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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Final technical report, June 1993--July 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research project was to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) to convert natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) to convert CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data generated in this project were for use in evaluating the commercial potential of the process.

Erekson, E.J.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to achieve cost-effective compliance * minimize precious metal content while maximizing fuel economy * Relevance: - U.S. passenger car fleet is dominated by gasoline-fueled...

4

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SCR Urea TankInjector Cost Customer Acceptance Not in Project Scope Specific Key Issues: Cost, Durability, Fuel Penalty, Operating Temp., etc... Lean Gasoline SI Direct Injection...

5

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SCR Urea TankInjector Cost Customer Acceptance Not in Project Scope Specific Key Issues: Cost, Durability, Fuel Penalty, Operating Temp.,+... Lean Gasoline SI Direct Injection...

6

Gasoline Biodesulfurization Fact Sheet  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This petroleum industry fact sheet describes how biodesulfurization can yield lower sulfur gasoline at lower production costs.

7

Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

Erdemir, Ali

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

SULFUR REDUCTION IN GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUELS BY EXTRACTION/ADSORPTION OF REFRACTORY DIBENZOTHIOPHENES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to remove thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene from a simulated gasoline feedstock. We found that Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} reacts with a variety of thiophenes (Th*), affording Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(Th*){sup 2+}. We used this reactivity to design a biphasic extraction process that removes more than 50% of the dibenzothiophene in the simulated feedstock. This extraction system consists of a hydrocarbon phase (simulated petroleum feedstock) and extractant Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} in an aqueous phase (70% dimethylformamide, 30% H{sub 2}O). The DBT is removed in situ from the newly formed Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(DBT){sup 2+} by either an oxidation process or addition of H{sub 2}O, to regenerate Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+}.

Scott G. McKinley; Celedonio M. Alvarez

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Combustion Phasing Model for Control of a Gasoline-Ethanol Fueled SI Engine with Variable Valve Timing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combustion Phasing Model for Control of a Gasoline-Ethanol Fueled SI Engine with Variable Valve engine efficiency. Fuel-flexible engines permit the increased use of ethanol-gasoline blends. Ethanol points across the engine operating range for four blends of gasoline and ethanol. I. INTRODUCTION Fuel

10

Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

11

Market behavior under partial price controls: the case of the retail gasoline market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of firm-specific controls on the price of gasoline during 1979 and 1980, at both the wholesale and the retail level, dramatically affected the retail market for gasoline. The most visible effect was a diversity of monetary prices across service stations within particular retail market areas. Price could no longer play its usual role in clearing the retail market for gasoline. Queues and other changes in quality of service at stations arose to maintain the balance of market demand and supply. This report examines the behavior of an otherwise competitive market in the presence of such regulation-induced nonprice phenomena. In such a market, consumers consider both monetary prices and costs imposed by queues in deciding where to buy gasoline and how much to buy. Using a price-theoretic model of behavior, this paper predicts how various changes in effective price regulation affect consumers. 14 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

Camm, F.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program Status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems that could be implemented to lower emissions of NO{sub x} and PM from on-highway trucks in the 2002-2004 time frame.

None

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

13

Raman Scattering Sensor for Control of the Acid Alkylation Process in Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline refineries utilize a process called acid alkylation to increase the octane rating of blended gasoline, and this is the single most expensive process in the refinery. For process efficiency and safety reasons, the sulfuric acid can only be used while it is in the concentration range of 98 to 86 %. The conventional technique to monitor the acid concentration is time consuming and is typically conducted only a few times per day. This results in running higher acid concentrations than they would like to ensure that the process proceeds uninterrupted. Maintaining an excessively high acid concentration costs the refineries millions of dollars each year. Using SBIR funding, Process Instruments Inc. has developed an inline sensor for real time monitoring of acid concentrations in gasoline refinery alkylation units. Real time data was then collected over time from the instrument and its responses were matched up with the laboratory analysis. A model was then developed to correlate the laboratory acid values to the Raman signal that is transmitted back to the instrument from the process stream. The instrument was then used to demonstrate that it could create real-time predictions of the acid concentrations. The results from this test showed that the instrument could accurately predict the acid concentrations to within ~0.15% acid strength, and this level of prediction proved to be similar or better then the laboratory analysis. By utilizing a sensor for process monitoring the most economic acid concentrations can be maintained. A single smaller refinery (50,000 barrels/day) estimates that they should save over $120,000/year, with larger refineries saving considerably more.

Uibel, Rory, H.; Smith, Lee M.; Benner, Robert, E.

2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

14

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

15

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

16

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Gasoline marketing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Consumers have the option of purchasing several different grades of unleaded gasoline regular, mid-grade, and premium which are classified according to an octane rating. Because of concern that consumers may be needlessly buying higher priced premium unleaded gasoline for their automobiles when regular unleaded gasoline would meet their needs, this paper determines whether consumers were buying premium gasoline that they may not need, whether the higher retail price of premium gasoline includes a price mark-up added between the refinery and the retail pump which is greater than that included in the retail price for regular gasoline, and possible reasons for the price differences between premium and regular gasoline.

Metzenbaum, H.M.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

erentials in wholesale and retail gasoline prices, sometimesand control retail gasoline prices, while still permittingnopolize retail gasoline markets and raise prices. Several

Gilbert, Richard; Hastings, Justine

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

Hadder, G.R.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Electric car Gasoline car  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENAC/ Electric car (Renault) Gasoline car (competitors) Gasoline car (Renault) Market shares of an electric vehicle? Electric car (Renault) Gasoline car (competitors) Gasoline car (Renault) Market shares preference survey with choice situation contexts involving gasoline cars (Renault and competitors

26

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim data report summarizes results as of August, 1999, on the status of the test programs being conducted on three technologies: lean-NO{sub x} catalysts, diesel particulate filters and diesel oxidation catalysts.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a twenty-five-cycle test. The sorbent was exposed for 58 consecutive days to temperatures between 600°C and 800°C and gas atmospheres from highly reducing to highly oxidizing without measurable loss of sulfur capacity or reactivity. In the process analysis phase of this study, a two-stage desulfurization process using cerium sorbent with SO2 regeneration followed by zinc sorbent with dilute O2 regeneration was compared to a single-stage process using zinc sorbent and O2 regeneration with SO2 in the regeneration product gas converted to elemental sulfur using the direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP). Material and energy balances were calculated using the process simulation package PRO/II. Major process equipment was sized and a preliminary economic analysis completed. Sorbent replacement rate, which is determined by the multicycle sorbent durability, was found to be the most significant factor in both processes. For large replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 250 cycles or less, the single-stage zinc sorbent process with DSRP was estimated to be less costly. However, the cost of the two-stage cerium sorbent process was more sensitive to sorbent replacement rate, and, as the required replacement rate decreased, the economics of the two-stage process improved. For small sorbent replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 1000 cycles or more, the two-stage cerium process was estimated to be less costly. In the relatively wide middle range of sorbent replacement rates, the relative economics of the two processes depends on other factors such as the unit cost of sorbents, oxygen, nitrogen, and the relative capital costs.

A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion Almost 2 dozen gasoline...

29

Geologic controls on sulfur content of the Blue Gem coal seam, southeastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed petrographic and lithologic data on the Blue Gem coal seam for a local area in Knox County, Kentucky, suggest that a relationship may exist between overlying roof lithology, petrographic composition of the coal, and sulfur content. In the western part of the area, where thick (20-40 feet) shale sequences overlie the coal, sulfur contents are low (less than 1%). In isolated areas where discontinuous sandstones occur within 6 feet of the coal, sulfur contents range from 1% to over 3%. In the east, a sandstone body usually overlies and frequently scours out the coal, yet sulfur content varies independently of roof lithology. Towards the east, there is an increase in abundance, thickness and variability of fusain bands within the coal and an increase in pyrite and siderite either as cell fillings in fusinite or as masses within vitrinite; early emplacement of these minerals is indicated by compaction features. Data suggest the importance of depositional environment of the peat and overlying sediments as a control on sulfur occurrence. High sulfur contents in the west are related to sandstone bodies which may have allowed sulfate-bearing waters to permeate into the peat. In the east, where increases in pyrite, siderite and fusain content of the coal and coarsening of the overlying sediments suggest a change in environment, the presence or absence of pyrite-containing fusain bands may account for sulfur variability. Siderite occurrence may reflect local fluctuations in sulfate supply to the peat swamp.

Rimmer, S.M.; Moore, T.A.; Esterle, J.S.; Hower, J.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This topical report on Sulfur Control'' presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT's electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission Control Technologies A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission Control...

34

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) Period 2000 2001 (2) 2002 2003 2004 "gross" to "net" , was deemed impractical. (5) This report replaces the Gross Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) report which will not be produced after December 2002. (6) The November 2007

35

Gasoline price data systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Timely observation on prices of gasoline at the wholesale and retail level by geographical area can serve several purposes: (1) to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with controls on distributor margins; (2) to indicate changes in the competitive structure of the distribution system; (3) to measure the incidence of changes in crude oil and refiner costs on retail prices by grade of gasoline, by type of retail outlet, and by geographic area; (4) to identify anomalies in the retail pricing structure that may create incentives for misfueling; and (5) to provide detailed time series data for use in evaluating conservation response to price changes. In order to provide the needed data for these purposes, the following detail on gasoline prices and characteristics of the sampling procedure appear to be appropriate: (1) monthly sample observations on wholesale and retail prices by gasoline grade and type of wholesale or retail dealer, together with volume weights; (2) sample size sufficient to provide detail by state and large cities; (3) responses to be tabulated and reports provided within 30 days after date of observation; and (4) a quick response sampling procedure that can provide weekly data, at least at the national level, when needed in time of rapidly changing prices. Price detail by state is suggested due to its significance for administrative purposes and since gasoline consumption data are estimated by state from other sources. Price detail for large cities are suggested in view of their relevancy as problem areas for vehicle emissions, reflecting one of the analytical uses of the data. In this report, current reporting systems and data on gasoline prices are reviewed and evaluated in terms of the needs outlined above. Recommendations are made for ways to fill the gaps in existing data systems to meet these needs.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Gasoline vapor recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a gasoline distribution network wherein gasoline is drawn from a gasoline storage tank and pumped into individual vehicles and wherein the gasoline storage tank is refilled periodically from a gasoline tanker truck, a method of recovering liquid gasoline from gasoline vapor that collects in the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom, said method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a source of inert gas; (b) introducing inert gas into the gasoline storage tank as liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom so that liquid gasoline drawn from the tank is displaced by inert gas and gasoline vapor mixes with the inert gas in the headspace of the tank; (c) collecting the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture from the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the tank is refilled from a gasoline tanker truck; (d) cooling the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture to a temperature sufficient to condense the gasoline vapor in the mixture to liquid gasoline but not sufficient to liquify the inert gas in the mixture; (e) separating the condensed liquid gasoline from the inert gas; and delivering the condensed liquid gasoline to a remote location for subsequent use.

Lievens, G.; Tiberi, T.P.

1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

37

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 4: Diesel Particulate Filters -- Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This is the fourth and final report for the DPF test program and covers the effect of diesel sulfur level on: a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), and a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF).

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 2: NO{sub x} Adsorber Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report discusses the results of the DECSE test program that demonstrates the potential of NOx adsorber catalyst technology across the range of diesel engine operation with a fuel economy penalty less than 4%.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

With Mathematica Gasoline Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preprint 1 With Mathematica and J: Gasoline Inventory Simulation Cliff Reiter Computational for the number of gallons of gasoline sold by a station for a thousand weeks. The pattern involves demands with the delivery and storage of the gasoline and we desire not to run out of gasoline or exceed the station

Reiter, Clifford A.

40

Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regulation and Arbitrage in Wholesale Gasoline Markets,Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices JenniferCONTENT REGULATION AND WHOLESALE GASOLINE PRICES by Jennifer

Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The Use of Fuel Chemistry and Property Variations to Evaluate the Robustness of Variable Compression Ratio as a Control Method for Gasoline HCCI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On a gasoline engine platform, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) holds the promise of improved fuel economy and greatly reduced engine-out NOx emissions, without an increase in particulate matter emissions. In this investigation, a variable compression ratio (CR) engine equipped with a throttle and intake air heating was used to test the robustness of these control parameters to accommodate a series of fuels blended from reference gasoline, straight run refinery naptha, and ethanol. Higher compression ratios allowed for operation with higher octane fuels, but operation could not be achieved with the reference gasoline, even at the highest compression ratio. Compression ratio and intake heat could be used separately or together to modulate combustion. A lambda of 2 provided optimum fuel efficiency, even though some throttling was necessary to achieve this condition. Ethanol did not appear to assist combustion, although only two ethanol-containing fuels were evaluated. The increased pumping work from throttling was minimal compared to the efficiency increases that were the result of lower unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Low temperature heat release was present for all the fuels, but could be suppressed with a higher intake air temperature. Results will be used to design future fuels and combustion studies with this research platform.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Ashland's new process could boost gasoline yield  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to O. E. Atkins (Ashland Oil Co.), Ashland's new fluid catalytic cracking process will convert heavy residual oil to (% by vol) 11% fuel gas, 4.8% LNG, 75.7% gasoline (if all the produced olefins are converted to gasoline), 9% distillates, and 8.1% heavy fuel oil. Ashland is building a $70 million, 40,000 bbl/day unit at its 215,000 bbl/day Catlettsburg, Ky., refinery which will increase the present 90,000 bbl/day gasoline yield by 25,000 bbl/day for the same amount of feedstock. The increased gasoline yield (no-lead octane rating of 94) is expected to increase the net margin on a barrel of feed from $8 up to $12, at the present prices of $11.50/bbl of residual oil and $40/bbl of gasoline. Ashland has not disclosed detailed information on the new process, which: can accommodate atmospheric residua that are high in sulfur and metals; is a high temperature, low (about 1 atm) pressure process; does not use hydrogen; uses a proprietary new crystalline silica-alumina microspherical (zeolite) catalyst which, via a proprietary passivating technique, will demetalize crude oil fractions of vanadium and nickel. Residuum cracking processes developed by other companies are briefly discussed.

Atkins, O.E.

1980-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

43

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

44

Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Heterogeneity in U.S. Gasoline Prices, working paper,and J. M . Perloff, 2002. Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes,Gardner, K.W. , 2004. U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil

Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced sulfur control Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

No.7, July 1997 The Electrochemical Society, Inc. 2323 19. D. Davies, U. Evans, and J. Agar Proc. Roy. Soc., 225, Summary: solution of sulfuric acid was used as the electrolyte....

46

Round 1 Emissions Results from Compressed Natural Gas Vans and Gasoline Controls Operating in the U.S. Federal Fleet  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource ProgramEnergyMaterials: SulfurRosenbaumRotationalRound 1

47

State Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BULLETIN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS HUMANISTIC STUDIES Vol. III March 15, 192S No. 4 State Gasoline Taxes BY KDMUNI) IV LKAENKI), A. B., A, M. Instructor in Economics and Commerce The Unlvmity of Kansas PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY l... vast sums of money, Oregon was the first state to adopt a tax on gasoline to provide revenue for building and maintaining roads. Since this adoption in 1919, many states have passed laws provid ing for gasoline taxes until now forty-four states...

Learned, Edmund Philip

1925-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

ESTIMATION OF EXHAUST MANIFOLD PRESSURE IN TURBOCHARGED GASOLINE ENGINES WITH VARIABLE VALVE TIMING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESTIMATION OF EXHAUST MANIFOLD PRESSURE IN TURBOCHARGED GASOLINE ENGINES WITH VARIABLE VALVE TIMING in turbocharged gasoline engines with variable valve timing requires knowledge of exhaust mani- fold pressure, Pe control systems for gasoline engines rely heavily on feedforward air-fuel ratio (A/F) control to meet

Grizzle, Jessy W.

49

Controlled Nucleation and Growth Process of Li2S2/Li2S in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium-sulfur battery is a promising next-generation energy storage system because of its potentially three to five times higher energy density than that of traditional lithium ion batteries. However, the dissolution and precipitation of soluble polysulfides during cycling initiate a series of key-chain reactions that significantly shorten battery life. Herein, we demonstrate that through a simple but effective strategy, significantly improved cycling performance is achieved for high sulfur loading electrodes through controlling the nucleation and precipitation of polysulfieds on the electrode surface. More than 400 or 760 stable cycling are successfully displayed in the cells with locked discharge capacity of 625 mAh g-1 or 500 mAh g-1, respectively. The nucleation and growth process of dissolved polysulfides has been electrochemically altered to confine the thickness of discharge products passivated on the cathode surface, increasing the utilization rate of sulfur while avoiding severe morphology changes on the electrode. More importantly, the exposure of new lithium metal surface to the S-containing electrolyte is also greatly reduced through this strategy, largely minimizing the anode corrosion caused by polysulfides. This work interlocks the electrode morphologies and its evolution with electrochemical interference to modulate cell performances by using Li-S system as a platform, providing different but critical directions for this community.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Zuo, Pengjian; Koech, Phillip K.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

50

Ethers help gasoline quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article three scenarios to evaluate the effect of etherification on gasoline production and quality are reviewed: Base case FCC/C{sub 4} alkylation complex - FCC unit operation for maximum gasoline yield, MTBE unit added to base case FCC unit operation and MTBE unit added to maximum olefins FCC unit operation. Details of the FCC, MTBE and C{sub 4} alkylation operations used in this article are reviewed, followed by a discussion of overall results.

Chang, E.J.; Leiby, S.M. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (US))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

A Dozen Reasons for Raising Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

States have the right gasoline tax? University of Californiajuly). A primer on gasoline prices. http://www.eia.gov/pub/Reasons for Raising Gasoline Taxes Martin Wachs RESEARCH

Wachs, Martin

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

State Specific * Share of Gasoline State Specific * (Share of Gasoline) 2 StateSpecific * (Share of Gasoline) 3 State Specific * (Share of

Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Market Power in California's Gasoline Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Price Study Kayser, Hilke A. , 2000. Gasoline Demand andCar Choice: Estimating Gasoline Demand Using HouseholdIN GASOLINE MARKETS.

Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, James; Lewis, Matthew

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

The potential for low petroleum gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

57

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up to 85% ethanol for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

58

Is the gasoline tax regressive?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Claims of the regressivity of gasoline taxes typically rely on annual surveys of consumer income and expenditures which show that gasoline expenditures are a larger fraction of income for very low income households than ...

Poterba, James M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

The influence of flowable sulfur on controlled-release of NPK fertilizers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were determined in the laboratory. Wheat plants were grown in the greenhouse to investigate N and P availability in acid and limed Lufkin soil from the urea and DAP products as well as the effect of S in a rock phosphate sulfur suspension (RP... Page Dry matter yield of wheat plant from two harvests as affected by TSP and DAP fer- tilizers incubated in acid or limed soil 6 weeks before planting. (Bars within an array having the same letters are not significantly different at P = . 05...

Tammakrut, Somkid

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

ON-LINE OPTIMIZATION, ENERGY ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SULFURIC ACID CATALYZED ALKYLATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pool, increased amounts of gasoline per volume of crude oil and high heats of combustion. The overall in sulfuric acid consumption potentially could be obtained. 1. Introduction Alkylation process is one

Pike, Ralph W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Gasoline Jet Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C4n= Diesel Gasoline Jet Fuels C O C5: Xylose C6 Fermentation of sugars Biofuel "Nanobowls" are inorganic catalysts that could provide the selectivity for converting sugars to fuels IACT Proposes Synthetic, Inorganic Catalysts to Produce Biofuels Current Process

Kemner, Ken

62

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Essays on Automotive Lending, Gasoline Prices, & Automotive Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gasoline PriceResponse to Chang- ing Gasoline Prices,” unpublishedShort-Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand. ,” The Energy

Schulz-Mahlendorf, Wilko Ziggy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide...

66

Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt mixtures and compared with sodium-based binary and higher order systems. Predictions and measurements were demonstrated for both salt systems and for some more complex silicate-bearing systems, substantially exceeding the original scope of this work. 4. A multi-dimensional model of char bed reactivity developed under this project demonstrated that essentially all reactions in char beds occur on or near the surface, with the internal portions of the bed being essentially inert. The model predicted composition, temperature, and velocity profiles in the bed and showed that air jet penetration is limited to the immediate vicinity of the char bed, with minimal impact on most of the bed. The modeling efforts substantially exceeded the original scope of this project. 5. Near the completion of this project, DOE withdrew the BYU portion of a multiparty agreement to complete this and additional work with no advanced warning, which compromised the integration of all of this material into a commercial computer code. However, substantial computer simulations of much of this work were initiated, but not completed. 6. The gasification modeling is nearly completed but was aborted near its completion according to a DOE redirection of funds. This affected both this and the previous tasks.

Baxter, Larry L.

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

67

EIS-0039: Motor Gasoline Deregulation and the Gasoline Tilt  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Economic Regulatory Administration developed this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts, including social and economic impacts, that may result from either of two proposed regulatory changes: (1) the exemption of motor gasoline from the Department of Energy's Mandatory Petroleum Price and Allocation Regulations, and (2) the adoption of the gasoline tilt, a proposed regulation that would allow refiners to recover an additional amount of their total increased costs on gasoline.

68

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

world-best-practice-energy- intensity-values-selected-World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selectedof the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first-stage (when observed) and second-stage ignition delay times and of heat release rate. The experimental and computational results are used to gain insight into low and intermediate temperature processes during gasoline ignition.

Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Principal Investigator 13MY11 2011 DOE Vehicle Technologies Review Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle ACE064 "This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

71

Gasoline Biodesulfurization DE-FC07-97ID13570 FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nine strains were identified to grow with gasoline as sole sulfur source. Two different genes were cloned from Gordonia terrae KGB1 and tested for the ability to support gasoline BDS. The first of these, fmoA, was cloned by screening a KGB1 gene library for the ability to convert indole to indigo (a sulfur-regulated capability in KGB1). The fmoA gene was overexpressed in a gasoline tolerant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpG1 and the recombinant strain was shown to convert thiophene to a dimer of thiophene sulfoxide at rates nearly two orders of magnitude higher than KGB1 could catalyze the reaction. Despite this high activity the recombinant PpG1 was unable to demonstrate any activity against gasoline either in shake flask or in bench-scale gasoline BDS bioreactor. A second gene (toeA) was cloned from KGB1 and shown to support growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis JB55 on gasoline. The toeA gene was also identified in another gasoline strain T. wratislaviensis EMT4, and was identified as a homolog of dszA from R. erythropolis IGTS8. Expression of this gene in JB55 supported conversion of DBTO2 (the natural substrate for DszA) to HPBS, but activity against gasoline was low and BDS results were inconsistent. It appeared that activity was directed against C2- and C3-thiophenes. Efforts to increase gene expression by plasmid manipulation, by addition of flavin reductase genes, or by expression in PpG1 were unsuccessful. The DszC protein (DBT monooxygenase) from IGTS8 has very little activity against the sulfur compounds in gasoline, but a mutant enzyme with a substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 261 was shown to have an altered substrate range. This alteration resulted in increased activity against gasoline, with activity towards mainly C3- and C4-thiophenes and benzothiophene. A mutant library of dszB was constructed by RACHITT (W. C. Coco et al., DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes. 2001. Nature Biotech. 19:354-359) method of in vitro recombination. Methods for analysis were developed and a preliminary analysis of the library was performed. A preliminary gasoline process design was constructed and process economics were determined based upon assumptions made from experimental results. The projected cost of gasoline BDS was determined to be competitive with current competing technologies.

Pienkos, Philip T.

2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1986, the average retail gasoline price dropped from $1.17Figure 4 Average US Retail Gasoline Price (excluding taxes)of the average retail price of gasoline, with a 4.0 cent per

Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent Changes in State Gasoline Taxation: An Analysis ofMarch The excise tax on gasoline in New York is 8.0 centsis also a sales tax on gasoline which recently stood at 7.8

Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J Bradshaw, "SLate ’F~es’ Gasoline Tax So ~t Wdl Rise," TheVarlable-Rate State Gasoline Taxers Jeffrey Ang-Olson MartinVariable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes Jeffrey Ang-Olson

Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1986, the average retail gasoline price dropped from $I 17of the average retail price of gasoline, with a 4 oe per

Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

77

[98e]-Catalytic reforming of gasoline and diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is developing a fuel processor for converting liquid hydrocarbon fuels to a hydrogen-rich product suitable for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack. The processor uses an autothermal reformer to convert the feed to a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water with trace quantities of other components. The carbon monoxide in the product gas is then converted to carbon dioxide in water-gas shift and preferential oxidation reactors. Fuels that have been tested include standard and low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Iso-octane and n-hexadecane were also examined as surrogates for gasoline and diesel, respectively. Complete conversion of gasoline was achieved at 750 C in a microreactor over a novel catalyst developed at Argonne. Diesel fuel was completely converted at 850 C over this same catalyst. Product streams contained greater than 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis with iso-octane, gasoline, and n-hexadecane. For a diesel fuel, product streams contained >50% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis. The catalyst activity did not significantly decrease over >16 hours operation with the diesel fuel feed. Coke formation was not observed. The carbon monoxide fraction of the product gas could be reduced to as low as 1% on a dry, nitrogen-free basis when the water-gas shift reactors were used in tandem with the reformer.

Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

78

Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sulfur content is highly dependent upon coal type. In gen~ral, conventional coal cleaning does not effect sufficient sulfur reduction to permit combustion without! i additional flue gas desulfurization. Several novel technologies now under development..., or equilibrium limita tions requires that super stoichiometric quantities of CaO be charged to the boiler. Operationally the introduction of large amounts of calcium additive can pose increased problems due to slagging and fouling in the combustion chamber...

Schwartz, M. H.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Emissions Control...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines Presentation given by Oak Ridge National...

80

Oligomerize for better gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on normal butene containing isobutene-depleted C{sub 4} hydrocarbons like raffinate II which are oligomerized using the Octol process in the liquid phase on a heterogeneous catalyst system to yield mainly C{sub 8} and C{sub 12} olefins. Raffinate II, the spent C{sub 4} fraction of an MTBE unit, is an ideal feedstock for further n-butene processing because of its high olefin concentration ranging between 70% and 80%. By modifications of MTBE technology, implementation of selective hydrogenation for removal of residual butadiene and superfractionating raffinate II, polymer grade 1-butene can be produced. Until the mid-70s raffinate I, the team cracker C{sub 4} cut after butadiene extraction, was mainly burned or blended into gasoline. Now nearly all raffinate I is or will be consumed for the purpose of converting isobutylene to MTBE.

Nierlich, F. (Huls AG, Marl (DE))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Gasoline price spikes and regional gasoline context regulations : a structural approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since 1999, gasoline prices in California, Illinois and Wisconsin have spiked occasionally well above gasoline prices in nearby states. In May and June 2000, for example, gasoline prices in Chicago rose twenty eight cents ...

Muehlegger, Erich J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from among existing gasoline station locations in Sacra-VOC emitted at gasoline service stations, because these arethe gasoline terminal storage and refueling stations, it is

Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Edgeworth Price Cycles: Evidence from the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Johnson. “Gas Wars: Retail Gasoline Price Fluctua- tions”,Canadian cities, retail gasoline prices are very volatileset of twelve-hourly retail gasoline prices for 22 service

Noel, Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Retail Policies and Competition in the Gasoline Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wholesale gasoline prices and retail prices. It includes theTable 4 - Gasoline Price Components Year Retail Price TaxesSupply Lower Retail Gasoline Prices? ” Contemporary Economic

Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, Jim

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Essays on Automotive Lending, Gasoline Prices, & Automotive Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National average retail gasoline prices peaked at over $so that average retail gasoline prices can be employed. Myrapid run-up in retail gasoline prices in recent history.

Schulz-Mahlendorf, Wilko Ziggy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sold On Sale and Retail Gasoline Prices Log % Purchased Onhigher gasoline prices into retail prices, by investigatingexcluding California average retail gasoline price for all

Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sterner. 1991. Analysing gasoline demand elasticities: A2011. Measuring global gasoline and diesel price and incomeMutairi. 1995. Demand for gasoline in Kuwait: An empirical

Scott, K. Rebecca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cellto petroleum pathways with gasoline and diesel vehicles.simplicity, we use the term ‘‘gasoline pathway” to refer to

Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Effects of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reidof Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reidhigh demand for gasoline-hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)?

Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fraction of light-duty gasoline vehicle particulate matterQuinone emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles.32 organic compounds from gasoline- powered motor vehicles.

Jakober, Chris A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University. Espey, M. , 1998. "Gasoline Demand Revisited: AnRun Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand,” working paper.Elasticities of Demand for Gasoline in Canada and the United

Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Edgeworth Price Cycles: Evidence from the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robbery, An Analysis of the Gasoline Crisis”, Bloomington:Dynamic Pricing in Retail gasoline Markets”, RAND Journal ofR. Gilbert. “Do Gasoline Markets Respond Asymmetrically to

Noel, Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost gas instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil, a report said. Switching to liquefied natural who switch from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones fueled by compressed natural gas could save as much

94

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI)...

96

Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

valorem taxes to the retail gasoline price. These ad valoremwholesale and retail, unleaded gasoline price equations. Wegasoline, Journal of Economic Issues 9, 409-414. Table 1: Retail and Wholesale Reduced-Form Price

Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Household gasoline demand in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Continuing rapid growth in U.S. gasoline consumption threatens to exacerbate environmental and congestion problems. We use flexible semiparametric and nonparametric methods to guide analysis of household gasoline consumption, ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

High-resolution NMR process analyzer for oxygenates in gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a high-resolution 42-MHz[sup 1]HFT-NMR instrument that is suitable for use as a process analyzer and demonstrate its use in the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a flowing stream of gasoline. This spectrometer is based on a 55-kg permanent magnet with essentially no fringe field. A spectral resolution of 3 Hz was typically obtained for spinning samples, and this performance was only slightly degraded with flowing samples. We report a procedure for magnet drift compensation using a software procedure rather than a field-frequency lock channel. This procedure allowed signal averaging without loss of resolution. Regulatory changes to be implemented in the near future have created a need for the development of methods for the determination of MTBE and other oxygenates in reformulated gasolines. Existing methods employing gas chromatography are not fast enough for process control of a gasoline blender and suffer from other limitations. This study demonstrates that process analysis NMR is well-suited to the determination of MTBE in a simulated gasoline blender. The detection limit of 0.5 vol % MTBE was obtained with a measurement time of 1 min. The absolute standard deviation of independent determinations was 0.17% when the MTBE concentration was 10%, a nominal value. Preliminary results also suggest that the method may be applicable to gasolines containing mixtures of oxygenate additives as well as the measurement of aromatic and olefinic hydrogens. 33 refs., 9 figs.

Skloss, T.W.; Kim, A.J.; Haw, J.F. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

100

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulationand Wholesale Gasoline Prices,” Journal of Environmentaland Heterogeneity in U.S. Gasoline Prices,” Journal of

Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

MODEL-BASED FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR AN AUTOMATED TRANSFER OUT OF SI OPERATION DURING SI TO HCCI TRANSITIONS IN GASOLINE ENGINES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODEL-BASED FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR AN AUTOMATED TRANSFER OUT OF SI OPERATION DURING SI TO HCCI for the transition between spark ignition (SI) and homo- geneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion modes by approaching the transfer out of SI operation during the SI into HCCI transition in a closed-loop control

Stefanopoulou, Anna

103

Essays on gasoline price spikes, environmental regulation of gasoline content, and incentives for refinery operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since 1999, regional retail and wholesale gasoline markets in the United States have experienced significant price volatility, both intertemporally and across geographic markets. In particular, gasoline prices in California, ...

Muehlegger, Erich J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Remote Sensing of Ammonia and Sulfur Dioxide from On-Road Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) or directly through adsorbed nitrogen and hydrogen atoms (11, 12). Ammonia emissions from tunnel studies have mea- surements than all other data combined. Sulfur compounds in gasoline combust in the engine to help facilitate the stringent 2007 diesel engine emission requirements. These reductions

Denver, University of

105

Interaction blending equations enhance reformulated gasoline profitability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction approach to gasoline blending gives refiners an accurate, simple means of re-evaluating blending equations and increasing profitability. With reformulated gasoline specifications drawing near, a detailed description of this approach, in the context of reformulated gasoline is in order. Simple mathematics compute blending values from interaction equations and interaction coefficients between mixtures. A timely example of such interactions is: blending a mixture of catalytically cracked gasoline plus light straight run (LSR) from one tank with alkylate plus reformate from another. This paper discusses blending equations, using interactions, mixture interactions, other blending problems, and obtaining equations.

Snee, R.D. (Joiner Associates, Madison, WI (United States)); Morris, W.E.; Smith, W.E.

1994-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

106

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

in Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine technology in the near term as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost...

107

Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy Ashley Langer University evidence that automobile manufacturers set vehicle prices as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We consumer preferences for fuel efficiency. Keywords: automobile prices, gasoline prices, environmental

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

108

Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. , and James M. Gri¢ n. 1983. Gasoline demand in the OECDof dynamic demand for gasoline. Journal of Econometrics 77(An empirical analysis of gasoline demand in Denmark using

Scott, K. Rebecca

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Retail Policies and Competition in the Gasoline Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total Volume Table 4 - Gasoline Price Components Year RetailEvidence from Retail Gasoline Markets." Journal of Law,and Competition in the Gasoline Industry I. II. III. IV. V.

Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, Jim

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

World copper smelter sulfur balance-1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. The 37 US and foreign smelters represented roughly 73.2% of world and 89.3% of market economy primary copper production in 1988. The 29 non-US smelters attained 55.3% control of their input sulfur in 1988. Combined with the 90.4% control of US smelters, an aggregate 63.4% sulfur control existed. Roughly 1,951,100 mt of sulfur was emitted from the 37 market economy smelters in 1988. Identifiable SO[sub 2] control regulations covered 72.4% of the 29 foreign smelters, representing 65.5% of smelting capacity. Including US smelters, 78.4% of the major market economy smelters were regulated, representing 73.1% of smelting capacity. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

Towle, S.W. (Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (BillionTotal Consumption1,2372009From PeruSampling MethodologyGasoline

112

Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S.Feet)1,576 1,608Reformulated Gasoline

113

Gasoline prices decrease (Short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24, 2014GasolineShort

114

Gasoline prices decrease (long version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24,5, 2014 Gasoline prices

115

Gasoline prices decrease (long version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24,5, 2014 Gasoline

116

Gasoline prices decrease (short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24,5, 2014Gasoline prices

117

Gasoline prices decrease (short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24,5, 2014Gasoline

118

Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from...

119

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis,...

120

High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Poster presented at the 16th...

122

An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and...

123

Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

Not Available

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will...

125

Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods...

126

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

127

Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of...

128

In Vitro Genotoxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Materials In Vitro Genotoxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust Particulate...

129

3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI...

130

Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Supercritical dieseline could be...

131

Ethers have good gasoline-blending attributes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of their compatibility with hydrocarbon gasoline-blending components, their high octane blending values, and their low volatility blending values, ethers will grow in use as gasoline blending components. This article discusses the properties of ethers as blending components, and environmental questions.

Unzelman, G.H.

1989-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

132

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generation Power Sector CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) ExpandedSO2 Control Power Sector CO2 Emissions (Mt CO 2 ) Reference9 Figure ES-10 Total CO2 Emissions for Steel Production in

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

controls or integrated measures could simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutantcontrols or integrated measures that simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutantcontrols or integrated measures that are defined as simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutant

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 2006, China has set goals of reducing energy intensity, emissions, and pollutants in multiple guidelines and in the Five Year Plans. Various strategies and measures have then been taken to improve the energy efficiency in all sectors and to reduce pollutants. Since controlling energy, CO{sub 2} emissions, and pollutants falls under the jurisdiction of different government agencies in China, many strategies are being implemented to fulfill only one of these objectives. Co-controls or integrated measures could simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutant emissions. The targets could be met in a more cost effective manner if the integrated measures can be identified and prioritized. This report provides analysis and insights regarding how these targets could be met via co-control measures focusing on both CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions in the cement, iron &steel, and power sectors to 2030 in China. An integrated national energy and emission model was developed in order to establish a baseline scenario that was used to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and expected actions. In addition, CO{sub 2} mitigation scenarios and SO{sub 2} control scenarios were also established to evaluate the impact of each of the measures and the combined effects. In the power sector, although the end of pipe SO{sub 2} control technology such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has the largest reduction potential for SO{sub 2} emissions, other CO{sub 2} control options have important co-benefits in reducing SO{sub 2} emissions of 52.6 Mt of SO{sub 2} accumulatively. Coal efficiency improvements along with hydropower, renewable and nuclear capacity expansion will result in more than half of the SO{sub 2} emission reductions as the SO{sub 2} control technology through 2016. In comparison, the reduction from carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is much less and has negative SO{sub 2} reductions potential. The expanded biomass generation scenario does not have significant potential for reducing SO{sub 2} emissions, because of its limited availability. For the cement sector, the optimal co-control strategy includes accelerated adoption of energy efficiency measures, decreased use of clinker in cement production, increased use of alternative fuels, and fuel-switching to biomass. If desired, additional SO{sub 2} mitigation could be realized by more fully adopting SO{sub 2} abatement mitigation technology measures. The optimal co-control scenario results in annual SO{sub 2} emissions reductions in 2030 of 0.16 Mt SO{sub 2} and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reductions of 76 Mt CO{sub 2}. For the iron and steel sector, the optimal co-control strategy includes accelerated adoption of energy efficiency measures, increased share of electric arc furnace steel production, and reduced use of coal and increased use of natural gas in steel production. The strategy also assumes full implementation of sinter waste gas recycling and wet desulfurization. This strategy results in annual SO{sub 2} emissions reductions in 2030 of 1.3 Mt SO{sub 2} and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reductions of 173 Mt CO{sub 2}.

Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels. Surfaces of the wear scars and tracks were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and by Raman spectroscopy.

Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

136

An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

Grant, K E

2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

137

Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

externalities including local air pollution, global climate change, accidents, congestion, and dependence at reducing demand for gasoline or reducing pollution from automobiles. The latter could be addressed

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

138

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Evaluation Meeting June 7-10, 2010 Gurpreet Singh and Ken Howden Advanced Combustion Engine Program U.S. Department of Energy 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of...

139

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Lean Exhaust Emissions Reduction Simulations (CLEERS) * General Motors * Center for Nano-phase Material Science (CNMS): BES funded * Umicore: catalyst supplier * 2.3.1B: Lack...

140

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Edgeworth price cycles in retail gasoline markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this dissertation, I present three essays that are motivated by the interesting and dynamic price-setting behavior of firms in Canadian retail gasoline markets. In the first essay, I examine behavior at the market level ...

Noel, Michael David, 1971-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

144

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

145

The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3, 2009 Abstract Retail gasoline prices are known to respondspeed with which retail gasoline prices respond to wholesaleDeltas, George, “Retail Gasoline Price Dynamics and Local

Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

result in a target retail gasoline price of about $3.00 perAdministration, retail gasoline prices in Californiaprice, the expected retail gasoline price and consumption

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes, Pollution Regulations, Mergers, Market Power, and Market Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Information and Retail Gasoline Price Behavior: Anform wholesale and retail gasoline price equations usingfor some of the retail gasoline price dispersion within a

Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Behavior of Retail Gasoline Prices: Symmetric or Not? ”Adjustment of U.K. Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes. ”documented that retail gasoline prices respond more quickly

Lewis, Matt

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adjustment of U.K. Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes. ”The Behavior of Retail Gasoline Prices: Symmetric or Not? ”documented that retail gasoline prices respond more quickly

Lewis, Matt

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Lifecycle Cost and Energy-Use Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the gasoline-equivalent fuel retail price, excluding exciseprice is the full retail price of gasoline, including allon the retail cost and break-even gasoline price, because

Delucchi, Mark; Burke, Andy; Lipman, Timothy; Miller, Marshall

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-based Pricing and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Johnson. “Gas Wars: Retail Gasoline Price Fluctua- tions”,were collected on retail gasoline prices, wholesale (rack)ancillary information. Retail gasoline prices, RET AIL mt ,

Noel, Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

George. (2004) “Retail Gasoline Price Dynamics and Localof Information and Retail Gasoline Price Behavior: Andocumented that retail gasoline prices respond more quickly

Lewis, Matt

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Do Gasoline Prices Resond Asymmetrically to Cost Shocks? The Confounding Effect of Edgeworth Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atkinson, B . (2006) "Retail Gasoline Price Cycles: Evidenceof Adjustment of U K Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes"1993) "Gas Wars: Retail Gasoline Price Fluctuations", of and

Noel, Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Premium Gasoline Overbuying in the U.S.: Consumer-Based Choice Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1990), Economics gasoline pool octane of growth, U.S.sensitive to modest is gasoline price shifts. Theprimary1991b), Effect of gasoline octane quality on vehicle

Setiawan, Winardi; Sperling, Daniel

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market,” July 2005.OH. , “Temporary Wholesale Gasoline Price Spikes have Long-from the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market,” Journal of

Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Clearing the Air: The Clean Air Act, GATT and the WTO's Reformulated Gasoline Decision  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, 5 MwIN. J. GLOBALReformulated and Conventional Gasoline, 35 I.L.M. 274, 277 (regulations governing gasoline formulation to ensure that

McCrory, Martin A.; Richards, Eric L.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Emissions. 2. Volatile Organic Compound Speciation and Reactivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle EmissionsCalifornia Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle EmmissionsBerkeley Environ. ScLTechnoL gasoline Impact California of

Kirchstetter, Thomas; Singer, Brett; Harley, Robert

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Evidence of a Shift in the Short-Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Empirical-Analysis of Gasoline Demand in Denmark UsingT. (1991). "Analyzing Gasoline Demand Elasticities: AConsumer Adjustment to a Gasoline Tax." The Review of

Hughes, Jonathan; Knittel, Christopher R; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle Emissions. 1. Mass Emission Rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California reformulated gasoline on motor vehicle emissions.Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline OIl Motor Vehicleprogress, increased vehicle Gasoline Motor on Vehicle travel

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Do Gasoline Prices Resond Asymmetrically to Cost Shocks? The Confounding Effect of Edgeworth Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atkinson, B . (2006) "Retail Gasoline Price Cycles: EvidenceEvidence on Asymmetric Gasoline Price Re­ and Statistics "of Adjustment of U K Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes"

Noel, Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Development of a Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline Process for the Steam Hydrogasification Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M. ,   et   al. ,   Gasoline  conversion:  reactivity  al. ,   Methanol   to   gasoline   over   zeolite   H-­?of a Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline Process for the Steam

Li, Yang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Demand for gasoline is more price-inelastic than commonly thought  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Transportation and Gasoline Demand. ” Bell Journal ofA Semiparametric Analysis of Gasoline Demand in the Uniteda dynamic demand function for gasoline with di?erent schemes

Havranek, Tomas; Irsova, Zuzana; Janda, Karel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cellon Environmental Quality (TCEQ). Gasoline Vapor Recovery (Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel

Wang, Guihua

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 2004. Espey, M. “Gasoline Demand Revisited: AnRun Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand,” Energy Journal,114. Poterba, J. “Is the Gasoline Tax Regressive? ,” in D.

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Testfor the reÞning and distribution of gasoline and the whole-sale price of unbranded gasoline sold to independent

Gilbert, Richard; Hastings, Justine

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes, Pollution Regulations, Mergers, Market Power, and Market Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 2. A Reduced-Form Gasoline PriceThe Case of Retail Gasoline Markets,” The Journal of Law andof Organizational Form in Gasoline Retailing and the Costs

Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Testoligopoly, market power, gasoline Abstract: This paperand distribution of gasoline and the wholesale price of

Gilbert, Richard; Hastings, Justine

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Premium Gasoline Overbuying in the U.S.: Consumer-Based Choice Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1990), Economics gasoline pool octane of growth, U.S.sensitive to modest is gasoline price shifts. Theprimary1991b), Effect of gasoline octane quality on vehicle

Setiawan, Winardi; Sperling, Daniel

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-based Pricing and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robbery, An Analysis of the Gasoline Crisis”, Bloomington:Dynamic Pricing in Retail gasoline Markets”, RAND Journal ofR. Gilbert. “Do Gasoline Markets Respond Asymmetrically to

Noel, Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and R. Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asymmet-George. (2004) “Retail Gasoline Price Dynamics and LocalAsymmetries in Local Gasoline Markets” Energy Economics

Lewis, Matt

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Development of advanced, dry, SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} emission control technologies for high-sulfur coal. Final report, April 1, 1993--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dry Scrubbing is a common commercial process that has been limited to low- and medium-sulfur coal applications because high-sulfur coal requires more reagent than can be efficiently injected into the process. Babcock & Wilcox has made several advances that extend dry scrubbing technologies to higher sulfur coals by allowing deposit-free operation at low scrubber exit temperatures. This not only increases the amount of reagent that can be injected into the scrubber, but also increases SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced, dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions while burning high-sulfur coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. The use of these technologies by utilities in and around Ohio, on new or retrofit applications, will ensure the future of markets for high-sulfur coal by creating cost effective options to coal switching.

Amrhein, G.T.

1994-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

173

DSRP, direct sulfur production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to demonstrate on a bench-scale the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for up to 99 percent or higher recovery of sulfur (as elemental sulfur) from regeneration off-gases and coal-gas produced in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generating systems. Fundamental kinetic and thermodynamic studies will also be conducted to enable development of a model to predict DSRP performance in large-scale reactors and to shed light on the mechanism of DSRP reactions. The ultimate goal of the project is to advance the DSRP technology to the point where industry is willing to support its further development.

McMichael, W.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Jang, B.L.; Howe, G.B. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Chen, D.H.; Hopper, J.R. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

Shelton, E M

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

176

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

179

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities.shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.Habits and Uncertain Relative Prices: Simulating Petrol Con-

Scott, K. Rebecca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.A meta-analysis of the price elasticity of gasoline demand.2007. Consumer demand un- der price uncertainty: Empirical

Scott, K. Rebecca

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, 2000-2006 Figure I:Weekly Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices for 2001- 2006 Crudeargue that increases in oil prices may lead to recessions

Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Fact #835: August 25, Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

5: August 25, Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 Fact 835: August 25, Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 When adjusted for inflation,...

185

Fact #835: August 25, Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

5: August 25, Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 Fact 835: August 25, Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 When adjusted for inflation, the average annual...

186

Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline...

187

Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact 835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Excel file with...

188

Why Do Motor Gasoline Prices Vary Regionally? California Case Study  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Analysis of the difference between the retail gasoline prices in California and the average U.S. retail prices.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

National Survey of E85 and Gasoline Prices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Study compares the prices of E85 and regular gasoline nationally and regionally over time for one year.

Bergeron, P.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

NAFTA and gasoline: Canada, U. S. , Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The North American Free Trade Agreement has become a hotly debated topic all over the world, but especially in the countries involved: Mexico, United States, and Canada. Comments made by high ranking officials imply there are differences to reconcile before the agreement is passed. Toward seeing these countries in trio, this issue compares gasoline markets and some energy perspectives. The purpose of this article is to contribute to understanding of the three countries through their petroleum industry structure. Gasoline consumption and retail delivery infrastructure are compared and contrasted to illustrate the differences among the NAFTA countries.

Not Available

1993-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24, 2014 GasolineGasoline

192

Pollutant Emissions from Gasoline Combustion. 1. Dependence on Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pollutant Emissions from Gasoline Combustion. 1. Dependence on Fuel Structural Functionalities H O fractions of gasoline fuels, the Utah Surrogate Mechanisms is extended to include submecha- nisms of gasoline surrogate compounds using a set of mechanism generation techniques. The mechanism yields very good

Utah, University of

193

Author's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi Guangqing Chi a, , Arthur November 2010 Keywords: Gasoline prices Traffic crashes Traffic safety Age Gender Race Problem: Limited literature suggests that gasoline prices have substantial effects on reducing fatal crashes. However

Levinson, David M.

194

What Do Consumers Believe About Future Gasoline Soren T. Anderson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What Do Consumers Believe About Future Gasoline Prices? Soren T. Anderson Michigan State University of consumers about their expectations of future gasoline prices. Overall, we find that consumer beliefs follow a random walk, which we deem a reasonable forecast of gasoline prices, but we find a deviation from

Silver, Whendee

195

Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PWP-075 Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: Empirical Evidence from in Retail Gasoline Markets Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California Justine S, if any, of the differences in retail gasoline prices between markets is attributable to differences

California at Berkeley. University of

196

ISSN 1745-9648 Gasoline Prices Jump Up on Mondays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSN 1745-9648 Gasoline Prices Jump Up on Mondays: an Outcome of Aggressive Competition? by Ã?ystein Research Council is gratefully acknowledged. #12;Gasoline prices jump up on Mondays: An outcome, 2008 Abstract This paper examines Norwegian gasoline pump prices using daily station

Feigon, Brooke

197

Empirical Regularities of Asymmetric Pricing in the Gasoline Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Empirical Regularities of Asymmetric Pricing in the Gasoline Industry Marc Remer August 2, 2010 pricing in the retail gasoline industry, and also documents empirical regularities in the market. I find of asymmetric price movements in the retail gasoline industry. Yet, there is no general agreement as to whether

Niebur, Ernst

198

LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 (2014) 162-169" DOI : 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.07.015 #12;2 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES, Sweden Abstract The adiabatic laminar burning velocities of a commercial gasoline and of a model fuel (n

Boyer, Edmond

199

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 3, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 6, October--December, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

CLEARING THE AIR? THE EFFECTS OF GASOLINE CONTENT REGULATION ON AIR QUALITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)--are pollutants produced in part through human activity. Ozone control programs have targeted a wide array of VOCCLEARING THE AIR? THE EFFECTS OF GASOLINE CONTENT REGULATION ON AIR QUALITY Maximilian Auffhammer regulations on ground- level ozone pollution. These regulations are costly and have been shown to fragment

Edwards, Paul N.

204

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

205

Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

NONE

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

at Wayne State University May 18, 2012 Slide 13 2011 Sonata 6MT, 2.0L GDI Theta Turbo Technologies on Vehicle: EMS Control Algorithms Calibration GDi Pump ECM...

208

Sulfurized olefin lubricant additives and compositions containing same  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubricant additives having substantially improved extreme pressure characteristics are provided by modifying certain sulfurized olefins by reacting said olefins with a cyclic polydisulfide under controlled reaction conditions and at a temperature of at least about 130/sup 0/ C.

Braid, M.

1980-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

209

SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not recommended for treatment of wastes containing high concentrations of nitrates because of potentially dangerous reactions between sulfur, nitrate, and trace quantities of organics. Recently, the process has been adapted for the treatment of liquid elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil and debris.

KALB, P.

2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

210

Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

212

Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: An Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Behavior of Retail Gasoline Prices: Symmetric or Not? ”vertical contracts and retail gasoline prices. The thirdthe differences in retail gasoline prices between markets is

Hastings, Justine

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

New Vehicle Choice, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand', The Energy Journal2007) The Link Between Gasoline Prices and Vehicle Sales:Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax Elliot William Martin

Martin, Elliott William

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the composition of the gasoline inventory, and can beand exposure assessment for gasoline; Trent University:of Chemicals: A Case Study for Gasoline Hydrocarbons Matthew

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NJ. Koenig, R. , 1984. Gasoline alley: service stations area parametric analysis of US gasoline station networks. Inof innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and

Melaina, Marc W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

New Vehicle Choices, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and Gasoline Tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand', The Energy Journal2007) The Link Between Gasoline Prices and Vehicle Sales:Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax Elliot William Martin

Martin, Elliot William

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

The Extraction of Gasoline from Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the quantitative estimation of the condensable gasoline consti- tuents of so-called rtwetn natural gas» Three general lines of experimentation suggested themselves after a preliminary study of the problem. These were the separation of a liqui- fied sample... fractionation of a mixture of natural gases are, however, not available in the ordinary laboratory, so this method altho successful and accurate is hardly practical. Even after the fractionation of the gas has ^lebeau and Damiens in Chen. Abstr. 7, 1356...

Schroeder, J. P.

1914-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles. Environ.of four dilutions of diesel engine exhaust for a subchronicautomobiles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Environ. Sci.

Jakober, Chris A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

222

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 292 Energy...

223

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

224

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

225

Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

226

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

227

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

228

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

229

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

230

Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

231

Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

232

Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

233

Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

234

Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

- - - - 64.7 64.7 - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

235

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

- - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

236

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

237

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

238

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

239

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

240

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

242

Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace063smith2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel...

243

Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oak Ridge National Laboratory VW Scholar at the University of Tennessee Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Poster P-09 2010 DEER Directions...

244

Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to End...

245

Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine ParticulatesThrough...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Pre-commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Alla Zelenyuk, Paul Reitz, Mark Stewart Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Paul Loeper, Cory Adam,...

246

Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD...

247

Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Ernest Moniz today announced the creation of the first federal regional refined petroleum product reserve containing gasoline. Based on the Energy Department's lessons...

248

Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

249

Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

250

Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

251

High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

15 for retail gasoline stations and May 1 – September 15 forof one if retail gasoline stations in county c are requiredseason for retail gasoline distribution stations is June 1 -

Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Do Gasoline Prices Resond Asymmetrically to Cost Shocks? The Confounding Effect of Edgeworth Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

t as determined by gasoline stations is unlikely to beshows a map of all gasoline stations i n central and easterni n Figure 5: Toronto Gasoline Stations Canadian cents per

Noel, Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Evidence of a Shift in the Short-Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consumption and Real Retail Gasoline Price for January 19742006. FIGURE 2 Real Retail Gasoline Price for Two Periodsjt is the real retail price of gasoline in month j and year

Hughes, Jonathan; Knittel, Christopher R; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adjustment of U.K. Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes. ”C. and R. Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asym-Asymmetries in Local Gasoline Markets” Energy Economics

Lewis, Matt

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Lifecycle Cost and Energy-Use Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

147 Lifecycle cost (break-even gasoline price): base-casegrease. 37B part: Fuel Gasoline, for the conventional ICEVs.BTU-from-battery to mi/BTU-gasoline. C OST SUMMARY (F ORD T

Delucchi, Mark; Burke, Andy; Lipman, Timothy; Miller, Marshall

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adjustment of U.K. Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes. ”C. and R. Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asym-Asymmetries in Local Gasoline Markets” Energy Economics

Lewis, Matt

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed characterization of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed 19, 2012 (received for review July 22, 2012) Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles composition, mass distribu- tion, and organic aerosol formation potential of emissions from gasoline

Silver, Whendee

259

Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AT A SITE OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L.A T A SITE OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L.a site contaminated with gasoline. Although the high V O C

Fischer, M.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Impacts of Oxygenated Gasoline Use on California Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Addition of oxTgenates gasoline will not reduce ozone to (3)I. Y. remote sensing 1994 gasoline samples ranged from 0.7weight reported for liquid gasoline with an RVP Assoc. 1990,

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

SULFUR REDUCTION IN GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUELS BY EXTRACTION/ADSORPTION OF REFRACTORY DIBENZOTHIOPHENES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using the classical coordination compound, Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+}, they have prepared a metal complex with a 4,6-dimenthyldibenzothiophene ligand. The compound Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} also reacts with thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at room temperature. They have found that Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} removes over 50% of the DBT in simulated petroleum feedstocks by a biphasic extraction process. The extraction phase is readily generated by air-oxidation thereby completing a cyclic process that removes DBT from petroleum feedstocks.

Robert J. Angelici; Scott G. McKinley; Celedonio Alvarez

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

SULFUR REDUCTION IN GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUELS BY EXTRACTION/ADSORPTION OF REFRACTORY DIBENZOTHIOPHENES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refractory 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, which is difficult to remove from petroleum feedstocks, binds to the Ru in Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} by displacing the H{sub 2}O ligand. Thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) also react with Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} similarly. This binding ability of Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} has been used to remove over 50% of the DBT in simulated petroleum feedstocks by a biphasic extraction process. The extraction phase is readily regenerated by air-oxidation thereby completing a cyclic process that removes DBT from petroleum feedstocks. Solid phase extractants consisting of Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+}, CpRu(CO){sub 2}(BF{sub 4}), CpFe(CO){sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 8}){sup +} and AgX (where X = BF{sub 4}{sup -}, PF{sub 6}{sup -} or NO{sub 3}{sup -}) adsorbed on silica have also been used to remove DBT and 4,6-Me{sub 2}DBT from simulated petroleum feedstocks. The AgX/silica adsorbents remove 90% of the DBT and 4,6-Me{sub 2}DBT and can be regenerated and re-used for multiple extractions, which makes these adsorbents of potential industrial use for the removal of refractory dibenzothiophenes from petroleum feedstocks.

Robert J. Angelici

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY

264

Determination of a peak benzene exposure to consumers at typical self-service gasoline stations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. LITERATURE REVIEW Gasoline is a complex mixture of various volatile hydrocarbons blended with several additives depend1ng on the grade of gasoline desired. The goal in blending gasoline 1s to meet two criteria: l) improve antiknock performance, and 2.... This was due to differences in blending. Those identified hydrocarbons amounted to 98 percent, by weight, of the liquid gasoline sample. Benzene in Liquid Gasoline In 1928, Askey , reported that gasolines in West California 2 might contain as much as 17...

Carapezza, Ted

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

265

Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long version) ThelongGasoline

266

Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24, 2014 Gasoline prices

267

Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24, 2014 Gasoline

268

Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24, 2014Gasoline prices

269

Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24, 2014Gasoline prices4,

270

Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24, 2014Gasoline prices4,1,

271

Gasoline prices continue to rise (Short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24, 2014Gasoline prices4,1,

272

Gasoline prices continue to rise (long version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shown for(long24, 2014Gasoline

273

Gasoline prices inch down (long version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shownshort version) The U.S.shortGasoline

274

Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Includes gasoline, diesel, and electric. The following fourIncludes gasoline, diesel, and electric. In this study, weemissions from diesel-truck delivery and electric generation

Wang, Guihua

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

8 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008 Fact 858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest...

276

SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline Engines SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline Engines Presentation given at the...

277

Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation Christopher R. Knittel and Aaron Smith July 12, 2012 Abstract Ethanol made from corn comprises 10% of US gasoline, up from 3% in 2003-level blend mandates, and supported by direct subsidies such as the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit. Some

Rothman, Daniel

278

Use TAME and heavier ethers to improve gasoline properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Producing oxygenates from all potential FCC tertiary olefins is one of the most economic methods for reducing olefins and Reid vapor pressure (Rvp) in motor gasoline. MTBE production based on FCC isobutylene has reached a very high level. But the amount of MTBE from a refinery sidestream MTBE unit is insufficient for producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) and additional oxygenates must be purchased. The next phase will see conversion of isoamylenes in FCC light gasoline to TAME. Very little attention has been given to the heavier tertiary olefins present in the FCC light gasoline like tert-hexenes and heptenes. This route allows higher levels of oxygenates production, thereby lowering Rvp and the proportion of olefins in the gasoline pool and maximizing the use of FCC olefins. By using all the components produced by an FCC efficiently, many gasoline problems can be solved. Isobutene is converted to MTBE, C[sub 3]/C[sub 4] olefins are converted to alkylate and C[sub 5] tertiary olefins can be converted to TAME. All of these are preferred components for gasoline quality. By producing more oxygenates like MTBE, TAME and heavier ethers, a refinery can be self-sufficient in blending reformulated gasoline and no oxygenates need to be purchased. The technology for producing TAME and other ethers is described.

Ignatius, J.; Jaervelin, H.; Lindqvist, P. (Neste Engineering, Porvoo (Finland))

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Assessment of Summer 1997 motor gasoline price increase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline markets in 1996 and 1997 provided several spectacular examples of petroleum market dynamics. The first occurred in spring 1996, when tight markets, following a long winter of high demand, resulted in rising crude oil prices just when gasoline prices exhibit their normal spring rise ahead of the summer driving season. Rising crude oil prices again pushed gasoline prices up at the end of 1996, but a warm winter and growing supplies weakened world crude oil markets, pushing down crude oil and gasoline prices during spring 1997. The 1996 and 1997 spring markets provided good examples of how crude oil prices can move gasoline prices both up and down, regardless of the state of the gasoline market in the United States. Both of these spring events were covered in prior Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports. As the summer of 1997 was coming to a close, consumers experienced yet another surge in gasoline prices. Unlike the previous increase in spring 1996, crude oil was not a factor. The late summer 1997 price increase was brought about by the supply/demand fundamentals in the gasoline markets, rather than the crude oil markets. The nature of the summer 1997 gasoline price increase raised questions regarding production and imports. Given very strong demand in July and August, the seemingly limited supply response required examination. In addition, the price increase that occurred on the West Coast during late summer exhibited behavior different than the increase east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5 region needed additional analysis (Appendix A). This report is a study of this late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

NONE

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Sulfur meter for blending coal at Plant Monroe: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An on-line sulfur analyzer, installed at the Detroit Edison, Monroe Power station, was placed into service and evaluated for coal blending optimization to minimize the cost of complying with changing stack gas sulfur dioxide regulations. The project involved debugging the system which consisted of an /open quotes/as-fired/close quotes/ sampler and nuclear source sulfur analyzer. The system was initially plagued with mechanical and electronic problems ranging from coal flow pluggages to calibration drifts in the analyzer. Considerable efforts were successfully made to make the system reliable and accurate. On-line testing showed a major improvement in control of sulfur dioxide emission rates and fuel blending optimization equivalent to as much as $6 million in fuel costs at the time of the evaluation. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

Trentacosta, S.D.; Yurko, J.O.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.

Paixao, J.F. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Nascimento, I.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil) and Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)]. E-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, S.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Leite, M.B.L. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Carvalho, G.C. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Silveira, J.S.C. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Reboucas, M. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Matias, G.R.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Rodrigues, I.L.P. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple relationship between number and mass emissions was not observed. Data were collected on-road to compare weekday with weekend air quality around the Twin Cities area. This portion of the study resulted in the development of a method to apportion the Diesel and SI contribution to on-road aerosol.

Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

283

Draft regulatory analysis: notice of proposed rulemaking motor gasoline allocation revisions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Draft Regulatory Analysis is prepared for those proposed regulations which either may have a major impact on the general economy, individual industries, or geographic regions and levels of government, or may be significant in that they affect important DOE policy concerns and are the object of public interest. The problems and proposed solutions for the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Hearings on the Motor Gasoline Allocation Program are examined. The ERA's mandate for this program is set out in the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973. Under this Act, the President is empowered to enforce, at his discretion, price and allocation controls on petroleum and petroleum products, including gasoline, through September 30, 1981. The Act sets the following allocation goals: protect public health; maintain public services and agricultural operations; foster competition in the petroleum industry; distribute petroleum among industry sectors and US regions equitably; and minimize economic disruption and unnecessary interference wth market mechanisms.

None

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

MTBE growth limited despite lead phasedown in gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This month's legislated reduction of the allowable amount of lead additives in gasoline will increase demand strongly for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as an octane enhancer, but the economics of the refinery business and the likelihood of rapidly increasing high-octane gasoline imports probably will limit the size of the business in coming years. MTBE will be used to fill the octane gap now, but economics and imports of gasoline later on could hold down demand. The limited growth in sales of MTBE is discussed.

Storck, W.

1985-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Modeling intraurban price competition: an example of gasoline pricing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three interacting market models are considered as models for intraurban retail price variation for a single homogenous good, price-posted gasoline. Modifications include spatial markets instead of interacting economic sectors and supply functions independent of price levels in other markets. The final section discusses the results of fitting one of the models to gasoline data for the city of Sheffield during a period of intensifying price competition in the first quarter of 1982. It is concluded, with respect to gasoline price modeling, both independent and interacting market models exist but at different intraurban scales. 15 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Haining, R.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Gasoline: An adaptable implementation of TreeSPH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The key algorithms and features of the Gasoline code for parallel hydrodynamics with self-gravity are described. Gasoline is an extension of the efficient Pkdgrav parallel N-body code using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Accuracy measurements, performance analysis and tests of the code are presented. Recent successful Gasoline applications are summarized. These cover a diverse set of areas in astrophysics including galaxy clusters, galaxy formation and gas-giant planets. Future directions for gasdynamical simulations in astrophysics and code development strategies for tackling cutting edge problems are discussed.

Wadsley, J; Quinn, T; Wadsley, James; Stadel, Joachim; Quinn, Thomas

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Gasoline: An adaptable implementation of TreeSPH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The key algorithms and features of the Gasoline code for parallel hydrodynamics with self-gravity are described. Gasoline is an extension of the efficient Pkdgrav parallel N-body code using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Accuracy measurements, performance analysis and tests of the code are presented. Recent successful Gasoline applications are summarized. These cover a diverse set of areas in astrophysics including galaxy clusters, galaxy formation and gas-giant planets. Future directions for gasdynamical simulations in astrophysics and code development strategies for tackling cutting edge problems are discussed.

James Wadsley; Joachim Stadel; Thomas Quinn

2003-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

288

Health risks associated with exposure to gasoline additives-methyl tertiary butyl ether [MTBE]. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, Special Hearing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This hearing focuses on an Alaskan study by the Centers for Disease Control which examines possible health risks associated with exposure to gasoline additive know as MTBE. Testimony is given by Dr. William Roper, Director, CDC.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic Dilute sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Biofuels Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dacotah switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.% at 140, 160, and 180 °C and with 1

California at Riverside, University of

290

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer in the thermochemical conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid for the large-scale production of hydrogen, 2009. Published May 19, 2009. The hybrid sulfur process is being investigated as an efficient way

Weidner, John W.

291

Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

292

Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A joint research effort is being conducted on ways to produce cost-effective pulping catalysts from lignin. This project addresses improving selectivities and reducing the levels of sulfur chemicals used in pulping. Improved selectivity means...

Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

293

Sulfur minimization in bacterial leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of sewage biosolids in Ontario in 1989 was estimated to be 7 million m{sup 3} of wet sludge per year. Of this amount, land application accounts for between 20 and 30% of the total. Unfortunately, the use of sewage biosolids on agricultural land is often prohibited because of heavy metal contamination of the biosolids. High cost and operational problems have made chemical methods of metal extraction unattractive. Consequently, microbiological methods of leaching of heavy metals have been studied for over a decade. A relatively simple microbiological process has been investigated in recent years in flask level experiments and recently in a semicontinuous system. The process exploits nonacidophilic and acidophilic indigenous thiobacilli to extract heavy metals from sewage biosolids. These thiobacilli use elemental sulfur as the energy source, producing sulfuric acid. However, the resulting decontaminated biosolids can cause environmental problems like acidification of the soil, when acid is generated from the residual sulfur in the biosolids. The present study examines the possibility of reducing the amount of sulfur added in batch and semicontinuous bacterial leaching systems, and maximizing sulfur oxidation efficiency, thereby reducing the residual sulfur in leached biosolids.

Seth, R.; Prasad, D.; Henry, J.G. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Small Car Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: ATP-LD; Cummins Next Generation Tier 2 Bin 2 Diesel Engine...

295

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

296

Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

- - 466.1 466.1 See footnotes at end of table. 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State 356 Energy Information...

297

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

298

Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

- - 532.1 532.1 See footnotes at end of table. 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State 356 Energy Information...

299

Determination of methyl tert. butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A GLC-acid extraction method is described for the determination of MTBE in gasolines. The method consists of a programmed GLC analysis starting at about room temperature conducted before and after extraction with cold 85% phosphoric acid. This treatment results in the preferential solubility of ethers and other oxygenated compounds while minimizing the reaction of olefins and aromatics which may be present in the gasolines. Plotting various known concentrations of MTBE in gasolines against the concentrations determined in the same samples by the authors methodology results in a straight line relationship. The concentration of MTBE in any sample of gasoline may thus be determined using their GLC-extraction procedure and the calibration line. The analysis can accommodate a wide choice of standard GLC columns and programs. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Feldman, J.; Orchin, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Enabling and Expanding HCCI in PFI Gasoline Engines with High...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Enabling and Expanding HCCI in PFI Gasoline Engines with High EGR and Spark Assist Robert M. Wagner, K. Dean Edwards, C. Stuart Daw, Johney B. Green Jr., Bruce G. Bunting Fuels,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

High compression ratio turbo gasoline engine operation using alcohol enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gasoline - ethanol blends were explored as a strategy to mitigate engine knock, a phenomena in spark ignition engine combustion when a portion of the end gas is compressed to the point of spontaneous auto-ignition. This ...

Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

99.2 - 105.3 See footnotes at end of table. 56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD...

303

Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

66.6 - 72.3 See footnotes at end of table. 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD...

304

Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

133.6 - 276.4 See footnotes at end of table. 220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

305

Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

201.3 - 453.3 See footnotes at end of table. 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

306

Gasoline Prices, Fuel Economy, and the Energy Paradox  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is often asserted that consumers purchasing automobiles or other goods and services underweight the costs of gasoline or other "add-ons." We test this hypothesis in the US automobile market by examining the effects of ...

Wozny, Nathan

307

Gasoline-like fuel effects on advanced combustion regimes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Gasoline-like fuel effects on advanced combustion regimes Project ID FT008 2011 U.S. DOE Hydrogen and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation May...

308

Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.

Scott, K. Rebecca

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.

Scott, K. Rebecca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Restructuring: The Changing Face of Motor Gasoline Marketing  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report reviews the U.S. motor gasoline marketing industry during the period 1990 to 1999, focusing on changes that occurred during the period. The report incorporates financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS), motor gasoline outlet counts collected by the National Petroleum News from the states, and U.S. Census Bureau salary and employment data published in County Business Patterns.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Gasoline Engine Economy as Affected by the Time of Ignition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection Gasoline Engine Economy as Affected by the Time of Ignition 1907 by George Jay Hopkins This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff... in the KU Libraries’ Center for Digital Scholarship. http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Submitted to the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science GASOLINE ENCUNE ECONOMY as Affected W the Time...

Hopkins, George Jay

1907-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Combustion behavior of gasoline and gasoline/ethanol blends in a modern direct-injection 4-cylinder engine.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Early in 2007 President Bush announced in his State of the Union Address a plan to off-set 20% of gasoline with alternative fuels in the next ten years. Ethanol, due to its excellent fuel properties for example, high octane number, renewable character, etc., appears to be a favorable alternative fuel from an engine perspective. Replacing gasoline with ethanol without any additional measures results in unacceptable disadvantages mainly in terms of vehicle range.

Wallner, T.; Miers, S. A. (Energy Systems)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economy of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.

None

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

314

World copper smelter sulfur balance, 1988. (Information circular, 1993). Information circular/1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

Towle, S.W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Draft final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized-coal utility boilers using medium- to high-sulfur US coal. The prototype SCR facility, built in and around the ductwork of Plant Crist Unit 5, consisted of three large SCR reactor units (Reactors A, B, and C), each with a design capacity of 5,000 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of flue gas, and six smaller reactors (Reactors D through J), each with a design capacity of 400 scfm of flue gas. The three large reactors contained commercially available SCR catalysts as offered by SCR catalyst suppliers. These reactors were coupled with small-scale air preheaters to evaluate (1) the long-term effects of SCR reaction chemistry on air preheater deposit formation and (2) the impact of these deposits on the performance of air preheaters. The small reactors were used to test additional varieties of commercially available catalysts. The demonstration project was organized into three phases: (1) Permitting, Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) Preparation, and Preliminary Engineering; (2) Detail Design Engineering and Construction; and (3) Operation, Testing, Disposition, and Final Report Preparation. Section 2 discusses the planned and actual EMP monitoring for gaseous, aqueous, and solid streams over the course of the SCR demonstration project; Section 3 summarizes sampling and analytical methods and discusses exceptions from the methods specified in the EMP; Section 4 presents and discusses the gas stream monitoring results; Section 5 presents and discusses the aqueous stream monitoring results; Section 6 presents and discusses the solid stream monitoring results; Section 7 discusses EMP-related quality assurance/quality control activities performed during the demonstration project; Section 8 summarizes compliance monitoring reporting activities; and Section 9 presents conclusions based on the EMP monitoring results.

NONE

1996-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

319

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

matter from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles.D.H. , Chase, R.E. , 1999b. Gasoline vehicle particle sizeFactors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

Ban-Weiss, George A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: An Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Margaret E. “Vancouver's Gasoline-Price Wars: An EmpiricalEvidence from Retail Gasoline Markets” Journal of Law,The Case of Retail Gasoline Markets” Journal of Law and

Hastings, Justine

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life. Molecular Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long...

322

Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated Bacterial Phyla. Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated Bacterial Phyla....

323

Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

Moore, William E. (Manassas, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships Abstract Many consumers are keenly aware, by contrast, we investigate how gasoline prices affect the automobile industry: manufacturers and dealerships

Rothman, Daniel

325

Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compressio...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High...

326

Fact #584: August 17, 2009 The Price of Gasoline and Vehicle...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

4: August 17, 2009 The Price of Gasoline and Vehicle Travel: How Do They Relate? Fact 584: August 17, 2009 The Price of Gasoline and Vehicle Travel: How Do They Relate? The price...

327

Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over PdZnOAl2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over PdZnOAl2O3 and ZSM-5...

328

Evidence of a Shift in the Short-Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

demand shocks. Since gasoline demand and oil price areto gasoline demand shocks. In Venezuela, a strike by oildemand is likely correlated with the prices of other refinery outputs via the price of oil.

Hughes, Jonathan; Knittel, Christopher R; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

Anderson, E.V.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE: ECMConstructionApplications | Department ofDepartment

332

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE: ECMConstructionApplications | Department ofDepartment1

333

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE: ECMConstructionApplications | Department ofDepartment10

334

Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith Beardshear Hall, (515) 294-7612." #12;1 Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious and Aaron Smith attack the paper "The Impact of Ethanol Production on US and Regional Gasoline Markets

Rothman, Daniel

335

Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices Ahmed distributed lags (NARDL) mod- el to examine the pass-through of crude oil prices into gasoline and natural gas the possibility to quantify the respective responses of gasoline and natural gas prices to positive and negative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

ATOC/CHEM 5151 Problem 9 Combustion of Gasoline and Conservation of Mass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATOC/CHEM 5151 ­ Problem 9 Combustion of Gasoline and Conservation of Mass Answers will be posted Thursday, September 18, 2014 Gasoline is composed of a variety of hydrocarbons with 4 to 12 carbon atoms (e for the complete combustion of gasoline: _C8H18 + _O2 _CO2 + _H2O 1. Balance the equation (i.e., find

Toohey, Darin W.

337

The Origins of US Transportation Policy: Was There Ever Support for Gasoline Taxes?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Origins of US Transportation Policy: Was There Ever Support for Gasoline Taxes? Christopher R consumption. Missing from these policies were taxes on either oil or gasoline, prompting a long economics press. In doing so, I pay particular attention to whether gasoline taxes were "on the table," as well

Rothman, Daniel

338

Modeling of Air-Fuel Ratio Dynamics of Gasoline Combustion Engine with ARX Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DS-06-1351 Modeling of Air-Fuel Ratio Dynamics of Gasoline Combustion Engine with ARX Network Tomás dynamics of gasoline engines during transient operation. With a collection of input-output data measured;Modeling of Air-Fuel Ratio Dynamics of Gasoline Combustion Engine with ARX Network I. INTRODUCTION

Johansen, Tor Arne

339

CARS, GAS, AND POLLUTION POLICIES Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARS, GAS, AND POLLUTION POLICIES Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Gasoline Taxes, reduc- ing automobile-related gasoline consumption has become a major U.S. public policy issue. Recently, many analysts have called for new or more stringent policies to discourage gasoline consumption

Boyer, Edmond

340

The producer surplus associated with gasoline fuel use in the United States1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The producer surplus associated with gasoline fuel use in the United States1 Yongling Sun, Mark A. This paper estimates the producer surplus associated with changes in gasoline fuel use in the United States that affect oil use and oil imports to the US, and (2) comparing the actual average cost of gasoline

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PWP-084 Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs Justine-5180 www.ucei.org #12;Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs gasoline prices. The 1997 acquisition of Unocal's West Coast refining and marketing assets by Tosco

California at Berkeley. University of

342

Energy Policy 29 (2001) 11331143 Ethanol as a lead replacement: phasing out leaded gasoline in Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Policy 29 (2001) 1133­1143 Ethanol as a lead replacement: phasing out leaded gasoline cost of lead additives and of gasoline, and the falling cost of ethanol and sugarcane, have created sugarcane is produced in Africa to replace all the lead used in African gasoline; this would require Africa

Thomas, Valerie

343

Stranded Vehicles: How Gasoline Taxes Change the Value of Households' Vehicle Assets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stranded Vehicles: How Gasoline Taxes Change the Value of Households' Vehicle Assets Meghan Busse pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels. Argu- ments against energy taxes, and gasoline taxes more incidence of the tax. We study the effect of a gasoline tax using changes in vehicle values. We construct

Rothman, Daniel

344

he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert- butyl, the September 15, 1999, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (1) states that between 5 with large releases (e.g., LUFTs). Unprecedented growth in use Use of MTBE as a gasoline additive began

345

Multiscale Strategic Planning Model for the Design of Integrated Ethanol and Gasoline Supply Chain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Multiscale Strategic Planning Model for the Design of Integrated Ethanol and Gasoline Supply address the design and planning of an integrated ethanol and gasoline supply chain. We assume, distribution centers where blending takes place, and the retail gas stations where different blends of gasoline

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

346

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 14171423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 1417­1423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7 � 108 cm�3

Yu, Fangqun

347

Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Chris A. Jakober, 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles 1 Chris A0205CH11231. LBNL752E #12;Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles 1Chris A DATE * mjkleeman@ucdavis.edu, (530)-752-8386 ABSTRACT Carbonyls from gasoline powered light

348

Gasoline accounts for about half the U.S. consumption of petroleum products, and its  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 Gasoline accounts for about half the U.S. consumption of petroleum products, and its price is the most visible among these products. As such, changes in gasoline prices are always under public scrutiny. Many claim to observe an asymmetric relationship between gasoline and oil prices -- specifically

349

Automakers' Short-Run Responses to Changing Gasoline Prices and the Implications for Energy Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automakers' Short-Run Responses to Changing Gasoline Prices and the Implications for Energy Policy as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We estimate a selection-corrected regression equation and exploit operating costs between vehicles. Keywords: automobile prices, gasoline prices, environmental policy JEL

Edwards, Paul N.

350

The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety: a time geography explanation Guangqing Chi a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety: a time geography explanation Guangqing Chi, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Time geography Gasoline prices Traffic safety Traffic crashes Fatal crashes Space­time path a b s t r a c t The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic

Levinson, David M.

351

Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 19982007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 1998 February 2012 Received in revised form 3 May 2013 Accepted 24 May 2013 Keywords: Gasoline prices Traffic examines the role of gasoline prices in the occurrence of traffic crashes. However, no studies have

Levinson, David M.

352

forthcoming in Economic Letters Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

forthcoming in Economic Letters Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes Hayley Chouinarda, Berkeley, and member of the Giannini Foundation. Abstract The federal specific gasoline tax falls equally incidence of state taxes is greater in states that use relatively little gasoline. Author Keywords: Taxes

Perloff, Jeffrey M.

353

Study of Brazilian Gasoline Quality Using Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) Spectroscopy and Chemometrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study of Brazilian Gasoline Quality Using Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) Spectroscopy The identification of gasoline adulteration by organic solvents is not an easy task, because compounds that constitute the solvents are already in gasoline composition. In this work, the use of hydrogen nuclear

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

354

Sulfur gas geochemical detection of hydrothermal systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a system of exploration using sulfur gases was capable of detecting convecting hydrothermal systems. Three surveying techniques were used at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA in Utah. These were (a) a sniffing technique, capable of instantaneous determinations of sulfur gas concentration, (b) an accumulator technique, capable of integrating the sulfur gas emanations over a 30 day interval, and (c) a method of analyzing the soils for vaporous sulfur compounds. Because of limitations in the sniffer technique, only a limited amount of surveying was done with this method. The accumulator and soil sampling techniques were conducted on a 1000 foot grid at Roosevelt Hot Springs, and each sample site was visited three times during the spring of 1980. Thus, three soil samples and two accumulator samples were collected at each site. The results are shown as averages of three soil and two accumulator determinations of sulfur gas concentrations at each site. Soil surveys and accumulator surveys were conducted at two additional KGRA's which were chosen based on the state of knowledge of these hydrothermal systems and upon their differences from Roosevelt Hot Springs in an effort to show that the exploration methods would be effective in detecting geothermal reservoirs in general. The results at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah show that each of the three surveying methods was capable of detecting sulfur gas anomalies which can be interpreted to be related to the source at depth, based on resistivity mapping of that source, and also correlatable with major structural features of the area which are thought to be controlling the geometry of the geothermal reservoir. The results of the surveys at Roosevelt did not indicate that either the soil sampling technique or the accumulator technique was superior to the other.

Rouse, G.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ºC to ~750 ºC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

358

An independent refiner`s approach to reformulated gasolines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Included in this paper are brief reviews of Ashland Petroleum Company`s renewable oxygenate (ethanol) usage, the latest CAA oxygenate supply and demand forecasts, oxygenated fuel and reformulated blending economics, some very brief comments on the EPA proposed renewable oxygenate standard (ROS), and Ashland`s approach to reformulated gasolines (RFG).

Czeskleba, H.M. [Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; McBride, Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Timothy L [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Raleigh, North Carolina; Hilliard, Michael R [ORNL; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M [University of Minnesota

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

61.5 70.8 92.7 90.7 81.5 72.8 - 78.0 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

62.6 71.7 92.3 89.9 82.6 72.7 - 78.2 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

362

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

363

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

364

Evaluating nonmetallic materials` compatibility with MTBE and MTBE + gasoline service  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) has become the leading oxygenate in use in the petroleum industry. Since its introduction several years ago there has been premature deterioration of nonmetallic materials in both neat MTBE and MTBE + gasoline. This degradation is costly in several ways: maintenance, replacement, environmental, and product-loss. Identifying nonmetallic materials compatible with MTBE and MTBE + gasoline is important to the petroleum industry -- all the way from the refinery to the retail sale. Exposure tests have been conducted with different types of nonmetallics in neat MTBE, neat MTBE vapor, and 5% MTBE + 95% gasoline. As in previously reported tests, Teflon{reg_sign} laminates were the top performers, experiencing very little change in any of the properties tested. An ester and ether-based urethane laminate also exhibited only small property changes. Most materials displayed significant deterioration of one or more of the measured properties, even in MTBE condensing vapor and the 5% MTBE + 95% gasoline. The specific effects on each material need to be individually evaluated to determine the effect on service life.

Hotaling, A.C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Analysis of leaded and unleaded gasoline pricing. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the evaluation of the cost price relation between the two fuels. The original scope of work identified three separate categories of effort: Gather and organize available data on the wholesale and retail prices of gasoline at a national level for the past 5 years. Using the data collected in Subtask 1, develop models of pricing practices that aid in explaining retail markups and price differentials for different types and grades of gasoline at different retail outlets in the current gasoline market. Using the data from Subtask 1 and the analysis framework from Subtask 2, analyze the likely range of future retail markups and price differentials for different grades of leaded and unleaded gasoline. The report is organized in a format that is different than suggested by the subtasks outlined above. The first section provides a characterization of the problem - data available to quantify cost and price of the fuels as well as issues that directly affect this relationship. The second section provides a discussion of issues likely to affect this relation in the future. The third section postulates a model that can be used to quantify the relation between fuels, octane levels, costs and prices.

Not Available

1985-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This second quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. This report describes testing using the laboratory apparatus but operated at the pilot plant using the actual pilot plant gas, which contains far more contaminants than can be simulated in the laboratory. The results are very encouraging, with stable and efficient operation being obtained for a prolonged period of time.

Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

369

Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008 – Dataset  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Excel file with dataset for Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008

370

Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 Phase 2 2 3 HCCI MCE October 16, 2012 Slide 16 2011 Sonata 6MT, 2.0L GDi Theta Turbo Technologies on Vehicle: EMS Control Algorithms Calibration GDi Pump ECM...

372

Natural Gas Processing Plant- Sulfur (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This regulation establishes sulfur emission standards for natural gas processing plants. Standards are stated for both existing and new plants. There are also rules for stack height requirements,...

373

Sulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal II: Sulfur forms and mercury uptake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

promote the formation of organic sulfur and the presence of H2S during the cooling process increased in the presence of H2S was very effective towards Hg uptake in nitrogen. Corre- lation of mercury uptake capacitySulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal ­ II: Sulfur forms and mercury

Borguet, Eric

374

December 2002 Issue #13 2002 SULFUR RESPONSES AND THE WISCONSIN ALFALFA SULFUR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

December 2002 Issue #13 ­ 2002 SULFUR RESPONSES AND THE WISCONSIN ALFALFA SULFUR SURVEY 1/ K response of alfalfa in the final 2 years of a 4-year experiment at Arlington on a 3.8% organic matter soil better identification of sulfur need and improved S management on Wisconsin alfalfa. Question #1

Balser, Teri C.

375

Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur budget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes, volca- noes) or produced within the atmosphere by oxidation of re- duced sulfur speciesTransition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur importance of sulfate production by Fe(III)- and Mn(II)-catalyzed oxidation of S(IV) by O2. We scale

Alexander, Becky

376

Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

377

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S., LLNL

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Toward Understanding the Effect of Low-Activity Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis). If the amount of sulfur exceeds its tolerance level a molten salt will accumulate and upset melter operations and potentially shorten melter useful life. Therefore relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed which in-turn significantly impacts the amount of glass that will be produced, in particular at the Hanford site. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 312 individual glass compositions. This model was shown to well represent the data, accounting for over 80% of the variation in data and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed based on 19 scaled melter tests. The model is appropriate for control of waste glass processing which includes uncertainty quantification. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5 ? TiO2 < CaO < P2O5 ? ZnO. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > SiO2 ? ZrO2 > Al2O3.

Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Kruger, Albert A.

2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

380

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

382

Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds Accelerated by Evaporation of Water from Secondary Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds...

383

Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Sulfur by-product formation in the Stretford process. Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid redox sulfur recovery processes remove H2S from sour gas streams and produce elemental sulfur for sale or disposal. The Stretford Process is one of the oldest commercial liquid redox processes and it is based on a vanadium and anthraquinone redox system. Improvements in the operability and reliability of the Stretford process would be beneficial to the process user. The report presents results of research focused on developing an understanding of the process parameters and factors that impact sulfur by-product formation (e.g., sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfate) in the Stretford process. The information in the report can help current Stretford plant process users better understand the operations of their plants, especially with regards to sulfur by-product formation and control strategies.

Trofe, T.W.; DeBerry, D.W.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

A new blending agent and its effects on methanol-gasoline fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major difficulty encountered with the use of methanol-gasoline blends as SI engine fuel is their tendency to phase separation due to the hydrophilic properties of methanol. Phase separation can lead to some utilization problems. Using a blending agent for the methanol-gasoline system is the common approach taken towards solving the phase separation problem. In this study introduces fraction of molasses fuel oil as an effective new blending agent for methanol-gasoline fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries. 3 figs.

Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

387

The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Columbus, OH. , “Temporary Wholesale Gasoline Price Spikesrespond fairly slowly to wholesale price changes. This doesand asymmetrically to wholesale costs, with cost increases

Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

389

Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

table. 56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

390

Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

391

Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

392

Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

table. 56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

393

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

394

Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

table. 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

395

Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Year Month...

396

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

397

Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

398

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

399

Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Anthony, Brian W. (Clearfield, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Ford Motor Companyh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Higher prices or gasoline lines loom if Iran-Iraq war lasts into spring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Policies for dealing with the gasoline shortage caused by the Iran-Iraq war are predicted. Options for allocations of existing supplies are discussed. (PSB)

Madison, C.

1981-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

402

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize a portion of the inlet H{sub 2}S. Oxidation catalysts may also produce some elemental sulfur under these conditions, which can be removed and recovered prior to the CrystaSulf absorber. The CrystaSulf-DO process can utilize direct oxidation catalyst from many sources. Numerous direct oxidation catalysts are available from many suppliers worldwide. They have been used for H{sub 2}S oxidation to sulfur and/or SO{sub 2} for decades. It was believed at the outset of the project that TDA Research, Inc., a subcontractor, could develop a direct oxidation catalyst that would offer advantages over other commercially available catalysts for this CrystaSulf-DO process application. This project involved the development of several of TDA's candidate proprietary direct oxidation catalysts through laboratory bench-scale testing. These catalysts were shown to be effective for conversion of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} and to elemental sulfur under certain operating conditions. One of these catalysts was subsequently tested on a commercial gas stream in a bench-scale reactor at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas with good results. However, commercial developments have precluded the use of TDA catalysts in the CrystaSulf-DO process. Nonetheless, this project has advanced direct oxidation catalyst technology for H{sub 2}S control in energy industries and led to several viable paths to commercialization. TDA is commercializing the use of its direct oxidation catalyst technology in conjunction with the SulfaTreat{reg_sign} solid scavenger for natural gas applications and in conjunction with ConocoPhillips and DOE for gasification applications using ConocoPhillips gasification technology. CrystaTech is commercializing its CrystaSulf-DO process in conjunction with Gas Technology Institute for natural gas applications (using direct oxidation catalysts from other commercial sources) and in conjunction with ChevronTexaco and DOE for gasification applications using ChevronTexaco's gasification technology.

Dennis Dalrymple

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

404

Sulfur dioxide emissions from primary nonferrous smelters in the Western United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The greatest source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the West has been the pyrometallurgical processing of copper, lead, and zinc ores. Until the early 1970s, the emissions from most nonferrous metal smelters were released without control into the environment. However, recent Federal and State legislation has mandated the need for large reductions of emissions, a task that will require the introduction of highly efficient sulfur dioxide control technology. The particular processes at each smelter, the smelter location, the capital and operating costs including the cost of energy, the resolution of currently litigated issues, and the metal market prices will be major influences on the choice of technology and on the schedule for implementation of smelter control plans. These parameters are examined, and the problems and issues associated with them are described. The future impact of smelter sulfur dioxide emissions is discussed within the framework of the relevant economic, technologial, and legal issues.

Mangeng, C.; Mead, R.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

How to Obtain Reproducible Results for Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic requirements for getting reliable Li-S battery data have been discussed in this work. Unlike Li-ion batteries, electrolyte-rich environment significantly affects the cycling stability of Li-S batteries prepared and tested under the same conditions. The reason has been assigned to the different concentrations of polysulfide-containing electrolytes in the cells, which have profound influences on both sulfur cathode and lithium anode. At optimized S/E ratio of 50 g L-1, a good balance among electrolyte viscosity, wetting ability, diffusion rate dissolved polysulfide and nucleation/growth of short-chain Li2S/Li2S2 has been built along with largely reduced contamination on the lithium anode side. Accordingly, good cyclability, high reversible capacity and Coulombic efficiency are achieved in Li-S cell with controlled S/E ratio without any additive. Other factors such as sulfur content in the composite and sulfur loading on the electrode also need careful concern in Li-S system in order to generate reproducible results and gauge the various methods used to improve Li-S battery technology.

Zheng, Jianming; Lu, Dongping; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Quantifying Individual Potential Contributions of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transport to the anode influences the concentration of the sulfuric acid produced. The resulting sulfuric loss is the diffusion of SO2 through the sulfuric acid to the catalyst site. Here, we extend our and correlated the operating potential to the sulfuric acid concentration produced at the anode.15-17 We have

Weidner, John W.

407

U.S. Gasoline Price Continues to Increase (Short version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sector Transportation EnergyGlossary API gravity:Gasoline

408

U.S. gasoline price continues to increase (short version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sector Transportationdiesel fueldieselU.S.3, 2015 U.S.gasoline

409

U.S. gasoline price continues to increase (short version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sector Transportationdiesel fueldieselU.S.3, 2015gasoline

410

U.S. gasoline prices decreased (long version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sectorlong version) The U.S. averagelong, 2013 U.S. gasoline

411

U.S. gasoline prices show little movement (long version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sectorlong version) The U.S.1, 2014 U.S. gasoline prices

412

U.S. gasoline prices show little movement (long version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sectorlong version) The U.S.1, 2014 U.S. gasoline pricesAugust

413

U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sectorlong version) The U.S.1, 2014 U.S. gasoline

414

U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sectorlong version) The U.S.1, 2014 U.S.gasoline prices

415

Developing an accelerated aging system for gasoline particulate filters and an evaluation test for effects on engine performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stringent regulations worldwide will limit the level of particulate matter (PM) emitted from gasoline engines equipped with direct fuel injection. Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) present one strategy for meeting PM ...

Jorgensen, James E. (James Eastman)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Definition of Non-Conventional Sulfur Utilization in Western Kazakhstan for Sulfur Concrete (Phase 1)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Battelle received a contract from Agip-KCO, on behalf a consortium of international oil and gas companies with exploration rights in the North Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan. The objective of the work was to identify and help develop new techniques for sulfur concrete products from waste, by-product sulfur that will be generated in large quantitites as drilling operations begin in the near future. BNL has significant expertise in the development and use of sulfur concrete products and has direct experience collaborating with the Russian and Kazakh partners that participated. Feasibility testing was successfully conducted for a new process to produce cost-effective sulfur polymer cement that has broad commerical applications.

Kalb, Paul

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-Out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a GM 2.0L turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production ECU with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. US federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at ten selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm. Idle and low speed / low load conditions emitted higher total particle numbers than other operating conditions. At idle, the engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles, and the production TWC reduced these nucleation mode particles by more than 50%, while leaving the accumulation mode particle distribution unchanged. At engine load higher than 6 bar NMEP, accumulation mode particles dominated the engine-out particle emissions and the TWC had little effect. Compared to the baseline gasoline (E0), E10 does not significantly change PM emissions, while E20 and BU12 both reduce PM emissions under the conditions studied. Iso-butanol was observed to impact PM emissions more than ethanol, with up to 50% reductions at some conditions. In this paper, the issues related to PM measurement using FMPS are also discussed. While some uncertainties are due to engine variation, the FMPS must be operated under careful maintenance procedures in order to achieve repeatable measurement results.

He, X.; Ireland, J. C.; Zigler, B. T.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Knoll, K. E.; Alleman, T. L.; Tester, J. T.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Supplement for "Secondary organic aerosol1 formation from idling gasoline passenger vehicle2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supplement for "Secondary organic aerosol1 formation from idling gasoline passenger vehicle2.O. Box 503, FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland}14 [5]{Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, University experiment show a total concentration of light aromatics of less than 1 ppb.6 Vehicles7 In total six gasoline

Meskhidze, Nicholas

419

Indirect conversion of coal to methanol and gasoline: product price vs product slate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts process analysis and engineering evaluation studies for the Department of Energy to provide, on a consistent basis, technical and economic assessments of processes and systems for coal conversion and utilization. Such assessments permit better understanding of the relative technical and economic potential of these processes. The objective of the work described here was to provide an assessment of the technical feasibility, economic competitiveness, and environmental acceptability of selected indirect coal liquefaction processes on a uniform, consistent, and impartial basis. Particular emphasis is placed on production of methanol as a principal product or methanol production for conversion to gasoline. Potential uses for the methanol are combustion in peaking-type turbines or blending with gasoline to yield motor fuel. Conversion of methanol to gasoline is accomplished through the use of the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. Under the guidance of ORNL, Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Houston Division, prepared four conceptual process designs for indirect conversion of a Western subbituminous coal to either methanol or gasoline. The conceptual designs are based on the use of consistent technology for the core of the plant (gasification through methanol synthesis) with additional processing as necessary for production of different liquid products of interest. The bases for the conceptual designs are given. The case designations are: methanol production for turbine-grade fuel; methanol production for gasoline blending; gasoline production with coproduction of SNG; and gasoline production maximized.

Wham, R.M.; McCracken, D.J.; Forrester, R.C. III

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

1999-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Process for removing sulfur from coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

1983-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

422

Fact #834: August 18, 2014 About Two-Thirds of Transportation Energy Use is Gasoline for Light Vehicles – Dataset  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Excel file with dataset for Fact #834: About Two-Thirds of Transportation Energy Use is Gasoline for Light Vehicles

423

Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

Bose, Ranendra K. (14346 Jacob La., Centreville, VA 20120-3305)

2002-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

424

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

425

An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4.5 for heating to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

Hall, Julian

427

Quantitative in-cylinder NO-LIF imaging in a realistic gasoline engine with spray-guided direct injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantitative in-cylinder NO-LIF imaging in a realistic gasoline engine with spray-guided direct of engines with gasoline direct injection. Exhaust gas aftertreatment requires storage catalysts fractions in a gasoline engine with spray-guided direct injection using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF

Lee, Tonghun

428

Math 115 Excel Group Project 3 Worksheet Price Elasticity of Demand: U.S. Demand for Gasoline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Math 115 Excel Group Project 3 Worksheet Price Elasticity of Demand: U.S. Demand for Gasoline 1 for Gasoline 2 4. Consider the two price-demand graphs below. The labels give the x-value. Which graph for Gasoline 3 6. Jewelry This quote is from the article "Americans Snap Up Gold Jewelry as Metal's Price Sinks

Newberger, Florence

429

Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, LP-gas and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

112 Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel and by keeping fuel storage facilities in top condition. Flammable Liquids and Gases Gasoline, diesel fuel, LP flammability and safety precautions. Do not keep gasoline inside the home or transport it in the trunks

430

Practical Observers for Unmeasured States in Turbocharged Gasoline Julia H. Buckland, Jim Freudenberg, J. W. Grizzle and Mrdjan Jankovic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Practical Observers for Unmeasured States in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines Julia H. Buckland, Jim Freudenberg, J. W. Grizzle and Mrdjan Jankovic Abstract--Turbocharged gasoline engines are becoming more with a significant reduction in calibration complexity. I. INTRODUCTION Turbocharged gasoline engines are becoming

Grizzle, Jessy W.

431

NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4. Distilled naphtha can be used only to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce

Hall, Julian

432

The Reaction Engineering of Green Gasoline Prof. de Lasa's CREC group at the University of Western Ontario has been  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Reaction Engineering of Green Gasoline Prof. de Lasa's CREC group at the University of Western Ontario has been leading efforts to establish the reaction engineering of "green gasoline". The main goal in gasoline. Benzene is a well- known cancerogenic and has to be minimized or avoided if at all possible

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

433

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

434

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Documents & Publications CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

435

Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

Confer, Keith

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

436

Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

Elmore, B.B.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

438

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

439

Mapping surrogate gasoline compositions into RON/MON space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, new experimentally determined octane numbers (RON and MON) of blends of a tri-component surrogate consisting of toluene, n-heptane, i-octane (called toluene reference fuel TRF) arranged in an augmented simplex design are used to derive a simple response surface model for the octane number of any arbitrary TRF mixture. The model is second-order in its complexity and is shown to be more accurate to the standard ''linear-by-volume'' (LbV) model which is often used when no other information is available. Such observations are due to the existence of both synergistic and antagonistic blending of the octane numbers between the three components. In particular, antagonistic blending of toluene and iso-octane leads to a maximum in sensitivity that lies on the toluene/iso-octane line. The model equations are inverted so as to map from RON/MON space back into composition space. Enabling one to use two simple formulae to determine, for a given fuel with known RON and MON, the volume fractions of toluene, n-heptane and iso-octane to be blended in order to emulate that fuel. HCCI engine simulations using gasoline with a RON of 98.5 and a MON of 88 were simulated using a TRF fuel, blended according to the derived equations to match the RON and MON. The simulations matched the experimentally obtained pressure profiles well, especially when compared to simulations using only PRF fuels which matched the RON or MON. This suggested that the mapping is accurate and that to emulate a refinery gasoline, it is necessary to match not only the RON but also the MON of the fuel. (author)

Morgan, Neal; Kraft, Markus [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit [Reaction Engineering Solutions Ltd., 61 Canterbury Street, Cambridge CB4 3QG (United Kingdom); Cracknell, Roger; Kalghatgi, Gautam [Shell Global Solutions, Shell Technology Centre Thornton, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed kinetic models of pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are nowadays widely used in the design of internal combustion engines and these models are effectively applied to help meet the increasingly stringent environmental and energetic standards. In previous studies by the combustion community, such models not only contributed to the understanding of pure component combustion, but also provided a deeper insight into the combustion behavior of complex mixtures. One of the major challenges in this field is now the definition and the development of appropriate surrogate models able to mimic the actual features of real fuels. Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. Aside the most commonly used surrogates containing iso-octane and n-heptane only, the so called Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), new mixtures have recently been suggested to extend the reference components in surrogate mixtures to also include alkenes and aromatics. It is generally agreed that, including representative species for all the main classes of hydrocarbons which can be found in real fuels, it is possible to reproduce very effectively in a wide range of operating conditions not just the auto-ignition propensity of gasoline or Diesel fuels, but also their physical properties and their combustion residuals [1]. In this work, the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation is computationally examined. The attention is focused on the autoignition of iso-octane, hexene and their mixtures. Some important issues relevant to the experimental and modeling investigation of such fuels are discussed with the help of rapid compression machine data and calculations. Following the model validation, the behavior of mixtures is discussed on the basis of computational results.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Dooley, S; Westbrook, C K

2008-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Efficient Emissions Control for Multi-Mode Lean DI Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for more info on RCCI concept Gasoline Tank Air Exhaust Air HXN Exhaust HXN EGR HXN Turbo Fuel Rail Fuel Pump Fuel Pressure Regulator DRIVVEN Control Conventional Diesel RCCI...

442

Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO July 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Section 211(m) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q) requires that gasoline containing at least 2.7% oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that exceed the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The winter oxygenated gasoline program applies to all gasoline sold in the larger of the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) or Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in which the nonattainment area is located.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

ETBE as a gasoline blending component. The experience of Elf Aquitaine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study, led by Elf Aquitaine for several years, shows the possibility to use ETBE instead of MTBE as a gasoline component and compares properties of these two ethers regarding different parameters like octanes, volatility, engine cleanliness, stability of the ethers themselves and of gasoline blends, lubricant compatibility and toxicological data. ETBE appears at least as good as MTBE and sometimes better, as ETBE is chemically more similar to hydrocarbons than MTBE and can be used advantageously as a gasoline oxygenated component. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Chatin, L.; Fombarlet, C.; Bernasconi, C.; Gauthier, A.; Schmelzle, P.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Safety considerations for the use of sulfur in sulfur-modified pavement materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the surround1ng environment. As sulfur-modified paving materials were being developed, there was a corresponding concern for studying the amounts of gaseous emiss1ons that were generated. The Texas Trans- portat1on Inst1tute (TTI) was one of the first... organizations in the United States to become 1nvolved in the research and development of sulfur-modified pavements, Throughout 1ts laboratory stud1es TTI cont1nually mon1tored hydrogen sulf1de (H25) and sulfur d1oxide (502) em1ssions produced during mix...

Jacobs, Carolyn Yuriko

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

445

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

Gary M. Blythe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

Gunther Dieckmann

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

447

Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for increased sulfur loading Cathode Anode Investigatingoptimizing Li and Si composite anodes Exploring polymer electrolytes Electrolyte Determining new...

448

Beyond a Billion: Clean Cities Coaliations Have Displaced More Than a Billion Gallons of Gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2004, DOE's Clean Cities achieved a milestone - displacing the equivalent of more than 1 billion gallons of gasoline since 1994. This fact sheet describes how Clean Cities achieved this goal.

Not Available

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.7 5.9 4.4 12.9 NA 17.3 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

450

Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

98.0 98.0 86.6 75.0 - 80.1 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

451

Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.3 3.4 7.9 3.3 W 11.3 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

452

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

453

Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

87.4 86.9 78.3 68.5 W 70.8 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

454

Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

92.8 92.5 84.0 72.5 W 80.7 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

455

Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

88.4 87.8 80.1 70.0 NA 72.6 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

456

Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

94.0 93.9 83.2 73.8 - 79.3 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

457

Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.6 3.7 7.9 3.1 W 11.0 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

458

Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.7 5.9 3.9 12.7 W 16.6 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

459

Knock limits in spark ignited direct injected engines using gasoline/ethanol blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Fuel Injection (DI) extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in DI is therefore ...

Kasseris, Emmanuel P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Posting type Advisory update Subject Inconstant bias in XRF sulfur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Posting type Advisory update Subject Inconstant bias in XRF sulfur Module/Species A/ S Sites entire attention to observable discontinuities in XRF sulfur data. Shifts in the sulfur/sulfate ratio during 2003-4 were shown to coincide with recalibrations of the XRF system and to correlate with other XRF biases

Fischer, Emily V.

462

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper metabolism in sheep: comparison of molybdenum able to trigger the copper sulfur molybdenum interference in sheep was measured with either only) and 4 increasing molybdenum doses. The sulfur-molybdenum-copper interference was quantified

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

463

Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

Lammert, M.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Chang, John C. S. (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

467

Price controls and international petroleum product prices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of Federal refined-product price controls upon the price of motor gasoline in the United States through 1977 are examined. A comparison of domestic and foreign gasoline prices is made, based on the prices of products actually moving in international trade. There is also an effort to ascribe US/foreign market price differentials to identifiable cost factors. Primary emphasis is on price comparisons at the wholesale level, although some retail comparisons are presented. The study also examines the extent to which product price controls are binding, and attempts to estimate what the price of motor gasoline would have been in the absence of controls. The time period under consideration is from 1969 through 1977, with primary focus on price relationships in 1970-1971 (just before US controls) and 1976-1977. The foreign-domestic comparisons are made with respect to four major US cities, namely, Boston, New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. 20 figures, 14 tables.

Deacon, R.T.; Mead, W.J.; Agarwal, V.B.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Electrochemical and metallurgical aspects of stress corrosion cracking of sensitized Alloy 600 in simulated primary water containing sulfur contamination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of sensitized Alloy 600 was investigated in aerated solutions of sodium thiosulfate containing 1.3% boric acid. Results indicate that in the borated thiosulfate solution containing 7 ppM sulfur, 5 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide is sufficient to inhibit SCC in U-bends. The occurrence of inhibition seems to correlate to the rapid increase of pH and conductivity of the solution as a result of the lithium hydroxide addition. In the slow strain rate tests in the borated solution containing 0.7 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide, significant SCC is observed at a sulfur level of 30 ppB, i.e., a lithium to sulfur ratio of 23. In a parallel test in 30 ppB sulfur level but without any lithium hydroxide, the SCC is more severe than that in the lithiated environment. In the constant load test on a specimen held initially at a nominal stress near the yield strength of the material, cracks continue to grow until fracture during controlled, progressive dilution of the bulk solution, leading to final lithium concentration of 1.5 ppM and sulfur concentration (as thiosulfate) of 9.6 ppB i.e., a lithium to sulfur ratio of about 156, although lithium hydroxide retards the rate of crack propagation to some extent. The crack growth rate is strongly influenced by the electrochemical potential which is primarily governed by the local crack tip chemistry.

Bandy, R.; Kelly, K.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

losses when sampling diesel aerosol: A quality assurancefrom on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles. AtmosphericSource apportionment of diesel and spark ignition exhaust

Ban-Weiss, George A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Simulating the daily gasoline price-setting behaviour of gas stations in Cincinnati by agent-based modeling.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In the retail gasoline market, gas stations as independent entities set gas prices according to a number of factors related to global and local economic… (more)

Zhou, Li

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Sulfur dioxide removal by enhanced electrostatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The economic removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) still represents a significant technical challenge which could determine the use of certain types of fossil fuels for energy production. This paper will present the preliminary results of an innovative research project utilizing a low-cost wet electrostatic precipitator to remove sulfur dioxide. There are many aspects for gas removal in an electrostatic precipitator which are not currently being used. This project utilizes electron attachment of free electrons onto gas molecules and ozone generation to remove sulfur dioxide which is a typical flue gas pollutant. This research was conducted on a bench-scale, wet electrostatic precipitator. A direct-current negative discharge corona is used to generate the ozone in-situ. This ozone will be used to oxidize SO{sub 2} to form sulfuric acid, which is very soluble in water. However, it is believed that the primary removal mechanism is electron attachment of the free electrons from the corona which force the SO{sub 2} to go to equilibrium with the water and be removed from the gas stream. Forcing the equilibrium has been shown to achieve removal efficiencies of up to 70%. The bench scale unit has been designed to operate wet or dry, positive and negative for comparison purposes. The applied dc voltage is variable from 0 to 100 kV, the flow rate is a nominal 7 m{sup 3}/hr and the collecting electrode area is 0.20 m{sup 2}. Tests are conducted on a simulated flue gas stream with SO{sub 2} ranging from 0 to 4,000 ppmv. This paper presents the results of tests conducted to determine the effect of operating conditions on removal efficiency. The removal efficiency was found to vary with gas residence time, water flow rate, inlet concentration, applied power, and the use of corona pulsing.

Larkin, K.; Tseng, C.; Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

472

Development of the Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen via the thermochemical splitting of water is being considered as a primary means for utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors to provide fuel for a hydrogen economy. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is one of the baseline candidates identified by the U.S. Department of Energy [1] for this purpose. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that only involves sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen compounds. Recent work has resulted in an improved process design with a calculated overall thermal efficiency (nuclear heat to hydrogen, higher heating value basis) approaching 50%. Economic analyses indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant employing the HyS Process in conjunction with an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor system can produce hydrogen at competitive prices. Experimental work has begun on the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer, the major developmental component in the cycle. Proof-of-concept tests have established proton-exchange-membrane cells (a state-of-the-art technology) as a viable approach for conducting this reaction. This is expected to lead to more efficient and economical cell designs than were previously available. Considerable development and scale-up issues remain to be resolved, but the development of a viable commercial-scale HyS Process should be feasible in time to meet the commercialization schedule for Generation IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

Summers, William A.; Steimke, John L

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

473

In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

Curran, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL] [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Kokjohn, Sage [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Life Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a life cycle assessment (LCA) estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy value (NEV) of the production of gasoline and diesel from forest residues via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing, from production of the feedstock to end use of the fuel in a vehicle, is performed. The fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are based on a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) design report. The LCA results show GHG emissions of 0.142 kg CO2-equiv. per km traveled and NEV of 1.00 MJ per km traveled for a process using grid electricity. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows a range of results, with all values better than those of conventional gasoline in 2005. Results for GHG emissions and NEV of gasoline and diesel from pyrolysis are also reported on a per MJ fuel basis for comparison with ethanol produced via gasification. Although pyrolysis-derived gasoline and diesel have lower GHG emissions and higher NEV than conventional gasoline does in 2005, they underperform ethanol produced via gasification from the same feedstock. GHG emissions for pyrolysis could be lowered further if electricity and hydrogen are produced from biomass instead of from fossil sources.

Hsu, D. D.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

The chemical origin of octane sensitivity in gasoline fuels containing nitroalkanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental octane measurements are presented for a standard gasoline to which has been added various quantities of nitromethane, nitroethane and 1-nitropropane. The addition of nitroalkanes was found to suppress the Motor Octane Number to a much greater extent than the Research Octane Number. In other words addition of nitroalkanes increases the octane sensitivity of gasoline. Density Functional Theory was used to model the equilibrium thermodynamics and the barrier heights for reactions leading to the break-up of nitroethane. These results were used to develop a chemical kinetic scheme for nitroalkanes combined with a surrogate gasoline (for which a mechanism has been developed previously). Finally the chemical kinetic simulations were combined with a quasi-dimensional engine model in order to predict autoignition in octane rating tests. Our results suggest that the chemical origin of octane sensitivity in gasoline/nitroalkane blends cannot be fully explained on the conventional basis of the extent to which NTC behaviour is absent. Instead we have shown that the contribution of the two pathways leading to autoignition in gasoline containing nitroalkanes becomes much more significant under the more severe conditions of the Motor Octane method than the Research Octane method. (author)

Cracknell, R.F.; McAllister, L.J.; Norton, M.; Walmsley, H.L. [Shell Global Solutions, Shell Technology Centre Thornton, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom); Andrae, J.C.G. [Shell Global Solutions, Shell Technology Centre Thornton, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom); Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

Development of a new FGD process that converts sulfur dioxide to salable ammonium phosphate fertilizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rich mineral resources have enabled Chinese coal output and energy consumption to rank second and third in the world, respectively. In 1992, up to 70 percent of the country`s electric power was generated by the combustion of some 300 million tons of coal. Although the average sulfur content level in Chinese coals is only about 0.8 percent, the share of high- sulfur coals with 2 percent or more sulfur content is as high as 18 percent. As a result, air pollution accompanied by acid rain now occurs over most of the country, especially in southwestern China. Currently, the area comprising Guangdong, Guangxi, the Sichuan Basin, and the greater part of Gueizhou, where the sulfur content in coal is between 2 and 7 percent and the average pH values of rain water are between 4 and 5 per annum, has become one of the three biggest acid rain-affected areas in the world. In 1992, the national installed coal-fired electricity generation capacity exceeded 100,000 MWe. By the year 2000, it is expected to reach as much as 200,000 MWe, according to a new scheduled program. Environmental pollution caused by large-scale coal combustion is a very important issue that needs to be considered in the implementation of the program. To ensure that the effects of coal-fired power generation on the environment can be properly controlled in the near future, TPRI (Thermal Power Research Institute), the sole thermal power engineering research institution within the Ministry of Electric Power Industry (MOEPI), has conducted a long-term research program to develop sulfur emission control technologies suitable to the special conditions prevalent in China since the early 1970s. The details are summarized. The objective of this chapter is to describe the fundamental concept and major pilot test results and present an economic evaluation of a new process combining flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and ammonium phosphate fertilizer production.

Ji-lu Chen

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

477

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

479

Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules (Released in the STEO January 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On August 27, 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an individual refinery baseline is not available to domestic refiners.) If a foreign refiner did not establish and use an individual baseline, the gasoline they export to the United States would be regulated through the importer, and subject to the importer's baseline (most likely the statutory baseline). Specific regulatory provisions are implemented to ensure that the option to use an individual baseline would not lead to adverse environmental impacts. This involves monitoring the average quality of imported gasoline, and if a specified benchmark is exceeded, remedial action would be taken by adjusting the requirements applicable to imported gasoline.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

energy savings by the use of mtbe to replace alkylate in automotive gasolines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents data on the differences in energy consumption in the production of leaded and unleaded AI-93 gasolines with various blend components. The authors investigate as high-octane components certain products that are more effective in use and less energy-consuming in production in comparison with alkylate. In particular, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is discussed; it is not poisonous, it has a high heat of combustion, and it does not attack materials of construction. The addition of 11% MTBE to gasoline lowers the cold start temperature of engines by 10-12 degrees. Moreover, no adjustment of the carburetor is required for the changeover to gasoline with 11% MTBE.

Englin, B.A.; Emel'yanov, V.E.; Terent'ev, G.A.; Vinogradov, A.M.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gasoline sulfur control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Proton NMR analysis of octane number for motor gasoline: Part V  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method to predict the octane number of automobile gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectrometry was studied. Samples of gasoline whose octane numbers had been identified according to the ASTM standards (commercially available premium gasoline to which MTBE was added at rates of 7 vol % and 14 vol %) were used in this investigation of the effect of MTBE on the octane number. The findings were utilized to introduce a term regarding MTBE into the previously reported linear regression equation for estimating the octane number from the PMR spectrum, and the appropriateness of the linear regression equation was assessed. As a result the MTBE contents in the sample were determined with satisfactory accuracy by using a standard addition method, and a linear regression equation reflecting the effect of MTBE was obtained. These achievements are reported. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Ichikawa, M.; Nonaka, N.; Amano, H.; Takada, I.; Ishimori, S. [Suzuki Motor Corp., Hamamatsu (Japan); Andoh, H.; Kumamoto, K. [Showa Shell Sikiyu Tokyo (Japan)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Estimate the fraction of the total transported energy (in the form of gasoline) in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline that is consumed in pumping.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimate the fraction of the total transported energy (in the form of gasoline) in the Trans m). So we can toss this out. Now estimate the energy content of gasoline: Many of you tried figuring

Nimmo, Francis

484

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides mobile sources comes from the combustion of sulfur compounds in fuel. The U.S. is in the process of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

Denver, University of

485

Analyses of sulfur-asphalt field trials in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

128 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGF Layout of SNPA sulfur bitumen binder pavem nt test ? U. S. Highway 69, Lufkin, Texas 15 Col 1oi d mi 1 1 furnished by SNPA for preparation of sul fur-asphalt emulsions View of mixing station showing sulfur... designed to investigate the advantage of using a colloid mill to prepare sulfur-asphalt binders as compared to comingling the asphalt and molten sulfur in a pipeline leading directly to the pug mill. After only six months of testing, the results...

Newcomb, David Edward

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of long cycle-life in half cells and expand the synthesis of sulfurcarbon composite materials of various sulfur loadings 2. Compare the performance for different...

487

Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry PI: Nitash Balsara LBNL June 17, 2014 Project ID ESS224 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise...

488

LARGE-SCALE MEASUREMENT OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE SULFUR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Concentrationsvalida- tion studies of XRF measurements have establishedelemental sulfur measurement by XRF can be closely related

Loo, B.W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Related Links FAQs Contact Us Offices You are here Home Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based...

490

SULFUR-TOLERANT CATALYST FOR THE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??JP-8 fuel is easily accessible, transportable, and has hydrogen content essential to solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation. However, this syngas has sulfur content which… (more)

Bozeman, Joe Frank, III

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Hybrid combustion-premixed gasoline homogeneous charge ignited by injected diesel fuel-4-stroke cycle engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the formation and testing of two hybrid combustion engines, wherein a premixed gasoline homogeneous charge was ignited by a small amount of injected diesel fuel under high compression ratio, by modifying open chamber and prechamber 4-stroke cycle diesel engines. It was found that the premixed gasoline was effective not only for decreasing the fuel consumption but also for reducing the smoke density both in the heavy and over-load regions. The effect of introducing a small amount N/sub 2/ gas for suppressing the diesel knock in the heavy load region also was examined.

Yonetani, H.; Okanishi, N.; Fukutani, I.; Watanabe, E.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

Narain, Nand K. (Bethel Park, PA); Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA); Smith, Dennis N. (Herminie, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

1987-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

495

Increasing Gas Prices: Good Economics, but Bad Public Relations Rising gasoline prices captured the attention of the press and politicians in recent months,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasing Gas Prices: Good Economics, but Bad Public Relations Rising gasoline prices captured interest during our current gasoline shortage. That is, a higher price rations the product to the best use the supply of gasoline become relatively scarcer? First, the growth of the Chinese and Indian economies

Ahmad, Sajjad

496

RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE By Michael J. Moran, Mike J. Halde, Rick M. Clawges and John S. Zogorski U in the United States as an octane enhancer and oxygenate in gasoline. Octane enhancement began in the late 1970's with the phase-out of tetraethyl lead from gasoline. The use of oxygenates was expanded

497

Correlation for the total sulfur content in char after devolatilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall process of coal combustion takes place in two successive steps: devolatilization and char combustion. The fate of sulfur during the devolatilization of coal of different rank was investigated. The significance of the investigation is in fact that a major part of sulfur release occurs during devolatilization of coal, (i.e., emission of sulfur oxides during combustion of coal largely depends on sulfur release during devolatilization). The experimental investigations were conducted to obtain the data about the quantitative relation between sulfur content in the coal and sulfur content in the char. Standard procedures were used for obtaining the chars in a laboratory oven and determining the sulfur forms in the coal and char samples. The experiments were done with ground coal samples ({lt}0.2 mm), at the temperatures in the range of 500-1000{sup o}C. We showed that the amount of sulfur remaining in the char decreases, but not significantly in the temperature range 600-900{sup o}C. On the basis of the theoretical consideration of behavior of sulfur forms during devolatilization, certain simplifying assumptions, and obtained experimental data, we propose two correlations to associate the content of sulfur in the coal and in the char. The correlations are based on the results of the proximate analysis and sulfur forms in coal. Good agreement was found when the proposed correlations were compared with the experimental results obtained for investigated coals. Moreover, the correlations were verified by results found in the literature for numerous Polish, Albanian, and Turkish coals. Significant correlations (P {lt}0.05) between observed and calculated data with correlation coefficient, R {gt}0.9, were noticed in the case of all coals. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Vasilije Manovic; Borislav Grubor [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia & Montenegro)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Distribution and origin of sulfur in Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sulfur content of 1,225 samples of Green River oil shale from two core holes in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, ranges from nearly 0 to 4.9 weight percent. In one core hole, the average sulfur content of a sequence of oil shale 555 m thick, which represents nearly the maximum thickness of oil shale in the basin, is 0.76 weight percent. The vertical distribution of sulfur through the oil shale is cyclic. As many as 25 sulfur cycles have lateral continuity and can be traced between the core holes. Most of the sulfur resides in iron sulfides (pyrite, marcasite, and minor. pyrrhotite), and small amounts are organically bound in kerogen. In general, the concentration of sulfur correlates moderately with oil shale yield, but the degree of association ranges from quite high in the upper 90 m of the oil shale sequence to low or none in the leached zone and in illitic oil shale in the lower part of the sequence. Sulfur also correlates moderately with iron in the carbonate oil shale sequence, but no correlation was found in the illitic samples. Sulfide mineralization is believed to have occurred during early and late stages of diagenesis, and after lithification, during development of the leached zone. Significant amounts of iron found in ankeritic dolomite and in illite probably account for the lack of a strong correlation between sulfur and iron.

Dyni, J.R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

500

Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z