National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gasoline gallon equivalent

  1. Beyond a Billion: Clean Cities Coaliations Have Displaced More Than a Billion Gallons of Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-10-01

    In 2004, DOE's Clean Cities achieved a milestone - displacing the equivalent of more than 1 billion gallons of gasoline since 1994. This fact sheet describes how Clean Cities achieved this goal.

  2. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of petroleum products. The additional 2 gallons of petroleum products come from refiner gains which result in...

  3. U.S. summer gasoline price to average 6 cents lower than last year at $3.63 a gallon

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasolinemonthlysummer gasoline price to

  4. With Mathematica Gasoline Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Clifford A.

    Preprint 1 With Mathematica and J: Gasoline Inventory Simulation Cliff Reiter Computational for the number of gallons of gasoline sold by a station for a thousand weeks. The pattern involves demands with the delivery and storage of the gasoline and we desire not to run out of gasoline or exceed the station

  5. Fact #675: May 16, 2011 Gasoline Prices by Region, May 2, 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The West Coast region paid the highest prices for gasoline averaging $4.14 for a gallon of regular gasoline while the Rocky Mountain region paid the least at $3.70 per gallon. The southern states,...

  6. Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  7. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  8. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  9. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  10. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  11. Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey of worldwide gasoline prices for February and March, 2009, shows that European countries had the highest prices for gasoline with the Netherlands topping the list at $6.25 per gallon. The...

  12. Fact #645: October 18, 2010 Price of Diesel Fuel versus Gasoline in Europe

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A comparison between the average annual price of a gallon of gasoline and a gallon of highway diesel fuel in several European countries shows that a large change took place in 2008. In most of the...

  13. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  14. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Year Month...

  15. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  16. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  17. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  18. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  19. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  20. eGallon-methodology-final

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowingFuelWeatherizeeEnergy Vermont Case Study 1eGallon How much

  1. State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, Edmund Philip

    1925-03-15

    of one cent per gallon on gasoline and naptha would yield at the present estimated production, $10,000,000.,>1 At that time the United States Government was having heavy expenses to meet. The European war had begun and there was a great deal... Report 767, 65th Congress, 2nd Session. 4. Laws of Oregon, 1919, Chapter 159. 5. Engineering News-Record, 91:967. (December 13, 1923.) 287] Learned: State Gasoline Taxes 9 registered 7,580,105 automobiles and motor trucks. At pres ent, there are over...

  2. Fact #639: September 6, 2010 Gasoline Tax Rates by State

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Excise Tax on motor gasoline is 18.4 cents per gallon for all states. Each state applies additional taxes which vary from state to state. As of July 2010, Alaska had the lowest overall...

  3. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  4. eGallon | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3 Racetracks Y-12 Beta-3 RacetrackseGallon MethodologyeGallon

  5. eGallon | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that runs on gasoline. Did you know? On average, it costs about half as much to drive an electric vehicle. Find out how much it costs to fuel an electric vehicle in your state...

  6. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  7. eGallon Methodology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3 Racetracks Y-12 Beta-3 RacetrackseGallon Methodology

  8. Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the second half of 2014, the national average retail price per gallon of gasoline (all grades) fell from a high of $3.77 in June to a low of $2.63 in December – a difference of $1.14 per gallon....

  9. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion Almost 2 dozen gasoline...

  10. Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apperson, Jason W; Clemmons, James S; Garcia, Michael D; Sur, John C; Zhang, Duan Z; Romero, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

  11. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-05-14

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

  12. Fact #809: December 23, 2013 What Do We Pay for in a Gallon of Gasoline? |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14, 20111,FY 2007TrafficDepartment of1975-2012

  13. U.S. gasoline price expected to drop further below $3 per gallon

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7, 2015 U.S.6,long version)Declining

  14. U.S. gasoline price expected to drop further below $3 per gallon

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7, 2015 U.S.6,long

  15. U.S. gasoline price expected to drop further below $3 per gallon

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7, 2015 U.S.6,longU.S. households to

  16. Gasoline price forecast to stay below 3 dollar a gallon in 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesEFuel OilDiesel

  17. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  18. Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

    2011-01-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium standards in various locations in the test drum. Due to necessity to dispense the blank test drum an alternative method of baseline determination was established during field measurements. Count rates of ambient background were corrected by the differences between observed background and blank test drum count rates which were previously determined over a series of measurements. Only 31 drums out of 352 counted during the intensive measurement campaign at T-Plant were determined to be Suspect TRU. 25 of these drums were re-measured at the WRAP facility using the SuperHENC. Of the 25 drums measured, 21 were confirmed to be TRU and the remaining four LLW.

  19. Progress and Accomplishments in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    range of natural gas prices -- a cost that is competitive with gasoline.6 Reduced the cost of producing.00/gallon gasoline equivalent (gge) produced (

  20. Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2007-01-01

    the underlying gasoline than does blending with MTBE. Hence,gasoline like CARB, it effectively differentiated the market. Blending

  1. WORD PROBLEMS 1. Suppose your car gets 25 miles per gallon of gasoline and the price of gas is $3.50 per gallon. Write

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koban, Nic

    on the other side of the river and 8 kilometers down stream (see figure 2). The man can run 5 km/hr and can and then run to B in terms of x. 3 8 A B C Figure 2: Point C is directly across the river from point A. Point B of fence are to be used to enclose a rectangular field next to a straight river. The river acts as one side

  2. Gasoline Biodesulfurization Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This petroleum industry fact sheet describes how biodesulfurization can yield lower sulfur gasoline at lower production costs.

  3. REVIEW SHEET 3 (1) A tank contains 100 gallon of salt water which ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-04-30

    REVIEW SHEET 3. (1) A tank contains 100 gallon of salt water which contains 10 lbs of salt. A salt solution of 2lbs of salt per gallon enters the tank at a rate of 3 ...

  4. REVIEW SHEET 3 (1) A tank contains 100 gallon of salt water which ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-04-30

    minute while a flow of fresh water runs into the tank at a rate of 5 gallons per minute. The well-stirred solution runs out of the tank at a rate of 7 gallons per minute ...

  5. Driving for $1.14 Per Gallon | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory |Sectorfor $1.14 Per Gallon Driving for $1.14 Per

  6. 55-Gallon Drum Attenuation Corrections for Waste Assay Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V.R.

    2002-04-03

    The present study shows how the percent attenuation for low-level waste (LLW), carbon-steel 55-gallon drums (44 and 46 mil) and for transuranic (TRU) DOT Type 7A 55-gallon drums (approximately 61 mil) changes with gamma energy from 60 keV to 1400 keV. Attenuation for these drums is in the range of 5 to 15 percent at energies from 400 to 1400 keV and from 15 to 35 percent at energies from 120 to 400 keV. At 60 keV, these drums attenuate 70-80 percent of the gamma rays. Correction factors were determined in order to correct for gamma attenuation of a TRU drum if a calibration is performed with a LLW drum. These correction factors increase the activities of the TRU drum by from 10 percent to 2 percent in the energy range of 165 to 1400 keV, with an increase of about 50 percent at 60 keV. Correction factors for TRU drums and for analyses without a drum were used to adjust the percent yield for frequently measured gamma rays, so that the assay libraries could be modified to provide the drum attenuation corrections.

  7. eGallon and Electric Vehicle Sales: The Big Picture | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    electricity prices. The state gasoline price above is either the statewide average retail price or a multi-state regional average price reported by EIA. The latest gasoline...

  8. Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2007-01-01

    and Heterogeneity in U.S. Gasoline Prices, working paper,and J. M . Perloff, 2002. Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes,Gardner, K.W. , 2004. U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil

  9. ETHANOL FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    by agricultural and chemical companies for many reasons. However, ethanol does not mix well with gasoline that one burns 1 gallon of gasoline equivalent in fossil fuels to pro- duce 1 gallon of gasoline equivalent as ethanol from corn. When this corn ethanol is burned as a gasoline additive or fuel, its use amounts

  10. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  11. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  12. A Dozen Reasons for Raising Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wachs, Martin

    2003-01-01

    States have the right gasoline tax? University of Californiajuly). A primer on gasoline prices. http://www.eia.gov/pub/Reasons for Raising Gasoline Taxes Martin Wachs RESEARCH

  13. Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    State Specific * Share of Gasoline State Specific * (Share of Gasoline) 2 StateSpecific * (Share of Gasoline) 3 State Specific * (Share of

  14. Market Power in California's Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, James; Lewis, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Price Study Kayser, Hilke A. , 2000. Gasoline Demand andCar Choice: Estimating Gasoline Demand Using HouseholdIN GASOLINE MARKETS.

  15. Diesel vs Gasoline Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vs Gasoline Production Diesel vs Gasoline Production A look at refinery decisions that decide "swing" between diesel and gasoline production deer08leister.pdf More Documents &...

  16. Stock Analysis with Correlation for Gasoline Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yi Xin

    2015-01-01

    with Correlation for Gasoline Companies A thesis submittedwith Correlation for Gasoline Companies by Yi Xin Sun Masterstudied to major gasoline companies based in United States.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    investment for reducing US gasoline consumption Scott B. Peterson a , Jeremy J. Michalek a,b,n a Dept per gal than oil premium estimates. c Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium

  18. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection...

  19. Is the gasoline tax regressive?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poterba, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Claims of the regressivity of gasoline taxes typically rely on annual surveys of consumer income and expenditures which show that gasoline expenditures are a larger fraction of income for very low income households than ...

  20. DOE Moab Site Cost-Effectively Eliminates 200 Million Gallons of Contaminated Ground Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grand Junction, CO ? The Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that it has extracted 200 million gallons of contaminated ground water from the Moab site in Utah as part of the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project.

  1. Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

    2013-01-02

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  2. Essays on Automotive Lending, Gasoline Prices, & Automotive Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulz-Mahlendorf, Wilko Ziggy

    2013-01-01

    Gasoline PriceResponse to Chang- ing Gasoline Prices,” unpublishedShort-Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand. ,” The Energy

  3. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Lane Regional Air Protection...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    home refueling, and reduced maintenance costs. Electricity is cheaper than gasoline to power a vehicle - generally equivalent to about 1 per gallon. The DOE wants to increase...

  5. EIS-0039: Motor Gasoline Deregulation and the Gasoline Tilt

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration developed this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts, including social and economic impacts, that may result from either of two proposed regulatory changes: (1) the exemption of motor gasoline from the Department of Energy's Mandatory Petroleum Price and Allocation Regulations, and (2) the adoption of the gasoline tilt, a proposed regulation that would allow refiners to recover an additional amount of their total increased costs on gasoline.

  6. Gasoline reformulation: Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This first of a two-part article looks at the effects that gas reformulation and vehicle equipment have on emissions. Phase 1 of the AQIRP (Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program) investigated the effect of gasoline properties and composition on emissions from pre-1990 vehicles. In the first half of phase 2, studies focused on better understanding two of the larger effects observed in Phase 1; namely, the effects of fuel sulfur and distillation properties on exhaust emissions. This testing used a fleet of 1989 vehicles. Data generated from both phases played significant roles in development of the US EPA Complex Model, and the CARB Predictive Model. These models predict vehicle emissions as a function of gasoline fuel properties, and represent major portions of reformulated gasoline regulations instituted in the US and California. Fleet-Average exhaust and hot soak evaporative mass emissions and calculated ozone-forming reactivity using the most recent Carter reactivity factors are reported for the various vehicle fleet and fuel combinations. Emissions data are also reported for subsets of the fleets including only the 4-cylinder passenger cars operating on common Fuel, C2, to assess the impact of vehicle technology effects on emissions.

  7. Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and...

  8. Motor Gasoline Assessment, Spring 1997

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the factors causing the run up of motor gasoline prices during spring 1996 and the different market conditions during spring 1997 that caused prices to decline.

  9. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    J Bradshaw, "SLate ’F~es’ Gasoline Tax So ~t Wdl Rise," TheVarlable-Rate State Gasoline Taxers Jeffrey Ang-Olson MartinVariable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes Jeffrey Ang-Olson

  10. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent Changes in State Gasoline Taxation: An Analysis ofMarch The excise tax on gasoline in New York is 8.0 centsis also a sales tax on gasoline which recently stood at 7.8

  11. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; McNutt, B.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  12. Market Power in California's Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, James; Lewis, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Shares of Companies Producing Reformulated Gasoline inpossibility for a company that is in the gasoline storagegasoline producing refineries is divided among 8 companies.

  13. Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to gasoline disruptions as a result of hurricanes and other natural events. Hurricane Sandy in 2012 caused widespread issues related to the availability of gasoline. In...

  14. Gasoline Stock Charts

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWells (MillionProved ReservesYearperDataGasoline Price

  15. Topsoe integrated gasoline synthesis (TIGAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, H.K.; Joensen, F.

    1987-01-01

    Integration of Haldor Topsoe's oxygenate (MeOH, DME) synthesis and the MTG process into one single synthesis loop provides a new low investment route to gasoline from natural gas. The integrated process has been demonstrated in an industrial pilot with a capacity of 1 MTPD gasoline since 1984. The pilot has operated successfully for more than 10,000 hours.

  16. the impact of industrial biofuels on people and global hunger Meals per gallon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the impact of industrial biofuels on people and global hunger Meals per gallon #12;Contents Executive summary 2 Chapter 1: Introduction 6 Chapter 2: Industrial biofuels ­ the context 8 What's driving the EU industrial biofuel boom? 9 Chapter 3: What's wrong with industrial biofuels? 12 Industrial

  17. Benzene is an important industrial chemical (> 2 billion gallons produced annually in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Benzene is an important industrial chemical (> 2 billion gallons produced annually in the United leukemia (Snyder 2002). However, the mechanisms of benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemo- genesis further light on these mechanisms and better understand the risk benzene poses, we examined the effects

  18. SBIR/STTR Phase I Technical Topics for FY15 Announced - Webinar...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and delivering hydrogen to less than 4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (gge) to enable fuel cell vehicles to be competitive with gasoline vehicles. Key fuel cell objectives are...

  19. Fact #682: July 4, 2011 Federal Alternative Fuel Use

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Government used nearly 9 million gasoline-gallon equivalents of alternative fuel in 2010. The majority of the fuel used (92%) was E-85, a combination of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline....

  20. Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    - 1 - Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina, California Abstract We examine how gasoline price volatility impacts consumers' price elasticity of demand for gasoline. Results show that volatility in prices decreases consumer demand for gasoline in the intermediate

  1. Gasoline price spikes and regional gasoline context regulations : a structural approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muehlegger, Erich J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1999, gasoline prices in California, Illinois and Wisconsin have spiked occasionally well above gasoline prices in nearby states. In May and June 2000, for example, gasoline prices in Chicago rose twenty eight cents ...

  2. eGallon: Understanding the Cost of Driving EVs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3 Racetracks Y-12 Beta-3 RacetrackseGallon

  3. Effects of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Ken; Turrentine, Tom

    2005-01-01

    of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reidof Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reidhigh demand for gasoline-hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)?

  4. Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cellto petroleum pathways with gasoline and diesel vehicles.simplicity, we use the term ‘‘gasoline pathway” to refer to

  5. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sterner. 1991. Analysing gasoline demand elasticities: A2011. Measuring global gasoline and diesel price and incomeMutairi. 1995. Demand for gasoline in Kuwait: An empirical

  6. Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine deer10johansson.pdf More Documents & Publications Partially...

  7. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakober, Chris A.

    2008-01-01

    fraction of light-duty gasoline vehicle particulate matterQuinone emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles.32 organic compounds from gasoline- powered motor vehicles.

  8. Edgeworth Price Cycles: Evidence from the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Robbery, An Analysis of the Gasoline Crisis”, Bloomington:Dynamic Pricing in Retail gasoline Markets”, RAND Journal ofR. Gilbert. “Do Gasoline Markets Respond Asymmetrically to

  9. Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    University. Espey, M. , 1998. "Gasoline Demand Revisited: AnRun Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand,” working paper.Elasticities of Demand for Gasoline in Canada and the United

  10. Retail Policies and Competition in the Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, Jim

    2005-01-01

    California Gasoline Stations Major Company Operated NumberCalifornia Gasoline Stations Major Company Operated Numberpercentage of gasoline sold from company-operated stations

  11. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Almost 2 dozen gasoline fuels, blending components, and surrogates were evaluated in a single-cylinder HCCI gasoline engine for combustion, emissions, and efficiency performance.

  12. Reformulated gasoline quality issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, R.G.; Felch, D.E.; Edgar, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    One year ago, a panel of industry experts were interviewed in the November/December 1994 issue of Fuel Reformulation (Vol. 4, No. 6). With the focus then and now on refinery investments, the panelists were asked to forecast which refining processes would grow in importance. It is apparent from their response, and from other articles and discussions throughout the year, that hydroprocessing and catalytic conversion processes are synergistic in the overall refinery design, with flexibility and process objectives varying on a unit-by-unit case. To an extent, future refinery investments in downstream petrochemicals, such as for paraxylene production, are based on available catalytic reforming feedstock. Just a importantly, hydroprocessing units (hydrotreating, hydrocracking) needed for clean fuel production (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel), are heavily dependent on hydrogen production from the catalytic reformer. Catalytic reforming`s significant influence in the refinery hydrogen balance, as well as its status as a significant naphtha conversion route to higher-quality fuels, make this unit a high-priority issue for engineers and planners striving for flexibility.

  13. Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1975, only three percent of all new cars had a fuel economy above 25 miles per gallon (mpg), but by 2014, 73% did. Great improvements were made in the fuel economy of cars from 1975 to 1985, so...

  14. Household gasoline demand in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Continuing rapid growth in U.S. gasoline consumption threatens to exacerbate environmental and congestion problems. We use flexible semiparametric and nonparametric methods to guide analysis of household gasoline consumption, ...

  15. Price Changes in the Gasoline Market - Are Midwestern Gasoline Prices Downward Sticky?

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The report concentrates on regional gasoline prices in the Midwest from October 1992 through June 1998.

  16. eGallon: What It Is and Why It's Important | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'S FUTURE.EnergyWooden Rooftops |.doc�8 I N S P EeGallon:

  17. EV Sales Skyrocketing. eGallon Holds Steady. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofof EnergyPlants" Now AvailableSTAR®eGallon: Compare

  18. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014:...

  19. Method for producing gasoline-alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, C.

    1983-05-10

    A process for producing gasoline-ethanol blends comprises purifying dilute ethanol by extractive distillation and concentrating the ethanol by distillation followed by one or both of the following steps: (A) liquid extraction of ethanol into heated gasoline or (B) azeotropic distillation of ethanol with an entrainer followed by blending with gasoline.

  20. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  1. Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richins, W.D.

    1996-07-01

    The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC have been developed accommodating either 30 or 55 gallon drums. This report addresses the structural qualification of the 55 gallon version of the RSSC to DOT 7A Type A requirements. The controlling qualification test is a 4 ft drop onto a rigid surface. During and after this test, the container contents must remain within the container and shielding must not be reduced. The container is also designed to withstand stacking, internal pressure, lifting loads, tiedown failure, penetration, and a range of temperatures. Nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses were performed using a range of material properties. Loads in the major connections and strains in the stainless steel and lead were monitored as a function of time during impact analyses for three simulated drop orientations. Initial results were used to develop the final design. For the final design, the stainless steel and lead have maximum strains well below ultimate levels except at an impact corner where additional deformation is acceptable. The predicted loads in the connections indicate that some yielding will occur but the containment and shielding will remain intact. The results presented here provide assurance that the container will pass the DOT 7A Type A drop tests as well as the other structural requirements.

  2. Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulationand Wholesale Gasoline Prices,” Journal of Environmentaland Heterogeneity in U.S. Gasoline Prices,” Journal of

  3. Morita equivalence and duality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albert Schwarz

    1998-05-07

    It was shown by Connes, Douglas, Schwarz[1] that one can compactify M(atrix) theory on noncommutative torus. We prove that compactifications on Morita equivalent tori are physically equivalent. This statement can be considered as a generalization of non-classical duality conjectured in [1] for two-dimensional tori.

  4. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  5. Essays on gasoline price spikes, environmental regulation of gasoline content, and incentives for refinery operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muehlegger, Erich J

    2005-01-01

    Since 1999, regional retail and wholesale gasoline markets in the United States have experienced significant price volatility, both intertemporally and across geographic markets. In particular, gasoline prices in California, ...

  6. Gasoline Vehicle Exhuast Particle Sampling Study | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Exhuast Particle Sampling Study Gasoline Vehicle Exhuast Particle Sampling Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: University of Minnesota 2003deerkittelson.pdf More...

  7. Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon

  8. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    H. , and James M. Gri¢ n. 1983. Gasoline demand in the OECDof dynamic demand for gasoline. Journal of Econometrics 77(An empirical analysis of gasoline demand in Denmark using

  9. Retail Policies and Competition in the Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Total Volume Table 4 - Gasoline Price Components Year RetailEvidence from Retail Gasoline Markets." Journal of Law,and Competition in the Gasoline Industry I. II. III. IV. V.

  10. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and...

  11. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Supercritical dieseline could be...

  12. In Vitro Genotoxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Materials In Vitro Genotoxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust Particulate...

  13. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods...

  14. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of...

  15. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will...

  16. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis,...

  17. Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from...

  18. Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    Mortgage or Rent Gasoline and Motor Oil Income after taxesMortgage or Rent Gasoline and Motor Oil Income after taxes

  19. Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    Formulations Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, 2000-2006 FigureI: Weekly Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices for2001- 2006 Crude Oil CA Regular Reformulated Figure II:

  20. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Vehicle Technologies...

  1. High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  2. Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation Title Oxidation characteristics of gasoline...

  3. Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Poster presented at the 16th Directions in...

  4. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    90: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output - Dataset Fact 890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output...

  5. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

  6. Fact #869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use Fact 869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures...

  7. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy...

  8. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  9. Gasoline prices decrease (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort version)

  10. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort

  11. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort5, 2014

  12. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort5,

  13. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort5,long

  14. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version)Gasoline prices

  15. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version)Gasoline pricesshort

  16. Equivalence Principle and Clocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Damour

    1999-04-14

    String theory suggests the existence of gravitational-strength scalar fields ("dilaton" and "moduli") whose couplings to matter violate the equivalence principle. This provides a new motivation for high-precision clock experiments, as well as a generic theoretical framework for analyzing their significance.

  17. Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

    2011-08-01

    This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

  18. New Zealand's 70 million sheep create 350 million methane gallons daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    If you could hook up a sheep to the carburetor of a car, you could run it for several kilometers a day. To power the same vehicle by people, you'd need a whole football team and a couple of kegs of beer. That observation is made by David Lowe, a geophysicist with the New Zealand Institute of Nuclear Sciences in Wellington. Scientists are studying the methane output because of its potential serious threat by contributing to global warming via the greenhouse effect. According to a report in the Wall Street Journal, analysis of ancient air bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice shows that 30,000 years ago methane concentration in the Earth's atmosphere was only a third as much as it is today. Radioactive dating can distinguish ages of different types of methane in the air, and researchers hope to quantify sources from sheep, swamps, people or industry. Sheep methane is collected at a local agricultural university from sheep with tubes protruding from their intestines. Sample collector Lowe alternates specimens from the university and the digester tank at the sewage treatment plant. The cleanest air samples, by contrast, are collected by Lowe at Baring Head, the first outcrop of land Antarctic winds hit after crossing thousands of miles of open sea. So far, Lowe and his colleagues have found that 75% of methane in the atmosphere is biological and of very recent origin. While the research goes on, New Zealand's sheep population continue to churn out 2.5 billion gallons of methane every week.

  19. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  20. Assessment of Summer 1997 Motor Gasoline Price Increase

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Assesses the 1997 late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  1. Edgeworth price cycles in retail gasoline markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael David, 1971-

    2002-01-01

    In this dissertation, I present three essays that are motivated by the interesting and dynamic price-setting behavior of firms in Canadian retail gasoline markets. In the first essay, I examine behavior at the market level ...

  2. Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

  3. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  4. DTE Energy Video (Text Version) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    than 1.00 per gallon of gasoline equivalent; Electric vehicles have a lower carbon footprint; Electricity is a domestic fuel source. Plugging in a vehicle is simple. Many...

  5. Plug-in Hybrid Powertrain Modeling Scott J. Moura, Hosam K. Fathy, Duncan S. Callaway, Jeffrey L. Stein Slide 1 of 15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krstic, Miroslav

    ) decreases the cost per gallon of gasoline equivalent. Chevrolet Volt Concept Car at 2007 NAIAS Source with "blending"? Problem Statement Develop a control-oriented model of sufficient fidelity and minimal complexity

  6. Long Term Processing Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis plus Hydroconversion (IH2) for the Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; McLeod, Celeste; Del Paggio, Alan; Gephart, John; Starr, Jack; Hahn, John

    2013-06-09

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of a new, economical, technology named integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the use of the IH2 process to convert wood to gasoline and diesel results in a greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared to that found with fossil derived fuels. The technoeconomic analysis showed the conversion of wood using the IH2 process can produce gasoline and diesel at less than $2.00/gallon. In this project, the previously reported semi-continuous small scale IH2 test results were confirmed in a continuous 50 kg/day pilot plant. The continuous IH2 pilot plant used in this project was operated round the clock for over 750 hours and showed good pilot plant operability while consistently producing 26-28 wt % yields of high quality gasoline and diesel product. The IH2 catalyst showed good stability, although more work on catalyst stability is recommended. Additional work is needed to commercialize the IH2 technology including running large particle size biomass, modeling the hydropyrolysis step, studying the effects of process variables and building and operating a 1-50 ton/day demonstration scale plant. The IH2 is a true game changing technology by utilizing U.S. domestic renewable biomass resources to create transportation fuels, sufficient in quantity and quality to substantially reduce our reliance on foreign crude oil. Thus, the IH2 technology offers a path to genuine energy independence for the U. S., along with the creation of a significant number of new U.S. jobs to plant, grow, harvest, and process biomass crops into fungible fuels.

  7. Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard; Hastings, Justine

    2001-01-01

    Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Testoligopoly, market power, gasoline Abstract: This paperand distribution of gasoline and the wholesale price of

  8. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-based Pricing and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Robbery, An Analysis of the Gasoline Crisis”, Bloomington:Dynamic Pricing in Retail gasoline Markets”, RAND Journal ofR. Gilbert. “Do Gasoline Markets Respond Asymmetrically to

  9. Demand for gasoline is more price-inelastic than commonly thought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Havranek, Tomas; Irsova, Zuzana; Janda, Karel

    2011-01-01

    of Transportation and Gasoline Demand. ” Bell Journal ofA Semiparametric Analysis of Gasoline Demand in the Uniteda dynamic demand function for gasoline with di?erent schemes

  10. The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market,” July 2005.OH. , “Temporary Wholesale Gasoline Price Spikes have Long-from the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market,” Journal of

  11. Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard; Hastings, Justine

    2001-01-01

    Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Testfor the reÞning and distribution of gasoline and the whole-sale price of unbranded gasoline sold to independent

  12. Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes, Pollution Regulations, Mergers, Market Power, and Market Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    1 2. A Reduced-Form Gasoline PriceThe Case of Retail Gasoline Markets,” The Journal of Law andof Organizational Form in Gasoline Retailing and the Costs

  13. Premium Gasoline Overbuying in the U.S.: Consumer-Based Choice Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setiawan, Winardi; Sperling, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    1990), Economics gasoline pool octane of growth, U.S.sensitive to modest is gasoline price shifts. Theprimary1991b), Effect of gasoline octane quality on vehicle

  14. Premium Gasoline Overbuying in the U.S.: Consumer-Based Choice Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setiawan, Winardi; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    1990), Economics gasoline pool octane of growth, U.S.sensitive to modest is gasoline price shifts. Theprimary1991b), Effect of gasoline octane quality on vehicle

  15. Do Gasoline Prices Resond Asymmetrically to Cost Shocks? The Confounding Effect of Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Atkinson, B . (2006) "Retail Gasoline Price Cycles: EvidenceEvidence on Asymmetric Gasoline Price Re­ and Statistics "of Adjustment of U K Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes"

  16. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Emissions. 2. Volatile Organic Compound Speciation and Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas; Singer, Brett; Harley, Robert

    1999-01-01

    California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle EmissionsCalifornia Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle EmmissionsBerkeley Environ. ScLTechnoL gasoline Impact California of

  17. The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    May 2004. Espey, M. “Gasoline Demand Revisited: AnRun Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand,” Energy Journal,114. Poterba, J. “Is the Gasoline Tax Regressive? ,” in D.

  18. Development of a Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline Process for the Steam Hydrogasification Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yang

    2013-01-01

    M. ,   et   al. ,   Gasoline  conversion:  reactivity  al. ,   Methanol   to   gasoline   over   zeolite   H-­?of a Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline Process for the Steam

  19. Evidence of a Shift in the Short-Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Jonathan; Knittel, Christopher R; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An Empirical-Analysis of Gasoline Demand in Denmark UsingT. (1991). "Analyzing Gasoline Demand Elasticities: AConsumer Adjustment to a Gasoline Tax." The Review of

  20. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle Emissions. 1. Mass Emission Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    California reformulated gasoline on motor vehicle emissions.Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline OIl Motor Vehicleprogress, increased vehicle Gasoline Motor on Vehicle travel

  1. Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cellon Environmental Quality (TCEQ). Gasoline Vapor Recovery (Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel

  2. Clearing the Air: The Clean Air Act, GATT and the WTO's Reformulated Gasoline Decision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrory, Martin A.; Richards, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, 5 MwIN. J. GLOBALReformulated and Conventional Gasoline, 35 I.L.M. 274, 277 (regulations governing gasoline formulation to ensure that

  3. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2004-01-01

    and R. Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asymmet-George. (2004) “Retail Gasoline Price Dynamics and LocalAsymmetries in Local Gasoline Markets” Energy Economics

  4. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: Empirical EvidenceAn Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market Matt Lewis*An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market Matthew Lewis ?

  5. The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market,” July 2005.the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market,” Journal of IndustrialPower? Evidence from the Retail Gasoline Market,” Journal of

  6. Clearing the Air: The Clean Air Act, GATT and the WTO's Reformulated Gasoline Decision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrory, Martin A.; Richards, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    method requires oil companies to produce gasoline that meetsgas requirements. Companies could certify their gasoline byoil company. PDVSA claimed that the reformulated gasoline

  7. Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes, Pollution Regulations, Mergers, Market Power, and Market Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Gasoline Vertical Relations Lease Operated Company OperatedGasoline Vertical Relations Lease Operated Company OperatedGasoline Law (0 – 1) Vertical Relations Lease Operated (%) Company

  8. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

  9. NREL Helps Clean Cities Displace Billions of Gallons of Petroleum, One Vehicle at a Time (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    With more than 15 years and nearly 3 billion gallons of displaced petroleum under its belt, the Clean Cities program relies on the support and expertise of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). An initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Clean Cities creates public-private partnerships with a common mission: to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Since the inception of Clean Cities in 1993, NREL has played a central role in supporting the program, an effort that stems from the laboratory's strategy to put scientific innovation into action in the marketplace.

  10. The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Retail Gasoline Price Dynamics and Local Market Power,”of Local Market Power? Evidence from the Retail Gasoline

  11. Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, 2000-2006 Figure I:Weekly Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices for 2001- 2006 Crudeargue that increases in oil prices may lead to recessions

  12. Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the major factors that drove the widening difference between wholesale gasoline and crude oil prices in 2007 and explores how those factors might impact gasoline prices in 2008.

  13. Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline...

  14. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities.shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.Habits and Uncertain Relative Prices: Simulating Petrol Con-

  15. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.A meta-analysis of the price elasticity of gasoline demand.2007. Consumer demand un- der price uncertainty: Empirical

  16. Portuguese refiner starts up new gasoline complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-03-13

    Petroleos de Portugal S.A. (Petrogal) has started up a new $85 million gasoline complex at its Sines, Portugal, refinery. The complex includes HF alkylation and Hydrisom units. The refinery also has completed an overall $650 million upgrade that includes a new visbreaker and vacuum column. Petrogal says the project has increased gasoline production to about 30,000 b/d. Major units constructed for the overall refinery expansion included: a 35,000 b/sd FCCU; a 26,000 b/sd visbreaker; a 45,000 b/sd vacuum distillation unit; two extractive mercaptan columns; an amylene treater; a sulfur-recovery system; and an 8,000 b/sd alkylation complex. The paper describes the gasoline complex, laboratory, safety, control room operation, and start-up.

  17. Why Do Motor Gasoline Prices Vary Regionally? California Case Study

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the difference between the retail gasoline prices in California and the average U.S. retail prices.

  18. National Survey of E85 and Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, P.

    2008-10-01

    Study compares the prices of E85 and regular gasoline nationally and regionally over time for one year.

  19. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) TheGasolineGasoline

  20. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) TheGasolineGasoline4,

  1. Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaboriau, Damien

    Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity Aurélien Alvarez and Damien free products of non-amenable groups with vanishing first 2-Betti numbers is induced by measure in free product decompo- sitions, in the measurable context. To this end, we will take full advantage

  2. Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    d'Orléans, Université

    Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity Aurélien Alvarez and Damien two free products of non-amenable groups with vanishing first 2-Betti numbers is induced by measure in free product decompo- sitions, in the measurable context. To this end, we will take full advantage

  3. 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004... 2005 2006 gasoline diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierlaire, Michel

    1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004... 2005 2006 gasoline diesel price +10% gasolinegasoline gasoline diesel... ... 2007 20081998 2009 ...2010 home work home work diesel diesel ... gasoline diesel price -7 of a dynamic discrete-continuous choice model (DDCCM) of car ownership, usage and fuel type. The approach

  4. What Do Consumers Believe About Future Gasoline Soren T. Anderson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    What Do Consumers Believe About Future Gasoline Prices? Soren T. Anderson Michigan State University of consumers about their expectations of future gasoline prices. Overall, we find that consumer beliefs follow a random walk, which we deem a reasonable forecast of gasoline prices, but we find a deviation from

  5. Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation Christopher R. Knittel and Aaron proponents of ethanol have argued that ethanol production greatly lowers gasoline prices, with one industry group claiming it reduced gasoline prices by 89 cents in 2010 and $1.09 in 2011. The estimates have been

  6. ISSN 1745-9648 Gasoline Prices Jump Up on Mondays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Gasoline Prices Jump Up on Mondays: an Outcome of Aggressive Competition? by Øystein Research Council is gratefully acknowledged. #12;Gasoline prices jump up on Mondays: An outcome, 2008 Abstract This paper examines Norwegian gasoline pump prices using daily station

  7. Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy Ashley Langer University 2008 Abstract The relationship between gasoline prices and the demand for vehicle fuel efficiency evidence that automobile manufacturers set vehicle prices as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We

  8. Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-075 Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: Empirical Evidence from in Retail Gasoline Markets Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California Justine S, if any, of the differences in retail gasoline prices between markets is attributable to differences

  9. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

  10. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

  11. The Extraction of Gasoline from Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, J. P.

    1914-05-15

    . A large number of teste were mcde on samples of gas containing gasoline vapor prepared as described on a previous page. The solvents for these tests were first saturated with the oity natural gas by bubbling it thru the solvent for a considerable...

  12. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  13. Global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uria, L.A.B.; Schaeffer, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper examines the direct and indirect global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil. In order to do that, it quantifies emissions of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} in terms of CO{sub 2}-equivalent units for time spans of 20, 100 and 500 years. It shows that the consideration of CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} emissions in addition to CO{sub 2} provides an important contribution for better understanding the total warming impact of transportation fuels in Brazil.

  14. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed prep, fast pyrolysis, and upgrading. Stabilized, upgraded pyrolysis oil is transferred to the refinery for separation and finishing into motor fuels. The off-gas from the hydrotreaters is also transferred to the refinery, and in return the refinery provides lower-cost hydrogen for the hydrotreaters. This reduces the capital investment. Production costs near $2/gal (in 2007 dollars) and petroleum industry infrastructure-ready products make the production and upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels an economically attractive source of renewable fuels. The study also identifies technical areas where additional research can potentially lead to further cost improvements.

  15. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed prep, fast pyrolysis, and upgrading. Stabilized, upgraded pyrolysis oil is transferred to the refinery for separation and finishing into motor fuels. The off-gas from the hydrotreaters is also transferred to the refinery, and in return the refinery provides lower-cost hydrogen for the hydrotreaters. This reduces the capital investment. Production costs near $2/gal (in 2007 dollars) and petroleum industry infrastructure-ready products make the production and upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels an economically attractive source of renewable fuels. The study also identifies technical areas where additional research can potentially lead to further cost improvements.

  16. New Vehicle Choice, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elliott William

    2009-01-01

    Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand', The Energy Journal2007) The Link Between Gasoline Prices and Vehicle Sales:Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax Elliot William Martin

  17. New Vehicle Choices, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and Gasoline Tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elliot William

    2009-01-01

    Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand', The Energy Journal2007) The Link Between Gasoline Prices and Vehicle Sales:Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax Elliot William Martin

  18. Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

    2004-01-01

    the composition of the gasoline inventory, and can beand exposure assessment for gasoline; Trent University:of Chemicals: A Case Study for Gasoline Hydrocarbons Matthew

  19. Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melaina, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    NJ. Koenig, R. , 1984. Gasoline alley: service stations area parametric analysis of US gasoline station networks. Inof innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and

  20. Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melaina, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    from the Atlantic Gasoline Company. Smithsonian Institute (names in gasoline dispensing history, Bowser and Company,companies had started the shift from kerosene to gasoline as

  1. Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-03-09

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  2. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  3. CREATING THE NORTHEAST GASOLINE SUPPLY RESERVE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2012, Superstorm Sandy made landfall in the northeastern United States and caused heavy damage to two refineries and left more than 40 terminals in New York Harbor closed due to water damage and loss of power. This left some New York gas stations without fuel for as long as 30 days. As part of the Obama Administration’s ongoing response to the storm, the Department of Energy created the first federal regional refined product reserve, the Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve.

  4. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  5. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in refinery output resulted in tight supplies on the West Coast. In addition, few refineries outside of California are equipped to produce the gasoline formulation that can be...

  6. DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerfujita.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE's GasolineDiesel PM Split Study DOE's...

  7. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakober, Chris A.

    2008-01-01

    emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles. Environ.of four dilutions of diesel engine exhaust for a subchronicautomobiles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Environ. Sci.

  8. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  9. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  10. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace063smith2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel...

  11. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions 3-cylindery gasoline direct injection engines offer similar value in CO2 reduction capability (Euros% CO2 reduction) at a significantly...

  12. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Program Update Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Discusses hardware and system development activities to achieve in-vehicle fuel economy and emissions...

  13. Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reserve right here in New York Harbor." "Like sandbags and stockpiles of food and medicine, this gasoline reserve is what the Northeast needs to be ready for supercharged...

  14. Enabling and Expanding HCCI in PFI Gasoline Engines with High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Dilution Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct-Injection (SGDI) Combustion Control Development Enabling the Next Generation of...

  15. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to End Users Sales for Resale...

  16. Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines Formation of droplets was minimized through optimization of fuel vaporization and distribution avoiding airfuel zones richer than...

  17. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of table. 134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per...

  18. Analytic equivalence of geometric transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Rossi

    2014-08-28

    In this paper \\emph{analytic equivalence} of geometric transition is defined in such a way that equivalence classes of geometric transitions turn out to be the \\emph{arrows} of the \\cy web. Then it seems natural and useful, both from the mathematical and physical point of view, look for privileged arrows' representatives, called \\emph{canonical models}, laying the foundations of an \\emph{analytic} classification of geometric transitions. At this purpose a numerical invariant, called \\emph{bi--degree}, summarizing the topological, geometric and physical changing properties of a geometric transition, is defined for a large class of geometric transitions.

  19. Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team (HDTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen delivery technologies, which will allow for fuel cell competitiveness with gasoline and hybrid technologies by achieving an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed hydrogen cost of $2-$4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent of hydrogen.

  20. Best available control technology (BACT) equivalent for the control of volatile organic emissions from paint dipping operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blankenship, W.R.; Pugh, C.W. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides details of a study conducted to demonstrate an equivalent method of Best Available Control Technology (BACT) compliance for volatile organic emissions from dip coating of certain miscellaneous metal parts. The study was proposed to show that the total volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from 3.8 lb of VOC/gallon coating formulations were no greater than the total VOC emissions from 3.5 lb/gallon formulations used under the same conditions for coating steel joists. The presumptive BACT standard enforced by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for dip coating of steel joists is 3.5 lb/gallon. The requirement of 3.5 lb/gallon was derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency Guideline Series Control of Volatile Organic Emissions from Existing Stationary Sources--Volume 6: Surface Coating of Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products. On June 5, 1998 the source completed a 12 month, full scale comparison study under a consent order with the Virginia DEQ. During the study period, the source made daily measurements of product produced, paint used, and emissions from the control and test paint tanks, and reported data to EPA and the DEQ every two months. The study concluded that a 26 percent reduction in paint usage and a 20 percent reduction in emissions was achieved in the test tanks using a 3.8 lb/gal coating compared to the control tanks using a 3.5 lb/gal coating. This study enables the source to achieve greater emission reductions than the presumptive BACT level and at the same time reduce painting costs by 34%. This study provides positive results for the environment, the steel joist industry, and the construction industry. This study could impact EPA's current Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule development for Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products and national VOC rules for this source category under Section 183(e) of the Clean Air Act.

  1. Impacts of Oxygenated Gasoline Use on California Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Addition of oxTgenates gasoline will not reduce ozone to (3)I. Y. remote sensing 1994 gasoline samples ranged from 0.7weight reported for liquid gasoline with an RVP Assoc. 1990,

  2. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Adjustment of U.K. Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes. ”C. and R. Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asym-Asymmetries in Local Gasoline Markets” Energy Economics

  3. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    AT A SITE OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L.A T A SITE OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L.a site contaminated with gasoline. Although the high V O C

  4. Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Lifecycle Cost and Energy-Use Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Burke, Andy; Lipman, Timothy; Miller, Marshall

    2000-01-01

    147 Lifecycle cost (break-even gasoline price): base-casegrease. 37B part: Fuel Gasoline, for the conventional ICEVs.BTU-from-battery to mi/BTU-gasoline. C OST SUMMARY (F ORD T

  5. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Adjustment of U.K. Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes. ”C. and R. Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asym-Asymmetries in Local Gasoline Markets” Energy Economics

  6. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2004-01-01

    stations sell gasoline under a parent company’s brand name.to buy gasoline from their parent company. The parentRe?ning companies heavily advertise that the gasoline sold

  7. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2003-01-01

    stations sell gasoline under a parent company’s brand name.to buy gasoline from their parent company. The parentReÞning companies heavily advertise that the gasoline sold

  8. The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    true cost of gasoline because re?ning companies manipulatebranded gasoline sold by large re?ning companies to theirbranded” gasoline of a major re?ning company such as BP,

  9. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2003-01-01

    stations sell gasoline under a parent company’s brand name.to buy gasoline from their parent company. The parentReÞning companies heavily advertise that the gasoline sold

  10. Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    components—particularly butane—in the gasoline they sell (times more reactive than butane, the compound that refinersprimarily by removing the VOC butane from their gasoline, as

  11. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of...

  12. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, AbraOF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, Abrareporting indoor air contamination (6,7). Estimation of

  13. A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission Control Technologies A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission Control...

  14. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-based Pricing and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic Pricing in Retail gasoline Markets”, RAND Journal ofin the Canadian Retail Gasoline Market”, Energy Economics [Associates. “Canadian Retail Petroleum Markets Study”, Re-

  15. This Week In Petroleum Gasoline Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil PricesRegular gasoline retail prices

  16. EIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices

  17. Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesEFueluplonglongGasoline

  18. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) TheGasoline prices

  19. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) TheGasoline

  20. Gasoline prices continue to rise (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) Gasoline prices

  1. Gasoline prices continue to rise (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) Gasoline

  2. Gasoline volatility: Environmental interactions with blending and processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unzelman, G.H. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    Gasoline volatility has long been an economic consideration for petroleum refiners. Although front-end volatility and Rvp (Reid vapor pressure) are primary factors, volatility can impact any part of the distillation range. Specifications, whether in-house, exchange or pipeline, require flexibility to optimize the bottom line with respect to marketed composition. Utilizing lower-value butanes, within Rvp and ASTM distillation limits, to maximize gasoline volume has been traditional. Also, optimizing the T{sub 90} (ASTM distillation temperature at 90% distilled), raises the end point and has been used to extend the gasoline barrel. In most refining situations, controlling back-end gasoline volatility is a function of gasoline vs. distillate volume, the latter generally the lower-value product. Recently, the concept of gasoline reformulation collide with the less complex approach of simply reducing vapor pressure to improve air quality. Reducing Rvp of gasoline shifts front-end composition, while reformulation, especially under future Complex Model rules, shifts volatility and composition over the entire boiling range. While low Rvp vs. RFG is a recent issue, gasoline volatility has always been an economic factor in petroleum refining and a performance factor for the auto maker.

  3. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Specific designs and material properties have to be developed for gasoline particulate filters based on the different engine and exhaust gas characteristic of gasoline engines compared to diesel engines, e.g., generally lower levels of engine-out particulate emissions or higher GDI exhaust gas temperatures

  4. Author's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    more than 16% from 1973 to 1974 when the oil crisis occurred. International oil prices historically-grade unleaded gasoline price data from the Energy Information Administration of the U.S. Department of EnergyAuthor's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi Guangqing Chi a, , Arthur

  5. Empirical Regularities of Asymmetric Pricing in the Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    characteristics correlate with the speed of cost to retail price pass-through. The driving and commuting behaviorEmpirical Regularities of Asymmetric Pricing in the Gasoline Industry Marc Remer August 2, 2010 pricing in the retail gasoline industry, and also documents empirical regularities in the market. I find

  6. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  7. Effects of gasoline composition on exhaust emissions and driveability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoshi, H.; Nakada, M.; Kato, M.; Okada, M.; Kayanuma, N.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the effects of changes in gasoline composition is one area to explore in our effort to reduce tailpipe emissions from vehicles. However, affects on vehicle performances should also be considered from the perspective of practical useage. In this paper, the influence of gasoline composition (aromatics), volatility, and MTBE blending on engine outlet and tailpipe emissions are discussed in particular, focusing on distillation properties which have a close relationship to driveability. Under stable driving conditions and without a catalitic converter, the effects of gasoline volatility is small, while aromatics in gasoline affect exhaust HC and NO{sub x} emissions. MTBE has a leaning effect on the engine intake air/fuel mixture. During a transient driving cycle, a high gasoline 50% distillation temperature causes poor driveability, as a result, HC emissions increase.

  8. Assessment of Summer 1997 motor gasoline price increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    Gasoline markets in 1996 and 1997 provided several spectacular examples of petroleum market dynamics. The first occurred in spring 1996, when tight markets, following a long winter of high demand, resulted in rising crude oil prices just when gasoline prices exhibit their normal spring rise ahead of the summer driving season. Rising crude oil prices again pushed gasoline prices up at the end of 1996, but a warm winter and growing supplies weakened world crude oil markets, pushing down crude oil and gasoline prices during spring 1997. The 1996 and 1997 spring markets provided good examples of how crude oil prices can move gasoline prices both up and down, regardless of the state of the gasoline market in the United States. Both of these spring events were covered in prior Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports. As the summer of 1997 was coming to a close, consumers experienced yet another surge in gasoline prices. Unlike the previous increase in spring 1996, crude oil was not a factor. The late summer 1997 price increase was brought about by the supply/demand fundamentals in the gasoline markets, rather than the crude oil markets. The nature of the summer 1997 gasoline price increase raised questions regarding production and imports. Given very strong demand in July and August, the seemingly limited supply response required examination. In addition, the price increase that occurred on the West Coast during late summer exhibited behavior different than the increase east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5 region needed additional analysis (Appendix A). This report is a study of this late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  9. Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships-busse@kellogg.northwestern.edu, knittel@mit.edu, f-zettelmeyer@kellogg.northwestern.edu #12;Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline of gasoline prices, and consumer responses to gasoline prices have been well studied. In this paper

  10. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Pitz, W J; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J E; Orme, J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-07

    Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1214 species and 5401 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Experimental data are available for both how the combustion phasing changes with fueling at a constant intake temperature, and also how the intake temperature has to be changed with pressure in order to maintain combustion phasing for a fixed equivalence ratio. Three different surrogate fuel mixtures are used for the modeling. Predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the engine data. In addition, the heat release rate is calculated and compared to the data from experiments. The model predicts less low-temperature heat release than that measured. It is found that the low temperature heat-release rate depends strongly on engine speed, reactions of RO{sub 2}+HO{sub 2}, fuel composition, and pressure boost.

  11. Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

  12. Gasoline: An adaptable implementation of TreeSPH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadsley, J; Quinn, T; Wadsley, James; Stadel, Joachim; Quinn, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The key algorithms and features of the Gasoline code for parallel hydrodynamics with self-gravity are described. Gasoline is an extension of the efficient Pkdgrav parallel N-body code using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Accuracy measurements, performance analysis and tests of the code are presented. Recent successful Gasoline applications are summarized. These cover a diverse set of areas in astrophysics including galaxy clusters, galaxy formation and gas-giant planets. Future directions for gasdynamical simulations in astrophysics and code development strategies for tackling cutting edge problems are discussed.

  13. Gasoline: An adaptable implementation of TreeSPH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Wadsley; Joachim Stadel; Thomas Quinn

    2003-03-24

    The key algorithms and features of the Gasoline code for parallel hydrodynamics with self-gravity are described. Gasoline is an extension of the efficient Pkdgrav parallel N-body code using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Accuracy measurements, performance analysis and tests of the code are presented. Recent successful Gasoline applications are summarized. These cover a diverse set of areas in astrophysics including galaxy clusters, galaxy formation and gas-giant planets. Future directions for gasdynamical simulations in astrophysics and code development strategies for tackling cutting edge problems are discussed.

  14. How to implement a gasoline pool lead phase-down

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Mutaz, I.S. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-02-01

    Some operational changes can be made for immediate reduction of lead concentration of gasoline that require no capital investment. For a further lead reduction, installing new refinery units and/or modifications to existing ones are required. The production of unleaded gasoline in the Riyadh refinery required improvement of the clear research octane number (RON) of light naphtha, light isomerate and reformate. However, only a once-through isomerization unit is needed if MTBE blending is planned. The paper describes how the Riyadh refinery in Saudi Arabia phased lead from their gasoline production.

  15. The relation of octane number, compression ratio, and exhaust temperature in the gasoline engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jentsch, Donald George

    1951-01-01

    THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMHER& COMPRESSION RATIO& AND EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE A Tbeaie Donald George Jentsch THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMBER, COMHKSSION RATIO, EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE By Donald George... throttle settings) a. Table VI - Aviation Gasolines 22 26 b. Table VI (a) ? Automotive Gasolines . . . 33 2. Spark set for maximum power at full throttle (Speed 2000 RPH at various throttle settings) a. Table VII ? Aviation Gasolines . . . . . 34 b...

  16. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results

  17. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.

  18. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.

  19. High compression ratio turbo gasoline engine operation using alcohol enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

    2013-01-01

    Gasoline - ethanol blends were explored as a strategy to mitigate engine knock, a phenomena in spark ignition engine combustion when a portion of the end gas is compressed to the point of spontaneous auto-ignition. This ...

  20. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  1. Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    said Senator Edward J. Markey. "This gasoline reserve will ensure that just because a dangerous storm soaks our region, it doesn't mean that consumers have to get soaked at the...

  2. Production of gasoline and distillate fuels from light cycle oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Owens, P.J.; Sarli, M.S.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes a process for the co-production of high quality gasoline and distillate products from catalytically cracked feedstocks. It comprises catalytically cracking a hydrocarbon feedstock to produce a substantially dealkylated cracked product, hydrocracking the substantially dealkylated product with a hydrocracking catalyst at a hydrogen partial pressure not greater than 1200 psig and a conversion to gasoline boiling range products not more than 75 wt. percent; separating the products of hydrocracking into a gasoline boiling range fraction, a first distillate range fraction boiling immediately above the gasoline fraction with an end point in the range of 450{degrees} to 500{degrees} F and a second, higher boiling distillate fraction which is more paraffinic than the first distillate fraction; recycling at least a portion of the first, lower boiling distillate fraction to the catalytic cracking step, recovering the second, higher boiling distillate fraction.

  3. Production of gasoline and distillate fuels from light cycle oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Owens, P.J.; Sarli, M.S.

    1991-01-15

    This patent describes a process for the co-production of high quality gasoline and distillate products from catalytically cracked feedstocks. It comprises: hydrocracking a substantially dealkylated feedstock with a hydrocracking catalyst at a hydrogen partial pressure not greater than 1200 psig and a conversion to gasoline boiling range products not more than 75 wt. percent; separating the products of hydrocracking into a gasoline boiling range fraction, a first distillate range fraction boiling immediately above the gasoline fraction with an end point in the range of 450{degrees} to 500{degrees} F. and a second distillate fraction boiling above the first distillate fraction; recycling at least a portion of the first distillate fraction to the hydrocracking step to effect saturation and partial cracking of aromatics in the recycled fraction to increase the paraffin content of the second distillate fraction; recovering the second distillate fraction.

  4. Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    pathways Light duty ?eet Urban air pollution 1. Introductionof light duty gasoline ?eets to urban air pollution usingThe PM 10 pollution is the least accurate in the light duty

  5. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results

  6. Gasoline Prices, Fuel Economy, and the Energy Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wozny, Nathan

    It is often asserted that consumers purchasing automobiles or other goods and services underweight the costs of gasoline or other "add-ons." We test this hypothesis in the US automobile market by examining the effects of ...

  7. Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Aaron

    Ethanol made from corn comprises 10% of U.S. gasoline, up from 3% in 2003. This dramatic increase was spurred by recent policy initiatives such as the Renewable Fuel Standard and state-level blend mandates and supported ...

  8. Restructuring: The Changing Face of Motor Gasoline Marketing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report reviews the U.S. motor gasoline marketing industry during the period 1990 to 1999, focusing on changes that occurred during the period. The report incorporates financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS), motor gasoline outlet counts collected by the National Petroleum News from the states, and U.S. Census Bureau salary and employment data published in County Business Patterns.

  9. The motor gasoline industry: Past, present, and future. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Motor gasoline constitutes the largest single component of US demand for petroleum products and is the Nation's most widely used transportation fuel. Because of its importance as a transportation fuel, motor gasoline has been the focus of several regulatory and tax policy initiatives in recent years. Much of the US refining capacity is specifically geared toward maximizing motor gasoline production, and future investments by the petroleum industry in refining infrastructure are likely to be made largely to produce larger volumes of clean motor gasoline. This report addresses major events and developments that have had an impact on motor gasoline supply, distribution, prices, and demand. The report provides historical perspective as well as analyses of important events from the 1970's and 1980's. Long-term forecasts are provided for the period from 1990 to 2010 in an effort to present and analyze possible future motor gasoline trends. Other forecasts examine the near-term impact of the invasion of Kuwait. 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Converting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    million barrels, and nearly 9 million of that is gasoline. With fuel prices rising, consumers are lookingConverting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels are created and produced. The company has a proprietary

  11. Clean gasoline via VRDS/RFCC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, B.E. (Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (US)); Brown, E.C.; Silverman, M.A. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (US))

    1992-04-01

    The need to convert the bottom of the barrel into clean transportation fuels continues to gain importance as crudes become heavier and demand shifts away from heavy, high-sulfur fuel oil products. Increasingly, the emphasis is on processes that can completely convert the residue to lighter products. This paper reports that thermal processes, such as coking-based technologies, suffer from the disadvantages of producing a large amount of low value byproduct (coke or low Btu gas) and require extensive further processing of product liquids. The combination of residuum hydrotreating or hydrodesulfurization (RDS) and residuum fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) has gained wide acceptance due to the direct production of gasoline with only small amounts of low value byproducts. Moreover, the increasingly severe government regulations on diesel fuel quality together with a growth in demands suggests a combination of vacuum gas oil hydrocracking (VGO HDC), vacuum residuum hydrotreating (VRDS) and RFCC. A joint study by Chevron Research and Technology Co. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. (S and W) has shown that vacuum residuum (VR) can be economically upgraded using Chevron's VRDS process into feedstock for the S and W FCC process, even if all of the VGO is processed separately by hydrocracking.

  12. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  13. Financing West Virginia's Highways: Challenges and Opportunities1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    ) ....................................................................................................................................................... 38 Figure A2 Weekly U.S. Regular Retail Gasoline Prices (Cents per Gallon

  14. Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: An Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Justine

    2000-01-01

    Margaret E. “Vancouver's Gasoline-Price Wars: An EmpiricalEvidence from Retail Gasoline Markets” Journal of Law,The Case of Retail Gasoline Markets” Journal of Law and

  15. Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2009-01-01

    matter from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles.D.H. , Chase, R.E. , 1999b. Gasoline vehicle particle sizeFactors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

  16. Simultaneous Efficiency, NOx, and Smoke Improvements through Diesel/Gasoline Dual-Fuel Operation in a Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Jiafeng

    2014-08-05

    Diesel/gasoline dual-fuel combustion uses both gasoline and diesel fuel in diesel engines to exploit their different reactivities. This operation combines the advantages of diesel fuel and gasoline while avoiding their disadvantages, attains...

  17. Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: An Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Justine

    2000-01-01

    the market of company-op gasoline stations. The legislationThrifty gasoline stations by Atlantic Richfield Company (price of gasoline is directly set (at company-op stations)

  18. Snow water equivalent estimation using blackbox optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stéphane Alarie

    2011-03-07

    Mar 7, 2011 ... Abstract: Accurate measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) is an important factor in managing water resources for hydroelectric power ...

  19. Dynamical ensembles equivalence in fluid mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanni Gallavotti

    1996-05-09

    Dissipative Euler and Navier Stokes equations are discussed with the aim of proposing several experiments apt to test the equivalence of dynamical ensembles and the chaotic hypothesis.

  20. Morita Equivalence in Deformation Quantization Henrique Bursztyn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bursztyn, Henrique

    do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) 1996 M.Sc. (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2 Morita equivalence of unital algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2

  1. The Optimal Gas Tax for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Prince, Lea

    2010-01-01

    Fuel Taxes Division. CA Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline). http://www.boe.ca.gov /of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes. Economics Letters, 83,

  2. Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compressio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High...

  3. Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump December 18, 2014 - 2:08pm Addthis...

  4. Do Gasoline Prices Resond Asymmetrically to Cost Shocks? The Confounding Effect of Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    2006) "Retail Gasoline Price Cycles: Evidence from Guelph,Station-Specific Retail Price D a t a " , mimeo. Bachmeier,on Asymmetric Gasoline Price Re­ and Statistics "Rockets and

  5. Motor Gasoline Consumption 2008 - Historical Perspective and Short-Term Projections

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews how gasoline markets relate to population, income, prices, and the growing role of ethanol. It also analyzes the structural shift in motor gasoline markets that took place in the late 1990s.

  6. Savings at the pump help push U.S. gasoline demand to 8-year...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Savings at the pump help push U.S. gasoline demand to 8-year high U.S. gasoline consumption this year is expected to top 9 million barrels per day for the first time since 2007. In...

  7. Characterization of Revenue Equivalence Birgit Heydenreich1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandholm, Tuomas W.

    Characterization of Revenue Equivalence Birgit Heydenreich1 Rudolf M¨uller1 Marc Uetz1 Rakesh Vohra strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. In this paper we give a characterization. The characterization holds for any (possibly infinite) outcome space and many of the known results about revenue

  8. Remarks on statistical errors in equivalent widths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaus Vollmann; Thomas Eversberg

    2006-07-03

    Equivalent width measurements for rapid line variability in atomic spectral lines are degraded by increasing error bars with shorter exposure times. We derive an expression for the error of the line equivalent width $\\sigma(W_\\lambda)$ with respect to pure photon noise statistics and provide a correction value for previous calculations.

  9. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  10. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  11. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster will describe preliminary emission results of gasoline/diesel RCCI in a medium-duty diesel engine.

  12. Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

  13. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced aerosol analysis methods were used to examine particulates from single cylinder test engines running on gasoline and ethanol blends.

  14. The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    oil price, the expected retail gasoline price and consumption quantities are shown using a short-run demand elasticity assumption

  15. U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline1, 2014gasoline

  16. U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline1,gasoline

  17. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  18. Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed characterization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed 19, 2012 (received for review July 22, 2012) Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles and diesel vehicles, and find diesel exhaust is seven times more efficient at forming aerosol than gasoline

  19. he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert- butyl, the September 15, 1999, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (1) states that between 5 with large releases (e.g., LUFTs). Unprecedented growth in use Use of MTBE as a gasoline additive began

  20. Extension of a Negative Binomial GARCH Model: Analyzing the Effects of Gasoline Price and VMT on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourahmadi, Mohsen

    Extension of a Negative Binomial GARCH Model: Analyzing the Effects of Gasoline Price and VMT. In addition, the relationship between monthly vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and gasoline prices in Texas was also examined. Ultimately, it is concluded that gasoline prices had no significant effect on DUI fatal

  1. ATOC/CHEM 5151 Problem 9 Combustion of Gasoline and Conservation of Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC/CHEM 5151 ­ Problem 9 Combustion of Gasoline and Conservation of Mass Answers will be posted Thursday, September 18, 2014 Gasoline is composed of a variety of hydrocarbons with 4 to 12 carbon atoms (e for the complete combustion of gasoline: _C8H18 + _O2 _CO2 + _H2O 1. Balance the equation (i.e., find

  2. Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to increase in the near future investigators have developed mathematical models for predicting the effect of ethanol (added to gasoline at 10 these models provide valuable insight into the potential ground water impacts of ethanol in gasoline

  3. Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 14171423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Fangqun

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 1417­1423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7 Â 108 cmÀ3

  4. Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 19982007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 1998 February 2012 Received in revised form 3 May 2013 Accepted 24 May 2013 Keywords: Gasoline prices Traffic examines the role of gasoline prices in the occurrence of traffic crashes. However, no studies have

  5. Automakers' Short-Run Responses to Changing Gasoline Prices and the Implications for Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    Automakers' Short-Run Responses to Changing Gasoline Prices and the Implications for Energy Policy as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We estimate a selection-corrected regression equation and exploit operating costs between vehicles. Keywords: automobile prices, gasoline prices, environmental policy JEL

  6. Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith Beardshear Hall, (515) 294-7612." #12;1 Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Relating Ethanol Production to Gasoline Prices" written by myself and Xiadong Du, and published in 2009

  7. CLEARING THE AIR? THE EFFECTS OF GASOLINE CONTENT REGULATION ON AIR QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    gasoline markets and raise prices paid by consumers. We provide the first comprehensive empirical estimatesCLEARING THE AIR? THE EFFECTS OF GASOLINE CONTENT REGULATION ON AIR QUALITY Maximilian Auffhammer and Ryan Kellogg* January 2009 Abstract This paper examines the effects of U.S. gasoline content

  8. Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    gasoline prices. The 1997 acquisition of Unocal's West Coast refining and marketing assets by Tosco, and potentially confounding city-specific covariates. We find that Tosco increased the wholesale price of gasoline During the week of January 4-8, 1999, the average wholesale price of unbranded regular gasoline was 46

  9. Stranded Vehicles: How Gasoline Taxes Change the Value of Households' Vehicle Assets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    of increases in gasoline prices varies across income, geography, and political affiliation. One standard that changes in gasoline prices can have sizable effects on the market value of vehicles. In this paper in gasoline prices affect the value of the vehicles that people own and how this varies across demographic

  10. Gasoline accounts for about half the U.S. consumption of petroleum products, and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2 Gasoline accounts for about half the U.S. consumption of petroleum products, and its price is the most visible among these products. As such, changes in gasoline prices are always under public scrutiny. Many claim to observe an asymmetric relationship between gasoline and oil prices -- specifically

  11. The Origins of US Transportation Policy: Was There Ever Support for Gasoline Taxes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    and rationing and vehicle taxes over higher gasoline taxes or letting gasoline prices clear the market. GivenThe Origins of US Transportation Policy: Was There Ever Support for Gasoline Taxes? Christopher R. Knittel January 7, 2013 Abstract From 1864 to 1972, the real price of oil fell by, on average, over one

  12. The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety: a time geography explanation Guangqing Chi a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety: a time geography explanation Guangqing Chi, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Time geography Gasoline prices Traffic safety Traffic crashes Fatal crashes Space­time path a b s t r a c t The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic

  13. forthcoming in Economic Letters Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    on gasoline, and President Bill Clinton, when calling for an energy tax, proposed providing income a gasoline tax to generate revenue arose again in 2000 when some policy makers considered suspending the 4, unleaded gasoline in the first quarter of 2000 was $2.43 in Italy, $2.56 in Germany, $2.57 in France, $2

  14. The Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the United States today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% of the total U.S. gasoline consumption).

  15. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  16. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; McBride, Allen; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  17. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2.925 3.615 3.869 Aug 03, 2015 2.747 2.785 2.615 2.584 2.485 2.897 3.549 3.781 Source: Energy Information Administration, Weekly Retail Gasoline and Diesel Prices, accessed...

  18. Bisimulations Meet PCTL Equivalences for Probabilistic Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Lei; Godskesen, Jens Chr

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic automata (PA) have been successfully applied in the formal verification of concurrent and stochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have been studied, where the most often used logics for expressing properties are based on PCTL and its extension PCTL*. Various behavioral equivalences are proposed for PAs, as a powerful tool for abstraction and compositional minimization for PAs. Unfortunately, the behavioral equivalences are well-known to be strictly stronger than the logical equivalences induced by PCTL or PCTL*. This paper introduces novel notions of strong bisimulation relations, which characterizes PCTL and PCTL* exactly. We also extend weak bisimulations characterizing PCTL and PCTL* without next operator, respectively. Thus, our paper bridges the gap between logical and behavioral equivalences in this setting.

  19. The difference between “equivalent” and “not different”

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Borror, Connie M.

    2015-10-27

    Often, experimenters wish to establish that populations of units can be considered equivalent to each other, in order to leverage improved knowledge about one population for characterizing the new population, or to establish the comparability of items. Equivalence tests have existed for many years, but their use in industry seems to have been largely restricted to biomedical applications, such as for assessing the equivalence of two drugs or protocols. We present the fundamentals of equivalence tests, compare them to traditional two-sample and ANOVA tests that are better suited to establishing differences in populations, and propose the use of a graphicalmore »summary to compare p-values across different thresholds of practically important differences.« less

  20. Decidability, Behavioural Equivalences and Infinite Transition Graphs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hüttel, Hans

    This thesis studies behavioural equivalences on labelled infinite transition graphs and the role that they can play in the context of modal logics and notions from language theory. A natural class of such infinite graphs ...

  1. Energy Conservation Project Evaluation by Investment Equivalents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Using discounted cash flow techniques, a new parameter for the quick economic evaluation of energy conservation ideas is calculated. The meaning of the calculated value, an 'Investment Equivalent of Energy Saving', is: 'The maximum amount...

  2. The endotopism semigroups of an equivalence relation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuchok, Yu V; Toichkina, E A

    2014-05-31

    In this work we investigate six types of endotopism semigroups for a given equivalence relation. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of all such endotopisms are presented. Conditions for the regularity and coregularity of each of the endotopism semigroups of a given type are established. The notion of the endotype of a binary relation with respect to its endotopisms is introduced and the endotype of an arbitrary equivalence relation is calculated. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  3. Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melaina, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    Gasoline accounted for less than 10 percent of the volume of products recovered from the distillation

  4. Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008 – Dataset

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Excel file with dataset for Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008

  5. Use of ethyl-t-butyl ether (ETBE) as a gasoline blending component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiblom, C.M.; Schoonveld, G.A.; Riley, R.K.; Pahl, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Treasury Department recently ruled that the ethanol blenders tax credit applies to ethanol used to make ETBE for blending with gasoline. As a result, ETBE may soon become a popular gasoline blending component. Like MTBE ETBE adds oxygen to the fuel while contributing to other performance properties of the gasoline. Phillips Petroleum Company has completed limited driveability and material compatibility studies on gasolines containing ETBE and has determined the effect on various performance parameters such as octane, volatility, and distillation of ETBE in gasoline. Levels of ETBE ranging from 0.0 to 23.5 volume percent (3.7 weight percent oxygen) in gasoline were included in the investigation. Use in gasoline is currently limited to only 12.7 volume percent (2.0 weight percent oxygen) by the gasoline substantially similar rule. No detrimental effects of the ETBE on metal or elastomeric parts common to gasoline delivery and fueling system were found. Also, several favorable blending properties of eTBE in gasoline are apparent as compared to either MTBE or ethanol. This paper presents details of these results.

  6. Laminar burning velocities at high pressure for primary reference fuels and gasoline: Experimental and numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerzembeck, S.; Peters, N. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Spherical flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, PRF 87 and gasoline/air mixtures are experimentally investigated to determine laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths under engine-relevant conditions by using the constant volume bomb method. Data are obtained for an initial temperature of 373 K, equivalence ratios varying from {phi}=0.7 to {phi}=1.2, and initial pressures from 10 to 25 bar. To track the flame front in the vessel a dark field He-Ne laser Schlieren measurement technique and digital image processing were used. The propagating speed with respect to the burned gases and the stretch rate are determined from the rate of change of the flame radius. The laminar burning velocities are obtained through a linear extrapolation to zero stretch. The experimentally determined Markstein numbers are compared to theoretical predictions. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane was derived from the Lawrence Livermore comprehensive mechanisms. This mechanism was validated for ignition delay times and flame propagation at low and high pressures. In summary an overall good agreement with the various experimental data sets used in the validation was obtained. (author)

  7. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-02-13

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  8. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  9. Canadian refiner finds simple route to reformulated gasoline production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, B. [North Atlantic Refining Ltd., Come By Chance, Newfoundland (Canada); McDonald, G.W.G. [IONA Ltd., Sarasota, FL (United States); Perkins, J.D. [United Catalysts Inc., Louisville, KY (United States)

    1997-03-17

    North Atlantic Refining Ltd. (NARL) operates a 105,000 b/sd hydrocracking refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. NARL sells gasoline into markets in Newfoundland and the northeastern US. When the US Environmental Protection Agency instituted reformulated gasoline (RFG) requirements as part of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990, NARL had to find a way to meet the specifications, even though the refinery is not within US territory. The refiner chose to add a small hydrogenation unit to treat the portion of the reformate stream containing benzene precursors. Since start-up of the unit in late 1995, it has achieved 100% benzene hydrogenation, thus allowing NARL to easily produce RFG containing less than 1.0 vol% benzene. The paper discusses procurement, hydrogen supply, catalyst, special features, start-up, operations, and process control.

  10. Equivalence between XY and dimerized models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Roncaglia, Marco

    2010-06-15

    The spin-1/2 chain with XY anisotropic coupling in the plane and the XX isotropic dimerized chain are shown to be equivalent in the bulk. For finite systems, we prove that the equivalence is exact in given parity sectors, after taking care of the precise boundary conditions. The proof is given constructively by finding unitary transformations that map the models onto each other. Moreover, we considerably generalized our mapping and showed that even in the case of fully site-dependent couplings the XY chain can be mapped onto an XX model. This result has potential application in the study of disordered systems.

  11. Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in...

  12. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-09

    A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

  13. Weigh options for meeting future gasoline sulfur specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, T.E.

    1997-03-01

    The most frequently mentioned methods for reducing pool gasoline sulfur to the 50-ppm range are FCC feed hydrotreating and desulfurization of heavy cat naptha (HCN). Of these, cat feed hydrotreating (CFH) is preferred because of the compelling economics of improved FCC gasoline yield. Also, the additional C{sub 3}/C{sub 4} olefin yield opens up the possibility of additional production of sulfur-free alkylate and oxygenate. In addition to the obvious yield benefits, the ability to upgrade lower quality, higher sulfur stocks for inclusion in the FCC charge slate, while lowering flue gas SO{sub x} emissions, is also advantageous to the refiner. However, depending o the level of FCC feed sulfur and the severity of hydrotreating used, it may not be possible to meet 50-ppm sulfur in the gasoline pool. Two possible solutions to this problem are to use: (1) a very severe cat feed hydrotreating operation (i.e., 98%-plus desulfurization), (2) partial conversion hydrocracking.

  14. BETO Announces Notice of Intent (NOI) to Develop Pathways to Biofuels and Bioproducts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Energy Department announces its intent to issue, on behalf of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), a funding opportunity announcement (FOA) entitled “MEGA-BIO: Bioproducts to Enable Biofuels.” This FOA supports BETO’s goal of meeting its 2022 cost target of $3/gallon gasoline equivalent for the production of hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass.

  15. David Stoms, Theresa Nogeire, Frank Davis, and Stephen Kaffka

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jager, Henriette I.

    /section Costs/section Costs/GGE 42010 US-IALE SymposiumDavid Stoms et al. Potential biorefinery Dark = High yield Dark = Low cost Dark = Most efficientGGE: gallons gasoline equivalent #12;Land cover (crops for each species and lock it in solutions Change amount of features in planning unit to net change

  16. Equivalences on Observable Processes Irek Ulidowski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulidowski, Irek

    and finitely observable. We define copy+refusal testing equivalence as indistinguishabil- ity by copy, provided their operational meaning is defined by realistically implementable transition rules. Process behaviour which can be established by so-called local testing but not global testing is called locally

  17. Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashurst, W. Robert

    Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values Mass 1 kg = 1000 g = 0.001 metric ton = 2·R 10.73 psia·ft3 lbmol·R 62.36 liter·torr mol·K 0.7302 ft3·atm lbmol·R Temperature Conversions: T

  18. Static modules and equivalences Robert Wisbauer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisbauer, Robert

    Static modules and equivalences Robert Wisbauer Mathematical Institute of the University 40225 D by the functor HomR(P, -). In R-Mod these are the P-static (= P-solvable) modules. In this context properties" under P S HomR(P, -). Following Nauman [20] and Alperin [3] we call these modules P-static. Other names

  19. CELLULAR ALGEBRAS: INFLATIONS AND MORITA EQUIVALENCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi, Changchang

    CELLULAR ALGEBRAS: INFLATIONS AND MORITA EQUIVALENCES STEFFEN KO$ NIG AND CHANGCHANG XI Dedicated to Professor Helmut Lenzing on the occasion of his 60th birthday 1. Introduction Cellular algebras have make explicit an inductive construction of cellular algebras which has as input data of linear algebra

  20. Derived Equivalences of Orders Alexander Zimmermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmermann, Alexander

    Derived Equivalences of Orders Alexander Zimmermann Abstract Using the result of Roggenkamp with Steffen K¨onig [17]. The last section gives a definition and first properties of Picard groups of derived Derived categories arose first in algebraic geometry in the early 60's and proved there to be a powerful

  1. Fractional distillation of natural gasoline by means of a modified Podbielniak apparatus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toombs, Alfred John Lawrence

    1939-01-01

    in4ebte4 to the Humble Oil an4 Hefiaing Company for supplying hia with the samples of stabiline4 natural gasolines whish were analgas4 Isbre410t iea ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 I. Deeeriytiaa ot Apyazebue . II. Proeedere . 1T... pxeotionation of a 84. 2 Roid Vapor Pxoeeuro Watuxal Gasoline, Coiuan Uheoaled ~ . ~ . ~ ~ . ~ . . ~ ~ . 50 VII. Data Obtained in tho prost%enation of a 84. 1 Eei4 Vapor Pressure Natural Gasoline, Caiman Cooled . . . . . . . . . 51 VXII Data Obtained...

  2. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Polyakov, Oleg 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from...

  3. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.

    1997-02-25

    A method is described for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries. 3 figs.

  4. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Anthony, Brian W. (Clearfield, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries.

  5. Fact #584: August 17, 2009 The Price of Gasoline and Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Transportation, Office of Highway Policy Information, Traffic Volume Trends, Table 1. Gasoline Price: Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, Table 9.2...

  6. The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    economic slowdown cuts oil demand. At the intersection ofoil price, the expected retail gasoline price and consumption quantities are shown using a short-run demand

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Cummins at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline turbocharged direct...

  8. Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    refiners are blending more butane into gasoline than theygasoline. Lidderdale (1999) evaluates the impact of RVP on refining operations and finds that refiners’ summer blending

  9. Dissolution of monoaromatic hydrocarbons into groundwater from gasoline-oxygenate mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poulsen, M.; Lemon, L.; Barker, J.F. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    The effects of the [open quotes]oxygenate[close quotes] additives methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the aqueous solubility of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from gasoline were evaluated through equilibrium batch experiments. For a gasoline:water ratio of 1:10 (v/v), up to 15% MTBE or up to 85% methanol in gasoline produced no enhanced BTEX solubility. However, at higher gasoline:water ratios, aqueous methanol concentrations above 10% enhanced BTEX solubility. The initial methanol content of the gasoline and the equilibrating gasoline- to water-phase ratio controlled the aqueous methanol concentration. Partitioning theory and the experimental results were used to calculate aqueous benzene and methanol concentrations in successive batches of fresh groundwater equilibrating with the fuel and subsequent residuals. These successive batches simulated formation of a plume of contaminated groundwater. The front of the plume generated from high-methanol gasoline equilibrating with groundwater at a gasoline:water ratio of more than 1 had high methanol content and elevated BTEX concentrations. Thus, release of high-methanol fuels could have a more serious, initial impact on groundwater than do releases of methanol-free gasoline. 22 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Changes in Refinery Output - Dataset Fact 835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Detailed Monthly and Annual LNG Import Statistics...

  11. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    3-cylindery gasoline direct injection engines offer similar value in CO2 reduction capability (Euros/% CO2 reduction) at a significantly lower on-cost.

  12. Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    performance of a high compression ratio (32:1 to 74:1) high efficiency (50 to 60% BTE) ICRE operating on natural gas and gasoline

  13. Higher prices or gasoline lines loom if Iran-Iraq war lasts into spring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madison, C.

    1981-01-17

    Policies for dealing with the gasoline shortage caused by the Iran-Iraq war are predicted. Options for allocations of existing supplies are discussed. (PSB)

  14. SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Engine Technologies and an Introduction to SwRI's Dedicated EGR Concept Development of Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle...

  15. Application of Synergistic Technologies to Achieve High Levels of Gasoline Engine Downsizing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discussed technologies applied in highly downsized efficient gasoline engine concept such as multiple injection, advanced boosting, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, and electrical supercharger

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Ford Motor Companyh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline...

  17. Einstein's Apple: His First Principle of Equivalence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelbert L. Schucking; Eugene J. Surowitz

    2012-08-09

    After a historical discussion of Einstein's 1907 principle of equivalence, a homogeneous gravitational field in Minkowski spacetime is constructed. It is pointed out that the reference frames in gravitational theory can be understood as spaces with a flat connection and torsion defined through teleparallelism. This kind of torsion was introduced by Einstein in 1928. The concept of torsion is discussed through simple examples and some historical observations.

  18. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  19. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adi Armoni; Biagio Lucini; Agostino Patella; Claudio Pica

    2008-09-29

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric) representation and $N_f$ flavours of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation have the same large $N$ value for any value of the mass of the (degenerate) fermions. Assuming the invariance of the theory under charge conjugation, we prove this statement on the lattice for staggered quenched condensates in SU($N$) Yang-Mills in the large $N$ limit. Then, we compute numerically those quenched condensates for $N$ up to 8. After separating the even from the odd corrections in $1/N$, we are able to show that our data support the equivalence; however, unlike other quenched observables, subleading terms in $1/N$ are needed for describing the data for the symmetric and antisymmetric representation at $N$=3. Possible lessons for the unquenched case are discussed.

  20. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update Data Revision Notice

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWells (MillionProved ReservesYearperDataGasoline

  1. U.S. Gasoline Price Continues to Increase (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's NewBarrels, Except WhereGasoline

  2. U.S. Gasoline prices continue increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's NewBarrels, ExceptGasoline prices

  3. U.S. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (Long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's NewBarrels, ExceptGasoline prices,

  4. U.S. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's NewBarrels, ExceptGasoline

  5. U.S. gasoline consumption highest in 8 years

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel prices7,dieseldieselU.S. gasoline

  6. U.S. gasoline continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel prices7,dieseldieselU.S. gasoline6,

  7. U.S. gasoline price continue to decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7, 2015 U.S. gasoline price continue

  8. U.S. gasoline price continue to decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7, 2015 U.S. gasoline price

  9. U.S. gasoline price continue to decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7, 2015 U.S. gasoline pricelong

  10. U.S. gasoline price continue to decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7, 2015 U.S. gasoline

  11. U.S. gasoline price continues to decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7, 2015 U.S.6, 2015 U.S. gasoline

  12. U.S. gasoline price continues to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7, 2015 U.S.6, 2015 U.S.gasoline

  13. U.S. gasoline price continues to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7, 2015 U.S.6, 2015 U.S.gasoline5,

  14. U.S. gasoline price continues to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7, 2015 U.S.6, 20153, 2015gasoline

  15. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7, 2015short2, 2014 U.S. gasoline

  16. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices continue to

  17. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices continue togasoline

  18. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices continue

  19. U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices continueshort

  20. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9, 2015 U.S.

  1. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9, 2015 U.S.1, 2015

  2. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9, 2015 U.S.1,

  3. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9, 2015 U.S.1,26,

  4. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9, 2015

  5. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9, 2015long version)

  6. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9, 2015long

  7. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9, 2015longincrease

  8. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9,

  9. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9,short version) The

  10. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9,short version)

  11. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9,short

  12. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9,shortshort

  13. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline prices9,shortshortshort

  14. U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldiesel fuel7,gasoline

  15. U.S. gasoline prices remain steady (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline prices remain

  16. U.S. gasoline prices show little movement (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline pricesshort30,

  17. U.S. gasoline prices show little movement (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline

  18. U.S. gasoline prices show little movement (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline1, 2014 U.S.

  19. U.S. gasoline prices show little movement (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline1, 2014

  20. U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline1,

  1. New Vehicle Choices, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and Gasoline Tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elliot William

    2009-01-01

    and the Gasoline Tax Elliot William Martin University ofand the Gasoline Tax by Elliot William Martin B.A. (Johns2009 The dissertation of Elliot William Martin is approved:

  2. Developing an accelerated aging system for gasoline particulate filters and an evaluation test for effects on engine performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, James E. (James Eastman)

    2014-01-01

    Stringent regulations worldwide will limit the level of particulate matter (PM) emitted from gasoline engines equipped with direct fuel injection. Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) present one strategy for meeting PM ...

  3. Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung as an alternative fuel to petroleum-based gasoline and diesel derivatives. Currently available flexible fuel the closed-loop air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) control which maintains automatically operation around

  4. Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices Ahmed distributed lags (NARDL) mod- el to examine the pass-through of crude oil prices into gasoline and natural gas-through of crude oil prices to the prices of refined petroleum products and other commodities. Most of them make

  5. A short and simple explanation of how oil is converted into gasoline and then brought to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A short and simple explanation of how oil is converted into gasoline and then brought to you Blending [Step 5] DiSTRibuTiON [Step 6] CONSumER uSE #12;3 SOuRCES 1 The most common method of obtaining the products produced from this petroleum, gasoline represents about half of the total product volume

  6. In Oklahoma and other parts of the Midwest, gasoline prices have been

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    FALL 2013 10 In Oklahoma and other parts of the Midwest, gasoline prices have been skyrocketing this year. And as gas prices go, so go the prices for just about every- thing else, boosting the general be converted with chemical catalysts to produce renewable gasoline, diesel and jet fuels. "We are advancing

  7. ESTIMATION OF EXHAUST MANIFOLD PRESSURE IN TURBOCHARGED GASOLINE ENGINES WITH VARIABLE VALVE TIMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    ESTIMATION OF EXHAUST MANIFOLD PRESSURE IN TURBOCHARGED GASOLINE ENGINES WITH VARIABLE VALVE TIMING in turbocharged gasoline engines with variable valve timing requires knowledge of exhaust mani- fold pressure, Pe strict emissions regulations. For turbocharged applica- tions, it has been shown [1] that knowledge

  8. Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung-ho Ahn, Anna G. Stefanopoulou, and Mrdjan Jankovic Abstract--Ethanol is being increasingly flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up

  9. Automobile Design A team charged with designing a new automobile is concerned about the gasoline mileage that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stine, Robert A.

    the gasoline mileage that can be achieved. The team is worried that the car's mileage will result in violations

  10. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

  11. Fact #834: August 18, 2014 About Two-Thirds of Transportation Energy Use is Gasoline for Light Vehicles – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #834: About Two-Thirds of Transportation Energy Use is Gasoline for Light Vehicles

  12. Bioventing approach to remediate a gasoline contaminated subsurface. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kampbell, D.H.; Wilson, J.T.; Griffin, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing is a subsurface process using an air stream to enhance biodegradation of oily contaminants. Two pilot-scale bioventing systems were installed at a field site. Process operations began in October 1990. The field site is located at an air station. A spill in 1969 of about 100,000 kilograms aviation gasoline was caused by a broken underground transfer line. A major portion of the spilled product still persists as an oily-phase residue in a 80x360 meter plume. The subsurface is a uniform beach sand with the ground water level near five meters. Prior to startup of the venting systems, a grass cover was established and a nutrient solution was dispersed throughout the unsaturated subsurface. Subsurface air flow patterns are being determined with a tracer gas of sulfur hexafloride. Soil gas, core material, and underground water are being monitored to determine the extent of remediation. Objectives of the study are to demonstrate that surface emissions of gasoline are minimal, oily residue will be reduced to <100 mg fuel carbon/Kg core material, and the process will be applicable to full-scale remediation. Flow rate is based on a calculated residence time of 24 hours. Surface emission of fuel hydrocarbons have not exceeded 1 micrograms/liter soil gas.

  13. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  14. The Elasticity of Demand for Gasoline in China1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin, Jieyin (Jean) Zeng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    The Elasticity of Demand for Gasoline in China1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin, Jieyin (Jean) Zeng Department the price and income elasticities of demand for gasoline in China. Our estimates of the intermediate-run price elasticity of gasoline demand range between -0.497 and -0.196, and our estimates

  15. Math 115 Excel Group Project 3 Worksheet Price Elasticity of Demand: U.S. Demand for Gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newberger, Florence

    Math 115 Excel Group Project 3 Worksheet Price Elasticity of Demand: U.S. Demand for Gasoline 1 for Gasoline 2 4. Consider the two price-demand graphs below. The labels give the x-value. Which graph for Gasoline 3 6. Jewelry This quote is from the article "Americans Snap Up Gold Jewelry as Metal's Price Sinks

  16. The Equivalence Principle in a Quantum World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. E. J. Bjerrum-Bohr; John F. Donoghue; Basem Kamal El-Menoufi; Barry R. Holstein; Ludovic Planté; Pierre Vanhove

    2015-05-19

    We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the Equivalence Principle, for instance through introduction of non-locality from quantum physics, embodied in the Uncertainty Principle. When the energy is small we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory.

  17. AKS systems and Lepage equivalent problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santiago Capriotti

    2011-01-06

    The integrable systems known as "AKS systems" admit a natural formulation in terms of a Hamiltonian picture. The Lagrangian side of these systems are far less known; a version in these terms can be found in a work of Feher et al. The purpose of these notes in to provide a novel description of AKS systems in terms of a variational problem different from the usual in mechanics. Additionally, and using techniques borrowed from an article of M. Gotay, it was possible to build the Hamiltonian side of this variational problem, allowing us to establish the equivalence with the usual approach to these integrable systems.

  18. Property:Equivalent URI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgency (IRENA)OptionsEquivalent URI Jump to: navigation, search

  19. Chapter_16_Equivalencies_and_Exemptions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCaribElectricSouthApplying caulkChapter 9 of theEquivalencies and

  20. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  1. Effect of CNG start - gasoline run on emissions from a 3/4 ton pick-up truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, K.J.; Smith, L.R.; Dickinson, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes experiments to determine the effect on exhaust emissions of starting on compressed natural gas (CNG) and then switching to gasoline once the catalyst reaches operating temperature. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and detailed exhaust hydrocarbon speciation data were obtained for dedicated CNG, then unleaded gasoline, and finally CNG start - gasoline run using the Federal Test Procedure at 24{degree}C and at -7{degree}C. The results was a reductiopn in emissions from the gasoline baseline, especially at -7{degree}C. It was estimated that CNG start - gasoline run resulted in a 71 percent reduction in potential ozone formation per mile. 3 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Equivalence Structures and Isomorphisms in the Difference Hierarchy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cenzer, Douglas

    Equivalence Structures and Isomorphisms in the Difference Hierarchy D. Cenzer, G. LaForte and J.B. Remmel August 23, 2007 Abstract We examine the notion of structures and functions in the Ershov differ- ence hierarchy, and of equivalence structures in particular. A equivalence structure A = (A, E) has

  3. INVARIANTS OF TWISTWISE FLOW EQUIVALENCE MICHAEL C. SULLIVAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Michael

    equivalent suspension flows. The suspension flow is a one­dimension flow obtained by taking the cross product an example. The map is just the horseshoe map. A piece of an orbit of a suspension flow is shown. The sectionINVARIANTS OF TWIST­WISE FLOW EQUIVALENCE MICHAEL C. SULLIVAN Abstract. Flow equivalence

  4. Primary version Derived equivalences and almost D-split sequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi, Changchang

    Primary version Derived equivalences and almost D-split sequences Wei Hu and Changchang Xi School introduce almost D-split sequences and provide several new methods to construct derived equivalences. In particular, we obtain derived equivalences from Auslander-Reiten sequences (or n-almost split sequences

  5. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  6. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equvalent resistance of non-trivial electrical ciruits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. At the end, we derive - in a closed form - the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The final result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. For the more inquisitive reader, additional proofs and technical details are provided in the appendix.

  7. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  8. Oxy-gasoline torch. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Under the deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) Implementation Plan of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), non-recyclable process components and debris that are removed from buildings undergoing D and D are disposed of in an on-site disposal facility (OSDF). Critical to the design and operation of the FEMP`s OSDF are provisions to protect against subsidence of the OSDF`s cap. Subsidence of the cap could occur if void spaces within the OSDF were to collapse under the overburden of debris and the OSDF cap. Subsidence may create significant depressions in the OSDF`s cap in which rainwater could collect and eventually seep into the OSDF. To minimize voids in the FEMP`s OSDF, large metallic components are cut into smaller segments that can be arranged more compactly when placed in the OSDF. Component segmentation using an oxy-acetylene cutting torch was the baseline approach used by the FEMP`s D and D contractor on Plant 1, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Services, Inc., for the dismantlement and size-reduction of large metal components. Although this technology has performed satisfactorily, improvements are sought in the areas of productivity, airborne contamination, safety, and cost. This demonstration investigated the feasibility of using an oxy-gasoline torch as an alternative to the baseline oxy-acetylene torch for segmenting D and D components. This report provides a comparative analysis of the cost and performance of the baseline oxy-acetylene torch currently used by B and W Services, Inc., and the innovative oxy-gasoline torch.

  9. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Dooley, S; Westbrook, C K

    2008-05-29

    Detailed kinetic models of pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are nowadays widely used in the design of internal combustion engines and these models are effectively applied to help meet the increasingly stringent environmental and energetic standards. In previous studies by the combustion community, such models not only contributed to the understanding of pure component combustion, but also provided a deeper insight into the combustion behavior of complex mixtures. One of the major challenges in this field is now the definition and the development of appropriate surrogate models able to mimic the actual features of real fuels. Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. Aside the most commonly used surrogates containing iso-octane and n-heptane only, the so called Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), new mixtures have recently been suggested to extend the reference components in surrogate mixtures to also include alkenes and aromatics. It is generally agreed that, including representative species for all the main classes of hydrocarbons which can be found in real fuels, it is possible to reproduce very effectively in a wide range of operating conditions not just the auto-ignition propensity of gasoline or Diesel fuels, but also their physical properties and their combustion residuals [1]. In this work, the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation is computationally examined. The attention is focused on the autoignition of iso-octane, hexene and their mixtures. Some important issues relevant to the experimental and modeling investigation of such fuels are discussed with the help of rapid compression machine data and calculations. Following the model validation, the behavior of mixtures is discussed on the basis of computational results.

  10. Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO July 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    Section 211(m) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q) requires that gasoline containing at least 2.7% oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that exceed the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The winter oxygenated gasoline program applies to all gasoline sold in the larger of the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) or Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in which the nonattainment area is located.

  11. Gasoline Biodesulfurization DE-FC07-97ID13570 FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pienkos, Philip T.

    2002-01-15

    Nine strains were identified to grow with gasoline as sole sulfur source. Two different genes were cloned from Gordonia terrae KGB1 and tested for the ability to support gasoline BDS. The first of these, fmoA, was cloned by screening a KGB1 gene library for the ability to convert indole to indigo (a sulfur-regulated capability in KGB1). The fmoA gene was overexpressed in a gasoline tolerant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpG1 and the recombinant strain was shown to convert thiophene to a dimer of thiophene sulfoxide at rates nearly two orders of magnitude higher than KGB1 could catalyze the reaction. Despite this high activity the recombinant PpG1 was unable to demonstrate any activity against gasoline either in shake flask or in bench-scale gasoline BDS bioreactor. A second gene (toeA) was cloned from KGB1 and shown to support growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis JB55 on gasoline. The toeA gene was also identified in another gasoline strain T. wratislaviensis EMT4, and was identified as a homolog of dszA from R. erythropolis IGTS8. Expression of this gene in JB55 supported conversion of DBTO2 (the natural substrate for DszA) to HPBS, but activity against gasoline was low and BDS results were inconsistent. It appeared that activity was directed against C2- and C3-thiophenes. Efforts to increase gene expression by plasmid manipulation, by addition of flavin reductase genes, or by expression in PpG1 were unsuccessful. The DszC protein (DBT monooxygenase) from IGTS8 has very little activity against the sulfur compounds in gasoline, but a mutant enzyme with a substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 261 was shown to have an altered substrate range. This alteration resulted in increased activity against gasoline, with activity towards mainly C3- and C4-thiophenes and benzothiophene. A mutant library of dszB was constructed by RACHITT (W. C. Coco et al., DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes. 2001. Nature Biotech. 19:354-359) method of in vitro recombination. Methods for analysis were developed and a preliminary analysis of the library was performed. A preliminary gasoline process design was constructed and process economics were determined based upon assumptions made from experimental results. The projected cost of gasoline BDS was determined to be competitive with current competing technologies.

  12. Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    saving over 30,000 gallons of gasoline, 37,242 gallons of diesel, 9,820 gallons of propane, and producing 217,350 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity each year. The...

  13. Multiscale Strategic Planning Model for the Design of Integrated Ethanol and Gasoline Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    and Security Act of 2007 from the US, where the goal is to accomplish the production of 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by 2022 (Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007; National Biofuels Action Plan optimized production processes taking into account the use of raw materials, water and energy for first

  14. Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents two-stage variable compression ratio mechanism realized by varying the connecting rod length, description of the system layout, working principle and expected fuel savings benefits when used in current and future gasoline engine concepts

  15. Societyof Petroleum Engineers Cleaning Up Spilled Gasoline With Steam: Compo~itional Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    to size treatment facilities, (b) areal and vertical distribution of gasoline after the first cycle,2] for geothermal applications. The M2NOTS integrated finite-difference model is (a) three-dimensional; (b) fully

  16. Summer 2006 Motor Gasoline Prices (Released in the STEO July 2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    This supplement to the July 2006 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) examines the various factors that have contributed to this summer's high gasoline prices and discusses how they may continue to impact markets over the next several months.

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  18. Knock limits in spark ignited direct injected engines using gasoline/ethanol blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasseris, Emmanuel P

    2011-01-01

    Direct Fuel Injection (DI) extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in DI is therefore ...

  19. Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Based on a worksheet developed by Argonne National Laboratory, the idle fuel consumption rate for selected gasoline and diesel vehicles with no load (no use of accessories such as air conditioners,...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

  1. Fact #584: August 17, 2009 The Price of Gasoline and Vehicle Travel: How Do They Relate?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The price of gasoline is one factor that can have an effect on the number of highway vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The graph below shows a three-month moving average of the percentage change of...

  2. Fact #566: April 13, 2009 Vehicle Travel and the Price of Gasoline

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The price of gasoline is one factor that can have an effect on the number of highway vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The graph below shows a three-month moving average of the percentage change of...

  3. Fact #860 February 16, 2015 Relationship of Vehicle Miles of Travel and the Price of Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The prices of gasoline and diesel fuel affect the transportation sector in many ways. For example, fuel prices can impact the number of miles driven and affect the choices consumers make when...

  4. Fact #720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gasoline direct fuel injection (GDI) allows fuel to be injected directly into the cylinder so the timing and shape of the fuel mist can be controlled more precisely. The improved combustion and...

  5. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle Emissions. 1. Mass Emission Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    gasoline on motor vehicle emissions. 2. Volatile organicOn Motor Vehicle Emissions 1. Mass Emission Rates ThomasW.the effect of phase RFGon vehicle emissions, including cold-

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

  7. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longecReformulated Gasoline Refiner

  8. Determination of a peak benzene exposure to consumers at typical self-service gasoline stations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carapezza, Ted

    1977-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF A PEAK BENZENE EXPOSURE TO CONSUMERS AT TYPICAL SELF-SERVICE GASOLINE STATIONS A Thesis by TED CARAPEZZA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene DETERMINATION OF A PEAK BENZENE EXPOSURE TO CONSUMERS AT TYPICAL SELF-SERVICE GASOLINE STATIONS A Thesis by TED CARAPEZZA Approved as to style and content by: (. (iL, &? Chairman...

  9. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  10. Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    In October 2003, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those states for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two states over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

  11. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  12. Stability of the Gauge Equivalent Classes in Inverse Stationary ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-06-28

    mines the gauge equivalent class of the attenuation and scattering coefficients. ...... [18] M. Mokhtar-Kharroubi, Mathematical Topics in Neutron Transport Theory

  13. Gin Flat Snow Water Equivalent Estimation from Field Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vida, Jordan; Sa, Nathaniel; Lem, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    like to get involved with water resource management becauseJournal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA).Deformation Mechanisms on Snow Water Equivalent Pressure

  14. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-30

    The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economy of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.

  15. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  16. Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2009-01-01

    losses when sampling diesel aerosol: A quality assurancefrom on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles. AtmosphericSource apportionment of diesel and spark ignition exhaust

  17. High Thermal Efficiency and Low Emissions with Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A novel fuel injector has been developed and tested that addresses the technical challenges of LTC, HCCI, gasoline PPC, and RCCI by reducing complexity and cost.

  18. Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

    2004-01-01

    A Case Study for Gasoline Hydrocarbons Matthew MacLeod 1 ,since the component hydrocarbons comprising this complexthat the component hydrocarbons comprising this complex

  19. Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sollich, Peter

    Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression Peter Sollich Dept.k.i.williams@ed.ac.uk Abstract The equivalent kernel [1] is a way of understanding how Gaussian pro­ cess regression works processes. Consider the supervised regression problem for a dataset D with entries (x i ; y i ) for i = 1

  20. Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sollich, Peter

    Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression Peter Sollich Dept.k.i.williams@ed.ac.uk Abstract The equivalent kernel [1] is a way of understanding how Gaussian pro- cess regression works processes. Consider the supervised regression problem for a dataset D with entries (xi, yi) for i = 1

  1. An equivalent problem to the Twin Prime Conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Balestrieri

    2011-05-21

    In this short paper we will show, via elementary arguments, the equivalence of the Twin Prime Conjecture to a problem which might be simpler to prove. Some conclusions are drawn, and it is shown that proving the Twin Prime Conjecture is equivalent to proving that there cannot be an infinite string of consecutive natural numbers satisfying some specified equations.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, D. D.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, a life cycle assessment (LCA) estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy value (NEV) of the production of gasoline and diesel from forest residues via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing, from production of the feedstock to end use of the fuel in a vehicle, is performed. The fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are based on a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) design report. The LCA results show GHG emissions of 0.142 kg CO2-equiv. per km traveled and NEV of 1.00 MJ per km traveled for a process using grid electricity. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows a range of results, with all values better than those of conventional gasoline in 2005. Results for GHG emissions and NEV of gasoline and diesel from pyrolysis are also reported on a per MJ fuel basis for comparison with ethanol produced via gasification. Although pyrolysis-derived gasoline and diesel have lower GHG emissions and higher NEV than conventional gasoline does in 2005, they underperform ethanol produced via gasification from the same feedstock. GHG emissions for pyrolysis could be lowered further if electricity and hydrogen are produced from biomass instead of from fossil sources.

  3. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  4. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  5. Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules (Released in the STEO January 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    On August 27, 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an individual refinery baseline is not available to domestic refiners.) If a foreign refiner did not establish and use an individual baseline, the gasoline they export to the United States would be regulated through the importer, and subject to the importer's baseline (most likely the statutory baseline). Specific regulatory provisions are implemented to ensure that the option to use an individual baseline would not lead to adverse environmental impacts. This involves monitoring the average quality of imported gasoline, and if a specified benchmark is exceeded, remedial action would be taken by adjusting the requirements applicable to imported gasoline.

  6. Gasoline allies. [increasing control of regional markets by major petroleum companies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenna, D.

    1993-05-01

    This article concerns recent maneuvers of the major oil companies to control certain gasoline markets. In recent years they have abandoned, or severely reduced their operation in, certain markets to concentrate in others. This has left some regions with only two or three major suppliers of gasoline. Independent operators no longer have the flexibility to shop around for the cheapest gasoline, and are being slowly driven out of business by company-owned stores which sell at artificially low prices. The are several lawsuits in the courts challenging these practices as in violation of the anti-trust laws. The author claims that regional marketing activites of the major companies need closer monitoring by the Federal government.

  7. NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret purchases crude oil at a price of £11 per barrel. Each day to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

  8. NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4.5 for heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret can purchase two types of crude oil: crude 1 (at £12 per

  9. Practical Observers for Unmeasured States in Turbocharged Gasoline Julia H. Buckland, Jim Freudenberg, J. W. Grizzle and Mrdjan Jankovic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    Practical Observers for Unmeasured States in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines Julia H. Buckland, Jim Freudenberg, J. W. Grizzle and Mrdjan Jankovic Abstract--Turbocharged gasoline engines are becoming more. Knowledge of exhaust manifold pressure and turbocharger speed can be important to success. Physical

  10. Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, LP-gas and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    112 Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel and by keeping fuel storage facilities in top condition. Flammable Liquids and Gases Gasoline, diesel fuel, LP, deterioration or damage. Never store fuel in food or drink containers. When transferring farm fuels, bond

  11. Fact #869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use

  12. ,"U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longecReformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales

  13. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longecReformulated Gasoline RefinerResidualResale,

  14. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longecReformulated GasolineSales Volumes ofUsers,

  15. Gasoline prices decrease nationally for first time in 4 weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version)Gasoline17,3,Gasoline

  16. Gasoline prices decrease nationally for first time in 4 weeks (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong4, 2014 Gasoline pricesGasoline

  17. An equivalent form of Young's inequality with upper bound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Minguzzi

    2008-08-05

    Young's integral inequality is complemented with an upper bound to the remainder. The new inequality turns out to be equivalent to Young's inequality, and the cases in which the equality holds become particularly transparent in the new formulation.

  18. Behavioral Model Equivalence Checking for Large Analog Mixed Signal Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Amandeep

    2012-07-16

    This thesis proposes a systematic, hierarchical, optimization based semi-formal equivalence checking methodology for large analog/mixed signal systems such as phase locked loops (PLL), analog to digital convertors (ADC) ...

  19. On equivalence of thinning fluids used for hydraulic fracturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linkov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to answer the question: if and how non-Newtonian fluids may be compared in their mechanical action when used for hydraulic fracturing? By employing the modified formulation of the PKN problem we obtain its simple analytical solutions in the cases of perfectly plastic and Newtonian fluids. Since the results for shear thinning fluids are intermediate between those for these cases, the obtained equation for the fracture length suggests a criterion of the equivalence of various shear thinning fluids for the problem of hydraulic fractures. We assume fluids equivalent in their hydrofracturing action, when at a reference time they produce fractures of the same length. The equation for the fracture length translates the equivalence in terms of the hydraulic fracture length and treatment time into the equivalence in terms of the properties of a fracturing fluid (behavior and consistency indices). Analysis shows that the influence of the consistency and behavior indices on the fracture length, particle v...

  20. Design, construction and implementation of spherical tissue equivalent proportional counter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez Nunez, Delia Josefina

    2009-05-15

    and the response to neutrons as a function of angle was constant ±7%. This spherical tissue equivalent proportional counter detector system will improve the accuracy of dosimetry in space, and as a result improve radiation safety for astronauts....

  1. Effect of CNG start-gasoline run on emissions from a 3/4 ton pick-up truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, K.J.; Smith, L.R.; Dickinson, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes experiments to determine the effect on exhaust emissions of starting on compressed natural gas (CNG) and then switching to gasoline once the catalyst reaches operating temperature. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and detailed exhaust hydrocarbon speciation data were obtained for dedicated CNG, then unleaded gasoline, and finally CNG start-gasoline run using the Federal Test Procedure at 24{degree}C and at -7{degree}C. The result was a reduction in emissions from the gasoline baseline, especially at -7{degree}C. It was estimated that CNG start - gasoline run resulted in a 71 percent reduction in potential ozone formation per mile. 3 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Optimized Design of Statically Equivalent Mooring and Catenary Ryser Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix Gonzalez, Ivan

    2015-03-03

    OPTIMIZED DESIGN OF STATICALLY EQUIVALENT MOORING AND CATENARY RYSER SYSTEMS A Dissertation by IVAN FELIX GONZALEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... Felix Gonzalez ii ABSTRACT Due to size limitations of wave basins worldwide it is necessary to employ statically equivalent truncated mooring and riser systems to test floating systems to be deployed in deep and ultra-deep waters. A procedure...

  3. What is Ramsey-equivalent to a clique? Andrey Grinshpun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Jacob

    What is Ramsey-equivalent to a clique? Jacob Fox Andrey Grinshpun Anita Liebenau Yury Person§ Tibor Szab´o¶ December 1, 2013 Abstract A graph G is Ramsey for H if every two-colouring of the edges of G contains a monochromatic copy of H. Two graphs H and H are Ramsey-equivalent if every graph G is Ramsey

  4. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE By Michael J. Moran, Mike J. Halde, Rick M. Clawges and John S. Zogorski U in the United States as an octane enhancer and oxygenate in gasoline. Octane enhancement began in the late 1970's with the phase-out of tetraethyl lead from gasoline. The use of oxygenates was expanded

  5. Increasing Gas Prices: Good Economics, but Bad Public Relations Rising gasoline prices captured the attention of the press and politicians in recent months,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Increasing Gas Prices: Good Economics, but Bad Public Relations Rising gasoline prices captured interest during our current gasoline shortage. That is, a higher price rations the product to the best use for temporarily foregoing the state gasoline tax. Will that lower gas prices? No. Gas prices rose not because

  6. Comparative Emissions Testing of Vehicles Aged on E0, E15 and E20 Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vertin, K.; Glinsky, G.; Reek, A.

    2012-08-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act passed into law in December 2007 has mandated the use of 36 billion ethanol equivalent gallons per year of renewable fuel by 2022. A primary pathway to achieve this national goal is to increase the amount of ethanol blended into gasoline. This study is part of a multi-laboratory test program coordinated by DOE to evaluate the effect of higher ethanol blends on vehicle exhaust emissions over the lifetime of the vehicle.

  7. Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S. B.; Valkenburg, C.; Walkton, C. W.; Elliott, D. C.; Holladay, J. E.; Stevens, D. J.; Kinchin, C.; Czernik, S.

    2010-02-01

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case is the first to establish detailed cost targest for the production of diesel and gasoline blendstock from biomass via a fast pyrolysis process.

  8. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

  9. Perceptions of Gasoline Taxes by Ronald C. Fisher and Robert W. Wassmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in federal and state fuel taxes may affect their opinions regarding the desirability of addi- tional roadPerceptions of Gasoline Taxes by Ronald C. Fisher and Robert W. Wassmer As summer begins, many's roads, not to mention serious congestion in many urban areas. This will bring increased attention

  10. Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines: · Oil samples can be collected during oil changes. Follow manufacturers recommendations on frequency (hours, mileage, etc) of oil changes. · Capture a sample from the draining oil while the oil is still hot

  11. Using Gasoline, Diesel, and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles, Characterize the Significance of Lube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using Gasoline, Diesel, and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles, Characterize the Significance from natural gas vehicles will help in the development of PM mitigation technologies. This in turn and help bring to market advanced transportation technologies that reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas

  12. Relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzawa, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kashiwabara, Kimito [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujisawa, Norihiro; Matsubara, Michiro

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between MBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100 C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio ({lambda}) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated. The results indicate that the new DI worsen when heavy reformate containing large amounts of aromatics or MTBE, an oxygen-containing compound, is used for the octane improver, leaving the balance of the volatility out of consideration.

  13. FCC Tail Gas olefins conversion to gasoline via catalytic distillation with aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partin, E.E. (Brown and Root U.S.A., Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1988-01-01

    The goal of every refiner is to continually improve profitability by such means as increasing gasoline production, increasing gasoline octane pool and in cases where fuel balance becomes a problem, decreasing refinery fuel gas production. A new refinery process is currently being developed which accomplish these goals. Chemical Research and Licensing Company (CR and L) developed Catalytic Distillation technology in 1978 to produce MTBE. They have since used the Catalytic Distillation technique to produce cumene. CR and L has further developed this technology to convert olefin gases currently consumed as refinery fuel, to high octane gasoline components. The process, known as CATSTILL, alkylates olefin gases such as ethylene, propylene and butylene, present in FCC Tail Gas with light aromatics such as benzene, toluene and xylene, present in reformate, to produce additional quantities of high octane gasoline components. A portable CATSTILL demonstration plant has been constructed by Brown and Root U.S.A., under an agreement with CR and L, for placement in a refinery to further develop data necessary to design commercial plants. This paper presents current data relative to the CATSTILL development.

  14. Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nov 2.21 2.71 2.91 3.44 3.52 3.32 3.00 Dec 1.75 2.66 3.05 3.33 3.38 3.36 2.63 Source: Energy Information Administration, U.S. All Grades All Formulations Retail Gasoline Prices...

  15. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  16. The producer surplus associated with gasoline fuel use in the United States1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    : Q41, Q43 Keywords: oil, marginal costs, producer surplus, gasoline, wealth transfer, drilling costs the average long-run cost ­ is an important part of social cost-benefit analyses of changes in petroleum use, and then applies the estimates of producer surplus to two kinds of social cost-benefit analyses related

  17. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Fisher, Galen; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

  18. OR221 MIDTERM Due: 9:30 am, Thursday, March 9, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Vidyadhar G.

    in Eq. (6.66). Try using q = + µ in Equation (6.72). P2. (10 pts.) Gasoline Prices. Let X(t) be the price of gasoline (in $ per gallon) at time t (time is measured in weeks). Suppose that X(t) = 2.00 + .1 and Bob. Al buys 10 gallons of gasoline at 8 am on every Monday. Bob also buys 10 gallons of gasoline

  19. Mesoscale symmetries explain dynamical equivalence of food webs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aufderheide, Helge; Gross, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    A present challenge in complex systems is to identify mesoscale structures that have distinct dynamical implications. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of a previously observed dynamical equivalence of certian ecological food webs. We show that this equivalence is rooted in mesoscale symmetries that exist in these webs. Certain eigenvectors of the Jacobian describing dynamical modes of the system, such as specific instabilities or responses to perturbations, localize on these symmetric motifs. On the one hand this means that by removing a symmetry from the network one obtains a system which has identical dynamics except for the removal of the localized mode. This explains the previously observed equivalence. On the other hand it means that we can identify dynamical modes that only depend on the symmetric motif. Symmetric structures thus provide an example for mesoscale network motifs having distinct and exact implications for the dynamics.

  20. A study of the spray injection Reynolds number effects on gasoline yields of an FCC riser reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, B. J.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.

    2000-04-03

    A computational analysis of the combined effects of feed oil injection parameters in a commercial-scale fluidized catalytic cracking riser reactor was performed using a three-phase, multiple species kinetic cracking computer code. The analysis showed that the injection operating parameters (droplet diameter and injection velocity) had strong impacts on the gasoline yields of the FCC unit. A spray injection Reynolds number combining the two parameters was defined. A correlation between the spray injection Reynolds number and the gasoline product yields for various feed injection conditions was developed. A range of spray injection Reynolds number for the maximum gasoline yield was identified.