimei

    acetate () Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether () Ethylene glycol monomethy ether ()- O-dichlorobenzene ( ) Xylenes(o-,m-,p- isomers) () Cresol - 19 - #12;() Chlorobenzene () Amyl acetate () Isoamyl acetate () Isobutyl acetate () Isopropyl acetate () Ethyl acetate () Propyl acetate () Butyl acetate () Methyl acetate

  8. Androgen Receptor Formation in Prenatally Endocrine Disrupted Mice 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Conor David

    2013-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    contributing to physical activity suggests that androgen receptors are key mediators in activity regulation (3,4). Current literature suggests that certain chemicals, like Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), disrupts androgen receptor formation prenatally (5, 6...

  9. 9900 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1993,115, 9900-9906 Structural Analysis of Covalent Peptide Dimers,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrksich, Milan

    and Mabel Beckman Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. Tethering two 2-PyN ligands through the nitrogens of the central pyrrole rings with propyl, butyl, pentyl

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl chain bis-quaternary Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bowdoin College Collection: Biology and Medicine 50 DOI: 10.1002adma.200601551 Self-Lubricating Nano-Ball-Bearings** Summary: Point(C) Butyl Hexyl Octyl Decyl 250 300 350 400...

  11. Pyrolysis of Organic Molecules Relevant to Combustion as Monitored by Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Kevin Howard

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2-ethoxy-2-methylpropane, ETBE) have since been used astert-butyl ethers TAME, ETBE, and MTBE continue to be usedMTBE, 27-34 TAME, 31-34 and ETBE 31-34 are reported to react

  12. Energy dissipation characteristics of rubber crash cushion elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael Fowlkes

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abbreviation ~S1 1. Natural Rubber NR Regal Inter- national, Inc, Natural Rubber/ Butadiene Natural Rubber/ Ethylene-Propylene Natural Rubber/ Butyl Butyl Natural Rubber/ 204 Ethylene-Prop. Neoprene NR/BD NR/E PDM NR/ BU BU NR/20'EPDM NEO... OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Civil Engineering ENERGY DISSIPATION CHARACTERISTICS OF RUBBER CRASH CUSHION ELEMENTS A Thesis by MICHAEL FOWLKES THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: Paul N. Roschke (Chair of Committee) Hayes E. Ros...

  13. Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, O.K.; Crouse, D.J.; Mailen, J.C.

    1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fuel processing solution consisting of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane, with a complex of uranium, plutonium, or zirconium and with a solvent degradation product such as di-n-butyl phosphate therein, is contacted with an aqueous solution of a salt formed from hydrazine and either a dicarboxylic acid or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, thereby removing the aforesaid complex from the processing solution.

  14. Heats of vaporization of room temperature ionic liquids by tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; To, Albert; Koh, Christine; Strasser, Daniel; Kostko, Oleg; Leone, Stephen R.

    2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The heats of vaporization of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide, N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide are determined using a heated effusive vapor source in conjunction with single photon ionization by a tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron source. The relative gas phase ionic liquid vapor densities in the effusive beam are monitored by clearly distinguished dissociative photoionization processes via a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at a tunable vacuum ultraviolet beamline 9.0.2.3 (Chemical Dynamics Beamline) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility. Resulting in relatively few assumptions, through the analysis of both parent cations and fragment cations, the heat of vaporization of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide is determined to be Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 195+-19 kJ mol-1. The observed heats of vaporization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 174+-12 kJ mol-1) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 171+-12 kJ mol-1) are consistent with reported experimental values using electron impact ionization. The tunable vacuum ultraviolet source has enabled accurate measurement of photoion appearance energies. These appearance energies are in good agreement with MP2 calculations for dissociative photoionization of the ion pair. These experimental heats of vaporization, photoion appearance energies, and ab initio calculations corroborate vaporization of these RTILs as intact cation-anion ion pairs.

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - antigen proteins promotes Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics is focused on antigenic proteins. Epitopes play... another through protein folding. Thus, the importance of the tertiary conformation of the antigen... that are...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - antigenic protein fractions Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics is focused on antigenic proteins. Epitopes play... another through protein folding. Thus, the importance of the tertiary conformation of the antigen... that are...

  17. area baja california: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Todos Santos Bay is bordered on the north by narrow beaches, terraces, and sea cliffs cut into Tertiary sediments and dioritic mountains. just north of Punta San Miguel,...

  18. alpha hydroxy-5 cap: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    violating conversion mu + A rightarrow e + A, using tertiary muons from high-power pulsed proton beams. In these experiments the products of ordinary muon capture in...

  19. ammonium cap alpha: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    violating conversion mu + A rightarrow e + A, using tertiary muons from high-power pulsed proton beams. In these experiments the products of ordinary muon capture in...

  20. absolute reduced cap: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    violating conversion mu + A rightarrow e + A, using tertiary muons from high-power pulsed proton beams. In these experiments the products of ordinary muon capture in...

  1. aot capped cadmium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    violating conversion mu + A rightarrow e + A, using tertiary muons from high-power pulsed proton beams. In these experiments the products of ordinary muon capture in...

  2. Admission Requirements for Mature Age Applicants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . UNIVERSITYADMISSION2014 TISC TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS SERVICE CENTRE (incorporated in Western Australia) 100 Royal Street ............................................................................ The University of Western Australia ........................................................ Course Prerequisites .............................................................................. The University of Western Australia ........................................................ Addresses

  3. Admission Requirements for Mature Age Applicants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . UNIVERSITYADMISSION2015 TISC TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS SERVICE CENTRE (incorporated in Western Australia) Level 1 100 ............................................................................ The University of Western Australia ........................................................ Course Prerequisites .............................................................................. The University of Western Australia ........................................................ Addresses

  4. atacama basin northern: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tucker 2007-02-02 44 BIOSTRATIGRAPHY, EASTERN ROCK SPRINGS UPLIFT, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: of selected Tertiary coal beds...

  5. andesites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: ,600 meters. Geology of the basin consists of granodiorite bedrock overlain by Tertiary andesitic volcanics, which are...

  6. 2 Meter test block SpencerCrossCut

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    & Tertiary Escape (200 feet to Surface) (Up Cast Ventilation)20 Person Refuge Chamber Idaho Springs, Colorado-CLoop Old Refuge Chamber C. Enright #12;

  7. NERSC Users Group Meeting January 28-29, 1997 Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview of NERSC at LBNL January 28, 1997 | Author(s): Bill Kramer | Tertiary Storage January 28, 1997 | Author(s): Keith Fitzgerald, Harvard Holmes | Download File:...

  8. aerobic packed-bed biofilm: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation Dietrich, Lars 98 Application of a moving bed biofilm reactor for tertiary ammonia treatment in high temperature industrial wastewater Environmental Management and...

  9. Gasoline price data systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Timely observation on prices of gasoline at the wholesale and retail level by geographical area can serve several purposes: (1) to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with controls on distributor margins; (2) to indicate changes in the competitive structure of the distribution system; (3) to measure the incidence of changes in crude oil and refiner costs on retail prices by grade of gasoline, by type of retail outlet, and by geographic area; (4) to identify anomalies in the retail pricing structure that may create incentives for misfueling; and (5) to provide detailed time series data for use in evaluating conservation response to price changes. In order to provide the needed data for these purposes, the following detail on gasoline prices and characteristics of the sampling procedure appear to be appropriate: (1) monthly sample observations on wholesale and retail prices by gasoline grade and type of wholesale or retail dealer, together with volume weights; (2) sample size sufficient to provide detail by state and large cities; (3) responses to be tabulated and reports provided within 30 days after date of observation; and (4) a quick response sampling procedure that can provide weekly data, at least at the national level, when needed in time of rapidly changing prices. Price detail by state is suggested due to its significance for administrative purposes and since gasoline consumption data are estimated by state from other sources. Price detail for large cities are suggested in view of their relevancy as problem areas for vehicle emissions, reflecting one of the analytical uses of the data. In this report, current reporting systems and data on gasoline prices are reviewed and evaluated in terms of the needs outlined above. Recommendations are made for ways to fill the gaps in existing data systems to meet these needs.

  10. COAL RESOURCES OF THE HANNA AND CARBON By M.S. Ellis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter HN COAL RESOURCES OF THE HANNA AND CARBON BASINS By M.S. Ellis,1 G.L. Gunther,2 A.M. Ochs,2, Delaware 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

  11. DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PD DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  12. FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PS FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  13. FORT UNION COAL IN THE GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, EAST FLANK OF THE ROCK SPRINGS UPLIFT,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter GS FORT UNION COAL IN THE GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, EAST FLANK OF THE ROCK SPRINGS UPLIFT 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

  14. SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  15. COAL RESOURCES, POWDER RIVER BASIN By M.S. Ellis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PN COAL RESOURCES, POWDER RIVER BASIN By M.S. Ellis,1 G.L. Gunther,2 A.M. Ochs,2 S, Delaware 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

  16. ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PA ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  17. Accommodation of a highly symmetric core within a symmetric protein superfold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaber, Michael

    threefold symmetry present in the tertiary structure of the protein fold (the -trefoil superfold factor; de novo design; superfold; protein evolution; -trefoil The protein-folding problem is one tertiary structures can be categorized into 1 of 10 fundamental protein folds (Orengo et al. 1994; Thornton

  18. BIOSTRATIGRAPHY, WILLISTON BASIN By D.J. Nichols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paper 1625-A 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky. WB-8. Distribution of biostratigraphically significant species in the Beulah- Zap seam

  19. UNIVERSITY OF THE WITWATERSRAND, JOHANNESBURG FACULTY OF SCIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    position in the School of Statistics and Actuarial Science. Minimum qualifications/requirements/criteria: A relevant Matric qualification + applicable experience in tertiary education of at least three years. A tertiary qualification would be an advantage. Computer skills (MSOffice) and knowledge and experience

  20. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, August 1993 to February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.; Buesch, D.C.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being investigated as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report summarizes the lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain that was done from August 1993 to February 1994 by the Rock Characteristics Section, Yucca Mountain Project Branch, US Geological Survey (USGS). Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium/colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, Tertiary Calico Hills Formation and Tertiary Prow Pass Tuff. We present criteria used for recognition of stratigraphic contacts, logging results as tables of contact depths for core from neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphical lithologic logs for core from non-UZN boreholes, and descriptions of several distinctive nonwelded tuffs recognized in the PTn hydrogeologic unit of the Paintbrush Group.

  1. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C.

    1994-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (1) 233 K ({minus}40 {degrees}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degrees}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties.

  2. EVALUATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR EFFECTIVE PERMEATION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A research and development task was undertaken to determine the permeabilities of hydrogen and dry air through different polymeric glove materials that are used to maintain the integrity of glovebox secondary containment. Fifteen different glove samples were obtained from four different manufacturers and samples cut from these gloves were tested. The gloves included baseline butyl rubber, Viton{reg_sign}, Dupont{reg_sign} Hypalon{reg_sign}, polyurethane, as well as composite gloves. The testing indicated that all of the vendor's butyl rubber gloves and the Jung Viton{reg_sign} gloves performed comparably in both gases.

  3. Mechanistic studies of coenzyme B?? model systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, John Walter

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    involved a 2-step synthesis of first, tert-butyl chloromethyl ether, and secondly, alkylation of the ether with dimethyl methyl malonate. The synthesis of tert-butyl chloromethyl ether proved more diffucult than anticipated. After irradiating a soludon... PAGE 17 2. 2. 2 The Reaction Products: 0, S diethyl methyl succinate and 0, S diethyl dimethyl malonate 2. 2. 2. 1 0, S diethyl methyl succinate 2. 2. 2. 2 0, S diethyl dimethyl malonate 2. 2. 3 Radical Generation and Trapping 2. 4 Summary 2. 5...

  4. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brizard, A.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model lies with the simple wave energy conservation law itthe recirculation of wave energy introduces interference e?particles, the tertiary-wave energy may be negative and thus

  5. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 19 (2) 2013, 273276 Agricultural Academy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of Forestry (Bulgaria)

    : 273­276 Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ) is a tertiary relict and Balkan sub-endemic species subalpine loca- tions in the Balkan Peninsula and Southern Italy. Some of the most preserved forests

  6. asce denver colorado: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BASIN, COLORADO By D. J. Nichols in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-A 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones here or on this symbol in the...

  7. The Local Data Support Landscape in the UK 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Stuart; Martinez-Uribe, Luis

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will report on existing data support infrastructures within the UK tertiary education community. The paper will then discuss early methods and traditions of data collection within UK territories. In addition it ...

  8. The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - 36 CH2 adjacent to substituted double bonds and tertiary carbon. R 36 - 33.5 CH, CH2 beta from secondary carbon and in cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl rings. S 33.5 - 31 CH, CH2...

  9. [superscript 15]N-[superscript 15]N Proton Assisted Recoupling in Magic Angle Spinning NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewandowski, Jozef R.

    We describe a new magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiment for obtaining [superscript 15]N?[superscript 15]N correlation spectra. The approach yields direct information about the secondary and tertiary structure of proteins, ...

  10. ch3probs Page 1 of 9 http://www.jbpub.com/fox/supplementalproblems/ch3pr.htm 11/18/2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walba, David

    -ethyl-2-pentanone e. 3-methylbutanal f. ethanoic anhydride (acetic anhydride) g. ethyl butanoate h. 2. oxidation d. reduction 3.29 a. primary b. tertiary c. primary d. benzylic e. benzylic f. allylic g

  11. african large telescope: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conic constant. The primary and tertiary mirrors are 6th order aspheres, while the secondary mirror is an 8th order asphere (referred to here for brevity, as the 686...

  12. apex telescope large: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conic constant. The primary and tertiary mirrors are 6th order aspheres, while the secondary mirror is an 8th order asphere (referred to here for brevity, as the 686...

  13. alloy mirrors obtained: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a large region of the sky Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: We investigate whether a three-mirror system, having secondary and the tertiary mirrors with surfaces warped by Zernike...

  14. Optimizing hysteretic power loss of magnetic ferrite nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ritchie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis seeks to correlate hysteretic power loss of tertiary ferrite nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields to trends predicted by physical models. By employing integration of hysteresis loops simulated from ...

  15. Deformation, erosion and sedimentation in collisional orogens : case studies from eastern Tibet and southwestern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Studnicki-Gizbert, Christopher Terrance

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation addresses aspects of the tectonics of regions adjacent to the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The first chapter describes the Tertiary Gonjo basin, includes structural and sedimentologic observations, and ...

  16. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musharova, Darya

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline Surfactant Polymer (ASP) process is a tertiary method of oil recovery that has promising results for future development. It has already been implemented in different areas of the United States such as Wyoming, west Texas, also in Canada...

  17. Gravity modeling of Cenozoic extensional basins, offshore Vietnam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauri, Steven Joseph

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (Yinggehai) basins. Gravity modeling results provide important clues to the controversial tectonic development of Southeast Asia during the Tertiary. Combined Bouguer and free-air gravity maps and residual gravity anomaly maps were generated for the study...

  18. Timing and Tectonic implications of basin inversion in the Nam Con Son Basin and adjacent areas, southern South China Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Christopher Charles

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nam Con Son (NCS) Basin, located offshore of SE Vietnam, is one of several Tertiary rift basins that formed during initial Eocene(?)-Oligocene rifting. Following cessation of rifting at the end of Oligocene time, these basins were subjected...

  19. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Vol. 441 p. 81 GaxIn1-xP/GaP HETEROSTRUCTURES ON Si(001) SUBSTRATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    , using tertiary butylphosphine (TBP), triethylgallium (TEG), and trimethylindium (TMI) as source of the surface to either sequential or synchro- nous pulses of TEG and TMI. The cross sectional TEM analysis

  20. Real-time monitoring of homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial processes by p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    of heteroepitaxial and the homoepitaxial growth. Tertiary-butylphosphine TBP and triethylgallium TEG beams of the epilayer due to the pyrolysis of the TBP and TEG molecules.1 For the real-time monitoring of GaP growth we

  1. Threefold Word of God in the theology of Karl Barth: the presence of Christ, its ecclesiological dimension, its revision, and ongoing significance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Currie, Thomas Christian

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores and examines the concept of the threefold Word of God in the theology of Karl Barth, particularly the third form of the Word of God, the gospel proclamation, and argues that this tertiary form of the ...

  2. A Brief History of Time John C. Baez, September 23, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    . 180 years ago -- Fossil fuel revolution: coal, trains. 540 years ago -- Invention of the printing years ago -- Asteroid hit Mexico, causing `Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction'. End of dinosaurs. 50% of all

  3. Study of CO2 Mobility Control Using Cross-linked Gel Conformance Control and CO2 Viscosifiers in Heterogeneous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Shuzong

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 has been widely used as a displacement fluid in both immiscible and miscible displacement processes to obtain tertiary recovery from the field. There are several problems associated with the application of CO2 flooding, especially when...

  4. Development of a Digital Fringe Projection Technique to Characterize the Transient Behavior of Wind-Driven Droplet/Rivulet Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Hui

    endeavor, including lava flows in geology, tertiary oil recovery, lubricant oil films in tribology, surface and environmental problems ranging from microchip manufacturing, structured packing to lava flows in geology

  5. Pediatric Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease is Revered with Six Months of Intravenous Fish Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calkins, Kara

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3. Secondary and tertiary outcomes for the fish oil (FO)and soybean oil (SO) group. Results are either as medianserror of the mean for the fish oil (FO) and soybean oil (SO)

  6. Measurement of Solvation Responses at Multiple Sites in a Globular Protein Paul Abbyad, Xinghua Shi, William Childs, Tim B. McAnaney, Bruce E. Cohen, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Steven G.

    in biological processes including electron3,4 and proton transfer,5 enzyme catalysis,6 ligand binding,7 and ion protein are more complex due to its tertiary structure and heterogeneity, and solvation occurs on many

  7. Fish Tagging Forum March 22, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Predation, and Population Status Recovery. o For each Tab, there are columns listing: Column A: numbered, such as primary, secondary or tertiary interest. o Other less commonly used tag types will be cons

  8. Unfolding of Titin Domains Explains the Viscoelastic Behavior of Skeletal Myofibrils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Julio M.

    of hysteresis recovery. The rate constants of recovery compared well with the refolding rates of Ig with a high content of Pro (P), Glu (E), Val (V), and Lys (K), but no obvious secondary or tertiary structure

  9. ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT FY 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and J. Sathaye Enhanced Oil Recovery J. Sathaye and M.gallons/ day/ft. ) ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY* J. Sathaye and M.of tertiary or enhanced oil recovery (EOR). These methods

  10. Retreat of the state and the market: liberalisation and education expansion in Sudan under the NCP 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mann, Laura Elizabeth

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is an analysis of two concurrent processes - the liberalisation of the economy and the expansion of the tertiary education system - by the National Islamic Front (NIF)/National Congress Party (NCP) in Khartoum, ...

  11. Phase selectively soluble polymers for homogeneously supported catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Shayna D

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    synthetic step towards the preparation of the catalytic species. N alkylation of a PIB-supported triazole provides a direct route to the preparation of a PTC. Preparation of a tertiary phosphoninium salt containing a terminal alkyne allows simple attachment...

  12. Loss of Conformational Stability in Calmodulin upon Methionine Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jun; Yin, Daniel H.; Yao, Yihong; Sun, Hongye; Qin, Zhihai; Schoeneich, Christian; Williams, Todd D.; Squier, Thomas C.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate the secondary and tertiary structural consequences that result from oxidative modification ...

  13. Structure-based methods for the phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal RNA molecules 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillespie, Joseph James

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules form highly conserved secondary and tertiary structures via rRNA-rRNA and rRNA-protein interactions that collectively comprise the macromolecule that is the ribosome. Because of their cellular ...

  14. The Case for ApplicationSpecific Operating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Tom

    The Case for Application­Specific Operating Systems Thomas E. Anderson Division of Computer Science processors, higher bandwidth networks, and larger amounts of pri­ mary, secondary, and tertiary storage

  15. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biological operations. Tertiary treatment processes wastewaterwastewater treatment system, called the Living Machine, uses natural non-chemical biologicalbiological (Wilkinson 2000). Each type generally refers to a certain point in the wastewater treatment

  16. Global Optimization and Protein Structure Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    The protein folding problem, i.e., the problem of how to predict the folded native, tertiary structure of the static protein folding problem only, ignoring the possible pathways of folding. The talk will have

  17. Surfactant-Polymer Interaction for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2002-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research was to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, oil solubility in the displacing fluid and mobility control. Surfactant-polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation and viscous/heterogeneity fingering.

  18. Late Cenozoic seismic stratigraphy and structure of the northern Gulf of Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Rocky Ray

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are richly organic and have been the source for numerous oil and gas seeps (Plafker, 1971). The Miocene to early Pleistocene marine clastic rocks contain abundant glacial detritus and lie unconformably upon the middle Tertiary sequence (Plafker et al... of this thesis follows the style of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. traps. It is the presence of these geological structures and organic- rich middle Tertiary strata (possible source rocks) that has led to the exploration...

  19. JOURNALDE PHYSIQUEIV ColloqueC8, supplbmentau Journal de Physique I, Volume 3,dicembre1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -Telechelic Polymers (HTP) has been prepared. Prelerninary SAXS results on a,w - carboxy poly (tert. butyl acrylate patterns. A new class of model ionomers has been developed in Liege: the Halato-Telechelic Polymers. HTP and discussion All the experimentsperformed until now confirm the multi-peak structure of the new HTP's at low

  20. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Xin-hua

    electroluminescent property of copolyfluorenes containing a pendent anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylic imide Wenqiang-controlled multicolor Light-emitting diodes Excimer emission Copolyfluorenes Anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylic imide a b,9-dihexylfluorene- 2,7-dibromofluorene and N-butyl 6-[3-(2,5-dibromothienyl)]anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylic imide

  1. PROOF COPY [023113] 008209QEE [023113]008209QEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    as a replacement for the gasoline oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether MTBE , may lead to indirect impacts related facilitate the migration of pre-existing contamination. MTBE 25 mg/L influent was not degraded inlet by one order of magnitude relative to columns fed BTEX alone or with MTBE. However, 16S

  2. 7198 J. Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7198-7208 Gas Phase Decomposition of Conjugate Acid Ions of Simple

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    (MTBE),ethyl (ETBE),n-propyl,isopropyl,and isobutyl tert-butyl ethers have been examined experimentally spectroscopy (MIKES) experiments on deuterated ions from MTBE and ETBE. Mechanistic possibilities are probed tert-amyl ether and its deuterated analogues. Protonated MTBE displays a single unimolecular

  3. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 21, No. 12, pp. 26312639, 2002 Printed in the USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    --Aquifer microcosms were used to determine how ethanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) affect monoaromatic compared to benzene, which was degraded only under aerobic conditions. The MtBE was not degraded within 100 to phase out MtBE as a gasoline oxy- genate is likely to significantly increase the use of ethanol

  4. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 00(0):000000 (2001) 1064-3389/01/$.50

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    water contamination by methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have made policymakers more cognizant of the need reformulated gasoline (RFG) (2% oxygen) year-round to reduce emissions that contribute to ozone formation. MTBE-making process that lead to the widespread use of MTBE over the last decade is now quite controversial (BRP, 1999

  5. Author's personal copy Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Author's personal copy Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE to indoor benzene and MTBE concentrations appeared to have been dominated by car exhaust concentrations of other BTEX components and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have been reported [5,6]. Up until

  6. I. Pt-Catalyzed Tandem Epoxide Fragmentation/Pentannulation of Propargylic Esters II. Progress Toward the Kopsia Family of Indole Alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pujanauski, Brian Gerard

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), a much more environmentallyPhMe, reflux POCl 3 , Et 3 N CN MTBE Scheme 3.3: OptimizedO H NH POCl 3 , Et 3 N CN MTBE 1-Isocyanocyclohex-1-ene (

  7. Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co November 2005 Key words: aerobic, biodegradation, BTEX, co-contaminant, MTBE, TBA Abstract Contamination of groundwater with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is often accompanied by many aromatic

  8. Canada could get three MTBE plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, E

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reports on the proposed development of three methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plants in Canada. MTBE is used as an oxygenated fuel additive. The author discusses how demand for MTBE is increasing due to the regulation of leaded gasoline by the U.S. and Canadian governments. The exportation of MTBE from Canada to the U.S. is highlighted.

  9. ETHANOL FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    , and by law refiners must add to gasoline oxygenating additives like methyl ter- tiary-butyl ether (MTBE better, thus reducing carbon monoxide and other emissions. MTBE is the fuel oxygenate preferred by oil as gaso- line, mixes well with gasoline, and does not increase the gasoline vapor pressure. MTBE has

  10. Atmosphere-Water Interaction of Chloroform, Toluene, and MTBE in Small Perennial Urban Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmosphere-Water Interaction of Chloroform, Toluene, and MTBE in Small Perennial Urban Streams-butyl ether (MTBE) are frequently detected VOCs in the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water in urban not be the predominant source of chloroform and toluene in the two urban streams. In contrast, MTBE may be coming from

  11. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    FTIR - 1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL IN VODKA AND MOUTHWASH INTRODUCTION As a part has contained MTBE (methyl tert­butyl ether) as its primary oxygenate. However, there has been

  12. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 249250 (2006) 303310 Pyrolysis of 2-methoxy-2,3,3-trimethylbutane (MTMB) monitored by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    used fuel oxygenates MTBE and TAME), the predominance of bond homolysis at temperatures >900 K suggests homologues ­ methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) ­ present a new set of problems discussed as alternatives to MTBE and TAME, because they are expected to be much less soluble in water. More

  13. MTBE still facing pressure from ethanol under latest fuel proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, A.

    1994-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The US EPA's finalized reformulated gasoline rule, part of Phase II of the 1990 Clean Air Act, signals a possible turnaround for the sluggish methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. But if a 30% renewable fuels proposal favoring ethanol passes, pressure could continue for MTBE.

  14. (distillation) (Le Chatelier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    acetate(methyl-, ethyl-, butyl-) , methanol isobutene MTBE , ethanol isobutene ETBE , methanol 2-methyl-1% MTBE 3 DMC . 2% 1990 MTBE 1999 3 2002 MTBE . [ 1-1 ] Phosgene process polycarbonate(PC) 50/ . DMC DMC MTBE / . ( : Amoco, "Review of DMC Manufacture and its

  15. SIGMA-ALDRICH MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    1.1 Section 1 - Product and Company Information Product Name BUTYL ACRYLATE, 99+% Product Number 234923 Brand ALDRICH Company Sigma-Aldrich Street Address 3050 Spruce Street City, State, Zip, Country °C Partition Coefficient Log Kow: 2.38 Decomposition Temp. N/A Flash Point 96.8 °F 36 °C Method

  16. Published Ahead of Print 1 July 2011. 2011, 193(17):4549. DOI: 10.1128/JB.00415-11.J. Bacteriol.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    Laboratory, Joint Genome Institute, Biosciences Division Genome Science B6, Los Alamos, New Mexico 875454 ; U and energy source (9, 10, 11, 14). This strain can also grow on other ethers (e.g., 2-methyl-1,3- dioxolane and butyl methyl ether), alcohols, and benzene as the sole carbon and energy source, and it can grow

  17. Index of Subjects Abbreviations ix,203-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Christopher

    90 Absorption of light 110-11,137-9,168 Accelerated testing 139 Acetal 14, 204, 206, see also, polymer 156-7,216 Allyl diglycol carbonate 113, 165-6 Allyl resins 165 Alumina 95 Aluminium 58 modulus 57,70,92 Bulk polymerisation 31 Butadiene 5,167,169,217 Butane 11 Butene 219 Butyl acetate 181

  18. Prying Apart Ruddlesden-Popper Phases: Exfoliation into Sheets and Nanotubes for Assembly of Perovskite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prying Apart Ruddlesden-Popper Phases: Exfoliation into Sheets and Nanotubes for Assembly ) Na, Ca, Sr, La; B ) Ta, Ti) that have acidic interlayer protons were exfoliated using tetra(n- butyl and titanoniobates have weakly acidic interlayer protons and exfoliate only to a limited extent. TBAxH2-xSrNb2O7

  19. Electrolysed palladium has the potential to increase methane production by a mixed rumen population in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electrolysed palladium has the potential to increase methane production by a mixed rumen population the proportion of protozoa with attached methanogens decreased, however no estimate of CH4 production under were re-filled with H2:CO2, sealed with butyl rubber stoppers and incubated at 39°C with shaking

  20. Isolation, characterization, and genome sequence of the first representative of a novel class within the Chloroflexi that is abundant in some US Great

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    /ml. · Pretreatment of butyl rubber stoppers by boiling in 1% Na2S was necessary for consistent growth in liquid in ~80 contigs with N50 of 139873, G+C content of 67.3%. · Growth on synthetic medium with added FeCl3; most other trace elements appeared to prevent growth in this synthetic medium. Phylogeny of strain JAD2

  1. C A L I F O R N I A E N E R G Y C O M M I S S I O N E F F I C I E N C Y A N D R E N E W A B L E E N E R G Y D I V I S I O N

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -backed duct tapes with special butyl or synthetic adhesives rather than rubber adhesive to seal flex duct Committee determined that Shurtape Technologies' cloth back synthetic adhesive duct tape, PC 858CA, can to the testing conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in which cloth back rubber adhesive duct

  2. TPE's with low permeability, high damping. [ThermoPlastic Elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, M.J.; Lebel, M.A.; Robinson, K.J.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article examines the characteristics of the thermoplastic elastomer Sarlink 2000. Topics discussed include morphology, rheology, thermo-mechanical properties, thermal properties, and physical properties. These properties are compared to the properties of thermoset butyl rubber compounds which Sarlink 2000 is targeted to replace in many applications.

  3. Harvard Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    Guide Glove Material Applications Butyl A synthetic rubber material that offers the highest permeation resistance to gas and water vapors. Esp. suited for use with esters and ketones. Neoprene A synthetic rubber and caustics. Moderate abrasion resistance. Nitrile A synthetic rubber material that offers chemical

  4. Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Xin-hua

    , College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China Received 14, the removal and recycling of the catalytic materials become important. It is expected that using ionic liquids as ATRP media. They performed the copper(I)-mediated ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in 1-butyl-3

  5. Density functional theory study on the interstitial chemical shifts of main-group-element centered hexazirconium halide clusters; synthetic control of speciation in [(Zr6ZCl12)] (Z = B, C)-based mixed ligand complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jingyi

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    substitution of terminal chlorides on [(Zr6CCl12)Cl6]4-cluster by tri(n-butyl)-phosphine oxide (Bu3PO) was conducted with the aid of TlPF6. Composition of the reaction mixtures was analyzed by use of both 13C and 31P NMR. A preliminary scheme for synthesis...

  6. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

  7. Synthesis of molybdenum olefin metatheses catalysts through protonation reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, Amritanshu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The attempted syntheses of molybdenum imido alkylidene complexes of the type Mo(NArc,)(CH-t-Bu)[Biphen] and Mo(N-2-CF3C6H4)(CHCMe2Ph)[Biphen] (Biphen2 = 3,3'-di-t-butyl-5,5',6,6'-tetramethyl- 1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diolate) ...

  8. New mechanism-based anticancer drugs that act as orphan nuclear receptor agonists 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar Reddy

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes containing ptrifluoromethyl (DIM-C-pPhCF3), p-t-butyl (DIM-C-pPhtBu), and phenyl (DIM-CpPhC6H5) substituents have been identified as a new class of peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor Ã...

  9. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994,116, 1983-1988 7983 Hairpin Peptide Motif. A New Class of Oligopeptides for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dervan, Peter B.

    , and Peter B. Dewan. Contributionfrom the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis in the minor groove of DNA.14 An imidazole pyrrole-pyrrole tripeptide, 1-methylimidazole-2-carboxamide tethered through thecentral pyrrole rings with a butyl linker bind with increased affinity and specificity

  10. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994,116. 3663-3664 3663 Design of a Covalent Peptide Heterodimer for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrksich, Milan

    Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91I25 Received pyrrole rings with a butyl linker, was synthesized in 12 steps from commercially available precursorsN-C4-P3 wherein the two peptides 2-1" and P3 areconnected through thenitrogens of thecentral pyrrole

  11. Furaday Discuss. Chem. Soc., 1983, 75, 301-3 13 Unimolecular Decomposition of t-Butylhydroperoxide by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    products, t-butyl alcohol, is detected using optoacousticspectroscopy to follow the reaction in situ with an R.R.K.M.treatment based on simple Stern-Volrner kinetics, but can be adequately fit by invoking processes has recently been stimulated by the technique of direct overtone excitation, introduced by Reddy

  12. Analysis of Steam Heating of a Two-Layer TBP/N-Paraffin/Nitric Acid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, J.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hassan, N.M.; Rudisill, T.S.; Askew, N.M.

    1998-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an analysis of steam heating of a two-layer tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin-nitric acid mixture.The purpose of this study is to determine if the degree of mixing provided by the steam jet or by bubbles generated by the TBP/nitric acid reaction is sufficient to prevent a runaway reaction.

  13. Accelerated ageing of solar control IGUs EN1279-3 compared to climate cabinet, CliSim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    glazing. The influence of the dimensions of the IGU with regard to the gas leakage rate was also tested System description Glass ­ outer 4 mm SKN 172 ­ Cool Lite Glass ­ inner 4 mm float G6 Cavity 16 mm Spacer Swiss spacer Outer sealing Fenzi Butyl Fenzi Corner connection 4 pieces of plastic Desiccant Phonosorb

  14. Adsorption and desorption of atrazine on a melamine-based soil amendment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neitsch, Susan Lynn

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption kinetics and adsorption-desorption of atrazine on organoclay composites prepared with the surfactant 6-piperazin-1-yl-N,N'-bis-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-butyl)-(1,3,5)triazine-2,4-diamine and Houston Black clay were studied using the indirect...

  15. Sustained signalling by PTH modulates IP3 accumulation and IP3 receptors via cyclic AMP junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meena, Abha; Tovey, Stephen C.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    -Aldrich 433 (Gillingham, UK). Ionomycin was from Apollo Scientific (Stockport, UK). Cell culture 434 media, G-418, fluo 4AM and fura 2AM were from Life Technologies (Paisley, UK). 3-[5-435 (tert-butyl)isoxazol-3-yl]-2-[2-(3-chlorophenyl)hydrazono]-3...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A task was undertaken to characterize glovebox gloves that are currently used in the facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as some experimental and advanced compound gloves that have been proposed for use. Gloves from four manufacturers were tested for permeation in hydrogen and air, thermal stability, tensile properties, puncture resistance and dynamic mechanical response. The gloves were compared to each other within the type and also to the butyl rubber glove that is widely used at the SRS. The permeation testing demonstrated that the butyl compounds from three of the vendors behaved similarly and exhibited hydrogen permeabilities of .52‐.84 x10{sup ‐7} cc H{sub 2}*cm / (cm{sup 2}*atm). The Viton? glove performed at the lower edge of this bound, while the more advanced composite gloves exhibited permeabilities greater than a factor of two compared to butyl. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the amount of material lost under slightly aggressive conditions. Glove losses are important since they can affect the life of glovebox stripper systems. During testing at 90, 120, and 150?C, the samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The ranking from worst to best was Jung butyl‐Hypalon? with 12.9 %, Piercan Hypalon? with 11.4 %, and Jung butyl‐Viton? with 5.2% mass loss all at approximately 140?C. The smallest mass losses were experienced by the Jung Viton? and the Piercan polyurethane. Tensile properties were measured using a standard dog bone style test. The butyl rubber exhibited tensile strengths of 11‐15 MPa and elongations or 660‐843%. Gloves made from other compounds exhibited lower tensile strengths (5 MPa Viton) to much higher tensile strengths (49 MPa Urethane) with a comparable range of elongation. The puncture resistance of the gloves was measured in agreement with an ASTM standard. The Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance from 183 ? 296 lbs/in for samples of 0.020 ? 0.038? thick. Finally, the glass transition temperature and the elastic and viscoelastic properties as a function of temperature up to maximum use temperature were determined for each glove material using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. The glass transition temperatures of the gloves were ‐60?C for butyl, ‐30?C for polyurethane, ‐ 16?C Hypalon?, ‐16?C for Viton?, and ‐24?C for polyurethane‐Hypalon?. The glass transition was too complex for the butyl‐Hypalon? and butyl‐Viton? composite gloves to be characterized by a single glass transition temperature. All of the glass transition temperatures exceed the vendor projected use temperatures.

  17. An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, K E

    2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

  18. Free radical formation in vivo and hepatotoxicity due to anesthesia with halothane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, J.L.; Beckwith, A.L.; Bastin, F.N.; Adams, J.F.; Cousins, M.J.; Hall, P.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In vivo studies were undertaken to determine whether free radical formation in the liver during administration of various halogenated anesthetics is associated with hepatotoxicity of these agents in an animal model. In addition to the anesthetics halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane, carbon tetrachloride was studied as an example of a hepatotoxic halogenated compound acting by a free radical mechanism. Free radicals were trapped in vivo during anesthesia as stable adducts using the spin trap, alpha-phenyl-t-butyl nitrone. These adducts were extracted from the liver and studied by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Free radicals were detected after administration of halothane or carbon tetrachloride, compounds which were hepatotoxic under the conditions of the experiment, but were not found after anesthesia induced with enflurane or isoflurane, anesthetics which were not hepatotoxic under identical conditions. The free radical trapped after alpha-phenyl-t-butyl nitrone treatment of halothane-anesthetized rats appeared to be a metabolic intermediate of halothane.

  19. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator package o-ring seal material validation testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, P. O. Box 1970, MSIN N1-25, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (I) 233 K ({minus}40 {degree}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degree}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  20. Composition and method for encapsulating photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pern, Fu-Jann (Golden, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, tetrakis methylene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) methane, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, and 2,2'-ethylidene bis(4,6-di-t-butylphenyl) fluorophosponite. The composition is applied to a solar cell then cured. The cured product contains a minimal concentration of curing-generated chromophores and resists UV-induced degradation.

  1. Bulk Gold-Catalyzed Reactions of Isocyanides, Amines, and Amine N-Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik; Angelici, Robert; Woo, Keith L.

    2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk gold powder (5–50 ?m particles) catalyzes the reactions of isocyanides with amines and amine N-oxides to produce ureas. The reaction of n-butyl isocyanide (nBu–N?C) with di-n-propylamine and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide in acetonitrile, which was studied in the greatest detail, produced 3-butyl-1,1-dipropylurea (O?C(NHnBu)(NnPr2)) in 99% yield at 60 °C within 2 h. Sterically and electronically different isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides react successfully under these conditions. Detailed studies support a two-step mechanism that involves a gold-catalyzed reaction of adsorbed isocyanide with the amine N-oxide to form an isocyanate (RN?C?O), which rapidly reacts with the amine to give the urea product. These investigations show that bulk gold, despite its reputation for poor catalytic activity, is capable of catalyzing these reactions.

  2. Saudi MTBE project revived

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Alujain Corp., a member of the Xenel group of Saudi Arabia, is going ahead with plans to build an 800,000-m.t./year methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant. Bechtel has been appointed project manager for the plant, which will be owned by a new company, National Fuel Additives (Tahseen). Bechtel will help evaluate proposals already submitted for the lump sum turnkey job.

  3. Race to license new MTBE and TAME routes heats up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotman, D.

    1993-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    With refineries and petrochemical manufacturers continuing to gear up production of oxygenates for use in reformulated fuels, new routes to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are clearly hot items in the licensing market. And probably nowhere has the competition become as intense as in offerings for skeletal isomerization technologies to boost ethers production from fluid catalytic cracking and steam cracking.

  4. MTBE from butadiene-rich C/sub 4/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ancillotti, F.; Pescarollo, E.; Szatmari, E.; Lazar, L.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), is made by reacting methanol with isobutylene. The preferred source of isobutylene is a steam cracker C/sub 4/ cut from which butadiene has been removed. However, moving the MTBE synthesis upstream of the butadiene extraction will improve the extraction step. The following is a review of conditions imposed on the MTBE unit's design and operation when placed in this new location.

  5. PALLADIUM-CATALYZED DECARBOXYLATIVE ALLYLATIONS OF ESTER ENOLATE EQUIVALENTS AND PALLADIUM-CATALYZED CYCLIZATIONS VIA CO2 AND SILYL ACTIVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyarathna, Yamuna Kumari

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    (diphenylphosphino)-1,1’-binaphthyl SN2 bimolecular nucleophilic substitution t-Bu tert-butyl t-BuOK potassium tert-butoxide TfOH trifluoromethanesulfonic acid TFP trifurylphosphine THF tetrahydrofuran tol toluene TPO triphenylphosphine...A). Coordination of the Pd(0) catalyst to the allyl moiety facilitates the oxidative addition to produce a palladium ?-allyl intermediate and carboxylate 1.1.4. Upon decarboxylation the carboxylate will expose the active nucleophile, which then couple...

  6. Chemical Compatibility Chart Below is a chart adapted from the CRC Laboratory Handbook, which groups various chemicals in to 23

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    acid 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,13,14,16,17,18,19,21,22,23 2 Organic acids Acetic acid Butyric acid Formic acid Triethylenetetramine 1,2,5,7,8,13,14,15,16,17,18,23 5 Halogenated Compounds Allyl chloride Carbon tetrachloride Petroleum Oils Gasoline Mineral Oil 20 13 Esters Amyl acetate Butyl acetates Castor oil Dimethyl sulfate

  7. letters to nature NATURE |VOL 408 |23 NOVEMBER 2000 |www.nature.com 453

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    containing 0.5 g of the gemini surfactant 18B4-3±1 (N,N,N,N9N9-pentamethyl-N9- [4-(4-octadecyloxyphenoxy)-butyl]-propane after the addition of TEOS at room temperature. The reaction gel mixture was heated for 2 d at 80 8C without stirring. The precipitate was ®ltered and dried in air at room temperature. Determination

  8. Batch polymerization of styrene initiated by alkyl lithiums

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Rashmi R

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -butyl lithium using cyclohexane as the solvent, The polymerization is carried out in an isothermal batch reactor at a temperature of. 5D C. The proposed reaction proceeds by a homogenous anionic mechanism. The mathematical model developed by Edgar (6..., propagat)on and their kinetics, In this work the experimentally detersnined molecu]ar weight distribution and monomer conversions are compared with the results predicted by a mathematical model developed by Edgar (11). Rate constants determined by Hsieh...

  9. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuqueruqe, NM); Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  10. The breakthrough time and permeation rate of multi-component solvents for selected glove materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Bruce Gustav

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APPENDIX A TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page LIST OF VARIOUS PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RESEARCH SOLVENTS. APPENDIX B 65 LIST OF EQUIPMENT. APPENDIX C ASSEMBLY OF PESCE LAB SALES PERMEATION TEST CELL WITH TEST... the chemicals tested including the permeation rat s and breakthrough times through the glove. Vitron, Butyl and Nitrile Latex are just a few types of The citations used on the following pages follow the style of the American Industrial Hygiene Association...

  11. Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reutter, D.J.; Hardy, D.R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope /sup 235/U//sup 238/U abundance is demonstrated.

  12. Biodiesel Safety and Best Management Practices for Small-Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noncommercial Use

    The following gear should be on hand each time you produce biodiesel: • Chemical-resistant gloves (butyl rubber is best for methanol and lye) • Chemistry goggles (indirect vented) and face shield • Dust mask or cartridge respirator • Eyewash bottle with saline solution • Small spray bottle with vinegar for neutralizing lye spills • Access to running water • Telephone in case of emergency and emergency telephone numbers • Fire extinguishers (ABC or CO) 2

  13. Method for the concentration and separation of actinides from biological and environmental samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Tucson, AZ)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the quantitative recover of actinide values from biological and environmental sample by passing appropriately prepared samples in a mineral acid solution through a separation column of a dialkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate on an inert substrate which selectively extracts the actinide values. The actinide values can be eluted either as a group or individually and their presence quantitatively detected by alpha counting.

  14. Method for the concentration and separation of actinides from biological and environmental samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1989-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the quantitative recover of actinide values from biological and environmental sample by passing appropriately prepared samples in a mineral acid solution through a separation column of a dialkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate on an inert substrate which selectively extracts the actinide values. The actinide values can be eluted either as a group or individually and their presence quantitatively detected by alpha counting. 3 figs.

  15. Direct exfoliation of natural graphite into micrometer size few layers graphene sheets using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.; Fulvio, P. F.; Baker, G. A.; Veith, G. M.; Unocic, R. R.; Mahurin, S., M.; Chi, M.; Dai, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable high-concentration suspensions (up to 0.95 mg mL{sup ?1}) of non-oxidized few layer graphene (FLG), five or less sheets, with micrometre-long edges were obtained via direct exfoliation of natural graphite flakes in ionic liquids, such as 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoro-methane-sulfonyl)imide ([Bmim]-[Tf{sub 2}N]), by tip ultrasonication.

  16. The Use of pH to Influence Regio-and Chemoselectivity in the Asymmetric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hergenrother, Paul J.

    L of acetonitrile. The solution was cooled in a water-ice bath (0-4 o C) and under efficient stirring a cold minutes, and then the cold solution of t-butyl hypochlorite (134.4 mg, 1.24 mmol) in 1 mL of acetonitrile and stirred for 3 min. The cold acetonitrile/buffer mixture was then added to a total volume of 28 m

  17. Capture isobutylene with glycol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knifton, J.F. (Texaco Chemical's Austin Research Lab. TX (United States))

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of butenes present in C-4 streams (generated as a result of steam or catalytic cracking) is becoming increasingly important as the butenes find expanded applications in the production of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE), methyl methacrylate, butyl rubber, and linear low-density polyethylene. Available methods of separation include selective extraction with a liquid solvent (usually an acid); the use of addition reactions with suitable alcohols, acids, or water; selective polymerization and physical separation by absorbents. Three currently important separation processes for isobutylene production are an extraction route using mineral acid, the dehydration of tert-butanol, and the cracking of MTBE. As part of the research into solid acid catalysis for the generation of glycol tert-butyl monoethers, the authors have demonstrated an alternative C-4 separation process using solid inorganic acid catalysts and involving the intermediate preparation of glycol ethers. This new C-4 separation scheme could be particularly attractive to existing glycol producers who may also have a market, or internal need, for glycol monoalkyl ethers, as well as those who do not have MTBE capacity but still require pure isobutylene as a chemical intermediate or comonomer building block. The process is described.

  18. Ecology of recent ostracodes of the Todos Santos Bay region, Baja California, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, R. H.

    1959-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    ). NORTHERN COAST Todos Santos Bay is bordered on the north by narrow beaches, terraces, and sea cliffs cut into Tertiary sediments and dioritic mountains. just north of Punta San Miguel, bordering the north- ernmost side of the study area, are several very... in the immediate area since at least early Pleistocene time. From El Sauzal east to near Punta Morro, the beach is very narrow. It is formed by wave erosion cutting into the 20-foot high sea cliffs of inter- bedded Tertiary (Commondu Formation, BEALE, 1948, p. 74...

  19. Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poa, D.S.

    1984-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

  20. Preparation of dinitrogen, hydrido, and carbonyl complexes of molybdenum and tungsten from higher halides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borisov, A.P.; Makhaev, V.D.; Semenenko, K.N.

    1988-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The yields, physicochemical properties, and analyses of phosphine complexes of molybdenum and tungsten are shown. The reduction of molydenum pentachloride or tungsten hexachloride with metallic magnesium in THF in the presence of a tertiary organic phosphines in an atmosphere of nitrogen, hydrogen, or carbon monoxide provided a convenient method for the preparation of dinitrogen M(N/sub 2/)/sub 2/L/sub 4/, hydride MH/sub 4/L/sub 4/, or carbonyl M(CO)/sub 6/minus/x/L/sub x/ complexes respectively of molybdenum or tungsten (M = Mo, W; L - tertiary organic phosphine).